WorldWideScience

Sample records for 510k substantial equivalence

  1. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  2. 75 FR 4402 - Strengthening the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's 510(k) Review Process; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... requirement), that the device meets the comparative standard of ``substantial equivalence'' to a ``predicate... about devices that have been cleared for marketing through the 510(k) process. Currently, if a device... different ``intended uses'' and explain your reasoning. b. What are the advantages and disadvantages...

  3. Fixing a 510(K) Loophole: In Support of The Sound Devices Act of 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Shuenn (Patrick)

    2014-01-01

    The current medical device regulatory system contains a dangerous loophole. While the voluntary recall of a harmful medical device removes it from the market, new devices that claim they are substantially equivalent to the recalled device can still reach the market through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Devices that have gained regulatory clearance in this fashion have caused considerable harm and are much more likely to be recalled for safety reasons as well. The recently propo...

  4. Premarket Notifications (510(k)s)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medical device manufacturers are required to submit a premarket notification or 510(k) if they intend to introduce a device into commercial distribution for the...

  5. Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism

  6. 78 FR 26786 - 510(k) Device Modifications: Deciding When To Submit a 510(k) for a Change to an Existing Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... management in the decision process on whether a medical device modification requires a new 510(k) submission... management into this decision process in a way that ensures appropriate and consistent modification decisions... and resolve the following concerns. 1. Risk Management is a Process--Published risk...

  7. Beyond Equal: From Same but Different to the Doctrine of Substantial Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    A same-but-different dichotomy has recently been encapsulated within the ill-defined concept of “substantial equivalence”. By invoking this concept the genetically modified organism (GMO) industry has escaped the rigors of safety testing that might otherwise apply. The curious concept of “substantial equivalence” grants a presumption of safety to GMO food. This presumption has yet to be earned, and has been used to constrain labelling of both GMO and non-GMO food. It is an idea that w...

  8. Specific heat of rhenium disulfide in 360-510 K temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobaric specific heat of rhenium disulfide was measured by the method of differential scanning calorimetry in the range of 360-510 K. Thermodynamic functions of rhenium disulfide were calculated using literature data on standard entropy of the compound for the range of 296.15-600 K. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. 75 FR 47307 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Working Group Preliminary Report and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Working... ``Center for Devices and Radiological Health Preliminary Internal Evaluations,'' which is comprised of the... public input on the recommendations discussed in these reports, including the feasibility...

  10. Unsupervised principal component analysis of NMR metabolic profiles for the assessment of substantial equivalence of transgenic grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Gianfranco; Mezzetti, Bruno; Babini, Elena; Capocasa, Franco; Placucci, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Francesco

    2011-09-14

    Substantial equivalence is a key concept in the evaluation of unintended and potentially harmful metabolic impact consequent to a genetic modification of food. The application of unsupervised multivariate data analysis to the metabolic profiles is expected to improve the effectiveness of such evaluation. The present study uses NMR spectra of hydroalcoholic extracts, as holistic representations of the metabolic profiles of grapes, to evaluate the effect of the insertion of one or three copies of the DefH9-iaaM construct in plants of Silcora and Thompson Seedless cultivars. The comparison of the metabolic profiles of transgenic derivatives with respect to their corresponding natural lines pointed out that the overall metabolic changes occur in the same direction, independent of the host genotype, although the two cultivars are modified to different extents. A higher number of copies not only produces a larger effect but also modifies the whole pattern of perturbed metabolites. PMID:21806070

  11. Safety assessment of nonbrowning potatoes: opening the discussion about the relevance of substantial equivalence on next generation biotech crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo; Alonso, Guillermo D; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Rodríguez, Vanina; López, Mariana G; Carrari, Fernando; Torres, Héctor N; Flawiá, Mirtha M

    2011-02-01

    It is expected that the next generation of biotech crops displaying enhanced quality traits with benefits to both farmers and consumers will have a better acceptance than first generation biotech crops and will improve public perception of genetic engineering. This will only be true if they are proven to be as safe as traditionally bred crops. In contrast with the first generation of biotech crops where only a single trait is modified, the next generation of biotech crops will add a new level of complexity inherent to the mechanisms underlying their output traits. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the comparative safety approach on a quality-improved biotech crop with metabolic modifications is presented. Three genetically engineered potato lines with silenced polyphenol oxidase (Ppo) transcripts and reduced tuber browning were characterized at both physiological and molecular levels and showed to be equivalent to wild-type (WT) plants when yield-associated traits and photosynthesis were evaluated. Analysis of the primary metabolism revealed several unintended metabolic modifications in the engineered tubers, providing evidence for potential compositional inequivalence between transgenic lines and WT controls. The silencing construct sequence was in silico analysed for potential allergenic cross-reactivity, and no similarities to known allergenic proteins were identified. Moreover, in vivo intake safety evaluation showed no adverse effects in physiological parameters. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence supporting that the safety of next generation biotech crops can be properly assessed following the current evaluation criterion, even if the transgenic and WT crops are not substantially equivalent.

  12. Model-based tolerance intervals derived from cumulative historical composition data: application for substantial equivalence assessment of a genetically modified crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bonnie; Fisher, Tracey L; Sult, Theresa S; Maxwell, Carl A; Mickelson, James A; Kishino, Hirohisa; Locke, Mary E H

    2014-10-01

    Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient and antinutrient levels within the crop population with a history of safe use. Data accumulated from various genotypes with a history of safe use cultivated in relevant commercial crop-growing environments over multiple seasons are discussed as the appropriate data representative of this natural variation. A model-based parametric tolerance interval approach, which accounts for the correlated and unbalanced data structure of cumulative historical data collected from multisite field studies conducted over multiple seasons, is presented. This paper promotes the application of this tolerance interval approach to generate reference ranges for evaluation of the biological relevance of statistical differences identified during substantial equivalence assessment of a GM crop.

  13. Do transgenesis and marker-assisted backcross breeding produce substantially equivalent plants? - A comparative study of transgenic and backcross rice carrying bacterial blight resistant gene Xa21

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lifen; Cao, Yinghao; Xia, Zhihui; Jiang, Guanghuai; Liu, Guozhen; Zhang, Weixiong; Zhai, Wenxue

    2013-01-01

    Background The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health has attracted much attention worldwide, and the issue remains controversial. This is in sharp contrast to the broad acceptance of plants produced by breeding through Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MAB). Results Focusing on transcriptome variation and perturbation to signaling pathways, we assessed the molecular and biological aspects of substantial equivalence, a general principle for food safety endorsed by th...

  14. Model-based tolerance intervals derived from cumulative historical composition data: application for substantial equivalence assessment of a genetically modified crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bonnie; Fisher, Tracey L; Sult, Theresa S; Maxwell, Carl A; Mickelson, James A; Kishino, Hirohisa; Locke, Mary E H

    2014-10-01

    Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient and antinutrient levels within the crop population with a history of safe use. Data accumulated from various genotypes with a history of safe use cultivated in relevant commercial crop-growing environments over multiple seasons are discussed as the appropriate data representative of this natural variation. A model-based parametric tolerance interval approach, which accounts for the correlated and unbalanced data structure of cumulative historical data collected from multisite field studies conducted over multiple seasons, is presented. This paper promotes the application of this tolerance interval approach to generate reference ranges for evaluation of the biological relevance of statistical differences identified during substantial equivalence assessment of a GM crop. PMID:25208038

  15. 78 FR 100 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the...

  16. 21 CFR 880.9 - Limitations of exemptions from section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations of exemptions from section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). 880.9 Section 880.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). The exemption from the requirement of premarket...

  17. 21 CFR 884.9 - Limitations of exemptions from section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations of exemptions from section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). 884.9 Section 884.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., and Cosmetic Act (the act). The exemption from the requirement of premarket notification (section...

  18. Concepto de equivalencia sustancial aplicado alimentos derivados de cultivos genéticamente mejorados The concept of substantial equivalence as applied to foodstuffs derived from genetically-modified crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Villalobos Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es describir la aplicación del concepto de equivalencia sustancial, el cual es utilizado y aceptado internacionalmente para realizar la evaluación de la inocuidad de un alimento nuevo derivado de cultivos genéticamente mejorados. La metodología utilizada fue revisión de literatura actualizada, considerando, información tanto de revistas nacionales como internacionales y documentos de la Organización Mundial para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO, Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, Codex Alimentarius, Organización Económica de Cooperación y Desarrollo (OECD, la Food and Drug Administration, (FDA y otras. El artículo presenta la tendencia mundial en la siembra de cultivos genéticamente mejorados, así como la situación actual en Costa Rica con respecto a la siembra de cultivos genéticamente mejorados para incremento de semilla. Además, se detalla el concepto de equivalencia sustancial y se describe el conjunto de características de calidad que se deben evaluar los procedimientos metodológicos a seguir para demostrar que un alimento, derivado de un cultivo genéticamente mejorado (adCGM, es seguro para el consumo humano y animal. Como conclusión el concepto de equivalencia sustancial es el grupo de técnicas y metodologías, vigentes y aceptadas internacionalmente para evaluar la inocuidad de un nuevo alimento desarrollado mediante biotecnología moderna.The objective of this article is to describe the complete application of the concept of substantial equivalence, which is internationally accepted and widely used for food safety evaluation of new foods. The methodology consists of a literature review of current documents from several agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, the Food and Drug Administration of the USA (FDA, and others. This article

  19. 76 FR 737 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... received may be posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal information... packaging existing products. To address this issue, FDA ] sorts the data by brand description, and by product description within each brand description. The product description varies by UPC and...

  20. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  1. Substantial Improvements of Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluates the scope for improving the energy and environmental impacts of road transport by means of electrical and hybrid propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy compared to equivalent vehicles mas well as beneficial effects for the energy...... and traffic systems. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulation....

  2. Production of substantially pure fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  3. On Equivalence And Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贝

    2013-01-01

      Equivalence, a central and controversial issue in translation, has been studied, discussed and disputed by many scholars. For this reason, they employed various approaches and have yielded fruitful and remarkable theories. Three representative equivalence theories are selected in the thesis to elaborate equivalence:Nida’s reader-response based dynamic equivalence, Catford’s textual equivalence, Qiu Maoru’s empirical formula on equivalence. Equivalence is an applicable tool to analyze and evaluate translation.

  4. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  5. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  6. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  7. Characterization of Revenue Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.J.; Uetz, M.J.; R. Vohra

    2008-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds for any (possibly infinite) outcome space and many of the known results are immediate consequences. Moreover, revenue equivalence can be identified in cases where existing theor...

  8. 77 FR 34887 - Substantial Business Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... substantial business activities in a foreign country. These regulations affect certain domestic corporations... whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country for purposes...

  9. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  10. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, M.J.; Vohra, R.

    2009-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds f

  11. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc; Vohra, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The cha

  12. On U-equivalence spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Omidi Farshad; Molaei MohammadReza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper induced U-equivalence spaces are introduced and discussed. Also the notion of U- equivalently open subsets of a U-equivalence space and U-equivalently open functions are studied. Finally, equivalently uniformisable topological spaces are considered.

  13. From equivalence to adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Borowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  14. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  15. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiation requirements. 725.94 Section 725.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... market for the resulting product? Consider such constraints as capital and marketing cost,...

  16. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial evidence. 514.4 Section 514.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... for use other than in animal feed or drinking water. (iii) Antibacterial with respect to a...

  17. Formal and finite order equivalences

    CERN Document Server

    Zaitsev, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    We show that two families of germs of real-analytic subsets in $C^{n}$ are formally equivalent if and only if they are equivalent of any finite order. We further apply the same technique to obtain analogous statements for equivalences of real-analytic self-maps and vector fields under conjugations. On the other hand, we provide an example of two sets of germs of smooth curves that are equivalent of any finite order but not formally equivalent.

  18. Gradient equivalent crystal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zypman, F R; Ferrante, J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an extension of the formalism of equivalent crystal theory (ECT) by introducing an electron density gradient term so that the total model density becomes a more accurate representation of the real local density. Specifically, we allow for the electron density around a lattice site to have directionality, in addition to an average value, as assumed in ECT. We propose that an atom senses its neighbouring density as a weighted sum-the weights given by the its own electronic probability. As a benchmark, the method is used to compute vacancy migration energy curves of iron. These energies are in good agreement with previously published results. PMID:21690822

  19. Assessment of Pharmaceutical Equivalence: Difference Test or Equivalence Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Felipe R.; Pinto, Terezinha J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical equivalence is an important step towards the confirmation of similarity and interchangeability among pharmaceutical products, particularly regarding those that will not be tested for bioequivalence. The aim of this paper is to compare traditional difference testing to two one-side equivalence tests in the assessment of pharmaceutical equivalence, by means of equivalence studies between similar, generic and reference products of acyclovir cream, atropine sulfate injection, merop...

  20. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  1. Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere

  2. Equivalent Linkages of Compressor Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bukac, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Frequently, the dynamics of a compressor’s mechanism can be simplified and better understood by analyzing compressor’s equivalent linkage. Although the equivalent linkage of a reciprocating piston compressor is well known, the equivalent linkages of other types of compressors are not. For example, it is not well understood that the equivalent linkage of a rolling piston compressor is also the same slider-crank mechanism as the one of a reciprocating piston compressor. The difference between r...

  3. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  4. Formal and finite order equivalences

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitsev, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED We show that two families of germs of real-analytic subsets in Cn are formally equivalent if and only if they are equivalent of any finite order. We further apply the same technique to obtain analogous statements for equivalences of real-analytic self-maps and vector fields under conjugations. On the other hand, we provide an example of two sets of germs of smooth curves that are equivalent of any finite order but not formally equivalent. Supported in part by the Science Found...

  5. Why scalar-tensor equivalent theories are not physically equivalent?

    CERN Document Server

    Sk., Nayem

    2016-01-01

    Whether Jordan's and Einstein's frame descriptions of F(R) theory of gravity are physically equivalent, is a long standing debate. However, none questioned on true mathematical equivalence, since classical field equations may be translated from one frame to the other following a transformation relation. Nevertheless, true mathematical equivalence is only established, if all the mathematical results derived from one frame may be translated to the other. Here we show that, neither Noether equations, nor quantum equations may be translated from one frame to the other. The reason being the momenta can't be translated. This appears to be the cause for dynamical in-equivalence.

  6. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  7. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  8. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  9. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  10. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  11. Reflections on Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王皓

    2011-01-01

    The comparison of texts in different languages inevitably involves a theory of equivalence.To shed as much as possible light on theories and writings that have dealt with the notion of equivalence,this essay attempts to present a few in-depth reflections

  12. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  13. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commerc...

  14. Using tissue equivalent proportional counters to determine dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) have been used in the laboratory for over 30 years to determine neutron dose in mixed radiation fields, but they are seldom used by operational health physicists. But a number of TEPC-based instruments are being developed in Europe and in the United States. The purpose of this paper is: to introduce operational health physicists to tissue equivalent proportional counters, to examine some of the algorithms used to convert data from TEPCs into dose equivalent, to examine how TEPC measurements meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11 (DOE 1988) and 10CFR20, and to examine some of the TEPC-based instruments that are available. Many operational health physicists are not familiar with the concept of microdosimetry and the specialized terms that are used in analyzing the data from TEPCs, so a brief discussion is included. At present, quality factors are defined in terms of linear energy transfer, but TEPCs measure lineal energy

  15. Morita Equivalence for Factorisable Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qun CHEN; K. P. SHUM

    2001-01-01

    Recall that the semigroups S and R are said to be strongly Morita equivalent if there exists a unitary Morita context (S,R,S PR,RQs, <, []) with < and [] surjective. For a factorisable semigroup S, we denote s = {(s1, s2) ∈ S× S | ss1 =ss2,s ∈ S}, S' = S/s and US-FAct= {sM ∈S- Act|SM = M and SHoms(S, M) ≌ M}. We show that, for factorisable semigroups S and R, the categories US-FAct and UR-FAct are equivalent if and only if the semigroups S' and R' are strongly Morita equivalent. Some conditions for a factorisable semigroup to be strongly Morita equivalent to a sandwich semigroup, local units semigroup, monoid and group separately are also given. Moreover, we show that a semigroup S is completely simple if and only if S is strongly Morita equivalent to a group and for any index set I, S SHoms(S,Ⅱi∈ S)→Ⅱi∈S, s t·f→(st)f is an S-isomorphism.

  16. Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion due to these theories prove to exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work, inspired by the teleparallel formulation of General Relativity we present its extension to Lovelock Gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional spacetimes. First, we review Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity and Teleparallel Equivalent of Gauss-Bonnet Gravity, and then we construct Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity. In order to achieve this goal we use the vielbein and the connection, without imposing the Weitzenb\\"ock connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to be null.

  17. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  18. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  19. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  20. Dynamic Wavelet and Equivalent Models

    OpenAIRE

    Boaghe, O.M.; Billings, S A

    1998-01-01

    The representation of nonlinear dynamic wavelet models in the form of an equivalent global model which is valid over the operating range of the system is investigated. The results are used to analyse and interpret the nonlinear wavelet models using non-linear frequency response functions.

  1. EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Chifane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  2. Motor Equivalence in Speech Production

    OpenAIRE

    Perrier, Pascal; Fuchs, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    International audience The first section provides a description of the concepts of “motor equivalence” and “degrees of freedom”. It is illustrated with a few examples of motor tasks in general and of speech production tasks in particular. In the second section, the methodology used to investigate experimentally motor equivalence phenomena in speech production is presented. It is mainly based on paradigms that perturb the perception-action loop during on-going speech, either by limiting the...

  3. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements of this regulation, the following provisions of 20 CFR 601.5 apply: (1) Paragraph (b) of this... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a)...

  4. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  5. Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence) and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent), is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicograph...

  6. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle,people have different opinions.The principle of equivalent translation maybe is one of the most reasonable ones in today’s translation world in my eyes.This paper focuses on the possibility and the condition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic,pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle.Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  7. Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of overpressure, impulse and du...

  8. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  9. Equivalence principle in Chameleon models .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiselburd, L.; Landau, S.; Salgado, M.; Sudarsky, D.

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with Eötvös type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  10. ASCERTAINMENT OF THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Safaryan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers experimental and analytical determination of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters with application of the reference data. Transient processes investigation of the asynchronous machines necessitates the equivalent circuit parameters (resistance impedance, inductances and coefficient of the stator-rotor contours mutual inductance that help form the transitory-process mathematical simulation model. The reference books do not provide those parameters; they instead give the rated ones (active power, voltage, slide, coefficient of performance and capacity coefficient as well as the ratio of starting and nominal currents and torques. The noted studies on the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuits parametrization fail to solve the problems ad finem or solve them with admissions. The paper presents experimental and analytical determinations of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters: the experimental one based on the results of two measurements and the analytical one where the problem boils down to solving a system of nonlineal algebraic equations. The authors investigate the equivalent asynchronous machine input-resistance properties and adduce the dependence curvatures of the input-resistances on the slide. They present a symbolic model for analytical parameterization of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit that represents a system of nonlineal equations and requires one of the rotor-parameters arbitrary assignment. The article demonstrates that for the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit experimental parameterization the measures are to be conducted of the stator-circuit voltage, current and active power with two different slides and arbitrary assignment of one of the rotor parameters. The paper substantiates the fact that additional measurement does not discard the rotor-parameter choice arbitrariness. The authors establish that in motoring mode there is a critical slide by which the

  11. Therapeutic equivalents in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, M D

    2001-01-01

    With increasing debate over the rising expenses of health care, a variety of cost-saving measures has been attempted over the years. Use of primary care physicians as "gate keepers," reduction in the length of hospital stays, and pushing women toward vaginal birth after Cesarean section have all been utilized despite on going issues with patient satisfaction and even safety. One remarkable success in stretching health-care dollars that has often been overlooked is the prescription of therapeutic equivalents, or generic drugs. Although available on a limited basis for decades, off-brand manufacture of pharmaceuticals with identical active ingredients as those of the branded drug received a large boost through Congressional legislation in 1984 with the Hatch-Waxman Act. "Fast-track" FDA approval was initiated by Congress to introduce competition into the marketplace for drugs whose patients had expired. While giving close scrutiny to the manufacturing process and requiring the same level of regulatory supervision for factors such as bioavailability and shelf life, the Hatch-Waxman Act removed the burden and expense from generic manufacturers of proving the safety and efficacy all over again of a previously FDA-approved drug. With less than a 20% market share of all prescribed drugs in 1984, the generic drug industry has captured roughly 44% of the market in recent years while accounting for only 8% of expenditures on prescription medication. The prescription of therapeutic equivalents is one method of keeping health care costs down without compromising patient satisfaction or safety. PMID:11374660

  12. Nuclear industry in a country with a substantial oil reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the development of a nuclear industry in a country like Mexico, with a substantial oil reserve is analyzed, taking into account the technical, economical, political, ecological and social aspects of the problem. (author)

  13. Recasting “Substantial Equivalence”: Transatlantic Governance of GM Food

    OpenAIRE

    Levidow, Les; Murphy, Joseph; Carr, Susan

    2007-01-01

    When an intense public controversy erupted around agricultural biotechnology in the late 1990s, critics found more opportunities to challenge risk-assessment criteria and test methods for GM products. In relation to GM food, they criticised the concept of “substantial equivalence”, which EU and US regulators had adopted as the basis for a harmonised “science-based” approach to risk assessment. Scientific uncertainty was framed in different ways by competing policy agendas. “Substantial equiv...

  14. Ensemble Equivalence for Distinguishable Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Peralta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of distinguishable particles has become relevant in systems of colloidal particles and in the context of applications of statistical mechanics to complex networks. In this paper, we present evidence that a commonly used expression for the partition function of a system of distinguishable particles leads to huge fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble and, consequently, to nonequivalence of statistical ensembles. We will show that the alternative definition of the partition function including, naturally, Boltzmann’s correct counting factor for distinguishable particles solves the problem and restores ensemble equivalence. Finally, we also show that this choice for the partition function does not produce any inconsistency for a system of distinguishable localized particles, where the monoparticular partition function is not extensive.

  15. Einstein's equivalence principle in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei M

    2013-01-01

    We study physical consequences of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in FLRW universe. We introduce the local inertial coordinates with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and materialized by a congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers. The static observers are equipped with the ideal clocks measuring the proper time that is synchronized with the clocks of the Hubble observer. The local inertial metric is used for physical measurements of spacetime intervals with the ideal clocks and rulers. The special conformal transformation preserves null geodesics but does not keep invariant time-like geodesics. Moreover, it makes the rate of the local time coordinate dependent on velocity of the particle which makes impossible to rich the uniform parameterization of the world lines of static observers and light geodesics with a single parameter - they differ by the conformal factor of FLRW metric. The most convenient way to s...

  16. Electroweak Vortices and Gauge Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Samuel W.; Törnkvist, Ola

    Vortex configurations in the electroweak gauge theory are investigated. Two gauge-inequivalent solutions of the field equations, the Z and W vortices, have previously been found. They correspond to embeddings of the Abelian Nielsen-Olesen vortex solution into a U(1) subgroup of SU(2)×U(1). It is shown here that any electroweak vortex solution can be mapped into a solution of the same energy with a vanishing upper component of the Higgs field. The correspondence is a gauge equivalence for all vortex solutions except those for which the winding numbers of the upper and lower Higgs components add to zero. This class of solutions, which includes the W vortex, corresponds to a singular solution in the one-component gauge. The results, combined with numerical investigations, provide an argument against the existence of other vortex solutions in the gauge-Higgs sector of the Standard Model.

  17. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  18. From body burden to effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessary data to calculate the effective committed dose equivalent and the effective dose-equivalent rate from measured body burdens are presented. Both ingestion and inhalation intakes are considered, for single intake as well as for continuous exposure

  19. Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent...

  20. Equivalence in Logic-Based Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Amgoud, Leila; Besnard, Philippe; Vesic, Srdjan

    2014-01-01

    International audience This paper investigates when two abstract logic-based argumentation systems are equivalent. It defines various equivalence criteria, investigates the links between them, and identifies cases where two systems are equivalent with respect to each of the proposed criteria. In particular, it shows that under some reasonable conditions on the logic underlying an argumentation system, the latter has an equivalent finite subsystem, called core. This core constitutes a thres...

  1. 29 CFR 825.215 - Equivalent position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... schedule. (3) The employee must have the same or an equivalent opportunity for bonuses, profit-sharing, and... equivalent job with the same or equivalent pay, benefits, and terms and conditions of employment does not extend to de minimis, intangible, or unmeasurable aspects of the job....

  2. 76 FR 50230 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Clearance Process; Recommendations Proposed in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... August 5, 2010 (75 FR 47307). After reviewing public comment, CDRH issued a plan of action for... public meeting will be held at the Silver Spring Hilton Hotel, 8727 Colesville Rd., Silver Spring, MD... inhibiting innovation in the medical device industry. 7. FDA should develop procedures that ensure the...

  3. 21 CFR 807.93 - Content and format of a 510(k) statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identifiers, and trade secret and confidential commercial information, as defined in 21 CFR 20.61. (2) The... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND DEVICE LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS AND INITIAL... patient identifiers, and trade secret and confidential commercial information as defined in § 20.61...

  4. Violation of the gauge equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Khrapko, R I

    2001-01-01

    F. V. Gubarev et al. (``On the significance of the vector potential squared'', Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2220) have argued that the minimum value of the volume integral of the vector potential squared may have physical meaning, in defiance of the gauge equivalence of potentials. Earlier, R. I. Khrapko proposed a gauge noninvariant electrodynamics spin tensor (``Spin density of electromagnetic waves'', [1]). The standard electrodynamics spin tensor is zero. Here we point out that the Biot-Savarat formula uniquely results in a preferred, "true" vector potential field which is generated from a given magnetic field. A similar integral formula uniquely permits to find a "true" scalar potential field generated from a given electric field even in the case of a nonpotential electric field. We say that an exterior derivative of a differential form is the boundary of this form and the integration of a form results in a new form named the generation. Generating from a generation yields zero. A boundary is closed. A generatio...

  5. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel; Vucetich, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Most theories that predict time and(or) space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltman proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on the WEP. In this paper we present a contrasting view based on the analysis of the force between two bodies induced by the chameleon field using a particular approach in which the field due to both the large and the small bodies is obtained by appropriate series expansions in the various regions of interest and the corresponding matching conditions. We found that resulting force depends on the test body\\'{}s composition even when the chameleon coupling constants $\\beta_{i}$ are universal. In particular, we compared the resulting differential acceleration of test bodies made of Be and Al with the corresponding bounds obtained from E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the predictions of the chameleon model are, in general, various orders of magnitude a...

  6. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement. (a) A criminal investigator shall be eligible for availability pay only if the annual average number of... (numerator) by the number of regular workdays (denominator). (b) For the purpose of this section,...

  7. SUBSTANTIATION OF SOLUTIONS PERTAINING TO COMPLEX PRODUCTION RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gurinovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While taking an example of reconstruction and modernization of OJSC «Construction and Mounting Trust No.16, Novopolotsk» the paper substantiates solutions for complex production reconstruction. The production reconstruction is divided in three start-up facilities ensuring continuous finished-product output.

  8. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....105-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.105-2 Substantial gainful... minimum wage prescribed by section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, 29...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... could cause injury (as defined at 40 CFR 112.2) to fish and wildlife and sensitive environments. For... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  10. 45 CFR 1355.34 - Criteria for determining substantial conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... described in the requirement. ACF will use a rating scale to make the determinations of substantial... indicators associated with specific outcomes for children and families; (2) Its ability to meet criteria related to outcomes for children and families; and (3) Its ability to meet criteria related to the...

  11. Substantiated Best Practices in Transition: Fifteen Plus Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Leena Jo; Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun

    2010-01-01

    Since the transition movement in the 1980s, numerous transition practices have been developed. Kohler (1993) provided a comprehensive review and analysis of transition best practices and divided them into substantiated and implied practices based on the existence of empirical evidence. Since that review was published, the field of transition has…

  12. Metabolic equivalents during scooter exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Akira; Arimoto, Morio; Muramatsu, Shigeru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic equivalents (METs) for scooter exercise (riding a scooter, scootering) and to examine the energy expenditure and the heart rate response, so that the results can be used in health promotion activities. Eighteen young adults (10 males and 8 females) participated in scootering on a treadmill at three different speeds for six minutes each. Before, during, and after the exercise, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide product, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were measured. These measurements kept steady states from the 3rd to 6th minute of each different speed session. The MET values acquired during scootering at 80 m.min(-1), 110 m.min(-1), and 140 m.min(-1) were 3.9, 4.3, and 5.0, respectively. Calculated using VO(2) (ml.kg(-1).min(-1))x[4.0+R], the energy consumption for scootering at each speed was 67.0+/-10.6, 73.3+/-10.2, and 84.8+/-7.9 cal.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively. The regression equation between scootering speed (X, m.min(-1)) and VO(2) (Y, ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) is Y=0.062X+8.655, and the regression equation between HR (X, beats.min(-1)) and VO(2)reserve (Y, %) is Y=0.458X-11.264. These equations can be applied to both females and males. Thus, scootering at 80 to 140 m.min(-1) might not be sufficient to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of young male adults similar to the participants, but it may contribute many healthy benefits to most female adults and even male adults, and improve their health and fitness at the faster speeds.

  13. 40 CFR 350.27 - Substantiation form to accompany claims of trade secrecy, instructions to substantiation form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... posted on the Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office Web site, http://www.epa.gov/ceppo... TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.27 Substantiation form to... form are based on the four statutory criteria found in section 322(b) of Title III. The information...

  14. INVARIANTS UNDER STABLE EQUIVALENCES OF MORITA TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fang; Sun Longgang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study some invariants of associative algebras under stable equivalences of Morita type.First of all,we show that,if two finite-dimensional selfinjective k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,then their orbit algebras are isomorphic.Secondly,it is verified that the quasitilted property of an algebra is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type.As an application of this result,it is obtained that if an algebra is of finite representation type,then its tilted property is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type; the other application to partial tilting modules is given in Section 4. Finally,we prove that when two finite-dimensional k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,their repetitive algebras are also stably equivalent of Morita type under certain conditions.

  15. The effective theory of Borel equivalence relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokina, E.B.; Friedman, S.-D.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    The study of Borel equivalence relations under Borel reducibility has developed into an important area of descriptive set theory. The dichotomies of Silver [20] and Harrington, Kechris and Louveau [6] show that with respect to Borel reducibility, any Borel equivalence relation strictly above...... equality on ω is above equality on P (ω), the power set of ω, and any Borel equivalence relation strictly above equality on the reals is above equality modulo finite on P (ω). In this article we examine the effective content of these and related results by studying effectively Borel equivalence relations...... under effectively Borel reducibility. The resulting structure is complex, even for equivalence relations with finitely many equivalence classes. However use of Kleene's O as a parameter is sufficient to restore the picture from the noneffective setting. A key lemma is that of the existence of two...

  16. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro;

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  17. Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent, is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicography,with regard to the domain of the nominal lexicon. The problems of especially the metalexicographicconcept of partial equivalence as well as that of divergence are fundamentally expounded.In conclusion the direction is indicated to find more appropriate metalexicographic versions of theconcept of equivalence.

    Keywords: EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENT, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE,CONGRUENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE, POLYDIVERGENCE, SYNTAGM-EQUIVALENCE,ZERO EQUIVALENCE, CORRESPONDENCE

    Abstrakt: Äquivalenz in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie: Kritik und Vorschläge.Nachdem an allgemeine Probleme der Begriffsbildung am Beispiel von dt. Äquivalenzund dt. äquivalent erinnert wurde, wird zunächst auf Äquivalenzbegriffe in der kontrastiven Lexikologiekritisch eingegangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass insbesondere der Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenzin seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen widersprüchlich ist. Sodann werden Präzisierungenzu den Äquivalenzbegriffen in der Metalexikographie versucht, die sich auf den Bereich der Nennlexikbeziehen. Insbesondere der metalexikographische Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenz sowie derder Divergenz werden grundsätzlich problematisiert. In welche Richtung man gehen kann, umangemessenere metalexikographische Fassungen des Äquivalenzbegriffs zu finden, wird abschließendangedeutet.

    Stichwörter: ÄQUIVALENZ, LEXIKOGRAPHISCHES ÄQUIVALENT, PARTIELLE ÄQUIVALENZ,KONGRUENZ, DIVERGENZ, KONVERGENZ, POLYDIVERGENZ

  18. Homogeneous Dielectric Equivalents of Composite Material Shields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the methodology of replacing complicated parts of an airplane skin by simple homogeneous equivalents, which can exhibit similar shielding efficiency. On one hand, the airplane built from the virtual homogeneous equivalents can be analyzed with significantly reduced CPU-time demands and memory requirements. On the other hand, the equivalent model can estimate the internal fields satisfactory enough to evaluate the electromagnetic immunity of the airplane.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  20. Health claims substantiation for probiotic and prebiotic products

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Heimbach, James T.; Pot, Bruno; Daniel J. Tancredi; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Anu; Gueimonde Fernández, Miguel; Bañares, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The topic of >Health Claims Substantiation for Probiotic and Prebiotic Products> was discussed at the 8th annual International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) meeting. The topic is especially timely considering that the regulatory review process for health benefit claims on probiotic and prebiotic products in Europe has not resulted in a single claim being approved (120 negative opinions on probiotic claims and 19 negative opinions on prebiotic claims through Febr...

  1. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  2. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  3. Approximate equivalence in von Neumann algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Huiru; Don Hadwin

    2005-01-01

    One formulation of D. Voiculescu's theorem on approximate unitary equivalence is that two unital representations π and ρ of a separable C*-algebra are approximately unitarily equivalent if and only if rank o π = rank o ρ. We study the analog when the ranges of π and ρ are contained in a von Neumann algebra R, the unitaries inducing the approximate equivalence must come from R, and "rank" is replaced with "R-rank" (defined as the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of the range projection).

  4. Pooling Morphometric Estimates: A Statistical Equivalence Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardoe, Heath R; Cutter, Gary R; Alter, Rachel; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Semmelroch, Mira; Parker, Donna; Farquharson, Shawna; Jackson, Graeme D; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hardware or image-processing settings are a common issue for large multicenter studies. To pool MRI data acquired under these changed conditions, it is necessary to demonstrate that the changes do not affect MRI-based measurements. In these circumstances, classical inference testing is inappropriate because it is designed to detect differences, not prove similarity. We used a method known as statistical equivalence testing to address this limitation. Equivalence testing was carried out on 3 datasets: (1) cortical thickness and automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained from healthy individuals imaged using different multichannel head coils; (2) manual hippocampal volumetry obtained using two readers; and (3) corpus callosum area estimates obtained using an automated method with manual cleanup carried out by two readers. Equivalence testing was carried out using the "two one-sided tests" (TOST) approach. Power analyses of the TOST were used to estimate sample sizes required for well-powered equivalence testing analyses. Mean and standard deviation estimates from the automated hippocampal volume dataset were used to carry out an example power analysis. Cortical thickness values were found to be equivalent over 61% of the cortex when different head coils were used (q coils were statistically equivalent (TOST P = 4.28 × 10(-15) ). Manual hippocampal volume estimates obtained using two readers were not statistically equivalent (TOST P = .97). The use of different readers to carry out limited correction of automated corpus callosum segmentations yielded equivalent area estimates (TOST P = 1.28 × 10(-14) ). Power analysis of simulated and automated hippocampal volume data demonstrated that the equivalence margin affects the number of subjects required for well-powered equivalence tests. We have presented a statistical method for determining if morphometric measures obtained under variable conditions can be pooled. The equivalence testing technique is

  5. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corporate structure of a vessel's company when determining the acceptability of an equivalent system... lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance characteristics at least... IMO Resolution A. 520(13) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); or (2) Has...

  6. The therapeutic equivalence of complex drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, H.; Klinger, E.; Muehlebach, S.; Brin, J-F.; Storm, G.; Crommelin, D.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    When the patent of a small molecule drug expires generics may be introduced. They are considered therapeutically equivalent once pharmaceutical equivalence (i.e. identical active substances) and bioequivalence (i.e. comparable pharmacokinetics) have been established in a cross-over volunteer study.

  7. Zhongxian-Wuhan Pipeline Enters Substantial Construction Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The pipeline from Zhongxian in Chongqing to Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, constructed by PetroChina Pipelines Company has entered the substantial construction stage. Reportedly, this pipeline project is divided into one trunkline and three tributary lines - the QianjiangChangsha tributary, the ZhijiangXiangfan tributary and the WuhanHuangshi tributary. The total length of the pipeline is 1400 kilometers with the designed annual transmission capacity for 3 billion cubic meters. With an investment of 5.1 billion yuan, the Zhongxian-Wuhan pipeline is most difficult for construction in China owing to the very complicated geological conditions.

  8. [Substantiation of active surgical tactics for patients with puerperal endometritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, A P; Ankirskaia, A S

    1991-01-01

    An active surgical tactics for managing patients (uterine wash and its cavity content vacuum aspiration) was applied in 34 patients with postnatal endometritis. Echography and hysteroscopy demonstrated that in 28 of 34 patients, the endometritis developed in the presence of pathological involvements into the uterine cavity, which made the use of surgical endometrial treatment justifiable. In addition, the surgical treatment substantially decreased the bacterial dissemination of the content in the uterine cavity. The proposed procedure enabled uterine extirpation to be avoided in 5 of 6 patients with partial suture inadequacy. PMID:2042714

  9. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Srba, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata and show that they can be decided in polynomial time.

  10. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  11. Arithmetic Operand Ordering for Equivalence Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Yanling; GE Haitong; YAN Xiaolang; Ren Kun

    2007-01-01

    An information extraction-based technique is proposed for RTL-to-gate equivalence checking. Distances are calculated on directed acyclic graph (AIG). Multiplier and multiplicand are distinguished on multiplications with different coding methods, with which the operand ordering/grouping information could be extracted from a given implementation gate netlist, helping the RTL synthesis engine generate a gate netlist with great similarity. This technique has been implemented in an internal equivalence checking tool, ZD_VIS. Compared with the simple equivalence checking, the speed is accelerated by at least 40% in its application to a class of arithmetic designs, addition and multiplication trees. The method can be easily incorporated into existing RTL-to-gate equivalence checking frameworks, increasing the robustness of equivalence checking for arithmetic circuits.

  12. COMPOSITIONAL AND SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURE OF THE MEDICAL DOCUMENT: FORMATION STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashova Olga Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the compositional and substantial structure of the ambulatory medical record, or "case history", which has being formed for a long time. The author allocates the three main periods in the formation of this medical document: the first period (the beginning of the 19th century – 1920s is connected with the origin and formation; the second period (1920-1980s is marked by emergence of the normative legal acts regulating registration and maintaining; the third period (1980s – up to the present is associated with the cancellation of regulations and the introduction of the new order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR that changed the document's form and name. It is determined that the composition of the case history consists of the title page and the main part. The following processes take place in the course of ambulatory medical record's formation: strengthening formalization, increase in the number of pattern text fragments, increase in the text's volume, and the implementation of bigger number of functions. The author reveals the main (informative and cumulative, accounting and additional (scientific, controlling, legal, financial functions of the document. The implementation of these functions is reflected in the compositional and substantial structure of the document text and is conditioned by a number of extralinguistic factors.

  13. Substantiating Timing and Behavioral Anomalies in Wireless LANs Using GCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elankayer Sithirasenan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing dependence on wireless LANs (WLANs, businesses, educational institutions and other organizations are in need of a reliable security mechanism. The latest security protocol, the IEEE 802.11i assures rigid security for WLANs with the support of IEEE 802.1x protocol for authentication, authorization and key distribution. Nevertheless, fresh security threats are emerging often to oust these new defense mechanisms. Further, many organizations based on superficial vendor literature, believe their wireless security is sufficient enough to prevent any unauthorized access. Having wide ranging options for security configurations, users are camouflaged into deep uncertainty. This volatile state of affairs has prevented many organizations from fully deploying WLANs for their secure communication needs, though WLANs may be cost effective and flexible. In this paper, we present a novel mechanism to detect and substantiate anomalies caused by both known and unknown security threats in WLANs. We monitor the wireless environment for timing and/or behavior anomalies during the security association process and use outlier based data association approaches to substantiate their legitimacy. The proposed concept was tested on our experimental setup. The results obtained from wireless hosts configured for EAP-LEAP, PEAP and TLS security association show high confidence for EAP group events.

  14. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  15. On Equivalence and Non-equivalence of Words and Phrases In Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新霞

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the study of the relationship among three concepts, namely, culture,psychological association and equivalence or non-equivalence of words and phrases with combination of Problems posed by my students and discuss three patterns of the relationship with an attempt to describe the importance of culture to equivalence.

  16. Equivalence-Equivalence Responding: Training Conditions Involved in Obtaining a Stable Baseline Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andres; Bohorquez, Cristobal; Perez, Vicente; Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Gomez, Jesus; Luciano, Carmen; Wilson, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the variables associated with equivalence-equivalence responding, in which participants match pairs of equivalent or nonequivalent stimuli. One such variable is the presence of response competition from nonarbitrary (physical) relational response options. In the current analysis, the experimenters examined the effect…

  17. Analysis of affinely equivalent Boolean functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG QingShu; ZHANG HuanGuo; YANG Min; WANG ZhangYi

    2007-01-01

    By some basic transforms and invariant theory, we give two results: 1) an algorithm,which can be used to judge if two Boolean functions are affinely equivalent and to obtain the equivalence relationship if they are equivalent. This is useful in studying Boolean functions and in engineering. For example, we classify all 8-variable homogeneous bent functions of degree 3 into two classes; 2) Reed-Muller codes R(4,6)/R(1,6), R(3,7)/R(1,7) are classified efficiently.

  18. Studies on the Neutron Radiation Damage Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOU De-hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a unified standard of the evaluation of different sources of radiation damage, the neutron radiation damage equivalent standard source was determined both at home and abroad, and a lot of equivalence research work was done for making weapons anti neutron radiation performance examination and acceptance basis. The theoretical research progress was combed according to the relationship between the displacement damage function and the radiation source spectra ,and the experimental research progress was combed from the basic experimental methods, the controlling trend of effect parameters and field parameters. The experiment method to reduce the uncertainty was discussed, and present the research directions of radiation damage equivalence.

  19. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  20. Pathogenetic substantiation of surgical treatment of recurrent inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilіanskyі L.S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose was to investigate tissue reactions on implantation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, after plastic surgery of experimental defect in rats in preperitoneal prosthesis localization. Research was performed in two experimental groups. Group 1 – in 17 rats an experimental defect of anterior abdominal wall with 3 cm of size with further preperitoneal fixation of the polypropylene mesh of 0,5×1,0 cm size was performed. Group 2 – in 20 rats under analogous conditions preperitoneal fixation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen was performed. Morphological analysis of stages of scar tissue formation in the implantation region in the preperitoneal cavity of rats by stereological characteristics of cellular and fiber structures of connective tissue considering hemodynamic characteristics shows substantial benefits of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, during 2 montha after experimental hernioplasty.

  1. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wen, Yu-Mei; Li, Ping

    2006-06-01

    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established. In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  2. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yu; Wen Yu-Mei; Li Ping

    2006-01-01

    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established.In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  3. KIC011764567: An evolved object showing substantial flare-activity

    CERN Document Server

    Kitze, M; Hambaryan, V; Torres, G; Neuhäuser, R

    2016-01-01

    We intensively studied the flare activity on the stellar object KIC011764567. The star was thought to be solar type, with a temperature of $T_{eff} = (5640 \\pm 200)\\,$K, $\\log(g) = (4.3 \\pm 0.3)\\,$dex and a rotational period of Prot 22 d (Brown et al. 2011). High resolution spectra turn the target to an evolved object with Teff = (5300 \\pm 150) K, a metalicity of $[m/H] = (-0.5 \\pm 0.2)$, a surface gravity of $log(g) = (3.3 \\pm 0.4)\\,$dex, and a projected rotational velocity of $v sin i = (22 \\pm 1)\\,kms^{-1}$. Within an observing time span of 4 years we detected 150 flares in Kepler data in an energy range of $10^{36} - 10^{37}$ erg. From a dynamical Lomb-Scargle periodogram we have evidence for differential rotation as well as for stellar spot evolution and migration. Analysing the occurrence times of the flares we found hints for a periodic flare frequency cycle of $430 - 460 $d, the significance increases with an increasing threshold of the flares equivalent duration. One explanation is a very short activ...

  4. ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  5. Nuclear Regulatory Commission equivalency evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-10-01

    This paper provides the basis for concluding that using the seismic design criteria, defined in DOE order 4580.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and its implementing standards provides safety equivalent to NRC criteria.

  6. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is ofprimary importance in business English Iranslation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions ofthe original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This atticle focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice arc put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,concise-ness and gracefulness.1fthe three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  7. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  8. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is of primary importance in business English translation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions of the original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This article focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice are put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,conciseness and gracefulness.If the three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  9. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  10. Agency Full Time Equivalency Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AFTERS provides an automated means for the Agency to report its full time equivalency work years to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and Office of...

  11. Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Coronado, H., E-mail: hcoronado@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad, Del. Coyoacán, México (Mexico); Okon, E., E-mail: eokon@filosoficas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad, Del. Coyoacán, México (Mexico)

    2013-11-08

    The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule.

  12. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  13. The Nonequivalence of High School Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen V. Cameron; Heckman, James J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes the causes and consequences of the growing proportion of high-school-certified persons who achieve that status by exam certification rather than through high school graduation. Exam-certified high school equivalents are statistically indistinguishable from high school dropouts. Both dropouts and exam-certified equivalents have comparably poor wages, earnings, hours of work, unemployment experiences and job tenure. This is so whether or not ability measures are used to cont...

  14. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  15. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidman, M

    2000-01-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that...

  16. Fucoidan Promotes the Reconstruction of Skin Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yu Seok; Li, Hailan; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of fucoidan on the proliferation of fibroblasts and the reconstruction of a skin equivalent (SE). Fucoidan significantly stimulated the proliferation of CCD-25Sk human fibroblasts and Western blot analysis demonstrated that fucoidan markedly increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expression of p27. Fucoidan was used to reconstruct SE. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the addition of fucoidan to dermal equivalents increased exp...

  17. The equivalence principle and spatial curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination is made of the connection between the equivalence principle of general relativity and the non-Euclidean properties of space. The arguments commonly advanced to suggest a necessary connection between these two features of general relativity are reviewed and critically discussed. It is shown that although gravitational time dilation is an immediate consequence of the equivalence principle the corresponding effects on space are not such immediate or logically necessary consequences of this principle. (author)

  18. Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-08-01

    The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520

  19. Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-06

    Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.

  20. 转基因食品安全性评价和实质等同性%Safety Evaluation of Transgenic Food and Its Substantial Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乃用

    2004-01-01

    人类自远古以来通过反复实验和探索,尝试自然界提供的各种植物和动物食品,证明有些是安全的而另一些是有毒和不能吃的,有些则需要特殊的加工后才能安全食用或限量食用。此外,还发现有些物种具有医疗性质,可以用于治病。

  1. Embedding spacetime via a geodesically equivalent metric of Euclidean signature

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the equations of motion in a 1 + 1 static, diagonal, Lorentzian spacetime, such as the Schwarzschild radial line element, I find another metric, but with Euclidean signature, which produces the same geodesics x(t). This geodesically equivalent, or dual, metric can be embedded in ordinary Euclidean space. On the embedded surface freely falling particles move on the shortest path. Thus one can visualize how acceleration in a gravitational field is explained by particles moving freely in a curved spacetime. Freedom in the dual metric allows us to display, with substantial curvature, even the weak gravity of our Earth. This may provide a nice pedagogical tool for elementary lectures on general relativity. I also study extensions of the dual metric scheme to higher dimensions. In an addendum I extend the analysis concerning the shape of an embedding of the dual spacetime of a line through a planet of constant proper density.

  2. Pressure equivalents in industrial gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metel' kov, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure equivalence is a mathematical concept used to explain action and load parameters for pipelines. These two parameters are congruent to pressures encountered in pipelines. The research examined pressure equivalence in 820 by 8 millimeter pipelines in the Samotlor region and took into account the influence of support jams during first and second category jamming. It was determined that the absolute dimensions to pressure pulsations were significantly larger than plus or minus ten percent from (Prab) and even exceeded (Prab) in certain instances. The ratios at which (Prab) can be exceeded vary with relation to the jam supports and the maximum variations stem from yield in the metal pipelines themselves. The above concepts can be used to study the effects of pressure equivalence upon loads and pressures of Samotlor field pipelines and to select appropriate pipeline planning and construction methods. The conclusions drawn are valid for industrial surface pipelines used at below limit pressures. Annular and daily temperature variations in the outside air are considered with regard to their effect upon the pressure equivalence within the lower sections of the pipeline. Deviations here have been noted to exceed (formula). It was observed that in the case of underground pipelines, operated at below limit pressures, pressure equivalence occured in the upper section of the pipeline.

  3. Equivalent magnetization over the World Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Choi, Y.; Thebault, E.; Quesnel, Y.; Roest, W. R.; Lesur, V.

    2012-12-01

    In another presentation (Hamoudi et al., this meeting), we present the construction of a new candidate for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) over oceanic areas. This map is based on: (a) a more realistic forward modeling of the marine magnetic anomalies which includes remanent magnetization vectors taking into account the age and motion of the oceanic lithosphere; (b) evaluation of the equivalent magnetization by comparison of the synthetic and observed anomalies along ship tracks; and (c) adjustment of the synthetic anomaly maps using this equivalent magnetization prior to merging with the observed anomalies. A by-product of this approach is a global distribution of equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean. Note that, because no global basement map exists for the oceanic areas, we assume a uniform, 5 km-deep and 1 km-thick magnetized layer for the forward model. The resulting equivalent magnetization is therefore relative to this over-simplistic magnetic source. A first observation is that, within the hypotheses of the forward model, the average equivalent magnetization is about 3 A/m, a value which compares well with the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) measured on ancient basalt samples. As expected, the mid-ocean ridges are marked by stronger equivalent magnetizations, an observation which reflects both the stronger NRM measured at ridge axes and their shallower bathymetry (not taken into account in our forward model). More interesting is the observation of significant along-axis variations. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the Kolbeinsey and Reykjanes ridges around Iceland are marked by a very strong equivalent magnetization and the Azores Plateau by a strong one as well.. Again this may reflect the combined effect of shallower seafloor, thicker and/or more magnetized basaltic layer at hotspots. In contrast, the areas between 45 and 55°N and between 0 and 10°N (Equatorial FZ) correspond to a weak equivalent magnetization. Further south

  4. Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. The results are then confirmed using the so-called dwell time definition of quantum tunnelling. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics

  5. On the Equivalence of Quadratic APN Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Eimear; McGuire, Gary; Nebe, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the CCZ-equivalence of a pair of APN functions is generally quite difficult. In some cases, when seeking to show that a putative new infinite family of APN functions is CCZ inequivalent to an already known family, we rely on computer calculation for small values of n. In this paper we present a method to prove the inequivalence of quadratic APN functions with the Gold functions. Our main result is that a quadratic function is CCZ-equivalent to an APN Gold function if and only if it is EA-equivalent to that Gold function. As an application of this result, we prove that a trinomial family of APN functions that exist on finite fields of order 2^n where n = 2 mod 4 are CCZ inequivalent to the Gold functions. The proof relies on some knowledge of the automorphism group of a code associated with such a function.

  6. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (ρe), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ)tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close (en/ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement (tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application

  7. Atom interferometry and the Einstein equivalence principle

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Clande

    2011-01-01

    The computation of the phase shift in a symmetric atom interferometer in the presence of a gravitational field is reviewed. The difference of action-phase integrals between the two paths of the interferometer is zero for any Lagrangian which is at most quadratic in position and velocity. We emphasize that in a large class of theories of gravity the atom interferometer permits a test of the weak version of the equivalence principle (or universality of free fall) by comparing the acceleration of atoms with that of ordinary bodies, but is insensitive to that aspect of the equivalence principle known as the gravitational redshift or universality of clock rates.

  8. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  9. Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. DE BONIS

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.

  10. Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Yong PAN

    2016-01-01

    Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.

  11. AN EQUIVALENT CONTINUUM METHOD OF LATTICE STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hualin; Yang Wei

    2006-01-01

    An equivalent continuum method is developed to analyze the effective stiffness of three-dimensional stretching dominated lattice materials. The strength and three-dimensional plastic yield surfaces are calculated for the equivalent continuum. A yielding model is formulated and compared with the results of other models. The bedding-in effect is considered to include the compliance of the lattice joints. The predicted stiffness and strength are in good agreement with the experimental data, validating the present model in the prediction of the mechanical properties of stretching dominated lattice structures.

  12. Neutron spectra and dose equivalents calculated in tissue for high-energy radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, Stephen F.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Neutrons are by-products of high-energy radiation therapy and a source of dose to normal tissues. Thus, the presence of neutrons increases a patient's risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer. Although neutrons have been thoroughly studied in air, little research has been focused on neutrons at depths in the patient where radiosensitive structures may exist, resulting in wide variations in neutron dose equivalents between studies. In this study, we characterized properties of neutrons produced during high-energy radiation therapy as a function of their depth in tissue and for different field sizes and different source-to-surface distances (SSD). We used a previously developed Monte Carlo model of an accelerator operated at 18 MV to calculate the neutron fluences, energy spectra, quality factors, and dose equivalents in air and in tissue at depths ranging from 0.1 to 25 cm. In conjunction with the sharply decreasing dose equivalent with increased depth in tissue, the authors found that the neutron energy spectrum changed drastically as a function of depth in tissue. The neutron fluence decreased gradually as the depth increased, while the average neutron energy decreased sharply with increasing depth until a depth of approximately 7.5 cm in tissue, after which it remained nearly constant. There was minimal variation in the quality factor as a function of depth. At a given depth in tissue, the neutron dose equivalent increased slightly with increasing field size and decreasing SSD; however, the percentage depth-dose equivalent curve remained constant outside the primary photon field. Because the neutron dose equivalent, fluence, and energy spectrum changed substantially with depth in tissue, we concluded that when the neutron dose equivalent is being determined at a depth within a patient, the spectrum and quality factor used should be appropriate for depth rather than for in-air conditions. Alternately, an appropriate percent depth-dose equivalent curve

  13. GIT-equivalence and diagonal actions

    OpenAIRE

    Kotenkova, Polina Yu.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the GIT-equivalence classes of linearized ample line bundles for the diagonal actions of the linear algebraic groups $SL(V)$ and $SO(V)$ on ${\\mathbb{P}(V)^{m_1}\\times \\mathbb{P}(V^*)^{m_2}}$ and $\\mathbb{P}(V)^m$ respectively.

  14. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...

  15. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  16. Experimental Uncertainties of TEPC Dose Equivalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Wei-hua; XIAO; Xue-fu; WANG; Zhi-qiang; LIU; Yi-na; LI; Chun-juan; LUO; Hai-long

    2013-01-01

    The tissue-equivalent proportional counters(TEPC)are widely used for radiation protection in mixed radiation fields.The operational quantity H*(10)can be directly obtained by means of microdosimetric spectra measurements with TEPC.An empirical evaluation of uncertainties is reported in this paper.The sources of uncertainties involved in measuring microdosimetric spectra mainly are the sensitive

  17. On the Equivalence of Regularization Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-Feng

    2002-01-01

    We illustrate via the sunset diagram that dimensional regularization ‘deforms' the nonlocal contentsof multi-loop diagrams with its equivalence to cutoff regularization scheme recovered only after sub-divergence wassubtracted. Then we employed a differential equation approach for calculating loop diagrams to verify that dimensionalare argued especially in nonperturbativc perspective.

  18. Chameleonic equivalence postulate and wave function collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Zanzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A chameleonic solution to the cosmological constant problem and the non-equivalence of different conformal frames at the quantum level have been recently suggested [Phys. Rev. D82 (2010) 044006]. In this article we further discuss the theoretical grounds of that model and we are led to a chameleonic equivalence postulate (CEP). Whenever a theory satisfies our CEP (and some other additional conditions), a density-dependence of the mass of matter fields is naturally present. Let us summarize the main results of this paper. 1) The CEP can be considered the microscopic counterpart of the Einstein's Equivalence Principle and, hence, a chameleonic description of quantum gravity is obtained: in our model, (quantum) gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. 2) To illustrate one of the possible applications of the CEP, we point out a connection between chameleon fields and quantum-mechanical wave function collapse. The collapse is induced by the chameleonic nature of the theory. We discuss the collapse for a S...

  19. Equivalent thermal conductivity of heat pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zesheng LU; Binghui MA

    2008-01-01

    In precision machining, the machining error from thermal distortion carries a high proportion of the total errors. If a precision machining tool can transfer heat fast, the thermal distortion will be reduced and the machining precision will be improved. A heat pipe working based on phase transitions of the inner working liquid transfers heat with high efficiency and is widely applied in spaceflight and chemical industries. In mechanics, applications of heat pipes are correspondingly less. When a heat pipe is applied to a hydrostatic motor-ized spindle, the thermal distortion cannot be solved dur-ing the heat transfer process because thermal conductivity or equivalent thermal conductivity should be provided first for special application in mechanics. An equivalent thermal conductivity model based on equivalent thermal resistances is established. Performance tests for a screen wick pipe, gravity pipe, and rotation heat pipe are done to validate the efficiency of the equivalent thermal conduc-tivity model. The proposed model provides a calculation method for the thermal distortion analysis of heat pipes applied in the motorized spindle.

  20. Cooperative Games with Stochastic Payoffs : Determanistic Equivalents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Borm, P.E.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the subclass of cooperative games with stochastic payoffs in which the preferences of the agents are such that a stochastic payoff can be represented by a deterministic equivalent.To each game within this class one can associate a game with deterministic payoffs.It is shown tha

  1. Equivalence Scales for the Former West Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.

    1997-01-01

    Equivalence scales provide answers to questions like how much a household with four children needs to spend compared to a household with two children or how much a childless couple needs to spend compared to a single person household to attain the same welfare level. These are important questions fo

  2. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  3. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  4. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  5. THE EQUIVALENCE THEORY OF NATIVE SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Tian Luh

    2001-01-01

    In this paper some equivalence definitions are given for native spaces which were introduced by Madych and Nelson and have become influential in the theory of radial basis functions. The abstract elements in na tive spaces are interpreted. Moreaver, Weinrich and Iske's theonies are unified.

  6. Covering line graphs with equivalence relations

    CERN Document Server

    Esperet, L; King, A

    2010-01-01

    An equivalence graph is a disjoint union of cliques, and the equivalence number $\\mathit{eq}(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the minimum number of equivalence subgraphs needed to cover the edges of $G$. We consider the equivalence number of a line graph, giving improved upper and lower bounds: $\\frac 13 \\log_2\\log_2 \\chi(G) < \\mathit{eq}(L(G)) \\leq 2\\log_2\\log_2 \\chi(G) + 2$. This disproves a recent conjecture that $\\mathit{eq}(L(G))$ is at most three for triangle-free $G$; indeed it can be arbitrarily large. To bound $\\mathit{eq}(L(G))$ we bound the closely-related invariant $\\sigma(G)$, which is the minimum number of orientations of $G$ such that for any two edges $e,f$ incident to some vertex $v$, both $e$ and $f$ are oriented out of $v$ in some orientation. When $G$ is triangle-free, $\\sigma(G)=\\mathit{eq}(L(G))$. We prove that even when $G$ is triangle-free, it is NP-complete to decide whether or not $\\sigma(G)\\leq 3$.

  7. On the Leitmann equivalent problem approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.O.O. Wagener

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how Leitmann’s equivalent problem approach ties in with the classical notions of the calculus of variations and how it can be exploited to give a rapid and elegant approach to the Weierstrass theory of sufficient conditions. Fixed, free and constrained endpoint c

  8. An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1976-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....

  9. On Functional Equivalence of Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管琴

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the feasibility of functional equivalence in idiom translations in Chinese-English cultures,trying to find efficient ways to avoid both under-translation and over-translation.The more functions are reproduced,the better the version will be at achieving correspondence between meaning and function.

  10. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...

  11. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Dezhong [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu City, 610054, Sichuan Province (China); He Bin [The University of Illinois at Chicago, IL (United States)

    2003-11-07

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping.

  12. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  13. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward–feedback compound control.

  14. Testing the Equivalence of Regular Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Almeida

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The minimal deterministic finite automaton is generally used to determine regular languages equality. Antimirov and Mosses proposed a rewrite system for deciding regular expressions equivalence of which Almeida et al. presented an improved variant. Hopcroft and Karp proposed an almost linear algorithm for testing the equivalence of two deterministic finite automata that avoids minimisation. In this paper we improve the best-case running time, present an extension of this algorithm to non-deterministic finite automata, and establish a relationship between this algorithm and the one proposed in Almeida et al. We also present some experimental comparative results. All these algorithms are closely related with the recent coalgebraic approach to automata proposed by Rutten.

  15. Modified Equivalent Circuit for Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Nazmul

    In this work a newly fabricated organic solar cell based on a composite of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with an added interfacial layer of AgOx in between the PEDOT:PSS layer and the ITO layer is investigated. Previous equivalent circuit models are discussed and an equivalent circuit model is proposed for the fabricated device. Incorporation of the AgOx interfacial layer shows an increase in fill factor (by 33%) and power conversion efficiency (by 28%). Moreover proper correlation has been achieved between the experimental and simulated I-V plots. The simulation shows that device characteristics can be explained with accuracy by the proposed model.

  16. Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: prada@ele.puc-rio.br, agnelo@ele.puc-rio.br, nebulok_99@yahoo.com; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)

  17. Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

    2010-10-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

  18. Galilean Equivalence for Galactic Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kesden, M; Kesden, Michael; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Satellite galaxies of the Milky Way experience a tidal disruption as they orbit in the Milky Way's dark halo. While the bound core of the satellite remains dominated by dark matter, the tidally disrupted stars behave like purely baryonic tracers of the Milky Way's potential well. If dark matter experiences a stronger self attraction than visible matter, stars will preferentially gain rather than lose energy during tidal disruption. This leads to a relative enhancement in the trailing as compared to the leading tidal stream. We show that the absence of a strong asymmetry in the surface brightness of the leading and trailing tidal streams already constrains the equivalence of acceleration of dark matter and baryons in a gravitational field to less than ten percent--thus ruling out a recently proposed mechanism to clear dwarf galaxies from voids. Future observations should be sensitive at the percent level to departures from the equivalence of dark matter and baryons.

  19. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such...... bifurcation points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  20. Probing Quantum Violations of the Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Adunas, G Z; Ahluwalia, D V

    2001-01-01

    The joint realm of quantum mechanics and the general-relativistic description of gravitation is becoming increasingly accessible to terrestrial experiments and observations. In this essay we study the emerging indications of the violation of equivalence principle (VEP). While the solar neutrino anomaly may find its natural explanation in a VEP, the statistically significant discrepancy observed in the gravitationally induced phases of neutron interferometry seems to be the first indication of a VEP. However, such a view would seem immediately challenged by the atomic interferometry results. The latter experiments see no indications of VEP, in apparent contradiction to the neutron interferometry results. Here we present arguments that support the view that these, and related torsion pendulum experiments, probe different aspects of gravity; and that current experimental techniques, when coupled to the solar-neutrino data, may be able to explore quantum mechanically induced violations of the equivalence principl...

  1. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. We review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the $t$-channel ${\\rm SO}(3)$ partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs.

  2. Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Chijioke S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems. For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...

  3. Quantum Mechanics from an Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco

    1999-01-01

    We show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action $\\S_0$ satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Möbius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schrödinger equation in any dimension.

  4. Adaptive passive equivalence of uncertain Lü system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Dong-Lian

    2006-01-01

    An adaptive passive strategy for controlling uncertain Lü system is proposed. Since the uncertain Lü system is minimum phase and the uncertain parameters are from a bounded compact set, the essential conditions are studied by which uncertain Lü system could be equivalent to a passive system, and the adaptive control law is given. Using passive theory, the uncertain Lü system could be globally asymptotically stabilized at different equilibria by the smooth state feedback.

  5. Cooperative Games with Stochastic Payoffs: Determanistic Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Borm, P.E.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the subclass of cooperative games with stochastic payoffs in which the preferences of the agents are such that a stochastic payoff can be represented by a deterministic equivalent.To each game within this class one can associate a game with deterministic payoffs.It is shown that the core of such a cooperative game with stochastic payoffs is nonempty if and only if the core of the associated game is nonempty.

  6. Equivalence Scales for the Former West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, E.

    1997-01-01

    Equivalence scales provide answers to questions like how much a household with four children needs to spend compared to a household with two children or how much a childless couple needs to spend compared to a single person household to attain the same welfare level. These are important questions for child allowances, social benefits and to assess the cost of children over the life-cycle for example. The latter is also interesting from a theoretical point of view, especially if future events ...

  7. Equivalence of polynomial conjectures in additive combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Lovett, Shachar

    2010-01-01

    We study two conjectures in additive combinatorics. The first is the polynomial Freiman-Ruzsa conjecture, which relates to the structure of sets with small doubling. The second is the inverse Gowers conjecture for $U^3$, which relates to functions which locally look like quadratics. In both cases a weak form, with exponential decay of parameters is known, and a strong form with only a polynomial loss of parameters is conjectured. Our main result is that the two conjectures are in fact equivalent.

  8. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  9. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  10. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension

  11. European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil;

    2002-01-01

    Within Europe there is increasing freedom of movement between countries and increasing inward migration. As a result, equivalent standards of legl interpreting and translation are required to allow reliable communication for judicial cooperation between member states, for criminal and civil matters...... in terms of - standards of selection, training and asessments of legal interpreters & translators - standards of ethics, code of conduct and good practice - interdisciplinary working arrangements with the legal services. With this paper, the authors aim to share the outcomes of their work....

  12. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Dieter; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of...

  13. Electromagnetic Boundaries with PEC/PMC Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2016-01-01

    The most general electromagnetic boundary, defined by linear and local boundary conditions, is defined in terms of conditions which can be called generalized impedance boundary conditions. Requiring that the boundary be equivalent to PEC and PMC boundaries for its two eigen-plane waves, which property is known to exist for many of its special cases, it is shown that the recently introduced Generalized Soft-and-Hard/DB (GSHDB) boundary is the most general boundary satisfying this property.

  14. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)

    1997-05-15

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  15. Equivalence of the Einstein and Jordan frames

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, Marieke; Volponi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    No experiment can measure an absolute scale: every dimensionfull quantity has to be compared to some fixed unit scale in order to be measured, and thus only dimensionless quantities are really physical. The Einstein and Jordan frame are related by a conformal transformation of the metric, which amounts to rescaling all length scales. Since the absolute scale cannot be measured, both frames describe the same physics, and are equivalent. In this article we make this explicit by rewriting the ac...

  16. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  17. TNT equivalency of M10 propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.

    1978-01-01

    Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.

  18. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellakumar, P. [Bangalore Institute of Oncology, 44-45/2, II Cross, RRMR Extension, Bangalore-560 027 (India)]. E-mail: psellakumar@rediffmail.com; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E. [School of Science and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore-632 014 (India); Supe, Sanjay S. [Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560 027 (India)

    2007-07-15

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}), electron density ({rho}{sub e}), photon mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}), photon mass energy absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub en}/{rho}) and total stopping power (S/{rho}){sub tot} of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close (<1%) to that of water except PAGAT, MAGAT and NIPAM which had the variation of 3%, 2% and 3%, respectively. The value of {mu}/{rho} and {mu}{sub en}/{rho} for all polymer gels were in close agreement (<1%) with that of water beyond 80keV. The value of (S/{rho}){sub tot} of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application.

  19. Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We extend the classical equivalence between the cubic and the non-polynomial open superstring field theories to the Ramond sector. To that end we find mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. We show that the gauge symmetry of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic theory suffers from collisions of picture changing operators. Our mapping works at the level of the linearized gauge transformation, which is well-defined. Nonetheless, the familiar form of the cubic theory is inconsistent and should be modified. Hence, at this level, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. At the non-polynomial theory the Ramond sector is described using two constrained string fiel...

  20. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... the applicant. Jennifer Orme-Zavaleta, Director, National Exposure Research Laboratory. BILLING...

  1. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326- 54341). The new equivalent method for... methods should be directed to the applicants. Dated: May 23, 2012. Jennifer Orme-Zavaleta,...

  2. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras, Cadiz (Spain); Jurado, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/ Alfonso X, n 28. 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time. (author)

  3. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  4. Approximate trace and singleton failures equivalences for transition systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Jinzhao Wu; Hongyan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Established system equivalences for transition systems, such as trace equivalence and failures equivalence, require the ob-servations to be exactly identical. However, an accurate measure-ment is impossible when interacting with the physical world, hence exact equivalence is restrictive and not robust. Using Baire met-ric, a generalized framework of transition system approximation is proposed by developing the notions of approximate language equivalence and approximate singleton failures (SF) equivalence. The framework takes the traditional exact equivalence as a special case. The approximate language equivalence is coarser than the approximate SF equivalence, just like the hierarchy of the exact ones. The main conclusion is that the two approximate equiva-lences satisfy the transitive property, consequently, they can be successively used in transition system approximation.

  5. Equivalent linearization technique for quantum anharmonic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum dynamics means studying the evolution of an initially prescribed wave function. This is analytically tractable for special wavefunctions for the simplest of the situations—free particle and simple harmonic oscillator. The purely anharmonic oscillators are virtually impossible to handle. We show here that the study of Ehrenfest's equation provides an alternative route to studying quantum dynamics. It does not give exact answers but clarifies some basic aspects of quantum dynamics by providing a prescription for constructing equivalent simple harmonic oscillators. (paper)

  6. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  7. The Search for a New Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Ionescu, Lucian M

    2007-01-01

    The new emerging quantum physics - quantum computing conceptual bridge, mandates a ``grand unification'' of space-time-matter and quantum information (all quantized), with deep implications for science in general. The major physics revolutions in our understanding of the universe are briefly reviewed and a ``missing'' equivalence principle is identified and its nature explained. An implementation as an external super-symmetry $\\C{E}=ic\\C{P}$ is suggested, generalizing the Wick rotation ``trick''. Taking advantage of the interpretation of entropy as a measure of symmetry, it is naturally asimilated within the present Feynman Path Integral algebraic formalism.

  8. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal; Holstein, Barry R.; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry — general coordinate invariance — that is used to organize the effective field theory (EFT).

  9. Testing the Equivalence Principle with Unstable Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bonder, Y; Hernandez-Coronado, H; Krause, D E; Rohrbach, Z; Sudarsky, D

    2013-01-01

    We develop a framework to test the Equivalence Principle (EP) under conditions where the quantum aspects of nature cannot be neglected, specifically in the context of interference phenomena with unstable particles. We derive the nonrelativistic quantum equation that describes the evolution of the wavefunction of unstable particles under the assumption of the validity of the EP and when small deviations are assumed to occur. As an example, we study the propagation of unstable particles in a COW experiment, and we briefly discuss the experimental implications of our formalism.

  10. The Equivalence Principle in a Quantum World

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the Equivalence Principle, for instance through introduction of non-locality from quantum physics, embodied in the Uncertainty Principle. When the energy is small we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory.

  11. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  12. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqian Zhang; Quan Li; Wei Cao; Weisheng Yue; Jianqiang Gu; Zhen Tian; Jiaguang Han; Weili Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials have been demonstrated over a significant portion of the electromagnetic spectra from radio,microwave,and terahertz (THz) to the optical regimes.The unique properties of metamaterials are not attainable with naturally occurring materials[1].Thus,enormous applications in devices and techniques,such as superlens,cloaking antenna,and sub-wavelength photolithography are enabled[2-5].The capability of metamaterials has been broadly expanded because they allow precise control of the electromagnetic responses.The appreciation of electromagnetic response control through metamaterial structures provides unique benefits in the design of versatile devices,including filters,modulators,and switchable components.%An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered.

  13. Equivalence of open/closed strings

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the open and closed strings are $O(D,D)$ equivalent. The equivalence requires an AdS geometry near the boundaries. The $O(D,D)$ invariance is introduced into the Polyakov action by the Tseytlin's action. Traditionally, there exist disconnected open-open or closed-closed configurations in the solution space of the Tseytlin's action. The open-closed configuration is ruled out by the mixed terms of the dual fields. We show that, under some very general guidances, the dual fields are consistently decoupled if and only if the near horizon geometry is $AdS_5$. We then have open-closed and closed-open configurations in different limits of the distances of the $D3$-brane pairs. Inherited from the definition of the theory, these four configurations are of course related to each other by $O(D,D)$ transformations. We therefore conclude that both the open/closed relation and open/closed duality can be derived from $O(D,D)$ symmetries. By analyzing the couplings of the configurations, the low ...

  14. 76 FR 32215 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Substantiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... nutritional deficiency, structure/function, or general well-being claim have substantiation that the statement... supplement manufacturers will only need to collect information to substantiate their product's nutritional...'s label. The standard discussed in the guidance for substantiation of a claim on the labeling of...

  15. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority...-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that it apportions...

  16. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... Forest Service has determined there is a Substantial Overriding Public Interest (SOPI) in extending for... with an approved plan of operations, or that the ``Substantial Overriding Public Interest'' justifies... Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding...

  17. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  18. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity... Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is work... or profit, whether or not a profit is realized. (c) Some other activities. Generally, we do...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity... Activity § 404.1572 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is work... or profit, whether or not a profit is realized. (c) Some other activities. Generally, we do...

  20. Equivalence of different binary choice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostasiewicz, Katarzyna; Radosz, Andrzej; Tyc, Michał H.; Magnuszewski, Piotr; Goliczewski, Piotr

    2007-12-01

    There are various classes of models, in which individuals are assumed to make their binary choices dependent upon gains and losses, including social ones, which they evaluate for themselves. At each discrete time step t every individual has to make a binary decision: σit = +1 or σit = -1: σit+1 = f(σit,{σjt}). In different approaches, deterministic part is distinguished from a random (non-rational) part. Within impact function approach [1], the decision σit+1 at time t+1 is either σit or -σit, with probabilities F(-2Ii(σit,{σjt})) and 1-F(-2Ii(σit,{σjt})), repectively. Here Ii-impact function, F-some cumulative probability distribution function. Without randomness, the above process reduces to purely deterministic one: σit+1 = -sgn[σitIi(σit,{σjt})]. Within utility function approach [2], σit+1 = argmax{-1,+1}Uidet(σit+1,σit,{σjt})+ɛi(σit+1, where Uidet-deterministic part of utility function, ɛi-random term. In threshold model [3] (mean-field approach): P(σit+1 = +1) = P(mithchoice at time t. Detailed analysis [4] reveals particular relations between the above approaches. First, impact function and utility function models are equivalent at the level of their deterministic parts: Uidet(σit+1,σit,{σjt})≡-σit+1σitIi(σit,{σjt}), Ii(σit,{σjt})≡-σi[Uidet(+1,σit,{σjt})-Uidet(-1,σit,{σjt})]. There is also an equivalence in the probabilistic parts of the decision making process. As F(-2Ii(σit,{σjt})) = F(Uidet(σit,σit{σjt})-Uidet(-σit,σit,{σjt})), we can write σit+1 =argmax{-1,+1}Uidet(σit+1,σit,{σjt})+ɛi(σit+1, with P(ɛi(-1)-ɛi(+1)0). Therefore, three binary choice models: impact function, utility function and threshold models turn out to be equivalent.

  1. Development of a Brachytherapy Software Nomogram Equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this project is developing a software nomogram equivalent. A nomogram is a graph typically comprised of three parallel lines. Each of the lines is graduated for a different variable, often in a non-linear scale. The lines are oriented in such a manner that if a straight line is drawn connecting two of the three variables, the value of the third variable is uniquely determined by the intersection of the connecting line and the graduated line of the third variable. The value of the third variable is determined by reading the graduated scale at the point of intersection. A nomogram as applied in brachytherapy is used for determining the required amount of radioactive material to be implanted in a diseased site. A typical brachytherapy nomogram relates the average dimension of a site, the air kerma strength per source and the number of sources required for yielding a therapeutic radiation dose to the site. More sophisticated nomograms also provide scales for recommending source and needle spacings. For decades the nomogram has been clinically employed as a brachytherapy treatment planning tool. Imaging modalities such as CT and ultrasound ushered in modern image-based brachytherapy treatment planning. These modern imaging techniques dramatically advanced the state of the art of brachytherapy, often obviating the use of nomograms. Although the routine use of nomograms has decreased, there are clinical situations where nomograms still prove useful for brachytherapy treatment planning. Often times the dimensions of a tumor or tumor bed are not known prior to surgery and delineated images of the site are not available. In such situations the tumor dimensions can be measured in the OR and a nomogram applied for rapid treatment planning. By definition a nomogram is a graphical tool, which is fixed and cannot be modified. Differences of opinion and treatment philosophies exist among physicians and institutions. These varying approaches can lead to

  2. FUZZY ORDER EQUIVALENT CLASS WITH UNCERTAINTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHOU; Mingzhe WANG

    2005-01-01

    It is a new research topic to create a rational judgment matrix using the cognition theory because of the construction of judgment matrix in AHP involving the decision-maker's cognitive activities.Owing to the presence of uncertain information in the decision procedure, the improper use of the uncertain information will doubtless cause weight changes. In this paper, we add a feedforward process prior to constructing the judgment matrix so that the decision maker can use both the certain and uncertain information to get the initial uncertain rough judgment matrix, and then convert it into a fuzzy matrix. Consequently, it will be better for decision maker to obtain the rough set of order equivalent classes through the decision graph. According to the qualitative analysis, the decision maker can easily construct the final judgment matrix instructed by the rough set created earlier.

  3. Equivalent Resistance in Pulse Electric Current Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The sintering resistance for conductive TiB2 and non-conductive Al2O3 as well as empty die during pulse current sintering were investigated in this paper.Equivalent resistances were measured by current and valtage during sintering the conductive and non-conductive materials in the same conditions.It is found that the current paths for conductive are different from those for non-conductive materials.For non-conductive materials,sintering resistances are influenced by powder sizes and heating rates,which indicates that pulse current has some interaction with non-conductive powders.For conductive TiB2,sintering resistances are influenced by heating rates and ball-milling time,which indicates the effect of powders activated by spark.

  4. Equivalent topological invariants of topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Qi Xiaoliang; Zhang Shoucheng, E-mail: sczhang@stanford.ed [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    A time-reversal (TR) invariant topological insulator can be generally defined by the effective topological field theory with a quantized {theta} coefficient, which can only take values of 0 or {pi}. This theory is generally valid for an arbitrarily interacting system and the quantization of the {theta} invariant can be directly measured experimentally. Reduced to the case of a non-interacting system, the {theta} invariant can be expressed as an integral over the entire three-dimensional Brillouin zone. Alternatively, non-interacting insulators can be classified by topological invariants defined over discrete TR invariant momenta. In this paper, we show the complete equivalence between the integral and the discrete invariants of the topological insulator.

  5. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we analyse two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling canonically-normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  6. Theoretical Aspects of the Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    We review several theoretical aspects of the Equivalence Principle (EP). We emphasize the unsatisfactory fact that the EP maintains the absolute character of the coupling constants of physics while General Relativity, and its generalizations (Kaluza-Klein,..., String Theory), suggest that all absolute structures should be replaced by dynamical entities. We discuss the EP-violation phenomenology of dilaton-like models, which is likely to be dominated by the linear superposition of two effects: a signal proportional to the nuclear Coulomb energy, related to the variation of the fine-structure constant, and a signal proportional to the surface nuclear binding energy, related to the variation of the light quark masses. We recall the various theoretical arguments (including a recently proposed anthropic argument) suggesting that the EP be violated at a small, but not unmeasurably small level. This motivates the need for improved tests of the EP. These tests are probing new territories in physics that are related t...

  7. Characterization of Destrins with Different Dextrose Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dextrins are widely used for their functional properties and prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch using acid, enzymes, or combinations of both. The physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on their molecular distribution and oligosaccharide profiles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, rapid viscoanalysis (RVA, high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize dextrins prepared by common neutral and thermostable α-amylase hydrolysis. The dextrin granules displayed irregular surfaces and were badly damaged by the enzyme treatment. They displayed A-type X-ray diffraction patterns with a decrease of intensity of the characteristic diffraction peaks. The RVA profiles showed that the viscosity of dextrin decreased with the increase of its Dextrose Equivalent (DE value. According to HPLC analysis, the molecular weight, degree of polymerization and the composition of oligosaccharides in dextrins were different.

  8. Serious limitations of the strong equivalence principle

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    We study decoherent Larmor radiation from an accelerated neutral composite object. We find that the neutral object's long wavelength radiation is highly suppressed because radiation from different charges is canceled out. However, the neutral object radiates high energy or short wavelength radiation without any suppression. In that case, radiation from each particle can be treated independently, and it is called the decoherent radiation. We compare an accelerated hydrogen atom decoherent radiation with its gravitational radiation. For the long wavelengths, gravitational radiation is stronger than electromagnetic radiation, but for the short wavelengths, the situation is opposite. Our result implies that the strong equivalence principle which states that gravitational motion does not depend on an object's constitution has severe limitations.

  9. [The false equivalent Galeazzi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, A; Elibrahimi, A; Elmrini, A; Boutayeb, F

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a false Galeazzi equivalent in children. This injury is characterised by an epiphyseal detachment of the distal extremity of the ulna rather than a distal radio-ulnar dislocation. A 16-year-old patient was injured in a fall from a bike. Radiographs showed a fracture of the radial shaft with anterior angulation, together with a type II Salter-Harris epiphyseal injury at the level of the distal ulna. We were unable to perform a closed reduction under general anesthesia due to interposition of periosteum at the fracture site. Thus surgical management was the only option, which consisted of removing the offending periosteum and performing osteosynthesis of the radial shaft fracture with a plate, and the epiphyseal detachment with pins. After 10 months, we noted no bone growth disturbance, or any reduced mobility of the wrist. We will continue the follow-up to monitor bone growth disturbance of the distal extremity of the ulna.

  10. Correlation Measure Equivalence in Dynamic Causal Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    We prove an equivalence transformation between the correlation measure functions of the causally-unbiased quantum gravity space and the causally-biased standard space. The theory of quantum gravity fuses the dynamic (nonfixed) causal structure of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity space, the events are causally nonseparable and all time bias vanishes, which makes it no possible to use the standard causally-biased entropy and the correlation measure functions. Since a corrected causally-unbiased entropy function leads to an undefined, obscure mathematical structure, in our approach the correction is made in the data representation of the causally-unbiased space. We prove that the standard causally-biased entropy function with a data correction can be used to identify correlations in dynamic causal structures. As a corollary, all mathematical properties of the causally-biased correlation measure functions are preserved in the causally-unbiased space. The eq...

  11. Equivalency and unbiasedness of grey prediction models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zeng; Chuan Li; Guo Chen; Xianjun Long

    2015-01-01

    In order to deeply research the structure discrepancy and modeling mechanism among different grey prediction mo-dels, the equivalence and unbiasedness of grey prediction mo-dels are analyzed and verified. The results show that al the grey prediction models that are strictly derived from x(0)(k) +az(1)(k) = b have the identical model structure and simulation precision. Moreover, the unbiased simulation for the homoge-neous exponential sequence can be accomplished. However, the models derived from dx(1)/dt+ax(1) =b are only close to those derived from x(0)(k)+az(1)(k)=b provided that|a|has to satisfy|a| < 0.1; neither could the unbiased simulation for the homoge-neous exponential sequence be achieved. The above conclusions are proved and verified through some theorems and examples.

  12. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equvalent resistance of non-trivial electrical ciruits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. At the end, we derive - in a closed form - the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The final result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. For the more inquisitive reader, additional proofs and technical details are provided in the appendix.

  13. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frápolli, Maria J; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane's assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom-up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis' epistemic contextualism and Frege's content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690

  14. Expressivism, Relativism and the analytic equivalence test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Frapolli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field 2009, 252, MacFarlane’s assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom-up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis’ epistemic contextualism and Frege’s content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions.

  15. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Taejin

    2015-01-01

    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that $(1+1)$ dimensional fermion theories with arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess any nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known $(1+1)$ dimensional theories have been discussed.

  16. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.

  17. 78 FR 14097 - Pulse Oximeters-Premarket Notification Submissions [510(k)s]; Guidance for Industry and Food and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Federal Register of July 19, 2007 (72 FR 39631), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pulse Oximeters--Premarket Notification Submissions... availability of the guidance entitled ``Pulse Oximeters--Premarket Notification Submissions .'' This...

  18. 76 FR 81510 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; the 510(k) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Communication, Outreach and Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and...) Paradigm Guidance. FDA recognizes and supports efforts for global convergence of regulatory systems, and...

  19. Proposed New Test of Equivalence Principle from Rotating Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-Zhong; LUO Jun; NIE Yu-Xin

    2000-01-01

    We study a new kind of equivalence principle for rotating bodies and propose a test of the equivalence principle by comparing free-fall gravitational accelerations of two gyroscopes or a rotating and a non-rotating extended bodies.

  20. A Solid State Tissue Equivalent Detector for Microdosimetry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QEL proposes to construct a tissue equivalent microdosimeter using a solid state tissue equivalent detector (SSTED). The Phase I study will produce the working...

  1. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). Two of the new equivalent methods for PM are automated monitoring..., Inc., 1600 Washington Blvd., Grants Pass, Or 97526. EQPM-1013-211, ``Environnement S.A. Model MP101M... method is identified as follows: EQNA-1013-210, ``Environnement S.A. Model AS32M cavity attenuated...

  2. On Eugene A. Nida's Functional Equivalence%On Eugene A.Nida's Functional Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲

    2016-01-01

    Eugene A. Nida's Functional Equivalence is a very useful theory in translation. This theory considers that translation is transference of the source language into the meaning of the target language in the way the author intended the text. It has a deep influence on translation.

  3. On the $c$ equivalence principle and its relation to the weak equivalence principle of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, T C

    2011-01-01

    We clarify the status of the $c$ equivalence principle ($c_u=c$) recently proposed by Heras et al \\cite{JoseAJP2010,JoseEJP2010} and show that its proposal leads to an extension of the current framework of classical relativistic electrodynamics (CRE). This is because in the MLT (mass, length and time) system of units, CRE theory can contain only one fundamental constant of nature and special relativity dictates that this must be $c$, the standard speed of light in vacuum, a point not sufficiently emphasized in most textbooks with the exception of a few such as Panofsky and Phillips \\cite{PanofskyPhillips}. The $c$ equivalence principle Heras \\cite{JoseAJP2010,JoseEJP2010} can be shown to be linked to the second postulate of special relativity which extends the constancy of the unique velocity of light to all of physics (especially to mechanics) other than electromagnetism. An interesting corollary is that both the weak equivalence principle of general relativity and the $c$ equivalence principle are in fact o...

  4. Equivalence above Word Level in English——Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕君

    2008-01-01

    Translation is not accomplished by merely substituting words in a word-for-word equivalence.A word-for-word replacement is of little use,because it is only a form of words equivalent,and does not convey the force of meaning(the dynamic equivalence).The aim of this paper is to study equivalence above word level(collocation、idiom and fixed expression)in relation to English--Chinese translation process,using different approaches.

  5. Equivalent Circuits For AC-Impedance Analysis Of Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents investigation of equivalent circuits for ac-impedance analysis of corrosion. Impedance between specimen and electrolyte measured as function of frequency. Data used to characterize corrosion electrochemical system in terms of equivalent circuit. Eleven resistor/capacitor equivalent-circuit models were analyzed.

  6. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  7. On the equivalence classes of linear non-autonomous systems *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the equivalence classification of the linear non-autonomous dynamic systems near singularities is given. Under some conditions their equivalence classes are the same as the autonomous ones. Using a series of linear and nonlinear transforms, the equivalence classification is proved.

  8. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  9. Tests of the weak equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser

  10. TNT equivalency study for space shuttle (EOS). Volume 1: Management summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The existing TNT equivalency criterion for LO2/LH2 propellant is reevaluated. It addresses the static, on-pad phase of the space shuttle launch operations and was performed to determine whether the use of a TNT equivalency criterion lower than that presently used (60%) could be substantiated. The large quantity of propellant on-board the space shuttle, 4 million pounds, was considered of prime importance to the study. A qualitative failure analysis of the space shuttle (EOS) on the launch pad was made because it was concluded that available test data on the explosive yield of LO2/LH2 propellant was insufficient to support a reduction in the present TNT equivalency value, considering the large quantity of propellant used in the space shuttle. The failure analysis had two objectives. The first was to determine whether a failure resulting in the total release of propellant could occur. The second was to determine whether, if such a failure did occur, ignition could be delayed long enough to allow the degree of propellant mixing required to produce an explosion of 60% TNT equivalency since the explosive yield of this propellant is directly related to the quantities of LH2 and LO2 mixed at the time of the explosion.

  11. On flow equivalence of one-sided topological Markov shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    We introduce notions of suspension and flow equivalence on one-sided topological Markov shifts, which we call one-sided suspension and one-sided flow equivalence, respectively. We prove that one-sided flow equivalence is equivalent to continuous orbit equivalence on one-sided topological Markov shifts. We also show that the zeta function of the flow on a one-sided suspension is a dynamical zeta function with some potential function and that the set of certain dynamical zeta functions is invar...

  12. The Equivalence Postulate of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of the equivalence principle, stating that all physical systems can be connected by a coordinate transformation (trivializing map) to the free system with vanishing energy, uniquely leads to the quantum analogue of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation. A property of the formalism is manifest $p-q$ duality, a consequence of the involutive nature of the Legendre transformation and of the recently observed relation with second-order differential equations. This makes clear the intrinsic $\\psi^D-\\psi$ duality between linearly independent solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Being a third-order non-linear differential equation, the Quantum Stationary HJ Equation (QSHJE) gives rise to initial conditions which cannot be seen in the Schrödinger equation. Solutions of the QSHJE provide a trajectory representation of quantum mechanics, depending on the Planck length. Unlike Bohm's theory, there is a non-trivial action even for bound states and no wave guide is present. A fundamental aspect of the formul...

  13. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. PMID:24697716

  14. Mathematical Equivalence of Evolution and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Every one who is seriously involved in the pursuit of science becomes convinced that a spirit is manifest in the laws of the Universe." This Einsteinian statement remains outside of science. Our current understanding of the mind mechanisms have come close to explaining spirituality from the scientific point of view. In this paper a theory is presented which is a mathematical breakthrough, overcoming decades of limitations in AI, pattern recognition, neural networks, and other attempts to model the brain-mind. Solutions to engineering problems are presented that have overcome previous difficulties in terms of computational complexity. These solutions result in orders of magnitude improvement in detection, prediction, tracking, fusion, and learning situations. The theory is also extended to higher cognitive functions. It models the knowledge instinct operating in the hierarchy of the human brain-mind. At the top are concepts unifying our entire knowledge; we perceive them as concepts of the meaning and purpose of our existence. This theory is formulated mathematically as dynamic and equivalently as teleological. Experimental results supporting the theory are discussed. The theory overcomes various difficulties, including reductionism, which, in the past, interfered with the acceptance of scientific explanations of the spiritual.

  15. Equivalence between deep energy-dependent and shallow angular momentum dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently Baye showed that supersymmetry can be applied to determine a shallow l-dependent potential phase equivalent to a deep potential, assumed to be energy-independent and have Panli forbidden states (PFS), for α-α scattering. The PFS are eliminated by this procedure. Such deep potentials are generated as equivalent local potentials (ELP) to the Resonating Group Model (RGM) and are generally energy-dependent. To eliminate this E-dependence as required for the application of Baye's method, l-dependent, but E-independent, deep local potentials were generated by the exact inversion method of Marchenko. Subsequently, the supersymmetric method was used to eliminate the PFS, ensuring that the generalized Levinson theorem is satisfied. As an example, the method was applied to the simple model of two dineutrons scattering in the RGM, where the deep ELP of Horiuchi has a substantial energy-dependence and one PFS only for l=O. 16 refs., 5 figs

  16. Macrostate equivalence of two general ensembles and specific relative entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The two criteria of ensemble equivalence, i.e., macrostate equivalence and measure equivalence, are investigated for a general pair of states. Macrostate equivalence implies the two ensembles are indistinguishable by the measurement of macroscopic quantities obeying the large-deviation principle, and measure equivalence means that the specific relative entropy of these two states vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that measure equivalence implies a macrostate equivalence for a general pair of states by deriving an inequality connecting the large-deviation rate functions to the specific relative Renyi entropies. The result is applicable to both quantum and classical systems. As applications, a sufficient condition for thermalization, the time scale of quantum dynamics of macrovariables, and the second law with strict irreversibility in a quantum quench are discussed.

  17. "Equivalent" material properties for designing ionic polymer metal composite actuators by equivalent bimorph beam theory

    OpenAIRE

    Çilingir, Halime Didem; Cilingir, Halime Didem

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses the Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuators and two “equivalent” materials parameters for their design and performance assessments: electromechanical coupling coefficient and elastic modulus. The “equivalent” parameters not being material constants are derived from equivalent bimorph beam model. The Nafion membrane based IPMC actuator strips of several thicknesses are manufactured by electrochemical platinization method. The effect of the thickness and operating ...

  18. Radiation equivalency: For the radiation recall phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and clinico-epidemiological investigations have unequivocally established the risk of an offspring in later years developing cancer after experiencing an in utero carcinogenic insult. The present studies have focused upon identifying whether the biological effects of iodine-131 and the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) when administered during pregnancy in the Fischer F344 inbred rat are remembered in the offsprings at a later age. The investigations have been based upon the premise that after exposure to a carcinogen ''foreign-like'' tumor cells develop which result in the host mounting active antitumor immune responses. The authors have now measured at 2 to 3 months post-exposure, the antitumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI) induced by intraperitoneal administration of the radionuclide or chemical at 16-18 days of gestation. Their findings indicate a positive sex relationship existing in those offsprings exposed to the radioiodine with the female being much less sensitive. In contrast, no such difference was observed between responsiveness of the males and females born from dams exposed to the DMH. Significantly, the dams exposed to either the radionuclide or DMH expressed no measurable CMI suggesting that either the fetus acted as a carcinogen trap or else the state of pregnancy altered the mother's immune system in such a fashion to no longer respond to the insult. A Radiation Equivalency value has now been determined for the transplacental DMH exposures with the calculations suggesting the fetus is significantly more sensitive (over 10 times) than the adult animals. The results of this study now demonstrate that carcinogenic memory remains for exposures to both the iodine-131 and DMH in the first offspring generation and suggest that the effects may be recalled at a later age with the expected overt results being the development of cancer

  19. Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Modelling the universe without relying on a set of hypothetical entities (HEs) to explain observations and overcome problems and difficulties is essential to developing a physical cosmology. The well-known big bang cosmology, widely accepted as the standard model, stands on two fundamentals, which are Einstein’s general relativity (GR) that describes the effect of matter on spacetime and the cosmological principle (CP) of spacetime isotropy and homogeneity. The field equation of GR along with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric of spacetime derived from CP generates the Friedmann equation (FE) that governs the development and dynamics of the universe. The big bang theory has made impressive successes in explaining the universe, but still has problems and solutions of them rely on an increasing number of HEs such as inflation, dark matter, dark energy, and so on. Recently, the author has developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which, instead of making many those hypotheses, only includes a new single postulate (or a new principle) to the cosmology - Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence (SBHEP) - to explain all the existing observations of the universe and overcome all the existing problems in conventional cosmologies. This study thoroughly demonstrates how this newly developed black hole universe model, which therefore stands on the three fundamentals (GR, CP, and SBHEP), can fully explain the universe as well as easily conquer the difficulties according to the well-developed physics, thus, neither needing any other hypotheses nor existing any unsolved difficulties. This work was supported by NSF/REU (Grant #: PHY-1263253) at Alabama A & M University.

  20. Rituximab and biosimilars – equivalence and reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Zaina P; Magwood, Jametta S; Singh, Sarveshwari; Bennett, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a debilitating disease affecting millions of people daily. Over the years, cancer treatment has advanced in leaps and bounds. Antibodies are important breakthrough therapeutic agents for cancer. These agents, proteins produced by B lymphocytes of the immune system in response to antigens, bind to receptors on cell surfaces so that the antigen–antibody complexes can be recognized and destroyed by phagocytes. While each B cell synthesizes only one kind of antibody, an entire population of different types of B cells and their respective antibodies are produced in response to various antigens to which the organism had been exposed. However, to be useful clinically, substantial amounts of a single antibody must be generated from a single ancestral B cell. These antibodies produced by a specific population of B cells are the monoclonal antibodies that have become the cornerstone of treatment for cancer and many immunologic illnesses. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the clinical development of biosimilars in clinical oncology, focusing on rituximab and like biosimilars. PMID:24829884

  1. General Dynamic Equivalent Modeling of Microgrid Based on Physical Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchun Cai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid is a new power system concept consisting of small-scale distributed energy resources; storage devices and loads. It is necessary to employ a simplified model of microgrid in the simulation of a distribution network integrating large-scale microgrids. Based on the detailed model of the components, an equivalent model of microgrid is proposed in this paper. The equivalent model comprises two parts: namely, equivalent machine component and equivalent static component. Equivalent machine component describes the dynamics of synchronous generator, asynchronous wind turbine and induction motor, equivalent static component describes the dynamics of photovoltaic, storage and static load. The trajectory sensitivities of the equivalent model parameters with respect to the output variables are analyzed. The key parameters that play important roles in the dynamics of the output variables of the equivalent model are identified and included in further parameter estimation. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is improved for the parameter estimation of the equivalent model. Simulations are performed in different microgrid operation conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of the equivalent model of microgrid.

  2. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deceptive or unsubstantiated environmental advertising claims. A current list of environmental marketing... substantiation of environmental marketing claims. Section 5 of the FTC Act makes unlawful deceptive acts and... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  3. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  4. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  5. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  6. 20 CFR 220.29 - Work that is considered substantial gainful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work that is considered substantial gainful... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Any Regular Employment § 220.29 Work that is considered substantial gainful activity. Work is considered to...

  7. Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf......Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf...

  8. The radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy: Are ''photon-equivalent'' doses really photon-equivalent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) produces a mixture of radiation dose components. The high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles are more damaging in tissue than equal doses of low-LET radiation. Each of the high-LET components can multiplied by an experimentally determined factor to adjust for the increased biological effectiveness and the resulting sum expressed in photon-equivalent units (Gy-Eq). BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units are based on a number of assumptions. It may be possible to test the validity of these assumptions and the accuracy of the calculated BNCT doses by 1) comparing the effects of BNCT in other animal or biological models where the effects of photon radiation are known, or 2) if there are endpoints reached in the BNCT dose escalation clinical trials that can be related to the known response to photons of the tissue in question. The calculated Gy-Eq BNCT doses delivered to dogs and to humans with BPA and the epithermal neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor were compared to expected responses to photon irradiation. The data indicate that Gy-Eq doses in brain may be underestimated. Doses to skin are consistent with the expected response to photons. Gy-Eq doses to tumor are significantly overestimated. A model system of cells in culture irradiated at various depths in a lucite phantom using the epithermal beam is under development. Preliminary data indicate that this approach can be used to detect differences in the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. The rat 9L gliosarcoma cell survival data was converted to photon-equivalent doses using the same factors assumed in the clinical studies. The results superimposed on the survival curve derived from irradiation with Cs-137 photons indicating the potential utility of this model system. (author)

  9. Equivalent thermo-mechanical parameters for perfect crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzkin, V. A.; Krivtsov, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermo-elastic behavior of perfect single crystal is considered. The crystal is represented as a set of interacting particles (atoms). The approach for determination of equivalent continuum values for the discrete system is proposed. Averaging of equations of particles' motion and long wave approximation are used in order to make link between the discrete system and equivalent continuum. Basic balance equations for equivalent continuum are derived from microscopic equations. Macroscopic value...

  10. Toward an equivalence criterion for Hybrid RANS/LES methods

    OpenAIRE

    Friess, Christophe; Manceau, R.; Gatski, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    International audience A criterion is established to assess the equivalence between hybrid RANS/LES methods, called H-equivalence, based on the modeled energy of the unresolved scales, which leads to similar low-order statistics of the resolved motion. Different equilibrium conditions are considered, and perturbation analyses about the equilibrium states are performed. The procedure is applied to demonstrate the equivalence between two particular hybrid methods, and leads to relationships ...

  11. On the Lexicographical Description of Equivalent Open Class Expressions*

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The contribution proceeds from the assumption that linguistic equivalence is already determined, and therefore only deals with questions of the lexicographical description of equiva-lent open class expressions in completely condensed dictionary articles in bilingual printed dic-tionaries, with the purpose of establishing a notion of lexicographical equivalence. Firstly, the most important differences between non-condensed, partially condensed and completely condensed dictio...

  12. Equivalent Effect in the Translation of Culture-Bound Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the book Toward a Science of Translation,Eugene Nida brings out two important concepts:formal-equivalence(to reveal as much as possible of the form and content of the original message) and dynamic-equivalence(the closest natural equivalent to the source-language message).(Nida,1964) When we translate from poetry to poetry,prose to prose,novel to novel,we try to achieve F-E as much as possible

  13. Stress Response of Offshore Structures by Equivalent Polynomial Expansion Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Gudfinnur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    This paper concerns an investigation of the effects of nonlinearity of drag loading on offshore structures excited by 2D wave fields, where the nonlinear term in the Morison equation is replaced by an equivalent cubic expansion. The equivalent cubic expansion coefficients for the equivalent drag...... model are obtained using the least mean square procedure. Numerical results are given. The displacement response and stress response processes obtained using the above loading model are compared with simulation results and those obtained from equivalent linearization of the drag term....

  14. An improved model of Robinson equivalent circuit analytical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Robinson equivalent circuit analytical model can be used only in calculating shielding effectiveness of enclosure with the same multi-holes in one wall, but cannot be used in different multi-holes in two walls. According to the practical requirement, this article uses Konefal’s and Farhana’s characteristic impedance of apertures to improve the equivalent circuit analytical model in different multi-holes in two walls. The improved equivalent circuit analytical model is more useful than Robinson equivalent circuit analytical model. In the article, all kinds of enclosures are simulated by TLM (Transmission-Line Matrix method) to prove that this improved model is feasible in multimode.

  15. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Ordas, G.; Call, J.; Colmenares, F.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies on tool using have shown that presenting subjects with certain modifications in the experimental setup can substantially improve their performance. However, procedural modifications (e.g. trap table task) may not only remove task constraints but also simplify the problem conceptually. The goal of this study was to design a variation of the trap-table that was functionally equivalent to the trap-tube task. In this new task, the subjects had to decide where to insert the tool a...

  16. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  17. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankeny, Mark

    2016-03-29

    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  18. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... substantial users. Example 2. The facts are the same as in example (1) except that X rents food and beverage... throughout the terminal, at locations specified by C. None of the above exceed the 5-percent limitations...

  19. Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continuous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalize...

  20. Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalized...

  1. Perverse equivalences, BB-tilting, mutations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ladkani, Sefi

    2010-01-01

    We relate the notions of BB-tilting and perverse derived equivalence at a vertex. Based on these notions, we define mutations of algebras, leading to derived equivalent ones. We present applications to endomorphism algebras of cluster-tilting objects in 2-Calabi-Yau categories and to algebras of global dimension at most 2.

  2. Neutron detector simultaneously measures fluence and dose equivalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, R. F.; Dyer, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Neutron detector acts as both an area monitoring instrument and a criticality dosimeter by simultaneously measuring dose equivalent and fluence. The fluence is determined by activation of six foils one inch below the surface of the moderator. Dose equivalent is determined from activation of three interlocked foils at the center of the moderator.

  3. IMPROVED RANDOMIZED ALGORITHM FOR THE EQUIVALENT 2-CATALOG SEGMENTATION PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An improved randomized algorithm of the equivalent 2-catalog segmentation problem is presented. The result obtained in this paper makes some progress to answer the open problem by analyze this algorithm with performance guarantee. A 0.6378-approximation for the equivalent 2-catalog segmentation problem is obtained.

  4. When is a background equivalent? Sparse chromatic context revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, E; Cornelissen, FW

    1998-01-01

    Jenness and Shevell (Vision Res 1995,35:797-805) reported that a red background with white dots scattered on it has a different influence on a target's apparent colour than an equivalent uniform background. We show that this finding depends on what one considers an equivalent background. Jenness and

  5. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat--Software for a Thermistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus from PASCO scientific provides the means for doing a simple experiment to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat, "J." A necessary step of this experiment is to determine the temperature of an aluminum cylinder. By measuring the resistance of a thermistor embedded in the cylinder, one is able to…

  6. Derivation of equivalent continuous dilution for cyclic, unsteady driving forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, Max H.; Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses an analytical approach to determine the dilution of an unsteadily-generated solute in an unsteady solvent stream, under cyclic temporal boundary conditions. The goal is to find a simplified way of showing equivalence of such a process to a reference case where equivalent dilution...

  7. On the equivalence of brushlet and wavelet bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Borup, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    We prove that the Meyer wavelet basis and a class of brushlet systems associated with exponential type partitions of the frequency axis form a family of equivalent (unconditional) bases for the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin function spaces. This equivalence is then used to obtain new results on nonl...

  8. ROUTING AND WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT ALGORITHMS BASED ON EQUIVALENT NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xiaogang; Liu Lifang; Lin Sanyang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) network model based on the equivalent networks is described, and wavelength-dependent equivalent arc, equivalent networks, equivalent multicast tree and some other terms are presented. Based on this model and relevant Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) strategy, a unicast RWA algorithm and a multicast RWA algorithm are presented. The wavelength-dependent equivalent arc expresses the schedule of local RWA and the equivalent network expresses the whole topology of WDM optical networks, so the two algorithms are of the flexibility in RWA and the optimization of the whole problem. The theoretic analysis and simulation results show the two algorithms are of the stronger capability and the lower complexity than the other existing algorithms for RWA problem, and the complexity of the two algorithms are only related to the scale of the equivalent networks. Finally, we prove the two algorithms' feasibility and the one-by-one corresponding relation between the equivalent multicast tree and original multicast tree, and point out the superiorities and drawbacks of the two algorithms respectively.

  9. 14 CFR 21.261 - Equivalent safety provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equivalent safety provisions. 21.261 Section 21.261 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....261 Equivalent safety provisions. The manufacturer shall obtain the Administrator's concurrence on...

  10. Graphene-based THz modulator analyzed by equivalent circuit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Chen, Jing; Xie, Zhiyi;

    2016-01-01

    A terahertz (THz) modulator based on graphene is proposed and analysed by use of equivalent transmission line of a homogeneous mediumand the local anisotropic model of the graphene conductivity. The result calculated by the equivalent circuit is consistent with that obtained byFresnel transfer ma...

  11. On the equivalence of brushlet and wavelet bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten

    We prove that the Meyer wavelet basis and a class of brushlet systems associated with exponential type partitions of the frequency axis form a family of equivalent (unconditional) bases for the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin function spaces. This equivalence is then used to obtain new results...

  12. Dynamic REI equivalents for short circuit and transient stability analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, Federico [Dept. of Electrical Eng., Univ. of Castilla - La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Srivastava, Kailash [ABB AB Corporate Research, SE-721 78 Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    This paper proposes a systematic approach for dynamic power system equivalents based on power transfer distribution factors. The proposed method divides the original network into an internal interconnected system and an external one. Static equivalents are computed at frontier buses that separate the retained internal system from the external one. The equivalents are formed using REI (Radial, Equivalent and Independent) networks and generator model aggregation. Generator parameters are computed based on power transfer distribution factors of the generated active power. The equivalent models are able to accurately approximate the behavior of the original system for short circuit and transient stability analyses. Two test systems, namely the Kundur's 2-area test system and a 1213-bus network that model a real transmission system are used to illustrate and test the proposed technique. (author)

  13. Calculation of dose equivalent index, effective dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent for the giant resonance neutron spectra produced at an electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANISN code has been used in this study to evaluate the attenuation of neutron beams of various spectra incident normally on slabs of different kinds of concrete. Spectra of the most common sources (Am-Be and Cf-252) and those of giant resonance neutrons, produced at electron accelerators, were studied. The concretes examined had densities between 2.1 and 4.64 g.cm-3. The calculation were made in terms of the deep dose equivalent index, the effective dose equivalent and the ambient dose equivalent. Values of attenuation length in the various materials were derived from the attenuation curves. The results found should allow for useful evaluations in every day practice for health physicist

  14. A within-subjects trial to test the equivalence of online and paper outcome measures: the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prentice Philippa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Augmenting validated paper versions of existing outcome measures with an equivalent online version may offer substantial research advantages (cost, rapidity and reliability. However, equivalence of online and paper questionnaires cannot be assumed, nor can acceptability to respondents. The aim was to test whether online and written versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ, a standard measure of functional disability in back pain, are equivalent at both group and individual levels to establish whether they can be used interchangeably. Methods This is a within-participants equivalence study. 167 participants with back pain fully completed both the paper and online versions of the RMDQ in random order. Participants were recruited from a chiropractic clinic and patient support groups in Southern England. Limits of equivalence were pre-defined as 0.5 RMDQ points, the Bland-Altman range was calculated, and participants' comments were examined using content analysis. Results The mean score difference was 0.03 (SD = 1.43, with the 95% Confidence Interval falling entirely within our limits of equivalence (-0.19 to 0.25. The Bland-Altman range was -2.77 to 2.83 RMDQ points. Participants identified unique advantages and disadvantages associated with each version of the RMDQ. Conclusions The group and individual level data suggest that online and paper versions of the RMDQ are equivalent and can be used interchangeably. The Bland-Altman range appears to reflect the known measurement properties of the RMDQ. Furthermore, participants' comments confirmed the potential value to be had from offering them the choice of completing the RMDQ online or on paper.

  15. Singularity theory of fitness functions under dimorphism equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Golubitsky, Martin

    2016-09-01

    We apply singularity theory to classify monomorphic singular points as they occur in adaptive dynamics. Our approach is based on a new equivalence relation called dimorphism equivalence, which is the largest equivalence relation on strategy functions that preserves ESS singularities, CvSS singularities, and dimorphisms. Specifically, we classify singularities up to topological codimension two and compute their normal forms and universal unfoldings. These calculations lead to the classification of local mutual invasibility plots that can be seen generically in systems with two parameters.

  16. Derivation of Equivalent Material Models for Composite Laminated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gona

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an original approach of derivation of equivalent electrical models for multilayer composite materials is presented. The purpose of the modeling is to approximate a given composite material by an equivalent dielectric slab or by a medium consisting from several dielectric layers. For each layer, an equivalent complex permittivity is set up by an optimization procedure in order to achieve the same values of reflection and transmission coefficients as are the measured values of reflection and transmission coefficients of the original composite material.

  17. Inter Digital Transducer Modelling through Mason Equivalent Circuit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Dipti; Singh, Abhishek; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar;

    2016-01-01

    by Simulation program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (HSPICE), a well-liked electronic path simulator. The acoustic wave devices are not suitable to simulation through circuit simulator.In this paper, an electrical model of Mason’s Equivalent electricalcircuit for an inter-digital transducer (IDT......The frequency reliance of inter-digital transducer is analyzed with the help of MASON’s Equivalent circuit which is based on Smith’s Equivalent circuit which is further based on Foster’sNetwork. An inter-digital transducer has been demonstratedas a RLC network. The circuit is simulated...

  18. Modelling of dynamic equivalents in electric power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part, this research thesis proposes a description of the context and new constraints of electric grids: architecture, decentralized production with the impact of distributed energy resource systems, dynamic simulation, and interest of equivalent models. Then, the author discusses the modelling of the different components of electric grids: synchronous and asynchronous machines, distributed energy resource with power electronic interface, loading models. She addresses the techniques of reduction of electric grid models: conventional reduction methods, dynamic equivalence methods using non linear approaches or evolutionary algorithm-based methods of assessment of parameters. This last approach is then developed and implemented, and a new method of computation of dynamic equivalents is described

  19. Pragmatic Equivalence in Different Translations of The Merchant of Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白婕

    2015-01-01

    Pragmatic equivalence, meaning to transfer the implied meaning of the source text to the target text, usually involves the receiver to whom the translation is directed. Two notions are crucial in translation to achieve pragmatic equivalence:context and optimal relevance. In light of these two element, the author in this paper conducts a case study by using Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice and two Chinese versions from Zhu Shenghao and Sun Dayu as data, by comparing these two versions to explore how pragmatic equivalence in translation can be achieve at lexical, semantic and cultural levels.

  20. Determination of the effective dose equivalent in gynecologic radium therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the authors describe how to determine the effective dose equivalent absorbed by occupationally exposed persons during a gynecologic radium therapy. The observed irradiation conditions of the physician and the medical staff are approximated by a standard geometry, for which conversion factors between the measured personal dose, the effective dose equivalent and different organ doses, respectively, are calculated. The results are job-specific conversion factors between dose to a personal dosimeter and the effective dose equivalent for the occupationally exposed persons involved. According to the individual tasks, these factors are between 0.59 and 1.13. (orig.)

  1. A Dixmier-Moeglin equivalence for skew Laurent polynomial rings

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, James William Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The work of Dixmier in 1977 and Moeglin in 1980 show us that for a prime ideal $P$ in the universal enveloping algebra of a complex finite-dimensional Lie algebra the properties of being primitive, rational and locally closed in the Zariski topology are all equivalent. This equivalence is referred to as the Dixmier-Moeglin equivalence. In this thesis we will study skew Laurent polynomial rings of the form ${mathbb{C}}[x_1,ldots,x_d][z,z^{-1};sigma]$ where $sigma$ is a ${mathbb{C}}$-algebra au...

  2. Criterion for SLOCC equivalence of multipartite quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tinggui; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Huang, Xiaofen

    2016-10-01

    We study the stochastic local operation and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalence for arbitrary dimensional multipartite quantum states. For multipartite pure states, we present a necessary and sufficient criterion in terms of their coefficient matrices. This condition can be used to classify some SLOCC equivalent quantum states with coefficient matrices having the same rank. For multipartite mixed state, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition by means of the realignment of matrix. Some detailed examples are given to identify the SLOCC equivalence of multipartite quantum states.

  3. Inference systems for observation equivalences in the π-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林惠民

    1999-01-01

    Inference systems for observation equivalences in the pi-calculus with recursion are proposed, and their completeness over the finite-control fragment with guarded recursions are proven. The inference systems consist of inference rules and equational axioms. The judgments are conditional equations which characterise symbolic bisimulations between process terms. This result on the one hand generalises Milner’s complete axiomatisation of observation equivalence for regular CCS to the pi-calculus, and on the other hand extends the proof systems of strong bisimulations for guarded regular pi-calculus to observation equivalences.

  4. Analysis of equivalent antenna based on FDTD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-xing YANG; Hui-chang ZHAO; Cui DI

    2014-01-01

    An equivalent microstrip antenna used in radio proximity fuse is presented. The design of this antenna is based on multilayer multi-permittivity dielectric substrate which is analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Equivalent iterative formula is modified in the condition of cylindrical coordinate system. The mixed substrate which contains two kinds of media (one of them is air)takes the place of original single substrate. The results of equivalent antenna simulation show that the resonant frequency of equivalent antenna is similar to that of the original antenna. The validity of analysis can be validated by means of antenna resonant frequency formula. Two antennas have same radiation pattern and similar gain. This method can be used to reduce the weight of antenna, which is significant to the design of missile-borne antenna.

  5. On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing

    CERN Document Server

    Linkov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...

  6. ESA GlobSnow Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The European Space Agency (ESA) Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) snow water equivalent (SWE) v2.0 data record contains snow information...

  7. Do positrons and antiprotons respect the weak equivalence principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We resolve the difficulties which Morrison identified with energy conservation and the gravitational red-shift when particles of antimatter, such as the positron and antiproton, do not respect the weak equivalence principle. 13 refs

  8. Analysis of equivalent antenna based on FDTD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-xing Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An equivalent microstrip antenna used in radio proximity fuse is presented. The design of this antenna is based on multilayer multi-permittivity dielectric substrate which is analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD method. Equivalent iterative formula is modified in the condition of cylindrical coordinate system. The mixed substrate which contains two kinds of media (one of them is airtakes the place of original single substrate. The results of equivalent antenna simulation show that the resonant frequency of equivalent antenna is similar to that of the original antenna. The validity of analysis can be validated by means of antenna resonant frequency formula. Two antennas have same radiation pattern and similar gain. This method can be used to reduce the weight of antenna, which is significant to the design of missile-borne antenna.

  9. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  10. On the Equivalence of Euler-Lagrange and Noether Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faliagas, A. C., E-mail: apostol.faliagas@gmail.com [University of Athens, Department of Mathematics (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    We prove that, under the condition of nontriviality, the Euler-Lagrange and Noether equations are equivalent for a general class of scalar variational problems. Examples are position independent Lagrangians, Lagrangians of p-Laplacian type, and Lagrangians leading to nonlinear Poisson equations. As applications we prove certain propositions concerning the nonlinear Poisson equation and its generalisations, and the equivalence of admissible and inner variations for the systems under consideration.

  11. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Herwig; Kersen, Silke; Weimer, Michaela; Mertsching, Heike

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal in...

  12. 40 CFR 68.152 - Substantiating claims of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating claims of confidential business information. 68.152 Section 68.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan §...

  13. Have Cognitive Diagnostic Models Delivered Their Goods? Some Substantial and Methodological Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The paper by Rupp and Templin (2008) is an excellent work on the characteristics and features of cognitive diagnostic models (CDM). In this article, the authors comment on some substantial and methodological aspects of this focus paper. They organize their comments by going through issues associated with the terms "cognitive," "diagnostic" and…

  14. Cumulative Stress and Substantiated Maltreatment: The Importance of Caregiver Vulnerability and Adult Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…

  15. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1120 Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers AGENCY: Consumer Product... this document, the Commission is proposing a rule to determine that any hand-held hair dryer without... requirements for certain household appliances, including hand-held hair dryers. The current...

  16. 76 FR 37636 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... proposed rule (75 FR 27504) that would deem any hand-supported hair dryer without integral immersion...-supported hair dryers due to lack of an immersion protection device (75 FR at 27506). Since April 1, 2010... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1120 Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers AGENCY: U.S....

  17. 19 CFR 10.41b - Clearance of serially numbered substantial holders or outer containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such requirement pursuant to an application approved under 19 CFR 10.41b(b).” Also, pallets and other... the admissibility of such devices as regards plant pest risk, as provided for in 7 CFR 319.40-3. (1... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance of serially numbered substantial...

  18. 16 CFR 1115.12 - Information which should be reported; evaluating substantial product hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in accordance with § 1115.11, about product use, experience, performance, design, or manufacture... of the product, and the population group exposed to the product (e.g., children, elderly, handicapped...; evaluating substantial product hazard. 1115.12 Section 1115.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  19. Substantial Molecular Evolution In Prolonged Latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infections In Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Norman, Anders; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;

    2015-01-01

    , as well as evidence for distinct processes such as oxidative damage or natural selection having contributed to mutation accumulation. Conclusions: Our study shows that distinct processes can shape Mtb genomes during latent infection. Most importantly, we document substantial molecular evolution of Mtb...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF HERB MATERIAL SELECTION IN THE MAKING OF COMPLEX TINCTURE FOR PERIODONTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Piminov O.F.; Biriucova S.V.,; Shulga L.I.

    2011-01-01

    During this work, possibility of using of licorice roots, sedge cane rootstocks as well as burnet rootstocks with its roots as components of a complex tincture for periodontitis treatment was experimentally substantiated, and an optimal raw material-extractant ratio, based on results of microbiological studings, was proved.

  1. Theoretical-and-Methodological Substantiation of Multilingual Model Activity in Kazakhstan Higher School Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanova, Bikesh Revovna; Azimbayeva, Zhanat Amantayevna; Timokhina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Seydakhmetova, Zergul Koblandiyevna

    2016-01-01

    The need of implementing the model of professional development in training an expert in the conditions of multilingualism is considered. The possibility of using the multilingual approach in the context of present day education with the use of innovative technologies of training is substantiated, the definition of "multilingual…

  2. 76 FR 41424 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Iowa State Implementation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... experience high incidences of lung disease, cardiac problems, renal and other serious life threatening...) is substantially inadequate to maintain the 2006 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS... this rule on February 2, 2011 (76 FR 9706). EPA received comments from the State of Iowa Department...

  3. Piezogenerator impedance matching using Mason equivalent circuit for harvester identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Richard, Claude

    2014-04-01

    Any piezoelectric generator structure can be modeled close to its resonance by an equivalent circuit derived from the well known Mason equivalent circuit. This equivalent circuit can therefore be used in order to optimize the harvested power using usual electrical impedance matching. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the full process leading to the definition of the proper passive load allowing the optimization of the harvested energy of any harvesting device. First, the electric equivalent circuit of the generator is derived from the Mason equivalent circuit of a seismic harvester. Theoretical ideal impedance matching and optimal load analyze is then given emphasizing the fact that for a given acceleration a constant optimal output power is achievable for any frequency as long as the optimal load is feasible. Identification of the equivalent circuit of an experimental seismic harvester is then derived and matched impedance is defined both theoretically and experimentally. Results demonstrate that an optimal load can always be obtained and that the corresponding output power is constant. However, it is very sensitive to this impedance, and that even if impedance matching is a longtime well known technique, it is not really experimentally and practically achievable.

  4. Course design via Equivalency Theory supports equivalent student grades and satisfaction in online and face-to-face psychology classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGarratt-Reed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment

  5. On the Lexicographical Description of Equivalent Open Class Expressions*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The contribution proceeds from the assumption that linguistic equivalence is already determined, and therefore only deals with questions of the lexicographical description of equiva-lent open class expressions in completely condensed dictionary articles in bilingual printed dic-tionaries, with the purpose of establishing a notion of lexicographical equivalence. Firstly, the most important differences between non-condensed, partially condensed and completely condensed dictionary articles are explained. In completely condensed dictionary articles, which are not natural language texts, addressing relationships are present. These relationships have a vital role in the lexicographical description of equivalent open class expressions. They are, therefore, explained in more detail. A further assumption for the development of a notion of lexicographical equivalence is the notion of semantic-pragmatic equivalence, which is therefore introduced briefly. Next, there is a stepwise development, by means of examples, of what one can understand by the notion of lexi-cographical equivalence. The developed notion of lexicographical equivalence can on the one hand form the point of departure for the lexicographical textualisation of semantic-pragmatic equiva-lence, and on the other hand it takes into consideration that the linguistic equivalence relationship has to be inferred first by the user-in-action by means of complex results of lexicographical textu-alisation. The developed notion of lexicographical equivalence presents a firm foundation for the optimisation of the presentation of lexicographical equivalence.

    Keywords: ADDRESSING, SEMANTIC-PRAGMATIC EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPH-ICAL EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHICAL TEXT CONDENSATION, CONDENSED DIC-TIONARY ARTICLES

    Abstrakt: Zur lexikographischen Beschreibung nennlexikalischer äquiva-lenter Wortschatzeinheiten. Der Beitrag setzt voraus, dass die sprachliche Äquivalenz bereits ermittelt

  6. Frequency and collective effective dose equivalent of medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to ICRP recommendation, medical exposure refers to the intentional exposure of patients for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and to the exposures resulting from the artificial replacement of body organs or functions. Since the objective of radiotherapy is to give a large amount of radiation dose to the patient to kill cancer cells, neither individual nor collective effective doses are directly relevant for comparisons with doses from other sources, not even with diagnostic procedures. For this reason, in present report, therapeutic uses of radiations and radiopharmaceuticals are not included in the medical exposures. Medical exposures in Japan have been investigated by the nationwide surveys on the type and the frequency of radiological procedures and by the dose determinations with phantom experiments or calculations since 1960. Present report reviews the frequency of diagnostic radiological procedures and the collective effective dose equivalents from these procedures, and excess deaths from the medical exposures in Japan. In 1986, the number of X-ray diagnostic examinations was estimated to be about 1.41 x 108. The preliminary result in 1991 shows the number will be about 1.8 x 108. The resultant collective effective dose equivalent from X-ray diagnosis in 1986 was about 1.84 x 105 person Sv. Consequently per Caput mean effective dose equivalent was about 1.48 mSv/person in 1986. The total collective effective dose equivalent from all the diagnostic radiological procedures in Japan was estimated to be about 2.96 x 105 person Sv/year. per Caput mean effective dose equivalent from the total diagnostic radiological procedures in Japan was evaluated to be about 2.3 mSv/year. This value may be comparable to the mean annual effective dose equivalent received from natural radiations for the worldwide population. Mean effective dose equivalent per diagnostic radiological examination was calculated to be about 1.00 mSv/examination. (author)

  7. Equivalent Beam Averaging (EBA) of I-V Spectra for LEED Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H. L.; Noonan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An equivalent beam averaging (EBA) procedure is described which has proved to be very useful to enhance I-V profile data collected for LEED analyses. Specific analyses are documented where application of EBA has led to improved agreement between calculated and experimental I-V profiles. The procedure also has been substantiated by examination of representative I-V profiles which were calculated to correspond to the incident beam slightly misaligned from, and exactly aligned with, the surface normal. It then has been inferred from such substanstiation that use of EBA in a LEED analysis reduces the effects of systematic experimental errors caused by minor misalignment of the incident beam, beam divergence, and certain surface morphologies.

  8. Leaky domino-modes in regular arrays of substantially thick metal nanostrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Pavel M.; Simovski, Constantin R.

    2016-07-01

    In previous works, an efficient light trapping performed by arrays of metal nanoantennas whose building block was a slightly tapered (trapezoidal) substantially thick nanostrip was revealed. This light trapping implied a broad spectrum of solar light concentrated in a subwavelength depth of the semiconductor substrate. This is a very advantageous feature allowing our structure to enhance thin-film solar cells. However, the physics of the broadband resonant absorption in the substrate was not investigated. In the present paper, we show that our arrays support so-called leaky domino-modes, responsible for such the light trapping. These modes are multipole oscillations of the array of substantially thick nanostrips. In this work we have thoroughly studied these leaky modes relating them to resonances of high-order multipole moments and to broadband light-trapping effect.

  9. Assessment of Information to Substantiate a Health Claim on the Prevention of Prostate Cancer by Lignans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Tuominen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL, have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals with increased risk or with diagnosed cancer. No unequivocal prostate cancer risk reduction has been found for lignans in epidemiological studies, suggesting that lignan concentrations found in populations consuming a regular non-supplemented diet are not chemopreventive in prostate cancer. Presumably, the main obstacles in assessing the efficacy of food lignans is limited knowledge of the serum and tissue lignan concentrations required for the putative prevention. Further clinical studies performed with the purified compounds are required to substantiate a health claim.

  10. Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could imagine the progression to greater

  11. Trans- Substantial Motion and Man’s Evolution in Mulla Sadra’s Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The above subject is considered in Islam and Islamic thought, especially in Islamicphilosophy and wisdom. We can find theories of it in Transcendent wisdom of Islam by Mulla SadraShirazi. He himself has a theory called Trans-substantial motion, which we try to provide and explainit here. First, we give a short account of the properties and principles of Mulla Sadra‟s philosophy.

  12. Paradigms of the Concepts and Principles Substantiating the Elaboration and Presentation of the Financial Reporting Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Munteanu; Mihaela Berechet (Dragnea)

    2014-01-01

    The present article deals with a number of existing paradigms of the concepts and principles substantiating the elaboration and presentation of the financial reporting situations throughout the world. There are presented and commented the accounting postulates, principles, conventions and doctrines, available in different accounting systems, both across the European continent, and across the American continent. The present article concludes with the authors’ comments on the accounting concept...

  13. The Role of Primacy of Existence and Analogical Gradation on Substantial Movement's Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Kadivar; Maryam Khoshdel Rouhani

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Molla Sadra, primacy of existence (esalat-e wujood) constitutes reality. Existence is one but graded in intensity. These (tashkik-e wujood) two principles namely reality of existence and analogical gradation hold a definite role in the foundation of accepted concept in this paper. Non-acceptance of the two mentioned principles leads one to various results particularly in this case the consequent non-acceptance of substantial movement to understand reality of existen...

  14. Assessment of Information to Substantiate a Health Claim on the Prevention of Prostate Cancer by Lignans

    OpenAIRE

    Juhani Tuominen; Niina M. Saarinen; Liisa Pylkkänen; Risto Santti

    2010-01-01

    Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL), have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals with increased risk or with diagnosed cancer. No unequivocal prostate cancer risk reduction has been found for lignans in epidemiological stu...

  15. Multidisciplinary Child Protection Decision Making About Physical Abuse: Determining Substantiation Thresholds and Biases

    OpenAIRE

    Jent, Jason F.; Eaton, Cyd K.; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Dandes, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipl...

  16. Patient health causes substantial portion of geographic variation in Medicare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Megan

    2013-10-01

    Key findings. (1) Substantial geographic variation exists in Medicare costs, but to determine the source and extent of this variation requires proper accounting for population health differences. (2) While physician practice patterns likely affect Medicare geographic cost variations, population health explains at least 75 to 85 percent of the variations—more than previously estimated. (3) Policy strategies should consider the magnitude of the impact of beneficiary health status on Medicare costs in order to address geographic variation.

  17. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alex K. Y.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Li, Shao-Meng; Sjostedt, Steve J.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Liggio, John; Macdonald, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA...

  18. Substantiation of an express-method for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials

    OpenAIRE

    S.G. Nikolskiy; O.N. Pertseva; V.I. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    An express method for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials was offered and substantiated in this article. The proposed measurement technology of concrete frost resistance is based on the computation of the value z which is the ratio of the relative decrease of compression resistance R to the relative permanent set ε in the direction which is perpendicular to the pressure. It was found that this ratio is constant for a given composition of the concrete and does not depe...

  19. Do convective schemes substantially alter simulated global climate and cloud feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, S. C.; Webb, M.; Lock, A.; Bretherton, C. S.; Bony, S.; Cole, J. N.; Idelkadi, A.; Kang, S. M.; Koshiro, T.; Kawai, H.; Ogura, T.; Roehrig, R.; Shin, Y.; Mauritsen, T.; Vial, J.; Watanabe, M.; Woelfle, M.; Zhao, M.; Cairns, C. W.; Vallis, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate CFMIP-2 AMIP and AMIP+4K experiments with ten climate models which have had their convective parametrizations turned off. Previous studies have suggested that parameterized convection may be a leading source of inter-model spread in cloud feedbacks and other aspects. We find that model biases in 'ConvOff' runs (those with the convective schemes switched off), for example in tropical lapse rate and relative humidity, are generally smaller than intermodel differences in these fields, in spite of the fact that these fields are widely thought to be controlled by convective processes. This suggests that, to a considerable extent, explicitly resolved convection is able to do most of the overall job of convection in modern climate models at least with respect to phenomena at large scales. We find moreover that 'ConvOff' models have a similar overall range of cloud feedbacks compared to the standard configurations. Furthermore, applying a simple bias correction method to allow for differences in present day global cloud radiative effects substantially reduces the differences between the cloud feedbacks with and without parametrized convection in the individual models. We conclude that, while parametrized convection influences the strength of the cloud feedbacks substantially in some models, other processes must also contribute substantially to the overall inter-model spread. The positive shortwave cloud feedbacks seen in the models in subtropical regimes associated with shallow clouds are still present in the ConvOff experiments. Inter-model spread in shortwave cloud feedback increases slightly in regimes associated with trade cumulus in the ConvOff experiments but is quite similar in the most stable sub-tropical regimes associated with stratocumulus clouds. Inter-model spread in longwave cloud feedbacks in strongly precipitating regions of the tropics is substantially reduced in the ConvOff experiments however, indicating a considerable local contribution

  20. A Cp-theory problem book functional equivalencies

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachuk, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces.  An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch.   The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as  the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical re...

  1. Committed dose equivalent in the practice of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of internal exposure, the dose is not received at the moment of exposure, as happens with external exposure, since the incorporated radionuclide irradiates the various organs and tissues during the time it is present in the body. By definition, the committed dose equivalent corresponds to the received dose integrated over 50 years from the date of intake. In order to calculate it, one has to know the intake activity and the value of the committed dose equivalent per unit of intake activity. The uncertainties of the first parameter are such that the committed dose equivalent can only be regarded as an order of magnitude and not as a very accurate quantity. The use of it is justified, however, for, like the dose equivalent for external exposure, it expresses the risk of stochastic effects for the individual concerned since these effects, should they appear, would do so only after a latent period which is generally longer than the dose integration time. Moreover, the use of the committed dose equivalent offers certain advantages for dosimetric management, especially when it is simplified. A practical problem which may arise is that the annual dose limit is apparently exceeded by virtue of the fact that one is taking account, in the first year, of doses which will actually be received only in the following years. These problems are rare enough in practice to be dealt with individually in each case. (author)

  2. Inertia and Double Bending of Light from Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Careful examination of light paths in an accelerated reference frame, with use of Special Relativity, can account fully for the observed bending of light in a gravitational field, not just half of it as reported in 1911. This analysis also leads to a Machian formulation of inertia similar to the one proposed by Einstein in 1912 and later derived from gravitational field equations in Minkowsky Space by Sciama in 1953. There is a clear inference from equivalence that there is some type of inertial mass increase in a gravitational field. It is the purpose of the current paper to suggest that equivalence provides a more complete picture of gravitational effects than previously thought, correctly predicting full light bending, and that since the theory of inertia is derivable from equivalence, any theory based on equivalence must take account of it. Einstein himself clearly was not satisfied with the status of inertia in GRT, as our quotes have shown. Many have tried to account for inertia and met with less than success, for example Davidson s integration of Sciama s inertia into GRT but only for a steady state cosmology [10], and the Machian gravity theory of Brans and Dicke [11]. Yet Mach s idea hasn t gone away, and now it seems that it cannot go away without also disposing of equivalence.

  3. Inductions and restrictions for stable equivalences of Morita type

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongxing; Xi, Changchang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present two methods, induction and restriction procedures, to construct new stable equivalences of Morita type. Suppose that a stable equivalence of Morita type between two algebras $A$ and $B$ is defined by a $B$-$A$-bimodule $N$. Then, for any finite admissible set $\\Phi$ and any generator $X$ of the $A$-module category, the $\\Phi$-Auslander-Yoneda algebras of $X$ and $N\\otimes_AX$ are stably equivalent of Morita type. Moreover, under certain conditions, we transfer stable equivalences of Morita type between $A$ and $B$ to ones between $eAe$ and $fBf$, where $e$ and $f$ are idempotent elements in $A$ and $B$, respectively. Consequently, for self-injective algebras $A$ and $B$ over a field without semisimple direct summands, and for any $A$-module $X$ and $B$-module $Y$, if the $\\Phi$-Auslander-Yoneda algebras of $A\\oplus X$ and $B\\oplus Y$ are stably equivalent of Morita type for one finite admissible set $\\Phi$, then so are the $\\Psi$-Auslander-Yoneda algebras of $A\\oplus X$ and $B\\oplus ...

  4. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF PROJECTS OF THE AFFORDABLE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRAVCHUNOVSKA T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.

  5. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  6. A Model for Semantic Equivalence Discovery for Harmonizing Master Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piprani, Baba

    IT projects often face the challenge of harmonizing metadata and data so as to have a "single" version of the truth. Determining equivalency of multiple data instances against the given type, or set of types, is mandatory in establishing master data legitimacy in a data set that contains multiple incarnations of instances belonging to the same semantic data record . The results of a real-life application define how measuring criteria and equivalence path determination were established via a set of "probes" in conjunction with a score-card approach. There is a need for a suite of supporting models to help determine master data equivalency towards entity resolution—including mapping models, transform models, selection models, match models, an audit and control model, a scorecard model, a rating model. An ORM schema defines the set of supporting models along with their incarnation into an attribute based model as implemented in an RDBMS.

  7. Equivalent medium theory of layered sphere particle with anisotropic shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingcai; Wang, Minzhong; Zhang, Beidou

    2016-08-01

    Researches on the optical properties of small particle have been widely concerned in the atmospheric science, astronomy, astrophysics, biology and medical science. This paper provides an equivalent dielectric theory for the functional graded particle with anisotropic shells, in which inhomogeneous and anisotropic particle was equivalently transformed into a new kind of homogeneous, continuous and isotropic sphere with same size but different permittivity, and then greatly simplify the calculation process of particle's optical property. Meanwhile, the paper also discusses whether the charge on the particle can change the expression of its equivalent permittivity or not. These results proposed in this paper can be used to simulate the electrical, optical properties of layered sphere, it also meet the research requirement in the design of functional graded particles in different subjects.

  8. A REVISED SOLUTION OF EQUIVALENT PERMEABILITY TENSOR FOR DISCONTINUOUS FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ji; CHEN Sheng-hong; SHAHROUR Isam

    2012-01-01

    The equivalent permeability tensor is essential to the application of the equivalent porous media model in the numerical seepage simulation for fractured rock masses.In this paper,a revised solution of the equivalent permeability tensor is proposed to represent the influence of the fracture connectivity in discontinuous fractures.A correction coefficient is involved to reflect the complex seepage flow type through the rock bridge.This correction coefficient is back analyzed from single-hole packer tests,based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) back analysis and the Finite Element Method (FEM) seepage simulation.The limitation of this back analysis algorithm is that the number of single-hole packer tests should be equal or greater than the number of fracture sets,and three is the maximum number of the fracture sets.The proposed solution and the back analysis algorithm are applied in the permeability measurement and the seepage simulation for the Xiaowan arch dam foundation.

  9. Minimal coupling and the equivalence principle in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laemmerzahl, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, Paris (France)]|[Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    The role of the Equivalence Principle (EP) in classical and quantum mechanics is reviewed. It is shown that the weak EP has a counterpart in quantum theory, a Quantum Equivalence Principle (QEP). This implies that also in the quantum domain the geometrization of the gravitational interaction is an operational procedure similar to the procedure in classical physics. This QEP can be used for showing that it is only the usual Schroedinger equation coupled to gravito-inertial fields which obeys our equivalence principle. In addition, the QEP applied to a generalized Pauli equation including spin results in a characterization of the gravitational fields which can be identified with the Newtonian potential and with torsion. Also, in the classical limit it is possible to state beside the usual EP for the path an EP for the spin which again may be used for introducing torsion as a gravitational field. (author) 20 refs, 2 figs

  10. Extended Equivalence Principle: Implications for Gravity, Geometry and Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaram, C

    2012-01-01

    The equivalence principle was formulated by Einstein in an attempt to extend the concept of inertial frames to accelerated frames, thereby bringing in gravity. In recent decades, it has been realised that gravity is linked not only with geometry of space-time but also with thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole horizons, vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, etc. In this work we look at how the equivalence principle manifests itself in these different situations where we have strong gravitational fields. In recent years the generalised uncertainty principle has been invoked to connect gravity and curvature with quantum physics and now we may also need an extended equivalence principle to connect quantum theory with gravity.

  11. A semi-quantitative equivalence for abstracting from fast reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Galpin, Vashti; Ciocchetta, Federica; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.5

    2011-01-01

    Semantic equivalences are used in process algebra to capture the notion of similar behaviour, and this paper proposes a semi-quantitative equivalence for a stochastic process algebra developed for biological modelling. We consider abstracting away from fast reactions as suggested by the Quasi-Steady-State Assumption. We define a fast-slow bisimilarity based on this idea. We also show congruence under an appropriate condition for the cooperation operator of Bio-PEPA. The condition requires that there is no synchronisation over fast actions, and this distinguishes fast-slow bisimilarity from weak bisimilarity. We also show congruence for an operator which extends the reactions available for a species. We characterise models for which it is only necessary to consider the matching of slow transitions and we illustrate the equivalence on two models of competitive inhibition.

  12. Equivalence Principles, Spacetime Structure and the Cosmic Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing the meaning of various equivalence principles and the structure of electrodynamics, we give a fairly detailed account of the construction of the light cone and a core metric from the equivalence principle for the photon (no birefringence, no polarization rotation and no amplification/attenuation in propagation) in the framework of linear electrodynamics using cosmic connections/observations as empirical support. The cosmic nonbirefringent propagation of photons independent of energy and polarization verifies the Galileo Equivalence Principle [Universality of Propagation] for photons/electromagnetic wave packets in spacetime. This nonbirefringence constrains the spacetime constitutive tensor to high precision to a core metric form with an axion degree and a dilaton degree of freedom. Thus comes the metric with axion and dilation. Constraints on axion and dilaton from astrophysical/cosmic propagation are reviewed. E\\"otv\\"os-type experiments, Hughes-Drever-type experiments, redshift experiments ...

  13. Wave propagation in equivalent continuums representing truss lattice materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Mark C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barham, Matthew I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, Mukul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barton, Nathan R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Stiffness scales linearly with density in stretch-dominated lattice meta-materials offering the possibility of very light yet very stiff structures. Current additive manufacturing techniques can assemble structures consisting of these lattice materials, but the design of such structures will require accurate, efficient simulation techniques. Equivalent continuum models have several advantages over discrete truss models of stretch dominated lattices, including computational efficiency and ease of model construction. However, the development an equivalent model suitable for representing the dynamic response of a periodic truss is complicated by microinertial effects. This paper derives a dynamic equivalent continuum model for periodic truss structures and verifies it against detailed finite element simulations. The model must incorporate microinertial effects to accurately reproduce long-wavelength characteristics of the response such as anisotropic elastic soundspeeds. The formulation presented here also improves upon previous work by preserving equilibrium at truss joints for affine lattice deformation and by improving numerical stability by eliminating vertices in the effective yield surface.

  14. Testing for Equivalence: A Methodology for Computational Cognitive Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Terrence; West, Robert

    2010-12-01

    The equivalence test (Stewart and West, 2007; Stewart, 2007) is a statistical measure for evaluating the similarity between a model and the system being modelled. It is designed to avoid over-fitting and to generate an easily interpretable summary of the quality of a model. We apply the equivalence test to two tasks: Repeated Binary Choice (Erev et al., 2010) and Dynamic Stocks and Flows (Gonzalez and Dutt, 2007). In the first case, we find a broad range of statistically equivalent models (and win a prediction competition) while identifying particular aspects of the task that are not yet adequately captured. In the second case, we re-evaluate results from the Dynamic Stocks and Flows challenge, demonstrating how our method emphasizes the breadth of coverage of a model and how it can be used for comparing different models. We argue that the explanatory power of models hinges on numerical similarity to empirical data over a broad set of measures.

  15. Minimal coupling and the equivalence principle in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the Equivalence Principle (EP) in classical and quantum mechanics is reviewed. It is shown that the weak EP has a counterpart in quantum theory, a Quantum Equivalence Principle (QEP). This implies that also in the quantum domain the geometrization of the gravitational interaction is an operational procedure similar to the procedure in classical physics. This QEP can be used for showing that it is only the usual Schroedinger equation coupled to gravito-inertial fields which obeys our equivalence principle. In addition, the QEP applied to a generalized Pauli equation including spin results in a characterization of the gravitational fields which can be identified with the Newtonian potential and with torsion. Also, in the classical limit it is possible to state beside the usual EP for the path an EP for the spin which again may be used for introducing torsion as a gravitational field. (author)

  16. Mesoscale symmetries explain dynamical equivalence of food webs

    CERN Document Server

    Aufderheide, Helge; Gross, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    A present challenge in complex systems is to identify mesoscale structures that have distinct dynamical implications. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of a previously observed dynamical equivalence of certian ecological food webs. We show that this equivalence is rooted in mesoscale symmetries that exist in these webs. Certain eigenvectors of the Jacobian describing dynamical modes of the system, such as specific instabilities or responses to perturbations, localize on these symmetric motifs. On the one hand this means that by removing a symmetry from the network one obtains a system which has identical dynamics except for the removal of the localized mode. This explains the previously observed equivalence. On the other hand it means that we can identify dynamical modes that only depend on the symmetric motif. Symmetric structures thus provide an example for mesoscale network motifs having distinct and exact implications for the dynamics.

  17. Offsetting Ongoing Methane Emissions --- An Alternative to Emission Equivalence Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisby, N.; Enting, I. G.; Lauder, A.; Carter, J.; Cowie, A.; Henry, B.; Raupach, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) has been widely adopted as a metric for comparing the climate impact of different greenhouse gases. As has been frequently noted, there are many problems with using GWPs to define emission equivalence in spite of the use of GWPs for this purpose in contexts such as the Kyoto Protocol. We propose that for methane, rather than define emission equivalence, the appropriate comparison is between ongoing emissions of 0.9 to 1.0 kg of CH4 per year and one-off emissions of 1 tonne of carbon. This approach represents an approximate solution to the inverse problem of defining a forcing equivalent index (FEI) that gives exact equivalence of radiative forcing over a range of timescales. In our approach, if ongoing methane emissions are offset by a one-off carbon removal that is built up with 40-year e-folding time, then the result is close to radiatively neutral over periods from years to centuries. In contrast, the GWP provides radiative equivalence (in integrated terms) only at a single time, with large discrepancies at other times. Our approach also follows from consideration of greenhouse gas stabilisation, since stabilising atmospheric CO2 requires an approximate cap on total emissions, while stabilising methane requires stabilisation of ongoing emissions. Our quantitative treatment recognises that, on time scales of centuries, removal of 1 tonne of carbon only lowers the atmospheric carbon content by 0.3 to 0.35 tonnes. We discuss the implications for rangeland grazing systems. In the absence of effective mitigation techniques for methane from rangeland systems, this approach may provide an attractive offset mechanism in spite of requiring that woody vegetation be established and maintained over about 15% of the landscape, or an equivalent amount of carbon storage in soil.

  18. TNT Equivalency of Unconfined Aerosols of Propylene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Apparao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The unconfined aerosols of propylene oxide (PO are formed by dispersing the fuel in air. These aerosols undergo detonation by suitable initiation and produce high impulse blast. Tri-nitro Toluene (TNT equivalence is an important parameter used to represent the power of explosive materials and compare their relative damage effects wrt TNT. The parameters commonly used for estimation of TNT equivalency are total energy of explosive source and properties of resulting blast wave, viz., blast peak overpressure and positive impulse. In the present study, the unconfined aerosols of 4.2 kg PO were formed by breaking open the cylindrical canister with the help of axially positioned central burster charge and then detonated using a secondary explosive charge after a preset time delay. The resulting blast profiles were recorded and the blast parameters were analysed. Being a non-ideal explosive source, the TNT equivalency depends on fraction of total energy utilised for blast formation, the rate of energy release, cloud dimensions, and concentration of fuel. Hence, various approaches based on energy release, experimental blast profiles, triangulated blast parameters, and ground reflected blast parameters were considered to determine the TNT equivalency of unconfined PO aerosols. It was observed that the TNT equivalency is not a single value but vary with distance. The paper provides various options for weapon designer to choose a suitable approach for considering TNT equivalency. The scaling laws established from the experimental data of unconfined aerosols of PO for blast peak over pressure and scaled impulse help in predicting the performance for different values of fuel weight and distance.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.431-437, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6851

  19. Equivalent wavelength self-mixing interferometry for displacement measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Li, Chengwei; Li, Songquan; Li, Dongyu

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve fringe precision of a self-mixing signal, a simple and effective method based on an equivalent wavelength self-mixing interferometer is presented. And a linearization fringe counting method is proposed for equivalent wavelength self-mixing interferometry to quickly reconstruct target displacement. The validity of the proposed method was demonstrated by means of simulated signals and confirmed by several experimental measurements for both harmonic and aleatory target displacement with a fringe resolution of ∼125  nm. PMID:27607290

  20. Chaotic memristive circuit: equivalent circuit realization and dynamical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Xu Jian-Ping; Zhou Guo-Hua; Ma Zheng-Hua; Zou Ling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a practical equivalent circuit of an active flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth piecewise-quadratic nonlinearity is designed and an experimental chaotic memristive circuit is implemented.The chaotic memristive circuit has an equilibrium set and its stability is dependent on the initial state of the memristor.The initial state-dependent and the circuit parameter-dependent dynamics of the chaotic memristive circuit are investigated via phase portraits,bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents.Both experimental and simulation results validate the proposed equivalent circuit realization of the active flux-controlled memristor.

  1. Equivalent Equations of Motion for Gravity and Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an equivalence between the wave equation obeyed by the entanglement entropy of CFT subregions and the linearized bulk Einstein equation in Anti-de Sitter pace. In doing so, we make use of the formalism of kinematic space [arXiv:1505.05515] and fields on this space, introduced in [arXiv:1604.03110]. We show that the gravitational dynamics are equivalent to a gauge invariant wave-equation on kinematic space and that this equation arises in natural correspondence to the conformal Casimir equation in the CFT.

  2. Probing students' ideas of the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The tool of assessment is a diagnostic questionnaire administered to a group of 30 senior undergraduates going through the course. The analysis of responses reveals a number of significant conceptual vulnerabilities in several aspects of the topic. The most important among these is related to the notion of an inertial frame that follows naturally from the principle of equivalence.

  3. Density isomer of nuclear matter in an equivalent mass approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter is studied with an equivalent mass model. The equivalent mass of a nucleon has been expanded to order 4 in density. We first determine the first-order expansion coefficient in the quantum hadron dynamics, then calculate the coefficients of the second to fourth order for the given binding energy and incompressibility at the normal nuclear saturation density., It is found that there appears a density. isomeric state if the incompressibility is smaller than a critical value. The model dependence of the conclusion has also been checked by varying the first-order coefficient. (authors)

  4. Strip Waveguide Directional Coupling Modulator with Equivalent Refractive Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-tao; HE Dui-yan

    2004-01-01

    The equivalent refractive index(ERI) method is employed to analyze the function of the strip waveguide directional coupling modulator(SWM). Through deducing the diagnostic equation of the Exmn mode of the four-layer media film waveguide equivalent to the SWM,the transmission constant of the symmetrical mode of the positive phase and negative one and the coupling length of powerful transference are obtained. The veracity of ERI is validated with the example of Ex11 basal mode under the condition of comparing the three results of ERI,EIM and Marcatili.

  5. Equivalent sample theory of networked control systems and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent sample theory and its application in analysis of networked control system (NCS) are presented. After analyzing NCS's scheduling in master-slave mode, the characteristics of time delay and sample are summarized. Looking on master station visiting the slave station as a special sample process, the theory of equivalent sample is presented. And based on it, the stability of a kind of NCS is analyzed. The criterion to determine the upper bound of transmission delay is introduced, which guarantees the stability. Finally, an example with simulation shows the availability and usability of this analysis method.

  6. Fuzzy logic systems are equivalent to feedforward neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪兴

    2000-01-01

    Fuzzy logic systems and feedforward neural networks are equivalent in essence. First, interpolation representations of fuzzy logic systems are introduced and several important conclusions are given. Then three important kinds of neural networks are defined, i.e. linear neural networks, rectangle wave neural networks and nonlinear neural networks. Then it is proved that nonlinear neural networks can be represented by rectangle wave neural networks. Based on the results mentioned above, the equivalence between fuzzy logic systems and feedforward neural networks is proved, which will be very useful for theoretical research or applications on fuzzy logic systems or neural networks by means of combining fuzzy logic systems with neural networks.

  7. Equivalent Higher-order Guiding-center Hamiltonian Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Brizard, A J

    2016-01-01

    Equivalent guiding-center Hamiltonian theories are constructed based on higher-order Lie-transform perturbation methods. Higher-order guiding-center theories are distinguished on the basis of whether correction terms associated with magnetic-field nonuniformity appear either in the guiding-center symplectic (Poisson-bracket) structure, in the guiding-center Hamiltonian, or both. These theories are called equivalent because they describe the same guiding-center magnetic-moment invariant. The present work presents the detailed derivations of results that were summarized in a recent paper by Tronko and Brizard [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112507 (2015)].

  8. The Extended Equivalence Principle and the Kramers-Kronig Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, R Y

    2002-01-01

    A seemingly obvious extension of the weak equivalence principle, in which all matter must respond to Post-Newtonian gravitational fields, such as Lense-Thirring and radiation fields, in a composition-independent way, is considered in light of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for the linear response of any material medium to these fields. It is argued that known observational facts lead to violations of this extended form of the equivalence principle. (PACS numbers: 04.80.Cc, 04.80.Nn, 03.65.Ud, 67.40.Bz)

  9. Equivalent Bar Conceptions for Computer Analysis of Pantographic Foldable Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈务军; 付功义; 何艳丽; 董石麟

    2003-01-01

    An equivalent bar conception is firstly developed for the computer analysis of pantographic foldablestructures. The uniplet of two three-node beam elements is assumed as a six-bar assembly with respect to leastnorm least square solution for the elastic strain energy equality. The equilibrium equation is developed for the e-quivalent models, and the internal forces formulated sequently for backup calculation. This procedure is provedpractical for some engineering, and some interesting concepts proposed. Finally, three numerical tests are present-ed.

  10. Equivalent circuit for postcoupler stabilization in a drift tube linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grespan, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Postcouplers (PCs) are devices used in order to reduce the effect of perturbations on the operating mode of a drift tube linac (DTL), using the resonant coupling stabilization method. In this article an equivalent circuit for a DTL equipped with PCs is presented, together with a 3D simulation analysis, which can explain the principle of postcoupler stabilization and define a new tuning strategy for DTL cavities. The PC tuning procedure based on the equivalent circuit and on frequency measurements has been tested and validated with measurements on the Linac4 DTL aluminum model, present at CERN.

  11. Determination of equivalent diffusion theory parameters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ideal equivalent group diffusion theory constants are defined in a rigorous manner and the failure of standard flux-weighting procedures to yield these ideal constants is discussed. An iterative scheme based upon the Response Matrix Technique is then developed for finding improved two-group, two-dimensional equivalent group diffusion constants for symmetric assemblies. The use of these constants in a full-core criticality calculation results in a much more accurate prediction of integrated absorption rates and power densities than those predicted using the standard flux-weighted constants

  12. Assessing equivalence of two assays using sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Burdick, Richard K

    2007-01-01

    The equivalence of two assays is determined using the sensitivity and specificity relative to a gold standard. The equivalence-testing criterion is based on a misclassification rate proposed by Burdick et al. (2005) and the intersection-union test (IUT) method proposed by Berger (1982). Using a variance components model and IUT methods, we construct bounds for the sensitivity and specificity relative to the gold standard assay based on generalized confidence intervals. We conduct a simulation study to assess whether the bounds maintain the stated test size. We present a computational example to demonstrate the method described in the paper.

  13. Idiomaticity of English Business Terms and Their Equivalents in Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skorupa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the survey of idiomatic English business terms and their Lithuanian equivalents. The study was based on the theory of idioms and idiomaticity, highlighting the idea that idiomaticity can affect single words, word combinations, and longer text passages. Idiomatic business terms were taken from different English and Lithuanian general and special dictionaries, course books, as well as business texts. The analyzed terms were classified into distinct groups according to their meaning. The key problem encountered was the lack of Lithuanian translation equivalents to certain idiomatic English business terms. Possible Lithuanian translation was provided.

  14. Security Mechanisms of Wired Equivalent Privacy and Wi-Fi Protected Access in WLAN: Review and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-shi; KANG Ge-wen; WANG Xin-heng

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of WLAN security mechanisms of wired equivalent privacy (WEP) and Wi-Fi protected access (WPA) discovers that the current literature is not totally creditable in its judgment on the security value of WEP and WPA.Based on the respective performances of WEP and WPA under certain typical attacks,this paper substantiates the judgment that WEP has quite a few vulnerabilities concerning confidentiality and integrity,but at the same time challenges the judgment on WPA with that WPA is robust enough to confront potential typical attacks and is not so unreliable as the current literature believes,although it has some vulnerabilities in its message integrity code (MIC).

  15. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-07-08

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.

  16. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, James N.; Jones, Wesley M.; Keller, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequenices. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may reduced to tis unquenched value.

  17. Substantial Result Achieved for China-Russia-ROK Gas Cooperation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jiqiang

    2003-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Rusia Petroleum of Russia and KOGAS, a natural gas company in Rpbulic of Korea, jointly announced in Moscow on November 14 that the feasibility study report of "Project for Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline to People's Republic of China and Republic of Korea from Kovykta Condensate Field in Russia's Irkutsk and Development of Kovykta Condensate Field" has been approved at the six meeting of the Coordination Committee thanks to the common efforts by the governments in the three countries. This marks a substantial result achieved in natural gas cooperation among China, Russia and ROK.

  18. To what extent can isotopes help substantiate natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badin, A.; Broholm, Mette Martina; Hunkeler, D.

    degree to which isotopes could help substantiate natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes at the field scale. Our work hence aims at exploring the latter based on data acquired in 2006 in a site located in Denmark which is contaminated with PCE and its end-products TCE, cDCE, and VC. Previous work on...... this site has enabled to demonstrate that PCE and TCE were undergoing reductive dechlorination while cDCE would be at least partially degraded through reductive dechlorination1. However, the magnitude of the contaminants attenuation by biodegradation was not evaluated. Based on simple modeling...

  19. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L.H. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  20. On Equivalence of Two Realizations for a Nonlinear Lie Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳星; 寻大毛; 荣小平; 单磊; 刘全慧

    2012-01-01

    Recently,there are two independent approaches related to a class of nonlinear Lie algebras of three generators;and the realizations of these generators are achieved respectively in Schwinger-boson and position representation.However,by use of the representation transformation between these two representations,the equivalence of the two realizations is therefore proved.

  1. Equivalent Skin Analysis of Wing Structures Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youhua; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of modeling trapezoidal built-up wing structures is developed by coupling. in an indirect way, an Equivalent Plate Analysis (EPA) with Neural Networks (NN). Being assumed to behave like a Mindlin-plate, the wing is solved using the Ritz method with Legendre polynomials employed as the trial functions. This analysis method can be made more efficient by avoiding most of the computational effort spent on calculating contributions to the stiffness and mass matrices from each spar and rib. This is accomplished by replacing the wing inner-structure with an "equivalent" material that combines to the skin and whose properties are simulated by neural networks. The constitutive matrix, which relates the stress vector to the strain vector, and the density of the equivalent material are obtained by enforcing mass and stiffness matrix equities with rec,ard to the EPA in a least-square sense. Neural networks for the material properties are trained in terms of the design variables of the wing structure. Examples show that the present method, which can be called an Equivalent Skin Analysis (ESA) of the wing structure, is more efficient than the EPA and still fairly good results can be obtained. The present ESA is very promising to be used at the early stages of wing structure design.

  2. Cell-Like Equivalences and Boundaries of CAT(0) Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Guilbault, Craig

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, Croke and Kleiner showed that a CAT(0) group G can admit more than one boundary. This contrasted with the situation for word hyperbolic groups, where it was well-known that each such group admitted a unique boundary---in a very stong sense. Prior to Croke and Kleiner's discovery, it had been observed by Geoghegan and Bestvina that a weaker sort of uniquness does hold for boundaries of torsion free CAT(0) groups; in particular, any two such boundaries always have the same shape. Hence, the boundary really does carry significant information about the group itself. In an attempt to strengthen the correspondence between group and boundary, Bestvina asked whether boundaries of CAT(0) groups are unique up to cell-like equivalence. For the types of space that arise as boundaries of CAT(0) groups, this is a notion that is weaker than topological equivalence and stronger than shape equivalence. In this paper we explore the Bestvina Cell-like Equivalence Question. We describe a straightforward strategy with th...

  3. Equivalent circuit models for ac impedance data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    A least-squares fitting routine has been developed for the analysis of ac impedance data. It has been determined that the checking of the derived equations for a particular circuit with a commercially available electronics circuit program is essential. As a result of the investigation described, three equivalent circuit models were selected for use in the analysis of ac impedance data.

  4. Actions for adoption of effective dose equivalent standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations related with radiological protection have been revised to adopt SI units and to accept the ICRP recommendation requesting to use the effective dose equivalent for radiation exposure control. The present report mainly deals with actions to be taken in the field of radiation instrumentation to promote the adoption of effective dose equivalent standards. In the past, exposure in roentgen has been generally used as a quantity to represent the intensity of a X-ray or alpha-ray field, because it can be measured relatively easily and accurately. The introduction of the effective dose equivalent is intended to establish annual exposure limits to ensure that the possibility of death of workers in a radioactive environment and that of development of hereditary disorders in their children or grandchildren will be maintained below permissible levels. The quantity is expressed as the sum of each organ's dose equivalent multiplied by a weight that reflects risks. Presently, such weights are assigned to seven organs including the gential glands and red marrow. Fixed-type area monitors and portable survey meters are used for work environment monitoring while film badges, TLDs, dosimeters, etc., are employed for personnel monitoring. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Test of an Equivalence Theorem at One-Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, M S

    1992-01-01

    We show that the equivalence theorem approximating one-loop gauge sector diagrams by including only Goldstone bosons in the loop gives a remarkably poor approximation to the amplitude for the decay $H\\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma $ and for the process $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow HH$. At one loop, large logarithms can arise that evade power counting arguments.

  6. Principles of Fidelity in Dynamic Equivalence Translation for Trainee Translators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹

    2011-01-01

    For trainee translators,the question of to what extent equivalence can be achieved between the source text and the target text is always one of the most challenging parts to deal with.The paper tries to provide core principles of fidelity in dynamic equiv

  7. A Few Equivalences of Wall-Sun-Sun Prime Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Arpan; Karthik, C S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a few lemmas concerning Fibonacci numbers modulo primes and provide a few statements that are equivalent to Wall-Sun-Sun Prime Conjecture. Further, we investigate the conjecture through heuristic arguments and propose a few additional conjectures for future research.

  8. Quantum and classical advantage distillation are not equivalent

    CERN Document Server

    Kaszlikowski, D; Kwek, L C; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Yang, Lim Jenn; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2003-01-01

    We report that, for the generation of a secure cryptographic key from correlations established through a noisy quantum channel, the quantum and classical advantage distillation procedures are not equivalent, when coherent eavesdropping attacks are duly taken into account. The quantum procedure can tolerate markedly more noise in the channel than the classical procedure.

  9. One-to-One Play Promotes Numerical Equivalence Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Kelly S.; Moore, Julie A.; Holcomb, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Young children spontaneously engage in a variety of one-to-one correspondence activities during play. The present study tested whether one of these activities--pairing objects with containers--supported the development of numerical equivalence judgments. Three-year-olds were given sets of toys to take home. In one condition, the toys were…

  10. Equivalence of nonlinear systems to triangular form: the singular case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celikovsky, Sergej; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1996-01-01

    The problem of state equivalence of a given nonlinear system to a triangular form is considered here. The solution of this problem has been known for the regular case, i.e. when there exists a certain nested sequence of regular and involutive distributions. It is also known that in this case the cor

  11. State-Dependent Implication and Equivalence in Quantum Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Herbut

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideal occurrence of an event (projector leads to the known change of a state (density operator into (the Lüders state. It is shown that two events and give the same Lüders state if and only if the equivalence relation is valid. This relation determines equivalence classes. The set of them and each class, are studied in detail. It is proved that the range projector of the Lüders state can be evaluated as , where denotes the greatest lower bound, and is the null projector of . State-dependent implication extends absolute implication (which, in turn, determines the entire structure of quantum logic. and are investigated in a closely related way to mutual benefit. Inherent in the preorder is the state-dependent equivalence , defining equivalence classes in a given Boolean subalgebra. The quotient set, in which the classes are the elements, has itself a partially ordered structure, and so has each class. In a complete Boolean subalgebra, both structures are complete lattices. Physical meanings are discussed.

  12. Observational Equivalence of Discrete String Models and Market Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Pelsser, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we show that, contrary to the claim made in Longsta, Santa-Clara, and Schwartz (2001a) and Longsta, Santa-Clara, and Schwartz (2001b), discrete string models are not more parsimonious than market models.In fact, they are found to be observationally equivalent.We derive that, for the es

  13. Real-time external equivalent modeling and linearized sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a real-time, steady-state equivalent model of a large, external interconnected electrical power system that can be utilized by transmission system control centers with limited computer resources. The external equivalent model developed is a part of a network-analysis program which is based on the Newton-Raphson power flow solution technique. Other researchers have found the selection of the circuit elements retained in the external equivalent model affects the accuracy and reliability of the results as much as the selection of the solution technique. However, there are no established procedures available to select the circuit elements. A new method for analyzing the sensitivity of the internal system's control variables is developed. This new method greatly reduces the effort required to select the retained external system components and it significantly improves the reliability of the results. The new external equivalent model proved to be a very accurate and reliable tool for simulating the response of the external system to internal system line outage contingencies. Validation showed that the model retained its accuracy and reliability even during external system transmission line outages

  14. Exact equivalent straight waveguide model for bent and twisted waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shyroki, Dzmitry

    2008-01-01

    Exact equivalent straight waveguide representation is given for a waveguide of arbitrary curvature and torsion. No assumptions regarding refractive index contrast, isotropy of materials, or particular morphology in the waveguide cross section are made. This enables rigorous full-vector modeling o...

  15. A computational theory for the learning of equivalence relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Lew

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Equivalence relations are logical entities that emerge concurrently with the development of language capabilities.In this work we propose a computational model that learns to build equivalence relations by learning simple conditional rules. The model includes visual areas, dopaminergic and noradrenergic structures as well as prefrontal and motor areas, each of them modeled as a group of continuous valued units that simulate clusters of real neurons. In the model, lateral interaction between neurons of visual structures and top-down modulation of prefrontal/premotor structures over the activity of neurons in visual structures are necessary conditions for learning the paradigm. In terms of the number of neurons and their interaction, we show that a minimal structural complexity is required for learning equivalence relations among conditioned stimuli. Paradoxically, the emergence of the equivalence relation drives a reduction in the number of neurons needed to maintain those previously specific stimulus-response learned rules, allowing an efficient use of neuronal resources.

  16. EQUIVALENT THEOREMS ON SIMULTANEOUS APPROXIMATION BY COMBINATIONS OF GAMMA OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangcheng Mao; Xueyan Xiang; Wenshan Yang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,some equivalent theorems on simultaneous approximation for combinations of Gamma operators by weighted moduli of smoothness ωr(4)λ(f,t)w(4)s(O≤λ≤1)are given.The relation between derivatives of combinations of Gamma operators and smoothness of derivatives of functions is also investigated.

  17. Derived equivalences between matrix subrings and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct derived equivalences between matrix subrings. As applications, we calculate the global dimensions and the finitistic dimensions of some matrix subrings. And we show that the finitistic dimension conjecture holds for a class of Harada algebras and a class of tiled triangular algebras.

  18. Steganographic Capacity of Images, based on Image Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Hammer, Christian; Andersen, Jens Damgaard;

    2001-01-01

    The problem of hiding information imperceptibly can be formulated as the problem of determining if a given image is a member of a sufficiently large equivalence class of images which to the Human Visual System appears to be the same image. This makes it possible to replace the given image with a ...

  19. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about...

  20. Equivalent Circuit of a High Q Tunable PIFA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) for a high Quality factor (Q) tunable Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA). A PIFA is described and simulated with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. The resonance behavior of the proposed ECM is compared to the FDTD results and shows...

  1. 40 CFR 125.60 - Primary or equivalent treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will be based on the definition of excessive I&I in 40 CFR 35.2005(b)(16) plus the additional criterion... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary or equivalent treatment... Modifying the Secondary Treatment Requirements Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.60...

  2. ON MEROMORPHIC EQUIVALENCE OF LINEAR DIFFERENCE-OPERATORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IMMINK, GK

    1990-01-01

    We consider linear difference equations whose coefficients are meromorphic at infinity. We characterize the meromorphic equivalence classes of such equations by means of a system of meromorphic invariants. Using an approach inspired by the work of G.D. Birkhoff we show that the system is free.

  3. Determination of equivalent circuit for PVDF shock-pressure gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotulski, J.D.; Anderson, M.U.; Brock, B.C.; Gomez, J.; Graham, R.A.; Vittitoe, C.N.

    1993-07-01

    Broadband impedance measurements of a PVDF shock-pressure gauge are used to build an equivalent circuit for the gauge. The essential components are a gauge capacitance and a low-loss transmission line. Component features are consistent with the physical characteristics. With knowledge of this circuit, troublesome oscillations can be anticipated and prevented.

  4. On Structuralism and Equivalence-oriented Approaches in Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xuemin; Yin; Xiaorong

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is intended to examine the concept of equivalence in translation studies by presenting typical advocates and their influential statement,meanwhile,how structuralism influences in the studies is also investigated.The advantages and disadvantages are figured out,and further tendencies are stated.

  5. A Concrete Representation of Observational Equivalence for PCF

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, Martin; McCusker, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The full abstraction result for PCF using game semantics requires one to identify all innocent strategies that are innocently indistinguishable. This involves a quantification over all innocent tests, cf. quantification over all innocent contexts. Here we present a representation of innocent strategies that equates innocently indistinguishable ones, yielding a representation of PCF terms that equates precisely those terms that are observational equivalent.

  6. The Analysis of Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 任培红

    2014-01-01

    Eugene A. Nida is an influential translation theoretician with great research achievements. The functional equivalence theory which is the core of his translation theories lays a solid foundation for the modern translation. However, there also exist some limitations in it. It should be dialectically analyzed to find its contributions and limitations.

  7. Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent for Electromagnetic and Electromechanical Hybrid Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; WU Wenchuan; ZHANG Boming; Aniruddha M. Gole

    2012-01-01

    The frequency dependent network equivalent (FDNE) can represent not only the fundamental frequency response but also the high frequency response of the network. Thus, it can accommodate the waveform distortion at the interface located in electromagnetic and electromechanical transient hybrid simulation.

  8. Probing Students' Ideas of the Principle of Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The…

  9. The Equivalence Forms of Random Kolmogorov Forward (Backward) Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Di-he; HU Xiao-yu

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of Markov process in random environment, q-matrix in random environment and q-process in random environment are introduced. Three forms of random Kolmoogrov farward (or backward) equations are introduced and the equivalence of these three forms are also proved. Moreover any conservative q-process in random environment satisfies random Kolmogrov backward equation.

  10. Problems of Equivalence in Shona-English Bilingual Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomalanga Mpofu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In compiling bilingual dictionaries, lexicographers are mostly concerned with semantic equivalence. As a result, the practice of bilingual dictionary compilers is usually that of giving one-word equivalents. However, this equivalence is at times difficult to arrive at because of the disparities and incommensurability between languages and cultures. According to Sapir (1921 and Whorf (1956, one cannot expect an exact match between two languages that express different cultural realities. Given this scenario, compilers of bilingual dictionaries end up bridging the gap between languages by giving translational equivalents rather than relying solely on one-word equivalents. The Shona-English bilingual dictionaries, namely Hannan (1974 and Dale (1981, like other bilingual dictionaries, also display this characteristic. This article will discuss the problems of translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable corpora.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, CORPUS, CULTURE, CULTURE-BOUND, CULTURAL GAP, DICTIONARY, EQUIVALENCE, INCOMMENSURABILITY, LEXEME, LEXICOGRAPHY, SHONA, SOURCE LANGUAGE, TARGET LANGUAGE, TRANSLATION, UNTRANSLATABILITY

    Opsomming: Ekwivalensieprobleme in Shona-Engelse tweetalige woordeboeke.By die opstel van tweetalige woordeboeke, is leksikograwe meesal bedag op semantieseekwivalensie. Gevolglik is die gebruik by opstellers van tweetalige woordeboeke gewoonlik omenkelwoordekwivalente te gee. Soms is hierdie ekwivalensie egter moeilik om te bereik vanweë dieongelykheid en nieooreenstemming tussen tale en kulture. Volgens Sapir (1921 en Whorf (1956kan 'n mens nie 'n presiese ooreenstemming verwag tussen twee tale wat verskillende kulturelewerklikhede uitdruk nie. Gegee hierdie scenario, oorbrug die opstellers van tweetalige woordeboekedie gaping tussen tale uiteindelik

  11. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone. PMID:26684963

  12. Concepto de equivalencia sustancial aplicado alimentos derivados de cultivos genéticamente mejorados The concept of substantial equivalence as applied to foodstuffs derived from genetically-modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Villalobos Hernández; Ana Mercedes Espinoza Esquivel

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente artículo es describir la aplicación del concepto de equivalencia sustancial, el cual es utilizado y aceptado internacionalmente para realizar la evaluación de la inocuidad de un alimento nuevo derivado de cultivos genéticamente mejorados. La metodología utilizada fue revisión de literatura actualizada, considerando, información tanto de revistas nacionales como internacionales y documentos de la Organización Mundial para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO), Organiz...

  13. Uric acid substantially enhances the free radical-induced inactivation of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittridge, K J; Willson, R L

    1984-05-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase ( YADH ) are inactivated when attacked by hydroxy free radicals (OH). Organic molecules with a high rate constant of reaction with OH such as ascorbate or urate can compete with the enzymes for these strongly oxidising radicals. However, although 10(-3)M ascorbate can substantially protect both LDH and YADH from OH attack, in the presence of 10(-3)M urate only LDH is protected. In the case of YADH an even greater degree of inactivation than with OH occurs. The extent of inactivation is considerably reduced when oxygen is absent, in agreement with a urate peroxy radical perhaps being partly responsible for the increased inactivation of the enzyme.

  14. Substantial optical dielectric enhancement by volume compression in LiAsSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fan; Brehm, John A.; Young, Steve M.; Kim, Youngkuk; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-05-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we predict a substantial increase in the optical dielectric function of LiAsSe2 under pressure. We find that the optical dielectric constant is enhanced threefold under compression along all three axes by 3%. This enhancement is mainly due to the dimerization strength reduction of the one-dimensional (1D) As-Se chains in LiAsSe2, which significantly alters the wave function phase mismatch between two neighboring chains and changes the transition intensity. By developing a tight-binding model of the interacting 1D chains, the essential features of the low-energy electronic structure of LiAsSe2 are captured. Our findings are important for understanding the fundamental physics of LiAsSe2 and provide a feasible way to enhance the material optical response that can be applied to light harvesting for energy applications.

  15. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron;

    2009-01-01

    x l-1, P = 0.058). Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P improved by approximately 6% (P efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week......BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function......, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. METHODS: Sixteen young men (age: 21 +/- 2 y; BMI: 23.7 +/- 3.1 kg x m-2; VO2peak: 48 +/- 9 ml x kg-1 x min-1) performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4-6 x 30-s...

  16. Color filter array patterns for small-pixel image sensors with substantial cross talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzagira, Leo; Fossum, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Digital image sensor outputs usually must be transformed to suit the human visual system. This color correction amplifies noise, thus reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the image. In subdiffraction-limit (SDL) pixels, where optical and carrier cross talk can be substantial, this problem can become significant when conventional color filter arrays (CFAs) such as the Bayer patterns (RGB and CMY) are used. We present the design and analysis of new color filter array patterns for improving the color error and SNR deterioration caused by cross talk in these SDL pixels. We demonstrate an improvement in the color reproduction accuracy and SNR in high cross-talk conditions. Finally, we investigate the trade-off between color accuracy and SNR for the different CFA patterns. PMID:26366487

  17. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithya Sivaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients.

  18. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-01

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation.

  19. Using scenario tree modelling for targeted herd sampling to substantiate freedom from disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reist Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimise the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance to substantiate freedom from disease, a new approach using targeted sampling of farms was developed and applied on the example of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL in Switzerland. Relevant risk factors (RF for the introduction of IBR and EBL into Swiss cattle farms were identified and their relative risks defined based on literature review and expert opinions. A quantitative model based on the scenario tree method was subsequently used to calculate the required sample size of a targeted sampling approach (TS for a given sensitivity. We compared the sample size with that of a stratified random sample (sRS with regard to efficiency. Results The required sample sizes to substantiate disease freedom were 1,241 farms for IBR and 1,750 farms for EBL to detect 0.2% herd prevalence with 99% sensitivity. Using conventional sRS, the required sample sizes were 2,259 farms for IBR and 2,243 for EBL. Considering the additional administrative expenses required for the planning of TS, the risk-based approach was still more cost-effective than a sRS (40% reduction on the full survey costs for IBR and 8% for EBL due to the considerable reduction in sample size. Conclusions As the model depends on RF selected through literature review and was parameterised with values estimated by experts, it is subject to some degree of uncertainty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the veterinary authorities with a promising tool for future cost-effective sampling designs.

  20. Substantiation of an express-method for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Nikolskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An express method for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials was offered and substantiated in this article. The proposed measurement technology of concrete frost resistance is based on the computation of the value z which is the ratio of the relative decrease of compression resistance R to the relative permanent set ε in the direction which is perpendicular to the pressure. It was found that this ratio is constant for a given composition of the concrete and does not depend on the values of R and ε. It was also proved that the values are not sensitive to the replacement of mechanical thermal cycles. These aspects will decrease the time for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete and reduce the labor intensity of the tests conducted. The proposed method has been implemented on 10 samples of concrete with the following composition: Portland cement 400 (12.3 %, sand (24.7 %, granite macadam of dimensions 5…20 mm (55.6 %, water (7.4 %. Specimen cubes, according to the proposed method, were saturated with water, measured, subjected to alternate freezing and thawing and axial compression to achieve extreme loads. Then the frost resistance for each sample and the mean sample value F were calculated. The resulting value was compared with the freeze-thaw resistance, which was received for the mixture by the basic method. Thus, a new accelerated method for the determination of the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials was substantiated. It is highly efficient, simple, and has a low cost.

  1. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  2. The Derived Equivalent Circuit Model for Magnetized Anisotropic Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ying S; Ruehli, Albert E

    2015-01-01

    Due to the static magnetic field, the conductivity for graphene becomes a dispersive and anisotropic tensor, which complicates most modeling methodologies. In this paper, a novel equivalent circuit model is proposed for graphene with the magnetostatic bias based on the electric field integral equation (EFIE). To characterize the anisotropic property of the biased graphene, the resistive part of the unit circuit is replaced by a resistor in series with current control voltage sources (CCVSs). The CCVSs account for the off-diagonal parts of the surface conductivity tensor for the magnetized graphene. Furthermore, the definitions of the absorption cross section and the scattering cross section are revisited to make them feasible for derived circuit analysis. This proposed method is benchmarked with several numerical examples. This paper also provides a new equivalent circuit model to deal with dispersive and anisotropic materials.

  3. Biological effects and equivalent doses in radiotherapy: a software solution

    CERN Document Server

    Voyant, Cyril; Roustit, Rudy; Biffi, Katia; Marcovici, Celine Lantieri

    2013-01-01

    The limits of TDF (time, dose, and fractionation) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding the delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes. We therefore propose a calculation interface under the GNU license to be used for equivalent doses, biological doses, and normal tumor complication probability (Lyman model). The methodology used draws from several sources: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames. The results are obtained from an algorithm that minimizes an ad-hoc cost function, and then compared to the equivalent dose computed using standard calculators in seven French radiotherapy centers.

  4. Derived Equivalences of K3 Surfaces and Twined Elliptic Genera

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, John F R

    2015-01-01

    We use the unique canonically-twisted module over a certain distinguished super vertex operator algebra---the moonshine module for Conway's group---to attach a weak Jacobi form of weight zero and index one to any symplectic derived equivalence of a projective complex K3 surface that fixes a stability condition in the distinguished space identified by Bridgeland. According to work of Huybrechts, following Gaberdiel--Hohenegger--Volpato, any such derived equivalence determines a conjugacy class in Conway's group, the automorphism group of the Leech lattice. Conway's group acts naturally on the module we consider. In physics the data of a projective complex K3 surface together with a suitable stability condition determines a supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, and supersymmetry preserving automorphisms of such an object may be used to define twinings of the K3 elliptic genus. Our construction recovers the K3 sigma model twining genera precisely in all available examples. In particular, the identity symmetry r...

  5. Transosseous-Equivalent Repair for Distal Patellar Tendon Avulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, David K; Konda, Sanjit R; Kaplan, Daniel J; Ryan, William E; Alaia, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Extensor mechanism disruptions are relatively uncommon injuries involving injury to the quadriceps tendon, patella, or patellar tendon. Patellar tendon avulsions from the tibial tubercle in adults are rare; as such, little technical information has been written regarding surgical management of this injury in the adult. Transosseous-equivalent repairs have been described in the management of several types of tendon ruptures, including rotator cuff and distal triceps tendon ruptures, but not previously in patellar injuries. We present a technique for repairing an avulsion injury of the patellar tendon from the tibial tubercle using suture anchors in a transosseous-equivalent manner. This technique for treating distal patellar tendon avulsion injuries likely increases contact area at the repair site while potentially improving fixation strength. PMID:27462538

  6. Superluminality and the equivalence postulate of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, Alon E. [University of Liverpool, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    An interpretation of the recent results reported by the OPERA collaboration is that neutrinos propagation in vacuum exceeds the speed of light. It has been further been suggested that this interpretation can be attributed to the variation of the particle average speed arising from the Relativistic Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi Equation. I derive an expression for the quantum correction to the instantaneous relativistic velocity in the framework of the relativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation, which is derived from the equivalence postulate of quantum mechanics. While the quantum correction does indicate deviations from the classical energy-momentum relation, it does not necessarily lead to superluminal speeds. The quantum correction found herein has a non-trivial dependence on the energy and mass of the particle, as well as on distance travelled. I speculate on other possible observational consequences of the equivalence postulate approach. (orig.)

  7. The equivalence principle of quantum mechanics: Uniqueness theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)

    1997-10-28

    Recently the authors showed that the postulated diffeomorphic equivalence of states implies quantum mechanics. This approach takes the canonical variables to be dependent by the relation p = {partial_derivative}{sub q}S{sub 0} and exploits a basic GL(2,C)-symmetry which underlies the canonical formalism. In particular, they looked for the special transformations leading to the free system with vanishing energy. Furthermore, they saw that while on the one hand the equivalence principle cannot be consistently implemented in classical mechanics, on the other it naturally led to the quantum analogue of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, thus implying the Schroedinger equation. In this letter they show that actually the principle uniquely leads to this solution. The authors also express the canonical and Schroedinger equations by means of the brackets recently introduced in the framework of N = 2 SYM. These brackets are the analogue of the Poisson brackets with the canonical variables taken as dependent.

  8. A simple demonstration when studying the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Valery; Varaksina, Ekaterina

    2016-06-01

    The paper proposes a lecture experiment that can be demonstrated when studying the equivalence principle formulated by Albert Einstein. The demonstration consists of creating stroboscopic photographs of a ball moving along a parabola in Earth's gravitational field. In the first experiment, a camera is stationary relative to Earth's surface. In the second, the camera falls freely downwards with the ball, allowing students to see that the ball moves uniformly and rectilinearly relative to the frame of reference of the freely falling camera. The equivalence principle explains this result, as it is always possible to propose an inertial frame of reference for a small region of a gravitational field, where space-time effects of curvature are negligible.

  9. Optimization of Land Use Structure Based on Ecological GREEN Equivalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of land use structure consists of economic and social and ecological optimization.Applying the minds of system engineering and principles of ecology,this paper presents such thoughts:the optimal forest-coverage rate calculated according to the reality of a district is set as main standard of ecological rationality in the district;through considering the value of ecosystem services of the land with GREEN equivalent (mainly cultivated land and grassland)and based on the rule,GREEN equivalent,this paper introduces the area conversion between woodland and cultivated land,also between woodland and grassland;this paper establishes a multi-dimension controlling model of optimization of land use structure.In addition,a multi-objective linear programming model for optimization of land use structure is designed.In the end,this paper tests and verifies this theory of ecological optimization,taking Qionghai city in Hainan Province as an example.

  10. Equivalent sets of histories and multiple quasiclassical domains

    CERN Document Server

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Murray Gell-Mann; James B Hartle

    1994-01-01

    We consider notions of physical equivalence of sets of histories in the quantum mechanics of a closed system. We show how the same set of histories can be relabeled in various ways including the use of the Heisenberg equations of motion and of passive transformations of the field operators. In the usual quantum mechanics of a measured subsystem, two observables represented by different Hermitian operators are physically distinguished by the different pieces of apparatus used to measure them even if they are related by a unitary transformation. In the quantum mechanics of a closed system, however, any apparatus is part of the system and the notion of physically distinct situations has a different character. Making our previous suggestions more precise, we show that triple consisting of an initial condition, a Hamiltonian, and a set of histories is physically equivalent to another triple if the operators representing these initial conditions, Hamiltonians, and histories are related by a fixed unitary transforma...

  11. Global versus Local -- Mach's Principle versus the Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Singleton, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The equivalence principle is the conceptual basis for general relativity. In contrast Mach's principle, although said to have been influential on Einstein in his formulation of general relativity, has not been shown to be central to the structure of general relativity. In this essay we suggest that the quantum effects of Hawking and Unruh radiation are a manifestation of a {\\it thermal} Mach's principle, where the local thermodynamic properties of the system are determined by the non-local structure of the quantum fields which determine the vacuum of a given spacetime. By comparing Hawking and Unruh temperatures for the same local acceleration we find a violation of the Einstein elevator version of the equivalence principle, which vanishes in the limit that the horizon is approached.

  12. On Poetic Advertisements Translating by Functional Equivalence in Skopostheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖枫霄

    2016-01-01

    A hot issue was once the advertisement translation as a pragmatic one. But it is surprising how little attention has been paid to a new kind of advertisement-poetic advertisement, which has caught a great significance in the world of business. In this paper it attempts to do a poetic translation study by Nida’s theories that stand for the German functional translation school. Through the research for some translation cases, it is found that the theory functional equivalence is feasible for repres-enting the poetic beauty, the readers’acceptability and the functions of advertisements. What is shown thereby is that the theory functional equivalence can work as guiding principle in the translation of English poetic advertisement.

  13. The European Person Equivalent: Measuring the personal environmental space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    European person equivalent is a quantification of the average person’s environmental impact in a near future according to the current politically set environmental targets. In addition to expressing the current societal priorities in pollution reduction, the targeted PE expresses the environmental space......The European person equivalent (PE) is a quantification of the environmental impact caused annually by the activities of an average European. It comprises contributions to all the major environmental impacts from global to local as well as our consumption of resources. Similarly, the targeted...... available to all of us according to the current environmental policy. Both concepts were developed in the mid-nineties for use in life cycle impact assessment to help comparisons across different environmental impact categories. Since then they have shown their value as a pedagogic tool in the presentation...

  14. Determination of dose equivalent and risk in thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these report are presented the calculations of dose equivalent and risk, utilizing the dosimetric model described in publication 30 of the International Comission on Radiological Protection. This information was obtained by the workers of the thorium cycle, employed at the Praia and Santo Amaro Facilities, by assessing the quantity and concentration of thorium in the air. The samples and the number of measurements were established through design of experiments techniques, and the results were evaluated with the aid of variance analysis. The estimater of dose equivalent for internal and external radiation exposure and risk associated were compared with the maximum recommended limits. The results indicate the existence of operation areas whose values were above those limits, requiring so an improvement in the procedures and services in order to meet the requirements of the radiological protetion. (author)

  15. Adiabatic Quantum Computation is Equivalent to Standard Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonov, D; Kempe, J; Landau, Z; Lloyd, S; Regev, O; Aharonov, Dorit; Dam, Wim van; Kempe, Julia; Landau, Zeph; Lloyd, Seth; Regev, Oded

    2004-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computation has recently attracted attention in the physics and computer science communities, but its computational power has been unknown. We settle this question and describe an efficient adiabatic simulation of any given quantum algorithm, which implies that the adiabatic computation model and the conventional quantum circuit model are polynomially equivalent. Our result can be extended to the physically realistic setting of particles arranged on a two-dimensional grid with nearest neighbor interactions. The equivalence between the models provides a new vantage point from which to tackle the central issues in quantum computation, namely designing new quantum algorithms and constructing fault tolerant quantum computers. In particular, by translating the main open questions in quantum algorithms to the language of spectral gaps of sparse matrices, the result makes quantum algorithmic questions accessible to a wider scientific audience, acquainted with mathematical physics, expander theory a...

  16. Markovian Testing Equivalence and Exponentially Timed Internal Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In the theory of testing for Markovian processes developed so far, exponentially timed internal actions are not admitted within processes. When present, these actions cannot be abstracted away, because their execution takes a nonzero amount of time and hence can be observed. On the other hand, they must be carefully taken into account, in order not to equate processes that are distinguishable from a timing viewpoint. In this paper, we recast the definition of Markovian testing equivalence in the framework of a Markovian process calculus including exponentially timed internal actions. Then, we show that the resulting behavioral equivalence is a congruence, has a sound and complete axiomatization, has a modal logic characterization, and can be decided in polynomial time.

  17. Constructing skin-equivalents using hair follicle stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method of constructing skin-equivalents (SE) using hair follicle stem cells(HFSC).Methods: K19 positive cells derived from hair were cultivated using serum-free medium KGM and seeded on dermal equivalents (DE).After the culture between the air-liquid interface for 14 days, SE were harvested and used for evaluation. Results: K19 positive cells chosen as HFSC were located in bulge of out root sheet in hair follicle. Cultivated HFSC could build a fully developed, multi-layered epidermis on the basis of DE, resembling the skin structure. Conclusion: HFSC located in out root sheet can differentiate into keratinocyte in vitro and be used for SE construction.

  18. Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo C. Y.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO’s design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein’s theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein’s equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne’s formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein’s equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.

  19. Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo C. Y.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO's design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein's theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein's equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne's formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein's equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.

  20. Morita equivalence and spectral triples on noncommutative orbifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Antti J.

    2016-08-01

    Let G be a finite group. Noncommutative geometry of unital G-algebras is studied. A geometric structure is determined by a spectral triple on the crossed product algebra associated with the group action. This structure is to be viewed as a representative of a noncommutative orbifold. Based on a study of classical orbifold groupoids, a Morita equivalence for the crossed product spectral triples is developed. Noncommutative orbifolds are Morita equivalence classes of the crossed product spectral triples. As a special case of this Morita theory one can study freeness of the G-action on the noncommutative level. In the case of a free action, the crossed product formalism reduced to the usual spectral triple formalism on the algebra of G-invariant functions.

  1. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

  2. Analysis of reinforced concrete beams by the equivalent section method

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the analysis of reinforced concrete beams subjected to combined axial load, bending moment and shear force. Cross-sections of general shape are divided, along the height, into plane elements. The biaxial behavior is represented according to the smeared rotating crack approach. Using traditionally accepted hypotheses for beams, the shear flow is determined by applying the Jouravski formula to an "equivalent section", which takes into account the nonlinear material behavior. The "Equivalent Section Method", originally proposed by Diaz (1980) and Diaz and Schulz (1981), is improved and simplified. The formulation is implemented applying the bidimensional constitutive model A, proposed by Vecchio and Collins (1993). The tension-stiffening effect is considered as adopted by Polak and Vecchio (1993). Shear slip at crack surfaces, Poisson's ratio and other secondary effects are not considered. Validation is undertaken by comparison with experimental results obtained by other researchers. T...

  3. Design of the Sequential System Automata using Temporal Equivalence Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ursu

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A design method of sequential system automata using temporal logic specifications is proposed in this paper. The method is based on well-known Z.Manna and P.Wolper temporal logic satisfiability analysis procedure [1] and is extended to include past time temporal operators. A new specification method which uses temporal equivalence classes is proposed to specify the behaviour of large digital circuits. The impact of the composition and decomposition operations of the temporal equivalence classes on the final automata has been studied. A case study is carried out which deals with the design of the synchronous bus arbiter circuit element. The SMV tool has been used to verify the temporal properties of the obtained automata.

  4. Uniformly Accelerating Charged Particles A Threat to the Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Lyle, Stephen N

    2008-01-01

    There has been a long debate about whether uniformly accelerated charges should radiate electromagnetic energy and how one should describe their worldline through a flat spacetime, i.e., whether the Lorentz-Dirac equation is right. There are related questions in curved spacetimes, e.g., do different varieties of equivalence principle apply to charged particles, and can a static charge in a static spacetime radiate electromagnetic energy? The problems with the LD equation in flat spacetime are spelt out in some detail here, and its extension to curved spacetime is discussed. Different equivalence principles are compared and some vindicated. The key papers are discussed in detail and many of their conclusions are significantly revised by the present solution.

  5. Non-Fregean Logics of Analytic Equivalence (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Biłat, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the main assumptions of Andrzej Grzegorczyk’s last research project concerning the logic of synonymity. It shows that the basis of logic of analytic equivalence, presented in the first part of the work, fully corresponds with these assumptions. The project is supported by the Polish National Science Centre grant Logic and language experience 2011/03/B/HS1/04580.

  6. BILINGUAL EQUIVALENCE, VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF ACADEMIC MOTIVATION SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Karataş, Hakan; ERDEN, Münire

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to perform the linguistic equivalence, validity and reliability analysis of Academic Motivation Scale. Academic Motivation Scale,based on the theory of Self-Determination (Deci and Ryan, 1985), has been developed by Vallerand et al (1989) for students at high education level. The scale was translated into English by the same researchers (Vallerand ve diğerleri, 1992). Academic Motivation Scale is regarded as important for Turkish community to determine our student...

  7. Equivalence of modified gravity equation to the Clausius relation

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2009-01-01

    We show that the equations of motion for modified gravity theories are equivalent to the Clausius relation in thermodynamics. For modified gravity theories, we study $F(R)$-gravity, the scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, $F(\\mathcal{G})$-gravity and the non-local gravity. In addition, we discuss the relation between the expression of the entropy and the contribution from the modified gravity as well as the matter to the definition of the energy flux (heat).

  8. MAGNETIC CIRCUIT EQUIVALENT OF THE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH INCORPORATED MAGNETS

    OpenAIRE

    Fyong Le Ngo; G. I. Gul’kov

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic circuitry computation is one of the central stages of designing a synchronous motor with incorporated magnets, which can be performed by means of a simplified method of the magnetic-circuits equivalent modeling. The article studies the magnetic circuit of the motor with the rotor-incorporated magnets, which includes four sectors: constant magnets with the field pole extension made of magnetically soft steel, magniflux dispersion sections containing air barriers and steel bridges; the...

  9. Neutron dose equivalent rate for heavy ion bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGui-Sheng; ZhangTian-Mei; 等

    1998-01-01

    The fluence rate distribution of neutrons in the reactionsof 50MeV/u 18O-ion on thick Be,Cu and Au targets have been measured with an activation method of threshold detectors andthe neutron dose equivalent rate distributions at 1m from the tqrgets in intermediate energy heavy ion target area are obtained by using the conversion factors from neutron fluence rate to neutron doseequivalent rate.

  10. Equivalence studies for complex active ingredients and dosage forms

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattycharyya, Lokesh; Dabbah, Roger; Hauck, Walter; Sheinin, Eric; Yeoman, Lynn; Williams, Roger,

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and its role in assessing the equivalence and inequivalence of biological and biotechnological drug substances and products—a role USP has played since its founding in 1820. A public monograph in theUnited States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary helps practitioners and other interested parties understand how an article’s strenght, quality, and purity should be controlled. Such a monograph is a standard to which all manufactured ingredi...

  11. Proof of the equivalence theorem in the chiral lagrangian formalism

    CERN Document Server

    He, H J; Li, X; Hong-Jian He; He, Hong-Jian; Kuang, Yu-Ping; Li, Xiaoyuan; Xiaoyuan Li

    1994-01-01

    A general proof of the equivalence theorem in electroweak theories with the symmetry breaking sector described by the chiral Lagrangian is given in the $R_{\\xi}$ gauge by means of the Ward-Takahashi identities. The precise form of the theorem contains a modification factor $C_{mod}$ associated with each external Goldstone boson similar to that in the standard model. $C_{mod}$ is exactly unity in our previously proposed renormalization scheme, {\\it Scheme-II}.

  12. Equivalent conditions for hyperbolicity on partially hyperbolic holomorphic map

    CERN Document Server

    Henriquez, Francisco Valenzuela

    2010-01-01

    Let $f:\\mathbb{C}\\sp n\\to\\mathbb{C}\\sp n$, $n\\geq2$, be a biholomorphism and let $\\Lambda\\subseteq \\mathbb{C}\\sp n$ be a compact $f$-invariant set such that $f|\\Lambda$ is partially hyperbolic. We give equivalent conditions to hyperbolicity on $\\Lambda$. In the particular case of generalized H\\'enon map with dominated splitting in the Julia set $J$, we characterize the hyperbolicity of $J$.

  13. Idiomaticity of English Business Terms and Their Equivalents in Lithuanian

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Skorupa; Tatjana Bosulajeva

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the survey of idiomatic English business terms and their Lithuanian equivalents. The study was based on the theory of idioms and idiomaticity, highlighting the idea that idiomaticity can affect single words, word combinations, and longer text passages. Idiomatic business terms were taken from different English and Lithuanian general and special dictionaries, course books, as well as business texts. The analyzed terms were classified into distinct groups according to their m...

  14. On the Equivalence of Weyl Theorem and Generalized Weyl Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. BERKANI

    2007-01-01

    We know that an operator T acting on a Banach space satisfying generalized Weyl's theorem also satisfies Weyl's theo rem. Conversely we show that if all isolated eigenvalues of T are poles of its resolvent and if T satisfies Weyl's theorem, then it also satisfies generalized Weyl's theorem. We give also a similar result for the equivalence of a-Weyl's theorem and generalized a-Weyl's theorem. Using these results, we study the case of polaroid operators, and in particular paranormal operators.

  15. Energy conservation and equivalence principle in General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Mensky, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The generalized Stokes theorem (connecting integrals of dimensions 3 and 4) is formulated in a curved space-time in terms of paths in Minkowski space (forming Path Group). A covariant integral form of the conservation law for the energy-momentum of matter is then derived in General Relativity. It extends Einstein's equivalence principle on the energy conservation, since it formulates the conservation law for the energy-momentum of matter without explicit including the gravitational field in t...

  16. Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method

    OpenAIRE

    Frantisek Jelenciak; Michael Gerke; Ulrich Borgolte

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM) as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that - in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a...

  17. Niobium alloying effect in high carbon equivalent grey cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Wenbin; Zhu Hongbo; Zheng Dengke

    2011-01-01

    The effect of niobium on the formation of NbC phase and solidification structure in high carbon equivalent grey cast iron was investigated. The experimental results indicated that an increase in the niobium content is favorable to refining the graphite and eutectic cell; and the pearlite lamellar spacing is reduced. Based on the thermodynamic calculation the formation of NbC is prior to the eutectic reaction. The reduction in the pearlite lamellar spacing is mainly attributed to the decrease ...

  18. Symbols, Stimulus Equivalence and the Origins of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Dickins, Thomas E.; Dickins, David W

    2001-01-01

    Recent interest in the origins of language, within the strongly cognitive field of Evolutionary Psychology, has predominantly focused upon the origins of syntax (cf. Hurford, Knight and Studdert-Kennedy, 1998). However, Ullin Place's (2000a) theory of the gestural origins of language also addresses the more fundamental issue of the antecedents of symbols, and does so from a behaviourist perspective, stressing the importance of the peculiarly human ability to form stimulus equivalence classes....

  19. Electric circuit networks equivalent to chaotic quantum billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Maksimov, Dmitrii N.; Sadreev, Almas F.

    2004-01-01

    We formulate two types of electric RLC resonance network equivalent to quantum billiards. In the network of inductors grounded by capacitors squared resonant frequencies are eigenvalues of the quantum billiard. In the network of capacitors grounded by inductors squared resonant frequencies are given by inverse eigen values of the billiard. In both cases local voltages play role of the wave function of the quantum billiard. However as different from quantum billiards there is a heat power beca...

  20. Equivalence of modified gravity equation to the Clausius relation

    OpenAIRE

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Geng, Chao-Qiang; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2009-01-01

    We explicitly show that the equations of motion for modified gravity theories of $F(R)$-gravity, the scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, $F(\\mathcal{G})$-gravity and the non-local gravity are equivalent to the Clausius relation in thermodynamics. In addition, we discuss the relation between the expression of the entropy and the contribution from the modified gravity as well as the matter to the definition of the energy flux (heat).

  1. FORWARDER DEPRICIATION ANALYSIS APPLIED TO EQUIVALENT UNIFORM ANNUAL COST

    OpenAIRE

    DANILO SIMÕES; RICARDO GHANTOUS CERVI; PAULO TORRES FENNER

    2013-01-01

    Depreciation is considered a necessary fixed cost to replace a machinery or goods at the end of its useful life thus interfering directly on the Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC). This paper aimed at analyzing different methods used to calculate depreciation over the useful economic life of a Forwarder, a machine used in eucalyptus harvesting process, evaluating the influence of such methods in estimating EAC. Five depreciation methods were evaluated: Straight-line, Declining Balanc...

  2. Equivalence of twistor prescriptions for super Yang-Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Gukov, S; Neitzke, A; Gukov, Sergei; Motl, Lubos; Neitzke, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that one can compute tree level super Yang-Mills amplitudes using either connected or completely disconnected curves in twistor space. We argue that the two computations are equivalent, by showing that they can both be reduced to the same integral over a moduli space of singular curves, if the integration contours are chosen in a specific way. We also formulate a class of new "intermediate" prescriptions to calculate the same amplitudes.

  3. Equivalence of twistor prescriptions for super Yang-Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Gukov , Sergei; Motl, Lubos; Neitzke, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that one can compute tree-level super Yang-Mills amplitudes using either connected or completely disconnected curves in twistor space. We give a partial explanation of the equivalence between the two computations, by showing that they could both be reduced to the same integral over a moduli space of singular curves, subject to some assumptions about the choices of integration contours. We also formulate a class of new “intermediate” prescriptions to calculate the same amplit...

  4. An Application of Equivalence Transformations to Reaction Diffusion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Torrisi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a quite general class of advection reaction diffusion systems. By using an equivalence generator, derived in a previous paper, the authors apply a projection theorem to determine some special forms of the constitutive functions that allow the extension by one of the two-dimensional principal Lie algebra. As an example, a special case is discussed at the end of the paper.

  5. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about...... of the temperature on the mechanical resonance frequency is considered and thereby integrated in the final model for long term operations....

  6. Gauge equivalence among quantum nonlinear many body systems

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfone, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Transformations performing on the dependent and/or the independent variables are an useful method used to classify PDE in class of equivalence. In this paper we consider a large class of U(1)-invariant nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations containing complex nonlinearities. The U(1) symmetry implies the existence of a continuity equation for the particle density $\\rho\\equiv|\\psi|^2$ where the current ${\\bfm j}_{_\\psi}$ has, in general, a nonlinear structure. We introduce a nonlinear gauge transfo...

  7. Full Groups and Orbit Equivalence in Cantor Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Medynets, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    In this note we consider dynamical systems $(X,G)$ on a Cantor set $X$ satisfying some mild technical conditions. The considered class includes, in particular, minimal and transitive aperiodic systems. We prove that two such systems $(X_1,G_1)$ and $(X_2,G_2)$ are orbit equivalent if and only if their full groups are isomorphic as abstract groups. This result is a topological version of the well-known Dye's theorem established originally for ergodic measure-preserving actions.

  8. Equivalent plate modeling for conceptual design of aircraft wing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method that generates conceptual-level design data for aircraft wing structures. A key requirement is that this data must be produced in a timely manner so that is can be used effectively by multidisciplinary synthesis codes for performing systems studies. Such a capability is being developed by enhancing an equivalent plate structural analysis computer code to provide a more comprehensive, robust and user-friendly analysis tool. The paper focuses on recent enhancements to the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) analysis code that significantly expands the modeling capability and improves the accuracy of results. Modeling additions include use of out-of-plane plate segments for representing winglets and advanced wing concepts such as C-wings along with a new capability for modeling the internal rib and spar structure. The accuracy of calculated results is improved by including transverse shear effects in the formulation and by using multiple sets of assumed displacement functions in the analysis. Typical results are presented to demonstrate these new features. Example configurations include a C-wing transport aircraft, a representative fighter wing and a blended-wing-body transport. These applications are intended to demonstrate and quantify the benefits of using equivalent plate modeling of wing structures during conceptual design.

  9. Tilting mutation of weakly symmetric algebras and stable equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Dugas, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We consider tilting mutations of a weakly symmetric algebra at a subset of simple modules, as recently introduced by T. Aihara. These mutations are defined as the endomorphism rings of certain tilting complexes of length 1. Starting from a weakly symmetric algebra A, presented by a quiver with relations, we give a detailed description of the quiver and relations of the algebra obtained by mutating at a single loopless vertex of the quiver of A. In this form the mutation procedure appears similar to, although significantly more complicated than, the mutation procedure of Derksen, Weyman and Zelevinsky for quivers with potentials. By definition, weakly symmetric algebras connected by a sequence of tilting mutations are derived equivalent, and hence stably equivalent. The second aim of this article is to describe explicitly the images of the simple modules under such a stable equivalence. As an application we answer a question of Asashiba on the derived Picard groups of a class of symmetric algebras of finite re...

  10. Comparison between ionospheric convection vortices and the associated equivalent currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Benkevitch, L.; Sofko, G. J.; Koustov, A. V.

    2004-12-01

    The equivalent current pattern derived from CANOPUS, NRCAN/GSC and MACCS magnetometers has been compared with the ionospheric convection pattern observed by SuperDARN HF radars. The discrepancies between the equivalent convection (EQC) and the SuperDARN-observed convection (SDC) patterns are explained in terms of the effect of day-night photoionization conductance gradient and the coupling between field-aligned currents (FACs) and ionospheric conductances. In particular, the agreement between the EQC and SDC patterns is usually worse for a counterclockwise convection vortex than for a clockwise cell, but a consistent pattern of discrepancy for counterclockwise convection vortices has been found. We suggest that the discrepancies are due to a downward FAC-conductance coupling process. Since the counterclockwise vortices and clockwise vortices occur predominantly in the dawn and dusk sectors, respectively, in accordance with the usual 2-cell global convection pattern, the asymmetry between the EQC and SDC patterns for counterclockwise vortices and clockwise vortices would naturally lead to a dawn-dusk asymmetry as well. This is revealed by a global statistical study of the deviation of direction between the magnetic equivalent convection and the SuperDARN convection in different time sectors and latitudes. In the dawn sector, the statistical results reveal that, at lower latitudes, the EQC direction deviation is slightly counterclockwise with respect to the SDC direction, whereas the deviation is significantly clockwise at high latitudes. These deviations are consistent with the discrepancy pattern for counterclockwise convection vortices, as found in the individual vortex event studies.

  11. Application of A150-plastic equivalent gases in microdosimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron dosimetry measurements with ionization chambers, for the most part, employ tissue equivalent plastic-walled cavities (Shonka A150) filled with either air or a methane-base tissue-like gas. The atomic composition of TE-gas and A150 plastic are not matched and are quite dissimilar from muscle. Awschalom and Attix (1980) have partially resolved the problem by formulating a novel A150-plastic equivalent gas. This establishes a homogeneous wall-gas cavity dosimeter for neutron measurements and confines the necessary corrections to the applications of kerma ratios. In this report, we present measurements of applications of two A150-plastic equivalent gases in a low pressure spherical proportional counter. Gas gains and alpha-particle resolutions were determined. For these A150-mixtures as well as a methane-based TE-gas and an Ar-CO2 mixture, we report measurements of event size distributions from exposure to a beam of 14.8 MeV neutrons

  12. Use of NPN bipolar transistors for silicon equivalent neutron damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the closing of the Northrop Triga Reactor, Northrop shifted its neutron irradiations to the several government Fast Burst Reactors. As a control, an inexpensive NPN bipolar transistor was chosen to monitor the silicon equivalent damage created by the differing neutron spectra. Noticeable biases occurred between the comparisons with 1 Mev silicon equivalent dosimetry reported by the several facilities and the damage observed in the monitor transistors and other semiconductors being irradiated. A special effort was committed to automate the measurement of the monitor transistors. Their behavior was then studied and quantified so that a more precise determination of the neutron fluence could be obtained. The techniques needed for accurate read-out of fluences from monitor transistors, with supporting data, is presented. The variabilities are mostly related to the choice of monitor transistor, test conditions, ambient and self-heating, and timing/annealing of the measurements. The occurrence of reverse annealing, varying with measurement current, is detailed. Also the monitoring of VBE as a thermometer to correct the damage factor to a standard temperature is noted. The electrical measurement errors have been made negligible. Some preliminary comparisons are given for the several facilities, using their historic 1 Mev (Si) sulfur/conversions. These comparisons do not include any adjustments for the biases developed by experiment positioning or recent changes in the silicon 1 Mev damage equivalence curve

  13. Equivalent Neutrinos, Light WIMPs, and the Chimera of Dark Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Steigman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    According to conventional wisdom, in the standard model (SM) of particle physics and cosmology the effective number of neutrinos is Neff=3 (more precisely, 3.046). In extensions of the standard model allowing for the presence of DeltaNnu equivalent neutrinos (or dark radiation), Neff is generally >3. The canonical results are reconsidered here, revealing that a measurement of Neff>3 can be consistent with DeltaNnu=0 (dark radiation without dark radiation). Conversely, a measurement consistent with Neff=3 is not inconsistent with the presence of dark radiation (DeltaNnu>0). In particular, if there is a light WIMP that annihilates to photons after the SM neutrinos have decoupled, the photons are heated beyond their usual heating from e+- annihilation, reducing the late time ratio of neutrino and photon temperatures (and number densities), leading to Neff3 even in the absence of equivalent neutrinos or dark radiation. A measurement of Neff>3 is thus no guarantee of the presence of equivalent neutrinos or dark ra...

  14. Modeling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviors with Equivalent Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Logit-based route choice model is proposed to address the overlapping and scaling problems in the traditional multinomial Logit model. The nonoverlapping links are defined as a subnetwork, and its equivalent impedance is explicitly calculated in order to simply network analyzing. The overlapping links are repeatedly merged into subnetworks with Logit-based equivalent travel costs. The choice set at each intersection comprises only the virtual equivalent route without overlapping. In order to capture heterogeneity in perception errors of different sizes of networks, different scale parameters are assigned to subnetworks and they are linked to the topological relationships to avoid estimation burden. The proposed model provides an alternative method to model the stochastic route choice behaviors without the overlapping and scaling problems, and it still maintains the simple and closed-form expression from the MNL model. A link-based loading algorithm based on Dial’s algorithm is proposed to obviate route enumeration and it is suitable to be applied on large-scale networks. Finally a comparison between the proposed model and other route choice models is given by numerical examples.

  15. Equivalent-circuit model of vircators with step circular waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Y.C.; Hu, Y. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1996-12-31

    It has been previously shown, both experimentally and via computer simulation, that higher-power microwaves can be generated from vircators with an abrupt discontinuity in circular waveguides. In this work, a rigorous microwave equivalent-circuit model is elaborated to study vircators with step circular waveguides. It makes use of well-defined equivalent voltages and currents for which equivalent circuit representations can be used. In the first part of this work, the authors have determined the empty cavity vircator oscillation modes, i.e., the Q factors, resonance frequencies, and field distributions in an axisymmetric vircator with a waveguide step. Once these oscillation modes are known, the electromagnetic field in the presence of the electron beam can be expanded in terms of them and the Maxwell equations with a localized current source can then be solved to determine the excitation coefficients. In the model, the current distribution can be simply approximated by the two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation results. By comparing the field structure, the dominant resonant frequency, and the power flow as a function of the distance of the waveguide step, the physical mechanism of power enhancement by vircators with an abrupt discontinuity in circular waveguides can be elucidated.

  16. Potency determination of antidandruff shampoos in nystatin international unit equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Hewage D.B.G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient standard microbiological potency determination test for the antidandruff shampoos was developed by adopting the pharmacopoeial microbiological assay procedure of the drug nystatin. A standard curve was drawn consisting of the inhibition zone diameters vs. logarithm of nystatin concentrations in international units using the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast strain National Collection of Type Culture (NCTC 1071606 as the test organism. From the standard curve the yeast inhibitory potencies of the shampoos in nystatin international unit equivalents were determined from the respective inhibition zones of the test samples of the shampoos. Under test conditions four shampoo samples showed remarkable fungal inhibitory potencies of 10227, 10731, 12396 and 18211 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml while two shampoo samples had extremely feeble inhibitory potencies 4.07 and 4.37 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml although the latter two products claimed antifungal activity. The potency determination method could be applied to any antidandruff shampoo with any one or a combination of active ingredients.

  17. Equivalence classes of Fibonacci lattices and their similarity properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Gullo, N.; Vittadello, L.; Bazzan, M.; Dell'Anna, L.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate, theoretically and experimentally, the properties of Fibonacci lattices with arbitrary spacings. Different from periodic structures, the reciprocal lattice and the dynamical properties of Fibonacci lattices depend strongly on the lengths of their lattice parameters, even if the sequence of long and short segment, the Fibonacci string, is the same. In this work we show that by exploiting a self-similarity property of Fibonacci strings under a suitable composition rule, it is possible to define equivalence classes of Fibonacci lattices. We show that the diffraction patterns generated by Fibonacci lattices belonging to the same equivalence class can be rescaled to a common pattern of strong diffraction peaks thus giving to this classification a precise meaning. Furthermore we show that, through the gap labeling theorem, gaps in the energy spectra of Fibonacci crystals belonging to the same class can be labeled by the same momenta (up to a proper rescaling) and that the larger gaps correspond to the strong peaks of the diffraction spectra. This observation makes the definition of equivalence classes meaningful also for the spectral and therefore dynamical and thermodynamical properties of quasicrystals. Our results apply to the more general class of quasiperiodic lattices for which similarity under a suitable deflation rule is in order.

  18. Quantitative equivalence between polymer nanocomposites and thin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Amitabh; Yang, Hoichang; Li, Chunzhao; Cho, Kilwon; Benicewicz, Brian C; Kumar, Sanat K; Schadler, Linda S

    2005-09-01

    The thermomechanical responses of polymers, which provide limitations to their practical use, are favourably altered by the addition of trace amounts of a nanofiller. However, the resulting changes in polymer properties are poorly understood, primarily due to the non-uniform spatial distribution of nanoparticles. Here we show that the thermomechanical properties of 'polymer nanocomposites' are quantitatively equivalent to the well-documented case of planar polymer films. We quantify this equivalence by drawing a direct analogy between film thickness and an appropriate experimental interparticle spacing. We show that the changes in glass-transition temperature with decreasing interparticle spacing for two filler surface treatments are quantitatively equivalent to the corresponding thin-film data with a non-wetting and a wetting polymer-particle interface. Our results offer new insights into the role of confinement on the glass transition, and we conclude that the mere presence of regions of modified mobility in the vicinity of the particle surfaces, that is, a simple two-layer model, is insufficient to explain our results. Rather, we conjecture that the glass-transition process requires that the interphase regions surrounding different particles interact. PMID:16086021

  19. The impact of sunlight on high-latitude equivalent currents

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, K M; Østgaard, N; Reistad, J P; Haaland, S; Snekvik, K; Tenfjord, P; Ohtani, S; Milan, S E

    2016-01-01

    Ground magnetic field measurements can be mathematically related to an overhead ionospheric equivalent current. In this study we look in detail at how the global equivalent current, calculated using more than 30 years of SuperMAG magnetometer data, changes with sunlight conditions. The calculations are done using spherical harmonic analysis in quasi-dipole coordinates, a technique which leads to improved accuracy compared to previous studies. Sorting the data according to the location of the sunlight terminator and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), we find that the equivalent current resembles ionospheric convection patterns on the sunlit side of the terminator but not on the dark side. On the dark side, with southward IMF, the current is strongly dominated by a dawn cell and the current across the polar cap has a strong dawnward component. The contrast between the sunlit and dark side increases with increasing values of the $\\mathit{F}_{10.7}$ index, showing that increasing solar EUV fl...

  20. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  1. Comparison of strategies for substantiating freedom from scrapie in a sheep flock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The public health threat represented by a potential circulation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in sheep population has led European animal health authorities to launch large screening and genetic selection programmes. If demonstrated, such a circulation would have dramatic economic consequences for sheep breeding sector. In this context, it is important to evaluate the feasibility of qualification procedures that would allow sheep breeders demonstrating their flock is free from scrapie. Classical approaches, based on surveys designed to detect disease presence, do not account for scrapie specificities: the genetic variations of susceptibility and the absence of live diagnostic test routinely available. Adapting these approaches leads to a paradoxical situation in which a greater amount of testing is needed to substantiate disease freedom in genetically resistant flocks than in susceptible flocks, whereas probability of disease freedom is a priori higher in the former than in the latter. The goal of this study was to propose, evaluate and compare several qualification strategies for demonstrating a flock is free from scrapie. Results A probabilistic framework was defined that accounts for scrapie specificities and allows solving the preceding paradox. Six qualification strategies were defined that combine genotyping data, diagnostic tests results and flock pedigree. These were compared in two types of simulated flocks: resistant and susceptible flocks. Two strategies allowed demonstrating disease freedom in several years, for the majority of simulated flocks: a strategy in which all the flock animals are genotyped, and a strategy in which only founders animals are genotyped, the flock pedigree being known. In both cases, diagnostic tests are performed on culled animals. The less costly strategy varied according to the genetic context (resistant or susceptible and to the relative costs of a genotyping exam and of a

  2. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Marcello; Manzini, Elisa; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Alessandri, Andrea; Patara, Lavinia; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric "target" concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the projected concentration

  3. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, Marcello; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Manzini, Elisa [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Fogli, Pier Giuseppe [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); ENEA, Rome (Italy); Patara, Lavinia [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel (Germany); Scoccimarro, Enrico [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric ''target'' concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the

  4. An Active Area Model of Rapid Infiltration Response at Substantial Depth in the Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, L.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    In a porous medium subject to preferential flow, response to surface water infiltration can occur rapidly even at substantial depth in the unsaturated zone. In a ponding experiment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the profile of undisturbed natural soil, seasonally dry at the start, was observed to approach field saturation throughout a 2 meter depth within 6 hours (Nimmo and Perkins, 2007). Traditional use of Richards' equation would require an unrealistically large unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of 40 m/day to capture the observed non-classic wetting behavior. Here we present a model for rapid flow using an active area concept similar to the active fracture model (Liu and others, 1998, WRR 34:2633-2646). The active area concept is incorporated within the preferential flow domain (which allows rapid downward movement) of a dual-domain model that also contains a diffuse-flow domain in which flow can be described by Richards' equation. Development of the active area model is motivated by observation of rapid wetting at substantial depth, as well as a phenomenon in which deep flow is observed before shallow flow. In this model water movement in the preferential domain can be physically conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films of constant average thickness. For a given medium, the preferential domain is characterized by an effective areal density (area per unit bulk volume) that describes the free-surface film capacity of the domain as a function of depth. The active area is defined as a portion of the effective areal density that dictates the depth and temporal distribution of domain-exchange and new infiltration within the preferential domain. With the addition of the active area concept, the model is capable of simulating non-diffusive vertical transport patterns. Advantages of the model include simulating rapid response for a variety of infiltration types, including ponding and rain events, as well as modeling relatively rapid aquifer

  5. 26 CFR 1.6045-3 - Information reporting for an acquisition of control or a substantial change in capital structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control or a substantial change in capital structure. 1.6045-3 Section 1.6045-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6045-3 Information reporting for an acquisition of control or a substantial change in...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1342-1 - Computation of tax where taxpayer recovers substantial amount held by another under claim of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Claim of Right § 1.1342-1 Computation of tax where taxpayer recovers substantial amount held by... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Computation of tax where taxpayer recovers substantial amount held by another under claim of right; effective date. 1.1342-1 Section 1.1342-1...

  7. 42 CFR 418.66 - Condition of participation: Nursing services-Waiver of requirement that substantially all nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nursing services-Waiver of requirement that substantially all nursing services be routinely provided directly by a hospice... Services § 418.66 Condition of participation: Nursing services—Waiver of requirement that substantially...

  8. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex K. Y.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Li, Shao-Meng; Sjostedt, Steve J.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Liggio, John; Macdonald, Anne Marie

    2016-06-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA-2), which were primarily generated by gas-phase oxidation of monoterpenes and perhaps sesquiterpenes. The temporal variations of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 can be explained by gas-particle partitioning in response to ambient temperature and the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night. While BSOA-1 arises from gas-phase ozonolysis and nitrate radical chemistry at night, BSOA-2 is likely less volatile than BSOA-1 and consists of products formed via gas-phase oxidation by OH radical and ozone during the day. Organic nitrates produced through nitrate radical chemistry can account for 22-33 % of BSOA-1 mass at night. The mass spectra of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 have higher values of the mass fraction of m/z 91 (f91) compared to the background organic aerosol. Using f91 to evaluate BSOA formation pathways in this unpolluted, forested region, heterogeneous oxidation of BSOA-1 is a minor production pathway of BSOA-2.

  9. The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Vernunft

    Full Text Available The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92 there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus.

  10. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  11. Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsung Wang

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training.

  12. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Substantial iron sequestration during green-clay authigenesis in modern deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldermann, A.; Warr, L. N.; Letofsky-Papst, I.; Mavromatis, V.

    2015-11-01

    In much of the global ocean, iron is a limiting nutrient for marine productivity. The formation of pyrite has been considered the most important sink of reactive iron in modern, organic-rich sediments. However, clay mineral transformations can also lead to long-term sequestration of iron during late diagenesis and in hydrothermal settings. Here we present evidence for substantial iron sequestration during the early diagenetic formation of ferruginous clay minerals, also called green-clay authigenesis, in the deep-sea environment of the Ivory Coast-Ghana Marginal Ridge. Using high-resolution electron microscopic methods and sequential sediment extraction techniques, we demonstrate that iron uptake by green-clay authigenesis can amount to 76 +/- 127 μmol Fe cm-2 kyr-1, which is on average six times higher than that of pyrite in suboxic subsurface sediments 5 m below the sea floor or shallower. Even at depths of 15 m below the sea floor or greater, rates of iron burial by green clay and pyrite are almost equal at ~80 μmol Fe cm-2 kyr-1. We conclude that green-clay formation significantly reduces the pore water inventory of dissolved iron in modern and ancient pelagic sediments, which challenges the long-standing conceptual view that clay mineral diagenesis is of little importance in current biogeochemical models of the marine iron cycle.

  14. Large rainfall changes consistently projected over substantial areas of tropical land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Robin; Good, Peter; Martin, Gill; Rowell, David P.

    2016-02-01

    Many tropical countries are exceptionally vulnerable to changes in rainfall patterns, with floods or droughts often severely affecting human life and health, food and water supplies, ecosystems and infrastructure. There is widespread disagreement among climate model projections of how and where rainfall will change over tropical land at the regional scales relevant to impacts, with different models predicting the position of current tropical wet and dry regions to shift in different ways. Here we show that despite uncertainty in the location of future rainfall shifts, climate models consistently project that large rainfall changes will occur for a considerable proportion of tropical land over the twenty-first century. The area of semi-arid land affected by large changes under a higher emissions scenario is likely to be greater than during even the most extreme regional wet or dry periods of the twentieth century, such as the Sahel drought of the late 1960s to 1990s. Substantial changes are projected to occur by mid-century--earlier than previously expected--and to intensify in line with global temperature rise. Therefore, current climate projections contain quantitative, decision-relevant information on future regional rainfall changes, particularly with regard to climate change mitigation policy.

  15. Substantial variation in the extent of mitochondrial genome fragmentation among blood-sucking lice of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haowei; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    Blood-sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes. Human head louse and body louse have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. In human pubic louse, the 34 mt genes known are on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of mammals, we sequenced the mt genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, H. apri, which diverged from human lice approximately 65 Ma. The 37 mt genes of the pig lice are on nine circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 3-4 kb in size. The pig lice have four genes per minichromosome on average, in contrast to two genes per minichromosome in the human lice. One minichromosome of the pig lice has eight genes and is the most gene-rich minichromosome found in the sucking lice. Our results indicate substantial variation in the rate and extent of mt genome fragmentation among different lineages of the sucking lice. PMID:23781098

  16. A Substantial Dust Disk Surrounding an Actively Accreting First-Ascent Giant Star

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, C; Song, I; Rhee, J H; Metchev, S

    2009-01-01

    We report identification of the first unambiguous example of what appears to be a new class of first-ascent giant stars that are actively accreting gas and dust and that are surrounded by substantial dusty disks. These old stars, who are nearing the end of their lives, are experiencing a rebirth into characteristics typically associated with newborn stars. The F2-type first-ascent giant star TYC 4144 329 2 is in a wide separation binary system with an otherwise normal G8 IV star, TYC 4144 329 1. From Keck near-infrared imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy we are able to determine that these two stars are $\\sim$1 Gyr old and reside at a distance of $\\sim$550 pc. One possible explanation for the origin of the accreting material is common-envelope interaction with a low-mass stellar or sub-stellar companion. The gaseous and dusty material around TYC 4144 329 2, as it is similar to the primordial disks observed around young classical T Tauri stars, could potentially give rise to a new generation of planets an...

  17. Pathogenetic Substantiation and Effectiveness of a Systemic Enzymotherapy at a Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitnickov I.G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of investigation is a study of a vobenzyme systemic enzymotherapy preparation therapeutic effectiveness on experimental model of a tetrachloromethane hepatitis and in patients with a parenteral hepatitis C. Materials and Methods. 340 white male-rats with the acute and chronic hepatitis simulation according to a generally adopted model with a carbon tetrachloride use were used in experiment. A clinical investigation was conducted in 160 patients with an acute hepatitis C. The lipid metabolism values were detected by the enzymatic colorimetric method with a use of the ″Human″ firm standard sets (Germany. A detection of the lactic and pyruvic acid content was made by enzymatic method. Results. A hepatotropic activity of vobenzyme is manifested in a cytolysis reduction, an increase of the liver albumino-, glycogensynthetizing and antitoxic functions. A preparation use in a hepatitis C pathogenetic therapy has a positive effect on the carbohydrate, lipid, albuminous metabolisms. A vobenzyme inclusion into a pathogenetic therapy of patients with an acute hepatitis C reduces the hospitalization dates by 5—7 days. Conclusion. A two-stage pharmacological screening has defined a sufficient force and stability of a vobenzyme hepatoprotective effect. Its inclusion into a combined pathogenetic treatment is already substantiated in an acute period of a hepatitis C.

  18. The Analysis of Nida's Functional Equivalence Theory——From The Point of AD Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳佳

    2012-01-01

      Functional equivalence, originally called dynamic equivalence raised by Eugene A. Nida is directed primarily towards equiva-lence of response rather than equivalence of form. From the application of proverbs and advertising translation, this article aims to discuss the translation strategy, in order to help readers flexibly use the "functional equivalence" theory, and then make this theory be able to work for us.

  19. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  20. Nodal equivalence theory for hexagonal geometry, thermal reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important aspect of advanced nodal methods is the determination of equivalent few-group parameters for the relatively large homogenized regions used in the nodal flux solution. The theoretical foundation for light water reactor (LWR) assembly homogenization methods has been clearly established, and during the last several years, its successes have secured its position in the stable of dependable LWR analysis methods. Groupwise discontinuity factors that correct for assembly homogenization errors are routinely generated along with the group constants during lattice physics analysis. During the last several years, there has been interest in applying equivalence theory to other reactor types and other geometries. A notable effort has been the work at Argonne National Laboratory to incorporate nodal equivalence theory (NET) for hexagonal lattices into the nodal diffusion option of the DIF3D code. This work was originally intended to improve the neutronics methods used for the analysis of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), and Ref. 4 discusses the success of that application. More recently, however, attempts were made to apply NET to advanced, thermal reactor designs such as the modular high-temperature gas reactor (MHTGR) and the new production heavy water reactor (NPR/HWR). The same methods that were successful for EBR-II have encountered problems for these reactors. Our preliminary analysis indicates that the sharp global flux gradients in these cores requires large discontinuity factors (greater than 4 or 5) to reproduce the reference solution. This disrupts the convergence of the iterative methods used to solve for the node-wise flux moments and partial currents. Several attempts to remedy the problem have been made over the last few years, including bounding the discontinuity factors and providing improved initial guesses for the flux solution, but nothing has been satisfactory