WorldWideScience

Sample records for 5-year-old children study

  1. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 Years Old Children in Baghdad City, Iraq: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha Md; AbdalQader, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the chil...

  2. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  3. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydian Veldhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. METHODS: This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067 collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  4. Respiratory viruses detected in Mexican children younger than 5 years old with community-acquired pneumonia: a national multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Wong-Chew

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Respiratory syncytial virus (types A and B, human enterovirus/rhinovirus, and metapneumovirus were the respiratory viruses identified most frequently in children younger than 5 years old with CAP. Co-infection was present in an important proportion of the children.

  5. Comparative study of occupational performance in children with global developmental delay at 3 and 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Isabel Candeias Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to compare the occupational performance of children with global developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI, and children with typical development, at 3 and 5 years of age, and to verify what functional areas children with global developmental delay feature more difficulties. Method: This is a comparative descriptive study including a sample of 40 participants, and 20 show Typical Development with 20 presenting diagnosis of Global Development Delay. These two groups were divided into two age subgroups of 10 children (aged 3 to 5 years. Results: The Inventory Pediatric Evaluation of Disability was filled out by parents and the results show that occupational performance of children with developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI is lower than those with typical development, with 3 and 5 years old, in the areas personal, mobility and socialization autonomy. Conclusion: The publication of more studies related to the practice of occupational therapy in Portugal is crucial, thus contributing to the knowledge of professionals and students in this scientific area. In addition, more and more evidence-based practice is an approach adopted by health professionals, including occupational therapists, and to this end it is extremely important to carry out newer studies locally in Portugal.

  6. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  7. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha; Abdalqader, Mohammed A

    2013-09-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using a weight-for-age z-score based on the World Health Organization 2007 cutoff points, in which any child with a z-score of prevalence rate of underweight children was 18.2%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between males and females (p=0.797). However, the percentage of underweight children was slightly higher among females (18.9%) compared to males (17.6%). There was no association between parents' educational level or employment status and childhood malnutrition. There was no association between a family's movement from their house and childhood malnutrition (p=0.322). Living in an unsafe neighbourhood and having a family member killed during the past five years were significantly associated with childhood malnutrition (p=0.016 and 0.018 respectively). Childhood malnutrition is still a public-health concern in Baghdad city, especially after the war of 2003. Malnutrition is significantly associated with living in unsafe neighbourhoods and at least one family member having been killed during the past five years.

  8. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle among 5-year-old overweight children: Health behavior outcomes of the 'Be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); L. Veldhuis (Lydian); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study evaluates the effects of an intervention performed by youth health care professionals on child health behaviors. The intervention consisted of offering healthy lifestyle counseling to parents of overweight (not obese) 5-year-old children. Effects of the interventio

  9. Parenting Style, the Home Environment, and Screen Time of 5-Year-Old Children; The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. Methods This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Conclusion The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room. PMID:24533092

  10. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this stud

  11. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this

  12. [Campylobacter enteritis in 0-5-year-old children in the Eindhoven area - and epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lier, J A; Haverkorn, M J; Waelkens, J J

    1982-04-01

    In the region Eindhoven 36 children with Campylobacter-enteritis were examined from I January 1980 to 31 December 1980. Symptoms were studied and stools were cultured over a four-month period. Abdominal pain and/or diarrhea occurred in more than 90% of patients and were not infrequently of longer duration. Bloody stools were found in 58% of patients and disappeared relatively early during the time of illness, as well as fever and vomiting. After one month Campylobacter could only be cultured in 5% of children; 14 household contacts, who proved to have Campylobacter-enteritis, had also negative stool cultures after one month. Asymptomatic carriership was found in four cases among these household contracts. Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni could not be isolated in stools of a number of asymptomatic individuals, working in the meat industry, who were considered to have a higher risk of infection. This group could therefore not be determined as an endogenous human reservoir. On the other hand Campylobacter was isolated in a few domestic animals without symptoms of illness, as well as in some cattle stables and sites. In these places, where several contaminated animals are together, significant reservoirs for human infection may be present.

  13. Overweight in 5-year-old Children: Assessment and Risk Factors (The Be Active, Eat Right Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. Worldwide, about one in ten children at the age of 5 to 17 years have overweight (obesity included). In the last decades there has been a dra

  14. Overweight in 5-year-old Children: Assessment and Risk Factors (The Be Active, Eat Right Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. Worldwide, about one in ten children at the age of 5 to 17 years have overweight (obesity included). In the last decades there has been a dra

  15. Overweight in 5-year-old Children: Assessment and Risk Factors (The Be Active, Eat Right Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. Worldwide, about one in ten children at the age of 5 to 17 years have overweight (obesity included). In the last decades there has been

  16. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Hughes, Sheryl O; Robles, Jessica; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom; Lee, Rebecca E; Nicklas, Theresa; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2013-08-06

    Hispanic preschoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on preschooler physical activity (PA) (Niños Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hispanic 3-5 year old children to inform the development of a new PA parenting practice instrument and future interventions to increase PA among Hispanic youth. Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured multi-step group procedure, was used to elicit and prioritize responses from 10 groups of Hispanic parents regarding what parents do to encourage (5 groups) or discourage (5 groups) preschool aged children to be active. Five groups consisted of parents with low education (less than high school) and 5 with high education (high school or greater) distributed between the two NGT questions. Ten NGT groups (n = 74, range 4-11/group) generated 20-46 and 42-69 responses/group for practices that encourage or discourage PA respectively. Eight to 18 responses/group were elected as the most likely to encourage or discourage PA. Parental engagement in child activities, modeling PA, and feeding the child well were identified as parenting practices that encourage child PA. Allowing TV and videogame use, psychological control, physical or emotional abuse, and lack of parental engagement emerged as parenting practices that discourage children from being active. There were few differences in the pattern of responses by education level. Parents identified ways they encourage and discourage 3-5 year-olds from PA, suggesting both are important targets for interventions. These will inform the development of a new PA parenting practice scale to be further evaluated. Further research should explore the role parents play in discouraging child PA, especially in using psychological control or submitting children to abuse, which were new findings in this study.

  17. Intakes and adequacy of potentially important nutrients for cognitive development among 5-year-old children in the Seychelles Child Development and Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Alison J; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Wallace, Julie M W; Bonham, Maxine P; Faure, Jude; Romain, Sarah; Esther, Christina; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Watson, Gene E; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W; Strain, J J

    2012-09-01

    To assess the nutritional adequacy of Seychellois children in relation to nutrients reported to be important for cognitive development. Dietary intakes were assessed by 4 d weighed food diaries and analysed using dietary analysis software (WISP version 3·0; Tinuviel Software, UK). Individual nutrient intakes were adjusted to usual intakes and, in order to investigate adequacy, were compared with the UK Estimated Average Requirements for children aged 4-6 years. Children 5 years old were followed up as part of the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS), located in the high-fish-consuming population of Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Analysis was carried out on a sample of 229 children (118 boys, 111 girls). Children consumed a diet of which fortified cereal and milk products contributed the most to nutrient intakes. The majority (≥80 %) of children met requirements for several nutrients important for child development including Fe, folate and Se. Adjusted dietary intakes of Cu, Zn, iodine, niacin and vitamin A were below the Estimated Average Requirement or Recommended Nutrient Intake. Mean adjusted energy intakes (boys 4769 kJ/d (1139·84 kcal/d), girls 4759 kJ/d (1137·43 kcal/d)) were lower than the estimated energy requirement (boys 5104 kJ/d (1220 kcal/d), girls 5042 kJ/d (1205 kcal/d)) for 88 % of boys and 86 % of girls. Nutrition was adequate for most children within the SCDNS cohort. Low intakes of some nutrients (including Zn, niacin and vitamin A) could reflect nutritional database inaccuracies, but may require further investigation. The study provides valuable information on the adequacy of intakes of nutrients which could affect the growth and development of Seychellois children.

  18. Association between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans among 3–5-year-old children with early childhood caries: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Farhanaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Streptococcus mutans infection has been identified as an important microbial factor for early childhood caries (ECC. Candida species has been shown to enhance the adherence of S. mutans to the oral biofilm and carious tooth substance. However, there is a paucity of the literature regarding the association between S. mutans and Candida albicans related to the ECC. Aim: To assess and compare the levels of S. mutans and C. albicans among 3–5-year-old preschool children with and without ECC and to determine the association between them. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 30 children with ECC (ECC group and 30 children without ECC (non-ECC group. Dental caries was assessed, and unstimulated saliva samples were collected. S. mutans and C. albicans counts were determined using Mutans-Sanguis agar and CHROMagar, respectively. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used. Significance levels were set at 5%. Results: There was a significant difference between ECC group and non-ECC group for S. mutans (P = 0.04 and C. albicans (P = 0.02 levels. There was no significant association between S. mutans and C. albicans in ECC and non-ECC groups. Children with ECC were more likely to have high levels of S. mutans and C. albicans when compared to non-ECC group. Conclusion: Children with ECC presented higher levels of S. mutans and C. albicans compared to children without ECC. High affinity between S. mutans and C. albicans suggests interaction between these diverse species that may mediate cariogenic development.

  19. Risk factors for death among children less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2005-2007: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara E O'Reilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled all children <5 years old, hospitalized with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children <5 years old were enrolled; 107 (9% children died during hospitalization. Nontyphoidal Salmonella were identified in 10% (118, Campylobacter in 5% (57, and Shigella in 4% (42 of 1,137 stool samples; rotavirus was detected in 19% (196 of 1,021 stool samples. Among stools from children who died, nontyphoidal Salmonella were detected in 22%, Shigella in 11%, rotavirus in 9%, Campylobacter in 5%, and S. Typhi in <1%. In multivariable analysis, infants who died were more likely to have nontyphoidal Salmonella (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6·8; 95% CI 3·1-14·9, and children <5 years to have Shigella (aOR = 5·5; 95% CI 2·2-14·0 identified than children who survived. Children who died were less likely to be infected with rotavirus (OR = 0·4; 95% CI 0·2-0·8. Further risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1-8·7; having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4-3·8; having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2-3·8; and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5-4·1. A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen on

  20. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  1. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  2. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  3. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed.

  4. Modeling diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Pauline Lorena; Hinde, John Philip; Nobre, Flávio Fonseca

    2004-07-01

    Identification of the temporal pattern of diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years of age in Rio de Janeiro City (1995-1998) to provide support for decisions about prevention and control of the disease. The weekly counts of hospitalizations and deaths due to diarrhea disease were analyzed separately. An initial generalized linear model (GLM) was derived using variables related to weather and month. Displays of fitted generalized additive models (GAM) including a spline smoothed function of time suggested additional predictors that were used to obtain new models. The initial models did not properly account for the observed cyclical pattern of the data. Graphical displays of the GAM model show a nonhomogeneous decline and annual cycles. Stepwise fitting of GLMs with two factors (cycle and season), and a time trend, showed that the full three-way interaction model was required. Plots of the residuals from the death model suggested a mixture of distributions while the residuals from the hospitalization model were approximately normal. The same general pattern for both time series was found by graphical inspection and fitting of appropriate GLMs. This study provides some additional evidence that severe cases of diarrhea disease may be attributed to rotavirus.

  5. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  6. Children's rights and a sample study on accidents in children groups aged 0-5 years old in the light of parents' responsibility in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcioglu, Omur; Aksoy, Sahin; Gunduz, Tarik

    2004-04-01

    Most frequent reasons for the accidents seen in children under 5 years of age who have a right to be cared and protected are negligence and carelessness. In this study, judicial cases were compiled from children between the age of 0 to 5, who had been injured due to severe family negligence. Files of cases were obtained from archives with file numbers, indicating cases obtained from the records of the hospital and police were studied retrospectively. The gender, age, and type of application of patients, the type of interference, and the results obtained from the procedure were studied. This study encompasses the results of cases at Osmangazi University Training, Practice and Research Hospital, Eskisehir, Turkey, between September 1999 and March 2001. Forty of 113 cases (35.4%) were due to poisoning from drugs. The main reasons were unawareness of children regarding the harm of drugs, putting drugs in reach of children and easy access to drugs from pharmacies without prescription. On the other hand, the recognition of international measures by the Turkish government is a guarantee for the children's rights. Our study implies that, as suggested by other researchers, the investigation of measures to prevent injuries due to negligence and the application of these measures will certainly improve the welfare of society.

  7. Interracial contact and racial constancy: A multi-site study of racial intergroup bias in 3-5 year old Anglo-British children

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative, valence attributions. Anglo-British children (N = 136) between 3 and 5 years of age with different levels of interracial contact undertook a racial stere...

  8. Interracial Contact and Racial Constancy: A Multi-Site Study of Racial Intergroup Bias in 3-5 Year Old Anglo-British Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative,…

  9. Maxillary Arch Dimension Changes of 3-5 Years Old Filipino Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hamid Zafarmand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the dental arch dimensions in primary dentition of 3-5 years old Filipino children and determining the existence of sexual dimorphism.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 60 Filipino preschool children aged 3-5 years old were selected from Manila city. Study casts were used for measurements of 3 arch dimensions: bicanine width, bimolar width, and arch length. The analyses were performed to compare values within age-groups and within gender-groups, besides reporting mean and standard deviations. The data were subjected to One-way ANOVA and Student t-test.Results: Significant differences were observed regarding dental arch dimensions among different ages and genders (p<0.05. Comparison between genders showed a statistically significant difference in bicanine width at the age of 4 (p=0.04, in bimolar width at age of 5 (p=0.006, and in arch length at age of 4 (p=0.03 and 5 (p=0.02. Differences within male group for different ages showed only arch length dimension was statistically significant (p=0.021. In females, however the comparison between age-groups also revealed a statistically significant difference in bicanine (p= 0.016 and bimolar widths (p=0.027 dimensions.Conclusion: The present study showed that dental arch dimensions, vary among different ages and genders of children. It also showed that a sexual dimorphism does exist between the gender groups.

  10. Children's Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates the Relations between Family Adversity and Sleep Problems in Latino 5-Year Olds in the CHAMACOS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W Thomas; Neilands, Torsten B; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Sleep problems are common for young children especially if they live in adverse home environments. Some studies investigate if young children may also be at a higher risk of sleep problems if they have a specific biological sensitivity to adversity. This paper addresses the research question, does the relations between children's exposure to family adversities and their sleep problems differ depending on their autonomic nervous system's sensitivity to challenges? As part of a larger cohort study of Latino, low-income families, we assessed the cross-sectional relations among family demographics (education, marital status), adversities [routines, major life events (MLE)], and biological sensitivity as measured by autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity associated with parent-rated sleep problems when the children were 5 years old. Mothers were interviewed in English or Spanish and completed demographic, family, and child measures. The children completed a 15-min standardized protocol while continuous cardiac measures of the ANS [respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), preejection period (PEP)] were collected during resting and four challenge conditions. Reactivity was defined as the mean of the responses to the four challenge conditions minus the first resting condition. Four ANS profiles, co-activation, co-inhibition, reciprocal low RSA and PEP reactivity, and reciprocal high RSA and PEP reactivity, were created by dichotomizing the reactivity scores as high or low reactivity. Logistic regression models showed there were significant main effects for children living in families with fewer daily routines having more sleep problems than for children living in families with daily routines. There were significant interactions for children with low PEP reactivity and for children with the reciprocal, low reactivity profiles who experienced major family life events in predicting children's sleep problems. Children who had a reciprocal, low reactivity ANS profile had more

  11. Consuming cassava as a staple food places children 2-5 years old at risk for inadequate protein intake, an observational study in Kenya and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Simon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate protein intake is known to be deleterious in animals. Using WHO consensus documents for human nutrient requirements, the protein:energy ratio (P:E of an adequate diet is > 5%. Cassava has a very low protein content. This study tested the hypothesis that Nigerian and Kenyan children consuming cassava as their staple food are at greater risk for inadequate dietary protein intake than those children who consume less cassava. Methods A 24 hour dietary recall was used to determine the food and nutrient intake of 656 Nigerian and 449 Kenyan children aged 2-5 years residing in areas where cassava is a staple food. Anthropometric measurements were conducted. Diets were scored for diversity using a 12 point score. Pearson's Correlation Coefficients were calculated to relate the fraction of dietary energy obtained from cassava with protein intake, P:E, and dietary diversity. Results The fraction of dietary energy obtained from cassava was > 25% in 35% of Nigerian children and 89% of Kenyan children. The mean dietary diversity score was 4.0 in Nigerian children and 4.5 in Kenyan children, although the mean number of different foods consumed on the survey day in Nigeria was greater than Kenya, 7.0 compared to 4.6. 13% of Nigerian and 53% of Kenyan children surveyed had inadequate protein intake. The fraction of dietary energy derived from cassava was negatively correlated with protein intake, P:E, and dietary diversity. Height-for age z score was directly associated with protein intake and negatively associated with cassava consumption using regression modeling that controlled for energy and zinc intake. Conclusions Inadequate protein intake was found in the diets of Nigerian and Kenyan children consuming cassava as a staple food. Inadequate dietary protein intake is associated with stunting in this population. Interventions to increase protein intake in this vulnerable population should be the focus of future work.

  12. A cluster randomised trial to evaluate a physical activity intervention among 3-5 year old children attending long day care services: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Meghan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children are not participating in recommended levels of physical activity and exhibit high levels of sedentary behaviour. Childcare services provide access to large numbers of young children for prolonged periods, yet there is limited experimental evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions implemented in this setting. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a multi-component physical activity intervention, delivered by childcare service staff, in increasing the physical activity levels of children attending long day care services. Methods/Design The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Three hundred children aged between 3-5 years from twenty randomly selected long day care services in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia will be invited to participate in the trial. Ten of the 20 long day care services will be randomly allocated to deliver the intervention with the remaining ten services allocated to a wait list control group. The physical activity intervention will consist of a number of strategies including: delivering structured fundamental movement skill activities, increasing physical activity opportunities, increasing staff role modelling, providing children with a physical activity promoting indoor and outdoor environment and limiting children's small screen recreation and sedentary behaviours. Intervention effectiveness will be measured via child physical activity levels during attendance at long day care. The study also seeks to determine the acceptability and extent of implementation of the intervention by services and their staff participating in the study. Discussion The trial will address current gaps in the research evidence base and contribute to the design and delivery of future interventions promoting physical activity for young children in long day care settings. Trial registration Australian New

  13. Risk factors for death among children less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2005-2007: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Ciara E; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, Benjamin; Nyaguara, Amek; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parsons, Michele B; Bopp, Cheryl A; Williams, Kara A; Vinjé, Jan; Blanton, Elizabeth; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Vulule, John; Laserson, Kayla F; Breiman, Robert F; Feikin, Daniel R; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Mintz, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. We enrolled all children diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours) at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1-8·7); having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4-3·8); having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2-3·8); and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5-4·1). A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen on blood smear, were not associated with increased risk of death. This study only captured in-hospital childhood deaths, and likely missed a substantial number of additional deaths that occurred at home. Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Shigella are associated with mortality among rural Kenyan children with diarrhea who access a hospital. Improved prevention and treatment of diarrheal disease is necessary. Enhanced surveillance and simplified laboratory diagnostics in Africa may assist clinicians in appropriately treating potentially fatal diarrheal illness.

  14. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-06-06

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.

  15. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydian Veldhuis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582 and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82, and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55. Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood health.

  16. Early Sentence Productions of 5-Year-Old Children Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binger, Cathy; Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; King, Marika; Webb, Eliza; Buenviaje, Elijia

    2017-01-01

    Four 5-year-old children with receptive language within normal limits and who required augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) received instruction in producing six different semantic--syntactic structures (three treatment and three generalization targets). Participants accessed single-meaning graphic symbols using an AAC app on an iPad…

  17. Factors increasing the caries risk of second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, Marlies E C; Schuller, Annemarie A; Veerkamp, Jaap S J; Poorterman, Jan H G; Moll, Henriette A; ten Cate, Bob J M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caries is still a prevalent condition in 5-year-old children. At present, knowledge regarding some aetiological factors, like deciduous molar hypomineralization (DMH), is limited. AIM: To investigate aetiological factors both directly and indirectly associated with caries in second prima

  18. Metamemory prediction accuracy for simple prospective and retrospective memory tasks in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Ford, Ruth M

    2014-11-01

    It is well documented that young children greatly overestimate their performance on tests of retrospective memory (RM), but the current investigation is the first to examine children's prediction accuracy for prospective memory (PM). Three studies were conducted, each testing a different group of 5-year-olds. In Study 1 (N=46), participants were asked to predict their success in a simple event-based PM task (remembering to convey a message to a toy mole if they encountered a particular picture during a picture-naming activity). Before naming the pictures, children listened to either a reminder story or a neutral story. Results showed that children were highly accurate in their PM predictions (78% accuracy) and that the reminder story appeared to benefit PM only in children who predicted they would remember the PM response. In Study 2 (N=80), children showed high PM prediction accuracy (69%) regardless of whether the cue was specific or general and despite typical overoptimism regarding their performance on a 10-item RM task using item-by-item prediction. Study 3 (N=35) showed that children were prone to overestimate RM even when asked about their ability to recall a single item-the mole's unusual name. In light of these findings, we consider possible reasons for children's impressive PM prediction accuracy, including the potential involvement of future thinking in performance predictions and PM.

  19. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: A qualitative study using nominal group technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic pre-schoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on pre-schooler physical activity (PA) (Ninos Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hisp...

  20. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  1. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  2. Storyline and Associations Pyramid as Methods of Creativity Enhancement: Comparison of Effectiveness in 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smogorzewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…

  3. Spanish-English Articulation and Phonology of 4- and 5-Year-Old Preschool Children: An Initial Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Carson, Cecyle K.; O'Brien, Jennifer Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this study, it was postulated that typically developing (i.e., normally developing without incidence of a speech or language delay or disorder) Spanish/Englishspeaking children ages 4 to 5 years old would show different articulation productions and phonological patterns in both languages. Sixteen participants from Florida were tested with…

  4. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  5. Prevalence of Malocclusion in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to obtain the prevalence of malocclusions in preschool children in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2335 children aged 3–5 years from kindergartens. Several occlusal parameters were clinically assessed, including second deciduous molar terminal plane, canine relationship, degree of overjet and overbite, anterior and posterior crossbite, and the presence or absence of physiologic spaces and crowding. All parents of subjects were asked to fill in the oral health knowledge questionnaires. The prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in Shanghai was 83.9%, and no significant differences were found in genders. Data showed that the prevalence of deep overbite (63.7% was the highest in children with malocclusion, followed by deep overjet (33.9%, midline deviation (26.6%, anterior crossbite (8.0% and anterior crowding (6.5%. The results revealed a high prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in children aged 3–5 years old of Shanghai, especially in vertical anomalies. The need for preventive orthodontic therapy is extremely desired and oral health education about malocclusion should be strengthened.

  6. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk indicators of gingivitis in 5-year-old Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Pereira, Stela Márcia; Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira de Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Zanin, Luciane; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Hebling, Eduardo; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To identify the risk indicators of gingivitis among socioeconomic, clinical and gender variables in 5-year-old children attending preschools in Piracicaba, Brazil, in 2005. The sample consisted of 728 subjects attending 22 public (n = 428) and 18 private (n = 300) preschools. A previously calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination in an outdoor setting, under natural light, using a dental mirror, Community Periodontal Index probe and air-drying. Gingival status was measured using the gingival alteration index for 5-year-olds according to the national survey carried out in 2002 in Brazil (Health Ministry of Brazil, 2004). Socioeconomic variables (monthly family income, number of people living in the household, parents' educational level, home ownership and car ownership) were collected by means of a parental semi-structured questionnaire. The prevalence of gingivitis was 16.6%. Monthly family income (p car ownership (p = 0.0854), gender (p = 0.0087), initial lesion (p indicators of gingivitis. The prevalence of gingivitis in 5-year-old preschool children in Piracicaba was 16.6%. Also, family income of up to 4 minimum wages, male gender, the presence of initial caries lesion and crowding were risk indicators of gingivitis.

  8. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4-5 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lucy; Carnell, Susan; Wardle, Jane

    2006-07-06

    Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. One hundred and nine parents of 4-5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response.

  9. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4–5 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardle Jane

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. Methods One hundred and nine parents of 4–5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS. The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Results Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. Conclusion These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response.

  10. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4–5 year old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lucy; Carnell, Susan; Wardle, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. Methods One hundred and nine parents of 4–5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Results Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. Conclusion These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response. PMID:16824218

  11. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Mortensen, Erik L; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest.

  12. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  13. Prescribing Analysis for 2–5 Years Old Children in Bandung During Year 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami A. Pratiwi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that irrational use of drugs will give medication errors effect or cause the unwanted side effects. The National Drug Policy (KONAS has developed drug policies that involve all stake-holders in Indonesia in order to minimize the irrational drug use. This study aims to analyze drug prescribing for 2–5 years old children in 14 pharmacies in Bandung during 2012. Approximately 2,195 prescription sheets from 14 pharmacies in Bandung were collected and analyzed by using prescribing indicators from the World Health Organization (WHO. We found an average number of 3.54 drugs in a prescription-sheet. We also found that 75% and 0% of all patients received antibiotics and injection, respectively. In particular, approximately 8% and 33% of all prescribed drugs were included in generic drug list and National List of Essential Medicines (DOEN, respectively. Based on data from the WHO and KONAS, it can be interpreted that the average number of drugs in a prescription-sheet is still high and the use of antibiotics is significantly higher compared to the use of antibiotics in other developing countries. Also, we summarized that the use of drugs according to generic drug list and DOEN are still low.

  14. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy...... and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which...... suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates...

  15. Hyperventilation with cold versus dry air in 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim G; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    -step protocols: dry air challenge (DACh) performed as 6 minutes of eucapnic hyperventilation with dry room-temperature air and CACh as 4 minutes of hyperventilation. Response was measured as specific airway resistance by whole-body plethysmography and expressed as change from baseline in numbers of within......UNLABELLED: Cold air challenge (CACh) has been shown to discriminate between children with asthma and healthy young children. Hyperventilation with dry room-temperature air is a simplified alternative. We compared responsiveness in young children with asthma between two standardized, single......-subject SDs (SDw). The challenge sequence was randomly assigned. A comparator challenge was performed 1 hour later if the first challenge gave a change of 3 SDw or more. Forty 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma were included. Responsiveness to cold versus dry air showed significant, but weak, correlation...

  16. A cross-sectional survey of 5-year-old children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate: the Cleft Care UK study. Part 1: background and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M; Sandy, J R; Waylen, A; Wills, A K; Al-Ghatam, R; Ireland, A J; Hall, A J; Hollingworth, W; Jones, T; Peters, T J; Preston, R; Sell, D; Smallridge, J; Worthington, H; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives We describe the methodology for a major study investigating the impact of reconfigured cleft care in the United Kingdom (UK) 15 years after an initial survey, detailed in the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report in 1998, had informed government recommendations on centralization. Setting and Sample Population This is a UK multicentre cross-sectional study of 5-year-olds born with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. Children born between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007 were seen in cleft centre audit clinics. Materials and Methods Consent was obtained for the collection of routine clinical measures (speech recordings, hearing, photographs, models, oral health, psychosocial factors) and anthropometric measures (height, weight, head circumference). The methodology for each clinical measure followed those of the earlier survey as closely as possible. Results We identified 359 eligible children and recruited 268 (74.7%) to the study. Eleven separate records for each child were collected at the audit clinics. In total, 2666 (90.4%) were collected from a potential 2948 records. The response rates for the self-reported questionnaires, completed at home, were 52.6% for the Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire and 52.2% for the Satisfaction with Service Questionnaire. Conclusions Response rates and measures were similar to those achieved in the previous survey. There are practical, administrative and methodological challenges in repeating cross-sectional surveys 15 years apart and producing comparable data. PMID:26567851

  17. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  18. A cluster randomised trial of a telephone-based intervention for parents to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in their 3- to 5-year-old children: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Amanda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption in childhood increases the risk of developing chronic disease. Despite this, a substantial proportion of children in developed nations, including Australia, do not consume sufficient quantities of fruits and vegetables. Parents are influential in the development of dietary habits of young children but often lack the necessary knowledge and skills to promote healthy eating in their children. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a telephone-based intervention for parents to increase the fruit and vegetable consumption of their 3- to 5-year-old children. Methods/Design The study, conducted in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia, employs a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Two hundred parents from 15 randomly selected preschools will be randomised to receive the intervention, which consists of print resources and four weekly 30-minute telephone support calls delivered by trained telephone interviewers. The calls will assist parents to increase the availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables in the home, create supportive family eating routines and role-model fruit and vegetable consumption. A further two hundred parents will be randomly allocated to the control group and will receive printed nutrition information only. The primary outcome of the trial will be the change in the child's consumption of fruit and vegetables as measured by the fruit and vegetable subscale of the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Pre-intervention and post-intervention parent surveys will be administered over the telephone. Baseline surveys will occur one to two weeks prior to intervention delivery, with follow-up data collection calls occurring two, six, 12 and 18 months following baseline data collection. Discussion If effective, this telephone-based intervention may represent a promising public health strategy to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in

  19. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year......-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ...

  20. Detection of E.Coli Strains Containing Shiga Toxin (Stx1/2 Gene in Diarrheal Specimens from Children Less than 5 Years Old by PCR Technique and Study of the Patterns of Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pourmand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC is an emerging bacterial pathogen in developing countries that causes several diseases such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, particularly in children. Aim of the research was detection of STEC in diarrheal specimens from under 5 year olds and study of the patterns of antibiotic resistance of these strains. Methods: In the study,300 fecal samples were collected from children with diarrhea referring to Ali Asghar Hospital. E.coli species were isolated by standard bacteriological and biochemical tests. Presence of shiga toxin genes (stx1/2 was investigated by PCR technique (Qiagen. Antibiogram test for strains containing the toxin gene was performed using 16 different antibiotic discs (MAST by disc diffusion agar (Kirby-Bauer method. Results: From 39 E.coli isolates, 9(23.1% strains were detected by PCR to contain stx1/2 gene. One strain was resistant to all 16 antibiotics. All the STEC strains were sensitive to meropenem (MRP, imipenem (IMI, gentamycin (GEN and nitrofurantoin (NI. 4(44.44% strains showed multi-drug resistant pattern. All these 4strains were resistant to cotrimoxazole(SxT. Also, 6(66.66% strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Conclusion: In Iran, shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC may be a commonly bacterial pathogen causing diarrhea, particularly in children. Therefore, we should use new techniques for investigation of these strains. Increase in number of emerging and new strains that could be resistant to classic antibiotics such as cotrimoxazole may be foreseen. It is suggested that antibiotics prescription programs in treatment of diarrhea causing E.coli strains be updated.

  1. Relationship Between Malocclusion And Behavioral, Demographic And Socioeconomic Variables: A Cross-sectional Study Of 5-year-olds.

    OpenAIRE

    Hebling S.R.; Cortellazzi K.L.; Tagliaferro E.P.; Hebling E.; Ambrosano G.M.; Meneghim M.C.; Pereira A.C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the prevalence and the severity of malocclusion have increased over the years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between malocclusions, such as open bite and crossbite, and behavioral, demographic and socioeconomic variables in a sample of 5-year-old children attending preschools. METHODS: The random sample consisted of 728 preschool children attending 22 public (n = 428) and 18 private (n = 300) preschools. A cali...

  2. Schistosoma haematobium treatment in 1-5 year old children: safety and efficacy of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Mutapi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is currently controlled by treatment of schistosome infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ. Children aged up to 5 years are currently excluded from schistosome control programmes largely due to the lack of PZQ safety data in this age group. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of PZQ treatment in such children. METHODS: Zimbabwean children aged 1-5 years (n = 104 were treated with PZQ tablets and side effects were assessed by questionnaire administered to their caregivers within 24 hours of taking PZQ. Treatment efficacy was determined 6 weeks after PZQ administration through schistosome egg counts in urine. The change in infection levels in the children 1-5 years old (n = 100 was compared to that in 6-10 year old children (n = 435. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pre-treatment S. haematobium infection intensity in 1-5 year olds was 14.6 eggs/10 ml urine and prevalence was 21%. Of the 104 children, 3.8% reported side effects within 24 hours of taking PZQ treatment. These were stomach ache, loss of appetite, lethargy and inflammation of the face and body. PZQ treatment significantly reduced schistosome infection levels in 1-5 year olds with an egg reduction rate (ERR of 99% and cure rate (CR of 92%. This was comparable to the efficacy of praziquantel in 6-10 year olds where ERR was 96% and CR was 67%. INTERPRETATION/SIGNIFICANCE: PZQ treatment is as safe and efficacious in children aged 1-5 years as it is in older children aged 6-10 years in whom PZQ is the drug of choice for control of schistosome infections.

  3. Auditory-Verbal Comprehension Development of 2-5 Year Old Normal Persian Speaking Children in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Understanding and defining developmental norms of auditory comprehension is a necessity for detecting auditory-verbal comprehension impairments in children. We hereby investigated lexical auditory development of Persian (Farsi speaking children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory comprehension of four 2-5 year old normal children of adult’s child-directed utterance at available nurseries was observed by researchers primarily to gain a great number of comprehendible words for the children of the same age. The words were classified into nouns, verbs and adjectives. Auditory-verbal comprehension task items were also considered in 2 sections of subordinates and superordinates auditory comprehension. Colored pictures were provided for each item. Thirty 2-5 year old normal children were randomly selected from nurseries all over Tehran. Children were tested by this task and subsequently, mean of their correct response were analyzed. Results: The findings revealed that there is a high positive correlation between auditory-verbal comprehension and age (r=0.804, p=0.001. Comparing children in 3 age groups of 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 year old, showed that subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension of the former group is significantly lower (p0.05, while the difference between subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension was significant in all age groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: Auditory-verbal comprehension develop much faster at lower than older ages and there is no prominent difference between word linguistic classes including nouns, verbs and adjectives. Slower development of superordinate auditory comprehension implies semantic hierarchical evolution of words.

  4. Temporally selective attention supports speech processing in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2012-01-01

    Recent event-related potential (ERP) evidence demonstrates that adults employ temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech. Doing so is an effective listening strategy since word-initial segments are highly informative. Although the development of this process remains unexplored, directing attention to word onsets may be important for speech processing in young children who would otherwise be overwhelmed by the rapidly changing acoustic signals that constitute speech. We examined the use of temporally selective attention in 3- to 5-year-old children listening to stories by comparing ERPs elicited by attention probes presented at four acoustically matched times relative to word onsets: concurrently with a word onset, 100 ms before, 100 ms after, and at random control times. By 80 ms, probes presented at and after word onsets elicited a larger negativity than probes presented before word onsets or at control times. The latency and distribution of this effect is similar to temporally and spatially selective attention effects measured in adults and, despite differences in polarity, spatially selective attention effects measured in children. These results indicate that, like adults, preschool aged children modulate temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech.

  5. [Impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of consolidated pneumonia in children younger than 5 years old in Pilar, Buenos Aires: A population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Ángela; Bakir, Julia; Bialorus, Laura; Caruso, Laura; Mirra, Diego; Santander, Celina; Terluk, Mabel; Zurdo, Pablo; Gentile, Fernando; Fermndez, María I

    2015-12-01

    In January 2012, Argentina introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in its immunization schedule for children younger than 2 years old. Coverage in Pilar in 2012 reached>90% for the first two doses and 60% for the third dose. To measure the effectiveness of PCV13 to reduce the incidence of consolidated pneumonia (CP)in the two-year period following its introduction in the immunization schedule. Prospective, population-based study conducted in Pilar. All children younger than 5 year sold with clinical signs of pneumonia assisted at the reference hospitals (both inpatients and outpatients) in the first two years since the vaccine introduction (2012-2013) were included. The annual incidence of CP was compared to the 2003-2005 baseline period. Clinical and radiological assessments were done as per the World Health Organization's criteria. Six hundred and sixty-six patients with clinical suspicion of pneumonia were included. CP was diagnosed in 309 patients; 52.1% were girls, 70.2% were younger than 2 years old, and 56.4% had been immunized with the PCV13; 4.5% (14/309) had bacteriological confirmation (S. pneumoniae: 4; N. meningitidis: 4; S. aureus: 2; others: 4). A significant reduction in the incidence of CP (per 100 000 children younger than 5 years old) was observed between the pre- and postimmunization periods, from 750 (204/27209) to 561 (171/30 475) in 2012 and to 453 (138/30 475) in 2013; effectiveness accounted for 25.2% and 39.6%, respectively. Reduction in infants younger than 1 year old: 33.9% in 2012 and 44.6% in 2013; and in children aged 12-23 months old: 57.9% in 2013. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of CP at an older age. Following the introduction of PCV13 in Argentina's immunization schedule, a fast and significant reduction in the incidence of CP was observed, mainly in infants younger than 1 year old in 2012 and in children younger than 2 years old in 2013.

  6. How do parents of 4- to 5-year-old children perceive the weight of their children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuis, H. G. M. Oude; Stolk, R. P.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A heavier weight in adults is becoming the norm rather than an abnormal weight. Whether the same trend is happening in children is unknown. Objective: To assess the perception of the weight of 4- to 5-year-old children and the recognition of overweight by both parents. Design:

  7. Examining spatial variations in the prevalence of mental health problems among 5-year-old children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raos, Robert; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine spatial variations in the prevalence rates of the three most common behaviour problems among 5-year-old children in Canada, to establish the data's suitability for potential spatial analyses of factors contributing to the prevalence of such problems. Data on kindergarten children's outcomes are routinely collected for populations of children in Canada using the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a population-level, teacher completed questionnaire. These data have been previously used to estimate prevalence rates of aggression, anxiety, and hyperactivity. The current study geographically analyzed these estimates to examine their consistency in relation to gender differences at larger provincial geographies and smaller Census Subdivision (CSD) geographies. Multilevel analyses were completed to examine the variation in prevalence at both levels of geography. Data for over 150,000 5-year-olds in three Canadian provinces and 410 Census Subdivisions were available for analyses. Prevalence rates of behaviour problems estimated with the EDI showed consistent gender relationships at both levels of aggregation. Controlling for individuals' age and sex, there was significant variation at the CSD level in risk of behavioural problems, and for anxiety and aggression, this was not explained by the distribution of CSDs in different provinces. This suggests local variation in these aspects of children's behaviour, within provinces. These findings open up the opportunity to further explore the utility and variability of EDI-based spatial variation in children's mental health.

  8. Developing a new self-reported scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsakos Georgios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the impact of oral health on quality of life of children younger than 8 years is mostly based on parental reports, as methodological and conceptual challenges have hindered the development of relevant validated self-reported measures. This study aimed to develop and assess the reliability and validity of a new self-reported oral health related quality of life measure, the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5, in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional study of two phases. First, consultation focus groups (CFGs with parents of 5-year-olds and review by experts informed the development of the SOHO-5 questionnaire. The second phase assessed its reliability and validity on a sample of grade 1 (5-year-old primary schoolchildren in the Greater Glasgow and Clyde area, Scotland. Data were linked to available clinical oral health information and analysis involved associations of SOHO-5 with subjective and clinical outcomes. Results CFGs identified eating, drinking, appearance, sleeping, smiling, and socialising as the key oral impacts at this age. 332 children participated in the main study and for 296 (55% girls, mean d3mft: 1.3 clinical data were available. Overall, 49.0% reported at least one oral impact on their daily life. The most prevalent impacts were difficulty eating (28.7%, difficulty sleeping (18.5%, avoiding smiling due to toothache (14.9% and avoiding smiling due to appearance (12.5%. The questionnaire was quick to administer, with very good comprehension levels. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.74 and item-total correlation coefficients ranged between 0.30 and 0.60, demonstrating the internal consistency of the new measure. For validity, SOHO-5 scores were significantly associated with different subjective oral health outcomes (current toothache, toothache lifetime experience, satisfaction with teeth, presence of oral cavities and an aggregate measure of clinical and subjective oral health

  9. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  10. The left perceptual bias for adult and infant faces in adults and 5-year-old children: face age matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Valentina; Pavone, Sarah; Ricciardelli, Paola; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2015-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that adults rely more heavily on information conveyed by the left side of the face in judging emotional state, gender and identity. This phenomenon, called left perceptual bias (LPB), suggests a right hemisphere lateralization of face processing mechanisms. Although specialization of neural mechanisms for processing over-experienced face categories begins during the first year of life, little is known about the developmental trajectory of the LPB and whether or when the bias becomes selective for specific face categories as a result of experience. To address these questions we tested adults (Experiment 1) and 5-year-old children (Experiment 2) with null or limited experience with infants in an identity matching-to-sample task with chimeric adult and infant faces, for which both adults and children have been shown to manifest differential processing abilities. Results showed that 5-year-olds manifest a leftward bias selective for adult faces, and the magnitude of the bias is larger for adult compared to infant faces in adults. This evidence is in line with earlier demonstrations of a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in adults and children and points to the role of experience in shaping neurocognitive specialization for face processing.

  11. Dental Health Status in 3-5 Year Old Kindergarten Children in Tehran-Iran in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghandahari-Motlagh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Assessing oral hygiene in children plays an important role in determining the health status of communities and evaluating national health promotion programs. In 1997 in Geneva, international organizations agreed on the global goal of achieving a minimum of 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children.Purpose: This study was aimed to assess the oral health status in Iranian children.Materials and Methods: Among kindergarten children residing in the capital of Iran,Tehran, 400 children between the ages of three and five years were randomly selected and participated in this study. Their deciduous teeth were examined and the health index of dmft was determined for each child. The collected data were analyzed using the oneway ANOVA (with Tukey–Kramer multiple comparisons test for Post Hoc test, t test,and chi square test.Results: In this age group, only 48.3% of the children had no tooth decay. This information shows how far we are from accomplishing the aforementioned goal. A significant increase in tooth decay in these children was correlated with neglecting oral and dental hygiene, and also failing to brush the teeth regularly and wash the mouth after consuming sweets (P<0.001. Unfortunately, visits to dentists for regular checkups are not frequent enough, and dental caries was seen more in children who did not have regular visits than those who did (P<0.001.Conclusion: More accurate planning seems necessary to achieve 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children. More emphasis must be placed on prevention programs and educating public to observe dental hygiene by brushing the teeth regularly, washing the mouth after consuming sweets, and paying their dentists regular visits.

  12. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy......Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...

  13. Molecular and epidemiological study on among children under 5 years old in Nanjing%南京地区婴幼儿杯状病毒感染的分子流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓乐; 李丹地; 程卫霞; 谢广成; 高小倩; 孔桂平; 金玉; 段招军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the infected information,clinical symptom and molecular epidemiological characteristics of HuCV infection among children under 5 years old in Nanjing.Methods In Nanjing Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from July 2010 to June 2011,we collected 428 stool specimens from children with diarrhea and 428 asymptomatic controls.Human Calicivirus were tested by using RT-PCR.Then we sequenced the nucleic acid of PCR amplifications and identified the genotype and gene group of prevalent strains.Results 63 ( 14.72% ) out of 428 stool samples were detected as HuCV.58 were norovirus and 5 were sapovirus,while G Ⅱ -4 2006b was the predominant strain of NoV.In the 428 control samples,19 samples were positive for calicivirus,there were 8 NoV and 13 SaV (Including 3 coinfection cases).Conclusion Human caliciviruses with different genotypes circulated among children in Nanjing,and G Ⅱ.2006b is the dominant genotype.%目的 了解南京地区婴幼儿杯状病毒腹泻的感染状况、临床表现以及分子流行病学特征.方法 采集2010年7月至2011年6月南京医科大学附属南京儿童医院5岁以下腹泻患儿粪便标本及儿童保健中心健康婴幼儿粪便标本各428份.采用反转录-聚合酶链反应( RT-PCR)检测杯状病毒,测序确定其基因型别.结果 428份腹泻样本中有63份为杯状病毒阳性,检出率为14.72%.其中诺如病毒GⅡ型58例,未检出诺如病毒GⅠ型,札如病毒5例,以诺如病毒GⅡ-4 2006b型为主要流行株.428份健康对照组标本杯状病毒检出19例,诺如病毒6例,札如病毒11例,2例为诺如病毒GⅡ型和札如病毒混合感染.结论 南京地区婴幼儿中存在不同基因型杯状病毒感染,流行毒株以GⅡ.2006b为主.

  14. Oral Pressure and Nasal Flow on /m/ and /p/ in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Without Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searl, Jeff; Knollhoff, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : (1) To compare oral pressure and nasal airflow in 3- to 5-year-olds versus older children and adults; (2) to describe stability of these measures in 3- to 5-year-olds at two recording times; and (3) to report participation rates of 3- to 5-year-olds for the aerodynamic protocol. Design : Prospective, nonrandomized, convenience samples in four age groups. Setting : University clinic. Participants : A total of 105 individuals without cleft palate and with normal speech for their age who were 3 to 5 (n  =  45), 7 to 9 (n  =  20), 11 to 13 (n  =  20), or 20 to 30 years old (n  =  20). All had normal nasal resonance and absence of nasally obstructive conditions on the testing day. Main Outcome Measures : Oral pressure and nasal airflow on /p/ and /m/ in syllable series and the word "hamper." Results : Oral pressure was significantly higher on /p/ for 3- to 5-year-olds versus the two oldest groups. Nasal airflow on /p/ occurred infrequently across groups. Oral pressure on /m/ was significantly higher for 3- to 5-year-olds versus adults. Nasal airflow on /m/ increased significantly with age. Oral pressure and nasal flow did not differ at two measurement times for the 3- to 5-year-olds. Of the 3- to 5-year-olds, 88% completed the protocol. Conclusions : Oral pressure decreased on /p/ and nasal airflow increased on /m/ from early childhood into adulthood. Nasal air escape on /p/ occurred rarely for speakers of any age; when it did occur, the magnitude was limited. Most preschool-aged children should be able to complete a velopharyngeal aerodynamic protocol, and measures are stable even for these young speakers.

  15. Dental caries and their treatment needs in 3-5 year old preschool children in a Rural District of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01. Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.

  16. 0 to 5 year-old children hearing appraisal by encephalic trunk audition evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Mejía, César; Unidad de Otoneurología, Sección Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze hearing development and maturation from 0 to 5 years of age by evaluating latency times with encephalic trunk audition evoked potentials (AEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-four 0 to 5 year-old patients were grouped by age and AEP performed with identical parameters; all patients were sedated to avoid interference. RESULTS: Latency times decreased as age increased, denoting age/latency time (V wave) relation as indicator of hearing development and maturation. CONclusiOn: ...

  17. Cross-sectional study on oral health behaviors among children aged 5-year old in Mianyang City,Sichuan%四川省绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申洋; 刘凡; 蒋莹; 曾庆奇; 常春; 王燕玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康现状,为进一步开展口腔健康教育提供参考依据。方法采用多阶段抽样的方法,抽取绵阳市3所幼儿园285名5岁儿童家长,参照《全国第三次口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中5岁儿童家长问卷对儿童家长进行调查。结果家长对于“窝沟封闭能预防儿童龋齿”的知晓率为11.6%,口腔知识主要来源是电视/广播(64.9%)和报纸/杂志(55.4%);90.2%的家长认同“保护孩子六龄牙很重要”;每天进食含糖食品的儿童为69.0%,75.8%儿童曾有睡前吃甜食行为;3岁以前开始刷牙的儿童占73.0%,每天帮助孩子刷牙和检查刷牙效果的家长占18.6%和19.6%;75.8%的儿童过去1年未进行任何口腔检查,其中46.7%的家长认为儿童牙齿没问题,不需要检查;最近一次口腔就诊的主要原因是急、慢性牙痛,定期检查牙齿的仅占4.2%;知识得分与态度得分之间存在正相关(r =0.285),同行为得分之间存在正相关(r =0.213)。结论绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康行为有待改善,虽然多数儿童家长有较好的口腔健康态度和一定的口腔健康知识,但是转化为实际行动的能力较弱,仍需有针对性的开展健康促进活动,以使儿童形成正确的口腔卫生行为。%Objective To understand the oral health behaviors status among children aged 5-year old in Mianyang city,and provide evidence for further implementing oral health education.Methods Using multistage sampling,285 par-ents of children aged 5-year old were selected in Mianyang city according to 3rd Chinese national oral health investigation cri-teria and children’s oral health behaviors were investigated by questionnaire.Results The awareness rate of parents’for‘Dental sealant could prevent caries for children’ was 11.6%,the main sources of oral knowledge were TV /radio (64.9%),newspaper

  18. Deficits in Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Abilities in 6.5-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E; Forsman, Lea; Adén, Ulrika; Hellgren, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Preterm children are at increased risk for poor academic achievement, especially in math. In the present study, we examined whether preterm children differ from term-born children in their intuitive sense of number that relies on an unlearned, approximate number system (ANS) and whether there is a link between preterm children's ANS acuity and their math abilities. To this end, 6.5-year-old extremely preterm (i.e., preterm children had significantly lower ANS acuity than term-born children and that these differences could not be fully explained by differences in verbal IQ, perceptual reasoning skills, working memory, or attention. Differences in ANS acuity persisted even when demands on visuo-spatial skills and attention were reduced in the ANS task. Finally, we found that ANS acuity and math ability are linked in extremely preterm children, similar to previous results from term-born children. These results suggest that deficits in the ANS may be at least partly responsible for the deficits in math abilities often observed in extremely preterm children.

  19. Deficits in Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Abilities in 6.5-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E. Libertus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Preterm children are at increased risk for poor academic achievement, especially in math. In the present study, we examined whether preterm children differ from term-born children in their intuitive sense of number that relies on an unlearned, approximate number system (ANS and whether there is a link between preterm children’s ANS acuity and their math abilities. To this end, 6.5-year-old extremely preterm (i.e., <27 weeks gestation, n = 82 and term-born children (n = 89 completed a non-symbolic number comparison (ANS acuity task and a standardized math test. We found that extremely preterm children had significantly lower ANS acuity than term-born children and that these differences could not be fully explained by differences in verbal IQ, perceptual reasoning skills, working memory, or attention. Differences in ANS acuity persisted even when demands on visuo-spatial skills and attention were reduced in the ANS task. Finally, we found that ANS acuity and math ability are linked in extremely preterm children, similar to previous results from term-born children. These results suggest that deficits in the ANS may be at least partly responsible for the deficits in math abilities often observed in extremely preterm children.

  20. Study on sleep habit among Guiyang City 0 ~ 5 years old children%贵阳市城区0~5岁儿童睡眠习惯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺赞群; 邓冰; 孙袁; 王秀荣; 陈丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the main existing sleep habit among Guiyang city 0 ~5 years old children.Methods:1 869 children aged 0 ~ 5 years were selected by stratified random sampling from Guiyang.All the participants'parents were surveyed with questionnaire by front to front.All collected data were analyzed with SPSS statistical software.Results:The main existing problems in sleep habits were as followed:there were 73.8% children cosleeped with their parents,31.1% children needed consolation.Conclusion:Sleeping with their parents is the main bed way of children sleep of Guiyang city,and sleeping in the bed with relative comfort behavior before sleep alone has more dangerous.Therefore,parents should master correct bed way,create a relatively independent and quiet space for their infant,lay the foundation for children’s sleep alone.%目的:了解贵阳市城区0~5岁儿童睡眠习惯的发生现状,以便引起有关卫生部门的重视.方法:采用分层抽样法抽取贵阳市城区1 869名0~5岁儿童作为研究对象,采用统一问卷对受试儿童家长进行现场调查,应用SPSS 17.0统计软件包进行统计学分析.结果:有73.8%的儿童与家人同睡一床,13.7%的儿童与家人同房但不同床睡眠,12.5%的儿童单独睡眠.不同年龄段儿童在睡床习惯上有统计学意义.有31.1%的儿童在夜间睡前需要安慰物.结论:同床睡眠是目前贵阳市城区儿童睡眠的主要睡床方式,且同床睡眠在睡前安慰行为上相对单独睡眠有更大的危险性.因此,父母应该掌握正确的睡床方式,给婴幼儿创造了一个相对独立的、安静的睡眠空间,为其过渡到单独睡眠奠定基础.

  1. Maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure or physical activity in 5-year-old Pima Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbe, A D; Fontvieille, A M; Pettitt, D J; Ravussin, E

    1998-10-01

    Children of women who have diabetes during pregnancy are more likely to become obese by early adulthood than those of women with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Obesity can result from either excess food intake, low levels of energy expenditure or both. In our study, we tested whether maternal diabetes status influences total energy expenditure (TEE by doubly labelled water), resting metabolic rate (RMR by ventilated hood) and physical activity level (PAL = TEE/RMR and assessed by activity questionnaire). Measurements were taken in 88 5-year-old Pima Indian children, 24 children of women with diabetes (2-h plasma glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l) diagnosed before or during pregnancy and 64 children of women with normal glucose tolerance (2-h plasma glucose pregnancy and no prior history of abnormal glucose tolerance). Although birth weight was higher in children of diabetic than of nondiabetic women (mean +/- SD; 3.8 +/- 0.6 vs 3.5 +/- 0.4 kg, p obesity seen at older ages in the children of women with diabetes could be due to excess energy intake. Alternatively, if energy expenditure does have a role in the aetiology of obesity in these children, perhaps it does so only in older children.

  2. [Life style of children and obesity in a population of 5-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Munoz, F; Miginiac, M; Billette, A; Rey, S

    1992-01-01

    The increasing level of childhood obesity has prompted some research into the early risk factors likely to lead to preventive measures. A case-control study was conducted of a five year-old population in the Rhône and Isère administrative "départements" of France during the children's first visit to primary school, with the participation of 327 obese children and 704 controls. Anthropometric data on the children since birth, together with data on their lifestyles, were collected in interviews with parents. "Family obesity" and "obesity at birth" were found to be closely related to the child's obesity at five years old (adjusted OR = 2.7 and 2.1 respectively). Of the environmental factors, the hypothesis tested paid specific attention to television viewing, snacks between meals and lack of sleep. These three variables were all found to be risk factors of obesity at five years old. However after allowing for parental obesity, the only remaining significant risk factor for obesity at five was lack of sleep (adjusted OR = 1.4). The pathogenic assumptions raised by these results are discussed.

  3. Narrative Comprehension Skills in 5-Year-Old Children: Correlational Analysis and Comprehender Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether a variety of cognitive and linguistic factors theoretically considered to be predictive of reading comprehension skills in elementary school children were also predictive of listening comprehension skills in 131 five-year-old children. The results showed that the predictors of young children's listening…

  4. [Analysis on the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-guo; Zhang, Bing; Du, Wen-wen; Su, Chang; Liu, Ai-dong; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Yu-xia; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009. The study subjects involved 2091 children from a program - 'Appropriate measurements in improving children under-nutrition in poor rural areas'. In 2009, prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old from the poor rural areas of 6 western Chinese provinces was 20.2%, with boys as 20.6% and girls as 19.7%. Prevalence rates of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in the highest and lowest areas were seen in Gansu (25.5%) and Guangxi (12.2%) provinces, respectively. The peak of vitamin A deficiency prevalence fell in the 6 - 11 months age group. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency declined along with the increase of age. from this study demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old appeared to be a serious public health problem in the poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces. Education on reasonable ways of feeding and provision of complementary nutrients to children with vitamin A deficiency, should be the key points in the prevention and control programs on this problem.

  5. 3677例5岁以下儿童死亡原因分析%Analysis of death dauses and study on the intervention measures in children under 5 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓茹

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析山东省枣庄市5岁以下儿童死亡情况、死亡原因及动态变化,为政府部门决策提供依据.方法 对2002至2009年枣庄市5岁以下儿童死亡资料进行统计分析.结果 2002至2009年枣庄市共计出生活产婴儿307 238例,5岁以下儿童死亡3677例,死亡率为11.97‰.婴儿死亡3338例,死亡率为10.86‰,占5岁以下儿童总数的90.78%其中新生儿死亡2665例,死亡率为8.67‰,占婴儿死亡总数的79.84%;1-5岁儿童死亡339例,死亡率为1.10‰,占5岁以下儿童死亡总数的9.22%.不同年龄儿童死亡率差异有统计学意义(x2=2358.90,P<0.05).分别统计各年度不同阶段儿童死亡率,均呈逐年下降趋势,其中5岁以下儿童死亡率(x2=512.93,P<0.05)、婴儿死亡率(x2=491.73,P<0.05)、新生儿死亡率(x2=422.40,P<0.05)、1~5岁儿童死亡率(x2=34.38,P<0.05),均有统计学意义.男童死亡率为11.02‰(1847/165738),女童死亡率为13.10‰(1830/137823),男女死亡率差异有统计学意义(x2=27.94,P<0.05).因抢救无效在医院内死亡者3143例,占85.48%;在家中或就医途中死亡者534例,占14.52%.死因前7位依次为早产或低出生体重、出生窒息、肺炎、其他先天畸形、意外死亡、先天性心脏病和颅内出血,前3位死因致死人数占总死亡人数的59.11%(2174/3677).结论 早产或低出生体重、出生窒息和肺炎是导致5岁以下儿童死亡的主要原因.2002年至2009年枣庄市5岁以下儿童死亡率逐年下降.建立健全妇幼保健三级网络、加强围产期保健、提高产科技术水平、提高危重患者急救能力、普及科学知识和健康教育知识等是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.%Objective To analyze the death materials, death causes and their dynamic change in children under 5 years old in Zaozhuang City during 2002-2009. Methods Cases of death in children under 5 years old during 2002-2009 in Zaozhuang City were collected and analyzed. Results The

  6. Distribution of plaque and gingivitis and associated factors in 3- to 5-year-old Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Eliane Gerson; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Simone Helena

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the distribution of plaque and gingivitis and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and orthodontic variables (spacing in anterior teeth, anterior open bite, and crossbite), and visible plaque level (low, medium, high) in Brazilian preschoolers. The sample comprised 490 3- to 5-year-old children from nursery schools in Canoas, a city in southern Brazil. One single, trained observer examined children's oral cavities and determined visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI). Results showed that 99% of the children had visible plaque and 77% had gingivitis (GBI>0). A positive (r(s)=0.32) and significant correlation was found between VPI and GBI. VPI and GBI were significantly higher in posterior teeth and buccal and lingual surfaces. VPI was significantly higher in boys, children of low-income families, and without spacing in maxillary anterior teeth. Gingivitis was associated with absence of spacing in maxillary anterior teeth and plaque level. The most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children and mothers-particularly those with a low socioeconomic status--to motivate self-care and prevent gingivitis.

  7. Psychosocial Development in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Using Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the psychosocial development and factors influencing outcomes of 5-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). It further examines differences between children with CIs and HAs with similar levels of hearing loss. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study—a prospective, population-based study. Parents/caregivers of children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 333), the Social Skills subscale from the Child Development Inventory (n = 317), and questionnaires on functional auditory behavior (Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children), and demographics. Children completed assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability (Wechsler Non-verbal Scale of Ability) and language (Preschool Language Scale - fourth edition). On average, parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores on emotional or behavioral difficulties were within 1 SD of the normative mean; however, Child Development Inventory scores on social skills were more than 1 SD below the norm. Children with severe-to-profound hearing losses using HAs had significantly more behavioral problems than children with CIs. Regression analyses showed that non-verbal cognitive ability, language, and functional auditory behavior were significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes for children with HAs, whereas outcomes for children with CIs were associated with functional auditory behavior and the presence of additional disabilities. Age at hearing intervention, severity of hearing loss, and communication mode were not associated with outcomes. The results suggest that even children who develop good language ability with the help of a HA or CI may have psychosocial problems if they exhibit difficulties with listening and communicating in everyday environments. The findings have implications for developing interventions for young children with hearing

  8. Fertility treatment and child intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of fertility treatment and subfertility with offspring intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark 2003-2008. POPULATION: A cohort of 1782 children sampled from the Danish National Birth...... Cohort. METHODS: The children were tested with a neuropsychological battery at age five. In addition to tests of intelligence, attention and executive functions, the follow up included extensive information on important covariates. The analyses were conducted using multiple linear regression and adjusted...... for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy and child gender, child age, and examiner. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children...

  9. Associations Between Swedish Mothers' and 3- and 5-Year-Old Children's Food Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. M.; Heitmann, B. L.; Larsson, Christel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between mothers' and children's food intake. Design Cross-sectional study. Background variables collected through self-reports and from the register of the total population. Mothers recorded their own and their children's food intake in a diary during 2 4-day...

  10. Energy balance-related behavioural patterns in 5-year-old children and the longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Stafleu, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study examined clustering of dietary intake and activity behaviours (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association with BMI and overweight development.DESIGN: Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to

  11. Energy balance-related behavioural patterns in 5-year-old children and the longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Stafleu, A.; Thijs, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examined clustering of dietary intake and activity behaviours (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association with BMI and overweight development. Design Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to

  12. Energy balance-related behavioural patterns in 5-year-old children and the longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Stafleu, A.; Thijs, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examined clustering of dietary intake and activity behaviours (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association with BMI and overweight development. Design Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to i

  13. A near-vision chart for children aged 3-5 years old:new designs and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Qing Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To introduce a new near-vision chart for children aged 3-5 years old and its clinical applications.METHODS:The new near-vision chart which combined the Bailey-Lovie layout with a newly devised set of symmetry symbols was designed based on Weber-Fechner law. It consists of 15 rows of symmetry symbols, corresponding to a visual acuity range from 1.3 to 0.1 logMAR. The optotypes were red against a white background and were specially shaped four basic geometric symbols:circle, square, triangle,and cross, which matched the preschool children''s cognitive level. A regular geometric progression of the optotype sizes and distribution was employed to arrange in 15 lines. The progression rate of the optotype size between two lines was 1.2589 and two smaller groups of optotypes ranging from 0.7 to -0.1 logMAR were included for repetitive testing. A near visual acuity was recorded in logMAR or decimal, and the testing distance was 25 cm.RESULTS:This new near-vision chart with pediatric acuity test optotypes which consists of 4 different symbols (triangle, square, cross, and circle met the national and international eye chart design guidelines. When performing the near visual acuity assessment in preschoolers (3-5 years old. It overcame an inability to recognize the letters of the alphabet and difficulties in designating the direction of black abstract symbols such as the tumbling ''E'' or Landolt ''C'', which the subjects were prone to lose interest in. Near vision may be recorded in different notations:decimal acuity and logMAR. These two notations can be easily converted each other in the new near-vision chart. The measurements of this new chart not only showed a significant correlation and a good consistency with the Chinese national standard logarithmic near-vision chart (r=0.932, P<0.01, but also indicated good test-retest reliability (89% of retest scores were within 0.1 logMAR units of the initial test score and a high response rate

  14. Effects of Adjacent Teeth on Caries Status of a Deciduous Tooth in 3-5 Years-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Afroughi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Based on the carried out studies, the prevalence of dental caries in preschool children is high and ranges from 31.64 to 83.7 percents in Iran. The dmft criterion is not able to compute the impact of neighboring teeth on caries status of a tooth in deciduous teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the above issue in a sample of 3-5 years old children in Tehran during 2008-2009. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a group of 400, 3–5 years old children who lived in Tehran and referred to Pediatric Dentistry Department of the Dentistry Faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, for treatment of their deciduous teeth were investigated The demographic variables and mouth health cares data were collected by a questionnaire and the caries status of deciduous teeth were diagnosed by standard methods. The caries statuses were considered as spatially correlated binary data. The auto logistic regression model was implemented for inspecting the association of a tooth and its neighboring teeth which consists of two adjacent teeth and the opponent tooth. The effects of factors were tested using z-score. Results: The fitted model and the computed criteria showed that there was a strong dependency between caries statuses of a tooth and its three neighbors (including the two adjacent and the vertically opponent teeth (p=0.0001. Also the effect of spatial auto covariate which is equivalent to the sum of statuses of nearest neighbors of a tooth is highly significant. Furthermore, the effects of local variables such as jaw and posterior-anterior positions were also highly significant (p=0.0001. Conclusions: In deciduous teeth, the three nearest neighbors have a high effect on a tooth. As a result, the teeth in maxilla and posterior locations are decayed sooner than the other ones. These findings may be considered in preventive programs of health of mouth and tooth in children.

  15. Lateralized theta wave connectivity and language performance in 2- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Ueno, Sanae; Remijn, Gerard B; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Munesue, Toshio; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Oi, Manabu; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2011-10-19

    Recent neuroimaging studies support the view that a left-lateralized brain network is crucial for language development in children. However, no previous studies have demonstrated a clear link between lateralized brain functional network and language performance in preschool children. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive brain imaging technique and is a practical neuroimaging method for use in young children. MEG produces a reference-free signal, and is therefore an ideal tool to compute coherence between two distant cortical rhythms. In the present study, using a custom child-sized MEG system, we investigated brain networks while 78 right-handed preschool human children (32-64 months; 96% were 3-4 years old) listened to stories with moving images. The results indicated that left dominance of parietotemporal coherence in theta band activity (6-8 Hz) was specifically correlated with higher performance of language-related tasks, whereas this laterality was not correlated with nonverbal cognitive performance, chronological age, or head circumference. Power analyses did not reveal any specific frequencies that contributed to higher language performance. Our results suggest that it is not the left dominance in theta oscillation per se, but the left-dominant phase-locked connectivity via theta oscillation that contributes to the development of language ability in young children.

  16. The relationship between water fluoridation and socioeconomic deprivation on tooth decay in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M; Worthington, H

    1999-04-24

    To examine the relationship between water fluoridation, socioeconomic deprivation and tooth decay in 5-year-olds. 10,004 children: 1,051 in naturally fluoridated Hartlepool in 1991/92, 3,816 in fluoridated Newcastle & North Tyneside and 5,137 in non-fluoridated Salford & Trafford in 1993/94. Correlations between mean electoral ward dmft and ward Townsend Scores from the 1991 census. Regardless of the level of water fluoridation significant correlations were found between deprivation and tooth decay. Multiple linear regression models for dmft showed a statistically significant interaction between ward Townsend score, and both types of water fluoridation, confirming the more deprived the area the greater the reduction in tooth decay. At a Townsend score of zero (the English average) there was a predicted 43% reduction in decay in 5-year-olds in fluoridated areas. Tooth decay is strongly associated with social deprivation. The findings confirm that the implementation of water fluoridation has halved tooth decay in 5-year-old children and that the dental caries divide between rich and poor is reduced.

  17. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  18. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Its Anemia in 1-5 Years Old Children and Their Mothers in Birjand City

    OpenAIRE

    Azita Fesharakinia

    2014-01-01

    Background &Objective: Micronutrient deficiencies are the most common nutritional disorders in the world in which iron deficiency is the most important one. This study was done for investigating the prevalence of iron deficiency and its anemia in children and their mothers in Birjand city in 2011.Materials & Methods: 143 children of 1-5 years old who referred to the health care centers of Birjand city were chosen by multistage cluster random sampling method and both the children and mothers w...

  19. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Its Anemia in 1-5 Years Old Children and Their Mothers in Birjand City

    OpenAIRE

    Azita Fesharakinia

    2014-01-01

    Background &Objective: Micronutrient deficiencies are the most common nutritional disorders in the world in which iron deficiency is the most important one. This study was done for investigating the prevalence of iron deficiency and its anemia in children and their mothers in Birjand city in 2011.Materials & Methods: 143 children of 1-5 years old who referred to the health care centers of Birjand city were chosen by multistage cluster random sampling method and both the children and mothers w...

  20. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace S. Marquis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011 was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1 randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2 non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3 prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4 prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies, 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies, 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status, and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status. This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt.

  1. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Persian Version of Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaneh Asgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Indicators of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in children are widely adopted to evaluate the effects of oral problems. Recently, the scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5 was developed based on the children’s self-reports. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the questionnaire in a sample of Iranian children.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 children from four areas of Isfahan selected via non-random purposive sampling. After forward-backward translation of the questionnaire, content and face validity evaluation, a pilot test was carried out. Children forms were completed by interview, while parents forms were self-administered. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in 30 subjects. Construct validity, internal consistency and descriptive quality of life score were assessed with SPSS 18. The child-parent agreement was measured with correlation test and paired t-test (α=0.05.Results: The mean (±standard deviation quality of life scores in children and parents were 2.3±3 and 1.3±1.9, respectively. The most prevalent impacts were difficulty sleeping and eating. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.82 and 0.67 for the child and parent versions, respectively. Significant correlation of the scores with the oral health rating, pain history and perceived need for treatment confirmed its construct validity (r: 0.4-0.6, P<0.05. The hypothesis of the agreement was not supported (P>0.05.Conclusions: Based on the findings, the Persian version of SOHO-5 has acceptable reliability and validity for use in the pediatric population of Iran while there were some conflicts by parents.Keywords: Quality of Life; Oral Health; Child; Surveys and Questionnaires

  2. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parallel......-group study of patients with asthma exacerbations associated with respiratory infections and minimal symptoms between episodes. Patients were randomized to receive oral montelukast 4 or 5 mg (depending on age) (n = 278) or placebo (n = 271) once per day for 12 months. Caregivers recorded children's symptoms......, beta-agonist use, and health care resource use in a diary card. Over 12 months of therapy, montelukast significantly reduced the rate of asthma exacerbations by 31.9% compared with placebo. The average rate of exacerbation episodes per patient was 1.60 episodes per year on montelukast compared with 2...

  3. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  4. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  5. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  6. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in 2- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D; Scharf, Rebecca J; Demmer, Ryan T

    2013-09-01

    Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother's BMI, and television viewing. Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10-1.85, P children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children.

  7. Evaluation of the relationship between milk consumption and dental caries in 3-5 years old children in Ray city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mahmodian

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, Tooth decay is still one of the most significant problems in human communities. Tooth decay is defined as a microbial disease that causes demineralization of hard tissues and degradation of organic components of teeth. Although there are various theories on etiology of dental caries, Miller’s acidogenic theory (1890 and Gottileb’s proteolitic theory (1933 have gained the most credibility among the others. In general, status and amount of saliva, oral hygiene, tooth structure, type and quantity of microorganisms and diet are the most important factors that can lead to tooth decay. Since the manner and type of child nutrition during infancy is considered as a significant factor in development and progression of dental caries and also there has not been published any research on this subject in Iran yet, this study was designed and carried out to find the association between the type of milk intake in infancy and the rate of dental caries in 3-5 year old children.

  8. Sweet preferences and sugar consumption of 4- and 5-year-old children: role of parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationships in children between rules that restrict consumption of mono- and disaccharides (MDS), consumption of MDS and preferences for sucrose-containing orangeade. The background ideas of restriction rules we also investigated. To this end, 44 children (5.1±0.5

  9. Prevalence of obesity among 2- 5 years old children of Amritsar: A comparison of three criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Kaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study of 1879 subjects (949 boys and 930 girls to define the prevalence of overweight and obesity using three reference standards. The study involved affluent preschool children (2-5 years of age from six crèches, fifteen play-pen and three public schools of Amritsar city. Weight and height was obtained for each child and body mass index was calculated according to the formula weight (kg/ height (m². The prevalence of overweight and obesity was then determined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF and World Health Organization (WHO standards. All three methods gave different results. The present study revealed that WHO standards gave higher estimates of overweight and obesity while IOTF gave lower estimates. The level of agreement (k=0.94 between the WHO and CDC standards was higher. The prevalence of childhood obesity is dependent on the growth reference used.

  10. The varicella vaccination pattern among children under 5 years old in selected areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chenyan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yamin; Liu, Yan; Cao, Linsheng; Zhu, Xu; Martin, Kathryn; Wang, Huaqing; An, Zhijie

    2017-07-11

    Vaccine is the most effective way to protect susceptible children from varicella. Few published literature or reports on varicella vaccination of Chinese children exist. Thus, in order to obtain specific information on varicella vaccination of this population, we conducted this survey. We first used purposive sampling methods to select 6 provinces 10 counties from eastern, middle and western parts of China with high quality of Immunization Information Management System (IIMS), and then randomly select children from population in the IIMS, then we checked vaccination certificate on-site. Based on the varicella vaccination information collected from 481 children's vaccination certificates from all ten selected counties in China, overall coverage of the first dose of varicella vaccine was 73.6%. There is a positive linear correlation between per capita GDP and vaccine coverage at county level (r=0.929, P social-economic status. The cumulative coverage had no significant statistical difference among different age group. Most children received varicella vaccine before 3 years old. We suggest introducing the varicella vaccine into routine immunization program, to ensure universal high coverage among children in China. We also suggest that varicella vaccination information should be checked before entering school, in order to control and prevent varicella outbreaks in schools.

  11. English Speech Acquisition in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Learning Russian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Wright, Kira L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition in Russian-English (RE) bilingual children was investigated, exploring the effects of Russian phonetic and phonological properties on English single-word productions. Russian has more complex consonants and clusters and a smaller vowel inventory than English. Method: One hundred thirty-seven single-word samples…

  12. Physical activity in light of affordances in outdoor environments: qualitative observation studies of 3-5 years olds in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.

  13. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be active, eat right" study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); I. Vogel (Ineke); L. van Rossem (Lenie); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIt is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among

  14. Centre-level variation of treatment and outcome in 5-year-old children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate: The Cleft Care UK study. Part 1: Methodology and results for dento-facial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, A K; Mahmoud, O; Hall, A; Sell, D; Smallridge, J; Southby, L; Toms, S; Waylen, A; Wren, Y; Ness, A R; Sandy, J R

    2017-06-01

    Outline methods used to describe centre-level variation in treatment and outcome in children in the Cleft Care UK (CCUK) study. Report centre-level variation in dento-facial outcomes. Two hundred and sixty-eight five-year-old British children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Between January 2011 and December 2012, data were collected on a comprehensive range of outcomes. Child facial appearance and symmetry were assessed using photographic pictures. Dental arch relationships were assessed from standardized dental study models. Hierarchical statistical models were used to predict overall means and the variance partition coefficient (VPC)-a measure of amount of variation in treatment or outcome explained by the centre. Data on dento-alveolar arch relationships and facial appearance were available on 197 and 252 children, respectively. The median age of the children was 5.5 years, and 68% were boys. Variation was described across 13 centres. There was no evidence of centre-level variation in good or poor dento-alveolar arch relationships with a VPC of 4% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, there was no evidence of centre-level variation in good or poor facial appearance with a VPC of 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of centre-level variation for dento-facial outcomes although this study only had the power to detect large variation between sites. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Modeling diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years old: a GAM and GLM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sharif mahmood

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper presents the application of generalized additive model (GAM and generalized linear model (GLM as an exploratory tool for analyzing the factors that affect the occurrence of diarrhea of Bangladeshi child. The relation between the factors that are related with occurrence of diarrhea can be obtained by modeling parametric approach (GLM. But in practice the relation is not straight forward and we require elaborate explanations which incline semiparametric regression (GAM. We present a unified approach for analyzing factors affecting diarrhea via GLM and GAM. We applied Akaike's information criterion to select the best model for our data. Our study analyzes nonlinear resolution of covariate not available with traditional parametric models and the results provide some evidence on how to reduce occurrence of diarrhea by improving socio-economic and public health conditions.

  16. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2- and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpers, L K; de Pijper, J J; Sauer, P J J; Stolk, R P; Corpeleijn, E

    2014-04-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of 2 (n=1488) and 5 (n=1366) years. At 2 years, 124 (8.3%) children were overweight and 44 (3.0%) did not eat breakfast daily. At 5 years, 180 (13.2%) children were overweight and 73 (5.3%) did not eat breakfast daily. Children belonging to families of non-Dutch origin, those with lower educated parents and those with single parents skipped breakfast more often. Breakfast skipping in 2- and 5-year-olds is rare in the Netherlands. We found no association between skipping breakfast and overweight, neither at age 2 (odds ratio (OR): 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-5.64)) nor at age 5 (OR: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.19-1.11)). Also the type of breakfast was not related to overweight at 5 years. An explanation for this finding might be that skipping breakfast is not (yet) an issue in these children.

  17. Decreased prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and stabilisation of obesity trends in 5-year-old children: possible effects of changed public health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedej, Katarina; Kotnik, Primož; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Grošelj, Urh; Širca Čampa, Andreja; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Bratina, Nataša

    2014-02-01

    Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001-2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005. Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003-2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children. Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included. Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN BMI VALUES AND TC LEVELS WAS FOUND. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY PREVALENCE WERE STABILISED FROM 2001 TO 2009 (ODDS RATIO (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99-1.3) and 1.13 (0.89-1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65-0.79) and 0.75 (0.64-0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41-0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61-0.8)). This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

  18. The Effect of Parental Presence on the 5 year-Old Childrens Anxiety and Cooperative Behavior in the First and Second Dental Visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsa Paryab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:One of the most significant problems in pediatric dentistry is behavioral resistance of preschool children in the first visit. There is a debate on parental presence in operation room. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Iranian 5-year-old childrens behavior including anxiety and cooperation relative to parental presence in the first and second dental appointments. Methods:The study was conducted on sixty seven 5-year-old children selected according to inclusion criteria and randomly divided into two subgroups. Children in group I were visited in parents presence and in group II in parents absence. Before the childs first dental visit, parents were interviewed. Forty eight of the children receiving the initial examination were recalled for a second visit. The childrens responses during the Holst procedure of the first visit and restorative second visit were assessed using a combination of two measures including heart rate and clinical behavior. The dentist-patient interactions were regulated by standardized scripts and recorded on videotape. Then, the behavior of the child on the recording during each visit was quantified by two pediatric dentists independently according to Venham 6-point rating scale and Frankle 4-point rating scale. Findings:There were no significant differences between the heart rate measures of children in group I and II in the first and second visit (0.67, 0.8 respectively. There were also no significant differences between the clinical anxiety scores of children in the two groups in the first and second visit (0.98, 0.42 respectively. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the clinical cooperation scores of children in group I and group II in the first and second visit (0.88, 0.40 respectively, neither were there any significant differences between response measures of each child between two visits (P>0.05. In addition, there were no significant differences related to sex, parental

  19. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  20. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.

  1. Treatment outcome after neonatal cleft lip repair in 5-year-old children with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košková, Olga; Vokurková, Jitka; Vokurka, Jan; Bryšova, Alena; Šenovský, Pavel; Čefelínová, Julie; Lukášová, Darina; Dorociaková, Petra; Abelovský, Juraj

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess speech outcomes and dental arch relationship of 5-year-old Czech patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) who have undergone neonatal cleft lip repair and one-stage palatal closure. Twenty-three patients with UCLP, born between 2009 and 2010, were included in the study. Three universal speech parameters (hypernasality, articulation and speech intelligibility) have been devised for speech recordings evaluation. Outcomes of dental arch relationship were evaluated by applying the GOSLON Yardstick and subsequently compared with the GOSLON outcome of other cleft centers. Moderate hypernasality was present in most cases, the mean value for articulation and speech intelligibility was 2.07 and 1.93, respectively. The Kappa values for inter-examiner agreement for all the three speech outcomes ranged from 0.786 to 0.808. Sixty-three percent of patients were scored GOSLON 1 and 2, 26% GOSLON 3, and 10% GOSLON 4. GOSLON mean score was 2.35. Interrater agreement was very good, represented by kappa value of 0.867. The treatment protocol, involving neonatal cleft lip repair and one-stage palatal repair performed up to the first year of UCLP patient's life, has shown good speech outcomes and produced very good treatment results in regard to maxillary growth, comparable with other cleft centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary care physicians' knowledge of and confidence in their referrals for special education services in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Elizabeth A; Lumeng, Julie C; Clark, Sarah J

    2014-02-01

    Children 3 to 5 years old with developmental delays are eligible for special education services. To assess primary care physicians' (PCPs) knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their referrals to the special education system on behalf of children 3 to 5 years old. Mail survey of 400 office-based general pediatricians and 414 family physicians in Michigan, fielded in fall 2012 and winter 2013, with a response rate of 44%. The 4-page survey included knowledge questions about special education eligibility, PCPs' role in accessing school-based services, and self-confidence in ability to help patients access these services. PCPs neither fully understood requirements for special education services nor were they very confident in identifying 3- to 5-year-old children eligible for special education services. PCPs recognize interacting with special education as a relative weakness, and they may be accepting of interventions to improve their knowledge and skills.

  3. The relationship between motor performance and parent-rated executive functioning in 3- to 5-year-old children: What is the role of confounding variables?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Veer, Gerda; Visser, Jan; Cantell, Marja

    2017-01-01

    It is generally agreed that motor performance and executive functioning (EF) are intertwined. As the literature on this issue concerning preschool children is scarce, we examined the relationship between motor performance and parent-rated EF in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children with different le

  4. Longitudinal Observation on Rotavirus Infection in Children Aged under 5 Years Old Hospitalized in 2 Hospitals of Ukraine in 2006–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Chernyshova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. More than 50,000 cases of acute gastroenteritis are registered in children in Ukraine annually. Statistical data concerning rotavirus infection are not correct due to poor capacities of rotavirus laboratory diagnostics in medical units. The aim of the study was to estimate rotavirus infection burden, to analyze and describe rotavirus infection in children aged under 5 years old who were hospitalized into two infectious hospitals (Kyiv and Odessa within 2006–2015 period. Material and Methods. Investigation was carried according to a standard protocol, adopted by WHO. The disease severity was estimated by score scale for clinical manifestations of rotavirus gastroenteritis assessment of Vesikari. Results. At the period from December 2006 to December 2015 20,932 children aged under 5 years old were observed. Those children admitted to hospitals of infectious diseases in Kyiv and Odessa for acute gastroenteritis and met studies inclusive criteria. From them 18,384 (87.33 % children were investigated for rotavirus, i.e. wide majority of all children admitted to hospitals with gastroenteritis. The cause of their hospitalization was rotavirus infection in almost half of all children. It was mentioned that in some periods hospitalization rate for rotavirus as a cause of gastroenteritis was up to 70 % of all cases. In Ukraine incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized children up to 5 years old was the highest one among 6 countries of the European region included into Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network. In Ukraine it was 41 % and the region mean value was 24 %. Within the total period of observation half of all hospitalizations caused by rotavirus occurred in children of first two years of life. All time the main viruses causing infection in both hospitals were of 4 genotypes: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8]. Genotype G9P[8] possessed a significant position in Kyiv, but there were years, when it was not identified neither in Kyiv

  5. Results of a Multidisciplinary Treatment Program in 3-Year-Old to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a multidisciplinary intervention program for 3-year-old to 5-year-old overweight and obese children compared with a usual-care program. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial conducted from October 2006 to March 2008. Setting: Groningen Expert Center for Kid

  6. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  7. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  8. Impact of sentence length and phonetic complexity on intelligibility of 5-year-old children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kristen M; Hustad, Katherine C

    2014-08-01

    Reduced speech intelligibility is a barrier to effective communication for many children with cerebral palsy (CP). Many variables may impact intelligibility, yet little research attention has sought to quantify these variables. This study examined the influence of sentence characteristics on intelligibility in two groups of children with CP (those with and without dysarthria) and typically-developing children. Questions addressed effects of sentence length on transcription intelligibility among groups; effects of phonetic complexity on intelligibility; and differences in the relationship between sentence characteristics and intelligibility across individual children with dysarthria. Speech samples varying in length from 2-7 words were elicited from 16 children with CP (mean age 59.6 months) and eight typically-developing children (mean age = 59.8 months). One hundred and nineteen naïve listeners made orthographic transcriptions of the children's sentence productions. Sentence length and phonetic complexity affected intelligibility for all groups of children, but had a greater impact on intelligibility for children with dysarthria than those without speech motor impairment. Variable relationships between sentence characteristics and intelligibility were found across individual children with dysarthria. Results suggest that reducing both the length and phonetic complexity of utterances may enhance intelligibility for children with dysarthria. However, there may be important individual differences in the impact of one or both types of sentence characteristics. This highlights the importance of considering individual speech motor profiles when deciding on treatment strategies.

  9. Emotional, physical, and social needs among 0-5-year-old children displaced by the 2010 Chilean earthquake: associated characteristics and exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, MaryCatherine; Murray, Kara A; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Arriet, Felipe; Moraga, Cecilia; Vega, Miguel Angel Cordero

    2017-04-01

    An 8.8-magnitude earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010, displacing nearly 2,000 children aged less than five years to emergency housing camps. Nine months later, this study assessed the needs of 140 displaced 0-5-year-old children in six domains: caregiver stability and protection; health; housing; nutrition; psychosocial situation; and stimulation. Multivariate regression was applied to examine the degree to which emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with baseline characteristics and exposure to the earthquake, to stressful events, and to ongoing risks in the proximal post-earthquake context. In each domain, 20 per cent or fewer children had unmet needs. Of all children in the sample, 20 per cent had unmet needs in multiple domains. Children's emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with ongoing exposures amenable to intervention, more than with baseline characteristics or epicentre proximity. Relief efforts should address multiple interrelated domains of child well-being and ongoing risks in post-disaster settings. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  10. Prevalence of dental caries in 5-year-old Greek children and the use of dental services: evaluation of socioeconomic, behavioural factors and living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantonanaki, Magdalini; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Mamai-Homata, Eleni; Papaioannou, William

    2013-04-01

    To assess dental caries and use of dental services experience in 5-year-old children attending public kindergartens in Attica, Greece and to examine the influence of certain socioeconomic factors and living conditions as well as dental behaviours and attitudes. In this cross-sectional study, a random and stratified sample of 605 Greek children was examined using decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces and simplified debris indices. The use of dental services was measured by children's dental visits (any dental visit up to the age of 5 years). Care Index was also calculated. Risk indicators were assessed by a questionnaire. Zero-inflated Poisson and Logistic Regression Analysis were generated to test statistical significant associations. The prevalence of dental caries was 16.5%. Care Index was 32% and dental visits were reported for the 84% of the children. Medium Socio-Economic Level (SEL) was associated with no detectable caries. High SEL was related to decreased decayed, missing, filled teeth values, while female gender and rented houses had the opposite effect. The age of the mother (35-39 years) and the higher SEL were related to higher levels of dental services use. It is suggested that there are differences in the experience of dental caries and use of dental services among preschool children in Attica, which are related to demographic, socioeconomic factors and living conditions. Dental public polices should focus on groups with specific characteristics in order to improve oral health levels of disease-susceptible populations. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. Is Motor Performance in 5.5-Year-Old Children Associated with the Presence of Generalized Joint Hypermobility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.M. de; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Scheper, M.C.; Sanden, M.W. van der; Engelbert, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) in Dutch children aged 5.5 years, and to examine the association between GJH and motor performance and development over time. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort of 249 children was recruited. GJH was assessed with the Be

  12. Development of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for sapovirus in children under 5-years-old in Regina Margherita Hospital of Turin, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Brusin, Martina Rosa; Finotti, Serena; Paderi, Giulia; Gabiano, Clara

    2016-12-02

    Gastroenteritis is a common disease in children. It is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis, but it causes milder illness than do rotavirus and norovirus. There is high variability in the analytical performance of quantitative PCR-based assays among clinical laboratories. This study developed a reverse transcription real-time PCR method to detect SaV in fecal specimens collected from children under 5-years-old with acute gastroenteritis. Of 137 episodes of acute gastroenteritis, 15 (10.9%) were associated with SaV genomic detection, with a median viral load of 6.6(log10) ± 7.1(log10) genomes/mg fecal specimens. There was a significant difference in detection rate between males and females (9.48% (13/15) vs. 1.46% (2/15), p = 0.0232). Among the 15 SaV-positive cases, 6 were also positive for rotavirus. Viral RNA recovery rate ranged from 46% to 77% in the manual RNAzol protocol and from 31% to 90% in the automated Maxwell protocol. We also studied whether human genomic DNA influences the sensitivity of the assay: its presence caused a decrease in PCR sensitivity. The development of a laboratory-designed real-time PCR TaqMan assay for quantitative detection of SaV and the optimization and standardization of this assay, using stools of children with acute gastroenteritis, are described.

  13. Evaluating the Effect of Enviromental Factors and Early Childhood Caries on Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count in 3-5 Year Old Children in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoumi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common problems in children worldwide which is seen in 3-45% preschool children population. Bacterial factor is one of the main four components (time, microorganism, diet, host to create caries. Streptococcus mutans is one of the most important cariogenic microorganisms. The objective of this study is evaluating Streptococcus mutans count in children with ECC and caries free children considering other factors. The aim of this study was to find the CFU of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of children with ECC versus caries free ones. In addition environmental factors affecting CFU of this micro organism. Methods: Salivary Streptococcus mutans count in 76 3-5 year old children was done in two groups (ECC and caries free. Non stimulated saliva was collected and cultured on Streptococcus mutans specific growth medium. Data was analyzed with Chi-Square, spearman, Kruskal–Wallis,Mann–Whitney tests. Results: Differences in colony count in study groups were statistically significant and was less in caries free children (p value<0.001. Colony count had no relationship with age, sex, weight, Body Mass Index(BMI and parents educational level but sugar consumption frequency, feeding method (breast or bottle and night time breast feeding had significant effect on colony count (p value=0.019. Conclusion: In the current study, a statistically significant difference was seen in colony count in two groups. Sugar consumption frequency and feeding method had a significant impact on colony count. Micro organisms are still the most important factors in creating caries but feeding pattern and sugar consumption frequency also have an important role. The results also showed that parents educational level does not influence reducing caries which should be noted.

  14. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders Among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan C.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n=476) with prenatal drug exposures documented by maternal interview, urine and meconium assays. Study participants included 400 African-American children from the birth cohort, 208 cocaine-exposed (CE) and 192 non-cocaine-exposed (NCE) who attended a 5-year follow-up assessment and whose caregiver completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Under a generalized linear model (logistic link), Fisher’s exact methods were used to estimate the CE-associated relative risk (RR) of these disorders. Results indicated a modest but statistically robust elevation of ADHD risk associated with increasing levels of PCE (pEstimated cumulative incidence proportions among CE children were 2.9% for ADHD (vs 3.1% NCE); 1.4% for SAD (vs 1.6% NCE); and 4.3% for ODD (vs 6.8% NCE). Findings offer suggestive evidence of increased risk of ADHD (but not ODD or SAD) in relation to an increasing gradient of PCE during gestation.

  15. Associations between sport and screen-entertainment with mental health problems in 5-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezateux Carol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the benefits of regular physical activity, and risks of sedentary behaviour, in young children. This study investigated associations between participation in sports and screen-entertainment (as components of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and emotional and behavioural problems in this population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from 13470 children (50.9% boys participating in the nationally representative UK Millennium Cohort Study. Time spent participating in sports clubs outside of school, and using screen-entertainment, was reported by the child's mother at child age 5 years, when mental health was also measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results 45% of children did not participate in sport clubs and 61% used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day. Children who participated in sport had fewer total difficulties; emotional, conduct, hyperactivity-inattention and peer relationship problems; and more prosocial behaviours. These relationships were similar in boys and girls. Boys and girls who used screen-entertainment for any duration, and participated in sport, had fewer emotional and behavioural problems, and more prosocial behaviours, than children who used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day and did not participate in sport. Conclusions Longer durations of screen-entertainment usage are not associated with mental health problems in young children. However, our findings suggest an association between sport and better mental health. Further research based on longitudinal data is required to examine causal pathways in these associations and to determine the potential role of this and other forms of physical activity in preventing mental health disorders.

  16. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children's construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Sandra R; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children's reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children's reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds' reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children's books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children's books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children's attention to a biological model.

  17. The Influence of Parental Socioeconomic Background and Gender on Self-Regulation among 5-Year-Old Children in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størksen, Ingunn; Ellingsen, Ingunn T.; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Self-regulation in young children predicts later social adjustment and academic success across cultural contexts. Therefore, it is crucial to identify factors that promote or inhibit behavioral self-regulation skills. In this study, we focus on gender and socioeconomic status (SES; parental education and income) as possible…

  18. Overweight and obesity prevalence among 5 year old children and 15 to 16 year old adolescents in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Avbelj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last twenty years a marked rise in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in developed countries was observed. Obesity in this age group is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. So far no comparative data on overweight and obesity in Slovene children and adolescents existed. In our study the data collected during preventive examinations of five-year-old and adolescents was analysed and guidelines for management of children with high body mass index (BMI were proposed.Methods: Using the methods of descriptional statistics the data on BMI of 4685 randomly collected five-year-old children and 2474 randomly collected adolescents aged 15–16 years were analysed. Data was collected in the years 2003–2005, evaluated according to the international reference values, and compared to other populations.Results: The prevalence of overweight among five-year-old children is 18.4% and 20.9% in boys and girls respectively. The obesity criteria are fulfilled in 9.0% boys and 7.9% girls. Among adolescents 17.1% boys and 15.4% girls are overweight and 6.2% boys and 3.8% girls are obese. These results indicate that the prevalence of obesity in Slovenia is similar as in other developed European countries.Conclusions: The study showed that obesity in childhood and adolescence in Slovenia is a problem that deserves more concern in medical institutions and on national level. Further research on reasons for this condition and new programs for stimulation of physical activity and healthy nutrition of children and adolescents are warranted.

  19. Evaluation of Symmetrical or Asymmetrical Pattern of Nursing Caries in 3-5 Year-Old Children at Kindergartens in Tehran During 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Pourtalebi Firozabadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nursing Caries (NC is a destructive form of caries because of incorrect nutritional habits in infants that affects deciduous teeth after eruption. Familiarity with the pattern of this type of caries and evaluation of its symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern is necessary for effective and scientific diagnosis and treatment. The aim was to assess the symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects of Nursing Caries in children between3-5 years old.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 kindergartens were randomly selected by the TehranWelfare Organization. 115 children with NC caries entered to study after examination. Written consents were obtained from the parents. The dmfs in upper primary incisors and upper and lower primary canines, as well as the first primary molars were assessed and the caries pattern in terms of symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects wasevaluated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD, Chi-square and Fisher tests.Results: In 53.9% of the children with NC, the anterior teeth were affected symmetrically, while 46.1% indicated an asymmetrical pattern. In general, 32.2% of the teeth were affected in a symmetrical pattern and 67.8% of them in an asymmetrical pattern. About the relationship between the breastfeeding from the right or left breast and the symmetrical pattern of the NC, 51% of the children were equally breastfed from both breasts. However, in the asymmetrical NC pattern with more impact in the right side of dentition, 50% of the children had been breastfed from the left side and in children with more caries in the left side of dentition, 50% of them had been breastfed rom the right side (P=0.01.Conclusion: NC has symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns. Direction of mother for breastfeeding affects the symmetrical and asymmetrical pattern of NC.

  20. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  1. The effect of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract on acute non-inflammatory diarrhea in 1-5 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshdel Abofazl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.

  2. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihuoma U. Eneli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI, an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1, development of the FDI content (Study 2, and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3. Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges’ g greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57% of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges’ g≥0.8 occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child’s intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p<0.01 and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p<0.001. The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child’s eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.

  3. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child's eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics. PMID:26199741

  4. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2-5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.

  5. Cultural Difference in Conflict Management Strategies of Children and Its Development: Comparing 3- and 5-Year-Olds across China, Japan, and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which…

  6. Cultural Difference in Conflict Management Strategies of Children and Its Development: Comparing 3- and 5-Year-Olds across China, Japan, and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which…

  7. Appearances Are Deceiving: Observing the World as It Looks and How It Really Is—Theory of Mind Performances Investigated in 3-, 4-, and 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bigozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appearance-reality (AR distinction understanding in preschoolers is worth of further consideration. This also goes for its relationship with false-belief (FB understanding. This study helped fill these gaps by assessing 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children’s performances on an appearance-reality distinction task and by investigating relationships with unexpected location, deceptive content, and deception comprehension task performances. 91 preschoolers participated in this study divided into 3 groups: (1 37 children, M-age 3.4 years; (2 23 children, M-age 4.5 years; (3 31 children, M-age 5.4 years. A developmental trend was found where appearance-reality distinction understanding was significantly influenced by age. If wrong answers were particularly high by 3-year-old children, they greatly decreased by 4- and 5-year-old children. 3-year-old children also tended to fail in FB tasks; instead 4- and 5-year-old children performed AR tasks better than FB tasks. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  8. Conversational repair strategies in 3 and 5 year old normal Persian-speaking children in Ahwaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghayoumi Anaraki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The ability of conversational repair is a subset of pragmatic language. When the listener does not understand the speaker's intention, and the speaker cannot find a way of repairing the conversation to make his/her massage clear, communication will fail. This study aims to examine and compare the conversational repair skill in two groups of three and five year old children, to determine different conversational repair strategies and compare these skills among these groups.Methods: One hundred and twenty Persian speaking children of three and five years of Ahwaz, Iran, were selected. The study tools were two series of pictures. During the retelling of the pictures the examiner created a situation to elicit a conversational repair strategy. Percentages of the usage of different kinds of conversational repair in each group were calculated and compared using student's t-test.Results: The usage of repetition and inappropriate response is decreased in the group of five year olds compared to the three year olds, but cue-repair and repetition method is increased. The addition method has remained relatively constant. There was a significant difference between average percentage of using repetition (p=0.04 and cue-repair (p=0.001 of the two groups. The percentage of application of repetition method in three year olds and cue-term method in five year olds were significantly higher than other conversational repair strategies.Conclusion: With the increase in age and development of language skills the probability of using more complex and difficult strategies, like the cue-repair method, increases.

  9. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2-and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, L. K.; de Pijper, J. J.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Stolk, R. P.; Corpeleijn, E.

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of

  10. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

  11. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2-and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, L. K.; de Pijper, J. J.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Stolk, R. P.; Corpeleijn, E.

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of

  12. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

  13. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan L.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n = 476) with prenatal drug exposures documented…

  14. Odontogenic keratocyst in a 5-year-old child: a rare cause of maxillary swelling in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I M; Harvey, N; Logan, R M; David, D J; Anderson, P J

    2008-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts in children are uncommon. They are cysts of the jaws that have a tendency for recurrence and are usually seen in adults. We report an exceptionally rare case in a young child and discuss its management.

  15. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldhuis Lydian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised within 9 Municipal Health Services. The teams are randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The teams measure the weight and height of all children. When a child in the intervention group is detected with overweight according to the international age and gender specific cut-off points of BMI, the prevention protocol is applied. According to this protocol parents of overweight children are invited for up to three counselling sessions during which they receive personal advice about a healthy lifestyle, and are motivated for and assisted in behavioural change. The primary outcome measures are Body Mass Index and waist circumference of the children. Parents will complete questionnaires to assess secondary outcome measures: levels of overweight inducing/reducing behaviours (i.e. being physically active, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages and watching television/playing computer games, parenting styles, parenting practices, and attitudes of parents regarding these behaviours, health-related quality of life of the children, and possible negative side effects of the prevention protocol. Data will be collected at baseline (when the children are aged 5 years, and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Additionally, a process and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted. Discussion In this study called 'Be active, eat right' we evaluate an overweight prevention protocol for use in the setting of Youth Health Care. It is hypothesized that the

  16. Teachers of young children (3-5 years old and their interaction with pupils: approaching positive classroom management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryni Paraskevopoulou

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the social and emotional development of children between three to five years old, the factors that affect their in-school behaviour and strategies for positive teacher classroom management. It is suggested that teachers need to reflect upon children’s development in order for an effective classroom management to be achieved. Aspects of teachers’ expectations about interaction between children and teachers will also be exemplified. Literature research was employed as a method to explore the relevant issues.

  17. Evaluation of an oral health promotion program at the time of birth on dental caries in 5-year-old children in Vorarlberg, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Y; Greiner, S; Heinrich-Weltzien, R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an early oral health promotion program (OHPP) on oral health of 5-year-old children in Austria by providing new mothers with dental health counseling. Qualified dental health educators visited all mothers at time after birth in regional hospitals in Vorarlberg and counseled them regarding the oral health of their children as a one-off intervention. Mothers were given comprehensive oral hygiene instructions for their children and themselves (daily use of fluoride toothpaste, restoration of own caries lesions), which included practical tooth brush training and dietary counseling by the use of brief motivational interviewing and anticipatory guidance approaches. After 5 years, a case-cohort study was conducted to evaluate the program with annual dental check-ups of 471 children and a parent survey. Dental caries was scored using WHO diagnostic criteria at dentine level without radiography. To compare oral health parameters (dmfs/dmft, care index), children were allocated to intervention and control group and matched on basis of age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status (SES) and analyzed statistically. Children whose mothers participated in the OHPP showed significantly lower caries prevalence and experience (33.2%; 3.2 ± 7.4 d3-4 mfs/1.5 ± 2.5 d3-4 mft) than children whose mothers did not participate (42.6%; 5.2 ± 6.4 d3-4 mfs/2.4 ± 4.1 d3-4 mft). Bivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, SES, age at which toothbrushing started, supervision of toothbrushing, use of fluoride salt, and use of fluoride toothpaste were significantly related to d3-4 mft. The OHPP was an effective community-based preventive approach for improving oral health in preschool children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 3-to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Ongering, Eva C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The increasing rate of overweight and obesity is alarming. The complications of overweight and obesity at a young age are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese children aged 3-5 years.

  19. Cryptosporidiosis Risk in New Zealand Children Under 5 Years Old is Greatest in Areas with High Dairy Cattle Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Dobbins, Timothy; Bagheri, Nasser; Baker, Michael G; French, Nigel P; Hales, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The public health risks associated with dairy farming intensification are an emerging concern. We examine the association between dairy cattle density and cryptosporidiosis risk in children dairy industry. Multi-level Poisson regression was used to model reported cryptosporidiosis (N = 3869 cases) incidence in relation to dairy cattle densities across urban and rural areas separately, after controlling for microbiological quality of public drinking water supplies and neighbourhood socio-economic factors using the Census Area Unit of residence. Within urban areas, the risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old was significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density IRR 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.9) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. Within rural areas, the incidence risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old were significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density: IRR 1.7 (95% CI 1.3, 2.3) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.5, 2.8) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. These results have public health implications for children living on and in proximity to intensively stocked dairy cattle farms.

  20. Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 3-to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Ongering, Eva C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The increasing rate of overweight and obesity is alarming. The complications of overweight and obesity at a young age are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese children aged 3-5 years.

  1. A case control study on the risk factors of viral diarrhea in children below 5 years old%5岁以下婴幼儿病毒性腹泻的危险因素配对病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 霍翔; 祖荣强; 李亮; 汤奋扬; 朱凤才; 羊海涛; 汪华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors of viral diarrhea among children below 5 years old. Methods:A case-control study was conducted on two groupe of children matched by sex, age with or without viral diarrhea from hospitals in Xuzhou and Zhenjiang area. The pathogen of diarrhea was confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. Interview was carried out with uniform designed questionnaires. Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis was then performed. Results:Factors that were independently associated with the development of viral diarrhea, would include children's address, weight, parents' Schooling and profession, washing-up sink in kitchen, cutting cooked and uncooked foods by different kitchen knife and target, raising pets, cooker washing hands before cook, the children contacting animals and taking antibiotics one week ago before diarrhea. Anamnesis and rotavims vaccine inoculation were not found associating with viral diarrhea. Multivariate logistic regression model was then fitted with three variables, including washing-up sink in kitchen, cutting cooked and uncooked foods by different kitchen knife and target, taking antibiotics one week ago before diarrhea. The 95% CI of OR was 0.340~0.852, 0.295~0.705 and 2.153~6.227 separately. Conclusion:The risk of viral diarrhea increased with worse hygienic habits and antibiotics taken.%目的:探讨5岁以下婴幼儿病毒性腹泻的危险因素.方法:采用性别、年龄匹配的1:2配对病例对照研究,对江苏省徐州、镇江市县级医疗机构2007年10月至2008年10月收治的5岁以下腹泻儿童500例和对照儿童1 000例进行问卷调查.腹泻的病原体采用酶联免疫吸附剂测定(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)或反转录PCR(reverse transcription-PCR,RT-PCR)进行检测确认.数据采用Cox比例风险模型拟合Logistic回归.结果:单因素分析显示病毒性腹泻患儿的城乡差异、父母受教育程度、职业、家庭饮食卫生(包括厨

  2. Prevalencia de desnutrición en menores de cinco años de Tabasco Malnutrition prevalence in children under 5 years old in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio G. Lastra-Escudero

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la prevalencia de desnutrición que se presentó en niños tabasqueños menores de cinco años en 1996, y su evolución entre 1991 y 1996. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal que incluyó a 1 256 niños de 593 comunidades (31 urbanas y 562 rurales de los 17 municipios de Tabasco. Resultados. El indicador peso/edad registró 41% de prevalencia de desnutrición, distribuida en leve (26.12%, moderada (12.62% y severa (2.39%. En niños de entre 1 y 5 años la prevalencia de desnutrición fue de 45%. Conclusiones. De 1991 a 1996 la cifra de niños con desnutrición ha disminuido proporcionalmente al incremento de la nutrición normal. Asimismo, han disminuido de seis a cuatro los municipios con indicadores críticos de desnutrición, con base en las acciones del sector salud en el estado de Tabasco.Objective. To evaluate malnutrition prevalence in children under five years-old in Tabasco, Mexico, during 1996, and their evolution in 1991-1996. Material and methods. A cross-sectional study, including 1 256 children under five years-old in 593 communities (31 urban and 562 rural from 17 sanitary districts. Results. The weight/age indicator for malnutrition in children under five years old showed 59% of children had normal nutrition and 41% with malnutrition, distributed as follows: 26.12% slight, 12.62% moderate and 2.39% severe. In children between 1-5 years old, malnutrition prevalence was 45%. Conclusions. The number of children with malnutrition in Tabasco during the study period (1991-1996 has decreased in proportion to the increase of those with normal nutrition. Based on the health system activities, the number of health districts with critical malnutrition indicators decreased from 6 to 4.

  3. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors in 5-year-old children: lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2012-06-21

    This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals) and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary screen-based behavior) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association of these patterns with weight status (BMI and overweight) development up to age 8. Data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (N = 2074 at age 5). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Backward regression analyses were used to examine the association of lifestyle patterns with parent and child background characteristics, as well as the longitudinal associations between the patterns and weight status development. Four lifestyle patterns emerged from the PCA: a 'Television-Snacking' pattern, a 'Sports-Computer' pattern, a 'Traditional Family' pattern, and a "Fast' Food' pattern. Child gender and parental educational level, working hours and body mass index were significantly associated with the scores for the patterns. The Television-Snacking pattern was positively associated with BMI (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.05; p pattern showed a positive tendency toward being overweight at age 8 (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, p = 0.06). In addition, the Sports-Computer pattern was significantly positively associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight at age 7 (OR = 1.28, p current study showed the added value of including eating routines in cross-behavioral clustering analyses. The findings indicate that future interventions to prevent childhood overweight should address eating routines and activity/inactivity simultaneously, using the synergy between clustered behaviors (e.g. between television viewing and snacking).

  4. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors in 5-year-old children: Lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubbels Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA and sedentary screen-based behavior in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association of these patterns with weight status (BMI and overweight development up to age 8. Methods Data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (N = 2074 at age 5. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Backward regression analyses were used to examine the association of lifestyle patterns with parent and child background characteristics, as well as the longitudinal associations between the patterns and weight status development. Results Four lifestyle patterns emerged from the PCA: a ‘Television–Snacking’ pattern, a ‘Sports–Computer’ pattern, a ‘Traditional Family’ pattern, and a “Fast’ Food’ pattern. Child gender and parental educational level, working hours and body mass index were significantly associated with the scores for the patterns. The Television–Snacking pattern was positively associated with BMI (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.05; p p = 0.06. In addition, the Sports–Computer pattern was significantly positively associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight at age 7 (OR = 1.28, p  Conclusions The current study showed the added value of including eating routines in cross-behavioral clustering analyses. The findings indicate that future interventions to prevent childhood overweight should address eating routines and activity/inactivity simultaneously, using the synergy between clustered behaviors (e.g. between television viewing and snacking.

  5. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5-3.5 year-olds with 5.5-6.5 year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children's prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called "game" where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception-no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children's social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors.

  6. Responsiveness to change for the Brazilian Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abanto, Jenny; Tsakos, Georgios; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Paiva, Saul Martins; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The responsiveness of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments has become relevant, given the increasing tendency to use OHRQoL measures as outcomes in clinical trials and evaluations studies...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF ADMINISTERING OXYTOCIN DURING BIRTH ON THE NEUROMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE 0-5 YEAR-OLD-CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Elena DIACONU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify new scientific data that will make possible a concrete assessment of the effects of oxytocin on the neuromotor development of newborns. Given the range of the proposed study, namely 0-5 years, one can identify research axioms dedicated to the prophylaxis sof retardation of neuromotor development. The research methods that will be used are: retrospective cohort study method - where patients (and newborns that will be administered syntheticoxytocin during labor induction, will be considered the exposed cohort, while the patients (and, therefore, the newborns that will not be administered oxytocin will represent the non-exposed cohort -, stratified and multiple variable analysis and the Batelle Developmental Inventory.

  8. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T.; Huss, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Background A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we

  9. An embodiment perspective on number-space mapping in Dutch 3.5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Noordende, Jaccoline E.; Volman, M.J.M.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that block adding, subtracting and counting direction are early forms of number–space mapping. In this study, an embodiment perspective on these skills was taken. Embodiment theory assumes that cognition emerges through sensory–motor interaction with the environment. In li

  10. Cognitive and Emotional Control and Perspective Taking and Their Relations to Empathy in 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; O'Brien, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The experience of empathy has been described as involving both emotional and cognitive components. The primary hypothesis tested in this study is that cognition and emotion are integrated within 2 distinct types of abilities--control and perspective taking--and that interactions between emotional and cognitive control and between affective and…

  11. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: A comparison of 2.5-3.5 year-olds with 5.5-6.5 year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eZhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children’s prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called ‘game’ where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception- no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors. However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. Such behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflected strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering effects of competitive contexts on children’s behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors.

  12. Hypomineralized second primary molars: Prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; Schuller, A.A.; Weerheijm, K.L.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  13. Hypomineralized second primary molars : prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M E C; Schuller, A A; Weerheijm, K L; Veerkamp, J S J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  14. Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; Schuller, A.A.; Weerheijm, K.L.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 5-year-old urban South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 5-year-old urban South African children the birth to ten study. ... Journal Home > Vol 90, No 7 (2000) > ... To determine CVD risk profiles and their determinants in 5-year-old children living in an urban ...

  16. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  17. Study on effects of eating behaviors intervention for 3 -5 years old children in Beijing and Shanghai%北京和上海3~5岁儿童饮食行为干预效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽莉; 张红梅; 赖建强; 邹淑荣; 董文兰; 杨静; 杨青俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 为改善北京和上海3~5岁儿童的不健康饮食行为及其父母的营养相关知识和态度,采用多途径健康教育进行干预,并对干预效果进行评估.方法 采用多阶段随机整群抽样的方法,从北京、上海各选取810名3~5岁儿童及其家长作为研究对象,根据《中国居民膳食指南》(2007)和《中国孕期、哺乳期妇女以及0-6岁儿童膳食指南》(2007)开展为期6个月的健康教育干预,采用问卷调查的方法分别在干预前后收集儿童饮食行为及其父母营养相关知识、态度等信息.结果 干预后,北京和上海3~5岁儿童偏食、喝含糖饮料的人数比例分别从干预前的44.5%和70.4%降低到35.5%和31.7%,有固定进餐时间、地点、可独立进餐、吃饭定时定量、能专心吃饭的儿童比例分别由干预前的80.0%、87.3%、73.4%、32.1%和27.1%升高到91.7%、91.9%、83.7%、45.9%和41.2%;干预后,儿童父母营养知识的知晓率显著提高,对待儿童饮食行为的态度也有所改善.结论 通过健康教育干预,改善了儿童的不健康饮食行为,丰富了儿童家长的营养知识,改善了其对儿童的饮食行为态度,为其正确指导儿童健康饮食提供了理论基础.%Objective To improve the unhealthy eating behaviors in 3 - 5 years old children and enrich the nutrition knowledge of their parents by the multi-channel health education intervention, and evaluate the effects of intervention. Methods By random multi-stage cluster sampling, 810 children (3-5 years old) and their parents were selected from Beijing and Shanghai respectively. The period of intervention was 6 months. Questionnaire surveys about children' s eating behavior and the knowledge of their parents were conducted before and after the intervention. Results After the intervention, the proportion of partial eclipse and drinking beverage declined from 44. 5% and 70. 4% to35. 5% and 31.7% respectively. The

  18. Analysis and preventive measures for the death of children under 5 years old in panyu district%番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析与预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伦能

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To know the current death situation and the change of children under 5 years old in Panyu, and study the measures of decreasing the children mortality. [Method] The death information of children under 5 years old in Panyu during 2007-2010 were analyzed. [Results] The mortality rate of children under 5 years old was 5.83%, 43. 18%of them were neonates, 70. 62% of them were infants; The male children mortality were higher than female children; The mortality rate of children in floating population was significantly higher than that of inhabitant; Top 3 causes of were accidental death.congenital malformation and premature low birth weight; 24.19% of them death without treatment. [Conclusions] The key to reduce the death rate of children under 5 years old is to reduce the death of infant and neonates, especially the care of floating population. It is important to preventing the accidental death and congenital malformation.%[目的]了解番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及变化情况,为制定降低5岁以下儿童死亡的措施提供依据.[方法]对番禺区2007-2010年5岁以下儿童死亡进行回顾分析.[结果]4年来,番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡率平均为5.83‰;新生儿死亡、婴儿死亡分别占5岁以下儿童死亡的43.18%和70.62%;男童死亡率大于女童,流动人口儿童死亡率大于常住人口儿童死亡率;意外死亡、先天畸形、早产低出生体重是5岁以下儿童主要死因;仍有24.19%的儿童死前未接受治疗.[结论]降低婴儿、新生儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键,预防儿童意外死亡和降低出生缺陷率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的当务之急,进一步加强对流动人口的保健管理.

  19. Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in tropical rural areas of Senegal: The EVIRA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Diop, Ousmane M; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Goudiaby, Deborah; Malou-Sompy, Hubert; Ndiaye, Kader; Vabret, Astrid; Baril, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    Acute respiratory infection is one of the leading causes of child morbidity, especially in developing countries. Viruses are recognized as the predominant causative agents of acute respiratory infections. In Senegal, few data concerning the causes of respiratory infections are available, and those known relate mainly to classical influenza infections. Clinical and virological surveillance of acute respiratory infections was carried out in a rural community in children less than 5 years old. A standardized questionnaire was used and a nasopharyngeal swab sample was collected from each patient. These samples were tested for the detection of 20 respiratory viruses by multiplex RT-PCR or by viral culture. A total of 82 acute respiratory episodes were included, and 48 (58.5%) were found to be positive, with a total of 55 viral detections; several samples were positive for two (n = 5) or 3 (n = 1) viruses. Ten different viruses were identified: influenza viruses A, B, and C (n = 25), human respiratory syncytial virus type A (n = 13), rhinoviruses (n = 8), human coronaviruses type 229E and NL63 (n = 6), parainfluenza viruses 3 and 4 (n = 2), and bocavirus (n = 1). These results provide evidence on the importance and the diversity of viruses as causative agents of acute respiratory infections in children living in a rural community in Senegal. The establishment of sentinel surveillance sites could help estimate the burden of acute respiratory infection in the pediatric population and should help prepare the health care systems to identify and respond to new viral respiratory emergencies.

  20. Global motion perception is independent from contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination and visual acuity in 4.5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Harding, Jane E; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    Global motion processing depends on a network of brain regions that includes extrastriate area V5 in the dorsal visual stream. For this reason, psychophysical measures of global motion perception have been used to provide a behavioral measure of dorsal stream function. This approach assumes that global motion is relatively independent of visual functions that arise earlier in the visual processing hierarchy such as contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested this assumption by assessing the relationships between global motion perception, contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination (henceforth referred to as contrast sensitivity) and habitual visual acuity in a large group of 4.5-year-old children (n=117). The children were born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment because of prenatal drug exposure or risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia. Motion coherence thresholds, a measure of global motion perception, were assessed using random dot kinematograms. The contrast of the stimuli was fixed at 100% and coherence was varied. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the same stimuli by fixing motion coherence at 100% and varying dot contrast. Stereoacuity was also measured. Motion coherence thresholds were not correlated with contrast sensitivity or visual acuity. However, lower (better) motion coherence thresholds were correlated with finer stereoacuity (ρ=0.38, p=0.004). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were also correlated (ρ=-0.26, p=0.004) with each other. These results indicate that global motion perception for high contrast stimuli is independent of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity and can be used to assess motion integration mechanisms in children.

  1. Associations between parenting styles and nutrition knowledge and 2-5-year-old children's fruit, vegetable and non-core food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Dollman, James; Petkov, John; Parletta, Natalie

    2013-11-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on children’s diets and developing food choices. We investigated parenting styles as predictors of 2–5-year-old children’s diets and whether general nutrition knowledge (GNK) mediated these influences. Cross-sectional research. Questionnaires measured demographic and lifestyle variables, family environment, parenting styles and feeding practices, child diet and GNK. Regression models tested GNK as a mediator of relationships between parenting variables and child diet (fruit/vegetable and non-core food consumption), controlling for confounders and family environment. Questionnaires were completed by main caregivers at home. Parents of children aged 2–5 years (n 269). Higher child fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower overreactive parenting and restriction, higher authoritative parenting and dining together as a family; with lax parenting approaching statistical significance (P50?083) and 19% of variance explained by the model. GNK was not a significant predictor. Conversely, non-core food consumption was associated with higher over-reactive and lax parenting as well as child age, increased takeaway food consumption and higher television viewing; GNK had a small effect (P = 0.043) and 28% of variance was explained by the model. GNK was a significant mediator only for authoritative parenting on non-core food (effect = -0.005). These findings highlight that young children’s diets may be improved by interventions targeting a range of positive and supportive parenting practices in conjunction with nutrition knowledge education for parents of young children. Further insights will come from closer attention to the nature and role of restrictive feeding practices v. laxness and longitudinal research.

  2. Mortality of children under 5 years old in Hefei city from 2003 to 2008%合肥市2003-2008年<5岁儿童死亡监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锋; 傅苏林; 邵子瑜; 李迎春

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the mortality trend of children under 5 years old in Hefei city in the past six years, and to provide scientific basis for effective intervention.Methods Data were obtained from the Child Mortality Surveillance Network of Hefei from 2003 to 2008 and analyzed with x2 test.Results The neonatal mortality rate( NMR), infant mortality rate(IMR) ,and moratlity rate under 5 years old (U5MR) were 5.90,8.18,and 9.84 per 1 000 live births in 2008,respectively,which decreased by 40.8% ,34.4%, and 50.7% compared with those of 2003.The infant mortality accounted for 81.5% of the mortality of children under 5 years old and neonatal mortality accounted for 72.2% of infant mortality.The leading causes of the death of the children under 5 years old were accidental asphyxia, birth asphyxia, pneumonia, and drowning in 2003, and preterm birth, birth asphyxia, and congenital heart disease in 2008.The rate of children not treated before the death dereased from 43.75% in 2003 to 23.87% in 2008.Conclusion The mortality rate of the children under 5 years old declined significantly and the control of premature birth, birth asphyxia, and congenital heart disease is the key point to decrease the mortality rate.%目的 了解2003-2008年安徽省合肥市<5岁儿童死亡率流行趋势,为制定有效干预措施和综合防治提供科学依据.方法 利用2003-2008年合肥市<5岁儿童死亡监测资料,采用χ2检验等统计学方法对<5岁儿童死亡情况进行分析.结果 2008年的新生儿死亡率、婴儿死亡率、<5岁儿童死亡率分别为5.90%.、8.18%.和9.84‰,较2003年分别下降了40.8%、34.4%和50.7%;连续6年,合肥市<5岁儿童死亡的年龄构成均以婴儿死亡为主,占81.5%,其中主要为新生儿期死亡,占72.2%;2003年<5岁儿童死因顺位前3位分别为意外窒息、出生窒息、肺炎和溺水,2008年分别为早产、出生窒息和先天性心脏病;儿童死

  3. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vahidi A

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study showed reduced serum zinc levels during febrile seizure. The need for continued research on surface tension in febrile children over several months is recommended. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 972-975

  4. Three-year follow-up of 3-year-old to 5-year-old children after participation in a multidisciplinary or a usual-care obesity treatment program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Little is known on the long-term effects of obesity intervention programs in preschool-aged children. We compared the long-term effects of a multidisciplinary treatment program with a usual-care program in seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old overweight or obese children who had

  5. Three-year follow-up of 3-year-old to 5-year-old children after participation in a multidisciplinary or a usual-care obesity treatment program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Little is known on the long-term effects of obesity intervention programs in preschool-aged children. We compared the long-term effects of a multidisciplinary treatment program with a usual-care program in seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old overweight or obese children who had particip

  6. A study of circumcision prevalence and complications in under 5 year old boys in Galleno village-Shahre Ray, Jan 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tootoonchi P

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine circumcision prevalence and complications in under 5 year old boys. We assessed 181 boys in a cross sectional study at a rutal area in Tehran suburbs, in Jan 1997. Data were collected by an interview about age, circumcision age and method, type of complications, nationality and parent literacy. 126 boys (69% were circumcised, (mean 12 months. Only 27 of them (21.4% were circumcised in neonatal period. 62 boys (49.2% were circumcised with ring methods (plastibell or clamp, 54 boys (42.9% with surgical methods and the others (7.9% with nonmendical methods (traditional. Complications were 9.5% (16 and the higher circumcision age was related significantly with higher complications (P<0.04. In our study was no complication in the boys who circumcised under six months. Complications prevalence were high (9.5%. In neonatal period 34% (9 and in postneonatal period 53% (52 of boys were circumcised with inappropriate methods with age. The most common complications were local infection (43%

  7. Estudo exploratório de opiniões de mães sobre a saúde das crianças menores de 5 anos Estudio exploratorio de opiniones de madres, sobre la salud de niños menores de 5 años An exploratory study: opinions of mothers on the health of children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Falleiros de Mello

    1996-07-01

    ón sobre la atención al niño, prestada por la red básica de salud en Ribeirão Preto.This study presents opinions of mothers about aspects of children health, 0-59 months, living in suburbs of the city of Ribeirão Preto, using home interviews. Several social-economic characteristics of this population were noted, especially the concerns of mothers related to: childhood disease, general core of their children, distribution of milk tickets, immunization, children's growth and development process. Mothers opinions present concerns about diseases, signs and symptoms, mothers' care, criteria for inclusion-exclusion in the Program of Food Supplementation and aspects about the utilization of the immunization in time Local Basic Health Unit, offering several elements which can contribute to a reflection on the care given to children at the basic level of health services in the city of Ribeirão Preto.

  8. Study on Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Epidemiology of Younger than 5 Years Old Children with Diarrhea Caused by Rotavirus Infection in Nanjing City in 2009 - 2010%2009-2010年南京地区5岁以下儿童轮状病毒性腹泻临床特点及分子流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谦; 周进苏; 陆芬; 李晓乐; 李玫; 金玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea arid serotype and the gene variation of rotavirus in Nanjing Children's Hospital from Jul. 2009 to Jun. 2010. Methods From Jul. 2009 to Jun. 2010 in Department of Gastroentefology of Nanjing Chil dren's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, stool samples were collected from 300 hospitalized children with diarrhea. Stool specimens were stored in - 20 ℃. Rotavirus antigen Was detected in stool samples using a commercial enzyme linked immuhosorbent assays (ELISA). Positive specimens were then G and P genotyped by nested RT - PCR with type - specific primers. Results Rotavirus were identi fied in 37. 67% (113/300 cases)of 300 specimens. Rotavirus G3 (44 cases,38. 94% )was the most prevailing serotype,followed by G2 (10 cases,8; 85% ) ,G1 (2 cases,1.77% ) ,C2 + G3 (2 cases,1.77% ) ,G9 (1 case,0.88% ) ,54 cases (47.79% ) were not genotyped. Based onPtyping,P [8] (38 cases,33.63% ) was the most common genotype,followed by P[4] (19 cases,16. 81% ) ,56 cases (49.56%) Were not genotyped. The most common G -P combination was G3P [8] (18/113 cases, 15. 93% ). The prevalence of HRV infection was highest from Oct. 2009 to Jan. 2010. The majority (95.58% ) of subjects positive for HRV were 2 years old or less of age. The HRV positive bases had more serious clinical features than HRV negative cases. Conclusion Rotavirus is the most important pathogen for gastroenteritis in Nanjing, and G3P[8] is the most prevailing serotype.%目的 了解2009年7月-2010年6月南京地区轮状病毒性腹泻的流行病学情况及病毒的血清及基因分型特点,为轮状病毒感染性腹泻的防治提供科学依据.方法 收集2009年7月-2010年6月本科随机留取水样泻患儿粪便标本300份,标本采集后立即保存于- 20℃冰箱,集中进行病毒检测和数据分析.使用ELISA法检测A组人类轮状病毒(HRV),应用Trizol法提取HRV RNA,反转录合成病毒cDNA,采用巢式反转录PCR

  9. Representations of eating and of a nutrition program among female caregivers of children under 5 years old in Tizimin, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uicab-Pool, Gloria de Los Angeles; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Gomes, Romeu; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out between January and April 2008 with 14 caregivers of children younger than 5 years residing in Tizimín city, Mexico. It aimed to understand the social representations of eating and the Programa Oportunidades [Opportunity Program] held by caregivers taking into account their social and cultural context. This qualitative investigation with an ethnographic approach was based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two empirical categories emerged: 1) feeding and 2) an aid. The first refers to the caregivers' representation of eating patterns of children younger than 5 years and the second reveals that the program is considered an aid, which favors and helps caregivers to meet part of their needs. The study achieved the proposed objectives since it enabled us to understand caregivers in the complex task of feeding these children and also to propose strategies in several spheres to improve infant nutrition.

  10. Strong genetic effects on cross-situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year-old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins' self-reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Caspi, A; Taylor, A; Rijsdijk, FV; Jaffee, [No Value; Ablow, JC; Measelle, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Background: Early childhood antisocial behaviour is a strong prognostic indicator for poor adult mental health. Thus, information about its etiology is needed. Genetic etiology is unknown because most research with young children focuses on environmental risk factors, and the few existing studies of

  11. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children : Design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); M.K. Struijk (Mirjam); W. Kroeze (Willemieke); A. Oenema (Anke); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.M.W. Bulk-Bunschoten (Anneke); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence

  12. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children : Design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); M.K. Struijk (Mirjam); W. Kroeze (Willemieke); A. Oenema (Anke); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.M.W. Bulk-Bunschoten (Anneke); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence

  13. 1∶2 matched case-control study on birth defect among children aged 0 ~ 5 years old in Chongqing%重庆市0~5岁儿童出生缺陷疾病1∶2配对病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 童琦; 邓小霞; 杨柳; 周宗社; 陈庆

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨重庆市儿童出生缺陷疾病发生的危险因素,评估其危险度,为制定出生缺陷干预措施、做好优生优育提供科学依据.方法:采用1∶2配对病例对照研究,对165例病例、330例对照进行调查;使用SAS9.2统计软件进行统计分析,主要采用描述性分析、单因素分析logistic回归分析和多因素1:2匹配条件logistic回归分析方法.结果:有统计学意义的调查因素有:母亲妊娠期先兆流产(OR=80.60)、妊娠合并症(OR=13.06)、母亲家族遗传史(OR=63.40)、父亲患有慢性病(OR=13.01)、父亲饮酒(OR=3.52)、父亲职业有害接触(OR=10.37)、参加婚前检查(OR =0.37)、服用叶酸类药物(OR=0.30)、妊娠期吃鱼虾类食品(OR =0.18).结论:母亲家族遗传史、妊娠期出现先兆流产、有妊娠合并症、父亲患有慢性病、父亲饮酒、父亲职业有害接触是导致出生缺陷发生的危险因素;参加婚前检查、服用叶酸类药物、妊娠期多吃鱼虾类食品是防止出生缺陷发生的保护因素.%Objective: To investigate the risk factors of birth defect in Chongqing City, and to provide scientific evidence for the interventions. Methods; A 1:2 matched case - control study was conducted with 165 cases and 330 controls. Data were analyzed for descriptive study, univariate logistic regression and 1:2 matched conditional logistic regression with SAS9.2 statistical software. Results: The following factors were found to be significantly related to birth defects: threatened abortion during pregnancy ( OR - 80. 60) , pregnancy complication ( OR = 13. 06 ) , history of maternal line ( OR = 63. 40 ) , father with chronic diseases (OR = 13.01) , father's alcohol intake ( OR = 3. 52) , father s occupational contact of harmful substance ( s) (OR = 10. 37) , premarital checkup (OR =0.37) , folic acid supplement (OR =0. 30) , seafood in dietary during pregnancy (OR =0.18). Conclusions: The history of maternal line, threatened

  14. Food and drink consumption among 1-5-year-old Los Angeles County children from households receiving dual SNAP and WIC v. only WIC benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane; Kuo, Tony; Jiang, Lu; Robles, Brenda; Whaley, Shannon E

    2017-10-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are two of the more well-known food assistance programmes in the USA. The current study describes food consumption patterns of children aged 1-5 years living in households dually enrolled in these two programmes v. households enrolled only in WIC. Food consumption and SNAP participation were assessed using data from the 2014 Survey of Los Angeles County (LAC) WIC Participants and the Follow-Up Survey of the same households that were also SNAP beneficiaries. Telephone interviews were conducted with WIC parents regarding each child's (i.e. beneficiary's) food consumption patterns. Follow-up interviews were conducted with those who reported receiving SNAP. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between food and beverage consumption and dual v. single food assistance programme participation. LAC, California. Children of WIC-enrolled households in LAC during 2014 (n 3248). This included a sub-sample of dual WIC- and SNAP-enrolled households (n 1295). Survey participants were the beneficiaries' parents. Children from dually enrolled households consumed 1·03 (Pfoods 1·04 more times daily (Pconsumption of both healthy foods and foods containing minimal nutritional value. Complementary nutrition education efforts across the two programmes may help beneficiaries maximize healthful food purchases with SNAP dollars.

  15. Do boys that play with dolls become girls? Gender differences in the play of 4-5 year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Junges

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This text is derived from a study conducted for a final course project in pedagogy that focused on gender in early-childhood education. It sought to understand how children interact with toys brought from home or offered at school and examine if boys and girls choose different toys. Moreover, it investigates whether there is a relationship between toy colors and gender differences. We have adopted a qualitative approach, since  we are interested in the singularity of children’s expressions, movements and speech. We have used a cartographic methodology, which allows a sensitive listening and an attentive look at the territories to be investigated. Children’s attitudes and reactions have been observed and recorded during school playtime, whether it was free or defined by the study. The research revealed that children do not propose marks of gender differences; but they emerge from the environment, particularly from parents and society in general. We also perceived that when this topic is discussed, children seem to understand and question the gender stereotypes seen in the context through toys. They also understand that playing is a free expression that does not have to be marked by gender stereotypes. Finally, we highlight that child education researchers should give more attention to gender studies, and everyone involved should discuss this theme more often.

  16. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2-5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ting; Chang, Chen; Li, Yun; Qian, Lu; Xiao, Chao Yong; Xiao, Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Yun Hua; Chu, Kang Kang; Lewis, Mark H; Ke, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2-3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD) at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  17. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2–5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs. However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2–3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD at baseline (Time 1 and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2. The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  18. The Frequency of Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus spp.in 3-5-year- old Children with and without Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulana, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: The high occurrence of early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common problems in children dentistry. Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp in 3-5 –year- old children with and without dental caries.Material and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 60 children aged 3 -5-years, without any history of systemic disease, who had not received any antibiotic therapy and fluoride usage during the last month. The cases were divided into three groups of early childhood caries, usual caries and caries-free. The infected dentin samples were collected from cervical and proximal in ECC and usual caries group, respectively. Also in all the three groups, the samples of dental plaque from buccal surfaces were collected and immediately immersed into Brain Heart Infusion (BHI broth medium. After that, the diluted sample was plated onto MitisSalivarius agar (Difco for detecting streptococcus mutans and Rogosa agar (Difco for detecting lactobacilli.spp. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square and ANOVA.Results: of the samples taken from dental plaque, S. mutans is observed in 90% of ECC, 80% of proxymolcarries and in 25% of caries-free individuals. Based on the results, the presence of S.mutans in the group of caries is significantly higher than that of without caries, but there is no significant difference between the two groups of caries. In addition, lactobacill.spp is isolated from 60% ofthe samples, but there is no significant difference between two groups of caries and caries-free. The average of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT index in the group with early childhood caries (6.95±1.572 and usual caries (5.80±1.105 is different significantly. Pearson correlation test shows that there is a significant relationship

  19. Seasonal availability and dietary intake of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit of 2-year-old to 5-year-old children in a rural South African setting growing these crops at household level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Laubscher, Ria

    2008-02-01

    This study determined the seasonal availability and dietary intake of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit in a rural South African community growing these crops at household level. Monitoring year-round availability of vegetables and fruit in five local shops during 2004 showed that beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit were seldom available in the shops. The dietary intake of 2-year-old to 5-year-old children was determined during February, May, August and November in 2004 and 2005 using an unquantified food frequency questionnaire and 5-day repeated 24-h recall (2005 only). Consumption of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit showed seasonal variation. Inadequate dietary vitamin A intake ranged from 6% in November to 21% in February and August. beta-Carotene-rich vegetables and fruit contributed 49-74% of the total vitamin A intake. It is concluded that beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit contribute a major part of the dietary vitamin A intake. Consumption of individual beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit fluctuated according to the season; nonetheless, an adequate dietary vitamin A intake was maintained throughout the year for the majority of the study population.

  20. Efeitos do fumo ambiental no trato respiratório inferior de crianças com até 5 anos de idade Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on lower respiratory system of children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eanes DB Pereira

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do fumo passivo com morbidade respiratória em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluindo 1.104 crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Por meio de um questionário com os pais das crianças, foram obtidas informações sobre sintomas e doenças respiratórias, história familiar de morbidade respiratória, presença de fumantes nas casas e condições de moradia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 546 meninas e 558 meninos. Das 611 crianças fumantes passivas, 82% tinham problemas respiratórios ("odds ratio" = 1,64; IC 95%:1,21-2,20. As queixas respiratórias mais freqüentes foram: chiado no peito ("odds ratio" =1,66; IC 95%: 1,21-2,27, dispnéia ("odds ratio"=1,91; IC 95%:1,36-2,67, tosse e/ou expectoração("odds ratio" =1,58; IC 95%: 1,13-2,84. A chance de apresentar asma, bronquite ou pneumonia foi maior para as crianças fumantes passivas ("odds ratio" =1,60; IC 95%: 1.11-2.31. CONCLUSÕES: Os principais fatores de risco com chance de predizer morbidade respiratória em crianças com idade de 0 a 5 anos foram: crianças que conviviam com mães fumantes, pais fumantes, presença de mofo em casa, historia familiar de asma ou rinite.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of second-hand smoke in the respiratory system of children under 5 years old. METHODS: A cross sectional study of a total of 1,104 children under 5 years old. Information about respiratory symptoms and illness, family history of respiratory diseases, smoking habits of household members and housing conditions were assessed by home interviews with the children's parents. RESULTS: We studied 546 boys and 558 girls. Among 611 children exposed to second-hand smoke, 82% had respiratory problems (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.20. Children whose parents were smokers at the time of the survey were more likely to experience wheezing than children of nonsmoking parents

  1. An analysis of mortality of children under 5 years old in Qinhuai district from 2000 to 2008%2000~2008年秦淮区5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾灵惠; 李忠

    2009-01-01

    目的 掌握南京市秦淮区2000~2008年5岁以下儿童死亡状况,探索有效的干预措施.方法 对2000~2008年秦淮区5岁以下儿童死亡报告卡进行整理、统计.结果 新生儿死亡率、婴儿死亡率、5岁以下儿童死亡率分别为4.20‰、5.83‰、6.65‰.新生儿死亡、婴儿死亡、1~4岁儿童死亡占5岁以下儿童死亡的构成比分别为63.16%、87.72%、12.28%.2000~2008年秦淮区5岁以下儿童死亡率经趋势χ2检验得出χ2=39.81,P=0.0000<0.05,具有下降趋势.5岁以下儿童死因顺位依次为早产与低出生体重、先天性心脏病、其他先天异常、出生窒息、意外窒息、其他肿瘤和肺炎.结论 降低新生儿、婴儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡的关键;预防早产和低出生体重,预防出生缺陷,预防出生窒息刻不容缓.%Objective To investigate mortality rate of children under 5 years old in Qinhuai district of Nanjing city in a period from 2000 to 2008 and explore effective interventions. Methods The report cards of mortality of children under 5 years old in Qinhuai district over a period from 2000 to 2008 were summarized and analyzed statistically. Results The neonatal mortality rate was 4.20‰, the infantile mortality rate was 5.83‰ and the mortality rate of children under 5 years old was 6.65‰. The constituent ratioes of neonatal mortality, the infantile mortality and the mortality of children aged 1~4 years in total mortality rate were 63.16%, 87.72% and 12.28% respectively. By trend χ2 test, in mortality rate of children under 5 years old in Qinhuai district in the period, there was a descending trend (χ2 =39.81,P=0.0000<0.05). The first seven causes of death of children under 5 years old were premature delivery, low birth weight, congenital heart disease, other congenital abnormalities, birth asphyxia, accidental suffocation, and tumors and pneumonia.Conclusion Reducing the neonatal mortality rate and the infantile mortality

  2. 乌海市乌达区3~5岁儿童患龋情况调查%A survey of primary teeth caries among 3 ~ 5-year-old children in Wu Hai Wu Da district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate wuda district, wuhai city for 3 to 5 years old children's teeth caries situation, help the baby teeth caries prevention and control of caries children and oral health. Method Using stratified and cluster sampling method, according to the third national oral health epidemiological survey scheme and technical requirement, of wuda district, wuhai city, 329 for 3 to 5 years old children's teeth caries condition were investigated. Results In 2012, wuda district, 3 ~ 5 years old children's teeth caries rate, caries, dental caries filling composition is 45.6%, 1.72, 4.26%. Gender on deciduous teeth caries rate affect no differences, statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Among various age groups for 3 to 5 years old, caries and caries rate were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion Wuda district, wuhai city for 3 to 5 years old children with dental decay in children number is more, the situation is not optimistic, deal with udaya area for 3 to 5 years old children and their parents to strengthen oral health care education.%  目的调查乌海市乌达区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况,帮助该地区乳牙患龋儿童进行龋齿防治及口腔保健。方法利用分层、整群抽样方法,根据第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案和技术要求,对乌海市乌达区329名3~5岁儿童的乳牙患龋情况进行调查。结果2012年乌达区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋率、龋均、龋齿充填构成比分别是45.6%、1.72、4.26%。性别对乳牙患龋率影响无差异,统计学无意义(P >0.05)。3~5岁各年龄组间患龋率和龋均有统计学差异(P<0.05)。结论乌海市乌达区3~5岁儿童患有龋病儿童数量较多,情况不容乐观,应对乌达区3~5岁儿童及其父母加强口腔卫生保健宣教。

  3. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  4. Episodic future thinking in 3- to 5-year-old children: the ability to think of what will be needed from a different point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James; Alexis, Dean; Clayton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Assessing children's episodic future thinking by having them select items for future use may be assessing their functional reasoning about the future rather than their future episodic thinking. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we capitalised on the fact that episodic cognition necessarily has a spatial format (Clayton & Russell, 2009; Hassabis & Maguire, 2007). Accordingly, we asked children of 3, 4, and 5 to chose items they would need to play a game (blow football) from the opposite side of the table on which they had never before played. The crucial item was the box that was needed by children to reach the table from the other side. Over four experiments, we demonstrated that, while children of 3 perform poorly on future questions and children of 5 generally perform quite well, children of 4 years find a question about what they themselves will need to play in the future harder to answer than a similar question posed about another child. We suggest that this result is due to the 'growth error' of over-applying newly-developed Level 2 perspective-taking skills (Flavell et al., 1981), which encourages the selection of non-functional items. The data are discussed in terms of perspective-taking abilities in children and of the neural correlates of episodic cognition, navigation, and theory of mind.

  5. The Reliability and Validity of Toe Grip Strength as an Index of Physical Development in 4- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takahiro Ikeda[1; Osamu Aoyagi[2

    2015-01-01

    Studies on TGS (toe-grip strength) are currently proliferating as a result of the development of the dynamometer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of TGS as a physical function in preschool aged children. The participants were 153 preschoolers. Each participant was measured in terms of his or her TGS and completed a MAT (motor ability test). The reliability of the measurements was investigated via Pearson's r and Cronbach's a through a test-retest method, as well as a Bland-Altman plot. The validity of the TGS value was investigated by measuring the correlation between TGS and each component of the MAT, the principal component analysis, and a two-way layout ANOVA with general linear model (gender and age). All reliability coefficients were more than 0.70. Though all components of the MAT relating to TGS were found to be significant (P 〈 0.05), these correlations were weak. However, TGS was found to be a physical function that relating to the lower limbs and develops with aging. Therefore, TGS was found to be a highly reliable measure of physical function performance in preschoolers.

  6. Effect of early and current Helicobacter pylori infection on the risk of anaemia in 6.5-year-old Ethiopian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Bineyam; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tsegaye, Aster; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Medhin, Girmay; Fogarty, Andrew; Robinson, Karen; Davey, Gail

    2015-07-14

    Epidemiological and clinical studies in high income countries have suggested that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may cause anaemia, but evidence is lacking from low income countries.We examined associations between H. pylori infection in early childhood and anaemia at the age of 6.5 years in an Ethiopian birth cohort. In 2011/12, 856 children (85.1 % of the 1006 original singletons in a population-based birth cohort) were followed up at age six and half. An interviewer-led questionnaire administered to mothers provided information on demographic and lifestyle variables. Haemoglobin level and red cell indices were examined using an automated haematological analyzer (Cell Dyn 1800, Abbott, USA), and stool samples analyzed for H. pylori antigen. The independent effects of H. pylori infection (measured at age 3.5 and 6.5 years) on anaemia, haemoglobin level, and red cell indices (measured at age 6.5 years) were determined using multiple logistic and linear regression. The prevalence of anemia was 34.8 % (257/739), and the mean (SD) haemoglobin concentration was 11.8 (1.1) gm/dl. Current H. pylori infection at age 6.5 years was positively, though not significantly related to prevalence of anaemia (adjusted OR, 95 % CI, 1.15; 0.69, 1.93, p = 0.59). Any H. pylori infection up to age 6.5 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of anaemia at age 6.5 (adjusted OR, 95 % CI, 1.68; 1.22, 2.32, p = 0.01). A significant reduction in haemoglobin concentration and red cell indices was also observed among children who had any H. pylori infection up to age 6.5 (Hb adjusted β = -0.19, 95 % CI, -0.35 to -0.03, p = 0.01; MCV adjusted β = -2.22, 95 % CI, -3.43 to -1.01, p = 0.01; MCH adjusted β = -0.63, 95 % CI, -1.15 to - 0.12, p = 0.01; and MCHC adjusted β = -0.67, 95 % CI, -1.21 to -0.14, p = 0.01), respectively. This study provides further evidence from a low income country that any H. pylori infection up to age 6.5 is associated with higher prevalence

  7. The effect of inhaled budesonide on symptoms, lung function, and cold air and methacholine responsiveness in 2- to 5-year-old asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    -acting beta(2)-agonist were monitored with diary cards. LF in awake children was measured as the specific airway resistance (sRaw), using whole-body plethysmography; as resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint); and as resistance and reactance at 5 Hz (Rrs5, Xrs5) by the impulse oscillation technique....... Cold air challenge (CACh) and methacholine challenge (MCh) were used to assess BHR. Children in the BUD group experienced significantly fewer night- and daytime symptoms (p

  8. Relationship between severe acidemia, verbal abilities, and behavior in a Spanish cohort of 5-year-old children born at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido González, Mercedes; Pacheco-Sánchez-Lafuente, F Javier; Roca-Ruíz, Carlos; Hurtado-Suazo, José Antonio; Díaz-López, Miguel Angel

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether a relationship exists between the markers of severe acidemia (SA) and the developmental, verbal, and behavioral characteristics of children with SA born at term 5 years previously, without apparent neurological impairment. A cohort of 76 children-38 with SA (pH Battelle Developmental Inventory, McCarthy's Verbal Scale, the Token Test for Children, and the Conners 3rd Edition-Parent. The relationships between markers of SA and verbal and behavioral scores were analyzed with parametric correlations. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the possible effect of these markers on verbal abilities, verbal memory, and attention. Although none of the scores were in the "impaired" range, the SA group scored lower in verbal index (p = .000) and verbal memory (p = .004) on the McCarthy's Scales and in verbal comprehension (p = .001) on the Token Test for Children-2, and higher on the inattention (p = .003) and hyperactivity-impulsivity domains of the Conners Scales (p = .009) compared with the control group. There were no differences between the groups in the motor, personal-social, or cognitive domains on the Battelle Developmental Inventory. The SA markers were found to be predictors, accounting for 61.6% of verbal variability. SA markers reflect mild long-term consequences regarding verbal abilities and inattentiveness among children born at term without apparent neurological impairment on discharge but do not suggest severe impairment to the 5-year development of children. The authors recommend that these children should be monitored to determine whether they need or might benefit from an early intervention program.

  9. [Molecular epideiological and clinical feature of human calicivirus and adenovirus among children with diarrhea less than 5 years old from 2010 to 2011 in Lanzhou, Gansu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Xia; Li, Dan-Di; Jin, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Hong; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Li, Yu-Ning; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the clinical and molecular epidemiology characteristics of calicivirus and adenovirus in children for viral diarrhea in Lanzhou. Stool samples were collected from 295 children with diarrhea at the First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Gansu Province,China, between July 2010 and June 2011. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or PCR were used to detected calicivirus and adenovirus. The adenovirus positive samples were typed by nested PCR and multiple PCR. Of the 295 specimens, 13.2% (39/295) were positive for calicivirus, and 5.1% (15/295) were adenovirus. Typing and Phylogenetic analysis revealed that novirus GII-3 and adenovirus 41 were the dominant strains. Both calicivirus and adenovirus predominately affect children under the age of 2. In seasonal distribution, there was no obvious peak. Human calicivirus and adenovirus are important pathogens of viral diarrhea,it is important to develop long-term systematic surveillance.

  10. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars T.; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-01-01

    Background Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC) and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization’s decayed missing filled tooth (dmft) index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis. Results Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417) were 21.8 (CI 20.7–22.9) and 21.3(CI 20.7–21.9) months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9) and 1.7 (SD 2.9) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW) showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65–1.2). Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7). Conclusion PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150 PMID:25938681

  11. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Birungi

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda.Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's decayed missing filled tooth (dmft index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis.Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417 were 21.8 (CI 20.7-22.9 and 21.3(CI 20.7-21.9 months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9 and 1.7 (SD 2.9 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65-1.2. Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7.PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150.

  12. Phonemic Awareness Development in 2.5- and 3.5-Year-Old Children: An Examination of Emergent, Receptive, Knowledge and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Brandi Biscoe; Terry, Nicole Patton; Friehling, Arielle H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health has deemed illiteracy a national health crisis based on reading proficiency rates among American children. In 2002, the National Early Literacy Panel identified six pre-reading skills that are most crucial precursors to reading mastery and predict future reading outcomes. Of those skills, phonological awareness,…

  13. Non-Bayesian Noun Generalization in 3-to 5-Year-Old Children: Probing the Role of Prior Knowledge in the Suspicious Coincidence Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gavin W.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Jodi R.; Spencer, John P.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as "Labrador," "dog," and "animal." Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and…

  14. Children’s Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates the Relations between Family Adversity and Sleep Problems in Latino 5-Year Olds in the CHAMACOS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Alkon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common for young children especially if they live in adverse home environments. Some studies investigate if young children may also be at a higher risk of sleep problems if they have a specific biological sensitivity to adversity. This paper addresses the research question, does the relations between children’s exposure to family adversities and their sleep problems differ depending on their autonomic nervous system’s sensitivity to challenges? As part of a larger cohort study of Latino, low-income families, we assessed the cross-sectional relations among family demographics (education, marital status, adversities [routines, major life events (MLE], and biological sensitivity as measured by autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity associated with parent-rated sleep problems when the children were 5 years old. Mothers were interviewed in English or Spanish and completed demographic, family, and child measures. The children completed a 15-min standardized protocol while continuous cardiac measures of the ANS [respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, preejection period (PEP] were collected during resting and four challenge conditions. Reactivity was defined as the mean of the responses to the four challenge conditions minus the first resting condition. Four ANS profiles, co-activation, co-inhibition, reciprocal low RSA and PEP reactivity, and reciprocal high RSA and PEP reactivity, were created by dichotomizing the reactivity scores as high or low reactivity. Logistic regression models showed there were significant main effects for children living in families with fewer daily routines having more sleep problems than for children living in families with daily routines. There were significant interactions for children with low PEP reactivity and for children with the reciprocal, low reactivity profiles who experienced major family life events in predicting children’s sleep problems. Children who had a reciprocal, low reactivity

  15. How do 5-year-olds understand questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes; Teresa Guasti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    the question word was related to the sentential subject or object position of the verb. The findings show that there is considerable variation among languages, but the two factors mentioned consistently affect children’s performance. The cross-linguistic variation shows that three linguistic factors facilitate......The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically...... developing children across 19 European countries, 18 different languages, and 7 language (sub-)families. The study investigated the effects of two factors on question formation: (a) whether the question contains a simple interrogative word like ‘who’ or a complex one like ‘which princess’, and (b) whether...

  16. Clustering of energy balance-related behavioural in 5-year-old children: lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.; Stafleu, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals) and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary screen-based behavior) in

  17. Suitability of the "'Little DCDQ" for the Identification of DCD in a Selected Group of 3-5-Year-Old South African Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Amné; Pienaar, Anita E.; Coetzee, Dané

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) as soon as possible, we need validated screening instruments that can be used for the early identification of motor coordination delays. The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (Little DCDQ) for…

  18. Clustering of energy balance-related behavioural in 5-year-old children: lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.; Stafleu, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals) and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary screen-based behavior) in

  19. ANALYSIS OF POSSIBLE POSITIVE EFFECTS OF OXYTOCIN ADMINISTERED DURING BIRTH ON THE NEUROMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE 0 - 5 YEAR-OLD-CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Elena DIACONU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide oxytocin (OT receives increasing attention since, it plays a role in various behaviors including anxiety, drug addiction, learning, social recognition, empathy, pair bonding and decreased aggression. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA, part of the limbic system, plays an important role in learning, memory, anxiety and reinforcing mechanisms. Oxytocin receptors are found in the tissues of the cardiovascular system, reproductive system, brain, and are activated by exposure to specific stimuli. The bestknown stimuli related to reproduction are sucking, birth, cervical stimulation during sexual intercourse. Changes in the oxytocinergic system play a fundamental role in the development of autism, mental disorders, including eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, with direct impact on the patient’s cognition and social behavior. Some researchers have observed that intranasal Oxytocin (OT is a potential treatment for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. As oxytocin is a peptide, delivery by the intranasal (IN route is the preferred method in clinical studies. Although studies have shown increased cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin levels following intranasal administration, this does not unequivocably demonstrate that the peripherally administered oxytocin is entering the cerebrospinal fluid. For example, it has been suggested that peripheral delivery of oxytocin could lead to central release of endogenous oxytocin. It is also unknown whether the intranasal route provides for more efficient entry of the peptide into the CSF compared to the intravenous (IV route, which requires blood–brain barrier penetration.

  20. 5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因分析%The etiology analysis of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈信; 彭万胜; 瞿色华; 张阵; 武玉猛; 赵武

    2016-01-01

    目的::分析5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因,以提高儿科医生对年幼儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因诊断及治疗水平。方法:回顾性分析85例5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的临床资料。结果:85例非特异性慢性咳嗽患儿病因分布如下:咳嗽变异性哮喘27例(31.8%),上气道咳嗽综合征32例(37.6%),感染后咳嗽16例(18.8%),胃食管反流性咳嗽3例(3.5%),过敏性咳嗽2例(2.4%),病因不明5例(5.9%)。结论:5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的主要病因构成比依次为上气道咳嗽综合征、咳嗽变异性哮喘、感染后咳嗽及其他病因。%Objective:To explore the causes of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old for improving its diagnosis and treatment. Methods:The clinical data of 85 children 5 or under 5 years old with nonspecific chronic cough were retrospectively analyzed. Results:The etiologic distribution of the 85 children with nonspecific chronic cough included 27 cases of cough variant asthma (31. 8%),32 cases of upper airway cough syndrome(37. 6%),16 cases of post-infection cough(18. 8%),3 cases of gastroesophageal reflux cough(3. 5%),2 cases of atopic cough(2. 4%) and 5 cases of unknown etiology(5. 9%). Conclusions:The main causes of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old are the upper airway cough syndrome,cough variant asthma,post-infection cough and other causes in turn.

  1. 甲基泼尼松龙治疗5岁以下儿童哮喘的临床分析%Clinical analysis on methylprednisolone in the treatment of asthma in children under 5 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小秧; 乐高钟; 刘素云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of methylprednisolone in the treatment of asthma in children under 5 years old. Methods 74 cases with asthma in children under 5 years old from 2011 May to 2013 April in our hospital was selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group,the treatment group was treated with methyl-prednisolone,the control group was treated with hydrocortisone.The therapeutic effect of two groups was observed. Re-sults The total effective rate of the treatment group was 94.59%,which was significantly higher than 75.68%of the con-trol group,with statistical difference (P<0.05).Asthma relief time,rale disappearance time and length of hospital stay in the treatment group was significantly shorter than that in the control group,with statistical difference(P<0.05). Conclu-sion Methylprednisolone in the treatment of asthma in children under 5 years old has significant effect,can effectively improve the clinical symptoms,improve the quality of life.%目的:探讨甲基泼尼松龙治疗5岁以下哮喘患儿的临床效果。方法选取本院2011年5月~2013年4月收治的74例5岁以下哮喘患者作为研究对象,随机将其分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组给予甲基泼尼松龙治疗,对照组给予氢化可的松治疗,观察其治疗效果。结果治疗组的总有效率为94.59%,显著高于对照组的75.68%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组的喘息缓解时间、啰音消失时间以及住院时间显著短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用甲基泼尼松龙治疗5岁以下哮喘患儿效果显著,可有效改善临床症状,提高生活质量。

  2. Analysis on mortality evaluation of children under 5 years old during 2009-2012 in Shanghai%2009至2012年上海市5岁以下儿童死亡评审情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王四美; 龚群; 何琳; 陈佳英; 张晶

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解上海市5岁以下儿童死亡的现状、原因及动态变化。方法对2008年10月至2012年9月期间全市5岁以下儿童死亡资料及评审结果进行统计分析。结果2009年至2012年本市5岁以下儿童死亡率各年依次为7.03‰、7.09‰、6.60‰、6.07‰。其中年龄方面,各年新生儿及婴儿死亡比例均较高,分别为65%~75%、30%~40%;性别方面,男女性别比稳定在1.5:1左右;户籍方面,非户籍人口死亡所占比(72.05%)高于本市户籍人口(24.33%);在死因顺位方面,先天性心脏病、早产/低体重儿分别位居第1位和第2位,且其所占死亡比例略有上升趋势。结论加强外来流动人口孕产期的保健管理与宣教、早期诊断及积极治疗先心病患儿、降低早产儿及低体重儿的发生,完善高危儿和危重儿的转运及救治措施等是控制上海市5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键。%Objective To understand the current status , reasons and dynamic changes of children mortality under 5 years old in Shanghai . Methods Statistical analysis was conducted on mortality data and evaluation results of children under 5 years old in Shanghai from October 2008 to September 2012.Results The mortality of children under 5 years old during 2009 to 2012 was 7.03‰, 7.09‰, 6.60‰ and 6.07‰, respectively.In terms of age, the proportion of newborn and infant death was higher , and it was 65%-75%and 30%-40%, respectively.In gender, the ratio of male to female was about 1.5.Considering household registration , the non-resident population death (72.05%) was obviously higher than that of resident population (24.33%).In terms of sequence of death causes , congenital heart disease and premature delivery/low birth weight ranked in the first and the second , and the mortality caused by these two factors showed a slight upward trend .Conclusion Strengthening care management and education on

  3. Smith-Magenis syndrome with West syndrome in a 5-year-old girl: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Nakayama, Tojo; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Kure, Shigeo; Kamada, Fumiaki; Abe, Yu; Arai, Natsuko; Togashi, Noriko; Onuma, Akira; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation caused by the heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 17p11.2. We present a long-term follow-up study of a girl with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome. West syndrome became apparent at 7 months of age. Since then, mental retardation, particularly in terms of language development, became increasingly more obvious. The patient's spasms and hypsarrhythmia disappeared after a course of adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy, but focal seizures reappeared at the age of 3 years and 3 months. Her craniofacial dysmorphia and mental retardation became increasingly evident compared to her condition at the onset of West syndrome. Chromosome analysis detected the characteristic 17p deletion, which was then confirmed via fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. This is the second report of a patient with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome; taken together, these results suggest that Smith-Magenis syndrome may be a further cause of West syndrome.

  4. Investigation of the prevalence of anemia among rural children under 5 years old in Shaanxi Province%陕西省农村5岁以下儿童贫血患病状况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雷焕; 张超; 曾令霞; 颜虹

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解陕西省农村3月龄~5岁儿童的贫血患病状况,为降低陕西省农村5岁以下儿童贫血提供参考依据.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样法,对陕西省5个县的1 500户有5岁以下儿童的家庭户进行调查.运用软件Eipdata3.1建立数据库,实行双录入并进行纠错,采用SPSS13.0统计分析软件对数据进行整理和分析.结果 5个县3月龄~5岁儿童贫血患病率为32.0%;6~15月龄贫血患病率较高,以后随着月龄的增长而下降,不同月龄间儿童贫血患病率差异显著;不同地区间的儿童贫血患病率差异显著,蒲城最高为32.3%,佳县最低为16.1%;儿童贫血的主要类型为轻度贫血;不同性别儿童贫血患病率差异不显著;贫血男女童的体重、身高均显著低于非贫血儿童;不同喂养方式儿童的贫血患病率差异显著.结论 陕西省农村5岁以下儿童贫血患病率较高,且以轻度贫血为主;改善喂养方式,普及科学喂养知识,有助于降低儿童贫血患病率.%To understand the prevalence of anemia in 3-month- to 5-year-old children living in rural areas of Shaanxi Province so as to provide the reference for reducing the disease. Methods We investigated 1500 households with children under 5 years old in 5 counties of Shaanxi Province using multi-stage random sampling. Database was set up and data were logically checked with Epi3.1 software. All the data were input with duplication method and analyzed wich SPSS 13.0 software. Results The prevalence of anemia in children aged 3 months to 5 years was 32. 0% in the 5 counties< with significant differences among counties with the highest in Pucheng (32.3%) and the lowest in Jiaxian (16.1%). The prevalence of anemia in children was relatively high in 6 and 15 months of age after birth, but declined when children grew older. The main type was mild anemia. The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between different genders- However, the

  5. Epidemiological analysis of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old from 2007 to 2010%宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of obesity in children under 5 years old in Baoji city and to explore the influencing factors of childhood obesity and intervention measures so as to promote children' s health. Methods Data was collected through physical examination and questionnaire survey, and rate and chi-square analysis were made by using SPSS 13.0. Results The prevalence of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old lingered between 11.65% and 18.71% in the period of 2007 to 2010, which was a rather high level. The prevalence in different years was significantly different ( x2 = 65.421, P < 0.05 ). There were significant differences in the prevalence among children of different ages and of different genders (x2 was 12. 821 and 14. 247 respectively, P < 0.05 ). In addition, the prevalence of obesity between urban children and rural children was statistically different ( x2 = 4. 454, P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Combined with the obesity epidemiologic characteristics, key intervention objects were determined. Comprehensive measures such as strengthening health education, promoting children's health care and advocating breastfeeding can reduce childhood obesity rate.%目的 了解宝鸡市5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学特征,探索儿童肥胖的影响因素和干预措施,促进儿童健康.方法 通过体格检查和问卷调查收集资料,并对结果进行率和卡方检验分析.结果 宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖患病率徘徊在11.65%~18.71%,处于一个较高的水平,年度之间患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=65.421,P<0.05);不同年龄段儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=12.821,P<0.05);不同性别儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=14.247,P<0.05);城市与农村间儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.454,P<0.05).结论 结合肥胖的流行病学特点,确定重点干预对象,通过加强健康教育、促进儿童保

  6. Evaluation of two educational interventions regarding prevention of early childhood caries on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-year-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Razeghi

    2017-02-01

    (pamphlet and pamphlet along with reminder on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-years-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia was assessed. Thirty seven couples of children and mothers in two groups were randomly selected. Before and three months after interventions, a standard questionnaire regarding self-reported practice of mothers on prevention of early childhood caries was completed by respondents. Moreover, oral examination including Simplified oral hygiene index (S-OHI, dmft, and white spot lesions were rerecorded at the beginning and three months after interventions. At this time in one of the groups reminder phone calls were made every month. Finally, the answers were scored and data were statistically analyzed to be compared in pre- and post-test. Results: Comparing each of the groups before and after interventions showed that in both groups there were significant differences in mothers’ perception of perceived ability to make child brush his teeth twice a day (P=0.001, and child’s tooth brushing frequency more than once a day (P=0.03. S-OHI had no significant difference after the intervention between two groups. But each group had a significant decrease three months after intervention (P=0.003. Also the mean number of white spots showed a significant decrease before and after intervention in each groups. Regarding mothers’ self-reported practice no significant difference was observed between two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Using pamphlets along with or without reminder as educational measures had similar enhancing effects on the mothers’ self-reported practice on oral health of children within three months.

  7. 2008-2011年上海市5岁儿童患龋情况调查报告%Analysis of caries status among 5-year-old children in Shanghai from 2008 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李存荣; 曾晓莉; 王勋; 徐玮; 陈曦

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查2008- 2011年上海市5岁儿童患龋状况,为分析评价儿童口腔健康状况和服务水平提供依据.方法:采用等容量随机抽样方法,从每个区县随机抽取1所幼儿园5岁儿童(男女各半),2008、2009年各950名,2010、2011年各900名,检测患龋率、龋均、龋失补充填构成比、SiC指数.应用SPSS13.0软件包进行独立样本t检验、方差分析和x2检验.结果:2008-2011年5岁儿童患龋率分别为63.47% 、64.00% 、64.89%和64.44%,龋均分别为2.96、2.99、3.23和3.09,SiC指数分别为7、10、7.20、7.74和7.37,龋失补充填构成比分别为10.93%、12.76%、16.96%和20.63%.患龋率及龋均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),龋失补充填构成比逐年提高(P<0.01),SiC指数是龋均的2倍多.各年间的患龋率及龋均市区均低于郊区(P<0.01),龋失补充填构成比市区显著高于郊区(P<0.01),乳牙龋集中发生在1/3儿童中.结论:上海市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率、龋均指数变化不大,龋失补充填构成比逐年上升,应采取更为积极的措施,控制儿童龋高危人群,进一步改善儿童口腔健康水平.%PURPOSE: To analyze the status of 5-year-old children's oral caries in Shanghai from 2008 to 2011, and to provide information to evaluate oral health status and improve service level. METHODS: By using equal-sized randomly sampling method, this survey was carried out on the caries status of randomly selected 950 children aged 5 years in Shanghai respectively in 2008 and 2009, and 900 children respectively in 2010 and 2011- The data of prevalence of dental caries, dmft, caries filling constituent ratio and SiC index were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package by means of independent-samples t test, one way AN0VA and Chi-square test. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2011, the prevalence of deciduous tooth caries among 5-year-old children was 63.47%, 64.00%, 64.89% and 64.44%, respectively. The

  8. 2009年-2013年茂名地区5岁以下儿童死亡分析%The Analysis of Death About Children under 5 Years Old in a Region from 2009 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春华

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析某地区5岁以下儿童死亡原因和变化趋势,为卫生行政部门制定干预措施提供科学依据。方法通过县、乡、村三级妇幼保健网络体系,收集2009年-2013年所有出生的活产数和死亡的5岁以下儿童资料,进行质控、汇总、分析。结果5年间某地区新生儿期、婴儿期、<5岁儿童死亡率呈下降趋势,2013年某地区新生儿期、婴儿期、<5岁儿童死亡率分别为2.60‰、3.29‰、4.03‰,比2009年分别降低了26.55%、26.89%、30.52%,前5位死因依次为出生窒息,肺炎、早产或低出生体重儿、先天性心脏病、其他先天性异常。结论加强孕产妇和儿童的保健管理和健康教育,积极开展产前筛查和产前诊断工作,不断强化产、儿科医师急救技能培训,提高对儿科重症的识别和救治能力,从而降低5岁以下儿童死亡。%Objectives To analyze the causes of death and change trend of children under 5 years old, and provide scientific basis for the administrative department of public health.Methods Withthe helpof the three levels ofcounty,townshipandvillagematernalandchildhealthcarenetworkSystem collectsallborndataoflive birthsanddeathsofchildrenundertheageoffive from2009to2013,andcarries onthequality control, analysis andsummary.Results The mortality rate of newborns, infants, children under five decreased between 2009 and 2013.In 2013 newborns, infants, children under the age of five mortality was 2.60‰,3.29‰,4.03 ‰, compared to 2009 was reduced by 26.55%, 26.89% and 30.52%, respectively. The cause of death is birth asphyxia, pneumonia, premature birth or low birth weight infants, congenital heart disease, congenital anomaly. Conclusions To strengthen the health care management and health education, and develop the prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. Strengthen the first aid skills training about pediatrician and maieutologist. To improve the ability of recognition and

  9. The caries experience of 5 year-old children in Scotland in 2013-2014, and in England and Wales in 2014-2015. Reports of cross-sectional dental surveys using BASCD criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M; Davies, G M; Monaghan, N; Morgan, M Z; Neville, J S; Pitts, N B

    2017-09-01

    We report the findings from and comment on the surveys of the oral health of 5-year-old children undertaken in Scotland (2013-14), Wales (2014-15) and England (2014-15). This was the fourteenth survey in Scotland since 1988. In England and Wales it is the third survey since 2007 when changes were required in consent arrangements. Representative samples were drawn within Health Boards across Scotland and local authorities across England and Wales. Consent was sought via opt-out parental consent in Scotland and opt-in parental consent in England and Wales. Children examined were those aged five in England and those in Primary 1 (school year aged 5 to 6) in Scotland and Wales. Examinations were conducted in schools by trained and calibrated examiners. Caries was visually diagnosed at the dentinal threshold. There is a continuing decline in d₃mft in all three countries. d₃mft was 1.27 (opt-out consent) for Scotland, 0.84 for England (opt-in consent) and 1.29 for Wales (opt-in consent). Tooth decay levels remain higher in more deprived areas across Great Britain, with clear inequalities gradients demonstrated across all geographies. Attempts to measure changes in dental health inequalities across the three countries show no conclusive trends. Inter-country comparisons provide further oral health intelligence despite differences in approach and timing. The third surveys in England and Wales using the new consent arrangements have enabled trend analysis. Dental health inequalities gradients were shown across all geographies and all of the indicators of inequality. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  10. Death Analysis of 0~5 Years Old Children from 2003 to 2010 in Ulanhot City%乌兰浩特市2003~2010年0~5岁儿童死亡情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽媛

    2012-01-01

    儿童死亡率是《中国儿童发展纲要(2001-2010年)》的重要指标之一,也是衡量一个国家或地区的经济文化、卫生状况、妇幼卫生工作质量和服务水平的主要指标.通过对兴安盟乌兰浩特市2003-2010年儿童死亡报告卡进行整理分析,旨在了解乌兰浩特市5岁以下儿童死亡情况,分析死亡率及主要死亡原因,为进一步采取有效干预措施,降低儿童死亡率提供依据.%Child mortality is one of the important indexes in Chinese children development program(2001~2010 year),but also is the main index to measure a country or region’s economic and cultural,health status,maternal and child health work quality,and service level.Through analysis the death report cards from 2003~2010 of Ulanhot city in Xingan league,this article aims to know the children death below 5 years old in Ulanhot,to analyze the mortality and main death reason,and to provide a basis for taking further effective intervention measures to reduce child mortality.

  11. Analysis of the pathogen microbes in 0 to 5 years old children with acute diarrhea%0~5岁小儿急性腹泻病原微生物检验结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳正东

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To knowledge the characteristics of pathogen microbes in 0 to 5 years old children with acute diarrhea, and provide the basis for effective treatment. Methods:The 310 stool specimens from less than 5 years old children with diarrhea were collected for routine bacteria culture to screen the pathogenic bacteria from April 2012 to March 2013. The virus was detected using ELISA,and virus genotype was determined by PCR. Results:The virus in 121 cases(39. 03%) were postive,the rotavirus was the main pathogenic virus. The bacteria in 24 cases(7. 74%) were positive,the Salmonella was imjor. Virus and bacterial co-infection was not found. The difference of infection rate between gender was not statistical significance(P>0. 05). Rotavirus infection occured mainly in Autumn and Winter,the popular type was G2,G3,and P[8],18 to 23 weeks old children were a high-risk group. The bacterial and goblet viral diarrhea was prevalent in summer. Conclusions:Rotavirus infection is the main pathogen of infectious diarrhea,bacterial infection also accounted for certain proportion in Yongchuan district. Strengthening the pathogen monitoring can provide the basis for clinical treatment.%目的:了解5岁以下小儿腹泻病原微生物的构成情况,为采取合理有效的治疗措施提供依据。方法:收集2011年4月至2013年3月5岁以下住院腹泻患儿的粪便标本310份,进行常规细菌培养,筛检致病菌;同时采用ELISA法检测病毒,利用聚合酶链反应方法进行病毒分型。结果:病毒检测阳性121例(39.03%),其中人轮状病毒为主要致病病毒;检出致病菌24例(7.74%),以沙门菌为主;未发现病毒和细菌同时感染,男女性患儿感染性腹泻检出率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。人轮状病毒感染主要流行于秋冬季,流行型为G2、G3和P[8],18~23周龄儿童多发;而细菌性和杯状病毒性腹泻主要流行于夏季。结论:永川地区人轮状病毒感染是导致5岁以下婴幼

  12. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Malnutrition in Children under 5 Years Old in Shaoguan City in 2012%2012年韶关市5岁以下儿童营养不良的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓梅; 魏明香; 韩锦英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the influencing factors of malnutrition in children under the age of 5 years old. Meth-ods 2800 children under 5 years old in the local area were selected. The nutritional status, diet, birth situation, knowledge of family members and so on of the children were investigated;adverse factors of malnutrition in children under 5 years old were ex-plored. Results Of the investigated 2800 cases of children under 5 years old, there were varying degrees of malnutrition in 348 children,accouting for 12.4%, Among them, there were 92 cases of low weight, accounting for 3.3%, 104 cases of overweight, ac-counting for 3.7%, 152 cases of delayed growth and development, accounting for 5.4%. The degree of education of a total of 264 family members of the 348 children with malnutrition was or below junior secondary school level, accounting for 75.9%. The more common supplementary food in the children diet were grain, potato, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and so on. Conclusion The main influencing factors of malnutrition in children under age 5 are the degree of education of the children's family members, the diet and the birth situation. Therefore, the diet of the children should be improved as far as possible and breast feeding is rec-ommended, which are of great significance for the healthy growth of the children in later life.%研究分析5岁以下儿童营养不良的各项影响因素。方法选取该地区2012年5岁以下儿童2800人,对所有儿童的营养状况、饮食情况、出生情况以及家庭各成员知识程度等方面进行调查,探讨5岁以下儿童营养不良的各项不良因素。结果该次调查的2800名5岁以下儿童中,有348名儿童存在不同程度的营养不良,占12.4%,其中:体重偏低92人,占3.3%。体重偏重104人,占3.7%。生长发育延缓152人,占5.4%。在348名营养不良儿童中,家庭成员文化程度在初中及以下的共有264人,占75.9%。儿童

  13. The Influence of Two Cognitive-Linguistic Variables on Incidental Word Learning in 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Alyson D.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables--phonological memory and phonological awareness--is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word…

  14. Relationship of concentration of proteins in saliva and dental caries susceptibility in 4~5 year old children%4~5岁儿童唾液中蛋白成分与患龋状况的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金东; 刘寿桃; 林焕彩; 郝高峰; 乔永刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 初步探讨儿童刺激性全唾液中蛋白成分与乳牙患龋状况的关系.方法 单纯随机抽样法选取4~5岁、性别匹配的高龋(龋、失、补指数≥5,高龋组)和无龋(龋、失、补指数=0,无龋组)儿童各40例.吐取法收集刺激性全唾液,双金鸡纳酸法测定总蛋白含量.十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰氨凝胶电泳定量分析各蛋白成分.结果高龋组儿童唾液中总蛋白含量低于无龋组(P<0.01).平均每个样品分离出i0条可分析条带,两组比较,10 000、28 000、38 000、56 000、77 000蛋白百分含量高龋组均高于无龋组;14 500蛋白百分含量高龋组与无龋组比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.137).结论 患龋程度不同的儿童唾液中,分子量为10000、28 000、38 000、56 000、77 000的蛋白含量有差异,可能与乳牙龋易感性不同有关.%Objective To investigate the correlation between the concentrations of proteins in stimulated whole saliva and the dental caries susceptibilities of deciduous teeth of children. Methods Based on simple random sampling, 40 children of 4~5 years old with high dmft (high-caries group, dmft ^ 5) and 40 children in same age (free-caries group, dmft = 0) were selected. Stimulated whole saliva from each child was collected by direct spitting method. The level of salivary total proteins was measured by means of bicinchoninic/BCA. Sodium dodecyl sul-fate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to separate the salivary proteins. Results The concentrations of proteins in saliva was significantly lower in high-caries group than free-caries group (P<0.01). Ten straps in average were isolated from children's stimulated saliva using 15% SDS-PAGE. About The concentrations of 10 000, 28 000, 38 000, 56 000 and 77 000 proteins was higher in high-caries group than free-caries group, whereas, no statistically significant difference was found in the concentration of 14 500 Da protein (P = 0.137). Conclusion

  15. 婴儿期增重与5岁以下儿童单纯性肥胖的相关性研究%Correlation between infants weight gain and simple obesity of children under 5 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严学勤; 上官予梅; 冯华俊; 廖艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the correlation between infant weight gain and simple obesity of children under 5 years old.Methods From 2006 to 2011 6 746 infants born at Zhongshan Humanitarian Hospital were registered and followed up .Relevant data were recorded . Totally 567 children with simple obesity were chosen in obesity group , and control group was matched with 1:1 in age and gender .Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the influencing factors of children ’ s simple obesity in the aspects of parents ’ educational level , infant birth weight and feeding .Results Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that simple obesity in children had significant correlation with infant birth weight (OR=1.94, 95%CI=1.56,2.32), average weight gain during the first 6 months (OR=2.17, 95%CI=2.11,2.36) and average weight gain during the later 6 months (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.61,2.19) (all P<0.05). Conclusion Children’ s simple obesity is closely correlated with infant birth weight , average weight gain during the first 6 months and average weight gain during the later 6 months when supplementary food is added .%目的:探讨婴儿期增重与5岁以下儿童单纯性肥胖的相关性。方法选取2006年至2011年在中山市博爱医院出生的6746例婴儿进行随访登记,统计相关数据,从中筛选出单纯性肥胖的567例儿童设为肥胖组,并按年龄、性别匹配原则1:1配对者设为对照组,进行父母文化程度、婴儿出生体重、喂养等方面的单因素分析,并进行影响儿童单纯性肥胖的多因素logistics回归分析。结果多因素logistics回归分析显示:与儿童单纯性肥胖显著相关的变量为婴儿出生时的体重( OR=1.94,95%CI=1.56,2.32)、婴儿期前6个月平均增重量(OR=2.17,95%CI=2.11,2.36)及婴儿期后6个月的平均增重量(OR=1.90,95%CI=1.61,2.19),均P<0.05。结论与儿童单纯性肥

  16. The status of malnutrition among the children aged 2~5 years old and the effect factors%2~5岁儿童营养不良状况及其影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程进; 魏锁; 王君; 宋丹丹

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解安徽省某市城区2-5岁在园儿童营养状况,分析相关影响因素,为改善该地区儿童营养状况提供依据.方法:采用分层整群抽样的方法,随机抽取4所公立幼儿园和8所私立幼儿园,对每所幼儿园在园儿童进行一般情况调查、体格发育测量和口腔检查,并采末梢静脉血检测血红蛋白.结果:共调查2 993例儿童,男1 424例,女1 569例,平均月龄为(51.23±11.73)个月,公立幼儿园儿童占64.O%,低体重、生长发育迟缓和消瘦检出率分别为4.2%、4.1%和3.7%,儿童营养不良检出率为7.9%,儿童贫血检出率为33.0%,龋齿检出率为47.4%.单冈素分析显示,男童、贫血、私立幼儿园儿童营养不良检出率较高,月龄越大儿童营养不良检出率越低,患龋齿儿童营养不良检出率较低.多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,女童[0.525(0.397~0.693)]、月龄高[0.976(0.964~0.987)]和牙齿数[0.783(0.624~0.983)]多为儿童营养不良的保护因素,私立幼儿园[2.522(0.397~3.336)]为儿奄营养不良的危险因素.结论:该地区私立幼儿园和低龄儿童营养不良检出率较高,应针对私立幼儿园和低龄儿童实施针对性干预,控制营养不良儿童的发生.%Objective: To understand the nutritional status of children aged 2 ~5 years old from kindergartens of the urban area of one city, analyze the related effect factors, provide a basis for improving the nutritional status of children in the local area. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling method was used to abstract 4 public kindergartens and 8 private kindergartens from the urban area of one city randomly, the general conditions of all the children in kindergartens were surveyed, physical development examination and oral examination were carried out, and their peripheral blood samples were obtained to detect hemoglobin level. Results: 2 993 children were investigated, including 1 424 boys and 1 569 girls, the average age was ( 51.23 ± 11

  17. 上海市2005~2009年健康儿童肠道病毒携带状况调查%Enterovirus Carrying Status among Healthy Children under 5 Years Old in Shanghai from 2005-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云逸; 孙晓冬; 丁晓光; 陆菁; 刘敏勇; 李崇山

    2012-01-01

    objective To explore the enterovirus (EV ) carrying status among healthy children under 5 years old in Shanghai from 2005 to 2009. Methods Stool samples were collected from healthy children during peak epidemic seasons for the EV (from July to August). EV was isolated from these stool samples and then was serotyped by neutralization using specific antisera. VP1 code gene of all non-polio EV (NPEV) isolated were sequenced in order to identify serotypes. Results 18 polioviruses were isolated from 1630 stool samples and carrying rate of poliovirus was 1.10%. 227 NPEV were isolated from the 1630 stool samples and carrying rate of NPEV was 13.93% . Poliovirus were identified as vaccine strains by national laboratory of Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. There was no wild type poliovirus in Shanghai from 2005 to 2009.Coxsackievirus group B type3 (CVB3)isolates from 2005 to 2009 in Shanghai formed two branch, but genetic diversity was found compared with CVB3 isolates from Europe and America. EV Type71 isolates were C4 subgenotype. Conclusion The EVcarrying rate was decline in healthy children in Shanghai from 2005 to 2009 and maintained polio-free status in Shanghai. We still need to establish and improve EV data bank in Shanghai to make futher realizing of the virus and its epidemic situation among healthy population.%目的 了解上海市2005~2009年≤5岁健康儿童肠道病毒(Enterovirus,EV)携带状况.方法 在EV感染的高发季节(6~8月),采集健康儿童粪便标本进行EV分离和血清型鉴定,对分离到的非脊髓灰质炎(Nonpolio) EV( NPEV)测定VP1编码区核苷酸序列以鉴定其血清型.结果 从1630份粪便标本中共分离到18株脊灰病毒( Poliovirus,PV),阳性率为1.10%;分离到227株NPEV,阳性率为13.93%.PV经中国疾病预防控制中心病毒病预防控制所国家脊灰实验室型内鉴定均为疫苗株.上海市2005~2009年无脊

  18. Analysis of relationship between eating problems of 1~5 years old children and the feeding behavior%1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题与喂养行为的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓成; 张雯; 金宇; 冯华俊; 何晓玲; 刘庆嘉; 刘玉玲; 廖艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究父母喂养行为与1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题之间的关系.[方法]采用一般情况问卷、儿童饮食行为干预问卷(IMFeD)及自编父母喂养和营养行为问卷,调查广东省某市就诊于儿童保健门诊、儿童营养门诊的70名1~5岁具有饮食行为问题的儿童的社会人口学资料、饮食行为及喂养行为资料.[结果]喂养焦虑情绪(r=0.591)、不良喂养习惯(r=0.665)均与IMFeD总分呈正相关;喂养焦虑情绪(β=0.49)、不良喂养习惯(β=0.32)进入IMFeD总分的最终方程,是儿童饮食行为问题的危险因素,喂养中情感交流(β=-0.24)与前述两者一同进入了不良进食习惯得分的最终方程,是避免儿童不良进食习惯的保护因素.[结论]家庭不良喂养习惯、家长喂养焦虑情绪可能引发或增强儿童不良饮食行为问题,喂养时家长与儿童的情感交流能在一定程度上对避免和缓解儿童不良进食习惯有积极作用.%[Objective] To analyze the relationship between eating problems of 1~5 years old children and the feeding behavior. [Methods] Cross-sectional survey was conducted. The questionnaire data, containing general state, identification and management of feeding difficulty (IMFeD) , as well as self-compiled questionnaire about parents feeding behavior, which reflect children's socio-demographic,eating problems,as well as parents' feeding behavior. [Results] Both feeding anxiety and adverse feeding behavior of parents were positive relationship with IMFeD total score,the coefficients were respectively 0. 591 and 0. 665; Feeding anxiety(β=0. 49) ,as well as adverse feeding behavior of parents(β = 0. 32),entering the final formula of IMFeD total score, were risk factors of eating problem; feeling communication,in contract, was protective factor. [Conclusion] Adverse feeding behavior and parents' anxiety possibly raise or enhance children's eating problem, feeling communication between parents and child

  19. 西安地区0-5岁儿童骨碱性磷酸酶结果调查分析%Evaluation of neonatal bone alkaline phophatase(NBAP)activity in 0-5 year old children from Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙悦玲; 储亮; 杨珏玲; 寇卉; 王亚峰; 段美婷; 董玲; 陈靓; 曹颖妮; 薛艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the neonatal bone alkaline phophatase (NBAP) activity in 0 to 5 year old children from Xi'an for diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: Assess the NBAP activity in 1140 children from Xi'an at age0 -5 year old using commercial kit. Results: 1. 39. 83% of children participated in this study were with aberrant NBAP activity. Along with clinical symptoms, 29.74% of the children are diagnosed as vitamin D deficient though in different degrees. 2. There was no statistically significant difference between different genders in terms of NBAP activity. 3. The percentage of children diagnosed as vitamin D deficient inversely correlated with the age of the children. Abnormal NBAP level was most prevalent in the group of children less than 1 year old. Conversely, the percentage of children with abnormal NBAP activity was lowest among 3 -5 year old children. 4. There was a correlation between NBAP and the season, as the percentage of children with aberrant NBAP level was much higher in winter and spring as compared with that in summer and winter. Conclusion: Both the prevalence of abnormal NBAP activity and vitamin D deficiency inversely correlates with the age of the children. The percentage of children with abnormal NBAP activity was rather high in Xi'an, surging coming up measures to prevent vitamin D deficiency in children.%目的 调查分析西安地区0-5岁儿童骨碱性磷酸酶(NBAP)活性分布,为防治儿童维生素D缺乏提供依据.方法 对1140名0-5岁儿童应用NBAP试剂盒进行检测.结果 1.NBAP异常检出率为39.83%.结合临床症状等确诊为维生素D不同程度缺乏的儿童占29.74%.2.受检男、女NBAP检测结果之间无显著性差异.3.1岁以下组NBAP异常检出率最高,3-5岁组最低.结合临床症状等确诊为维生素D不同程度缺乏的儿童也随年龄的增长呈下降趋势.4.NBAP结果与季节有关,冬春季异常检出率明显高于夏秋季.结论 NBAP异常检出率和维生

  20. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of using car seats , closely watching kids around swimming pools , preventing poisoning , not smoking around kids, and using ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Knowing Your Child's Medical History Fitness and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old ...

  1. 1217名2~5岁儿童睡眠障碍调查及其相关因素分析%Survey on Sleep Disorders in 1217 Children Aged 2 to 5 Years Old and Analysis of the Correlation Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易彩霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解长沙市开福区1 217名2~5岁儿童睡眠障碍(sleep disorder,SD)状况及其影响因素,为儿童SD的预防和干预提供科学依据.[方法]选取长沙市开福区门诊和入园体检中的1 217名儿童作为调查对象,对其家长进行儿童睡眠状况问卷调查.[结果]1 217名2~5 岁儿童SD总发生率为26.86%,其中常见的睡眠障碍类型如:入睡困难发生率占8.05%,白天多睡,夜间少睡1.07%,磨牙6.33%,用口呼吸1.23%,梦话2.05%,打鼾5.34%;SD的分布存在性别差异,男童打鼾、用口呼吸和磨牙发生率高;儿童SD的主要危险因素为腺样体肥大、肥胖、居室嘈杂、与家人或保姆同睡一床等.[结论]2~5岁儿童SD相关症状发生率较高;儿童保健工作者应加强睡眠健康教育,开展儿童SD筛查,预防儿童SD的发生.%[Objective] To understand the status of sleep disorder(SD) in 1217 children aged 2 to 5 years old in Kaifu district of Changsha and its influential factors in order to provide the evidence for the prevention and intervention of SD children. [Methods] Totally 1217 children in the clinic services and physical examina tion before the kindergartens were enrolled in this study. Their parents were interviewed with sleep questionnaires of children. [Results] The total incidence rate of SD in 1217 children aged 2 to 5 years old was 26.86 %,among which the incidence rate of the common SD such as difficult falling asleep, more sleep time in daytime and few sleep time in night, bruxism, mouth breathing, sleep talking and snoring was 8. 05%, 1. 07%,6.33 %,1.23 %, 2.05 % and 5.34 %, respectively. The distribution of SD had gender difference, and the incidence of snoring, mouth breathing and bruxism in boys was high. The main risk factors of SD in children were adenoidal hypertrophy, obesity, noisy room, sleeping with family numbers or housekeeper in a bed and so on.[Conclusion] The incidence of the related symptoms of SD in children aged 2

  2. 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用关系的研究%Effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏畅; 张兵; 刘爱东; 杜文雯; 张继国; 张伋; 马玉霞; 张强; 翟凤英

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用的关系.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样的方法,于2009年在西部6省12县贫困农村共调查8141名5岁以下儿童.按WHO推荐标准将调查儿童分为营养不良与营养良好两组,用SAS9.1软件进行分析比较.结果 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养不良率为18.9%;男孩营养不良率(19.9%)显著高于女孩(17.7%,P<0.05);营养不良组近两周内腹泻患病率(9.0%)以及上呼吸道感染患病率(27.9%)显著高于营养良好组(6.9%,25.4%,P<0.05);营养不良组的医疗费用(785.1元)显著高于营养良好组的医疗费用(696.6元,P<0.05);营养不良儿童的门诊就诊率(27.5%)显著高于营养良好儿童的门诊就诊率(25.0%,P<0.05).结论 西部贫困农村儿童营养不良问题仍有待改善,营养状况对儿童的患病率及医疗费用有影响.%Objective To study the effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas. Methods The randomized multi-stage cluster method was used to sample study subjects from poverty rural areas of six western provinces in China. The survey included 8141 children under 5 years old and was carried out in 2009. All of children were divided into two groups, malnutrition group and normal group by WHO standard.Difference of two groups was analyzed with SAS 9. 1. Results In western poverty rural areas, the malnutrition rate of children under 5 years old was 18. 9%. The rate for boys ( 19. 9% ) was significantly higher than that for girls ( 17.7%, P <0. 05). Malnutrition group had higher rate of upper respiratory tract infection (27.9%) and diarrhea (9. 0% ) than those in normal group (25.4% and 6. 9% ) within recent two weeks ( P < 0. 05 ). Mean clinical expenditure of malnutrition group was 785. 1 yuan per year, significantly higher than that of normal group (696. 6 yuan, P <0. 05). Also outpatient

  3. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  4. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  5. Parental blood pressure is related to vascular properties of their 5-year-old offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelein, Annemieke M V; Geerts, Caroline C; Bots, Michiel L; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent offspring of hypertensive parents have increased carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and arterial stiffness compared with offspring of normotensives. We assessed whether systolic blood pressure (SBP) of both parents is associated with the vasculature of their offspring as early as in childhood. In the first 306 5-year-old children of the Wheezing-Illnesses-Study-Leidsche-Rijn birth cohort, CIMT, distensibility, and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained ultrasonographically. In 204 of 306 (67%) children, complete data on both maternal and paternal SBP were obtained from the linked database of the Utrecht Health Project. CIMT of the children was 0.58 µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14, 1.0) greater with every 1-mm Hg higher maternal SBP. Maternal SBP and children's distensibility and EM were more strongly associated, negative and positive respectively, with increasing paternal SBP and vice versa (P value-for-interaction: 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). CIMT of children of whom both parents were in the highest SBP tertile was 17.9 µm (95% CI: 4.0, 31.9) greater compared with the CIMT of children of whom neither one of the parents had a SBP in the highest tertile. For EM and distensibility, these estimates were 20.1 kPa (95% CI: 1.1, 39.2) and -11.6 1/Mpa (95%-CI: -22.9, -0.31), respectively. Higher maternal SBP is related to thicker arterial walls in their 5-year-old offspring. If both parents have higher SBP, the arterial wall of their offspring is thicker and stiffer.

  6. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).

  7. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  8. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  9. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  10. Death monitoring results of children under 5 years old in Beilin District of Xi'an City from 2010 to 2014%西安市碑林区2010 至2014 年5 岁以下儿童死亡监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月芳; 朱亚宁; 王伟; 杨丽芳; 张欢

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the dynamic tendency in variation of death in children under 5 years old in Beilin District of Xi' an City from 2010 to 2014 and to provide evidence for formulating effective intervention measures.Methods Mortality, causes of death, rank and related factors in children under 5 years old were retrospectively analyzed.Results The mortality rate reduced from 8.36‰ in 2010 to 5.30‰in 2014.The death of children was mainly caused by premature birth and low birth weight (36.90%), congenital anomaly (21.43%) and pneumonia (15.48%).Children under 5 years old mainly died in hospital (63.10%).Among the dead children, about 35.29%to 40.00%children did not accept diagnosis before death.Conclusion Maternal check should be strengthened to prevent preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital anomaly.Disseminating knowledge on child health care and conducting regular health examination for children are effective to reduce the mortality rate of children under 5 years old.%目的 对西安市碑林区2010-2014年5岁以下儿童死亡状况的动态变化进行分析,为制定有效干预措施提供依据. 方法 回顾性分析近5年西安市碑林区5岁以下儿童的死亡率、死因构成、顺位及相关因素. 结果 5岁以下儿童死亡率由2010年的8.36‰降至2014年的5.30‰;儿童死亡原因主要集中在早产和低出生体重(36.90%)、先天异常(21.43%)以及肺炎(15.48%);死亡地点主要在医院(63.10%) ,未接受死亡就诊的死亡儿童占35.29%~40.00%. 结论 加强孕产期检查,以预防早产、低出生体重及先天异常的发生. 进行儿童保健知识宣教,定期进行儿童健康检查,是有效降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.

  11. 江苏省无锡市惠山区5岁以下儿童十年死亡原因分析%Analysis of the death cause of children less than 5 years old in Huishan district of Wuxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞秋霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析江苏省无锡市惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及保健服务状况,为降低5岁以下儿童死亡率提出有效干预措施.方法 按照《江苏省5岁以下儿童死亡监测方案》,对辖区内5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料进行分析.结果 2001-2010年惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡率6.87‰,婴儿死亡率5.06‰,新生儿死亡率3.75‰,早期新生儿死亡率2.66‰.5岁以下儿童死因前5位顺位分别为意外伤害、早产低出生体质量、先天畸形、先天性心脏病、出生窒息.结论 惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡呈下降趋势,意外伤害、早产低出生体质量为主要死因.有效降低5岁以下儿童死亡率,应加强安全教育,减少意外事故发生,大力提倡婚前医学检查,加强孕期保健及孕期监测,减少出生缺陷,提高产科、儿科医疗质量和急救技术.%Objective To analyze the death cause of children less than 5 years old in Huishan district of Wuxi,in order to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years of age and put forward effective intervention measures.Methods According to “monitoring project of children below 5 years old died in Jiangsu Province”,the death surveillance data of this area of children below 5 years old were analyzed.Results The mortality of children under 5 years of age in Huishan district from 2001 to 2010 was 6.87‰,infant mortality was 5.06‰,the neonatal mortality was 3.75‰ and early neonatal mortality rate was 2.66‰.Death cause of children under 5 years old,the 5 cis-position were accident,premature and low birth weight,congenital malformation,congenital heart disease,birth asphyxia.Conclusion The death of children under 5 years old in Huishan area decreased,accidental injury,premature and low birth weight were the main causes of death.To reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old,should strengthen the safety education,reduce the accident,vigorously promote the pre-marital medical examination

  12. 甘肃省迭部县藏族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔健康知识调查%An investigation of dental caries status of 5-year-old Zang nationality children and their parents′oral health knowledge in Tewo County,Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕燕; 胡晓潘; 李志强

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解甘肃省迭部县藏族5岁儿童龋病发病情况及家长口腔健康知识,为少数民族地区儿童制定龋病防治措施提供参考。方法:参照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查标准和方法,随机选取迭部县5所幼儿园400名藏族5岁儿童进行龋病检查,并对其家长进行龋病流行病学及相关因素问卷调查。结果:迭部县藏族5岁儿童的乳牙患龋率、龋均分别为59.64%、2.53;54.57%的儿童有睡前吃甜点习惯,48.48%的儿童过去12个月没有到医院看过牙,父母大多未了解儿童口腔健康状况,家长口腔卫生知识的知晓率农村组低于城市组。结论:藏族5岁儿童龋病发病率高,儿童口腔健康行为及家长口腔卫生知识有待进一步改进。%AIM:To investigate the dental caries prevalence and their parents′oral health knowledge of 5 -year-old children of Zang nationality in Tewo County,Gansu Province.METHODS:According to the Third National Oral Health Epidemiological Investigation Standard and Method,400 five-year-old children in five kindergartens in Te-wo country were randomly selected in this study.Oral health examination was made to determine dental caries status,a questionnaire was answered for the investigation of the parents′oral health knowledge and the childrens′oral health be-havior.RESULTS:The dental caries prevalence rate and average caries teeth of the children were 59.64%and 2.53 respectively.54.57% of the children had the habit for having dessert before sleeping,48.48%of the children did not see a dentist in the past 12 months.The majority of the parents knew little about the oral health of their children and the parents living in countryside had less oral hygiene knowledge than those living in city.CONCLUSION:Dental caries prevalence is high in 5-year-old Zang nationality children in Tewo county.The oral health behavior of the chil-dren and the oral health knowledge of their

  13. Alguns fatores associados a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e déficit de peso em menores de 5 anos Some risk factors associated with overweight, stunting and wasting among children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia R. Vitolo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar fatores socioeconômicos e outras condições de vida familiar associadas a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e baixo peso para a estatura em menores de 5 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliou 3.957 crianças entre 1 mês e 5 anos de idade durante campanha nacional de imunização no município de São Leopoldo (RS em 2002. As condições socioeconômicas e de saneamento das áreas de abrangência das unidades de saúde foram agrupadas por análise de cluster dos setores do censo populacional de 2001. RESULTADOS: Déficit de peso para estatura ocorreu em 2,6% das crianças, baixa estatura em 9,1% e excesso de peso em 9,8%. A regressão logística multivariada sugere que os fatores associados à chance de excesso de peso foram: área de condições socioeconômicas alta (RC = 1,47; IC95% 1,09-1,96, filhos únicos (RC = 1,44; IC95% 1,00-2,07 e peso ao nascer ≥ 2.500 g (RC = 2,21; IC95%1,27-3,83. A chance de déficit de peso associou-se ao baixo peso ao nascer (RC = 3,46; IC95% 2,06-5,80 e idade da mãe OBJECTIVE: To explore whether socioeconomic and sanitary conditions, maternal and child factors are associated with overweight, stunting, and wasting in children under five year old in the city of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,957 children aged 1 month to 5 years conducted in all primary care services of the city during the National Children's Vaccination Day in 2002. Maternal and child factors were assessed by a questionnaire. Children's height and weight were measured. Cluster analysis was used to group the areas served by the primary care services according to socioeconomic and sanitary conditions of the census tracts assessed by the 2001 National Census. RESULTS: Wasting was observed in 2.6% of children, stunting in 9.1% and overweight in 9.8%. The multivariable logistic regression model suggests that overweight was associated with higher socioeconomic status and better sanitation of

  14. Torpedo maculopathy with an anisometropic amblyopia in a 5-year-old Caucasian girl: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dutra-Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of asymptomatic female Caucasian children with torpedo maculopathy. A 5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for routine evaluation. The ophthalmic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes, without any changes in the biomicroscopy. Fundus examination showed normal findings in one eye, whereas in the contralateral eye it disclosed, in the temporal sector of the macular region, a whitish, atrophic, oval chorioretinal lesion with clearly defined margins. Posterior evaluations documented the stability of the lesion. Torpedo maculopathy diagnosis is based on its characteristic shape and peculiar location. The differential diagnosis has to be estabilished versus choroidal lesions (melanoma and nevus, congenital or iatrogenic hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and particularly versus the congenital pigmented lesions associated with Gardner's syndrome.

  15. Author development of training device for micro-basketball the «Clever ring» as mean of integral psychomotor development of children of 2-5 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhno E.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A technical device is developed for micro-basketball for integral development of children 1-5 years. In research took part 52 children of age-dependent group of 1-2 years, 56 children of 3-4 years, 56 children, 4-5 years. It is suggested to execute throws in a basket from different distance and under a different corner. Also to give up the balls of different color and size in accordance with a color and size of basket from the set initial position. It is marked that exercises with a ball develop an orientation in space, regulate force and exactness of throw, develop measurement with naked an eye, adroitness, speed of reaction; normalize a volitional sphere emotionally. It is set that application of methods with the use of technical device is instrumental in the increase of indexes of physical preparedness and psychophysiological possibilities of children.

  16. Status of dental caries of primary dentition and the effect of oral health behavior of family in 5-year-old children in Hainan province%海南省5岁儿童乳牙患龋状况及家庭影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳华; 廖天安; 谢莉莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oral health behavior of family on the dental caries status in the primary dentition of 5-year-old children in Hainan province. Methods By multi-stage, stratified and random sampling, 758 children of five years old selected from the urban and rural areas of Hainan province were investigated for dental caries status, according to World Health Organization criteria. Their parents were also investigated. Results 633 of the 758 questionnaires were filled and withdrawn, accounting for 84.4%. The prevalence of dental caries of 5-year-old children in Hainan province was 76.1%, with the draft of 4.88 and the variance of 21.91, which was 70.3% for children from urban areas and 82.2% for those from rural areas. The consumption of sweets, chocolate, water with sugar and beverage were more in urban children then the rural children. Urban children tend to have better oral health behavior, such as the time of beginning tooth brushing, the frequency of brushing and daily use of fluoridated paste. Conclusion The implementation of a systematic education on oral health behavior of family is in urgent need in Hainan province, especially in the rural areas.%目的 研究家庭口腔健康行为对海南省城乡儿童乳牙患龋状况的影响.方法 采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样的方法,按照《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中牙列状况的检查方法和标准对海南省城乡758例5岁儿童进行乳牙龋病检查,并对受检者的家长进行问卷调查.结果 共下发问卷758份,收到有效问卷633份,应答率为84.4%.包括:(1)海南省5岁儿童乳牙患龋率为76.1%,龋均为4.88,方差为21.91;其中城市儿童乳牙患龋率为70.3%,农村儿童乳牙患龋率为82.2%,农村儿童乳牙患龋率高于城市.(2)口腔健康行为分析表明,农村儿童进食糖果、巧克力、糖水、碳酸饮料等频率高于城市.城市儿童开始刷牙时间、频率、用含氟牙膏的

  17. 温州地区5岁以下住院儿童社区获得性肺炎病原学分析%A Study of Viral Etiology of Inpatients below 5 Years Old with Community Acquired Pneumonia in Wenzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤美; 罗运春; 朱妍艳; 徐丽丹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the viral etiology of inpatients below 5 years old with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Wenzhou. Methods Children below 5 years old admitted to Yu Ying Children' s Hospital due to CAP between Fcbruary 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled into the study. Their nasopharyngeal secretions (NPS) were obtained as soon as possible ( usually within 24h) for identification of seven kinds of respiratory viral antigens by direct immunofluorescence assay. Results 2247 cases were included in the study, with 37.52% positive rate for some types of viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV ) accounted for 633 ( 75.09% ),parainfluenza virus Ⅲ ( PIV Ⅲ ) 93 (11.03%), influenza virus A (IVA) 55 (6.53%), parainfluenza virus Ⅰ (PIVI) 22 (2.61%),adenovirus (ADV) 17 (2. 00% ), influenza virus B (IVB) 6 (0.71%) , and mixed infection 17 ( 2, 04% ). Conclusion RSV infections were dominant in inpatient children below 5 years old with CAP in Wenzhou, followed by PIV Ⅲ, IVA and PIV 1. The peak season for RSV infection was spring and winter (January to April or November to December). So it is very important that prevention and control of community acquired pneumonia among children be enhanced.%目的 探讨温州地区5岁以下住院患儿社区获得性肺炎(community acquired pneumonia,CAP)病毒病原学感染状况,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 2009年2月-2010年1月在温州医学院附属育英儿童医院儿科确诊为CAP的5岁以下住院患儿,入院当天或次日清晨取其鼻咽部分泌物,采用直接免疫荧光法分别检测呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、腺病毒(ADV)、流感病毒A、B型(IVA、IVB)和副流感病毒I、II、III型(PIV I、PIV II、PIV III)7项呼吸道病毒抗原.结果 2247例患儿中,阳性843例,阳性率为37.52%.其中RSV 633例,占75.09%;PIV III 93例,占11.03%;IVA 55例,占6.53%;PIV I 22例,占2.61%;ADV 17例,占2.00%;IVB 6例,占0.71%;混合感染17例,占2.04%.结论 2009-2010

  18. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, Pintake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  19. Avaliação do estado nutricional de ferro e anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas Nutritional assessment of iron status and anemia in children under 5 years old at public daycare centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia F. Vieira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de ferro e a prevalência de anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas da cidade do Recife (PE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 162 crianças, de 6 a 59 meses. O estado nutricional de ferro foi avaliado em termos de reservas corporais (ferritina sérica, transferrinemia (ferro sérico, capacidade total de ligação do ferro e % de saturação da transferrina, eritropoiese (protoporfirina eritrocitária livre e hemoglobinogênese (hemoglobina. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia (hemoglobina 40 µmol/mol heme em 69,6% (IC95% 61,0-77,1 das crianças. Os parâmetros de ferro não apresentaram correlação com o gênero (p > 0,05. No entanto, crianças 24 meses. A significante correlação observada entre reserva, transferrinemia e eritropoiese representa achado compatível com o esperado ciclo de vida do ferro no organismo. CONCLUSÕES: A deficiência de ferro e a anemia parecem ser um importante problema de saúde pública entre as crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas do Recife. Logo, ações efetivas direcionadas à prevenção e ao controle dessa deficiência são fortemente recomendadas nesse contexto ecológico.OBJECTIVE: To assess nutritional iron status and anemia prevalence in children less than 5 years old at public daycare centers in the city of Recife, PE, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, with a systematic random sampling of 162 children aged 6 to 59 months. Nutritional iron status was assessed in terms of body iron reserves (serum ferritin, transferrinemia (serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation %, erythropoiesis (free erythrocyte protoporphyrin and hemoglobin production (hemoglobin. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin 40 µmol/mol heme in 69.6% (95%CI 61.0-77.1 of the children. Iron parameters were not correlated with sex (p > 0.05. However, children 24 months. The significant

  20. Gastroenterites e infecções respiratórias agudas em crianças menores de 5 anos, em área da região Sudeste do Brasil, 1986-1987: II - Diarréias Gastroenteritis and acute respiratory infections among children up to 5 years old in an area of Southeastern Brazil, 1986-1987: II - Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1997-02-01

    morbi-mortalidade por diarréias no Município de São Paulo, durante a década de 80, período em que houve acentuada queda nas internações hospitalares por essa causa. Tal tendência deve ser acompanhada atentamente, pois influenciará modificações nas características da demanda de assistência à saúde infantil.INTRODUCTION: The decrease morbi-mortality gastroenteritis in is related to the factor responsible largely for the fall in infant mortality and mortality from communicable diseases in developing countries. Nevertheless, diarrhea is still a considerable public health problem in these countries, especially among children under 5 years old. OBJECTIVES: To describe some aspects of the of gastroenteritis epidemiology among children up to 5 years old, resident in areas of S. Paulo county. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A probabilistic sample of children up to 5 years old was studied (n=468. The epidemiological survey was undertaken in five areas S. Paulo county (Brazil from March 1986 to May 1987. Data were obtained through household interviews once a month over a year. RESULTS: During the follow-up 139 diarrhea episodes were registered, with a mean duration of 5.5 days. Twenty percent of the diarrhea events were followed by at least one other case in the household. The incidence of gastroenteritis was 2.78 episodes per 100 children/month. The highest incidence affected the children of up to 2 years of age. In 46.1% of the gastroenteritis episodes medical assistance was not sought, the children were treated by their mothers or not at all; 51.8% of the diarrhea events were attended to by the primary health care service, and only 2.1% were attended to by a hospital. No child died as a consequence of diarrhea. Of the therapeutical interventions used the most frequent were oral rehydration (25.2% and oral rehydration with antibiotics (11.5%. Various socio-economic and personal background factors such as living conditions, water supply, sewarage, coverage; family income per

  1. Efeito da suplementação de zinco a crianças de 1 a 5 anos de idade Effects of zinc supplementation on 1- to 5-year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. R. Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da suplementação com zinco sobre os parâmetros nutricionais e bioquímicos entre crianças de 12 a 59 meses de idade. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo clínico randomizado unicego com 58 crianças entre 12 e 59 meses participantes do Programa Governamental de Combate a Carências Nutricionais, que fornecia mensalmente 2 kg de leite fortificado com ferro. O grupo intervenção (n = 28 foi suplementado com 10 mg/dia de sulfato de zinco por 4 meses, e o grupo controle (n = 30 recebeu solução placebo. Para avaliação do estado nutricional, utilizaram-se os indicadores peso por estatura e estatura por idade, expressos em escores z, do padrão de referência NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics, parâmetros bioquímicos de ferro e zinco séricos e concentração de hemoglobina e hematócrito. RESULTADOS: A suplementação com zinco não interferiu significativamente sobre as condições antropométricas das crianças. Ambos os grupos apresentavam concentrações iniciais baixas de zinco sérico. Após o término do período de intervenção, a variação nos níveis médios de hemoglobina (p = 0,002 e as concentrações de hematócrito (p = 0,001, zinco (p = 0,023 e ferro séricos (p = 0,013 foram significativamente mais elevadas no grupo suplementado. CONCLUSÃO: A suplementação com zinco promoveu melhora na resposta hemoglobínica e normalizou a concentração sérica de zinco. Os resultados mostram a importância de se estabelecer políticas de combate a carências nutricionais que também possam dar atenção à carência de zinco.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of zinc supplementation on nutritional and biochemical parameters among children aged 12 to 59 months. METHODS: A blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out with 58 children aged 12 to 59 months included in the National Child Nutritional Program, which provided them with 2 kg of iron-fortified milk. The supplementation group (n = 28

  2. How do 5-year-olds understand questions? Differences in languages across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, Joao; Dabasinskiene, Ineta; de Lopez, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kraljevic, Jelena Kuvac; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Masa; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically

  3. 汉中市农村与城区5岁以下儿童死亡对比分析%Contrastive analysis of the death of children under 5 years old in urban and rural areas of Hanzhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海玲; 白倩; 王琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the death oi children under 5 years old in urban and rural areas of Hanzhong and to explore possible interventional measures. Methods Death data of 5 years old children from 2000 to 2010 in both of urban and rural areas of Hanzhong was analyzed retrospectively. Results The mortality rate of children under 5 years old in Hantai and Nanzheng was 13.65‰ and 20. 32‰, respectively. The mortality rate of newboms , infants , children of 1-4 years old and children under 5 years old in urban area ( Hantai) was much lower than that in rural area ( Nanzheng ) (χ2 value was 16. 89, 42. 69, 17. 54 and 59. 04, respectively, all P 0. 05 ). The causes of death of children under 5 years old in two areas were different. The first five causes of death in the urban were congenital malformation , asphyxia neonatomm , contretemps, premature and low birth weight, and pneumonia, while they were asphyxia neonatorum , pneumonia, contretemps, congenital malformation , and premature and low birth weight in the rural area. Conclusion In the past 11 years, the mortality rate of children under 5 years old of each age groups decreases year by year', and the death rate in the urban area is lower than that in the rural area . Infants and newboms death takes the majority of the death of children under 5 years old. The top five causes of children 's death in the urban and rural area are different , which indicates different impact of economics , culture and medical care on children in urban and rural area . Therefore, the future work in different areas should have their own focus .%目的 对汉中市农村与城区5岁以下儿童死亡进行对比分析,并探讨其干预措施.方法 将2000至2010年汉中市城市与农村5岁以下儿童死亡资料进行回顾性分析.结果 汉台区、南郑县5岁以下儿童死亡率分别为13.65‰和20.32‰;城区(汉台)的新生儿、婴儿、1~4岁、5岁以下死亡率明显低于农村(南郑)(χ2值分别为16.89、42

  4. Death analysis of children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District of Chongqing from 2009 to 2013%重庆市渝中区2009~2013年5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖义琛; 黄健; 陈红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand death status and related factors of children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District of Chongqing from 2009 to 2013 to provide scientific basis for reducing the mortality rate of children below 5 years old. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out by the surveillance data of death of children below 5 years old in Yuzhong District from 2009 to 2013. Upon the investigation and quality control to the children birth and death by the three-tertiary medical and preven-tive health care network under the jurisdiction according to China′s Maternal and Child Health Monitoring Programme and Death Monitoring Programme of Children under 5 Years Old Programme in China concerning regulations related to death monitoring of children under 5 years old and ICD-10 code of international disease classification.The data adoptedχ2 test. Results The mortality rate of infant,newborns and children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District from 2009 to 2013 was decreased firstly and then in-creased. There was no statistical significance of mortality rate between the male and female children[0.378%(50/13 225) vs. 0.311%(39/12 536)](χ2=0.838,P>0.05). The proportion of premature and low birth weight in the constitution of causes of death was raised significantly,of which,the premature ratio was from 11.76% up to 56.00%,whose difference had statistical significance (trend inspectionχ2=11.650,P<0.05),and the low birth weight was from 23.53%to 56.00%,the difference was statistically sig-nificant(trend inspectionχ2=9.950,P<0.05). Conclusion Strengthening the perinatal health care,reducing the occurrence of birth defect and premature,increasing business skills training for the maternal and child health care,it improves the diagnostic abili-ty of children′s diseases. Meanwhile,relying on the family doctor service mode to strengthen children health management system, strengthening the social medical security ability are the important measures to reduce the mortality

  5. Pyomyositis in a 5-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, S; Sunshine, S

    2000-07-01

    We present a case of pyomyositis in an otherwise healthy 5-year-old child that underscores the potential for serious, life-threatening complications. Pyomyositis of the gluteal, psoas, and iliacus muscles was associated with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a large inferior vena cava thrombus, septic pulmonary emboli, and eventual pneumonia. Primary pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle thought to be caused by seeding from a transient bacteremia. The focal infection typically forms an abscess that generally responds to intravenous antibiotics and occasionally requires adjunctive computed tomography-guided aspiration and drainage. This localized infectious process rarely produces further sequelae unless treatment is delayed. Pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires a high clinical suspicion in patients who present with fever, leukocytosis, and localized pain.

  6. Research on gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea of children under 5 years old and the influence factors%复合凝乳酶胶囊治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛丽萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究复合凝乳酶胶囊对治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻和影响因素。方法:选取儿童腹泻患儿100例,均在5岁以下,按年龄比例分为观察组和对照组,观察组在服用复合凝乳酶胶囊的基础上同时进行常规抗炎治疗,对照组只进行常规抗炎治疗。比较两组疗效。结果:观察组总有效率(94.8%)高于对照组(83.3%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。影响腹泻治疗效果的因素主要有药的用量、腹泻程度、小儿的年龄等多种因素有关。结论:复合凝乳酶胶囊对治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻症状有着显著的疗效,并且无明显的不良反应,在临床应用上值得推广。%Objective:To research gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea of children under 5 years old and the influence factors.Methods:100 children with childhood diarrhea were selected.They were all under 5 years old. According to the ratio of age,they were divided into the observation group and the control group.The observation group were also given conventional anti-inflammatory treatment on the basis of taking gastropylor complex capsules.The control group were only given conventional anti-inflammatory treatment.Results:The total effective rate of the observation group(94.8%) was higher than 83.3% of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The factors affecting the treatment of diarrhea effect were drug dosage,the severity of diarrhea,the age of the children and other factors.Conclusion:Gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea symptoms of children under 5 years old has a significant effect, and no significant adverse reactions.It is worthy to be popularized in clinical application.

  7. Investigation of dental caries of 5-year-old children and their parents' oral hygienic knowledge and behavior in Dongxiang, Baoan and Yugu nationalities%东乡族、保安族和裕固族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琰; 李志强; 聂红兵; 周海静; 练维娟

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解东乡族、保安族和裕固族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为,制定有效的防治措施.方法 采用2005年第3次全国口腔健康流行病学抽样调查方案设计的儿童母亲问卷调查表,整群、分层抽样,抽取东乡族、保安族和裕同族5岁儿童和家长进行儿童龋齿的流行情况调查和家长口腔卫生知识和行为的调查.结果 东乡族儿童乳牙患龋率为76.47%.龋均为3.89颗,保安族儿童乳牙患龋率为56.36%,龋均为2.42颗,裕固族儿童乳牙患龋率为66.89%,龋均为3.16颗.保安族儿奄家长的口腔卫生知识的知晓情况低于其他两个民族.3个民族中多数父母没有真正了解孩子的口腔健康状况,没有认识到定期口腔检查的重要性.结论 针对3个民族儿童乳牙患龋率高以及就诊率低的特点,有必要加强父母的口腔健康教育,维护和提高儿童口腔健康水平.%Objective To understand thc epidemiology of dental caries and their parents' oral health knowledge of 5-year-old children in Dongxiang,Baoan and Yugu nationalities and to make an effective prevention and cure measure. Methods The questionnaire and schedule table ac- cording to standard and method used in the third national oral health were devised. The epi- demiological investigation of dental cavies of 5-year-old children and oral hygiene knowledge and behavior of their parents were made in Dongxiang,Baoan and Yugu nationality by the means of whole and stratified sampling. Results The caries prevalence rate and average caries of 5-year- old children were respectively 76.47% and 3.89 teeth in Dongxiang nationality,56.36% and 2.42 teeth in Baoan nationality,66.89% and 3.16 teeth in Yugu nationality. The parents in Yugu and Dongxiang nationalities had more oral hygiene knowledge than those in Baoan nationality. The majority of the parents knew little about the oral health of their children and the significance of regular oral examination

  8. Determinación de sensibilización alérgica a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores por fluoroinmuno ensayo-UniCAP Dust mite allergic sensitization in children aged 1 month to 5 years-old using specific IgE determination by unicap fluoroimmunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA MEYER K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de asma. Hay escasa información sobre la sensibilización temprana en niños chilenos. Objetivo: Investigar la sensibilización a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores. Método: Revisión de resultados de IgE específica por ensayo UniCAP (Pharmacia contra dermatofagoides de niños de hasta 5 años con sospecha de alergia respiratoria, divididos en 3 grupos de edad: 1-12 meses, 13-35 meses y 3-5 años. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 224 niños, entre 1 mes y 5 años de edad (x 2,65 años ± 1,48 DS, 57,1% de sexo masculino. Su distribución según grupo etario fue: 66 en el grupo 1; 45 en el grupo 2 y 113 en el grupo 3. El 30,6% presentó sensibilización a dermatofagoides (18,2% grupo 1; 33,3% grupo 2 y 36,3% grupo 3. El grupo 3 presentó concentraciones de IgE específica significativamente más elevadas que los otros grupos. Conclusiones: La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es detectable en menores de un año, con frecuencia y nivel que aumentan en forma paralela a la edadDust mite sensitization is considered a major risk factor for pediatric asthma; however, there are few data about early sensitization in Chilean children available. This study aimed to investigate allergic sensitization to mites in infancy and early childhood. The patient population, 224 children aged 0 to 5 years with suspected respiratory allergy, was divided into 3 groups of age: 1 to 12 months-old, 13 to 35 months-old, and 3 to 5 years-old. Sensitization status was ascertained by assessing the specific IgE to mite by UniCAP fluoroimmunoassay (Pharmacia. Sixty eight (30.6% patients were sensitized to mites. The frequency and level of sensitization increased with the age of the children. Our data support that avoidance measures in the domestic environment aimed at the primary prevention of mite-driven sensitization should be introduced at the earliest possible stage

  9. Conflict resolution in 5-year-old boys: does postconflict affiliative behaviour have a reconciliatory role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg; Westlund; Lindqvist Forsberg AJ

    1999-11-01

    In nonhuman primates, affiliative behaviours, such as social grooming and various forms of body contact, become more frequent after an aggressive interaction. Since such behaviours lead to a decrease in postconflict aggressive behaviour and displacement activities and to increased social tolerance, they have been labelled reconciliatory. We videofilmed sessions of free play in daycare centres in Stockholm and investigated whether affiliative behaviours used by 5-year-old boys in the postconflict period had a similar reconciliatory function. For 219 conflicts in 21 h 40 min of observation we recorded postconflict affiliative/prosocial, aggressive and displacement behaviours. When affiliative behaviours were shown and accepted by the opponent, aggressive and displacement behaviours decreased and play was promoted. These behaviours thus serve a function similar to reconciliatory behaviour in nonhuman primates and we think it is applicable to call accepted affiliative behaviours in postconflict periods of preschool children reconciliatory. However, conflicts were often polyadic and nonconflict periods consisted of intense play with a rich exchange of affiliative behaviours. These factors were limitations to the postconflict/matched-control method traditionally used in primatological research to document reconciliatory behaviour. We suggest that for preschool children, video recordings and an analysis and description of postconflict affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours can be used instead. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  10. Parents 'child rearing attitude and children's behavioral problems at 2~3 and 4~5 years old in Daxing district of Beijing%北京大兴区农村父母养育方式与2~4岁儿童行为问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪娜; 闫淑娟; 李东阳

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the relations between deveopment of'Parents' child rearing attitude and children's behavioral problems in the longitudinal in Daxing districts of Beijing. [Method] At children of 2~3 and 4~5 year of age,109 parents reported their child rearing attitudes with CRPP, and their children's behavioral problems with CBCL. [ Results] 1)There were less punishment(t=15. 680,P=0.000), protection(t=2. 665,P=0. 009) and encouragement of independence(t = 4. 402, P= 0. 000) in 4-year-old than 2-year-old; 2)During the period of two years, there was significant stability in externalizing behaviors, but less stability in internalizing behaviors; 3)There were significant correlation between parents' children rearing attitude and children's behavioral problems: The parents' rejection of 2~3 years old can significant predict internalizing problems of 4~5 years old children(β=-0. 305) and significant prediction can be found between rejection and externalizing problems at the same period(β=-0. 290,β=- 0. 473). [Conclusion] The children's temperament and parenting practices have important impacts on children's behavior problem.%[目的]了解北京市大兴区农村父母养育方式与2~4岁儿童的行为问题的发展变化. [方法]使用父母养育Q分类卡片和Achenbach的儿童行为调查表对大兴区109名儿童在2~3岁、3~4岁进行了纵向追踪调查分析. [结果]1)父母的养育方式4岁组较2岁组惩罚(t=15.680,P=0.000)、保护/担忧(t=2.665,P=0.009)和鼓励独立(t=4.402,P=0.000)均有所减少;2)儿童的外显行为问题具有较高的稳定性,内隐行为问题稳定性相对较低;3)儿童的行为问题与父母养育方式的相互作用较强,儿童2岁时父母的拒绝能预测儿童4岁时的内隐行为(β=-0.305),父母拒绝行为对同一时间段的外显行为问题有预测作用. [结论]父母的养育方式和儿童的行为问题均有较高稳定性,且相互作用.

  11. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case.

  12. The caries related risk factors of 5 years old preschool children in Langfang,Hebei province%河北省廊坊地区5岁学龄前儿童乳牙龋相关行为危险因素调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍; 李富者; 孙鹏; 刘敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the caries related risk factors of 5 years old preschool children in Lang-fang , Hebei province . Methods A multiple stratified and cluster randomized sampling method was used to gain 7 115 years old preschool children .Structured questionnaire were used to collect related information .Re-sponse rate was 95.9% .Results The percentage of children consumes sugary food everyday was 25.2% .55.2%of children brushed their teeth everyday reported by their guardian .The percentage of children started to clean teeth before 2 years old was 12.0% .18.3% of children use fluoridated toothpaste and more than 60.3% of guard-ian did not know the effect of fluoridated toothpaste on teeth .More than 66.3% of guardian did not know preven-tive effect of sealant on the caries .The attitude of the majority of guardian to oral health was positive .The distri-bution of caries related risk factors was related to urbanization and guardian's education .Conclusion Integrated and specified oral health education and promotion program is urgent for the studied population .%目的调查河北廊坊地区5岁儿童乳牙龋相关行为危险因素,为有针对性地提出乳牙龋防治策略提供依据。方法采用分层、多阶段、随机、整群抽样的方法获得5岁儿童711名,由监护人填写结构式问卷,收回有效问卷682份,应答率95.9%。结果25.2%的儿童每天至少进食1次含糖食品。55.2%的5岁儿童每天刷牙,2岁前开始刷牙的只有12.0%。家长报告只有18.3%的孩子使用含氟牙膏,超过60.3%的家长不知道含氟牙膏对牙齿的作用,66.3%的家长不知道窝沟封闭能防龋。绝大部分家长对儿童口腔保健的态度积极。龋危险因素存在城乡差异,且与家长文化程度相关。结论适宜在该地区有针对性开展乳牙龋综合健康教育和促进活动。

  13. The Death Monitoring and Analysis of Children Under 5 Years Old in Huaihua From 2010 To 2014%2010~2014年度怀化市5岁以下儿童死亡监测分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱平; 黄志

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过分析近5年怀化市0~4岁儿童死亡监测中儿童死亡率的变化趋势及主要死因构成,为政府制定进一步降低5岁以下儿童死亡率措施提供科学依据。结果:5年来,监测地区5岁以下儿童死亡率呈逐年下降趋势。主要死亡原因按顺位依次为早产和低出生体重、肺炎、先天性心脏病、出生窒息、其他先天异常、意外窒息、交通意外和溺水等8种因素。新生儿死亡前5位死因依次为早产和低出生体重、出生窒息、肺炎、先天性心脏病和其他先天异常等。死前接受住院治疗的儿童呈现明显上升趋势。结论:采取多种措施,减少新生儿死亡是降低怀化市5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键。另外,加大儿童疾病综合管理技术在基层医疗机构的推广应用;减少出生缺陷;加强宣传教育,降低意外的发生;均可有效的减少5岁以下儿童死亡。%Objective changes through the analysis of child mortality surveillance of death of children aged 0~4 in Huaihua city in recent 5 years and the leading cause of death, provide scientific basis to further reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old measures for the government. Results for 5 years, and the mortality of children under 5 years of age the monitor-ing area decreased year by year. The main causes of death according to the sequence in 8 factors of preterm birth and low birth weight, congenital heart disease, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, other congenital anomalies, accidental suffocation, traffic accident and drowning. Neonatal death 5 major causes of death were premature and low birth weight, birth asphyxia, pneumonia, con-genital heart disease and other congenital disorders. Before the death of hospitalized obvious upward trend therapy in children. Conclusion adopt a variety of measures, reduce the neonatal death is the key to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old in Huaihua city. In addition

  14. 广州地区5岁以下儿童哮喘发生及持续发展的危险因素分析%The risk factors of occurrence and development of asthma in children under 5 years old in Guangzhou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远; 陈德晖; 孙宝清; 郑佩燕; 刘文宽; 蔡勇; 周荣; 罗碧莹; 全小芳

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨5岁以下儿童哮喘发生及持持发展的危险因素.方法 通过对广州地区确诊的5岁以下哮喘患儿150例进行统一标准的问卷调查,并与同地区同年龄段健康儿童117例进行病例对照比较,并结合血嗜酸性粒细胞计数、血清过敏原、血清九项呼吸道病原学、血清支原体IgM抗体测定及病毒咽拭子PCR检测等实验室检查,分析哮喘发生的危险因素,并对研究对象进行跟踪随访,将哮喘组分为哮喘稳定组及哮喘持续组,进行比较分析导致年幼儿童哮喘发生及持续发展至5岁以后的重要危险因素.结果 生后第1年有被动吸烟暴露史、家居环境(潮湿、多花草、有布艺沙发、地毯或毛绒玩具、蟑螂多)、父母及1、2级亲属有过敏史、其他有过敏性疾病史、螨类、屋尘、牛奶、鸡蛋过敏是5岁以下儿童哮喘发病的危险因素(x2=4.99、5.37、16.29、37.32、47.73、48.27、15.27、25.45、25.45、138.47、26.81、9.25、24.35和4.51,均P<0.05).哮喘组中病毒感染阳性率45.33%,支原体感染占44.00%;哮喘稳定组与哮喘持续组的比较显示哮喘持续组的螨类过敏阳性率为76.92%,较哮喘稳定组的27.93%明显升高且差异有统计学意义(xz=28.71,P<0.01).结论 导致5岁以下儿童哮喘发病的危险因素包括吸烟暴露、家居环境、父母过敏史、自身过敏史、病菌感染等因素,其中螨虫过敏是导致5岁以下儿童哮喘症状持续至较大年龄的重要危险因素.%Objective Through the investigation of asthma in children under 5 years old and the healthy children in the same age in Guangzhou area,to analyze the important risk factors of asthma.Methods Through the questionnaire investigation of 150 asthma in children under 5 years old in Guangzhou area,combined the examination with blood eosinophil counts,serum allergen and serum levels of respiratory pathogens,mycoplasma antibody and virus swab PCR,the risk

  15. Professionally applied fluoride gel in low-caries 10.5-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truin, G J; van 't Hof, M A

    2005-05-01

    The question has been raised whether low-caries children regularly using fluoride toothpaste will benefit from the professional application of additional fluoride gel. To investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually-applied neutral 1% sodium fluoride gel, we carried out a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial (n = 594) in a child population, initially aged 9.5-11.5 years, with baseline caries experience of D3MFS = 0 (decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces of permanent teeth). The mean number of tooth surfaces saved from caries development by fluoride gel application after 4 years was 0.2 D3MFS (SE = 0.17). The preventive fraction (PF) showed a mean relative effect of professionally applied fluoride gel of 18%. The cariostatic effect of the fluoride gel on pits and fissures would have been influenced by the sealant strategy in the study. Professionally applied fluoride gel showed no statistically significant effect on mean D3MFS score in low-caries 9.5- to 11.5-year-olds.

  16. 绵阳市5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为调查%Investigation of dental caries of 5-year-old children and their parents' oral hygienic knowledge and behavior in Mianyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柄权; 文献英; 郭洪菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of dental caries and their parents' oral health knowledge of 5-year-ol children in Mianyang city.Methods:According to standard,questionnaire and schedule table was executed and effective prevention and cure measure were made.Method used in the third national oral health was devised.The epidemiological investigation of dental caries of 5-year old children and oral hygiene knowledge and behavior of their parents were made in Mianyang by the means of whole and stratifie sampling.Results:The caries prevalence rate of 5-year-old children was 54.9% in Mianyang.The caries prevalence rate of urban an rural was 51.4% and 57.8% respectively.The difference was not statistically significant (x2 =3.07,P > 0.05).The caries prevalenc rate of boy and girl was 55.5% and 54.2% respectively.The difference was not statistically significant (x2 =0.12,P > 0.05).The ma jority of the parents knew the significance of the oral health,but they lacked the basic oral hygiene knowledge.Conclusion:The caries prey alence rate of 5-year-old children is high,it is essential to reinforce the oral health education for the parents and intervention measure in order to promote children's oral health level.%目的:了解绵阳市5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为.方法:参考《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》的标准,采用多阶段分层随机抽样的方法,对5岁儿童和家长进行儿童龋齿的流行情况调查和家长口腔卫生知识和行为的调查.结果:绵阳市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率为54.9%,城、乡患龋率分别为51.4%和57.8%,差异无统计学意义(x2=3.07,P>0.05),男女患龋率分别为55.5%和54.2%,差异无统计学意义(x2=0.12,P>0.05),大多数家长认识到儿童口腔健康的重要性,但基本口腔卫生知识缺乏.结论:绵阳市5岁儿童患龋率高,应加强儿童家长口腔健康教育和干预措施,有助于提高儿童口腔健康水平.

  17. The reliance on inclusive living thing in inductive inference among 5-year-olds: the role of access to nature and the size of receptive vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarłowski Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed a serial forced choice inductive inference paradigm to test whether rural and urban 5-year-olds varying in SES rely on the representation of living things in extending new knowledge. Sixty-five children learned that humans possess a novel internal property and, in a series of test trials, had to decide whether to attribute the property to an inanimate living thing or to an artifact. Additionally, the size of children’s receptive vocabulary was assessed. This study provides the first evidence that those 5-year-olds who have access to rich nature and who have acquired a high level of receptive vocabulary do rely on living kinds in induction in a forced choice task. The study further underscores the necessity to include children with diverse backgrounds in research on the development of biological knowledge. It also provides new evidence that general cognitive ability links to advances in children’s biological understanding.

  18. Speaking a tone language enhances musical pitch perception in 3-5-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang

    2017-01-16

    Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared the pitch perception of Chinese children who spoke a tone language (i.e., Mandarin) with English-speaking American children. We found that Mandarin-speaking children were more advanced at pitch processing than English-speaking children but both groups performed similarly on a control music task (timbre discrimination). The findings support the Pitch Generalization Hypothesis that tone languages drive attention to pitch in nonlinguistic contexts, and suggest that language learning benefits aspects of music perception in early development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/UY0kpGpPNA0.

  19. Morbilidad bucal: Su relación con el estado nutricional en niños de 2 a 5 años de la Consulta de Nutrición del Hospital Pediátrico Docente de Centro Habana Oral morbidity and its relationship with the nutritional status of 2-5 years-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Quiñónez Ybarra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe la morbilidad de las principales afecciones bucales y su relación con el estado nutricional y peso al nacer en niños de 2 a 5 años de edad. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal donde se evaluaron 230 niños, de ellos 115 eutróficos y 115 desnutridos, según tablas de referencia cubana de peso y talla, exámenes bioquímicos y exámenes clínicos, utilizándose como variables: estado nutricional, peso al nacer, índice coe-d, retardo del brote dentario, lesiones de esmalte, maloclusión e índice PMA. Para su procesamiento estadístico se aplicaron pruebas Chi cuadrado con un nivel de confiabilidad del 95 % (alfa 0,05. Se concluye que el índice coe-d fue de 0,14 para los eutróficos y de 0,71 para los desnutridos. El brote dentario estuvo retardado en el 2,63 % en los eutróficos, mientras que los desnutridos fue del 39,4 % y estuvo más retardado en los bajo peso al nacer, desnutridos, con el 75 %. Solo aparecieron lesiones de esmalte en el grupo de desnutridos (22,60 % y se incrementó en los bajo peso de este grupo (34,61 %. El porcentaje de maloclusión en el grupo eutrófico fue de 36,52 %, en los desnutridos 62,6 % y aumentó en los de bajo peso, con el 84,61 %. Se apreció como trastorno periodontal el 26,92 % de gingivitis moderada en niños desnutridos de bajo peso.The present paper describes the morbidity of the main oral diseases and their relationship with nutritional status and low birthweight in 2-5 years-old children. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to evaluate 230 children - 115 eutrophic and 115 undernourished- according to the Cuban weight-size reference tables, biochemical and clinical examinations, using variables such as nutritional status, birthweight, coe-d index, dental eruption retardation, dental enamel lesions, malocclusion, and PMA index. For statistical processing, Chi-square test with a 95% confidence interval (alpha 0,05 was applied. It was

  20. Sudden Onset Monoparesis and Dysarthria in a 5-Year-Old boy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhovat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Moyamoya disease (MD is a disorder caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain. As the normal blood vessels narrow and become blocked, a person may suffer a stroke. The MD mainly affects children, although adults may have the condition. This is a rare condition, with a marked prevalence gradient between Asian countries. Case Presentation We report a 5-year-old boy, who was presented with sudden right hand monoparesis and dysarthria. Conclusions The patient was investigated with magnetic resonance angiography and diagnosed as MD.

  1. 中国五岁以下儿童非致死性伤害发生率及影响因素研究%An epidemiological survey on the incidence of non-fatal injury and influencing factors among children under 5 years old in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国清; 朱松林; 王琦琦; 陈田木; 谭爱春; 何琼; 刘鑫; 徐玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of non-fatal injuries and related influencing factors among children under 5 years old in China. Methods Data involving 10 819 children under 5 years old was from the Fourth National Health Service Survey of China. Injury-related indicators include: history of ever having had an injury, its frequency, cause, location and severity of the injury.A two-level Poissun regression was used to examine the significance of related socio-economic variables. Results The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries among children under 5 years old was 16.0 per 1000 population in the prior 12 months. The first three leading causes of non-fatal injuries were falls,animal bite, fire/bum among children under 1 year old,with the rates as 3.9, 1.8 and 1.8 per 1000 population, respectively. For children aged I to 4 years old, the first three leading causes were animal bite, fall, fire/burn with rates as 6.5,6.0 and 2.9 per 1000 population, respectively. 83.0% and 69.0% of last injuries occurred at home for the above said two age groups. No disability was found among children younger than 1 year old who suffered from a nonfatal injury while for the 1-4 age group, the disability accounted for 1.0% of injury-induced outcomes. After adjusting other variables,boys had 1.57 times the risk of injury compared with girls in the 1-4 age group (P<0.05). The differences on the effects regarding ethmicity,per capita household income, and place were insignificant (P>0.05). None of the socio-economic variables was found that significantly related to the non-fatal injury risk among children under 1 year old (P>0.05). Conclusion The incidence of nonfatal injuries among children under 5 years old was 16.0 per 1000 population in the prior 12 months. The three leading causes of injuries were animal bite, falls, fire/bum respectively. Home was the most common place that non-fatal injuries occurred. Boys had a higher risk of injury compared with girls among

  2. An Investigation of Dental Caries and the Correlative Factors Analysis in 5-year-old Children in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region%某地5岁儿童龋病的情况调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈斯巴根

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Inner Mongolia 5-year-old children's teeth caries disease status and inlfuencing factors, for the children's teeth caries disease prevention and control of oral health education and provide a theoretical basis. Methods According to the third national oral health epidemiological survey scheme, adopting multistage, stratiifed, such as capacity, the method of random sampling, extraction of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region of urban and rural children aged 5, 660 and three cavities case investigation, and at the same time random questionnaire survey was conducted for parents of children tested, using SPSS13.0 software package for data collection and analysis. Results 5 years old children have the caries rate was 70%, caries average of 3.59. Developing rural caries rate slightly higher than the city, but there was no signiifcant difference (P>0.05), between men and women baby teeth had no signiifcant difference of caries rate (P>0.05), caries were rural higher city (P0.05). Good habits of brushing your teeth, oral health checks on a regular basis, the use of lfuoride toothpaste can reduce children's teeth caries disease occurs, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P0.05); often eat fruits, vegetables, can obviously reduce the children's teeth caries disease occurs, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P0.05),男女之间乳牙患龋率差异也无显著性(P>0.05),龋均农村高于城市(P0.05)。良好的刷牙习惯、定期口腔保健检查、含氟牙膏的使用均能降低儿童乳牙龋病的发生,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);经常食用水果、蔬菜可明显降低儿童乳牙龋病的发生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论内蒙古自治区5岁儿童患龋率、龋均仍都高于我国平均水平,所以仍应大力贯彻实施学龄前儿童乳牙龋病综合干预试点工作,广泛普及口腔健康教育,提高儿童家长口腔保健意识,培养儿童良

  3. Imitation of Hierarchical Structure versus Component Details of Complex Actions by 3- and 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Emma; Whiten, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We investigated developmental changes in the level of information children incorporate into their imitation when a model executes complex, hierarchically organized actions. A total of 57 3-year-olds and 60 5-year-olds participated, watching video demonstrations of an "artificial fruit" box being opened through a complex series of nine different…

  4. An investigation on the deciduous dental caries and the related risk factors of 3-5 year-old children in Ningxia Province%宁夏地区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋现况及风险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳青; 马敏; 于英凡; 刘英

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解宁夏地区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况及相关影响因素。方法:对宁夏地区6个县(市、区)的2952名3~5岁儿童进行口腔健康检查,对患龋高危儿童和无龋儿童家长进行问卷调查,并进行统计分析。结果:①宁夏地区3-5岁儿童乳牙龋均和龋面均分别为2.60和4.19,患龋率为57.41%,回、汉族儿童的患龋率、龋均无统计学差异(P>0.05);②是否为早产、开始刷牙年龄及频率、进甜食频率、有含奶嘴或母亲乳头睡觉习惯、母亲孕期患病等因素在两组儿童间有显著性差异( P<0.05);而是否为低出生体质量、家长学历、饮用水源、喂养方式、是否使用含氟牙膏等因素在两组间无统计学差异( P>0.05);③乳牙患龋与父母口腔保健知识态度、刷牙后及睡前进甜食、进甜食频率、有含奶嘴或母亲乳头睡觉习惯、开始刷牙年龄有关。结论:减少儿童含糖食品的摄入量及频率以及避免婴儿期不当喂养习惯,将早产儿列为龋病好发的弱势人群,给予高度重视。%AIM:To investigate the status of deciduous dental caries and the related risk factors of 3-5 year-old Children in Ningxia Province .METHODS:2952 Children aged 3-5 years old from 6 counties in Ningxia were included for clinical caries examination .Caries-active and caries-free children were selected to complete the questionnaire .SPSS 17.0 statistical software package was used for data analysis .RESULTS:The prevalence of dental caries, dmft, dmfts of the children was 57.41%, 2.51 and 4.19 respectivesy.The prevalence of dental caries was not statistically different between Hui and Han nationalities .Significant difference was found between caries -active and caries-free children in premature delivery , addition of sugar in milk , the age of starting tooth-brushing , frequency of sugar intake and sweet intake before sleep (P0.05).Logistic analy

  5. 上海市0~5岁小于胎龄儿超重及肥胖的分布特点%Distribution characteristics of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children born small for gestational age in Shanghai city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭翀; 葛品; 陈津津

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对上海市小于胎龄儿( SGA )的超重及肥胖问题进行横断面现况调查,了解上海市0~5岁SGA儿童超重及肥胖的分布特点。方法对上海市18个市辖区内所有0~5岁的常住儿童展开普查,为SGA儿童建卡,体格检查包括体质量、身长/身高及头围;根据世界卫生组织标准,采用体质量指数( BMI)评价儿童超重及肥胖状况。结果本研究共调查上海市0~5岁儿童728602名,最终符合标准的儿童23871名。其中男9805名(41.4%),女14066名(58.9%)。 SGA儿童4~18月龄的BMI高于适于胎龄儿(AGA)中位值,余年龄节点与AGA基本持平,变化趋势与AGA儿童相同。超重及肥胖在不同年龄SGA男童中的分布比例为7.7%~20.7%,平均15.7%;在女童中的分布比例为5.9%~18.3%,平均12.9%。 SGA男童超重及肥胖的比例高于SGA女童。4~18月龄的超重及肥胖比例显著高于余年龄节点。 SGA儿童中2岁前的超重及肥胖情况与其5岁时的超重及肥胖情况无相关性(P>0.05)。结论与SGA女童相比,SGA男童超重及肥胖问题更为严重。超重的高发时期在4~18月龄。 SGA儿童中2岁前的超重及肥胖情况并未影响到其5岁时的超重及肥胖程度。%Objective To understand the distribution of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children who were born small for gestational age ( SGA) in Shanghai through a cross-sectional investigation. Methods All resident children aged 0-5 years were included, covering all 18 districts in Shanghai. Health-check cards were prepared for SGA children. The check-up included weight,length/height and head circumference. Body mass index ( BMI) was used to evaluate the overweight and obesity according to the standard of World Health Organization ( WHO) . Results This study investigated 728 602 children aged 0-5 years in Shanghai,and ultimately 23 871 of them were defined as SGA,a-mong whom 9 805(41. 4%) were boys and 14 066(58. 9%) were girls. The BMI of SGA children

  6. 2003-2012年北京市5岁以下儿童死亡率和死亡原因分析%Analysis of mortality rate and causes of death among children under 5 years old in Beijing from 2003 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫淑娟; 朱雪娜

    2014-01-01

    性心脏病、肺炎和意外窒息(死亡率分别为59.96/10万,52.57/10万,41.89/10万,24.64/10万和15.61/10万).结论 2003-2012年,北京市城区、近郊区和远郊区县新生儿、婴儿、5岁以下儿童死亡率及先天性心脏病死亡率均有明显的下降趋势,远郊区县5岁以下儿童前8位死因中有6个呈下降趋势,以溺水死亡率下降尤为明显.%Objective To understand the age-specific and cause-specific mortality rate among children under 5 years old in Beijing from 2003 to 2012.Methods Death surveillance data of children under the age of 5 were obtained from Beijing children mortality surveillance network from 2003 to 2012.Neonatal mortality rate (NMR),infant mortality rate (IMR),under 5-year old children mortality rate (U5MR) and the leading cause of death for under 5-year old children in urban,suburbs,and outer suburbs in Beijing were analyzed.Results The NMR,IMR and U5 MR in Beijing were 2.08 (253/121 747),3.11 (379/121 747) and 3.57 (435/121 747) per 1000 live births in 2012,respectively,which declined 54.88%,50.24% and 54.75% compared with the level in 2003 respectively.The children mortality rates showed a decreasing trend in urban,suburb,and outer suburbs during 2003 and 2012 (NMR was decreased from 0.53%,0.42%,and 0.48% in 2003 to 0.20%,0.19%,and 0.23% in 2012 ; IMR was decreased from0.73%,0.58%,and 0.63% in 2003 to 0.30%,0.29%,and 0.35% in 2012; U5MR was decreased from 0.90%,0.72%,and 0.82% to 0.33%,0.34%,and 0.39% in 2012,P <0.01).There was a steady decline in the U5MR due to congenital heart disease,birth asphyxia,premature birth or low birth weight and traffic accident in Beijing from 2003 to 2012.The mortality rate of congenital heart disease declined from 140.63 to 41.89 per 100 000 live births,birth asphyxia declined from 109.38 to 59.96 per 100 000 live births,premature birth or low birth weight declined from 85.94 to 52.57 per 100 000 live births,traffic accident declined from 26.04 to 6

  7. Cortisol Secreting Adrenal Adenoma in a 5 Year Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursharan Singh Narang,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal adenoma is a rare endocrinal tumor in children. It can present with features of Cushing's syndrome. We present a case report of five years old female child who came with morbid obesity and hypertension. The patient manifested polyphagia, weight gain, and changes in sleep patterns. During physical examination we found a full-moon face, bulkiness in the cervico-dorsal (buffalo-hump region, high blood pressure.

  8. 3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢测量及影响因素分析%Levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide in oral cavity of 3-5 years old healthy children and influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鑫鑫; 时清; 杨圣辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oral cavity of 3-5 years old healthy children and analyze the influencing factors. Methods The levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide in oral cavity were examined in a sample of 340 healthy children aged 3-5 years old. Oral malodor was measured with both organoleptic measurements and a portable volatile hydrogen sulfide monitor. Oral clinical status were assessed Pearson's correlation was used to determine the relationship between organoleptic scores ( OS), the levels of volatile H2S and clinical parameters. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to detect the degree of association between OS and clinical parameters. Results The mean level of volatile H2S was 46. 72 ± 23. 27. The correlation coefficient of OS and H2S was 0. 807. Tongue coating score and oral hygiene index were significantly associated with OS. Conclusion The portable hydrogen sulfide monitor could be used to diagnose oral malodor in children. Tongue coating and debris are the important factors that influence oral malodor in healthy children.%目的 通过检测3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢水平,评估幼儿口腔健康状况,分析幼儿口腔异味的重要影响因素.方法 对340名3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢进行感官分析法评分及分析仪测量,记录多项口腔健康指数,分析感官分析法评分与仪器测量数值的关系,以及与口腔健康指数的多因素Logistic回归关系.结果 3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢水平均值为(46.72±23.27)×10-9.感官分析法评分和硫化氢分析仪读数之间相关系数r=0.807.舌苔指数、简化口腔卫生指数纳入以感官分析法评分为因变量的多因素Logistic回归方程.结论 挥发性硫化氢分析仪可用于临床检测幼儿口腔异味.舌苔、软垢为幼儿口腔异味的重要影响因素.

  9. Amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e oclusopatias em crianças de cinco anos de idade em São Pedro, SP Breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits and malocclusion in 5-year-old children in São Pedro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Maria Ferraz Rochelle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estimar a frequência de oclusopatias e suas associações com o tipo e o período de amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e informações recebidas pelas mães no pré-natal, em crianças com cinco anos de idade que frequentavam creches municipais. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 162 crianças residentes no município de São Pedro, SP. Em entrevista com cada mãe, informações sobre o tempo e a forma de aleitamento, a presença de hábitos deletérios, e orientações recebidas pela mãe durante o pré-natal foram coletadas. O exame epidemiológico foi realizado nas dependências das creches, por um único examinador, previamente calibrado, sob iluminação direta. As seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: presença e severidade de oclusopatias [ligeiro apinhamento e espaçamento (AE, mordida aberta (MA, sobremordida (SM, mordida cruzada uni ou bilateral (MC, overjet positivo (OV e relação terminal dos segundos molares decíduos (RTM]. A análise dos dados consistiu de análise univariada (teste qui-quadrado e de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de oclusopatias foi de 95,7% (AE = 22,8%; MA = 24,7%; SM = 20,4%; MC = 14,8%; e OV = 13,0%. Na RTM, o terminal reto foi predominante (85,0%. Dentre os hábitos bucais deletérios, o uso de chupeta foi o único indicador de risco (OR = 5,25; p = 0,001 para mordida aberta em crianças que a utilizaram por mais de três anos, detectado nas regressões logísticas. CONCLUSÃO: a prevalência de oclusopatias e de hábitos bucais deletérios na amostra estudada foi alta. As crianças que usavam chupeta por mais de três anos mostraram maior probabilidade de apresentar mordida aberta.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of malocclusion and their associations with the type and period of breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits, and information received by mothers during the pre-natal period, in 5-year-old children attending municipal daycare centers. METHODS: The

  10. Investigation on the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang city%沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题的家庭环境影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 黄彦红; 董颖; 曹春兰; 李荔荔; 张雪娇; 董爽; 倪佳; 马辉

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解影响沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为的家庭环境影响因素,为制定有效的干预措施提供科学依据. [方法]采用多阶段抽样方法随机抽取8个社区和4所幼儿园共1 594名儿童作为调查对象,采用单因素和多因素分析方法进行分析. [结果]多因素分析结果显示,语言鼓励、固定餐桌、使用围嘴为儿童不良饮食行为的保护性因素(P均=0.00),父亲低学历为危险因素(P=0.05). [结论]针对儿童饮食行为家庭环境影响因素,加强父母的健康教育,尤以父亲为重点,提高科学的育儿理念,同时探索有效的干预措施.%[Object] To investigate the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang,and provide the scientific evidence for drawing up effectually intervening measure.[Method] 1 594 healthy children in eight communities and four kindergartens were randomly selected with the method of multiple stage,and analyzed by single factor and multifactor analytical method.[Results] Logistic regression model analysis showed that language encourages and fixed dining table and using bib were these protective factors for the eating behavior problems of children,and the father's low qualifications was the risk factor.[Conclusion] The health education of parents should be enhanced about family environment influencing factors for children's eating behavior problems,especially the father,science philosophy of parents should improve and explore effective interventions.

  11. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT’IS male phantom was modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body weight, body height and sitting height/stature ratio (SSR), determined from reference databases, thus enabling the creation of 125 5-year-old habitus-dependent male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile body morphometries. We evaluated the absorbed fractions and the mean absorbed dose to the target region per unit cumulative activity in the source region (S-values) of F-18 in 46 source regions for the generated 125 anthropomorphic 5-year-old hybrid male phantoms using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code and calculated the absorbed dose and effective dose of five 18F-labelled radiotracers for children of various habitus. For most organs, the S-value of F-18 presents stronger statistical correlations with body weight, standing height and sitting height than BMI and SSR. The self-absorbed fraction and self-absorbed S-values of F-18 and the absorbed dose and effective dose of 18F-labelled radiotracers present with the strongest statistical correlations with body weight. For 18F-Amino acids, 18F-Brain receptor substances, 18F-FDG, 18F-L-DOPA and 18F-FBPA, the mean absolute effective dose differences between phantoms of different habitus and fixed reference models are 11.4%, 11.3%, 10.8%, 13.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Total body

  12. Salter-Harris type-IV displaced distal radius fracture in a 5-year-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Samuel R; Summers, Spencer H; Stricker, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fractures are rare in young children and can result in articular incongruity or premature physeal arrest. We describe a 5-year-old boy who sustained a displaced left distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture. The patient had normal wrist function and physeal growth at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. Our patient is by far the youngest reported child with a displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fracture of the distal radius. Prompt anatomic reduction and fixation of a displaced distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture can result in excellent short-term wrist motion with maintenance of physeal function.

  13. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-05-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154.

  14. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154. PMID:25206158

  15. Investigation on Risk Factors for Hand-foot-mouth Disease Among Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Areas of Xiangtan Prefecture%湘潭市农村地区5岁以下儿童手足口病危险因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁伟; 李新春; 李艳霞; 刘富强

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索湘潭市农村地区5岁以下儿童手足口病(HFMD)发病的危险因素,为防控手足口病提供科学依据. 方法 选择湘潭市农村地区60例HFMD患儿作为病例组,同期同一乡镇60例健康儿童作为对照组,采用统一的调查表进行调查,SPSS13.0软件进行单因素和多因素非条件Logistic回归分析. 结果 确诊的24例HFMD病例中,EV71和CoxA16感染的构成比分别为66.7% (16/24)和4.2%(1/24).单因素分析结果有统计学意义的变量包括居室内外有家禽粪便、儿童近3个月发生上呼吸道感染、腹泻或胃肠炎、儿童作息规律、儿童接种过轮状病毒疫苗共4项因素.多因素分析结果显示儿童作息规律(OR =0.05,95% CI:0.01~0.26),接种过轮状病毒疫苗(OR =0.16,95% CI:0.06~0.40)是儿童HFMD发病的保护因素;近3个月儿童发生上呼吸道感染、腹泻或胃肠炎(OR=11.65,95% CI:3.75~36.15)则是儿童HFMD发病的危险因素. 结论 提高儿童机体免疫力、养成良好的生活卫生习惯有助于控制农村地区儿童HFMD发生.%Objective To explore the risk factors for hand - foot - mouth disease (HFMD) among children under 5 years old in rural areas of Xiangtan prefecture, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of HFMD. Methods Totally, 60 HFMD patients under 5 years old in the rural area of Xiangtan prefecture were recruited into the case group, and 60 healthy children with the same township in the same period were recruited into the control group. Their guardians were investigated with the unified survey questionnaire. The data were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate non - conditional Logistic regression analysis with SPSS13.0. Results Among the pathogens of 24 confirmed HFMD cases, EV71 and CoxA16 constituted 66.7% (16/24) and 4.2% (1/24), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that statistically significant variables included indoor and outdoor poultry manure, upper

  16. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  17. Analysis of the prevalence and the etiology of deciduous crossbite for the children aged 3-5 years old in Baotou City%包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合患病率及病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婧; 樊永杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合情况,为乳牙反牙合预防和治疗提供参考。方法采取随机抽样的方法,对包头市1414名3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合情况进行调查,对收集的资料进行统计学分析。结果乳牙反牙合患病率为12.02%,男女差异无统计学意义(P<0.05)。个别牙反牙合和前牙反牙合最为常见,构成比分别为47.06%和30.59%。乳尖牙磨耗不足、喂养习惯及口腔不良习惯是导致乳牙反牙合最为常见的原因,构成比分别为33.53%和28.82%。结论应针对包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合常见的类型和病因,积极防治。%Objective To investigate the situation of the deciduous crossbite in baotou for providing theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of deciduous crossbite. Methods A total of 1 414 children between 3 to 5 years old in Baotou were randomly sampled and investigated. The data collected was analyzed by the software SPSS 13. 0. Results The prevalence of deciduous crossbite was 12. 02%, which had no statistical difference in gender. Individual dental crossbite and anterior teeth crossbite was the most common, constituted 47. 06% and 30. 59%. The most common reason led to deciduous crossbite was the inadequate wearness of deciduous canine and poor feeding and oral habits, whose con-stituent ratio was 33. 53% and 28. 82% respectively. Conclusion The prevention and treatment to different categories and etiology of deciduous anterior crossbite should be adopt aggressively.

  18. Analysis of the Causes of Death among Children under 5 Years Old in Xiaogan City from 2007 to 2011%孝感市2007-2011年5岁以下儿童死亡原因调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付汉东; 陆敏; 夏耀宗; 郑淑萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查孝感市2007-2011年5岁以下儿童死亡的原因.方法 对2007-2011年孝感市7个县(市)区发生的1 369例5 岁以下儿童死亡原因进行调查分析.结果 2007-2011年孝感市5岁以下儿童死亡1 369例,死亡率为6.37‰(1 369/214 857),不同年份死亡率年均递减率为0.53‰.男性儿童死亡率为5.46‰(716/131 063),女性儿童为7.79‰(653/83 794),差异有统计学意义(χ2=465.35,P<0.01).1 369例死亡儿童年龄≤7 d者679例(占49.60%),8~28 d者121例(占8.84%),29~364 d者273例(占19.94%),1~4岁者296例(占21.62%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=647.38,P<0.01).城市儿童死亡率为5.14‰(542/105 427),农村为7.56‰(827/109 430),差异有统计学意义(χ2=527.15,P<0.01).城市儿童患病死亡469例(占86.53%),意外死亡(包括溺水、意外窒息、交通意外等)73例(占13.47%);农村患病死亡633例(占76.54%),意外死亡194例(占23.46%);差异有统计学意义(χ2=20.38,P<0.01).城市儿童主要患病死亡原因构成前3位是:早产儿和低体质量儿、新生儿窒息、先天性心脏病;农村儿童主要患病死亡原因构成前3位是:新生儿窒息、早产儿和低体质量儿、肺炎.结论 孝感市近5年5岁以下儿童死亡有所减少,其死亡原因主要为早产儿和低体质量儿、新生儿窒息.应加强孕产妇围产期的管理,强化儿童保健系统管理,加强产科质量管理,提高儿童疾病诊治水平、加强儿童意外伤害的防范,增强社会医疗保障能力和儿童救助能力,从根本上降低 5 岁以下儿童死亡.%Objective To analyze the causes of death among children under 5 years old in Xiaogan city from 2007 to 2011. Methods The death causes of 1 369 children under five years old in seven counties of Xiaogan city from 2007 to 201 1 were investigated. Results 1 369 children under five years old died from 2007 to 2011 with a mortality rate of 6. 37‰ ( 1 369/ 214 857 ), and the annual declining rate of these

  19. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a 5-year-old Iranian boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzipour, K.; Zavvar, N.; Behnam, B.; Ahmadi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (IGS) is a rare syndrome characterized by clinical symptoms and signs of Vitamin B12 deficiency and proteinuria. Our patient was a 5-year-old boy with pallor, lack of appetite, and low weight gain. Laboratory studies showed severe macrocytic anemia, normal reticulocyte count, negative direct coombs test, normal osmotic fragility, and autohemolysis test. He has had intermittent proteinuria since 3 years ago despite normal creatinine level and absence of hematuria or hypertension. Finally, based on low level of serum B12 vitamin and normal folate level accompanied by asymptomatic proteinuria, the diagnosis of IGS was made. Furthermore, his sister has had laboratory abnormalities without any symptoms. IGS responded to B12 replacement therapy dramatically but intermittent proteinuria persisted even after appropriate therapy. PMID:27942180

  20. Finding meaning in a noisy world: exploring the effects of referential ambiguity and competition on 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John P; Scott, Rose M

    2016-04-07

    While recent studies suggest children can use cross-situational information to learn words, these studies involved minimal referential ambiguity, and the cross-situational evidence overwhelmingly favored a single referent for each word. Here we asked whether 2·5-year-olds could identify a noun's referent when the scene and cross-situational evidence were more ambiguous. Children saw four trials in which a novel word occurred with four novel objects; only one object consistently co-occurred with the word across trials. The frequency of distracter objects varied across conditions. When all distracter referents occurred only once (no-competition), children successfully identified the noun's referent. When a high-probability competitor referent occurred on three trials, children identified the target referent if the competitor was absent on the third trial (short-competition) but not if it was present until the fourth trial (long-competition). This suggests that although 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational learning scales up to more ambiguous scenes, it is disrupted by high-probability competitor referents.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF A 5-YEAR-OLD REHABILITATED RIPARIAN FOREST: IS IT ALREADY SUSTAINABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Londe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAs important as the establishment of projects of ecological restoration is its assessment post-implementation to know whether the area is becoming self-sustainable or need to be redirected. In this way, this study aimed to know the current situation of a 5-year-old rehabilitated riparian forest,inserted in an anthropogenic impacted region,at the das Velhas River, Minas Gerais State, studying the canopy openness and recruitment of seedlings as plant indicators. 15 plots were allocated in the forest, where hemispherical photographs were taken to analyze the canopy openness and evaluate all seedlings from 0.30 m to 1.30 m height.Canopy openness ranged from 23.7% to 38.8% between seasons and only 192 seedlings were found,from 13 species, five of them exotic and aggressive. Although canopy openness was low, it seems that lateral penetration of light has been favoring the development and dominancy of plants from invasive species, whereas few native ones have been recruited. The exotic/invasive plants may compromise the success of restoration mainly by competition with native planted species. The outcomes evidenced an unsustainability of the riparian forest and the requirement of some management actions to control exotic and invasive plants and ensure the preservation of the area and its ecological roles over time.

  2. Idiopathic Perforation of the Sigmoid Colon in a 2.5 Years Old Girl: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic colon perforation is rare in children. It is more common at the extremes of age. Splenic flextures, ileocecal and lower sigmoid regions are the most common sites of perforation. Delay in proper management of this condition is associated with high mortality and morbidity rate. We report on the case of a 2.5 years old girl who presented with fever, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting and progressive abdominal distention.Finally, she underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected peritonitis because of the patient's worsening condition. An area of perforation was found in the sigmoid colon that segmental resection and an end double barrel colostomy was done.

  3. Water fluoridation, tooth decay in 5 year olds, and social deprivation measured by the Jarman score: analysis of data from British dental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. M.; Taylor, G. O.; Whittle, J. G.; Evans, D.; Trotter, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of water fluoridation, both artificial and natural, on dental decay, after socioeconomic deprivation was controlled for. DESIGN: Ecological study based on results from the NHS dental surveys in 5 year olds in 1991-2 and 1993-4 and Jarman underprivileged area scores from the 1991 census. SETTING: Electoral wards in three areas: Hartlepool (naturally fluoridated), Newcastle and North Tyneside (fluoridated), and Salford and Trafford (non-fluoridated). SUBJECTS: 5 year old children (n = 10,004). INTERVENTION: Water fluoridation (artificial and occurring naturally). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ward tooth decay score (score on the "decayed, missing, and filled tooth index" for each electoral ward). RESULTS: Multiple linear regression showed a significant interaction between Jarman score for ward, mean number of teeth affected by decay, and both types of water fluoridation. This confirms that the more deprived an area, the greater benefit derived from fluoridation, whether natural or artificial (R2 = 0.84, P Tooth decay is confirmed as a disease associated with social deprivation, and the more socially deprived areas benefit more from fluoridation. Widespread water fluoridation is urgently needed to reduce the "dental health divide" by improving the dental health of the poorer people in Britain. PMID:9329305

  4. Hydatid lung cyst in a 5-year-old boy presenting with prolonged fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    present a case of isolated hydatid cyst of the lung in a 5-year-old boy from a nomadic ... Hydatid disease is prevalent and widespread in sheep- and cattle- .... Deplazes P, Eckert J. Veterinary aspects of alveolar echinococcosis – a zoonosis of ...

  5. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  6. HRCT features in a 5-year-old child with follicular bronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, P.; Fotter, R.; Lindbichler, F.; Tillich, M. [Department of Radiology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A-8036 Graz (Austria); Varga, E.M.; Zach, M. [Department of Pediatrics, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria); Popper, H. [Department of Pathology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria)

    1997-11-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) is the most sensitive radiographic method to image small airways disease. We discuss the HRCT features of follicular bronchiolitis in a 5-year-old boy and correlate them with the histopathological findings. The changes described include centrilobular nodules, bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis, branching opacities and areas of reduced lung attenuation. (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  8. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  9. Bifocal Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities in a 5-Year Old Boy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Snoek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the extremely unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a bifocal (cervical as well as lumbar spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORAs. The MRI showed cord oedema at the level of C2 and T10. We propose that during the motor vehicle crash severe propulsion of the head with a flexed lumbar region resulted in a traction injury to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine and maximum flexion caused SCIWORA in C2.

  10. Diffuse, retroperitoneal mesenteric and intrahepatic periportal plexiform neurofibroma in a 5-year-old boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, L.Z. [Dept. of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States); Foreman, N. [Dept. of Oncology, The Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States); Wyatt-Ashmead, J. [Dept. of Pathology, The Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States)

    2001-09-01

    We present a case of plexiform neurofibroma involving the retroperitoneum, mesentery, and liver in a 5-year-old boy who underwent evaluation for extent of a palpable left neck mass. The mass had intrathoracic extension with great vessel encasement and extension into the abdomen. Abdominal CT revealed a diffuse low-attenuation non-enhancing mass encasing the retroperitoneal vessels with serpiginous extension into the liver along the portal vein. This spread pattern of plexiform neurofibroma is an unusual manifestation of neurofibromatosis in a young child. (orig.)

  11. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  12. Pallidal deep brain stimulation in a 5-year-old child with dystonic storm: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sabri; Abuzayed, Bashar; Uysal, Serap; Unver, Olcay; Uzan, Mustafa; Mengi, Murat; Kizilkilic, Osman; Hanci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old child had a medical history of epilepsy and a newly presented mental retardation with a life-threatening dystonic storm. Neuroimagings showed bilateral calcification of the pallidum. Several treatment modalities were performed, but the symptoms showed no significant improvement. The patient was operated on in order to place a deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting bilateral globus pallidum internus (GPi). The dystonia showed a remarkable improvement after surgery, with 81% reduction of dystonia severity after 15 months. To our best knowledge, this is the youngest patient mentioned in the literature to be treated with DBS, which was also life-saving in this case.

  13. Aggressive fibromatosis of the oral cavity in a 5 year old boy: a rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Keerthi Krishnankutty; Chaudhuri, Kanad; Lingappa, Ashok; Shetty, Ranjani; Vittobarao, Pramod Gujjar

    2017-01-01

    Fibrous tissue proliferations express a wide spectrum of histologic and morphologic variation in both infants and adults. This ranges from hypertrophic scar formation at one end to malignant fibrosarcoma at the other end of the spectrum. Aggressive fibromatosis is an intermediate tumor which is in proximity to fibrosarcomas. These are locally invasive and often recur after excision, but do not metastasize. Histologically, they are characterized by proliferating fibroblasts with little mitotic activity. Aggressive fibromatosis in the head and neck region is not common, and very sporadically occurs in the oral cavity or jaw bones. Here we report a rare case of aggressive fibromatosis occurring in a 5 year old boy. PMID:28819469

  14. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant V Savant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  15. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  16. A 5-year old male with “leukemic form” of disseminated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadiya Haque

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD represents an abnormal lymphoid proliferation that occurs in recipients of solid organ or bone marrow allograft. It includes a diverse group of diseases ranging from polymorphic B-cell hyperplasia to frank malignant lymphoma. Clinical presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to generalized lymphadenopathy, mononucleosis-like syndrome, nodal or extranodal tumors (usually gastrointestinal tract, systemic lymphomatous involvement, and rare (less than 1% of cases fulminant disseminated disease. PTLD is more common in children than in adults. Younger patients usually present with mononucleosis-like symptoms. We present an unusual case of a 5-year old male who developed a widely disseminated leukemic form of PTLD, involving lymph nodes, tonsils, multiple organs, bone marrow, cerebrospinal fluid, and peripheral blood.

  17. Fracture of the talar neck associated with a compression fracture of the calcaneocuboid joint in a 5-year-old child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Santos, A L; Albuquerque, D M; Diniz-Fernandes, T; Rammelt, S

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this present case study are to report a rare combination of a displaced talar neck fracture with a compression fracture of the calcaneocuboid joint in a 5-year-old child and to describe its radiological features, surgical treatment and clinical outcome. A 5-year-old male boy was injured in a car accident in which his left foot underwent one of the tires. On arrival at the hospital, a displaced talar neck fracture associated both with a cuboid fracture and compression of the articular surface of the cuboid at the calcaneocuboid join was identified. Fractures were fixed surgically. Leg was protected with a below-knee plaster split immobilization and non-weight-bearing for 5 weeks. After that period, the patient initiated a rehabilitation protocol with active and passive motion exercises. Fractures and fracture dislocations at the mid-tarsal joint have an important impact on the global foot function because malunion can result in post-traumatic arthritis and three-dimensional deformities of the foot. If a cuboid compression fracture is not reduced properly, it can result in the shortening of the lateral column with the development of an abduction, pronation and flat foot deformity. A talar neck fracture, if unreduced, can result in medial column displacement and rotational dislocation of the talar head, leading to a subluxation in the talonavicular joint with severe restriction of foot function. With early surgical treatment and open reduction and internal fixation, our patient recovered from the accident without having symptoms of pain, avascular necrosis, postoperative foot deformities or neurovascular deficits. The combination of a displaced talar neck fracture with a compression fracture of the calcaneocuboid joint in children usually requires correct diagnoses and early treatment with anatomic reduction and internal fixation to prevent severe post-traumatic deformities. V.

  18. Investigating the Influences of Language Delay and/or Familial Risk for Dyslexia on Brain Structure in 5-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Becker, Bryce Larkin Chessell; Smith, Sara; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Wang, Yingying; Gaab, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Early language delay has often been associated with atypical language/literacy development. Neuroimaging studies further indicate functional disruptions during language and print processing in school-age children with a retrospective report of early language delay. Behavioral data of 114 5-year-olds with a retrospective report of early language delay in infancy (N = 34) and those without (N = 80) and with a familial risk for dyslexia and those without are presented. Behaviorally, children with a retrospective report of early language delay exhibited reduced performance in language/reading-related measures. A voxel-based morphometry analysis in a subset (N = 46) demonstrated an association between reduced gray matter volume and early language delay in left-hemispheric middle temporal, occipital, and frontal regions. Alterations in middle temporal cortex in children with a retrospective report of early language delay were observed regardless of familial risk for dyslexia. Additionally, while children with isolated familial risk for dyslexia showed gray matter reductions in temporoparietal and occipitotemporal regions, these effects were most profound in children with both risk factors. An interaction effect of early language delay and familial risk was revealed in temporoparietal, occipital, and frontal cortex. Our findings support a cumulative effect of early behavioral and genetic risk factors on brain development and may ultimately inform diagnosis/treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The treatment of 4-5 year-old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate in Tawanchai Center: follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Pongpagatip, Sumalee; Prathanee, Benjamas; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Ratanaanekchai, Teeraporn; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2012-11-01

    The highest incidence of cleft lip and cleft palate in Thailand occurs in the Northeast Region. Tawanchai Center was set up 10 years ago to be a specialized medical care center where an interdisciplinary team provides care for cleft lip and cleft palate patients. There has never previously been a study about 4-5 year old patients treated and followed-up by the multidisciplinary team. To study the 4-5 year old patient's with cleft lip and cleft palate who received treatment and follow-up in Tawanchai Center, Srinagarind Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted using data from every 4-5 years old cleft lip and cleft palate patients' medical record of the patients who had the continuous multidisciplinary treatment care at Tawanchai Center, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University. The 123 case samples were collected during the 3 months of April-June 2012. The research instrument was a form for general data record and follow-up data record and then the data were analyzed by statistic and percentage. From the 123 cases of the 4-5 years old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate who received treatment at Tawanchai Center Srinagarind Hospital, it was found that 120 cases or 97.56 percent had an operation, 20 cases (16.26 percent) were found where patients came from Khon Kaen Province, 10 cases of each male and female. For this treatment, the majority (108 cases) used government insurance cards. The patients with cleft lip and cleft palate were most common and found to be 74 cases consisted of 44 male and 30 female. The diagnosis and follow-up of cleft lip and cleft palate patients were classified into 18 age ranges, with a total of 2,269 follow-up visits. The most common follow-up was for the 2-3 year old patients, which consisted of 410 times or 18.07 percent which consisted of 220 male and 190 female. Regarding the age range of the patients for the first diagnosis, the highest amount was 38 cases or 30.89 percent

  20. Encouraging 5-year olds to attend to landmarks: A way to improve children’s wayfinding strategies in a virtual environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie eLingwood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wayfinding can be defined as the ability to learn and remember a route through an environment. Previous researchers have shown that young children have difficulties remembering routes. However, very few researchers have considered how to improve young children’s wayfinding abilities. Therefore, we investigated ways to help children increase their wayfinding skills. In two studies, a total of 72 5-year olds were shown a route in a six turn virtual environment and were then asked to retrace this route by themselves. A unique landmark was positioned at each junction and each junction was made up of two paths: a correct choice and an incorrect choice. Two different strategies improved route learning performance. In Experiment 1, verbally labelling landmarks at junctions during the first walk reduced children’s errors at turns, and the number of trials they needed to reach the learning criterion. In Experiment 2, encouraging children to attend to landmarks at junctions on the first walk reduced the children’s errors when making a turn. This is the first study to show that very young children can be taught effective route learning skills.

  1. 3~5岁儿童的攻击—破坏行为与心理理论、气质的关系%The Relationship among Aggressive and Destructive Behavior,Theory of Mind and Temperament in 3~5-year-old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫书亮; 陶莉莉; 贾蒙蒙; 周宗奎

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how preschoolers' temperament characteristics and the theory of mind can predict their aggressive and destructive behaviors.Ninety children aged 3~5 were measured with theory of mind,aggressive and destructive behavior and temperament.The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between preschoolers' aggressive and destructive behavior and false belief understanding,while a significant correlation among the dimensions of emotionality,activity and social inhibition of temperament.Furthermore,the prediction of preschoolers' false belief understanding to aggressive and destructive behavior can be explained by temperament characteristics.There are some links between theory of mind and temperament.%本研究以90名3~5岁儿童为被试,考察儿童的攻击—破坏行为、心理理论和气质之间的关系。结果表明,儿童的攻击—破坏行为与心理理论的错误信念理解存在显著正相关,与气质的情绪性和活动性显著正相关,与社会抑制性存在显著负相关。儿童的错误信念理解对攻击—破坏行为的预测作用部分可以由气质特征解释。心理理论发展和气质存在一定联系。

  2. Analysis on death causes of children under 5 years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010%2005~2010年兰州市城关区5岁以下儿童死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马铭; 张淑文; 胡晓婷; 李坚

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析兰州市城关区2005~2010年5岁以下儿童死亡情况及主要死亡原因,为降低兰州市5岁以下儿童死亡率提供依据.方法:按照《中国5岁以下儿童死亡监测方案》,对2005~2010年兰州市城关区447例5岁以下儿童死亡情况进行分析.结果:2005年~2010年兰州市城关区活产数为55 868例,新生儿死亡356例,婴儿死亡408例,5岁以下儿童死亡447例,死亡率分别为6.37‰、7.30‰、8.00‰.5岁以下儿童死亡率呈下降趋势,死亡率最高和最低的年份分别为2007年和2010年.兰州市城关区5岁以下儿童死因顺位前三位依次是新生儿窒息、早产(低出生体重)、其他新生儿疾病.结论:城关区5岁以下儿童死亡仍以新生儿和婴儿死亡为主,积极做好孕期和儿童保健宣传工作,提高保健意识及质量,是降低新生儿和婴儿死亡率,最终减少5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.%Objective: To analyze the death status and main death causes of children under five years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010, and provide a basis for reducing mortality of children under five years old. Methods: According to China death monitoring program of children under five years, the death status of 447 children under five years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010 was analyzed. Results: The number of live neonates in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010 was 55 828, the number of neonatal death was 356, the number of infantile death was 408, the number of children death under five years old was 447, the mortalities were 6.37‰, 7.30‰, and 8.00‰,respectively. The mortality of children under five years old showed a decreasing trend, the mortality in 2007 was the highest, and the mortality in 2010 was the lowest. The top three causes of children death under five years old were neonatal asphyxia, premature birth (low birth weight) , and other neonatal diseases. Conclusion

  3. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as septic knee arthritis in a 5-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwattar, Basil J; Strongwater, Allan; Sala, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    Group A streptococci, also known as Streptococcus pyogenes, is a common cause of infection in the pediatric population. Recently, the incidence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, a serious and often deadly manifestation of group A streptococci infection, has increased. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome often presents with complaints of musculoskeletal pain, which frequently leads to early involvement of an orthopaedic surgeon. In this case report, we present a 5-year-old child who presented with a septic arthritis of the knee, whose final diagnosis was streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. A review of the literature and the aspects of this case report emphasize the emergent nature of streptococcal joint infections and the judicious use of orthopaedic intervention in such patients.

  4. Surveillance and analysis on diarrheal disease pathogen spectrum among children under 5 years old in Pudong New Area of Shanghai City%上海市浦东新区5岁以下儿童腹泻病病原谱监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费怡; 孙乔; 傅益飞; 朱渭萍; 薛曹怡

    2013-01-01

    , which showed higher than that of other months (18.48%) (χ2 =7.18,P <0.05).The bacteria detection rate was 15.34%from April to October, showing higher than the rate of oth-er months(3.15%)(χ2 =31.22,P<0.05). [Conclusion] Norovirus is the main pathogen for viral diarrheal diseases in children under five and E .coli is the main pathogen of bacterial diarrheal diseases . All study results suggested that summer and autumn should be as the focus time in prevention and control of bacterial diarrhea , while those of viral diarrhea should cover the whole year .

  5. Evaluation on booster immunization efficacy of 5 μg hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) techniques in polymorpha yeast of variant dosage in children aged over 5 years old%5岁以上儿童5μg重组乙型肝炎疫苗(酵母)加强免疫效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永弟; 梁晓峰; 姚军; 崔富强; 王富珍; 沈灵智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the efficacy of booster immunization with domestic 5ug Hepatitis B Vaccine Made by Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Techniques in Polymorpha Yeast ( HepB-Y) of variant dosage, in order to provide evidence for establishing immunization strategy. Methods 1728 children, with ages over 5 years were selected, who had been finished the basic immunization of hepatitis B vaccine in age under 1 year old. Blood plasma specimens of all sampled children were detected for hepatitis B virus ( HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (Anti-HBs) and antibodies to hepatitis B virus core antigen (Anti-HBc) by chemiluminescence. They were then classified into two groups of Anti-HBs positive and negative. Children of positive group were immunized one dosage of 5ug HepB-Y, while children of negative group were immunized three dosages of the same vaccine. Blood samples were collected after 1 month,and detected for Anti-HBs. Results The Anti-HBs positive rates were 40. 10%, 94. 04% and 99. 54% respectively of pre-immunization, post-immunization with one dosage and post-immunization with three dosages, there were statistical significant difference between any two among three rates (all P<0. 05). The Anti-HBs positive conversion rate of post-immunization with one dosage and three dosages were 88. 50% and 99. 42% respectively, the difference of positive conversion rate showed statistical significance between two groups (P< 0. 05). After immunization with one dosage in negative group, the aged rates of Anti-HBs positive conversion were dropping with age (P<0. 05). However, after immunization with three dosages, the aged rates of Anti-HBs positive conversion showed no relationship to age (P>0. 05). The average GMT of Anti-HBs negative children immunized with one dosage and three dosages were 450. 47mlu/ml and 664. 95mlu/ml respectively, while the average GMT of Anti-HBs positive children were 3663. 68mlu/ml after one

  6. On Differences of Emotional Display Rules Cognition of 3-5-year-old Children in Different Emotional Situations%3~5岁幼儿在不同情境中情绪表达规则认知差异的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军利; 卢英俊

    2012-01-01

    The researchers chose 101 children of 3-5 relation upon their cognition of emotional display rules to observe the influence of age, emotional situation and interpersonal Results indicated that children started to differentiate displayed and real emotions at 3; emotional display rules cognition developed rapidly at 4; preschool children's purpose for emotion adjustment was self-protection and it tended to be more socially oriented with increase of age; children had a better understanding of sadness display rules and their emotional display was more compatible with social expectations while they tended to be more self- centered when angry; with presence of friends, children's emotional adjustment was more effective, especially in happy and sad situations. In order to promote children's development in cognition of emotion display rules, adults should foster children's empathy for better social development; they should development children's emotional adjustment ability at the critical age of 4; guide children in reasonable release and adjustment of negative emotion and create a harmonious emotional environment for them.%本研究选取了101名3~5岁幼儿,考察年龄、情绪情境和人际关系背景等对幼儿情绪袁达规则认知的影响。结果显示,幼儿在3岁时开始认识到外部表情和真实情绪的区别;4岁时情绪表达规则认知能力迅速发展;在早期,幼儿进行情绪调节的目的以自我保护目标为主,随着年龄增长而日渐趋向社会定向目标;幼儿对伤心情绪表达规则的理解相对较好,情绪表达更符合社会期望,而在生气情境中表现得更自我中心:当好朋友在场时.幼儿的情绪调节更有效,尤其是在高兴和伤心情境中,其外部情绪表现更符合社会期望。为促进幼儿情绪表达规则认知能力的发展,成人要注意培养幼儿的同理心,促进其交往能力的发展;抓住4岁这个关键期,培养

  7. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference...... computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT...... absolute effective dose differences between phantoms of different habitus and fixed reference models are 11.4%, 11.3%, 10.8%, 13.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Total body weight, standing height and sitting height have considerable effects on human internal dosimetry. Radiation dose calculations...

  8. Teaching 3.5-Year-Olds to Revise Their Beliefs Given Ambiguous Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Fischer, Adina; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that 3-year-olds fail to learn from statistical data when their prior beliefs conflict with evidence. Are children's beliefs entrenched in their folk theories, or can preschoolers rationally update their beliefs? Motivated by a Bayesian account, we conducted a training study to investigate this question. Children (45…

  9. A CASE REPORT OF A 2.5-YEAR-OLD GIRL WITH ANGELMAN SYNDROME (AS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHI OMRAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAngelman Syndrome (AS is a genetically determined syndrome that has a unique behavioral phenotype. This syndrome is described as jerky ataxia and an unusual happy facial expression with pathological laughter. Severe mental retardation is a unique feature of the syndrome, together with microbrachycephaly and abnormal electroencephalographic findings with or without clinical seizures. The patients cannot speak or at most, they have a vocabulary consisting only of a few words. The genetic abnormality of AS has been located on chromosome 15q11-q13. Patients with AS mostly have deletions on the maternally derived allele (75-80% while some of them show paternal  uniparental disomy (~2% or a rare imprinting mutation developmental disorder caused by deletion of the maternally-inherited chromosome 15q11-13. A 2.5-year-old girl is presented. Clinical suspicion of AS was raised at the age of 27 months when she presented with mental retardation and epilepsy, absence of speech, inability to gait and paroxysmal episodes of laughter. Moreover, she had facial dysmorphic features such as microbrachycephaly,  mid-facial hypoplasia, macrostomia and a prominent mandible. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46 xx with the deletion of 15q chromosome (15q11q13-snrpn/ic Our patient met the classical phenotype and genotype of AS.Keywords:Angelman syndrome, icrobrachycephaly, Happy facial Phenotype

  10. A CASE REPORT OF A 2.5-YEAR-OLD GIRL WITH ANGELMAN SYNDROME (AS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHI OMRAN,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAngelman Syndrome (AS is a genetically determined syndrome that has a unique behavioral phenotype. This syndrome is described as jerky ataxia and an unusual happy facial expression with pathological laughter. Severe mental retardation is a unique feature of the syndrome, together with microbrachycephaly and abnormal electroencephalographic findings with or without clinical seizures. The patients cannot speak or at most, they have a vocabulary consisting only of a few words. The genetic abnormality of AS has been located on chromosome 15q11-q13. Patients with AS mostly have deletions on the maternally derived allele (75-80% while some of them show paternal uniparental disomy (~2% or a rare imprinting mutation developmental disorder caused by deletion of the maternally-inherited chromosome 15q11-13. A 2.5-year-old girl is presented. Clinical suspicion of AS was raised at the age of 27 months when she presented with mental retardation and epilepsy, absence of speech, inability to gait and paroxysmal episodes of laughter. Moreover, she had facial dysmorphic features such as microbrachycephaly, mid-facial hypoplasia, macrostomia and a prominent mandible. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46 xx with the deletion of 15q chromosome (15q11q13-snrpn/ic Our patient met the classical phenotype and genotype of AS.

  11. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW). Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor o...

  12. Why Do Some but not All 5-year-Old Dutch Children Draw Scalar Implicatures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Myrthe; Overweg, Jennigje; van Hout, Anna; Stravakaki, Stravoula; Lalioti, Marina; Konstantinopoulou, Polyxeni

    2013-01-01

    This book contains 51 chapters based on papers presented at the GALA (Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition) conference held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in 2011. It thus reflects the GALA 2011 scientific presentations and discussions and raises issues that are currently at the centre of

  13. SCANDCLEFT RANDOMIZED TRIALS: SPEECH OUTCOMES IN 5-YEAR-OLDS WITH UCLP - velopharyngeal competency and hypernasality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmander, Anette; Persson, Christina; Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim: Adequate velopharyngeal function and speech are main goals in the treatment of cleft palate. The objective was to investigate if there were differences in velopharyngeal competency (VPC) and hypernasality at age 5 years in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP......) operated on with different surgical methods for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. Design: Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10...... cleft teams in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and the UK. Methods: Three different surgical protocols for primary palatal repair were tested against a common procedure in the total cohort of 448 children born with a non-syndromic UCLP. Speech audio and video recordings of 391 children...

  14. A Case Study:The Role of Block Building Games in Improving the Social Ability of a 3.5-year-old Child with Hearing Impairment%听障儿童积木建构游戏社会性水平的个案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王段霞; 张倩; 王丽燕; 罗薇

    2013-01-01

      目的通过个案研究探讨教师指导对听障儿童积木建构游戏中社会性水平的影响.方法采用单一被试单基线A-B实验设计,对1例听障儿童积木建构游戏进行指导,跟踪指导效果,采用SPSS 17.0进行数据分析.结果经过教师为期3个月的积木建构区游戏指导,个案简单平行游戏(P<0.05)、互补游戏(P<0.05)在基线期和处理期均有显著性差异,即简单平行游戏减少,互补游戏增多,游戏社会性水平显著提高.结论教师在听障儿童积木建构游戏中的指导能有效提高其游戏社会性水平.%Objective To study the impact of teachers’ instructions on the social ability of a hearing-impaired child in the block building games. Methods By a single-subject A-B experimental design, the instructions were provided for a hearing-impaired child for playing block building games and the follow-up outcomes were observed. The experimental results were then analyzed with SPSS17.0 software. Results After 3 months of teachers’ instructions in block building games, the scores of the subjects showed significant differences in parallel games(P<0.05) and complementary games(P<0.05)as compared with those scores at baseline. The number of simple parallel games decreased and complementary games increased, which indicated the improvement of social ability. Conclusion The instructions of teachers in the block building games can effectively enhance the social skills of hearing-impaired children while playing games.

  15. The genetic basis of problem behavior in 5-year-old dutch twin pairs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Different instruments can be used in the assessment of psychopathology in young children. In the present study the psychometric properties of a subset of items of the Devereux Child Behavior (DCB) rating scale were evaluated and the contribution of genetic and environmental influences to the

  16. 2-5岁超常儿童的集合比较及其策略研究%A Study on Comparing Two Sets with Strategies in 2-5-Years Old Gifted Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐浙宁

    2009-01-01

    选取2-5岁超常儿童46名、普通儿童54名,通过测查发现:(1)2-5岁超常儿童的集合比较能力显著优于同年龄普通儿童;(2)2-3岁超常儿童不具备用"数数"比较两个集合的能力,通常依靠"视觉线索"判断集合大小;(3)3-5岁超常儿童自发运用数数策略的能力显著优于普通儿童;(4)3-5岁超常儿童酱遍可以运用数数策略进行两个集合的比较.

  17. 2-5岁超常儿童的计数及其策略研究%A Study on Counting and Its Strategies in Gifted Children of 2-5 Years Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐浙宁; 方俊明

    2006-01-01

    本研究选取2-5岁超常儿童46名、普通儿童54名,通过实验考察了早期超常儿童的计数及其策略.结果显示:(1)超常儿童更早掌握"一一对应"的计数原则;(2)4岁前,超常儿童相对同龄普通儿童能掌握更大范围的基数;特别是3-4岁超常儿童,基本已经掌握了20以内的基数概念,显著优于同年龄普通儿童;(3)2-5岁超常儿童普遍具有比同年龄普通儿童更好的计数策略;(4)4-5岁超常儿童相对同龄普通儿童和3-4岁超常儿童,能够更有效地运用计数策略完成"随机性"计数任务.

  18. 北京市5岁以下儿童轮状病毒腹泻经济负担研究%Study on the Economic Burden of Rotavirus Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years Old in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾蕾; 刘潇潇; 李洪军; 梁妍; 高志勇; 王全意

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解北京市5岁以下儿童轮状病毒(Rotavirus,RV)腹泻经济负担,为RV免疫规划提供建议.方法 在2012年7月到2013年7月,在北京市3家儿童专科医院采集门诊和输液患儿的粪便标本,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay,ELISA)检测粪便标本中的RV抗原,对阳性患儿调查患病的直接费用和间接费用,综合评价北京市RV腹泻的经济负担.结果 分别采集门诊和输液患儿的粪便标本678份、476份,RV阳性者分别为131份(19.3%)、137份(28.8%).RV阳性患儿中,1岁及以下者在门诊和输液患儿中分别占86.3%和94.9%.RV阳性患儿中59名(22.0%)接种了口服轮状病毒减毒活疫苗(Oral Rotavirus Attenuated Live Vaccine,ORV),首剂次接种年龄中位数为1.7岁.输液患儿平均经济负担中位数高于门诊患儿,分别为737.8元和559.4元.估算北京市每年5岁以下儿童RV腹泻经济负担为55 186 462元.结论 北京市RV腹泻经济负担较高,晚于感染年龄接种RV疫苗可能降低其预防RV腹泻的作用,建议根据流行特征细化现有的ORV接种程序.

  19. A rare outcome of iron deficiency and pica: Rapunzel syndrome in a 5-year-old child iron deficiency and pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islek, Ali; Sayar, Ersin; Yılmaz, Aygen; Boneval, Cem; Artan, Reha

    2014-02-01

    Bezoar is defined as the accumulation of organic or nonbiological substances inside the gastrointestinal system. Trichobezoars are the most frequently detected ones and are mostly present in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The continuance of the trichobezoar tail-shaped extension over the duodenum and jejunum is described in Rapunzel syndrome. Both conditions are rarely reported in children. The present case submitted here is related to a 5-year-old girl referred with an abdominal mass and anemia, diagnosed with Rapunzel syndrome and developing trichobezoar due to iron deficiency and pica.

  20. Soft Drinks Consumption is Associated with Behavior Problems in 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F; Solnick, Sara; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine soda consumption and aggressive behaviors, attention problems, and withdrawn behavior among five-year-old children. Study design The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study is a prospective birth cohort study that follows a sample of mother-child pairs from 20 large cities in the US. Mothers reported children’s behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 and were asked to report how many servings of soda the child drinks on a typical day. Results In the sample of 2929 children, 52% were boys, 51% were African-American 43% consumed at least one serving of soda per day and 4% consumed 4 or more servings per day. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, consuming one (Beta 0.7 95% CI 0.1,1.4), two (Beta 1.8 95%CI 0.8,2.7), three (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.6,3.4) or four or more (Beta 4.7 95%CI 3.2,6.2) servings was associated with a higher aggressive behavior score compared with consuming no soda. Furthermore, those who consumed four or more (Beta 1.7 95%CI 1.0,2.4) soda servings had higher scores on the attention problems subscale. Higher withdrawn behavior scores were noted among those consuming two (Beta 1.0 95%CI 0.3,1.8), or four or more (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.8,3.1) soda servings compared with those who consumed no soda. Conclusion We note an association between soda consumption and negative behavior among very young children; future studies should explore potential mechanisms that could explain this association. PMID:23968739

  1. Nasal Septal Agenesis and Attenuated Lower and Upper Lateral Cartilages in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Sporadic Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaghri, Faris; Mrad, Mohamed Amir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cartilaginous nasal septal agenesis is a rare finding. In fact, just one case has been reported to have congenital agenesis of all nasal cartilages in a 6-year-old child by Bakhshaee et al. The literature review shows another case that was reported by Ozek et al in Turkey, where they reported a case of total nasal agenesis that was associated with Tessier no. 30. We could not find a similar case in the literature where only agenesis of the nasal cartilaginous septum was present. Methods/Case Report: This is a case report of a 5-year-old child presenting to our clinic with agenesis of his nasal septum and attenuation of the upper and lower lateral cartilages. His parents were seeking a corrective procedure to improve the shape of his nose. He was a male child with a right unilateral cleft lip and palate that were corrected surgically in 2009 (lip repair) and 2010 (palate repair), respectively. Results: On postoperative week 3, the patient's mother brought him to the emergency department with a history of falling on his face while playing at home. Examination revealed swelling of the nose but no breathing difficulties. He still had an acceptable augmented nose but with sings of deviation and collapse. Discussion: We report this case to find an answer to how such cases can be approached in the future in terms of the surgical intervention required and to study the options of redoing such cases. PMID:28101289

  2. Pranlukast reduces asthma exacerbations during autumn especially in 1- to 5-year-old boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Alberto, Eduardo; Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Yoshinori; Hoshioka, Akira; Abe, Hiroki; Saito, Kimiyuki; Tsubaki, Toshikazu; Haraki, Mana; Sawa, Akiko; Nakayama, Yoshio; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shigeta, Midori; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Background Leukotriene receptor antagonists have been used to prevent virus-induced asthma exacerbations in autumn. Its efficacy, however, might differ with age and sex. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether pranlukast added to usual asthma therapy in Japanese children during autumn, season associated with the peak of asthma, reduces asthma exacerbations. It was also evaluated the effect of age and sex on pranlukast's efficacy. Methods A total of 121 asthmatic children aged 1 to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive regular pranlukast or not according to sex, and were divided in 2 age groups, 1–5 years and 6–14 years. The primary outcome was total asthma score calculated during 8 weeks by using a sticker calendar related to the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms. This open study lasted 60 days from September 15 to November 14, 2007. Results Significant differences in pranlukast efficacy were observed between sex and age groups. Boys aged 1 to 5 years had the lower total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.002), and experienced fewer cold episodes (p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between pranlukast and control group in total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.35), and in the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms (p = 0.67). Conclusion There was a substantial benefit of adding pranlukast to usual therapy in asthmatic children, especially in boys aged 1 to 5 years, during autumn season. PMID:28154801

  3. False-positive "halo" sign on testicular scintigraphy in a 5-year-old boy with epididymitis and hydrocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Guha, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bawa, Monika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2011-07-01

    Scintigraphic differentiation between acute torsion, hydrocele and testicular or scrotal abscess can be difficult. Doppler sonography may provide useful complimentary information toward diagnosis. The authors describe a 5-year-old child where epididymitis with hydrocele was misdiagnosed as testicular torsion on scrotal scintigraphy.

  4. A Proposal to Strengthen the Values of Solidarity and Empathy of 4-5-year old Children Attending a Private Institution, in the Province of Heredia (Costa Rica, Through Playful-creative Workshops Aplicación de la propuesta para fortalecer la vivencia de los valores de solidaridad y empatía con niños y niñas de 4 a 5 años, de una institución privada de Heredia, por medio de talleres lúdicos-creativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónika Vargas Mora

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project was to analyze how solidarity and empathy may be strengthened in 4-5-year old children through playful-creative workshops. The project was conducted in a private institution, in the province of Heredia, Costa Rica. This qualitative research was composed of three stages. First, a diagnostic stage helped us to identify the background of participants in relation to the values being studied; it included interviews and observation of participants. In the second stage, playful-creative workshops were put into practice to strength the values. The last stage was a comparative analysis of the information collected before and after carrying out the activities; it helped us to see if the children’s experience in relation to the values of empathy and solidarity was influenced by the workshops. One of the main conclusions is that by sharing and working with students through this methodology, children became more aware of the feelings of other people, and it improved their relations with other children. Recibido 29 de noviembre de 2012 •  Corregido 01 de mayo de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013El objetivo fue analizar, en qué forma, el desarrollo de talleres lúdico-creativos fortalecen la vivencia de los valores de solidaridad y empatía con niños y niñas de 4 a 5 años que asisten a una institución privada en Heredia. Esta investigación fue de tipo cualitativa y se desarrolló en tres etapas. Una etapa diagnóstica para describir los conocimientos previos de las personas participantes con dichos valores, la cual se llevó a cabo por medio de entrevistas y observaciones no participantes. La segunda etapa consistió en formular y aplicar talleres lúdico-creativos que fortalecieran estos valores en el estudiantado. La última etapa fue un análisis comparativo entre la información recolectada inicialmente y los datos recopilados después de implementada la propuesta, para así verificar si la aplicación de

  5. Professionally applied fluoride gel in low-caries 10.5-year-olds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    The question has been raised whether low-caries children regularly using fluoride toothpaste will benefit from the professional application of additional fluoride gel. To investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually-applied neutral 1% sodium fluoride gel, we carried out a double-blind ran

  6. Classroom Bird Feeding: Giving Flight to the Imaginations of 4- and 5-Year-Olds!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Deanna Pecaski

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how placing a plastic, gazebo-style bird feeder outside the classroom windows one cold autumn morning had been a catalyst for capturing and inspiring the children's imaginations. This empowered them to explore self-directed activities that resulted in meaningful, collaborative learning for most of the school…

  7. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis…

  8. Classroom Bird Feeding: Giving Flight to the Imaginations of 4- and 5-Year-Olds!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Deanna Pecaski

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how placing a plastic, gazebo-style bird feeder outside the classroom windows one cold autumn morning had been a catalyst for capturing and inspiring the children's imaginations. This empowered them to explore self-directed activities that resulted in meaningful, collaborative learning for most of the school…

  9. Premature Menarche Associated with Primary Hypothyroidism in a 5.5-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubajyoti Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with hypothyroidism generally have delayed pubertal development. Rare association with precocious puberty may occur especially in long standing untreated patients. The cardinal features of hypothyroidism induced pseudo precocious pubertal development include thelarche, galactorrhea and menarche. Other characteristics features are an absence of sexual hair and retardation of linear growth. Its manifestation as isolated menarche has been rarely reported. Recently, a five and half year old girl presented to us with history of one episode of vaginal bleeding. A pelvic ultrasonogram revealed multiple cysts in both ovaries and subsequent investigations led to a diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  10. Is there an association between the nutritional status of the mother and that of her 2-year-old to 5-year-old child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Swanevelder, Sonja; Benadé, A J Spinnler

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the nutritional status of the mother and that of her 2-year-old to 5-year-old child in a rural village in South Africa where there is a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition (in particular, deficiencies of vitamin A and iron) and of maternal obesity. A blood sample and anthropometric measurements were obtained for 118 child-mother pairs. There was a positive mother-child correlation for serum ferritin (R=0.2304, Padults because of childhood diseases.

  11. T-condylar fracture delayed for 10 days in a 5-year-old boy: a case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shashidhar B Kantharajanna; Vijay Goni; Pebam Sudesh; Nirmal Raj Gopinathan

    2013-01-01

    T-condylar fracture is rare in paediatric age group,especially in skeletally immature children less than 9 years old,with very few cases reported in available literature.We present such a case in a 5 year old child that was initially managed as a supracondylar fracture at another centre before referral to us,10 days after the injury.The child was diagnosed as having a displaced T-condylar fracture on plain radiograph.Open reduction and internal fixation with K-wires was performed.At 2 years follow-up,the child had good range of motion at elbow with 5°of cubitus varus.With this background we discuss the pertinent principles of management of T-condylar fractures in skeletally immature children.

  12. Generalized odontodysplasia in a 5-year-old patient with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome: clinical aspects, cone beam computed tomography findings, and conservative clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Juliana Ximenes; Couto, José Luciano Pimenta; Alves, Karla Shangela da Silva; Chaves, Cauby Maia; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Pimenta, Alynne de Menezes Vieira; Fonteles, Cristiane Sá Roriz

    2014-08-01

    This article aims to report the main clinical aspects, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) findings, and conservative oral rehabilitation in a child born from a consanguineous marriage who presented with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome (HSS) and generalized odontodysplasia. A 5-year-old girl presented with a diagnosis of HSS for oral evaluation. Radiographically, all teeth showed wide pulp chambers and roots with thin dentinal walls and open apices, resembling ghost teeth and indicating a diagnosis of odontodysplasia. Oral rehabilitation consisted of partial dentures that were regularly adjusted to conform the device with the pattern of growth and development of the child. CBCT scan provided great insight into HSS, allowing a detailed view of the morphologic aspects and associated trabecular bone pattern. Treatment of these 2 rare conditions in young children must consider the stage of growth and development. Although extremely rare in HSS, odontodysplasia should be investigated and conservatively managed in young children.

  13. T-condylar fracture delayed for 10 days in a 5-year-old boy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantharajanna Shashidhar B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 T-condylar fracture is rare in paediatric age group, especially in skeletally immature children less than 9 years old, with very few cases reported in available literature. We present such a case in a 5 year old child that was initially managed as a supracondylar fracture at an-other centre before referral to us, 10 days after the injury. The child was diagnosed as having a displaced T-condylar fracture on plain radiograph. Open reduction and internal fixation with K-wires was performed. At 2 years follow-up, the child had good range of motion at elbow with 5 o of cubi-tus varus. With this background we discuss the pertinent principles of management of T-condylar fractures in skele-tally immature children. Key words: Humeral fractures; Fracture fixation; Fracture healing; Child

  14. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predictors: child sex, partner support reported by the caregiver, disorganized infant-parent attachment at 15 months, child anger proneness at 28 months, and one of the two parent-child interaction factors observed at 28 months, namely negative parent-child interactions. The other, i.e., a lack of effective guidance, predicted externalizing problems only in highly anger-prone children. Furthermore, mediated pathways of influence were found for the parent-child interaction at 15 months (via disorganized attachment) and parental ego-resiliency (via negative parent-child interaction at 28 months). PMID:17243016

  15. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children’s construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children’s reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children’s reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds’ reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children’s books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children’s books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children’s attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493

  16. Comparison of the Lea Symbols and HOTV charts for preschool vision screening from age 3 to 4.5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the applicability and the development of the normal visual acuity from age 3 to 3.5 years using Lea Symbols and HOTV charts.METHODS: It was a survey research study. Totally, 133 preschoolers(266 eyesbetween 3 to 4.5 years old recruited from two kid-gardens in Guangzhou were tested with both the Lea Symbols chart and the HOTV chart. Outcome measures were monocular logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution(logMARvisual acuity and inter-eye acuity difference in logMAR units for each test. RESULTS: The testability rates of the two charts were high(96.24% vs 92.48%, respectively, but difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The difference between the two kind of monocular vision was not statistically significant(the right eye: t=0.517, P=0.606; the left eye: t=-0.618, P=0.538. There was no significant difference between different eye(Lea Symbols chart: t=0.638, P=0.525; HOTV chart: t=-0.897, P=0.372. The visual acuities of the boys were better than those of the girls, but the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The results which came from visual acuities with the two charts for the corresponding age groups(3-year-old group, 3.5-year-old group, 4-year-old group, 4.5-year-old groupindicated that the visual acuities of the preschoolers were improving with increasing age, but the difference among the visual acuities with the Lea Symbols chart was not statistically significant(the right eye: F=2.662, P=0.052; the left eye: F=1.850, P=0.143. However the difference among the visual acuities with the HOTV chart was statistically significant(the right eye: F=4.518, P=0.005; the left eye: F=3.893, P=0.011.CONCLUSION: Both Lea Symbols and HOTV chars are accepted and appropriate for preschool vision screening from 3 to 4.5 years old. The monocular visual acuity of preschoolers from age 3 to 4.5 years could be assessed was similar using the two charts. There is no correlation between visual acuity and different eye

  17. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner’s Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient. PMID:27656581

  18. Renal infarction secondary to invasive aspergillosis in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Hyun; Im, Soo Ah; Cho, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus species have angioinvasive properties and can involve extrapulmonary organs by hematogenous spread from the lungs. However, renal involvement by Aspergillus is uncommon and is usually associated with the formation of abscesses. We report an unusual case of invasive renal aspergillosis presenting with extensive renal infarction in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case emphasizes the fact that renal aspergillosis initially presents with only renal infarction, and metastatic-embolism by invasive aspergillosis should be considered in differential diagnosis for any focal lesion of kidney in a patient with leukemia.

  19. Reference range of blood biomarkers for oxidative stress in Thoroughbred racehorses (2–5 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUSANO, Kanichi; YAMAZAKI, Masahiko; KIUCHI, Masataka; KANEKO, Kouki; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium is known to play an important role in equine medicine and equine exercise physiology. There are abundant findings in this field; however, not many studies have been conducted for reference ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers in horses. This study was conducted to determine the reference values of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) using blood samples from 372 (191 males, 181 females) Thoroughbred racehorse aged 2 to 5 (3.43 ± 1.10 (mean ± SD)) years old. There were obvious gender differences in oxidative biomarkers, and growth/age-related changes were observed especially in females. Gender and age must be considered when interpreting obtained oxidative stress biomarkers for diagnosis of disease or fitness alterations in Thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:27703408

  20. Brief Report: Circumscribed Attention in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    School-aged children and adolescents with autism demonstrate circumscribed attentional patterns to nonsocial aspects of complex visual arrays (Sasson et al. "2008"). The current study downward extended these findings to a sample of 2-5 year-olds with autism and 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Eye-tracking was used to quantify discrete…

  1. Representations of eating and of a nutrition program among female caregivers of children under 5 years old in Tizimin, Yucatan, Mexico Representaciones sobre la alimentación y el programa de nutrición entre mujeres responsables de niños mexicanos menores de 5 años Representação da alimentação e de programa alimentar entre mulheres responsáveis por crianças mexicanas menores de 5 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria de los Ángeles Uicab-Pool

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out between January and April 2008 with 14 caregivers of children younger than 5 years residing in Tizimín city, Mexico. It aimed to understand the social representations of eating and the Programa Oportunidades [Opportunity Program] held by caregivers taking into account their social and cultural context. This qualitative investigation with an ethnographic approach was based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two empirical categories emerged: 1 feeding and 2 an aid. The first refers to the caregivers' representation of eating patterns of children younger than 5 years and the second reveals that the program is considered an aid, which favors and helps caregivers to meet part of their needs. The study achieved the proposed objectives since it enabled us to understand caregivers in the complex task of feeding these children and also to propose strategies in several spheres to improve infant nutrition.El estudio fue realizado con 14 responsables del cuidado del menor de 5 años en Tizimín, México, durante el período de enero la abril de 2008. Se buscó comprender las representaciones sociales de estas personas en relación a la alimentación y la los componentes de nutrición del Programa Oportunidades, considerando el contexto social y cultural. La investigación cualitativa con abordaje antropológico, tipo etnográfico tuvo como base la observación participante y las entrevistas semiestructuradas, dirigidas a las responsables. De los resultados emergieron dos categorías empíricas: 1 dar de comer y 2 una ayuda. La primera se refiere a cómo las responsables representan la alimentación del menor de 5 años y la segunda reveló que el Programa es considerado una ayuda y que las apoya a solucionar, en parte, sus necesidades. Se alcanzaron los objetivos al comprender a las responsables en esa tarea compleja que realizan de alimentar a los niños y así proponer estrategias, en varias esferas

  2. Validade do padrão de higiene bucal de crianças aos cinco anos de idade relatado pelas mães Validación del patrón de higiene bucal de niños de cinco años de edad relatado por las madres Validity of 5-year-old children's oral hygiene pattern referred by mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    2011-08-01

    niños no son buenas sustitutas del patrón real de higiene bucal medido por medio de examen clínico bucal de placa dental.OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of oral hygiene questions for children, as commonly used in epidemiological studies, and assess their validity by family income and mother's education. METHODS: A subsample of 1122 children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Southern Brazil (who had participated in a 2009 oral health study was analyzed. The children received dental examinations, and their mothers were interviewed at home. The gold standard for oral hygiene was the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index; from its total score, the outcome was dichotomized into the absence (total score = 0 or presence (total score ≥ 1 of dental plaque. The mothers answered questions related to their child's oral hygiene, including daily toothbrushing, toothbrushing before sleeping and the combination of the two (oral hygiene. These responses were dichotomized into regular and irregular. The validity was determined by calculating the percentages and respective 95% confidence intervals for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of dental plaque was 37.0%. The following sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were observed: 29.6%, 82.5%, 49.8% and 66.6%, respectively, for irregular daily toothbrushing; 41.8%, 64.6%, 40.9% and 65.5%, respectively, for irregular toothbrushing before sleeping; and 48.8%, 60.8%, 42.2% and 67.0%, respectively, for irregular oral hygiene. The validity of the oral hygiene reporting varied across different levels of family income and mother's education. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were higher among children with lower incomes and less educated mothers, while opposite associations were observed for specificity and negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: Oral hygiene questions answered by mothers of five

  3. Utilidad de la espirometría en preescolares de 4 y 5 años Utility of spirometry in 4 to 5 -years old preschool patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jury Hernández C

    2006-03-01

    respectively. Expiratory time was 6 s in 9.6% (n=17 of patients. Expiratory time was larger in children >5- compared to <5- years old (4.1 ± 1.3 s versus 3.1 ± 0.49 s; p < 0.018. VEF1 variability in 162 children having 2 or 3 acceptable maneuvers was < 0.1 L in 67%, < 5% in 50% and < 10% in 80%. Spirometry was normal in 80.5%, obstructive in 19% and restrictive in one patient. Conclusions:We confirmed that most of the preschool patients are able to perform an adequate spirometric test in terms of acceptability and reproducibility. We suggest to study a normal population of preshool children in order to have normal local data available

  4. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  5. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  6. "Land of Volcanoes" workshop: a first step in Earth Sciences for "L'Alzina" Public School primary students (4-5 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Jordi; Geyer, Adelina; Díaz, Mabel

    2017-04-01

    "Land of Volcanoes" is a scientific outreach workshop devised by Adelina Geyer, researcher of the Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera, ICTJA-CSIC. The workshop proposes an approximation to the world of volcanology through the explanation of different concepts related to these geological phenomena: its origin and its characteristics, magma eruptions and their associated hazards, etc. Over the last years, Geyer has developed the workshop in the context of different outreach activities for an audience formed, not only but mainly, by secondary school students. At the beginning of 2016, as a result of different informal contacts between ICTJA-CSIC Communication Unit and Mabel Díaz, teacher of the "L'Alzina" public school (Molins de Rei), arose the idea of developing Geyer's workshop in front of 26 students aged 4-5 years old, primary students. Díaz explains that it is "in the age ranged between 0 and 6 years when observation and hands-on activities are important elements of the learning process", although she adds that " primary students are usually not seen as potential audiences of this type of outreach activities and workshops". Díaz says that "Science is simple: it is about observing, asking questions and finding answers, the same that children, even the smallest, do constantly." Adelina Geyer accepted the challenge of conducting the "Land of Volcanoes" workshop in front of 4-5 year old children, although it was necessary to adapt its format and content to the new audience. Meanwhile, students prepared the session following the same process used in the project work system employed at the school and that started from two questions: "What do we know about volcanoes? What we want to know about them?" On June 3rd 2016, Adelina Geyer conducted "Land of Volcanoes" workshop at l'Alzina public school in front of a classroom of 4-5 years old students. The activity was divided in two parts with a total duration of 45 minutes: 1) Brief introductory talk: this part

  7. A 5-year-old girl with a congenital ganglioneuroma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce-Camacho Marco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ganglioneuroma is a rare, benign, neuroblastic tumor arising mainly from the central or peripheral autonomic nervous system, especially the sympathetic system. The most affected anatomical sites are the posterior mediastinum, retroperitoneum, adrenal gland and head and neck soft tissue. In the current literature, reports of ganglioneuroma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and its cytological appearance are scarce. Case Presentation A 5-year-old girl presented with a mass in the cervical region since birth. Laboratory routine tests were within normal limits, ultrasonography demonstrated a solid and well-circumscribed lesion in the soft tissues of the cervical region. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was carried out, and the obtained smears showed a mixture of mature ganglion cells and groups of spindle cells suggestive of schwann cell origin. A diagnosis of ganglioneuroma was suggested. Core biopsy and surgical resection confirmed this diagnosis. Conclusion Congenital ganglioneuroma of the cervical region is an uncommon soft tissue benign neoplasm of neuroblastic origin, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of head and neck pediatric soft tissue tumors. Fine needle aspiration biopsy technique is a reliable method that can be used with confidence when dealing with pediatric soft tissue tumors.

  8. Quantitative Effects of Repeated Muscle Vibrations on Gait Pattern in a 5-Year-Old Child with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Camerota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate quantitatively and objectively the effects of repeated muscle vibration (rMV of triceps surae on the gait pattern in a 5-year-old patient with Cerebral Palsy with equinus foot deformity due to calf spasticity. Methods. The patient was assessed before and one month after the rMV treatment using Gait Analysis. Results. rMV had positive effects on the patient's gait pattern, as for spatio-temporal parameters (the stance duration and the step length increased their values after the treatment and kinematics. The pelvic tilt reduced its anteversion and the hip reduced the high flexion evidenced at baseline; the knee and the ankle gained a more physiological pattern bilaterally. The Gillette Gait Index showed a significant reduction of its value bilaterally, representing a global improvement of the child's gait pattern. Conclusions. The rMV technique seems to be an effective option for the gait pattern improvement in CP, which can be used also in very young patient. Significant improvements were displayed in terms of kinematics at all lower limb joints, not only at the joint directly involved by the treatment (i.e., ankle and knee joints but also at proximal joints (i.e., pelvis and hip joint.

  9. Assessing Selective Sustained Attention in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children: Evidence from a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna; Thiessen, Erik; Godwin, Karrie; Kloos, Heidi; Dickerson, John

    2013-01-01

    Selective sustained attention (SSA) is crucial for higher order cognition. Factors promoting SSA are described as exogenous or endogenous. However, there is little research specifying how these factors interact during development, due largely to the paucity of developmentally appropriate paradigms. We report findings from a novel paradigm designed…

  10. Socioeconomic and clinical variables association wikth risk indicators of dental caries in 5-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo proposto foi avaliar a associação das condições socioeconômicas com o risco de cárie dentária e lesão inicial em crianças de 5 anos de idade da cidade de Piracicaba-SP, Brasil, em 2005. A metodologia utilizada consistiu em uma amostra de 728 crianças matriculadas em 22 pré-escolas públicas (n=428) e 18 pré-escolas privadas (n=300). Os exames foram realizados por um examinador previamente calibrado, no pátio das pré-escolas, sob luz natural, com auxílio de espelho bucal plan...

  11. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to differen

  12. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to

  13. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  14. Severity of Diarrhea and Malnutrition among Under Five-Year-Old Children in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdous, Farzana; Sumon K. Das; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D.; Latham, Jonathan R.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Ud-Din, Abu I. M. S.; Ishrat J Azmi; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Faruque, Abu S.G.

    2013-01-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%,...

  15. Plant Growth Variation At Combined Progeny And Provenance Of 5-Year-Old Intsia Bijuga (Colebr. O.Kuntze In Sobang, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Adma Adinugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate plant growth of Intsia bijuga at 5 years old in Sobang, Banten for supplying good genetic material in the future. Establishment of the trial was conducted in 2007 using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD that consisted of 6 blocks, 100 families nested in 10 provenances, 4 treeplot for each family with a spacing of 4 x4 m. Measurements were taken periodically every year on the survival percentage, total height and stem diameter at the breast height or dbh. At the age of 5 years showed that the significant differences among provenance in survival percentage that ranged from 41.61 to 65.11 %,  average of plant height were 1.04 to 2.82 m and dbh 1.24 to 1.59 cm. The growth variation families also showed significant differences in height and diameter. The survival rate ranged from 12.5-91.67 %, average plant height were 0.52-2.55 m and dbh 0.90-2.44 cm. Individual tree heritability estimate for height was height (0.344 while that of diameter was moderate (0.259. Family heritabilities for height and diameter was considered moderate, namely 0.573 and 0.491 respectively. Genetic correlation between height and diameter growth was positive and high (0.834.

  16. A 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome and a submicroscopic deletion of chromosome 15q11q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.G. [Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Christian, S.L.; Kubota, T.; Ledbetter, D.H. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-10-16

    We report on a 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a submicroscopic deletion of 15q11q13 of approximately 100-200 kb in size. High resolution chromosome analysis was normal but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern hybridization, and microsatellite data from the 15q11q13 region demonstrated that the deletion was paternal in origin and included the SNRPN, PAR-5, and PAR-7 genes from the proximal to distal boundaries of the deletion segment. SNRPN and PW71B methylation studies showed an abnormal pattern consistent with the diagnosis of PWS and supported the presence of a paternal deletion of 15q11q13 or an imprinting mutation. Biparental (normal) inheritance of PW71B (D15S63 locus) and a deletion of the SNRPN gene were observed by microsatellite, quantitative Southern hybridization, and/or FISH analyses. Our patient met the diagnostic criteria for PWS, but has no reported behavior problems, hyperphagia, or hypopigmentation. Our patient further supports SNRPN and possibly other genomic sequences which are deleted as the cause of the phenotype recognized in PWS patients. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in 2-5 year olds and its relationship with parental obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taheri

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Given the significant and positive correlation between children's and their parents’ obesity, it is important to educate Families to improve their eating patterns and life styles for weight control in their children, particularly in those having obese members.

  18. An EMG screening method (dysphagia limit) for evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia in childhood above 5 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemirkiran, T; Secil, Y; Tarlaci, S; Ertekin, C

    2007-03-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is not rare in older children before the adult age, especially the patients with cerebral palsy. Non-invasive simple tests are needed for the evaluation of children with neurogenic dysphagia including the patients with cerebral palsy. So we aimed to evaluate non-invasive ways to screen for dysphagia in children and the usefulness of this almost new electrophysiologic method for the detection of dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-eight healthy children and 12 patients with cerebral palsy were investigated for the applicability of this method. The movement of the larynx was monitored using a simple piezoelectric wafer sensor and submental surface EMG activity was recorded by bipolar silver-chloride electrodes taped under the chin over the submental muscle complex. The onset and duration of pharyngeal swallowing was recorded from submental-suprahyoid muscles such as the mylohyoid-genitohyoid-anterior digastric complex. By this method, the maximal water volume capacity was measured in single swallows with progressively increasing water volumes, this was called 'dysphagia limit'. The healthy control children revealed to swallow the bolus at once maximally 11.2+/-0.4 and 2.5 ml in average. Dysphagia limit varied from 7 to above 20 ml water volume from age 5-16 years old. Patients with cerebral palsy had the dysphagia limit of 7.7+/-1.8 and 6.4 ml in average. The dysphagia limit was significantly reduced in patients with cerebral palsy (pDysphagia limit seemed to be less sensitive in demonstrating the oropharyngeal swallowing disorders in childhood period (90% in the adult dysphagic patients). But the majority of patients with cerebral palsy (58%) showed abnormality. This electrophysiologic method is completely non-invasive, devoid from any hazard and applicable to children above 5 years. It may be candidate as a screening test before selection of dysphagic children.

  19. [Urinary tract infections: review of the case records of the 5-year-old population of Novara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloni, V; Aitink, O; Cadario, F; Chirio, F; Quaglia, P; Bona, G

    2004-10-01

    A feverish high temperature is the symptom that most frequently leads families to take their children to a Pediatric First Aid unit. In the differential diagnosis of the causes of hyperpyrexia the presence of infections of the genito-urinary tract have to be excluded. Infections of the urinary ways are often the cause of high temperatures in infancy, particularly during the 1st year of life; early identification at the moment of examination at the Paediatric First Aid clinic of patients with infections of the urinary ways makes it possible to prevent the onset of renal complications. We carried out a retrospective study with the purpose of evaluating the incidence of infections of the urinary ways and their complications in paediatric patients who had come to the First Aid unit for hyperpirexia and were later hospitalised after examination of the urine revealed and infection of the urinary ways. The study was carried out by consulting the registers listing arrivals at the First Aid unit and the subsequent discharge diagnosis. We then consulted the clinical records of patients who required admission to our Paediatrics Clinic arter the first aid examination. Re-reading the registers of examination carried out and the clinica records of hospitalised patients there emerged an increase in the observation of this pathology, diagnosed at the moment of the First Aid examination by means of rapid tests and thereafter assessed by haematochemical and radiological tests. In our opinion this increase could be attributed to the greater attention paid to diagnosing the causes of fever of apparently unknown origin.

  20. A Developmental Difference in Shape Processing and Word-Shape Associations between 4 and 6.5 Year Olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ons

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In distinguishing individual shapes (defined by their contours, older children (6.5 years of age on average performed better than younger children (4 years of age on average, and, although the task did not involve any categorization or generalization, the error pattern was qualitatively affected by shape differences that are generally common distinctions between objects belonging to different categories. The influence of these shape differences was also observed for unfamiliar shapes, demonstrating that the influence of categorization experience was not modulated by the retrieval of shape features from known categories but rather related to a different perception of shape by age. The results suggest a direct influence of categorization experience on more abstract shape processing. When children were distinguishing shapes, new words were paired with the target shapes, and in 2 additional tasks, the acquired name–shape associations were tested. The younger age group was able to remember more words correctly.

  1. [Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) as cause of isolated gamma GT rise in a 5-year old boy with hepatomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wössmann, W; Wiemann, J; Körber, F; Gortner, L

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of HFI is easily missed during childhood. It should be suspected in children presenting with hepatomegaly and an isolated increase in GGT. A carefully taken nutritional history forms the basis of the diagnosis of HFI which can be confirmed by molecular analysis with a sensitivity of > 95%. I.v. fructose tolerance tests and liver biopsies often can be omitted.

  2. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a 5-year-old boy with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Habibur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a rare clinical and radiological phenomenon is encountered in children compared to adults. In our center, a 5-yearold boy with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS presented with headache and blurring of vision during relapse after a long course of immunosuppressive therapy. Evaluation by computed tomography scan of the brain showed that the child had hypodense areas throughout the occipital region of the brain. All signs of PRES, except papilledema, resolved after seven days of supportive treatment evidenced by subsequent radiological evaluation. PRES should be kept in mind in any nephrotic child who is on prolonged immunosuppressive therapy.

  3. Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161035.html Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5: Study ... 5 years old -- may be at risk of suicide. Black elementary school-age boys seem to have ...

  4. A compreensão da gratidão e teoria da mente em crianças de 5 anos The understanding of gratitude and theory of mind in 5-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Beatriz de Lucca Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se relações entre compreensão da gratidão (GRA e desenvolvimento de uma teoria da mente (TOM com 228 crianças norteamericanas (53% meninas de 5 anos. Testaram-se as seguintes hipóteses: (a não há diferença de sexo em GRA ou TOM, (b as crianças com melhor desempenho nas tarefas de TOM têm melhor GRA, (c TOM é condição necessária para GRA. Utilizaram-se três tarefas para avaliar TOM: consideração da perspectiva visual, crença falsa de primeira e de segunda ordem. Contaram-se às crianças duas histórias sobre gratidão. Avaliou-se GRA a partir de suas respostas a perguntas feitas após a leitura de cada história. As duas primeiras hipóteses foram confirmadas. A hipótese de que TOM seria condição necessária para GRA não encontrou suficiente suporte empírico.We examined relations between the understanding of gratitude (GRA and the development of a theory of mind (TOM. The study was done with 228 5-year-old North American children (53% female. We tested the following hypotheses: (a there are no sex differences in GRA or TOM, (b children who perform better on TOM tasks have better GRA, (c TOM is a necessary condition for GRA. We used three tasks to evaluate TOM: visual perspective taking, first-order false belief, and second-order false belief. The children were read two vignettes about gratitude. GRA was evaluated based on children's responses to questions asked after each vignette was read. The first two hypotheses were supported. The hypothesis that TOM would be a necessary condition for GRA did not receive sufficient empirical support.

  5. Effect of a low-intensity parent-focused nutrition intervention on dietary intake of 2- to 5-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy; Collins, Clare

    2013-12-01

    Community-based nutrition interventions aimed at influencing child dietary intake are rarely evaluated. We hypothesised that providing self-directed nutrition and parenting resources to parents living in rural northern New South Wales, Australia, would positively affect the dietary patterns of children ages 2 to 5 years. A total of 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, ages 2.0-5.9 years) were randomly assigned to either a 12-month parent-centred intervention involving self-directed education provided in CD and DVD formats, or a participant-blinded control group who received generic nutrition and physical activity information. Data were collected at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Total reported energy from nutrient-dense food groups and percentage energy from energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were high at baseline relative to estimated total energy expenditure for child age. Using random effects modelling, there were significant group-by-time effects for a reduction in mean (standard deviation) total energy intake (EI) at 12 months (-461 kJ/day (196); P = 0.04). An intervention group-by-time effect on carbohydrate intake (-17.4 g/day (10.6); P children in rural New South Wales is high and did not improve in response to a low-intensity nutrition intervention. Parents reported small changes in consumption frequency for core and noncore food intakes, leading to a reduction in total EI. Strategies to increase resource use such as prompting via e-mail are required to further explore the effectiveness of nutrition resource dissemination at a population level.

  6. The Use of Reported Speech in Children's Narratives: A Priming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…

  7. Children's Recency Tendency: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Persian, Kurdish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrani, Mehdi B.; Peterson, Carole

    2017-01-01

    In the present cross-linguistic study two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of age and linguistic background on response tendencies of preschoolers toward forced-choice questions. A total of 163 2- to 5-year-old children, including 63 Persian speakers, 57 Kurdish speakers and 43 English speakers, were asked a set of…

  8. The Use of Reported Speech in Children's Narratives: A Priming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…

  9. Bivariate Genetic Analyses of Stuttering and Nonfluency in a Large Sample of 5-Year-Old Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, Catharina Eugenie Maria; Felsenfeld, Susan; Boomsma, Dorret Irene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral genetic studies of speech fluency have focused on participants who present with clinical stuttering. Knowledge about genetic influences on the development and regulation of normal speech fluency is limited. The primary aims of this study were to identify the heritability of stuttering and high nonfluency and to assess the…

  10. THE SCANDCLEFT RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIALS: SPEECH OUTCOMES IN 5-YEAR-OLDS WITH UCLP – consonant proficiency and errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Persson, Christina; Lohmander, Anette

    2017-01-01

    for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. Design: Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark...... and transcribed phonetically. The main outcome measure was Percent Consonants Correct (PCC) from blinded assessments. Results: In Trial 1, arm A showed statistically significant higher PCC scores (82%) than arm B (78%) (p = .045). No significant differences were found between prevalences in Trial 2, A: 79%, C: 82...... in terms of secondary pharyngeal surgeries, number of fistulae, and speech therapy visits differed. Trial registration: ISRCTN29932826. Keywords: Primary palatal repair, unilateral cleft lip and palate, consonant proficiency, cleft speech characteristics, randomised clinical trial...

  11. Treatment of 4-5 year old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate in Tawanchai center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Volrathongchai, Kanittha; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2013-09-01

    The occurrence of Cleft Lip/Palate condition in Thailand reaches a rate of 2.49% of child births, with estimates of 800 new cases per year in the Northeastern region. The healthcare process emphasizes interdisciplinary teamwork at each stage of the planning of treatment and services with the primary goal of achieving patient satisfaction and ability to live normally in society. The first 5 years are particularly important, with a focus on quality of care and ability to adapt to the environment before entering school. To study the treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate in Tawanchai center in the 4-5 year age range. A retrospective study of the clinical records was led, concerning the 123 cleft lip and cleft palate patients aged 4-5 years under treatment in Tawanchai center, Srinagarind Hospital. Data was collected during three months from October to December 2011, using the admission records of the interdisciplinary team. Percentages and mean values were calculated from these data. 120 of the 123 patients were operated, giving a ratio of 97.56%. 108 cases were under government universal health coverage regime, corresponding to 87.80% of cases. 74 cases (60.16%) presented both cleft lip and palate condition, and an average of 5-night stay in hospital per person. Medical services by the interdisciplinary team were provided as follows: (1) of 30 patients with cleft lip aged 3-4 months, 30 (100%) received pre and post-surgery care counseling, 29 (96.67%) received surgery; (2) of 19 patients with cleft palate aged 10-18 months, 17 (89.47%) received treatment information, pre and postsurgery counseling and were operated according to the protocols; (3) of 74 patients with cleft lip and palate, 53 (71.62%) received counseling for pre and post-surgery care for lip repair at the age of 3-4 months, 52 (70.27%) were operated following the protocols, while at the age of 10-18 months 63 patients (85.14%) received treatment information, pre and postsurgery care counseling

  12. Psychometric Assessment of the Achenbach & Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist in Pre-schoolers between 4,0 and 5,5 years old of lower Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Zambrano Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Achenbach and Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist was assessed psychometrically in a group of 100 preschool students between 4,0 and 5,5 years old who attend a public school at Bogota city. It was done by applying formats to parents and teachers. These formats were previously translated, linguistically adapted and piloted. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the total scale was 0,94 -0,94 for parents and 0,95 for teachers-. The analysis of factors by main components saturated the variance in 87%, although it did not correspond to the factors proposed by the original model. This measure gives diagnostic information about the children’s behavioral structure from a multiaxial perspective. Moreover, it identifies profiles of the internalizing and externalizing dimensions of behavior.

  13. Teaching Children about the Inverse Relation between Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Hallett, Darcy; Bell, Daniel; Evans, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Two intervention studies are described. Both were designed to study the effects of teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. The interventions were successful with 8-year-old children in Study 1 and to a limited extent with 5-year-old children in Study 2. In Study 1 teaching children about inversion increased…

  14. Conocimientos y prácticas del cuidador como factor asociado a enfermedad respiratoria aguda en niños de 2 meses a 5 años Conhecimentos e práticas do responsável como fator associado à doença respiratória aguda em crianças de 2 meses a 5 anos knowledge and practices of the caregiver as a factor associated to acute respiratory infection in children from 2 months to 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Pulgarín Torres

    2011-03-01

    conhecimentos e práticas que tinham com respeito à ERA. Resultados. Estudaram-se 24 casos e 24 controles. O perfil do responsável de ambos os grupos de estudo é o de mulheres, mães do menor, donas de casa, com nível educativo de secundária, filiadas ao regime tributável e de estratos socioeconômicos 2 e superior. Os responsáveis dos casos tiveram menor proporção de conhecimentos adequados envelope ERA do que os dos controles (41.7% contra 75.0%, p=0.02. Um descenso de responsáveis em ambos os grupos identifica adequadamente os signos e sintomas de ERA (casos=4.2% e controles=8.2%. O conhecimento de quando conferir de maneira urgente foi adequado em 75.0% dos responsáveis dos casos contra 66.7% dos responsáveis dos controles. Nas práticas desenvolvidas quando a criança tem ERA os responsáveis dos controles a que mais realizam é o adequado manejo da febre, o resto de práticas tiveram proporções de manejo adequado entre regulares e más. Conclusão. Os conhecimentos e práticas nos responsáveis foram inadequados, se evidência a necessidade de implementar e reforçar ações educativas na comunidade.Objective. To establish the relationship between Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI and the practices and knowledge the child caregiver has. Methodology. Case-control study in which cases were children hospitalized for ARI, and controls children hospitalized for other conditions. Interviews were applied to the children’s caregivers to investigate their level of knowledge and practices related to ARI. Results. 24 cases and 24 controls were studied. The caregiver profile in both groups were women, mother of the child, housekeeper, high school level of education, members of the contributive regimen, and from socioeconomic status 2 and higher. The cases group caregivers had a lower proportion of proper IRA knowledge than controls (Cases=4.2% and controls=8.2%. Knowledge about when to consult as an emergency was proper in the 75.0% of the caregivers in the case group

  15. Children's and adults' use of verbal information to visually anticipate others' actions: A study on explicit and implicit social-cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Schuwerk, Tobias; Sodian, Beate; Ganglmayer, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    According to recent theories, social cognition is based on two different types of information-processing; an implicit or action-based one and an explicit or verbal one. The present study examined whether implicit and explicit social-cognitive information processing interact with each other by investigating young children's and adults' use of verbal (i.e., explicit) information to predict others' actions. Employing eye-tracking to measure anticipatory eye-movements as a measure of implicit processing, Experiment 1 presented 1.5-, 2.5-, and 3.5-year-old children as well as adults with agents who announced to move to either of two possible targets. The results show that only the 3.5-year-old children and adults, but not the 1.5- and 2.5-year-old children were able to use verbal information to correctly anticipate others' actions. Yet, Experiments 2 and 3 showed that 2.5-year-old children were able to use explicit information to give a correct explicit answer (Experiment 2) and that they were able to use statistical information to anticipate the other's actions (Experiment 3). Overall, the study is in line with theoretical claims that two types of information-processing underlie human social cognition. It shows that these two inform each other by 3years of age.

  16. Influence of a physical education plan on psychomotor development profiles of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Costa, Hélder José; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Arufe-Giráldez, Vìctor; Pazos-Couto, José María; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of structured physical education on the psychomotor development of 3 to 5 year-old preschool children. The sample consisted of 324 students of both sexes (3 to 5 year-old) from 9 public kindergarten classes in Porto, Portugal. A battery of psychomotor tests (pre-test) was used to assess the students’ psychomotor development profiles. The sample was divided in 2 groups: an experimental group (162 students) and a control group (162 students). Physic...

  17. Important risk factors of mortality among children aged 1-59 months in rural areas of Shahroud, Iran: A community-based nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Chaman

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators.

  18. Language learning and brain reorganization in a 3.5-year-old child with left perinatal stroke revealed using structural and functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a

  19. Changing the main indicators to assess motor function in children with cerebral palsy spastic form by hydrokinesitherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Taran I.V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the efficiency of the developed technique hydrokinetic system of physical rehabilitation for children 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. Examined the impact of comparing the effectiveness of exercise in the water by two techniques: the author and accepted. In experiment involved 24 people aged 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. The experiment lasted one year, classes were held hydrokinesitherapy 2 times a week. In the study recorde...

  20. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  1. Prevalencia de desnutrición en menores de cinco años de Tabasco Malnutrition prevalence in children under 5 years old in Tabasco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la prevalencia de desnutrición que se presentó en niños tabasqueños menores de cinco años en 1996, y su evolución entre 1991 y 1996. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal que incluyó a 1 256 niños de 593 comunidades (31 urbanas y 562 rurales) de los 17 municipios de Tabasco. Resultados. El indicador peso/edad registró 41% de prevalencia de desnutrición, distribuida en leve (26.12%), moderada (12.62%) y severa (2.39%). En niños de entre 1 y 5 años la ...

  2. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses and genotyping of rotavirus A, adenovirus and astrovirus among children under 5 years old in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: These findings improve our knowledge of circulating enteric viruses in Gabon. The emergence of unusual G6P[6] strain of rotavirus A, predominant, suggested a particular epidemiological surveillance of circulating rotavirus strains during the introduction of vaccination in Gabon.

  3. Severity of diarrhea and malnutrition among under five-year-old children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon K; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D; Latham, Jonathan R; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ud-Din, Abu I M S; Azmi, Ishrat J; Talukder, Kaisar A; Faruque, Abu S G

    2013-08-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%, P household income (1.71 [1.42, 2.07]). Childhood malnutrition was associated with dysentery and dehydrating diarrhea.

  4. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, whichmaybe primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined.Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as looselyarranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the

  5. Bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation for dyskinetic cerebral palsy supports success of cochlear implantation in a 5-year old ex-24 week preterm twin with absent cerebellar hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean-Pierre; Kaminska, Margaret; Perides, Sarah; Gimeno, Hortensia; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Britz, Anzell; Driver, Sandra; Fitzgerald-O'Connor, Alec; Selway, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Early onset dystonia (dyskinesia) and deafness in childhood pose significant challenges for children and carers and are the cause of multiple disability. It is particularly tragic when the child cannot make use of early cochlear implantation (CI) technology to relieve deafness and improve language and communication, because severe cervical and truncal dystonia brushes off the magnetic amplifier behind the ears. Bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) neuromodulation can reduce dyskinesia, thus supporting CI neuromodulation success. We describe the importance of the order of dual neuromodulation surgery for dystonia and deafness. First with bilateral GPi DBS using a rechargeable ACTIVA-RC neurostimulator followed 5 months later by unilateral CI with a Harmony (BTE) Advanced Bionics Hi Res 90 K cochlear device. This double neuromodulation was performed in series in a 12.5 kg 5 year-old ex-24 week gestation-born twin without a cerebellum. Relief of dyskinesia enabled continuous use of the CI amplifier. Language understanding and communication improved. Dystonic storms abated. Tolerance of sitting increased with emergence of manual function. Status dystonicus ensued 10 days after ACTIVA-RC removal for infection-erosion at 3 years and 10 months. He required intensive care and DBS re-implantation 3 weeks later together with 8 months of hospital care. Today he is virtually back to the level of functioning before the DBS removal in 2012 and background medication continues to be slowly weaned. This case illustrates that early neuromodulation with DBS for dystonic cerebral palsy followed by CI for deafness is beneficial. Both should be considered early i.e. under the age of five years. The DBS should precede the CI to maximise dystonia reduction and thus benefits from CI. This requires close working between the paediatric DBS and CI services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. School Readiness and Children's Developmental Status. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; And Others

    In order to provide data to help schools respond to the diversity in the backgrounds and educational needs of children entering school, a U.S. Department of Education study asked parents of 3- to 5-year-old children who had not yet started kindergarten about their children's accomplishments that indicated emerging literacy and numeracy skills and…

  7. Symbolic Representation across Domains in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examined understanding of notational representation among 3- to 5-year-olds. Children solved problems when shown cards with a picture or word indicating identity or a quantity indicator. In the easier condition, children had difficulty solving the problems as a function of their familiarity with the notation, suggesting weaknesses in…

  8. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. Methods The study was based on a cohort organized to monitor...

  9. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. Methods: The study was based on a cohort organized to monit...

  10. Narrative Development in Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Earls, Anny; Petersen, Douglas; Spencer, Trina; Hammer, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the narratives produced by 3-, 4-, and 5- year old Spanish-speaking (SS) children. Narrative productions of 104 typically developing children were collected using a story-retelling task and coded using the Index of Narrative Complexity. The results of this study indicate…

  11. Working memory limitations in children with severe language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an

  12. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  13. False Belief, Emotion Understanding, and Social Skills among Head Start and Non-Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A.; Guajardo, Nicole R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships among false belief, emotion understanding, and social skills with 60 3- to 5-year-olds (29 boys, 31 girls) from Head Start and two other preschools. Children completed language, false belief, and emotion understanding measures; parents and teachers evaluated children's social skills. Children's false…

  14. Secret Keepers: Children's Theory of Mind and Their Conception of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Corson, Kimberly; Sastry, Anuradha; Wright, Holly

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?21) in a university-sponsored preschool programme and children completed a theory of mind (ToM) task. After grouping children into pass/no pass groups for the ToM tasks, analyses using interpretive phenomenology indicated that preschool children explain…

  15. Secret Keepers: Children's Theory of Mind and Their Conception of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Corson, Kimberly; Sastry, Anuradha; Wright, Holly

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?21) in a university-sponsored preschool programme and children completed a theory of mind (ToM) task. After grouping children into pass/no pass groups for the ToM tasks, analyses using interpretive phenomenology indicated that preschool children explain…

  16. Mothers' Production of Hand Gestures While Communicating with their Preschool Children Under Various Task Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Arlyne J.; Turnure, James E.

    This study investigates hand gesturing behavior produced by mothers communicating with their first born 2- to 3-year-old children and their 4- to 5-year-old children. Thirty-two mother-child pairs were assigned to groups balanced equally for age and sex. After it was confirmed that the older children produced longer utterances, the mother-child…

  17. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz; Bülent Sönmez; Kamuran Karaman; Burhan Beger; Adnan Mercen; Süleyman Alioğlu; Yaşar Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  18. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; SÖNMEZ Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; CESUR, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  19. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  20. Neuropsychological development in 2~5 years old offspring of hypertension disorder complicating pregnancy%妊娠高血压疾病患者子代2~5岁神经心理发育现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 刘丽; 郑冬梅; 王志明; 解雅春; 王忠清; 花琛; 王忆军; 张慧颖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探求妊娠期高血压疾病(hypertensioh disorder complicating pregnancy,HDCP)对其子代神经心理发育的影响. [方法]采用1:1配对的病例对照研究方法,随访HDCP患者2~5岁子代与正常对照儿童各27人,运用"0~6岁小儿神经心理发育量表"对两组儿童的智能进行评价,并收集两组儿童的生活环境及生活习惯行为等. [结果]HDCP子代在妊娠天数、出生体重及出生身长方面均低于正常儿童(P<0.05).在神经心理发育方面,显示出HDCP子代在语言和社交两个维度上的智能以及发育商方面显著低于正常对照儿童(P<0.05).在生活环境办面,社交行为智能发育与被动吸烟呈负相关,而与常住人口呈正相关(P<0.05).在生活行为方式方面,社交行为智能发育和发育商与每日户外活动时间、喜欢与同龄儿童交流呈正相关(P<0.05),而与每日观看电视/电脑的时间呈负相关(P<0.05).[结论]HDCP患者生活环境和生活行为方式对儿童的神经心理发育有影响.%[Objective]To explore the effect of hypertension disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP) on neuropsychological development of their 2~5 years old offspring.[Methods]Using 1 : 1 matched case-control study method, chosen 27 offspring in HDCP group and control group.The intelligence was evaluated utilizing 0~6 years infant neuropsychological development scale.The relevant informations were collected, including living environments and lifestyle behaviors.[Results]The offspring with HDCP mother were lower than the normal children in the gestational duration days, birth weight and birth length (P<0.05).The language and socialization dimension of neuropsychological development and developmental quotient (DQ) were lower in offspring of HDCP than those of control in 2~5 years old (P<0.05).On the living environment, there was negative correlation between socialization and passive smoking (P<0.05), but positive correlation between

  1. 3-5-year-old Children's Understanding of the Psychological Nature of Dreams and the Development%3-5岁幼儿对梦的心理属性的理解及其发展状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孥良功; 徐琴美

    2012-01-01

    以杭州市两所幼儿园的96-名幼儿为被试,考察幼儿对梦的心理属性的理解及其发展状况。结果表明:(1)3岁幼儿已经初步理解了梦的非物质性,并认为梦具有共享性;4岁幼儿能较好地理解梦的非物质性,并初步理解了梦的非共享性;5岁幼儿能较好地理解梦同时具有非物质性和非共享性特点。(2)3-4岁幼儿对梦的非物质性的理解好于对非共享性的理解。%Taldng 96 children from 2 kindergartens in Hangzhou as subjects, the researchers studied their understanding of the psychological nature of dreams and its development, the results indicated that (1) 3 year olds had a primitive understanding of the immaterial nature of dreams and believed dreams were shared; 4 year olds obtained a better understanding of immaterial nature of dreams and a primitive understanding of dreams' private nature; and the 5 year olds had a good understanding of both natures of dreams; (2) 3-4-year olds had a better understanding of the immaterial nature than the private nature of dreams.

  2. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  3. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  4. Children's Comprehension of Two Types of Syntactic Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Elly Jane

    2017-01-01

    This study asks whether children accept both interpretations of ambiguous sentences with contexts supporting each option. Twenty-six 3- to 5-year-old English-speaking children and a control group of 30 English-speaking adults participated in a truth value judgment task. As a step towards evaluating the complexity of syntactic ambiguity, the…

  5. Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children's Evaluations of Emotional Fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Nathalie; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated children's ability to differentiate emotionally evocative fantastic and real events. Methods: Four- and 5-year-old (n=145) maltreated and nonmaltreated children viewed images depicting positive and negative fantastic and real events and reported…

  6. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  7. An Ecological Exploration of Young Children's Digital Play: Framing Children's Social Experiences with Technologies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines an ecological framework for describing children's social experiences during digital play. It presents evidence from a study that explored how 3- to 5-year-old children negotiated their social experiences as they used technologies in preschool. Utilising a systematic and iterative cycle of data collection and analysis,…

  8. Deciduous teeth caries status and impact factors in a 5 year old Guangxi cohort%广西5岁儿童乳牙龋病相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓捷; 黄华; 黄高明; 何克新

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the status of deciduous caries in a population 5-year olds in Guangxi and the possible relative influencing factors, thus to provide scientific basis for the establishment of oral health care policies in Guangxi. METHODS: An Equal-sized stratified multi-stage randomly sampling design was applied to obtain a representative sample group consisted of Guangxi residents aged 5 years, with a gender ratio of 1:1. The caries on the crown of deciduous teeth was assessed; thereafter the data including their oral health habits, diet condition, and family -related factors etc. were obtained through questionnaires from children's parents. RESULTS: In the group aged 5, the caries rate was 80.7% , and the mean dmft(decayed, missed and filled teeth) was 6.06, there was no significant difference of prevalence between two sexes (P >0.05). In a multivariale logislic regression model, three factors including Zhuang nationality, the knowledge of fluoride toothpaste and checking the effect of children' s teeth brushing were proved to be relevant to deciduous teeth caries, although in single variable analysis the data showed that except these key variables more factors such as the frequency of intake of dairy products and the start age of bushing teeth also exhibited obvious impact on the status of deciduous caries. CONCLUSION: More efforts are in crucial need to help the rural and Zhuang children with their oral health behavior through promoting their parents' awareness, attitude and behavior of oral health.%目的:调查广西5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况及相关影响因素,为儿童龋病预防提供资料.方法:采用多阶段、分层、等容量、随机抽样的方法抽取广西420名5岁儿童进行乳牙龋病检查,同时对其家长进行现场问卷调查.对调查结果采用卡方检验分析和多因素非条件Logistic回归分析.结果:乳牙患龋率和龋均分别为80.7%、6.06,男女间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).单因素分析表

  9. Auditory processing and phonological awareness skills of five-year-old children with and without musical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalda, Júlia; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; França, Cecília Cavalieri

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the relations between musical experience, auditory processing and phonological awareness of groups of 5-year-old children with and without musical experience. Participants were 56 5-year-old subjects of both genders, 26 in the Study Group, consisting of children with musical experience, and 30 in the Control Group, consisting of children without musical experience. All participants were assessed with the Simplified Auditory Processing Assessment and Phonological Awareness Test and the data was statistically analyzed. There was a statistically significant difference between the results of the sequential memory test for verbal and non-verbal sounds with four stimuli, phonological awareness tasks of rhyme recognition, phonemic synthesis and phonemic deletion. Analysis of multiple binary logistic regression showed that, with exception of the sequential verbal memory with four syllables, the observed difference in subjects' performance was associated with their musical experience. Musical experience improves auditory and metalinguistic abilities of 5-year-old children.

  10. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Ch

  11. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Ch

  12. Does Valence Matter? Effects of Negativity on Children's Early Understanding of the Truth and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Lindsay; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Early deceptive behavior often involves acts of wrongdoings on the part of children. As a result, it has often been assumed, although not tested directly, that children are better at identifying lies about wrongdoing than lies about other activities. We tested this assumption in two studies. In Study 1, 67 3- to 5-year-olds viewed vignettes in…

  13. Does Valence Matter? Effects of Negativity on Children's Early Understanding of the Truth and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Lindsay; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Early deceptive behavior often involves acts of wrongdoings on the part of children. As a result, it has often been assumed, although not tested directly, that children are better at identifying lies about wrongdoing than lies about other activities. We tested this assumption in two studies. In Study 1, 67 3- to 5-year-olds viewed vignettes in…

  14. Informational and Fictional Books: Young Children's Book Preferences and Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaman, Huseyin; Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated young children's preferences for books to read aloud. Participants included 142 children enrolled in 4 public kindergartens in the Sanliurfa province of Turkey, their parents (142 parents), and teachers. Forty-nine 4-year-olds and 93 5-year-olds and their 9 teachers participated in the study. Parents filled out surveys;…

  15. Knowing When to Be "Rational": Flexible Economic Decision Making and Executive Function in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wendy S. C.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to delay gratification may not indicate poor control or irrationality, but might be an adaptive response. Two studies investigated 3.5- and 4.5-year-old children's ability to adapt their delay and saving behavior when their preference (e.g., to delay or not delay) became nonadaptive. In Study 1 (N = 140), children's delay preference was…

  16. The Joint Effects of Risk Status, Gender, Early Literacy and Cognitive Skills on the Presence of Dyslexia among a Group of High-Risk Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…

  17. The Joint Effects of Risk Status, Gender, Early Literacy and Cognitive Skills on the Presence of Dyslexia among a Group of High-Risk Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…

  18. A Study of Bones = Un Estudio de Huesos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Yvonne

    Proving that project work can be done with young children who are schooled in a full-immersion program in a second language, this article describes a study of bones undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. The article discusses the process and shows the results achieved by the children during the three phases of the…

  19. A Study of Bones = Un Estudio de Huesos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Yvonne

    Proving that project work can be done with young children who are schooled in a full-immersion program in a second language, this article describes a study of bones undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. The article discusses the process and shows the results achieved by the children during the three phases of the…

  20. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  1. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Risk for Inattention and Negative Emotionality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714).…

  2. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  3. The Pathway to English Word Reading in Chinese ESL Children: The Role of Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…

  4. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  5. Children's Recognition of Fairness and Others' Welfare in a Resource Allocation Task: Age Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns,…

  6. The Development of Recipient-Dependent Sharing Behavior and Sharing Expectations in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Moore, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the development of sharing expectations and sharing behavior in 3 groups of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. We examined (a) whether preschool children expect a person to share more with a friend than with a disliked peer and (b) whether their expectation about others' sharing behavior depends on whether there is a cost or…

  7. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  8. The Effectiveness of Preschool for Children from Low-Income Families: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Edith

    This report, one of several background papers for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education, examines the effects of preschool experience on Illinois children from low income families. The 1980 U. S. Census for Illinois identified 81,959 preschool-age children (3 to 5 years old) from poverty-level families; 54 of these young…

  9. The role of extrinsic rewards and cue-intention association in prospective memory in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppard, D.P.; Kretschmer, A.; Knispel, E.; Vollert, B.; Altgassen, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also

  10. Treatment of 4-5 year old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate in Tawanchai Center: prevalence and type of associated malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Pongpagatip, Sumalee; Pathumwiwatana, Pornpen; Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan; Panamonta, Manat; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2014-10-01

    Patients with cleft lip/palate may have other associated malformations but the reported prevalence and type of associated malformations varied between different studies. To report the prevalence and the type of associated malformations in Northeastern Thai patients with cleft lip/palate. A retrospective study of 123 cleft lip/palate patients aged 4-5 years was carried out at the Tawanchai Cleft Center, Khon Kaen University during the periodfrom October to December 2011. Data were collected by reviewing the patients medical records. Seventeen (14%) of the 123patients had associated malformations. Four (21%) of the 19patients with cleft palate, eleven (15%) of the 74 patients with clefts lip and palate, and two (7%) of the 30 patients with cleft lip had associated malformations. The organ systems affected by associated malformations were cardiovascular system (41%), craniofacial anomaly (23%), skeletal system (12%), urogenital system (12%) and central nervous systemn (12%). Atrial septal defect and tetralogy ofFallot were most common associated cardiovascular malformation found. The high prevalence of associated malformationsfound in patients with cleft lip/palate emphasizes the needfor a thorough screening of associated malformations and congenital heart disease ofall cleft lip/palatepatients.

  11. Features of the system control movements of boys 3-5 years old with different orientation of motor asymmetry in the task of manual dexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balatska L.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of change of indexes manual ableness of boys are studied with a different orientation by motive asymmetry. In research took part boys aged 3-5 years. An orientation manual motive asymmetry is certain. The indexes of development of control the system by motions are also certain on manual ableness without the account of orientation motive asymmetry. The features of development of control the system by motions of boys are exposed. Distinctions are set between the boys of identical age in the display of the probed indexes. It is set that at the evaluation of results of implementation of motive tasks it is necessary to take into account an orientation motive asymmetry of child, half and age. The method of the pedagogical testing is recommended in motive tasks, set the program on physical education for preschool educational establishments.

  12. The Role of Physical Context, Verbal Skills, Non-Parental Care, Social Support, and Type of Parental Discipline in the Development of ToM Capacity in Five-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galende, Nuria; de Miguel, Manuel Sanchez; Arranz, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of family context on the performance of 5-year-old children (N = 70) in theory of mind (ToM) tasks. The children's performances were assessed during individual sessions held at school. Children's verbal skills were assessed using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT). Interviews were also…

  13. Immunogenicity of a Live Attenuated Chimeric Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine as a Booster Dose After Primary Vaccination With Live Attenuated SA14-14-2 Vaccine: A Phase IV Study in Thai Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoenchai, Sirintip; Lapphra, Keswadee; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate; Phongsamart, Wanatpreeya; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Wittawatmongkol, Orasri; Rungmaitree, Supattra; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2017-02-01

    This single-group study investigated the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of the recently licensed live attenuated chimeric Japanese encephalitis vaccine in 50 healthy children (1-5 years old) who were primed with the live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine. A strong anamnestic response was induced 28 days postbooster: geometric mean titer, 9144 (95% confidence interval: 7365-11353); and seroprotection rate, 49 of 49 (100%) children.

  14. Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…

  15. Children Use Different Cues to Guide Noun and Verb Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Jane B.; Heard, M. Elaine; Ring, Kolette; Pai, Anushka; Sallquist, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning new words involves decoding both how a word fits the current situation and how it could be used in new situations. Three studies explore how two types of cues--sentence structure and the availability of multiple instances--affect children's extensions of nouns and verbs. In each study, 2.5-year-olds heard nouns, verbs, or no new word…

  16. Children's Attention to Sample Composition in Learning, Teaching and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.; Brickman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Two studies compared children's attention to sample composition--whether a sample provides a diverse representation of a category of interest--during teacher-led and learner-driven learning contexts. In Study 1 (n = 48), 5-year-olds attended to sample composition to make inferences about biological properties only when samples were presented by a…

  17. Dental and Periodontal Status of 5 and 12 year old Children in Jakarta and it’s Satellite Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Adiatman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia which is surrounded by its satellite cities Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi, which can be shortened by Jabodetabek. Objective: The study aims to describe oral health among 5 and 12 years-old children in Jabodetabek. Methods: This cross-sectional oral-health survey was conducted from 2014 with ethics approval. Sample of 5-year-old and 12-year-old Indonesian children living in Jabodetabek were selected using cluster sampling method. One trained examiner performed the clinical examination. Caries experience was measured using DMFT index, severity of decayed teeth was assessed using PUFA index, gingival status and oral hygiene were measured by Loe and Sillness modified index. Results: A total of 390 5-year-old and 458 12-year-old children with balanced proportion between girls and boys participated the survey. The prevalence of caries experience among the 5-year-old children and 12-year-old children were 90% and 84% respectively. The mean DMFT and DT scores among the 5-year-old children and 12-year-old children were 7.5±5.5 and 6.8±4.8; 3.2±2.2 and 2.9±2.1 respectively. Pulp involvement were apparent in 45% and 23% of caries in 5 and 12-year-old children respectively. Most children, 45% 5-year-old children and 92% 12-year-old children had substantial amount of plaque. Moreover, 68% 12-year-old children had gingivitis. Conclusion: Dental caries were prevalent among 5 and 12-year-old Indonesian children in Jakarta its satellite cities. The oral health condition of most of the children were poor.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v23i1.982

  18. Changing the main indicators to assess motor function in children with cerebral palsy spastic form by hydrokinesitherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taran I.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the efficiency of the developed technique hydrokinetic system of physical rehabilitation for children 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. Examined the impact of comparing the effectiveness of exercise in the water by two techniques: the author and accepted. In experiment involved 24 people aged 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. The experiment lasted one year, classes were held hydrokinesitherapy 2 times a week. In the study recorded the performance evaluation of basic motor functions to the experiment, six months later, and after the experiment. It is shown that an important component of physical rehabilitation of patients is hydrokinesotherapy. Shows the direction of the development of motor skills of children 3-5 years old. Study of the development of indicators basic motor functions.

  19. The Digital Playground: Kindergarten Children Learning Sign Language through Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kirsten; Blashki, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses a study of 4-5 year old children's use of technology to assist and enhance the acquisition of a play lexicon within a formal educational setting. The new language system to be learned was Auslan, a signed/nonverbal language. A purpose specific software program was developed by the authors, "Auslan Kids," in order to…

  20. Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Frans J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake. Since preference is an important predictor of intake, more knowledge is needed about children's preferences and about how these preferences develop. As most research about preferences has ignored cognitive development, this study was designed to explore the relation between children's perceptions and preferences for fruit and vegetables and their cognitive development. Methods The study population consisted of eight 4–5-year-old children, eight 7–8-year-old children and twelve 11–12-year-old children, recruited via a primary school in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Qualitative in-depth information was obtained by duo-interviews and focus group discussions. A structured guide with questions and game tasks was applied to address different domains in a consistent way. Results The developmental progress at the abstraction level was seen in children's reasoning across all domains. Children's preferences expanded and increased in complexity as they moved to a higher age bracket. The most important determinants for liking and disliking shifted from appearance and texture attributes in 4–5-year-olds towards taste attributes in 11–12-year-olds. Children's knowledge of basic tastes increased. Their understanding of health improved as they grew older. The emergence of social norms and perspectives of others as the children grew older was also seen in relation to fruit and vegetables. Child-reported parental strategies to stimulate healthy eating appeared to vary with age in line with cognitive development. Conclusion Cognitive development is paralleled by changes in the importance given to the attributes that determine whether a child likes or dislikes fruits and vegetables; children's understanding of and reasoning about health; and parental use of strategies. These developmental differences should be incorporated in programs designed to

  1. Correlates of toothbrushing in preschool children by their parents in four ethnic groups in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Kalsbeek, H.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Filedt, T.L.; Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    A previous study among Amsterdam 5-year-old children showed that on average, the older the child at the onset of toothbrushing and the less frequent the toothbrushing, the more life time caries experience it had. The aim of the present study was to assess correlates of these two caries risk factors,

  2. Correlates of toothbrushing in preschool children by their parents in four ethnic groups in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Kalsbeek, H.; Woerkum, C.M. van; Koelen, M.; Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    A previous study among Amsterdam 5-year-old children showed that on average, the older the child at the onset of toothbrushing and the less frequent the toothbrushing, the more life time caries experience it had. The aim of the present study was to assess correlates of these two caries risk factors,

  3. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain size of young children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ashrafzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome of social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. While the impairments associated with ASD tend to deteriorate from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance that the syndrome is diagnosed at an early age. One means of facilitating this is through understanding how the brain of people with ASD develops from early childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for in vivo and non-invasive investigations of the morphology of the human brain, especially when the subjects are children. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of existing structural MRI studies that have investigated brain size in ASD children of up to 5 years old. Methods: In this study, we systematically reviewed published papers that describe research studies in which the brain size of ASD children has been examined. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for all relevant original articles that described the use of MRI techniques to study ASD patients who were between 1 and 5 years old. To be included in the review, all studies needed to be cohort and case series that involved at least 10 patients. No time limitations were placed on the searched articles within the inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria were non-English articles, case reports, and articles that described research involving subjects that were not within the qualifying age range of 1-5 years old.Result: After an initial screening process through which the title, abstracts, and full text of the articles were reviewed to confirm they met the inclusion criteria, a total of 10 relevant articles were studied in depth. All studies found that children with ASD who were within the selected age range had a larger brain size than children without ASD.Discussion: The findings of recent studies indicate that the vast majority of ASD patients exhibit an enlarged brain; however, the extent of

  4. Preschool children's understanding of frame construction

    OpenAIRE

    Podstudenšek, Gašper

    2012-01-01

    Present study presents the preschool children’s understanding of framework concept, geometric forms in which framework can be represented and favorized by children. In addition the present study explores the extend of children’s knowledge of various materials, used in framework construction, and their conclusions of possible geometric forms, made by various materials in framework construction. 4 and 5 year old children were involved in present study by answering the questions before and after...

  5. Self-reported health-related quality of life in kindergarten children : psychometric properties of the Kiddy-KINDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalonga-Olives, E.; Kiese-Himmel, C.; Witte, C.; Almansa, J.; Dusilova, I.; Hacker, K.; von Steinbuechel, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the psychometric properties of the German self-reported version of the Kiddy-KINDL that measures Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in 3 to 5 year old kindergarten children. Study design: The population of the study comprised baseline data of a longitudinal study whose main

  6. Acquisition of /s/-Clusters in Dutch-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of word initial s clusters of 3-5 year old Dutch children with phonological disorders. Within these clusters, sl was produced correctly most often, whereas sn and sx were the more difficult clusters. In cluster reductions, s+obstruent and sl clusters reduction patterns followed the Sonority Sequencing…

  7. Generic Language Use Reveals Domain Differences in Young Children's Expectations about Animal and Artifact Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore domain differences in young children's expectations about the structure of animal and artifact categories. We examined 5-year-olds' and adults' use of category-referring generic noun phrases (e.g., "Birds fly") about novel animals and artifacts. The same stimuli served as both animals and artifacts;…

  8. Preschool Based JASPER Intervention in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism: Pilot RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, Kelly Stickles; Ishijima, Eric; Chang, Ya-Chih; Kasari, Connie

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study, we tested the effects of a novel intervention (JASPER, Joint Attention Symbolic Play Engagement and Regulation) on 3 to 5 year old, minimally verbal children with autism who were attending a non-public preschool. Participants were randomized to a control group (treatment as usual, 30 h of ABA-based therapy per week) or a…

  9. Concurrent and Longitudinal Links between Children's and Their Friends' Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal links between children's own and their nominated best friends' antisocial and prosocial behavior were studied in a normative sample of 3-5-year-olds (N = 203). Moderating effects of age and gender were also explored. Subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to obtain teacher ratings of…

  10. Links between Preschool Children's Prosocial Skills and Aggressive Conduct Problems: The Contribution of ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Hudson, Kathryn; Liang, Wentao

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between prosocial behavior and conduct problems, especially aggression, in early childhood. In Phase 1 of the study, teachers reported on 93 3-5-year-old children's prosocial behavior and psychological problems, using a screening instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In Phase 2, 65…

  11. Concurrent and Longitudinal Links between Children's and Their Friends' Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal links between children's own and their nominated best friends' antisocial and prosocial behavior were studied in a normative sample of 3-5-year-olds (N = 203). Moderating effects of age and gender were also explored. Subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to obtain teacher ratings of…

  12. Environmental exposure at day care centres: are our children at risk?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the exposure of 5-year old children attending preschool facilities in Pretoria to lead (as an example of an environmental pollutant) in air and surface soil, specifically in relation to their activity patterns....

  13. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  14. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  15. Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning about the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…

  16. Classification Accuracy of Nonword Repetition when Used with Preschool-Age Spanish-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to (a) describe and compare the nonword repetition (NWR) performance of preschool-age Spanish-speaking children (3- to 5-year-olds) with and without language impairment (LI) across 2 scoring approaches and (b) to contrast the classification accuracy of a Spanish NWR task when item-level and percentage…

  17. Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning about the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…

  18. Measurement and Facilitation of Affectionate Behaviour in the Play of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, John P.; Acker, Loren E.

    This study attempted to determine whether simple, naturalistic procedures could be used to increase the rate of physically affectionate behaviors directed at stuffed toy animals and at peers in the play of 4- and 5-year-old children. Procedures were developed for scoring affection and aggression during group play. The context of reading a story…

  19. [Helicobacter pylori infection in children without dyspepsia in Curundu and Parque Lefevre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halphen, G M; Lindsay Estupiñán, J; Márquez, L E; Pon Chow, R L; Méndez, J R; Brandáriz, C; Oduber, L; Chanis, R

    1998-01-01

    A study of seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori determined by ELISA IgG, was conducted in 83 consecutive healthy children. The majority of the children (55%) had the bacterium. Seropositivity was demonstrated in 55% of the age group 0-5 years old, in 47% of 6-10, and in 67%, of the group 11 to 15. Of the children without sanitary inside their homes 86% were seropositive, versus 47% of the children with sanitary in their homes.

  20. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…

  1. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…

  2. The Impact of Foreign Housemaids on the Children of Working Mothers: A Case Study from Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2014-01-01

    The role of grandparents and other close relatives in caring for the children of working mothers has been diminishing in modern societies everywhere including Jordan. Concurrently, the dependence on housemaids to care for the children of working mothers has been on the rise. The impact of housemaids on young Jordanian children (4-5 years old) was…

  3. Three-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis of Prehension Movements in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: New Insights on Motor Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Piazza, Caterina; Villa, Laura; Molteni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at better clarifying whether action execution impairment in autism depends mainly on disruptions either in feedforward mechanisms or in feedback-based control processes supporting motor execution. To this purpose, we analyzed prehension movement kinematics in 4- and 5-year-old children with autism and in peers with typical…

  4. Adult derived genetic blood pressure scores and blood pressure measured in different body postures in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Maria Ac; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.; Visseren, Frank Lj; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Leusink, Maarten; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Der Zee, Anke H Maitland Van; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    2017-01-01

    Aims Several genes are related to blood pressure (BP) levels in adults, but it is largely unknown whether these genes also determine BP early in life. Methods Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured in 720 5-year-old children from the WHeezing-Illnesses-STudy-LEidsche-Rijn (WHISTLER)

  5. Early Childhood Curriculum Development: The Role of Play in Building Self-Regulatory Capacity in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Linda R.

    2017-01-01

    This case study examines the development of self-regulation, socially, cognitively and emotionally, through the use of play in the curriculum in five preschool classrooms for children ages 2-5 years old at a university laboratory school. Five teachers were interviewed about their deliberate use of play to support the development of self-regulation…

  6. A design study to develop young children's understanding of multiplication and division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Brenda; Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Nguyen, Nhung

    2016-12-01

    This design study investigated the use of multiplication and division problems to help 5-year-old children develop an early understanding of multiplication and division. One teacher and her class of 15 5-year-old children were involved in a collaborative partnership with the researchers. The design study was conducted over two 4-week periods in May-June and October-November. The focus in this article is on three key aspects of classroom teaching: instructional tasks, the use of representations, and discourse, including the mathematics register. Results from selected pre- and post-assessment tasks within a diagnostic interview showed that there were improvements in addition and subtraction as well as multiplication and division, even though the teaching had used multiplication and division problems. Students made progress on all four operational domains, with effect sizes ranging from approximately two thirds of a standard deviation to 2 standard deviations. Most of the improvement in students' number strategies was in moving from `counting all' to `counting on' and `skip counting'. The findings challenge the idea that learning experiences in addition and subtraction should precede those in multiplication and division as suggested in some curriculum documents.

  7. Enteropatógenos associados com diarréia infantil (< 5 anos de idade em amostra da população da área metropolitana de Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil Enteropathogens associated with diarrheal disease in infants (< 5 years old in a population sample in Greater Metropolitan Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Jaqueline Schnack

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a presença de enteropatógenos em 94 casos de diarréia e 45 casos-controle em crianças de 0 a 5 anos de idade, atendidas no Centro de Saúde Municipal de Criciúma, Santa Catarina. Entre os parasitos isolados, o Cryptosporidium (85,1% foi o mais freqüente, seguido pela Entamoeba histolytica (56,4% e a Giardia lamblia (4,3%. Quatro amostras apresentaram Escherichia coli enteropatogênica (4,3%. A Samonella e a Shiguella não foram detectadas em nenhuma amostra. Somente um caso foi positivo para o rotavírus (1,1%.Enteropathogens were investigated in 94 children with diarrhea and 45 age-matched controls, 0 to 5 years old, attending an outpatient unit in Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Cryptosporidium (85.1% topped the list of parasite isolates, followed by Entamoeba histolytica (56.4% and Giardia lamblia (4.3%. Four samples contained enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (4.3%. Samonella and Shiguella were not detected. Only one sample contained rotavirus (1.1%.

  8. Age-related changes in the temporal dynamics of executive control: A study in 5- and 6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eLucenet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dual Mechanisms of Control theory (Braver, Gray & Burgess, 2007, this study conducted in 5- and 6-year-olds, tested for a possible shift between two modes of control, proactive vs. reactive, which differ in the way goal information is retrieved and maintained in working memory. To this end, we developed a children-adapted version of the AX-Continuous-Performance Task (AX-CPT. Twenty-nine 5-year-olds and twenty-eight 6-year-olds performed the task in both low and high working-memory load conditions (corresponding respectively to a short and a long cue-probe delay. Analyses suggested that a qualitative change in the mode of control occurs within the 5-year-old group. However, quantitative, more graded changes were also observed both within the 5-year-olds, and between 5 and 6 years of age. These graded changes demonstrated an increasing efficiency in proactive control with age. The increase in working memory load did not impact the type of dynamics of control, but had a detrimental effect on sensitivity to cue information. These findings highlight that the development of the temporal dynamics of control can be characterized by a shift from reactive to proactive control together with a more protracted and gradual improvement in the efficiency of proactive control. Moreover, the question of whether the observed shift in the mode of control is task dependant is debated.

  9. Phonological development of first language isiXhosa-speaking children aged 3;0-6;0 years: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphalala, Zinhle; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa Rose

    2014-03-01

    Standardized assessments of children's isiXhosa phonology have not yet been developed and there is limited information about developmental norms in this language. This article reports on the phonological development of 24 typically developing first language isiXhosa-speaking children aged 3;0-6;0 years, in Cape Town, South Africa. The order and age of acquisition of isiXhosa phonemes, emergence and elimination of phonological processes and percentage consonants and vowels correct are described. A set of culturally and linguistically appropriate pictures was used to elicit single word responses that were recorded and transcribed. The study found that children had acquired most isiXhosa phonemes by 3;0 years although aspirated plosives, affricates, fricatives and clicks were still developing. In particular, the affricates and aspirated plosives were still developing in the 5-year-old children in this sample, suggesting that these may be the latest acquired segments. Children were able to produce basic word shapes by 3;0 years, but some of the words of 4-6 syllables were still being mastered by the 4- and 5-year-old children. Phonological processes that have been well documented for other languages were used by children in this sample (e.g. deaffrication, stopping and gliding of liquids). Findings presented for this pre-school-aged sample are related to theories of phonological acquisition to provide normative data on phonological development in isiXhosa-speaking children.

  10. Comparative study of behavioural problems among epileptic children treated with phenobarbital with epileptic children treated with phenytoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenobarbital is recommended by WHO as the first line drug for the treatment of partial and generalized tonic clonic epilepsies in developing countries, however several clinical trials have recorded higher frequencies of behavioural problems associated with Phenobarbital than with other drugs or no treatment. We compared the frequency of behavioural problems among epileptic children treated with phenobarbital with epileptic children treated with phenytoin. Materials and Method: We conducted a case-control study to comparing of epileptic children treatment with neurological with epileptic children treated with phenytoin. Between November 2006 to March 2007, 74 children referred from child neurologic clinic who treated with phenobarbital or phenytoin for more than 2 months in Zahedan, assessed consecutively by the Rutters behaviour scale for children aged 6 years and older and by the preschool behaviour questionnaire for those 2-5 years.Results: The mean scores on the behaviour scales did not differ significantly between the phenobarbital and phenytoin groups in children aged 6 years and older. Irretability, attention deficit, disobedience and lack of energy in phenobarbital group more than phenytoin group in 2-5 years old children. Conclusion: Several clinical trials have recorded higher frequencies (20-60% of behavioural problems associated with phenobarbital than with other drugs but in our study evidence supports the acceptability of phenobarbital for epileptic children in developing countries

  11. Children's (In)ability to Recover from Garden Paths in a Verb-Final Language: Evidence for Developing Control in Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngon; Trueswell, John C.

    2010-01-01

    An eye-tracking study explored Korean-speaking adults' and 4- and 5-year-olds' ability to recover from misinterpretations of temporarily ambiguous phrases during spoken language comprehension. Eye movement and action data indicated that children, but not adults, had difficulty in recovering from these misinterpretations despite strong…

  12. Perceived trustworthiness of faces drives trust behaviour in children

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Louise; Caulfield, Frances; Read, Ainsley; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Facial appearances can powerfully influence adults' trust behaviour, despite limited evidence that these cues constitute honest signals of trustworthiness. It is not clear, however, whether the same is also true for children. The current study investigated whether, like adults, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds are more likely to place their trust in partners that look trustworthy than those that look untrustworthy. A second, closely related question was whether children also explicitly value the ...

  13. Affective forecasting bias in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Shalini; Bulley, Adam; von Hippel, William; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Adults are capable of predicting their emotional reactions to possible future events. Nevertheless, they systematically overestimate the intensity of their future emotional reactions relative to how they feel when these events actually occur. The developmental origin of this "intensity bias" has not yet been examined. Two studies were conducted to test the intensity bias in preschool children. In the first study, 5-year-olds (N=30) predicted how they would feel if they won or lost various games. Comparisons with subsequent self-reported feelings indicated that participants overestimated how sad they would feel to lose the games but did not overestimate their happiness from winning. The second study replicated this effect in another sample of 5-year-olds (n=34) and also found evidence of an intensity bias in 4-year-olds (n=30). These findings provide the first evidence of a negative intensity bias in affective forecasting among young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. "Pink Is a Girl's Color": A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergarteners' Discussions about Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…

  15. "Pink Is a Girl's Color": A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergarteners' Discussions about Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…

  16. Children poisoning by carbamate: a descriptive study - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p193

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study had as its aim to characterize the children under 5 years old, attended with exogenous poisoning by carbamate (popularly called “chumbinho” – “small shot” at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza and to relate the signs and symptoms detected in this type of poisoning. It concerned a descriptive study, with a sample of 65 children attended during the period of 1998 to 2000, in Fortaleza, Ceará. It was noticed that the most affected age group was of those with 1 to 3 years old, not being verified any significant difference between sexes. The most evident signs and symptoms were myosis, vomits, profuse perspiration and sialorrhea and the predominant treatment was the use of active coal. It is concluded, therefore, that there is a need of putting into effect the health education, calling the society’s attention to the risks of the inadequate “chumbinho” use in the domiciliar environment.

  17. Correction: Bougma, K., et al. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1384–1416

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bougma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have found an inadvertent error in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. One standard error was not converted into standard deviation and this affected the following effect sizes and intelligence quotient (IQ:[...

  18. 3~5岁幼儿对情绪表达规则的理解与运用%On 3-5-Year-Old Children's Understanding and Use of Emotional Display Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金荣; 杜春霞; 杨丽珠

    2010-01-01

    本研究随机选取某幼儿园96名3~5岁幼儿,运用情境实验法考察其对情绪表达规则的理解与运用.研究结果表明,幼儿在3岁时已具有一定的区分内外情绪差异的能力,4岁左右这种能力开始迅速发展,且在积极和消极情境下发展趋势较一致,幼儿性别与情境类型的交互作用显著.在策略运用上,平静化策略出现频率最高,掩饰策略次之,夸大和弱化策略的运用相对较少.

  19. The Characteristics of the Emotion Regulation of 4-5 Year-old Children in Negative Emotional Situation%4~5岁儿童消极情绪情境中的情绪调节特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜旭; 钱文

    2015-01-01

    情绪调节能力是儿童适应社会生活、维持人际关系必须具备的能力之一.研究者采用实验方法探究4~5岁儿童在消极情绪情境中的情绪调节特点.结果发现,六种情绪调节策略的运用中,替代活动策略的运用在此期间有显著的发展.无论是4岁组还是5岁组儿童,运用最多的是问题解决策略,最少的是发泄策略.此外,4岁组幼儿更多运用自我安慰和被动应付策略,5岁组幼儿则更多运用替代活动策略.

  20. 辽宁省5岁儿童乳牙龋及家庭影响因素的分析%Dental caries status and family risk factors in 5-year-old children of Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 程睿波; 刘璐

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究辽宁省5岁儿童乳牙龋齿患病情况与家庭因素的关系.方法:对792名5岁儿童进行患龋情况调查,并随机抽取396名儿童父(母)问卷.对影响乳牙龋的相关因素进行χ2检验及Logistic回归分析.结果:父(母)的文化程度和孩子睡前进食甜点对乳牙龋有显著的影响.结论:加强对家长的口腔卫生保健知识的指导,控制儿童睡前甜食和饮料摄入,是防止乳牙龋发生的有效途径.