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Sample records for 5-year-old children study

  1. "Growth Chart Study in Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Area of Khoramabad Province"

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    F Majlesi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart is the best measure for weight monitoring of children. Most factors that affect child heath show their effect on child weight. This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was achieved to estimate malnutrition prevalence and effective factors in children under 5 years old in rural area of Khoramabad province. 555 girls and 570 boys were chosen from health houses by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through questionnaires. verbal interviews and child weighing. Nutritional status was estimated via weight/age index and the data were analysed by chi-square test. The results show 7.7% malnutrition among the children in this area. Factors that influence the nutritional status were: Frequency of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, birth weight, duration of breast feeding and milk formula.

  2. A Comparative Study on Motor Skills in 5-Year-Old Children with Phonological and Phonetic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Hasanati; Ahmad Reza Khatoonabadi; Mehdi Abdolvahab

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Speech as a motor phenomenon requires repetitive and rapid function of articulatory organs performing extremely fine movements. Practice on motor skills results in facilitation in treatment progress of children with phonological disorders. The purpose of this study was to compare motor skills in 5-year-old children with phonological and phonetic disorders.Methods: Thirty-two children age 5 years, 16 with phonemical speech sound disorders and 16 with difficulty at a phoneti...

  3. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

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    Lydian Veldhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. METHODS: This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067 collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  4. A Comparative Study on Motor Skills in 5-Year-Old Children with Phonological and Phonetic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hasanati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Speech as a motor phenomenon requires repetitive and rapid function of articulatory organs performing extremely fine movements. Practice on motor skills results in facilitation in treatment progress of children with phonological disorders. The purpose of this study was to compare motor skills in 5-year-old children with phonological and phonetic disorders.Methods: Thirty-two children age 5 years, 16 with phonemical speech sound disorders and 16 with difficulty at a phonetic level participated in this study. TOLD Test was performed for linguistic skills investigation among children. Phonetic test, Wepman test, diadochokinesis and oral assessment was used for diagnosis between phonological and phonetic disorders. The children were also evaluated with Oseretsky motor developmental scale .Results: In comparison, mean scores of movement skills between both groups showed significant difference (p=0.006 and children with phonetic disorder got significantly higher scores on all part of this test.Conclusions: The findings of this study support the idea that speech sound disorders are frequently associated with motor problems, and that type of articulation disorder affects the motor performance in a different way. Phonological disorders seem to have more impact on motor performance than phonetic disorders. The results authenticate the need to pay more attention to the motor skills of children with articulation disorders.

  5. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle among 5-year-old overweight children: Health behavior outcomes of the 'Be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); L. Veldhuis (Lydian); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study evaluates the effects of an intervention performed by youth health care professionals on child health behaviors. The intervention consisted of offering healthy lifestyle counseling to parents of overweight (not obese) 5-year-old children. Effects of the interventio

  6. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

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    Mette Bliddal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R. RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03. After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07, which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04. CONCLUSION: Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  7. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this stud

  8. Cardio-metabolic risk in 5-year-old children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress: the ABCD study

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    Stronks Karien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence, both animal and human, suggests that modifiable factors during fetal and infant development predispose for cardiovascular disease in adult life and that they may become possible future targets for prevention. One of these factors is maternal psychosocial stress, but so far, few prospective studies have been able to investigate the longer-term effects of stress in detail, i.e. effects in childhood. Therefore, our general aim is to study whether prenatal maternal psychosocial stress is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile in the child at age five. Methods/design Data are available from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands. Between 2003-2004, 8,266 pregnant women filled out a questionnaire including instruments to determine anxiety (STAI, pregnancy related anxiety (PRAQ, depressive symptoms (CES-D, parenting stress (PDH scale and work stress (Job Content Questionnaire. Outcome measures in the offspring (age 5-7 are currently collected. These include lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, body composition (body mass index, waist circumference and bioelectrical impedance analysis, autonomic nervous system activity (parasympathetic and sympathetic measures and blood pressure. Potential mediators are maternal serum cortisol, gestational age and birth weight for gestational age (intrauterine growth restriction. Possible gender differences in programming are also studied. Discussion Main strengths of the proposed study are the longitudinal measurements during three important periods (pregnancy, infancy and childhood, the extensive measurement of maternal psychosocial stress with validated questionnaires and the thorough measurement of the children's cardio-metabolic profile. The availability of several confounding factors will give us the opportunity to quantify the independent contribution of maternal stress during

  9. Overweight in 5-year-old Children: Assessment and Risk Factors (The Be Active, Eat Right Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. Worldwide, about one in ten children at the age of 5 to 17 years have overweight (obesity included). In the last decades there has been a dra

  10. EVALUATION OF IRON STATUS IN 9-MONTH TO 5-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE SEIZURES: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN THE SOUTH WEST OF IRAN

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    Ali Akbar MOMEN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveFebrile convulsions are prevalent in children aged between 9 months and 5 years, with an incidence of 2-5%. On the other hand, iron deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic disease of infancy and childhood with a period of incidence that coincides with the time of developing febrile convulsions.Therefore, it is hypothesized that there is a possible association between these conditions. This study was designed to elucidate this association.Materials & MethodsTwo sex and age matched groups (n=50 in each of 9-month to 5-year-old febrile children who were admitted to Abuzar Hospital between September 2003 and October 2004 were selected. The first group, or the case group, included children with the first attack of febrile seizure and the second group, or the control group, included febrile children without seizure. Blood samples were collected for measuring complete blood count (CBC indices, serum Iron,ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels.ResultsBoth groups were comparable for age, sex, and the type of febrile illness at admission, except for seizure. There was no significant difference in CBC, Iron and TIBC between two groups but a signicant difference was seen in MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume, especially in females (P= 0.017. The ferritin level in the case group was significantly lower (30.3 ±16.5 µg/dl than the control group (84.2 ±28.5 µg /dl (P= 0.000.ConclusionThe findings of this study suggested a positive association between iron deficiency and the first febrile seizure in children. Supplemental iron may prevent the recurrence of febrile seizure. Prudently, further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods need to be undertaken to substantiate this hypothesis.Keywords: Febrile seizure, Iron, ferritin level, Anemia, Children

  11. Risk factors for death among children less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2005-2007: a cohort study.

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    Ciara E O'Reilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled all children <5 years old, hospitalized with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children <5 years old were enrolled; 107 (9% children died during hospitalization. Nontyphoidal Salmonella were identified in 10% (118, Campylobacter in 5% (57, and Shigella in 4% (42 of 1,137 stool samples; rotavirus was detected in 19% (196 of 1,021 stool samples. Among stools from children who died, nontyphoidal Salmonella were detected in 22%, Shigella in 11%, rotavirus in 9%, Campylobacter in 5%, and S. Typhi in <1%. In multivariable analysis, infants who died were more likely to have nontyphoidal Salmonella (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6·8; 95% CI 3·1-14·9, and children <5 years to have Shigella (aOR = 5·5; 95% CI 2·2-14·0 identified than children who survived. Children who died were less likely to be infected with rotavirus (OR = 0·4; 95% CI 0·2-0·8. Further risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1-8·7; having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4-3·8; having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2-3·8; and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5-4·1. A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen on

  12. Nutrition and mental development of 4-5-year old children on macrobiotic diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Kleber, R.J.; Mol, M.C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Mental development of 4–5-year old children on macrobiotic diets (almost devoid of animal foods and fat) with long-term growth deficits, was studied using the Snijders-Oomen Non-verbal Intelligence (SON) scale. In addition, food consumption and behavioural style of the children, and family and paren

  13. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

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    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  14. Comparative study using oral solutions of bambuterol once daily or terbutaline three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. Bambuterol Multicentre Study Group.

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    Kuusela, A L; Marenk, M; Sandahl, G; Sanderud, J; Nikolajev, K; Persson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of bambuterol hydrochloride (10 mg) oral solution administered once daily in the evening with terbutaline sulphate (0.075 mg/kg body weight) oral solution administered three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. There were two treatment groups: (2/3) of the patients received bambuterol and (1/3) received terbutaline. The study was double-blind, randomized, and of a parallel group design, and it lasted for 3 months after a 2-week run-in period. The primary objective was to evaluate safety (adverse events, and changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters). Plasma concentrations of terbutaline and/or bambuterol were also measured. Evaluation of efficacy (diary card data) was a secondary objective. A total of 155 patients (range, 2-6 years; 3 patients were 6 years old at randomization) were treated with the study drugs; 104 patients received bambuterol and 51 patients received terbutaline. Both treatments showed a good safety profile with respect to clinical and laboratory tests, and they were generally well tolerated. Reported adverse events were mild to moderate. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in any of the efficacy variables (diary variables: peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptoms, restlessness, other reported symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilators, and nighttime awakenings). For morning PEF, the mean increase from run-in to treatment was 16.9 L/min in the terbutaline group and 23.3 L/min in the bambuterol group. For evening PEF, the mean increase was 20.2 L/min in the terbutaline group and 20.6 L/min in the bambuterol group. In conclusion, once-daily bambuterol is as safe and effective as terbutaline given three times daily. The study also confirmed that bambuterol has a 24-hr duration of action, and therefore its once daily administration, makes it a preferred bronchodilator agent. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000

  15. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

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    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454

  16. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

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    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  17. Interracial contact and racial constancy: A multi-site study of racial intergroup bias in 3-5 year old Anglo-British children

    OpenAIRE

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative, valence attributions. Anglo-British children (N = 136) between 3 and 5 years of age with different levels of interracial contact undertook a racial stere...

  18. Interracial Contact and Racial Constancy: A Multi-Site Study of Racial Intergroup Bias in 3-5 Year Old Anglo-British Children

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    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative,…

  19. A cluster randomised trial to evaluate a physical activity intervention among 3-5 year old children attending long day care services: study protocol

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    Finch Meghan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children are not participating in recommended levels of physical activity and exhibit high levels of sedentary behaviour. Childcare services provide access to large numbers of young children for prolonged periods, yet there is limited experimental evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions implemented in this setting. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a multi-component physical activity intervention, delivered by childcare service staff, in increasing the physical activity levels of children attending long day care services. Methods/Design The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Three hundred children aged between 3-5 years from twenty randomly selected long day care services in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia will be invited to participate in the trial. Ten of the 20 long day care services will be randomly allocated to deliver the intervention with the remaining ten services allocated to a wait list control group. The physical activity intervention will consist of a number of strategies including: delivering structured fundamental movement skill activities, increasing physical activity opportunities, increasing staff role modelling, providing children with a physical activity promoting indoor and outdoor environment and limiting children's small screen recreation and sedentary behaviours. Intervention effectiveness will be measured via child physical activity levels during attendance at long day care. The study also seeks to determine the acceptability and extent of implementation of the intervention by services and their staff participating in the study. Discussion The trial will address current gaps in the research evidence base and contribute to the design and delivery of future interventions promoting physical activity for young children in long day care settings. Trial registration Australian New

  20. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

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    Lydian Veldhuis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582 and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82, and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55. Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood health.

  1. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children

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    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy...... population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual...... of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings...

  2. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

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    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  3. Storyline and Associations Pyramid as Methods of Creativity Enhancement: Comparison of Effectiveness in 5-Year-Old Children

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    Smogorzewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…

  4. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

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    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  5. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  6. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

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    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  7. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

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    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  8. Prescribing Analysis for 2–5 Years Old Children in Bandung During Year 2012

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    Ami A. Pratiwi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that irrational use of drugs will give medication errors effect or cause the unwanted side effects. The National Drug Policy (KONAS has developed drug policies that involve all stake-holders in Indonesia in order to minimize the irrational drug use. This study aims to analyze drug prescribing for 2–5 years old children in 14 pharmacies in Bandung during 2012. Approximately 2,195 prescription sheets from 14 pharmacies in Bandung were collected and analyzed by using prescribing indicators from the World Health Organization (WHO. We found an average number of 3.54 drugs in a prescription-sheet. We also found that 75% and 0% of all patients received antibiotics and injection, respectively. In particular, approximately 8% and 33% of all prescribed drugs were included in generic drug list and National List of Essential Medicines (DOEN, respectively. Based on data from the WHO and KONAS, it can be interpreted that the average number of drugs in a prescription-sheet is still high and the use of antibiotics is significantly higher compared to the use of antibiotics in other developing countries. Also, we summarized that the use of drugs according to generic drug list and DOEN are still low.

  9. Hyperventilation with cold versus dry air in 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim G; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Cold air challenge (CACh) has been shown to discriminate between children with asthma and healthy young children. Hyperventilation with dry room-temperature air is a simplified alternative. We compared responsiveness in young children with asthma between two standardized, single......-step protocols: dry air challenge (DACh) performed as 6 minutes of eucapnic hyperventilation with dry room-temperature air and CACh as 4 minutes of hyperventilation. Response was measured as specific airway resistance by whole-body plethysmography and expressed as change from baseline in numbers of within......-subject SDs (SDw). The challenge sequence was randomly assigned. A comparator challenge was performed 1 hour later if the first challenge gave a change of 3 SDw or more. Forty 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma were included. Responsiveness to cold versus dry air showed significant, but weak, correlation...

  10. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  11. A cluster randomised trial of a telephone-based intervention for parents to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in their 3- to 5-year-old children: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Amanda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption in childhood increases the risk of developing chronic disease. Despite this, a substantial proportion of children in developed nations, including Australia, do not consume sufficient quantities of fruits and vegetables. Parents are influential in the development of dietary habits of young children but often lack the necessary knowledge and skills to promote healthy eating in their children. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a telephone-based intervention for parents to increase the fruit and vegetable consumption of their 3- to 5-year-old children. Methods/Design The study, conducted in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia, employs a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Two hundred parents from 15 randomly selected preschools will be randomised to receive the intervention, which consists of print resources and four weekly 30-minute telephone support calls delivered by trained telephone interviewers. The calls will assist parents to increase the availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables in the home, create supportive family eating routines and role-model fruit and vegetable consumption. A further two hundred parents will be randomly allocated to the control group and will receive printed nutrition information only. The primary outcome of the trial will be the change in the child's consumption of fruit and vegetables as measured by the fruit and vegetable subscale of the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Pre-intervention and post-intervention parent surveys will be administered over the telephone. Baseline surveys will occur one to two weeks prior to intervention delivery, with follow-up data collection calls occurring two, six, 12 and 18 months following baseline data collection. Discussion If effective, this telephone-based intervention may represent a promising public health strategy to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in

  12. Auditory-Verbal Comprehension Development of 2-5 Year Old Normal Persian Speaking Children in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Understanding and defining developmental norms of auditory comprehension is a necessity for detecting auditory-verbal comprehension impairments in children. We hereby investigated lexical auditory development of Persian (Farsi speaking children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory comprehension of four 2-5 year old normal children of adult’s child-directed utterance at available nurseries was observed by researchers primarily to gain a great number of comprehendible words for the children of the same age. The words were classified into nouns, verbs and adjectives. Auditory-verbal comprehension task items were also considered in 2 sections of subordinates and superordinates auditory comprehension. Colored pictures were provided for each item. Thirty 2-5 year old normal children were randomly selected from nurseries all over Tehran. Children were tested by this task and subsequently, mean of their correct response were analyzed. Results: The findings revealed that there is a high positive correlation between auditory-verbal comprehension and age (r=0.804, p=0.001. Comparing children in 3 age groups of 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 year old, showed that subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension of the former group is significantly lower (p0.05, while the difference between subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension was significant in all age groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: Auditory-verbal comprehension develop much faster at lower than older ages and there is no prominent difference between word linguistic classes including nouns, verbs and adjectives. Slower development of superordinate auditory comprehension implies semantic hierarchical evolution of words.

  13. How do parents of 4- to 5-year-old children perceive the weight of their children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuis, H. G. M. Oude; Stolk, R. P.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A heavier weight in adults is becoming the norm rather than an abnormal weight. Whether the same trend is happening in children is unknown. Objective: To assess the perception of the weight of 4- to 5-year-old children and the recognition of overweight by both parents. Design:

  14. Association between estimated fluoride intake and dental caries prevalence among 5-year-old children in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Han-Na; Jun, Eun-Joo; Ha, Jung-Eun; Han, Dong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2015-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study were to estimate the fluoride intake from food and drink in 5-year-old Korean children, and to measure the association between estimated fluoride intake and dental caries prevalence. Methods The study involved a secondary analysis of raw data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES; 2007–2009). The study subjects were 167 boys and 147 girls aged 5 years who had undergone both physical and nutritional examination as par...

  15. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Vahidi A; Mohammad Torabinejad; Marayam Shamspour; Niloofar Golmohammadi; Mohammad Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in children and have a good prognosis. Many theories about the role of neurotransmitters and trace elements in serum and cerebrospinal fluid are introduced as the pathogenesis of febrile seizures. Among these elements, the element can be noted. The purpose of this study to comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without febrile and normal children. Methods...

  16. Dental Health Status in 3-5 Year Old Kindergarten Children in Tehran-Iran in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghandahari-Motlagh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Assessing oral hygiene in children plays an important role in determining the health status of communities and evaluating national health promotion programs. In 1997 in Geneva, international organizations agreed on the global goal of achieving a minimum of 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children.Purpose: This study was aimed to assess the oral health status in Iranian children.Materials and Methods: Among kindergarten children residing in the capital of Iran,Tehran, 400 children between the ages of three and five years were randomly selected and participated in this study. Their deciduous teeth were examined and the health index of dmft was determined for each child. The collected data were analyzed using the oneway ANOVA (with Tukey–Kramer multiple comparisons test for Post Hoc test, t test,and chi square test.Results: In this age group, only 48.3% of the children had no tooth decay. This information shows how far we are from accomplishing the aforementioned goal. A significant increase in tooth decay in these children was correlated with neglecting oral and dental hygiene, and also failing to brush the teeth regularly and wash the mouth after consuming sweets (P<0.001. Unfortunately, visits to dentists for regular checkups are not frequent enough, and dental caries was seen more in children who did not have regular visits than those who did (P<0.001.Conclusion: More accurate planning seems necessary to achieve 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children. More emphasis must be placed on prevention programs and educating public to observe dental hygiene by brushing the teeth regularly, washing the mouth after consuming sweets, and paying their dentists regular visits.

  17. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.;

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from......Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  18. Oral glucose retention, saliva viscosity and flow rate in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, M; Nakagaki, H; Tsuboi, S; Adachi, K; Hanaki, M; Tanaka, D; Takami, Y; Nakano, T; Kuwahara, M; Thuy, T T

    2000-11-01

    There are significant differences of glucose retention in site-specificity and individuals. Sixty-two 5-year-old nursery schoolchildren participated in this study on the relation between the viscosity of saliva and flow rate and glucose retention. Each child was instructed to rinse his/her mouth with a glucose solution (0.5 M, 5 ml) and then to spit out. Three minutes after rinsing, glucose retention was determined. Resting saliva was collected by a natural outflow method, then the flow rate was determined. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity. Glucose retention and flow rate were correlated at the left maxillary primary molars, and glucose retention and viscosity were correlated at the maxillary central primary incisors. It was concluded that glucose retention after glucose mouth rinsing was site-specific, and that glucose retention and the index of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) were slightly correlated with the salivary viscosity and flow rate. PMID:11000387

  19. Molecular and epidemiological study on among children under 5 years old in Nanjing%南京地区婴幼儿杯状病毒感染的分子流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓乐; 李丹地; 程卫霞; 谢广成; 高小倩; 孔桂平; 金玉; 段招军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the infected information,clinical symptom and molecular epidemiological characteristics of HuCV infection among children under 5 years old in Nanjing.Methods In Nanjing Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from July 2010 to June 2011,we collected 428 stool specimens from children with diarrhea and 428 asymptomatic controls.Human Calicivirus were tested by using RT-PCR.Then we sequenced the nucleic acid of PCR amplifications and identified the genotype and gene group of prevalent strains.Results 63 ( 14.72% ) out of 428 stool samples were detected as HuCV.58 were norovirus and 5 were sapovirus,while G Ⅱ -4 2006b was the predominant strain of NoV.In the 428 control samples,19 samples were positive for calicivirus,there were 8 NoV and 13 SaV (Including 3 coinfection cases).Conclusion Human caliciviruses with different genotypes circulated among children in Nanjing,and G Ⅱ.2006b is the dominant genotype.%目的 了解南京地区婴幼儿杯状病毒腹泻的感染状况、临床表现以及分子流行病学特征.方法 采集2010年7月至2011年6月南京医科大学附属南京儿童医院5岁以下腹泻患儿粪便标本及儿童保健中心健康婴幼儿粪便标本各428份.采用反转录-聚合酶链反应( RT-PCR)检测杯状病毒,测序确定其基因型别.结果 428份腹泻样本中有63份为杯状病毒阳性,检出率为14.72%.其中诺如病毒GⅡ型58例,未检出诺如病毒GⅠ型,札如病毒5例,以诺如病毒GⅡ-4 2006b型为主要流行株.428份健康对照组标本杯状病毒检出19例,诺如病毒6例,札如病毒11例,2例为诺如病毒GⅡ型和札如病毒混合感染.结论 南京地区婴幼儿中存在不同基因型杯状病毒感染,流行毒株以GⅡ.2006b为主.

  20. Molecularly assessed shifts of Bifidobacterium spp. and less diverse microbial communities are characteristic of 5-year-old allergic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stsepetova, J.; Sepp, E.; Julge, K.; Vaughan, E.E.; Mikelsaar, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The composition of intestinal microbiota and the Bifidobacterium group community in 20 allergic and 20 nonallergic 5-year-old children was visualized by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The number of dominant bands in the DGGE profiles was smaller in allergic children than in nona

  1. Dental caries and their treatment needs in 3-5 year old preschool children in a Rural District of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01. Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.

  2. Cross-sectional study on oral health behaviors among children aged 5-year old in Mianyang City,Sichuan%四川省绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申洋; 刘凡; 蒋莹; 曾庆奇; 常春; 王燕玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康现状,为进一步开展口腔健康教育提供参考依据。方法采用多阶段抽样的方法,抽取绵阳市3所幼儿园285名5岁儿童家长,参照《全国第三次口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中5岁儿童家长问卷对儿童家长进行调查。结果家长对于“窝沟封闭能预防儿童龋齿”的知晓率为11.6%,口腔知识主要来源是电视/广播(64.9%)和报纸/杂志(55.4%);90.2%的家长认同“保护孩子六龄牙很重要”;每天进食含糖食品的儿童为69.0%,75.8%儿童曾有睡前吃甜食行为;3岁以前开始刷牙的儿童占73.0%,每天帮助孩子刷牙和检查刷牙效果的家长占18.6%和19.6%;75.8%的儿童过去1年未进行任何口腔检查,其中46.7%的家长认为儿童牙齿没问题,不需要检查;最近一次口腔就诊的主要原因是急、慢性牙痛,定期检查牙齿的仅占4.2%;知识得分与态度得分之间存在正相关(r =0.285),同行为得分之间存在正相关(r =0.213)。结论绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康行为有待改善,虽然多数儿童家长有较好的口腔健康态度和一定的口腔健康知识,但是转化为实际行动的能力较弱,仍需有针对性的开展健康促进活动,以使儿童形成正确的口腔卫生行为。%Objective To understand the oral health behaviors status among children aged 5-year old in Mianyang city,and provide evidence for further implementing oral health education.Methods Using multistage sampling,285 par-ents of children aged 5-year old were selected in Mianyang city according to 3rd Chinese national oral health investigation cri-teria and children’s oral health behaviors were investigated by questionnaire.Results The awareness rate of parents’for‘Dental sealant could prevent caries for children’ was 11.6%,the main sources of oral knowledge were TV /radio (64.9%),newspaper

  3. The Prevalence of Dental Caries in Primary Dentition in 4- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children in Northern Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Azizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the prevalence of dental caries among a representative sample of preschool children (4-5 years old who were accompanied by their parents to the dental centre of the Arab American University in Jenin whether they come seeking dental treatment or as visitors with adult patients. Materials and Methods. 1376 children of both sexes were investigated by three calibrated and trained examiners for dental caries using the dmft index according to the WHO method. Results. 76% of the studied children have already experienced dental caries at the age of 4-5 years (1046 children. The mean dmft score was found to be 2.46 while the other 24% of children were caries-free. There was no significant difference in caries prevalence between boys and girls (77.2% versus 74.6%. Children of highly educated and college graduated mothers were found to have more fillings (restored teeth in comparison to those who belong to mothers who did not finish their secondary (high school education. Conclusion. The number of caries-free children in northern Palestine is still far from numbers found in developed countries. There is a real need to make improvements at the level of parents dental health education, application of preventive measures, and dietary habits among preschool children.

  4. Study on sleep habit among Guiyang City 0 ~ 5 years old children%贵阳市城区0~5岁儿童睡眠习惯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺赞群; 邓冰; 孙袁; 王秀荣; 陈丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the main existing sleep habit among Guiyang city 0 ~5 years old children.Methods:1 869 children aged 0 ~ 5 years were selected by stratified random sampling from Guiyang.All the participants'parents were surveyed with questionnaire by front to front.All collected data were analyzed with SPSS statistical software.Results:The main existing problems in sleep habits were as followed:there were 73.8% children cosleeped with their parents,31.1% children needed consolation.Conclusion:Sleeping with their parents is the main bed way of children sleep of Guiyang city,and sleeping in the bed with relative comfort behavior before sleep alone has more dangerous.Therefore,parents should master correct bed way,create a relatively independent and quiet space for their infant,lay the foundation for children’s sleep alone.%目的:了解贵阳市城区0~5岁儿童睡眠习惯的发生现状,以便引起有关卫生部门的重视.方法:采用分层抽样法抽取贵阳市城区1 869名0~5岁儿童作为研究对象,采用统一问卷对受试儿童家长进行现场调查,应用SPSS 17.0统计软件包进行统计学分析.结果:有73.8%的儿童与家人同睡一床,13.7%的儿童与家人同房但不同床睡眠,12.5%的儿童单独睡眠.不同年龄段儿童在睡床习惯上有统计学意义.有31.1%的儿童在夜间睡前需要安慰物.结论:同床睡眠是目前贵阳市城区儿童睡眠的主要睡床方式,且同床睡眠在睡前安慰行为上相对单独睡眠有更大的危险性.因此,父母应该掌握正确的睡床方式,给婴幼儿创造了一个相对独立的、安静的睡眠空间,为其过渡到单独睡眠奠定基础.

  5. [Life style of children and obesity in a population of 5-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Munoz, F; Miginiac, M; Billette, A; Rey, S

    1992-01-01

    The increasing level of childhood obesity has prompted some research into the early risk factors likely to lead to preventive measures. A case-control study was conducted of a five year-old population in the Rhône and Isère administrative "départements" of France during the children's first visit to primary school, with the participation of 327 obese children and 704 controls. Anthropometric data on the children since birth, together with data on their lifestyles, were collected in interviews with parents. "Family obesity" and "obesity at birth" were found to be closely related to the child's obesity at five years old (adjusted OR = 2.7 and 2.1 respectively). Of the environmental factors, the hypothesis tested paid specific attention to television viewing, snacks between meals and lack of sleep. These three variables were all found to be risk factors of obesity at five years old. However after allowing for parental obesity, the only remaining significant risk factor for obesity at five was lack of sleep (adjusted OR = 1.4). The pathogenic assumptions raised by these results are discussed.

  6. Narrative Comprehension Skills in 5-Year-Old Children: Correlational Analysis and Comprehender Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether a variety of cognitive and linguistic factors theoretically considered to be predictive of reading comprehension skills in elementary school children were also predictive of listening comprehension skills in 131 five-year-old children. The results showed that the predictors of young children's listening…

  7. 3677例5岁以下儿童死亡原因分析%Analysis of death dauses and study on the intervention measures in children under 5 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓茹

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析山东省枣庄市5岁以下儿童死亡情况、死亡原因及动态变化,为政府部门决策提供依据.方法 对2002至2009年枣庄市5岁以下儿童死亡资料进行统计分析.结果 2002至2009年枣庄市共计出生活产婴儿307 238例,5岁以下儿童死亡3677例,死亡率为11.97‰.婴儿死亡3338例,死亡率为10.86‰,占5岁以下儿童总数的90.78%其中新生儿死亡2665例,死亡率为8.67‰,占婴儿死亡总数的79.84%;1-5岁儿童死亡339例,死亡率为1.10‰,占5岁以下儿童死亡总数的9.22%.不同年龄儿童死亡率差异有统计学意义(x2=2358.90,P<0.05).分别统计各年度不同阶段儿童死亡率,均呈逐年下降趋势,其中5岁以下儿童死亡率(x2=512.93,P<0.05)、婴儿死亡率(x2=491.73,P<0.05)、新生儿死亡率(x2=422.40,P<0.05)、1~5岁儿童死亡率(x2=34.38,P<0.05),均有统计学意义.男童死亡率为11.02‰(1847/165738),女童死亡率为13.10‰(1830/137823),男女死亡率差异有统计学意义(x2=27.94,P<0.05).因抢救无效在医院内死亡者3143例,占85.48%;在家中或就医途中死亡者534例,占14.52%.死因前7位依次为早产或低出生体重、出生窒息、肺炎、其他先天畸形、意外死亡、先天性心脏病和颅内出血,前3位死因致死人数占总死亡人数的59.11%(2174/3677).结论 早产或低出生体重、出生窒息和肺炎是导致5岁以下儿童死亡的主要原因.2002年至2009年枣庄市5岁以下儿童死亡率逐年下降.建立健全妇幼保健三级网络、加强围产期保健、提高产科技术水平、提高危重患者急救能力、普及科学知识和健康教育知识等是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.%Objective To analyze the death materials, death causes and their dynamic change in children under 5 years old in Zaozhuang City during 2002-2009. Methods Cases of death in children under 5 years old during 2002-2009 in Zaozhuang City were collected and analyzed. Results The

  8. Energy balance-related behavioural patterns in 5-year-old children and the longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Stafleu, A.; Thijs, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examined clustering of dietary intake and activity behaviours (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association with BMI and overweight development. Design Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to i

  9. Consistency of sensory testing with 4- and 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Rank-order and paired comparison tests are widely used methods to assess sensory perception of young children. Small age differences could, however, influence the ability of children to carry out such tasks. This study compared rank-order and paired comparison tests for consistency in 4- and 5-year-

  10. Recognition of Chord Changes by 4- and 5-Year-Old American and Argentine Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of young children's abilities to discriminate between two chords played as the accompaniment of a melody and played alone with no melody. Finds that age, type of stimulus, and the interaction of these two variables affected children's performance significantly. (CFR)

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN PENIS LENGTH AND ANTHOPOMETRY OF 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Doddy Kurnia Indrawan; Bikin Suryawan; Lanang Sidiartha; Arimbawa *

    2013-01-01

    Short penis still a problem for parents. Penis lenght is associated with  weight and considered abnormal in obese children. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between penis length and the anthropometry children aged 5 years. A cross sectional study was conducted, at the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, Medical Faculty of Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during October 2010, at TK Sayang Ibu Sanglah Hospital. The calculation of the sam...

  12. A Multidimensional Scaling Study of Visual Memory of 5-Year Olds and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabie, Phipps; And Others

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of memory development using nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Judgments of similarities between complex objects were obtained from 5-year-olds and adults under two conditions: (1) when objects were simultaneously present at the time of comparison, and (2) when the objects were not simultaneously present and had to be compared on…

  13. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhuis Lydian; Struijk Mirjam K; Kroeze Willemieke; Oenema Anke; Renders Carry M; Bulk-Bunschoten Anneke MW; HiraSing Remy A; Raat Hein

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised with...

  14. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Its Anemia in 1-5 Years Old Children and Their Mothers in Birjand City

    OpenAIRE

    Azita Fesharakinia

    2014-01-01

    Background &Objective: Micronutrient deficiencies are the most common nutritional disorders in the world in which iron deficiency is the most important one. This study was done for investigating the prevalence of iron deficiency and its anemia in children and their mothers in Birjand city in 2011.Materials & Methods: 143 children of 1-5 years old who referred to the health care centers of Birjand city were chosen by multistage cluster random sampling method and both the children and mothers w...

  15. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz;

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parall...

  16. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace S. Marquis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011 was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1 randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2 non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3 prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4 prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies, 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies, 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status, and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status. This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt.

  17. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  18. Improving Executive Function in childhood: Evaluation of a training intervention for 5- year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eTraverso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for five-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility. The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted one month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  19. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Bernard; Joëlle Proust; Fabrice Clément

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated ...

  20. Fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as indicators of fat intake in 5-year-old children in the STRIP project

    OpenAIRE

    Hagström, Hanna; Jokinen, Eero; Seppänen, Ritva; Salo, Pia; Viikari, Jorma; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Helenius, Hans; Simell, Olli

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between dietary fat composition and the proportion of fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as biomarkers of previous dietary fat quality in 5-year-old children. Using 4-consecutive-day food records, the food consumption of half (n=50) of a group of randomly selected children who are participating in a prospective randomized coronary risk factor intervention project (STRIP; n=1062 at recruitment at 7 months of age) was estim...

  1. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  2. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  3. Evaluation of the relationship between milk consumption and dental caries in 3-5 years old children in Ray city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mahmodian

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, Tooth decay is still one of the most significant problems in human communities. Tooth decay is defined as a microbial disease that causes demineralization of hard tissues and degradation of organic components of teeth. Although there are various theories on etiology of dental caries, Miller’s acidogenic theory (1890 and Gottileb’s proteolitic theory (1933 have gained the most credibility among the others. In general, status and amount of saliva, oral hygiene, tooth structure, type and quantity of microorganisms and diet are the most important factors that can lead to tooth decay. Since the manner and type of child nutrition during infancy is considered as a significant factor in development and progression of dental caries and also there has not been published any research on this subject in Iran yet, this study was designed and carried out to find the association between the type of milk intake in infancy and the rate of dental caries in 3-5 year old children.

  4. Development of Phonological Sensitivity in 2- to 5-Year- Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.; Anthony, Jason L.; Barker, Theodore A.

    1998-01-01

    Phonological sensitivity was examined in 238 children ages two to five years from middle-to-upper-income families and 118 children from lower-income families across different levels of linguistic complexity. Overall, results indicated an increase in phonological sensitivity with age, as well as increasing stability and significant social class…

  5. Prevalence of obesity among 2- 5 years old children of Amritsar: A comparison of three criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Kaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study of 1879 subjects (949 boys and 930 girls to define the prevalence of overweight and obesity using three reference standards. The study involved affluent preschool children (2-5 years of age from six crèches, fifteen play-pen and three public schools of Amritsar city. Weight and height was obtained for each child and body mass index was calculated according to the formula weight (kg/ height (m². The prevalence of overweight and obesity was then determined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF and World Health Organization (WHO standards. All three methods gave different results. The present study revealed that WHO standards gave higher estimates of overweight and obesity while IOTF gave lower estimates. The level of agreement (k=0.94 between the WHO and CDC standards was higher. The prevalence of childhood obesity is dependent on the growth reference used.

  6. English Speech Acquisition in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Learning Russian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Wright, Kira L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition in Russian-English (RE) bilingual children was investigated, exploring the effects of Russian phonetic and phonological properties on English single-word productions. Russian has more complex consonants and clusters and a smaller vowel inventory than English. Method: One hundred thirty-seven single-word samples…

  7. Physical activity in light of affordances in outdoor environments: qualitative observation studies of 3-5 years olds in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.

  8. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be active, eat right" study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); I. Vogel (Ineke); L. van Rossem (Lenie); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIt is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among

  9. Growth decelerations among under-5-year-old children in Kasongo (Zaire). II. Relationship with subsequent risk of dying, and operational consequences

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between growth decelerations (in terms of various anthropometric parameters) and death occurring during the subsequent 100 days was studied among under-5-year-old children in Kasongo, Zaire. A significant association, more pronounced for large decelerations, was demonstrated for some anthropometric parameters. The observations provide support for the hypothesis that the frequency of stress due to malnutrition and infection party explains the high mortality. Although the assoc...

  10. A Comparison between Morphological and Syntactic Features of 4 to 5 Years Old in Education Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired and Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Golpour; Dr. Reza Nilipour; Dr. Belghais Roshan

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: Learning Language is a skill which is acquired in early childhood. So, language gradually developed and new words and new structures slowly added to language knowledge. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for of language and hearing disorder is a barrier for natural language acquiring .The purpose of this study is comparison between morphological and syntactic features of 4 to 5 years old severe to profound hearing impaired and normal children. Materials and Me...

  11. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Its Anemia in 1-5 Years Old Children and Their Mothers in Birjand City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Fesharakinia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Micronutrient deficiencies are the most common nutritional disorders in the world in which iron deficiency is the most important one. This study was done for investigating the prevalence of iron deficiency and its anemia in children and their mothers in Birjand city in 2011.Materials & Methods: 143 children of 1-5 years old who referred to the health care centers of Birjand city were chosen by multistage cluster random sampling method and both the children and mothers were studied. After filling the questionnaire about demographic characteristics of children and mothers, the hemoglobin and ferritin of both children and their mothers were measured.Results: 12.6 % of the children and 16.1% of the mothers had iron deficiency, 16.8 % of children and 15.4 % of mothers had iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in both children and mothers was significantly higher especially among working mothers. Both children’s iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia had a significant and direct relation with mother’s iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.Conclusion: It is recommended to elevate the awareness of mothers, especially the working ones about the danger of iron deficiency and its anemia in their children and themselves, educate them about the correct nutritional habits for their family and themselves, screen the children of 1-5 years old for iron deficiency and its anemia and also investigate mothers’ children with iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

  12. The Effect of Parental Presence on the 5 year-Old Childrens Anxiety and Cooperative Behavior in the First and Second Dental Visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsa Paryab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:One of the most significant problems in pediatric dentistry is behavioral resistance of preschool children in the first visit. There is a debate on parental presence in operation room. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Iranian 5-year-old childrens behavior including anxiety and cooperation relative to parental presence in the first and second dental appointments. Methods:The study was conducted on sixty seven 5-year-old children selected according to inclusion criteria and randomly divided into two subgroups. Children in group I were visited in parents presence and in group II in parents absence. Before the childs first dental visit, parents were interviewed. Forty eight of the children receiving the initial examination were recalled for a second visit. The childrens responses during the Holst procedure of the first visit and restorative second visit were assessed using a combination of two measures including heart rate and clinical behavior. The dentist-patient interactions were regulated by standardized scripts and recorded on videotape. Then, the behavior of the child on the recording during each visit was quantified by two pediatric dentists independently according to Venham 6-point rating scale and Frankle 4-point rating scale. Findings:There were no significant differences between the heart rate measures of children in group I and II in the first and second visit (0.67, 0.8 respectively. There were also no significant differences between the clinical anxiety scores of children in the two groups in the first and second visit (0.98, 0.42 respectively. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the clinical cooperation scores of children in group I and group II in the first and second visit (0.88, 0.40 respectively, neither were there any significant differences between response measures of each child between two visits (P>0.05. In addition, there were no significant differences related to sex, parental

  13. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  14. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.

  15. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  16. Is Motor Performance in 5.5-Year-Old Children Associated with the Presence of Generalized Joint Hypermobility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.M. de; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Scheper, M.C.; Sanden, M.W. van der; Engelbert, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) in Dutch children aged 5.5 years, and to examine the association between GJH and motor performance and development over time. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort of 249 children was recruited. GJH was assessed with the Be

  17. A Comparison between Morphological and Syntactic Features of 4 to 5 Years Old in Education Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Golpour

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning Language is a skill which is acquired in early childhood. So, language gradually developed and new words and new structures slowly added to language knowledge. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for of language and hearing disorder is a barrier for natural language acquiring .The purpose of this study is comparison between morphological and syntactic features of 4 to 5 years old severe to profound hearing impaired and normal children. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study performed on 10 normal-hearing children with mean age of 4-5, from Gazvin kindergartens and 10 hearing impaired children with similar IQ and age from Nioosha Rehabilitation Center. The language and non language information was received by spontaneous and descriptive speech, and questionnaire, respectively and for comparing syntax comprehension, Specific language impairment test was used. Then these results were compared between two groups. Results: Difference between spontaneous speech and descriptive speech in hearing impaired child is just like normal child. These differences are that the number of utterance, the mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme in spontaneous speech is greater than descriptive speech but the mean length of utterance and richness of vocabulary in descriptive speech is greater than spontaneous speech. Mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme and richness of vocabulary related to morphological part and the number of utterance, the mean length of utterance and syntax comprehension related to syntax, in spontaneous and descriptive speech of normal children speech is greater than hearing impaireds`. Conclusion: According to recent researches, compared with normal child, the hearing impaired child nearly never to reach equal level, and for this reason, training for this group is necessary. It is concluded that although these children have severe to profound hearing loss they are developing their

  18. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children's construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Sandra R; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children's reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children's reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds' reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children's books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children's books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children's attention to a biological model.

  19. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders Among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan C.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n=476) with prenatal drug exposures documented by maternal interview, urine and meconium assays. Study participants included 400 African-American children from the birth cohort, 208 cocaine-exposed (CE) and 192 non-cocaine-exposed (NCE) who attended a 5-year follow-up assessment and whose caregiver completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Under a generalized linear model (logistic link), Fisher’s exact methods were used to estimate the CE-associated relative risk (RR) of these disorders. Results indicated a modest but statistically robust elevation of ADHD risk associated with increasing levels of PCE (pEstimated cumulative incidence proportions among CE children were 2.9% for ADHD (vs 3.1% NCE); 1.4% for SAD (vs 1.6% NCE); and 4.3% for ODD (vs 6.8% NCE). Findings offer suggestive evidence of increased risk of ADHD (but not ODD or SAD) in relation to an increasing gradient of PCE during gestation.

  20. Associations between sport and screen-entertainment with mental health problems in 5-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezateux Carol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the benefits of regular physical activity, and risks of sedentary behaviour, in young children. This study investigated associations between participation in sports and screen-entertainment (as components of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and emotional and behavioural problems in this population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from 13470 children (50.9% boys participating in the nationally representative UK Millennium Cohort Study. Time spent participating in sports clubs outside of school, and using screen-entertainment, was reported by the child's mother at child age 5 years, when mental health was also measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results 45% of children did not participate in sport clubs and 61% used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day. Children who participated in sport had fewer total difficulties; emotional, conduct, hyperactivity-inattention and peer relationship problems; and more prosocial behaviours. These relationships were similar in boys and girls. Boys and girls who used screen-entertainment for any duration, and participated in sport, had fewer emotional and behavioural problems, and more prosocial behaviours, than children who used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day and did not participate in sport. Conclusions Longer durations of screen-entertainment usage are not associated with mental health problems in young children. However, our findings suggest an association between sport and better mental health. Further research based on longitudinal data is required to examine causal pathways in these associations and to determine the potential role of this and other forms of physical activity in preventing mental health disorders.

  1. Evaluation of Symmetrical or Asymmetrical Pattern of Nursing Caries in 3-5 Year-Old Children at Kindergartens in Tehran During 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Pourtalebi Firozabadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nursing Caries (NC is a destructive form of caries because of incorrect nutritional habits in infants that affects deciduous teeth after eruption. Familiarity with the pattern of this type of caries and evaluation of its symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern is necessary for effective and scientific diagnosis and treatment. The aim was to assess the symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects of Nursing Caries in children between3-5 years old.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 kindergartens were randomly selected by the TehranWelfare Organization. 115 children with NC caries entered to study after examination. Written consents were obtained from the parents. The dmfs in upper primary incisors and upper and lower primary canines, as well as the first primary molars were assessed and the caries pattern in terms of symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects wasevaluated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD, Chi-square and Fisher tests.Results: In 53.9% of the children with NC, the anterior teeth were affected symmetrically, while 46.1% indicated an asymmetrical pattern. In general, 32.2% of the teeth were affected in a symmetrical pattern and 67.8% of them in an asymmetrical pattern. About the relationship between the breastfeeding from the right or left breast and the symmetrical pattern of the NC, 51% of the children were equally breastfed from both breasts. However, in the asymmetrical NC pattern with more impact in the right side of dentition, 50% of the children had been breastfed from the left side and in children with more caries in the left side of dentition, 50% of them had been breastfed rom the right side (P=0.01.Conclusion: NC has symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns. Direction of mother for breastfeeding affects the symmetrical and asymmetrical pattern of NC.

  2. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihuoma U. Eneli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI, an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1, development of the FDI content (Study 2, and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3. Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges’ g greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57% of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges’ g≥0.8 occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child’s intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p<0.01 and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p<0.001. The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child’s eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.

  3. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Landrø, Nils Inge;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Underbjerg M, Kesmodel U, Landrø N, Bakketeig L, Grove J, Wimberley T, Kilburn T, Svaerke C, Thorsen P, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children. BJOG...... consumption, age, body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures  TEACh-5 attention scores. Results  There were no significant effects on test performance in children of mothers...

  4. Cultural Difference in Conflict Management Strategies of Children and Its Development: Comparing 3- and 5-Year-Olds across China, Japan, and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which…

  5. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldhuis Lydian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised within 9 Municipal Health Services. The teams are randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The teams measure the weight and height of all children. When a child in the intervention group is detected with overweight according to the international age and gender specific cut-off points of BMI, the prevention protocol is applied. According to this protocol parents of overweight children are invited for up to three counselling sessions during which they receive personal advice about a healthy lifestyle, and are motivated for and assisted in behavioural change. The primary outcome measures are Body Mass Index and waist circumference of the children. Parents will complete questionnaires to assess secondary outcome measures: levels of overweight inducing/reducing behaviours (i.e. being physically active, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages and watching television/playing computer games, parenting styles, parenting practices, and attitudes of parents regarding these behaviours, health-related quality of life of the children, and possible negative side effects of the prevention protocol. Data will be collected at baseline (when the children are aged 5 years, and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Additionally, a process and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted. Discussion In this study called 'Be active, eat right' we evaluate an overweight prevention protocol for use in the setting of Youth Health Care. It is hypothesized that the

  6. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2-and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, L. K.; de Pijper, J. J.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Stolk, R. P.; Corpeleijn, E.

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of

  7. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

  8. Teachers of young children (3-5 years old and their interaction with pupils: approaching positive classroom management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryni Paraskevopoulou

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the social and emotional development of children between three to five years old, the factors that affect their in-school behaviour and strategies for positive teacher classroom management. It is suggested that teachers need to reflect upon children’s development in order for an effective classroom management to be achieved. Aspects of teachers’ expectations about interaction between children and teachers will also be exemplified. Literature research was employed as a method to explore the relevant issues.

  9. Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 3-to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Ongering, Eva C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The increasing rate of overweight and obesity is alarming. The complications of overweight and obesity at a young age are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese children aged 3-5 years.

  10. A case control study on the risk factors of viral diarrhea in children below 5 years old%5岁以下婴幼儿病毒性腹泻的危险因素配对病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 霍翔; 祖荣强; 李亮; 汤奋扬; 朱凤才; 羊海涛; 汪华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors of viral diarrhea among children below 5 years old. Methods:A case-control study was conducted on two groupe of children matched by sex, age with or without viral diarrhea from hospitals in Xuzhou and Zhenjiang area. The pathogen of diarrhea was confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. Interview was carried out with uniform designed questionnaires. Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis was then performed. Results:Factors that were independently associated with the development of viral diarrhea, would include children's address, weight, parents' Schooling and profession, washing-up sink in kitchen, cutting cooked and uncooked foods by different kitchen knife and target, raising pets, cooker washing hands before cook, the children contacting animals and taking antibiotics one week ago before diarrhea. Anamnesis and rotavims vaccine inoculation were not found associating with viral diarrhea. Multivariate logistic regression model was then fitted with three variables, including washing-up sink in kitchen, cutting cooked and uncooked foods by different kitchen knife and target, taking antibiotics one week ago before diarrhea. The 95% CI of OR was 0.340~0.852, 0.295~0.705 and 2.153~6.227 separately. Conclusion:The risk of viral diarrhea increased with worse hygienic habits and antibiotics taken.%目的:探讨5岁以下婴幼儿病毒性腹泻的危险因素.方法:采用性别、年龄匹配的1:2配对病例对照研究,对江苏省徐州、镇江市县级医疗机构2007年10月至2008年10月收治的5岁以下腹泻儿童500例和对照儿童1 000例进行问卷调查.腹泻的病原体采用酶联免疫吸附剂测定(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)或反转录PCR(reverse transcription-PCR,RT-PCR)进行检测确认.数据采用Cox比例风险模型拟合Logistic回归.结果:单因素分析显示病毒性腹泻患儿的城乡差异、父母受教育程度、职业、家庭饮食卫生(包括厨

  11. Study on relationship between subclinical vitamin A deficiency and anemia in children under 5 years old with respiratory infection and its precautions%5岁以下儿童维生素A亚临床缺乏与贫血和呼吸道感染的关系及预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽梅; 李伟英

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨5岁以下儿童维生素A亚临床缺乏与贫血及呼吸道疾病之间的关系及相关的预防措施。方法选取2013年1~11月期间收治的儿童100例,其中50例存在维生素A亚临床缺乏,50例无维生素A亚临床缺乏。比较两组儿童的基本资料、贫血发生情况、呼吸道感染发生情况以及各项血常规指标。结果维生素A亚临床缺乏患儿发生贫血及呼吸道感染几率明显增加,其血常规检查发现血红蛋白、转铁蛋白、淋巴细胞计数、炎症因子白介素1( IL-1)、免疫球蛋白IgG均较正常者降低。结论维生素A亚临床缺乏具有隐匿性,使患儿易贫血和呼吸道感染,补充维生素A,膳食平衡,定期体检是预防维生素A亚临床缺乏的重要途径。%Objective To explore the relationship between anemia and respiratory diseases in children under 5 years old with subclinical vitamin A deficiency and related preventive measures in order to guide the measures for clinical prevention and treatment. Methods A total of 100 cases including 50 cases with subclinical vitamin A deficiency and 50 cases without the presence of subclinical deficiency in this hospital during January to November,2013 were selected for this study,and the basic data including incidence rates of anemia and respiratory tract infection and blood routine indices in these children of these two groups were compared. Results The rates of subclinical anemia and respiratory tract infection in children with vitamin A deficiency were significantly increased,the blood routine examination found that levels of hemoglobin,transferrin,lym-phocyte count,inflammatory factor IL-1 and immunoglobulin IgG were lower than those of normal children. Conclusion The subclinical defi-ciency of vitamin A is occult,usually with anemia and respiratory tract infection. The supplementation of vitamin A,balanced diet and regular physical examination are important ways to prevent subclinical

  12. Prevalencia de desnutrición en menores de cinco años de Tabasco Malnutrition prevalence in children under 5 years old in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio G. Lastra-Escudero

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la prevalencia de desnutrición que se presentó en niños tabasqueños menores de cinco años en 1996, y su evolución entre 1991 y 1996. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal que incluyó a 1 256 niños de 593 comunidades (31 urbanas y 562 rurales de los 17 municipios de Tabasco. Resultados. El indicador peso/edad registró 41% de prevalencia de desnutrición, distribuida en leve (26.12%, moderada (12.62% y severa (2.39%. En niños de entre 1 y 5 años la prevalencia de desnutrición fue de 45%. Conclusiones. De 1991 a 1996 la cifra de niños con desnutrición ha disminuido proporcionalmente al incremento de la nutrición normal. Asimismo, han disminuido de seis a cuatro los municipios con indicadores críticos de desnutrición, con base en las acciones del sector salud en el estado de Tabasco.Objective. To evaluate malnutrition prevalence in children under five years-old in Tabasco, Mexico, during 1996, and their evolution in 1991-1996. Material and methods. A cross-sectional study, including 1 256 children under five years-old in 593 communities (31 urban and 562 rural from 17 sanitary districts. Results. The weight/age indicator for malnutrition in children under five years old showed 59% of children had normal nutrition and 41% with malnutrition, distributed as follows: 26.12% slight, 12.62% moderate and 2.39% severe. In children between 1-5 years old, malnutrition prevalence was 45%. Conclusions. The number of children with malnutrition in Tabasco during the study period (1991-1996 has decreased in proportion to the increase of those with normal nutrition. Based on the health system activities, the number of health districts with critical malnutrition indicators decreased from 6 to 4.

  13. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors in 5-year-old children: Lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubbels Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA and sedentary screen-based behavior in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association of these patterns with weight status (BMI and overweight development up to age 8. Methods Data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (N = 2074 at age 5. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Backward regression analyses were used to examine the association of lifestyle patterns with parent and child background characteristics, as well as the longitudinal associations between the patterns and weight status development. Results Four lifestyle patterns emerged from the PCA: a ‘Television–Snacking’ pattern, a ‘Sports–Computer’ pattern, a ‘Traditional Family’ pattern, and a “Fast’ Food’ pattern. Child gender and parental educational level, working hours and body mass index were significantly associated with the scores for the patterns. The Television–Snacking pattern was positively associated with BMI (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.05; p p = 0.06. In addition, the Sports–Computer pattern was significantly positively associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight at age 7 (OR = 1.28, p  Conclusions The current study showed the added value of including eating routines in cross-behavioral clustering analyses. The findings indicate that future interventions to prevent childhood overweight should address eating routines and activity/inactivity simultaneously, using the synergy between clustered behaviors (e.g. between television viewing and snacking.

  14. Hypomineralized second primary molars: Prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; Schuller, A.A.; Weerheijm, K.L.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  15. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T.; Huss, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Background A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we

  16. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  17. Analysis and preventive measures for the death of children under 5 years old in panyu district%番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析与预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伦能

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To know the current death situation and the change of children under 5 years old in Panyu, and study the measures of decreasing the children mortality. [Method] The death information of children under 5 years old in Panyu during 2007-2010 were analyzed. [Results] The mortality rate of children under 5 years old was 5.83%, 43. 18%of them were neonates, 70. 62% of them were infants; The male children mortality were higher than female children; The mortality rate of children in floating population was significantly higher than that of inhabitant; Top 3 causes of were accidental death.congenital malformation and premature low birth weight; 24.19% of them death without treatment. [Conclusions] The key to reduce the death rate of children under 5 years old is to reduce the death of infant and neonates, especially the care of floating population. It is important to preventing the accidental death and congenital malformation.%[目的]了解番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及变化情况,为制定降低5岁以下儿童死亡的措施提供依据.[方法]对番禺区2007-2010年5岁以下儿童死亡进行回顾分析.[结果]4年来,番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡率平均为5.83‰;新生儿死亡、婴儿死亡分别占5岁以下儿童死亡的43.18%和70.62%;男童死亡率大于女童,流动人口儿童死亡率大于常住人口儿童死亡率;意外死亡、先天畸形、早产低出生体重是5岁以下儿童主要死因;仍有24.19%的儿童死前未接受治疗.[结论]降低婴儿、新生儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键,预防儿童意外死亡和降低出生缺陷率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的当务之急,进一步加强对流动人口的保健管理.

  18. Study on effects of eating behaviors intervention for 3 -5 years old children in Beijing and Shanghai%北京和上海3~5岁儿童饮食行为干预效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽莉; 张红梅; 赖建强; 邹淑荣; 董文兰; 杨静; 杨青俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 为改善北京和上海3~5岁儿童的不健康饮食行为及其父母的营养相关知识和态度,采用多途径健康教育进行干预,并对干预效果进行评估.方法 采用多阶段随机整群抽样的方法,从北京、上海各选取810名3~5岁儿童及其家长作为研究对象,根据《中国居民膳食指南》(2007)和《中国孕期、哺乳期妇女以及0-6岁儿童膳食指南》(2007)开展为期6个月的健康教育干预,采用问卷调查的方法分别在干预前后收集儿童饮食行为及其父母营养相关知识、态度等信息.结果 干预后,北京和上海3~5岁儿童偏食、喝含糖饮料的人数比例分别从干预前的44.5%和70.4%降低到35.5%和31.7%,有固定进餐时间、地点、可独立进餐、吃饭定时定量、能专心吃饭的儿童比例分别由干预前的80.0%、87.3%、73.4%、32.1%和27.1%升高到91.7%、91.9%、83.7%、45.9%和41.2%;干预后,儿童父母营养知识的知晓率显著提高,对待儿童饮食行为的态度也有所改善.结论 通过健康教育干预,改善了儿童的不健康饮食行为,丰富了儿童家长的营养知识,改善了其对儿童的饮食行为态度,为其正确指导儿童健康饮食提供了理论基础.%Objective To improve the unhealthy eating behaviors in 3 - 5 years old children and enrich the nutrition knowledge of their parents by the multi-channel health education intervention, and evaluate the effects of intervention. Methods By random multi-stage cluster sampling, 810 children (3-5 years old) and their parents were selected from Beijing and Shanghai respectively. The period of intervention was 6 months. Questionnaire surveys about children' s eating behavior and the knowledge of their parents were conducted before and after the intervention. Results After the intervention, the proportion of partial eclipse and drinking beverage declined from 44. 5% and 70. 4% to35. 5% and 31.7% respectively. The

  19. Three-year follow-up of 3-year-old to 5-year-old children after participation in a multidisciplinary or a usual-care obesity treatment program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Little is known on the long-term effects of obesity intervention programs in preschool-aged children. We compared the long-term effects of a multidisciplinary treatment program with a usual-care program in seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old overweight or obese children who had particip

  20. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vahidi A

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study showed reduced serum zinc levels during febrile seizure. The need for continued research on surface tension in febrile children over several months is recommended. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 972-975

  1. ANALYSIS ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS OLD IN RURAL AREAS OF HENAN PROVINCE%河南省农村地区5岁以下儿童营养状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钞凤; 张书芳; 叶冰; 詹瑄

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析河南省农村地区5岁以下儿童营养状况,为制定农村地区营养干预措施提供科学依据.[方法]采用横断面调查设计和分层多阶段整群随机抽样的方法,抽取1195名5岁以下儿童,测量身高(身长)和体重,采用2006年WHO儿童生长发育标准,用Z评分法评价儿童的身高体重发育状况. [结果]河南省农村地区5岁以下儿童平均身高为90.44 cm,平均体重为12.99 kg.生长迟缓、低体重的发生率分别为7.62%、3.18%,均低于全国平均水平.消瘦率是4.10%,高于全国平均水平.[结论]河南省农村地区5岁以下儿童的营养状况较好,但仍存在营养不良,应有针对性地加以改善.%[Objective] To analyze the nutritional status of children under 5 years old in rural areas of Henan province for evidence-based policy making. [Methods] 1 195 children under 5 years old were selected randomly in measure of cross-sectional study and multi-stage cluster sampling, whose height and weight were measured by standard method. Malnutrition was evaluated using Z scores, with 2006 WHO standard of the growth development [Results] The average height and weight of the children were 90.44 cm and 12.99 kg. The prevalences of stunting and underweight were 7.62% and 3.18%, which were all under the average levels of China. The prevalence of wasting was 4.10%, which was above the average level in China. [Conclusion] The nutrition and health status of children under 5 years old in rural areas of Henan province are better than the average level in China except some malnutrition, which should be improved pertinently.

  2. Estudo exploratório de opiniões de mães sobre a saúde das crianças menores de 5 anos Estudio exploratorio de opiniones de madres, sobre la salud de niños menores de 5 años An exploratory study: opinions of mothers on the health of children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Falleiros de Mello

    1996-07-01

    ón sobre la atención al niño, prestada por la red básica de salud en Ribeirão Preto.This study presents opinions of mothers about aspects of children health, 0-59 months, living in suburbs of the city of Ribeirão Preto, using home interviews. Several social-economic characteristics of this population were noted, especially the concerns of mothers related to: childhood disease, general core of their children, distribution of milk tickets, immunization, children's growth and development process. Mothers opinions present concerns about diseases, signs and symptoms, mothers' care, criteria for inclusion-exclusion in the Program of Food Supplementation and aspects about the utilization of the immunization in time Local Basic Health Unit, offering several elements which can contribute to a reflection on the care given to children at the basic level of health services in the city of Ribeirão Preto.

  3. Relationship between hand-washing behaviors and diarrhea disease among children under 5 years old: A case-control study%广州市5岁以下儿童洗手习惯与腹泻关系的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏跃红; 杨智聪; 康燕; 王玉林; 谢华萍; 罗雷

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between hand-washing behaviors and diarrhea in children under 5 years in Guangzhou city. Methods A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted among 490 cases with diarrhea disease and 490 normal subjects from July 2008 to July 2009. The factors hand-washing before meals (snacks) and after toilet and manicure were analyzed by means of simple and multiple conditional logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by the model. Confounding factors such as consumption of sea products, placement of leftovers and the drinking water type were adjusted. Results The results showed that hand-washing before meals (snacks) and after toilet each time were protective factors to diarrhea disease, adjusted OR values were 0.41 (95% CI = 0.19 -0.86 ), 0.41 (0.21 to 0.81 ) and 0.48 ( 0.25 to 0.93 ), while manicure intervals of 6 - 15 days and 3 - 5 days before adjustment OR values were 0.24 ( 0.11 -0.52 )and 0.21 (0.09-0.48), adjustedto0. 25(95%CI=0. 10-0.66),0.23(0. 09-0.62) .Conclusion It is effective means of washing hands behaviors to prevent children diarrhea.%目的 了解5岁以下儿童洗手等卫生习惯与患腹泻的关系,为预防儿童腹泻提供依据.方法 采用配对病例对照研究,收集2008年7月至2009年7月490例5岁以下腹泻儿童和490例健康对照儿童,对洗手(饭前、便后、吃零食前等)及剪手指甲等因素进行单因素、调整混杂因素(食用海/水产品、剩饭菜放置方式和家庭饮用水类型)的条件Logistic回归分析,计算其OR值及95%置信区间(CI).结果 与从不洗手相比,每次饭前、便后及吃零食前洗手是儿童腹泻的保护性因素,其调整后的OR值分别为0.41(95%CI=0.19~0.86),0.41(95%CI=0.21~0.81)和0.48(95%CI=0.25~0.93).剪手指甲周期6~15 d和3~5 d的2个等级调整前OR值分别为0.24(95%CI=0.11~0.52)和0.21(95%CI=0.09~0.48),调整后为0.25(95%CI=0.10~0

  4. Investigation of 5-year-old children' s deciduous caries from kindergartens in Shenyang%沈阳市幼儿园5岁儿童乳牙龋病流行病学抽样调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛芳; 张桂荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the situation of deciduous teeth caries of 5-year-old children from kindergartens in Shenyang. Methods Four hundred and forty resident 5-year-old children from 5 districts of Shenyang, 220 male and 220 female, were collected at random. The dentists checked the condition of deciduous teeth caries and calculated the caries prevalence rate and decayed, filled and missed (dfm) index, compared the data with the data of 1995, and conducted a questionnaire survey on the parents of children's eating habits and brushing habits. Results Prevalence rate of deciduous teeth caries was 67. 05% , and dfm index was 3. 10. Filling rate of deciduous teeth was 5.51% , the number of dental caries been filled was 8.41%. Compared with the data of 1995, the caries prevalence rate declined (P <0.001), and dfm index declined too (P < 0. 001). The ratio of children who ate sweet food before sleeping was 41.28% and the ratio of having a regular check for teeth was only 2. 04% according to questionnaire survey. Brushing teeth effectively with parental supervision accounted for 10. 17% , and parents who were satisfied with oral health status of children accounted for 82.91%. Conclusion Although caries prevalence rate of 5-year-old children in Shenyang kindergarten has declined compared with 1995 , but proportion was still high. Parents' lack of knowledge on oral health was related with high caries prevalence, and oral health education for parents should be strengthened.%目的 调查沈阳市幼儿园5岁儿童乳牙龋患病情况.方法 采用分层等容量随机抽样的方法,抽取沈阳市内5区5岁常住人口440人及其家长,男女各半.检查儿童全口乳牙牙冠龋病情况,统计患龋率、龋均等,将所得数据与本地区1995年的调查数据进行比较;并对家长进行儿童饮食习惯、刷牙情况等的问卷调查.结果 乳牙患龋率为67.05%,龋均为3.10,龋齿充填完好率5.51%,曾接受过龋齿治疗的占8.41%.与1995

  5. 辽阳市2008~2012年5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析%Analysis on death of children under 5 years old from 2008-2012 in Liaoyang city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昕

    2014-01-01

    Objective The paper is to analyze tendency and leading causes on death of children under 5 years old, and to make rational or effective intervention measures for children death from 2008-2012 in Liaoyang city. Methods The death surveillance data of children under 5 years old in Liaoyang city from 2008-2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The average mortality of children under 5 years old takes 7.43 percent and descends year by year;among the mortality of children under 5 years old, infants takes large percentage;and the mortality of newborns are mainly occurred in the infants. The top five reasons for children death involves preterm and low birth weight, other anomalies, congenital heart disease, pneumonia, and birth asphyxia. Conclusion The effective measures of reducing death rate of children under 5 years old is supposed to enhance the health care management in child birth period, improving the quality of management in disease screening to prevent birth defects, strengthening cooperation of obstetrics and upgrading the level of asphyxiated resuscitation.%目的:分析辽阳市2008~2012年5岁以下儿童死亡变化趋势,制定合理、有效的干预措施。方法对2008~2012年辽阳市5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料进行回顾性分析。结果5岁以下儿童死亡率平均为7.43‰,呈逐年下降趋势;5岁以下儿童死亡中以婴儿为主,婴儿死亡中以新生儿为主;5岁以下儿童死亡前五位死因主要为:早产或低出生体重、其他先天异常、先心病、肺炎、出生窒息。结论提高围生期保健水平,做好疾病筛查工作,预防出生缺陷,加强产儿科合作,提高窒息复苏技术水平,是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的有效措施。

  6. Surgical treatment of congenital muscular torticollis in children over 5 years old%年龄大于5岁儿童先天性肌性斜颈的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏涛; 王晓东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the surgical treatment of congenital muscular torticollis in the children aged over 5 years old. Methods A total of 37 patients with congenital muscular torticollis were treated surgically in this study. The distal portion of the sternoeleidomastoid muscle clavicle head and sternal head was cut, the sternocleidomastoid insertion tendon in the mastoid process was incised, and the contraeture tissue was released. The oeeipito - mandibular traction treatment was performed after the operation. Results All the patients were followed up for 2 to 5 years with an average of 2.6 years. All the children's function and appearance were improved. The clinical efficacy was excellent in 28 patients(75.7% )and good in 9 patients(24. 3% ). Conclusion Incision of amphi - sternocleidomastoid muscle in combination with post - operative traction is the treatment of choice for congenital muscular tortieollis in children over 5 years old.%目的 观察大年龄儿童(年龄大于5岁)先天性肌性斜颈的手术治疗效果.方法 手术治疗大年龄肌性斜颈患儿37例,切断胸锁乳突肌锁骨头、胸骨头,于乳突处切断胸锁乳突肌止点腱,并充分松解挛缩组织,术后均作枕颌牵引.结果 所有病例均获随访,随访时间2~5年,平均随访2.6年,所有患儿的功能和外观均有改善,其中优28例(75.7%),良9例(24.3%).结论 胸锁乳突肌上、下端切断术加术后牵引是治疗大龄儿童先天性肌性斜颈的首选手术治疗方式.

  7. Representations of eating and of a nutrition program among female caregivers of children under 5 years old in Tizimin, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uicab-Pool, Gloria de Los Angeles; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Gomes, Romeu; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out between January and April 2008 with 14 caregivers of children younger than 5 years residing in Tizimín city, Mexico. It aimed to understand the social representations of eating and the Programa Oportunidades [Opportunity Program] held by caregivers taking into account their social and cultural context. This qualitative investigation with an ethnographic approach was based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two empirical categories emerged: 1) feeding and 2) an aid. The first refers to the caregivers' representation of eating patterns of children younger than 5 years and the second reveals that the program is considered an aid, which favors and helps caregivers to meet part of their needs. The study achieved the proposed objectives since it enabled us to understand caregivers in the complex task of feeding these children and also to propose strategies in several spheres to improve infant nutrition. PMID:20126934

  8. 中班幼儿对动物生命认知特点的研究%The characteristics of animal life cognition among the 4-5 years old kindergarten children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冯青

    2015-01-01

    The present study adopted 4(life cognition :growth ,reproduction ,senility ,death)×2(cognitive felids :animal , non-living things)research design to study the cognitive features of the animal cognition among the 4 -5 years old children. There are 78 children participated in this research.The results are as followings:There are significant differences between the children’s animal cognition and non-living things cognition.In either animal or the non-living things,the children’s under-standing of growth,reproduction and death ,is better than that of senility.%以78名中班幼儿为研究对象,采用4(生命认知维度:生长、繁殖、衰老、死亡)×2(认知领域:动物、非生物)两因素被试内研究设计,试图揭示中班幼儿对动物生命认知特点,发现中班幼儿对动物和非生物在生命认知各维度上的认知差异显著,不论是在动物领域还是非生物领域,他们对生长、繁殖、死亡的理解都好于对衰老的理解。

  9. The characteristics of animal life cognition among the 4-5 years old kindergarten children%中班幼儿对动物生命认知特点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冯青

    2015-01-01

    The present study adopted 4(life cognition :growth ,reproduction ,senility ,death)×2(cognitive felids :animal , non-living things)research design to study the cognitive features of the animal cognition among the 4 -5 years old children. There are 78 children participated in this research.The results are as followings:There are significant differences between the children’s animal cognition and non-living things cognition.In either animal or the non-living things,the children’s under-standing of growth,reproduction and death ,is better than that of senility.%以78名中班幼儿为研究对象,采用4(生命认知维度:生长、繁殖、衰老、死亡)×2(认知领域:动物、非生物)两因素被试内研究设计,试图揭示中班幼儿对动物生命认知特点,发现中班幼儿对动物和非生物在生命认知各维度上的认知差异显著,不论是在动物领域还是非生物领域,他们对生长、繁殖、死亡的理解都好于对衰老的理解。

  10. Strong genetic effects on cross-situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year-old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins' self-reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Caspi, A; Taylor, A; Rijsdijk, FV; Jaffee, [No Value; Ablow, JC; Measelle, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Background: Early childhood antisocial behaviour is a strong prognostic indicator for poor adult mental health. Thus, information about its etiology is needed. Genetic etiology is unknown because most research with young children focuses on environmental risk factors, and the few existing studies of

  11. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children : Design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); M.K. Struijk (Mirjam); W. Kroeze (Willemieke); A. Oenema (Anke); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.M.W. Bulk-Bunschoten (Anneke); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence

  12. Analysis of monitoring results of death for the children under 5 years old in Tongling%铜陵市5岁以下儿童死亡监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方红英; 朱莉莉; 高红琼

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To know the current death situation and the change of children under 5 years old in Tongling city and explore the feasibility of intervention measures.[Method] A retrospective investigation method was used to analyze the monitoring data of death of children under 5 years old from 2006 to 2012.[Results] During the 7 years,in neonates,infants and children under 5 years old,the average mortality rates were 3.26 ‰,5.17 ‰ and 7.07 ‰,respectively.Infant deaths accounted 73.08% for the death number of children under 5 years old.Congenital anomaly,various types of accidents,preterm delivery and low birth weight were the main cause of death in children under 5 years old.[Conclusions] The key to reduce the death rate of children under 5 years old is to reduce the death of infant and neonates.To improve the quality of perinatal health care and obstetric quality,take birth defect intervention,strengthen health education,improve safety awareness,the popularity of simple and effective emergency rescue technology are effective measures to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old.%[目的]了解铜陵市城区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及动态变化规律,探索可行性的干预措施. [方法]采用回顾性调查方法,对2006-2012年5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料进行分析. [结果]7年间,新生儿、婴儿及5岁以下儿童平均死亡率为3.26‰、5.17‰、7.07‰.婴儿死亡占5岁以下儿童死亡数的73.08%.先天异常、各类意外、早产和低出生体重是5岁以下儿童的主要死因. [结论]降低新生儿及婴儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.提高围生期保健质量和产科质量,采取出生缺陷干预措施,加强健康教育宣传,提高安全防范意识,普及简单有效的现场应急抢救技术等都是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的有效措施.

  13. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, A; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Wimberley, Theresa;

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, and the child's gender were considered core confounding factors. The full model also included maternal binge drinking or low to moderate alcohol consumption, maternal age, parity, maternal marital...... scores on the Metacognitive Index assessed by the teacher (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.01-4.23). Conclusions  This study did not observe significant effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on executive functioning at the age of 5 years. Furthermore, only weak and no consistent associations...

  14. Efeitos do fumo ambiental no trato respiratório inferior de crianças com até 5 anos de idade Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on lower respiratory system of children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eanes DB Pereira

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do fumo passivo com morbidade respiratória em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluindo 1.104 crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Por meio de um questionário com os pais das crianças, foram obtidas informações sobre sintomas e doenças respiratórias, história familiar de morbidade respiratória, presença de fumantes nas casas e condições de moradia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 546 meninas e 558 meninos. Das 611 crianças fumantes passivas, 82% tinham problemas respiratórios ("odds ratio" = 1,64; IC 95%:1,21-2,20. As queixas respiratórias mais freqüentes foram: chiado no peito ("odds ratio" =1,66; IC 95%: 1,21-2,27, dispnéia ("odds ratio"=1,91; IC 95%:1,36-2,67, tosse e/ou expectoração("odds ratio" =1,58; IC 95%: 1,13-2,84. A chance de apresentar asma, bronquite ou pneumonia foi maior para as crianças fumantes passivas ("odds ratio" =1,60; IC 95%: 1.11-2.31. CONCLUSÕES: Os principais fatores de risco com chance de predizer morbidade respiratória em crianças com idade de 0 a 5 anos foram: crianças que conviviam com mães fumantes, pais fumantes, presença de mofo em casa, historia familiar de asma ou rinite.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of second-hand smoke in the respiratory system of children under 5 years old. METHODS: A cross sectional study of a total of 1,104 children under 5 years old. Information about respiratory symptoms and illness, family history of respiratory diseases, smoking habits of household members and housing conditions were assessed by home interviews with the children's parents. RESULTS: We studied 546 boys and 558 girls. Among 611 children exposed to second-hand smoke, 82% had respiratory problems (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.20. Children whose parents were smokers at the time of the survey were more likely to experience wheezing than children of nonsmoking parents

  15. The effect of inhaled budesonide on symptoms, lung function, and cold air and methacholine responsiveness in 2- to 5-year-old asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    ) with moderately severe asthma in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study involving 8 wk of treatment. Budesonide (BUD) 400 microgram twice daily was administered via a pressurized metered-dose inhaler and metal spacer device. Symptom scores (SSc) and use of short......-acting beta(2)-agonist were monitored with diary cards. LF in awake children was measured as the specific airway resistance (sRaw), using whole-body plethysmography; as resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint); and as resistance and reactance at 5 Hz (Rrs5, Xrs5) by the impulse oscillation technique...

  16. 5岁以下有喘息症状儿童过敏原检测及临床意义%Detection of Serum Allergen in Wheezing Children Under 5 Years Old and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莉; 王健; 刘莲香

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨5岁以下有喘息症状儿童血清过敏原特异性IgE检测在儿童哮喘诊断中的临床意义.[方法]采用德国Mediwiss公司Allergy-screen Analytic GmbH过敏原检测系统,对73例有喘息症状的5岁以下儿童患儿进行血清吸入性和食入性过敏原特异性IgE检测,对过敏原状况进行分析.[结果]大多数5岁以下有喘息症状的儿童具有特异性体质.吸入性过敏原阳性率为19.36%,食入过敏原阳性率为10.87%.[结论]血清特异性过敏原阳性是有喘息症状的儿童发展成为生哮喘的高危因素之一.检测5岁以下有喘息症状的患儿血清吸入性和食入性过敏原特异性IgE,有利于早期识别有可能发展为哮喘的儿童.%[Objective]To explore the detection of serum inhalant and ingestive allergen specific IgE in wheezing children under 5 years old and its significance in the diagnosis of childhood asthma. [Methods]Getman Mediwiss Company Λllergy-screen Λnalytic GmbH allergen detection system was used to detect serum inhalant and ingestive allergen specific IgE in 73 wheezing children under 5 years old. The status of allergens was analyzed. [Results]Most of wheezing children under 5 years old had atopic asthmatic constitution. The positive rate of inhalant allergen and ingestive allergen was 19.36 % and 10.87%, respectively. [Conclusion] Positive serum allergen is one of the risk factors for wheezing children developing to asthma. The detection of serum inhalation and ingestive allergen specific IgE in wheezing children under 5 years old is helpful for the early identification of possible asthma children developed from wheezing.

  17. 乌海市乌达区3~5岁儿童患龋情况调查%A survey of primary teeth caries among 3 ~ 5-year-old children in Wu Hai Wu Da district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate wuda district, wuhai city for 3 to 5 years old children's teeth caries situation, help the baby teeth caries prevention and control of caries children and oral health. Method Using stratified and cluster sampling method, according to the third national oral health epidemiological survey scheme and technical requirement, of wuda district, wuhai city, 329 for 3 to 5 years old children's teeth caries condition were investigated. Results In 2012, wuda district, 3 ~ 5 years old children's teeth caries rate, caries, dental caries filling composition is 45.6%, 1.72, 4.26%. Gender on deciduous teeth caries rate affect no differences, statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Among various age groups for 3 to 5 years old, caries and caries rate were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion Wuda district, wuhai city for 3 to 5 years old children with dental decay in children number is more, the situation is not optimistic, deal with udaya area for 3 to 5 years old children and their parents to strengthen oral health care education.%  目的调查乌海市乌达区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况,帮助该地区乳牙患龋儿童进行龋齿防治及口腔保健。方法利用分层、整群抽样方法,根据第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案和技术要求,对乌海市乌达区329名3~5岁儿童的乳牙患龋情况进行调查。结果2012年乌达区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋率、龋均、龋齿充填构成比分别是45.6%、1.72、4.26%。性别对乳牙患龋率影响无差异,统计学无意义(P >0.05)。3~5岁各年龄组间患龋率和龋均有统计学差异(P<0.05)。结论乌海市乌达区3~5岁儿童患有龋病儿童数量较多,情况不容乐观,应对乌达区3~5岁儿童及其父母加强口腔卫生保健宣教。

  18. Assessment of air quality in preschool environments (3-5 years old children) with emphasis on elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated concentrations of main air pollutants in a Portuguese preschool (indoors/outdoors) environment, with emphasis on elemental characterization of different PM fractions, and estimated risks for the pupils (aged 3-5 years). With exception to total volatile organic compounds, levels of PM10, PM2.5, CO, CO2, and formaldehyde were below legislative guidelines. Calcium, sodium, aluminium, and potassium were the most abundant elements in indoor PM (82-84% of the analysed content) resulting mainly from crustal sources. Carcinogenic elements (1-2% of the indoor analysed content) were mostly PM2.5-bound (83-91%). Indoor-to-outdoor ratios of individual elements indicated contributions of indoor origin and from penetration of outdoor emissions indoors; trace metals were associated with ambient anthropogenic emissions (namely traffic). Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from overall preschool exposure were acceptable for children; for adults carcinogenic risks exceeded (4-11 times) the USEPA recommend value of 10(-6), being 8-40 times higher than for children. PMID:27112725

  19. Translation and validation of the instrument for the oral health-related quality of life assessment in 3 to 5 years old children in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Hadžipašić Nazdrajić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During 2007. in the U.S. was developed the questionnaire for caregivers with 13 items for assessing the oral health-related quality of life in children 3-5 years of age, The Early Childhood Oral Health ImpactScale, The ECOHIS. The aim of this study was to perform the fi rst part of the adaptation process for this instrument in Bosnia-Herzegovina: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and the comprehensibility testing.Methods: ECOHIS was translated from English into the one of the languages in Bosnia-Herzegovina using a standardized forward-backward translation method. Two licensed, professional English-language translators, one dentist and one pediatrician, participated in the development of the preliminary BH-ECOHIS version. All translators were native Bosnian speakers. After translation and adaptation of ECOHIS to Bosnia and Herzegovina setting, pilot-research was performed in order to check the comprehensibility of the questionnaire.Results: The original and the back-translated version were the same. Because not all children in Bosnia-Herzegovina attend preschool, school or daycare, we replaced the question number fi ve from the originalEnglish version “missed preschool, daycare or school“ with “had difficulties in everyday activities”. Translated and culturally adapted version of the ECOHIS was applied in a form of an interview (N=16. Parents/caregivershad no diffi culties to understand the questionnaire.Conclusions: BH-ECOHIS showed excellent comprehensibility. Next step in the validation process should be the testing of its measurement characteristic.

  20. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  1. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Å; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, C H;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  2. The Reliability and Validity of Toe Grip Strength as an Index of Physical Development in 4- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takahiro Ikeda[1; Osamu Aoyagi[2

    2015-01-01

    Studies on TGS (toe-grip strength) are currently proliferating as a result of the development of the dynamometer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of TGS as a physical function in preschool aged children. The participants were 153 preschoolers. Each participant was measured in terms of his or her TGS and completed a MAT (motor ability test). The reliability of the measurements was investigated via Pearson's r and Cronbach's a through a test-retest method, as well as a Bland-Altman plot. The validity of the TGS value was investigated by measuring the correlation between TGS and each component of the MAT, the principal component analysis, and a two-way layout ANOVA with general linear model (gender and age). All reliability coefficients were more than 0.70. Though all components of the MAT relating to TGS were found to be significant (P 〈 0.05), these correlations were weak. However, TGS was found to be a physical function that relating to the lower limbs and develops with aging. Therefore, TGS was found to be a highly reliable measure of physical function performance in preschoolers.

  3. Monitoring And Analysis of Accidental Death in Children under 5 Years Old in Fujian Province%福建省5岁以下儿童意外死亡5年监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 陈鲁闽; 池小希; 欧阳莹; 杨式薇

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamic alteration and trend of the accidental death in children under 5 years old in Fujian Province.Methods We analyzed the data of the accidental death in children under 5 years old from 1995 to 1999(5 years) in the monitoring areas in our province.Results The accidental death in children under 5 years old increased 51.3% in 5 years in the monitoring areas.The ratio of accidental death to total death in children under 5 years old increased 7.26% with a more significant increase in the children aged 1~4 years;compared to city,the ratio tended to decrease in otskirt and increase in the rural area.The main causes of death in children aged less than one year were asphyxia(86.1%),aged more than one years were drown and traffic accident.Asphyxia predominantly happened in winter and spring,and drown mainly in summer and autumn.Conclusions The accidental death increased significantly in children under 5 years old;the different measures pointed toward the different ages,seasons and causes have to be developed soon in order to control the accidental children death;intervention should be centered in rural area,and healthcard is the foundmental measure.%目的 了解5岁以下儿童意外死亡的动态变化规律和趋势。方法 对我省5岁以下儿童生命监测区1995年/1999年5a监测资料进行分析。结果 监测区5岁以下儿童意外死亡率5a上升51.2%。5岁以下儿童意外死亡占总死亡比5a上升7.26%。城乡比较城市呈下降趋势,农村呈逐年上升趋势。年龄分组表现1岁~4岁组上升比其他组高,在主要死因分布上,0岁组意外窒息死亡占86.1%,1岁~4岁儿童主要死于溺水、交通意外。季节分布上,意外窒息多发生于冬春季,溺水多发生于夏秋季。结论 5岁以下儿童意外死亡率上升速度快,严重威胁儿童生存和健康,应尽快制定控制措施,针对不同年龄,不同季节,不同死因应有不

  4. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Birungi

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda.Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's decayed missing filled tooth (dmft index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis.Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417 were 21.8 (CI 20.7-22.9 and 21.3(CI 20.7-21.9 months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9 and 1.7 (SD 2.9 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65-1.2. Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7.PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150.

  5. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars T.; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-01-01

    Background Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC) and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization’s decayed missing filled tooth (dmft) index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis. Results Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417) were 21.8 (CI 20.7–22.9) and 21.3(CI 20.7–21.9) months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9) and 1.7 (SD 2.9) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW) showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65–1.2). Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7). Conclusion PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150 PMID:25938681

  6. 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养不良状况分析%Malnutrition status of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继国; 翟凤英; 张兵; 刘爱东; 杜文雯; 苏畅; 张伋; 马玉霞; 高强; 徐少泽

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养不良状况.方法 利用科技支撑项目"贫困农村地区儿童营养缺乏改善适宜技术的研究"资料,对8141名调查对象营养状况进行分析.采用WHO 2006的身高标准体重参考值作为评价标准计算Z评分,应用SAS 9.1软件进行统计分析.结果 2009年,中国西部6省(自治区)贫困农村5岁以下儿童的生长迟缓率为14.9%,低体重率为7.4%,消瘦率为3.5%.结论 我国西部贫困农村儿童营养不良状况仍然较为严重.在改善儿童营养状况时,应因地制宜,根据不同类型地区的特点和引起儿童营养不良发生的因素采取综合措施.%Objective To analyze malnutrition status of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas.Methods The 8141 subjects were from the program of "Study on appropriate technology of children under-nutrition improvement in poverty rural areas".Age-and sex-specific height and weight reference of WHO standards was used to calculate the Z-scores, the data were analyzed by software SAS 9.1.Results In 2009, the stunting prevalence of children under 5 years in poor rural areas of 6 western Chinese provinces was 14.9%, the underweight prevalence was 7.4% and the wasting prevalence was 3.5%.Conclusion The study demonstrated that malnutrition was still a serious health problem in western poverty rural areas.When improving the children nutrition, we should take comprehensive intervention measures according to the characteristics of different regions and the factors contributing to children malnutrition.

  7. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  8. 2011~2013年某医院5岁以下儿童死亡监测分析%Surveillance on death monitoring of children less than 5 years old in a hospital during 2011 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翠云; 陈惠清

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the dynamic tendency in variation of death in children under 5 years old in hospital,as well as the main causes for death,and to find out the effective measures for intervention. Methods The data of death surveillance of children under 5 years old in the hospital during 2011 to 2013 had been carried out. Results The mortality rate of children under 5 years old including neonates were decreased year by year;the mortality rate of infants in 2013 had been slightly increased;there was no child at 1~4 years old died in 2011 and 2012,and only 3 death cases had been reported in 2013,the reason was that the hospital carried out a large number of liver transplantation. Conclusion The key point for reducing the mortality of children under-five years old is to reduce the occurrence of complications after liver transplantation in children and to control nosocomial infections. Secondly the screening and diagnosis of immunodeficiency in newborns should be strengthened,and the ability of recovery of neonatal asphyxia must be raised and the death of accidental injury in children under-five years old should also be pre-vented.%目的:了解某医院5岁以下儿童的死亡动态变化与主要死亡原因,寻找有效的干预措施。方法对2011~2013年某医院5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料汇总分析。结果5岁以下儿童死亡率和新生儿死亡率逐年下降;婴儿死亡率2013年略有升高,1~4岁儿童死亡2011年和2012年为0,2013年仅报告3例,原因是该院新开展了大量肝移植手术。结论降低5岁以下儿童死亡率关键是减少移植术后的并发症,控制院内感染;其次加强新生儿免疫缺陷筛查和诊断技术,同时提高新生儿窒息复苏能力;预防意外伤害。

  9. 5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因分析%The etiology analysis of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈信; 彭万胜; 瞿色华; 张阵; 武玉猛; 赵武

    2016-01-01

    目的::分析5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因,以提高儿科医生对年幼儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因诊断及治疗水平。方法:回顾性分析85例5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的临床资料。结果:85例非特异性慢性咳嗽患儿病因分布如下:咳嗽变异性哮喘27例(31.8%),上气道咳嗽综合征32例(37.6%),感染后咳嗽16例(18.8%),胃食管反流性咳嗽3例(3.5%),过敏性咳嗽2例(2.4%),病因不明5例(5.9%)。结论:5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的主要病因构成比依次为上气道咳嗽综合征、咳嗽变异性哮喘、感染后咳嗽及其他病因。%Objective:To explore the causes of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old for improving its diagnosis and treatment. Methods:The clinical data of 85 children 5 or under 5 years old with nonspecific chronic cough were retrospectively analyzed. Results:The etiologic distribution of the 85 children with nonspecific chronic cough included 27 cases of cough variant asthma (31. 8%),32 cases of upper airway cough syndrome(37. 6%),16 cases of post-infection cough(18. 8%),3 cases of gastroesophageal reflux cough(3. 5%),2 cases of atopic cough(2. 4%) and 5 cases of unknown etiology(5. 9%). Conclusions:The main causes of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old are the upper airway cough syndrome,cough variant asthma,post-infection cough and other causes in turn.

  10. Low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight in African children aged between 0 and 5 years old: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBWAcademic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315

  11. [Apical petrositis, osteomyelitis of the base of the skull bones and of the first cervical vertebra in a 5 year-old children following chicken pox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Zelikovich, E I; Soldatsky, Yu L; Burova, O V

    2016-01-01

    This publication was designed to describe a rare case of development of apicalpetrositis in a child presenting with acute otitis mediafollowing chicken pox experienced in the preceding period. We carried out the study with the use of computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated destruction of the temporal bone, bones of the base of the skull and of the first cervical vertebra. The treatment strategy chosen for the management of this condition that included antibiotic therapy and expectant observation proved justified and can be recommended as an algorithm of choice taking into consideration the difficulty of surgical approach to the apex of the petrous pyramid. However, this approach is associated with the high risk of disability arising from the potential injury to the craniocerebral nerves. PMID:26977573

  12. Sleep disorders and starting time to school impair balance in 5-year-old children Distúrbios do sono, período escolar e equilíbrio em crianças com 5 anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida Moran

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if sleep disorders and differents starting time to school have impaired motor skills in 5-year-old children. METHOD: Cross-sectional design consisting of 132 children with sleep disorders and 136 normal controls of the public school in the city of São Paulo. The group with sleep disorders was identified based on a questionnaire, and motor tests for global motor coordination, fine motor coordination, perceptual-motor coordination, and static and dynamic balance were applied in all children. RESULTS: In the static balance test, more specifically in the sharpened Romberg (Tandem test, 34% of boys from the study group, who studied in the morning, failed the test (p OBJETIVO: Verificar se distúrbios do sono e diferentes períodos escolares comprometem as habilidades motoras de crianças de 5 anos. MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo transversal com 132 crianças com distúrbio do sono e 136 controles normais de escolas públicas da cidade de São Paulo. Foram utilizados questionários para distúrbios do sono e testes para coordenação motora global, motora fina, percepto-motora, equilíbrio estático e dinâmico. RESULTADOS: No teste de equilíbrio estático, mais especificamente na prova pé ante pé, 34% dos meninos do grupo estudo, que estudavam no período da manhã, falharam no teste (p < 0,05. Na prova de apoio monopodal, 62% dos meninos do grupo estudo, que estudavam no período da manhã, falharam no teste (p < 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere que os distúrbios do sono podem interagir com o período escolar e alterar a performance motora, principalmente de meninos que estudam no período da manhã.

  13. 540例5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡相关因素研究%Analysis of Accidental Death in 540 Cases of Children under 5 Years Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻贵清; 杨泽红

    2000-01-01

    【Objective】 To investigate level and characteristics of accident death in children under 5 years old. 【Methods】 Cases of accident death were collected from life monitor program for chldren under 5 years old, during 1991~1998 years in Guizhouprovince. The epidemic analysis was done with Epi Info 5.0 software. 【Results】 Accident death were the fourth death cause ofchildren under 5 years old and the second death cause of children aged 1~4 years in Guizhou province. Most death cases occured inraral areas.The main accident death cause were accidental suffocation,drowning,falling,poisoning,which occupied of 68.70% totalcases, the death of rate population of all accident death causes much higher than those of ordinary . 【Conclusions】 Health edu-cation should be widely developed which was the simple and effective interfere measure to prevent and reduce the occurance of acci-dent death.%【目的】了解贵州省5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡水平及特点。【方法】收集1991~1998年贵州省5岁以下儿童生命监测意外伤害死亡病例,用Epi Info 5.0软件进行流行病学分析。【结果】意外死亡是贵州省5岁以下儿童死亡的第4位分类死因,1~4岁儿童的第2位分类死因。绝大部分死亡发生在农村。意外窒息、溺水、跌落、中毒占意外伤害死亡的68.7%,以上几种死因死亡率远高于自然人群。【结论】开展社区健康教育是预防意外伤害简便有效的方法。

  14. 2001-2010年北京市5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡状况分析%Mortality from congenital malformation in children under 5 years old in Beijing, 2001 - 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪娜; 闫淑娟; 李东阳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解2001-2010年北京市5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡的变化趋势.[方法]采用北京市儿童生命监测网收集的数据,计算出5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡专率、构成比和年龄分布情况.[结果]1)北京市5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡专率由2001年的227.1/105下降至2010年的97.1/106;2)北京市城市先天心脏病、神经管畸形、先天愚型均显著下降;农村神经管畸形、先天愚型下降不显著;3)先天异常死亡占5岁以下儿童死亡的比例由2001年的29.2%下降至20lO年的23.1%;4)5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡主要发生在婴儿期,尤其是新生儿期.[结论] 北京市先天发育异常儿童死亡已经成为5岁以下儿童主要死因,需进一步加强农村地区相关疾病的预防水平.%[Objective] To identify the trend of mortality from congenital malformation in children under 5 years oldin Beijing from 2001 to 2010. [Methods] Data were obtained from the Beijing children mortality surveillance network. A descriptive analysis was performed on birth defect-specific mortality in children under 5 years old(U5MR). [Results] 1)The birth defect-specific U5MR decrease from 227.1 /105 live births in 2001 to 97.1/105 live births in 2010; 2)Congenital heart disease, neural tube defects, Dowr's syndrome were significantly decreased in urban and neural tube defects, Down,s syndrome was not significant decrease in rural; 3)The Proportion of mortality due to major congenital malformation decrease from 29.2% in 2001 to 23.1% in 2010; 4)Mortality from congenital malformation in children under 5 years old mainly in infant, especially in neonate. [Conclusions] Congenital malformation has been the leading causes of death in children under 5 years old. Strengthen prevention and reduce congenital malformation of death in rural have been the important work for us.

  15. 1995年上海市5岁儿童乳恒牙龋调查%Survey of Caries Status of 5-Year-Old Children in Shanghai in 1995

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 冯希平

    2001-01-01

    目的 调查上海市5岁儿童龋患情况。方法 采用流行病学现况调查方法,调查1995年上海市2132名5岁儿童。结果 上海市5岁儿童的乳牙龋均为市区3.46,郊县7.37;患龋率分别为71.13%和92.56%;充填牙数占DMFT的比例分别为14.79%和3.24%。结论 上海市5岁儿童乳牙龋均、患龋率、充填率在城郊之间均有显著性差异(P<0.01)。表明对于学龄前儿童应降低患龋率,提高充填率;防治尤应侧重郊县。%Objective To determine the caries status of 5-year-old childrenin Shanghai. Methods Use multistage sampling method,stratified sampling and simple random sampling methods. 2 132 5-year-old children were chosen and their DMFTs were examined. Two thirds were done in three downtown districts and the rest in three suburb counties. Each gender occupies half.Results DMFT in downtown and suburb was 3.46 and 7.37, respectively. Caries prevalence was 71.13% and 92.56%, respectively.The percentage of filling in DMFT was 14.79% and 3.24%, respectively. All this three indices proved to be significantly different between downtown and suburb.Conclusion It is indicated that caries prevalence of deciduous teeth should be lowered both in downtown and suburb areas. Filling percentage should be improved urgently,especially in suburbs. The preventive means should focus on suburbs as well.

  16. Epidemiological analysis of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old from 2007 to 2010%宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of obesity in children under 5 years old in Baoji city and to explore the influencing factors of childhood obesity and intervention measures so as to promote children' s health. Methods Data was collected through physical examination and questionnaire survey, and rate and chi-square analysis were made by using SPSS 13.0. Results The prevalence of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old lingered between 11.65% and 18.71% in the period of 2007 to 2010, which was a rather high level. The prevalence in different years was significantly different ( x2 = 65.421, P < 0.05 ). There were significant differences in the prevalence among children of different ages and of different genders (x2 was 12. 821 and 14. 247 respectively, P < 0.05 ). In addition, the prevalence of obesity between urban children and rural children was statistically different ( x2 = 4. 454, P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Combined with the obesity epidemiologic characteristics, key intervention objects were determined. Comprehensive measures such as strengthening health education, promoting children's health care and advocating breastfeeding can reduce childhood obesity rate.%目的 了解宝鸡市5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学特征,探索儿童肥胖的影响因素和干预措施,促进儿童健康.方法 通过体格检查和问卷调查收集资料,并对结果进行率和卡方检验分析.结果 宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖患病率徘徊在11.65%~18.71%,处于一个较高的水平,年度之间患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=65.421,P<0.05);不同年龄段儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=12.821,P<0.05);不同性别儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=14.247,P<0.05);城市与农村间儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.454,P<0.05).结论 结合肥胖的流行病学特点,确定重点干预对象,通过加强健康教育、促进儿童保

  17. 2008-2011年上海市5岁儿童患龋情况调查报告%Analysis of caries status among 5-year-old children in Shanghai from 2008 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李存荣; 曾晓莉; 王勋; 徐玮; 陈曦

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查2008- 2011年上海市5岁儿童患龋状况,为分析评价儿童口腔健康状况和服务水平提供依据.方法:采用等容量随机抽样方法,从每个区县随机抽取1所幼儿园5岁儿童(男女各半),2008、2009年各950名,2010、2011年各900名,检测患龋率、龋均、龋失补充填构成比、SiC指数.应用SPSS13.0软件包进行独立样本t检验、方差分析和x2检验.结果:2008-2011年5岁儿童患龋率分别为63.47% 、64.00% 、64.89%和64.44%,龋均分别为2.96、2.99、3.23和3.09,SiC指数分别为7、10、7.20、7.74和7.37,龋失补充填构成比分别为10.93%、12.76%、16.96%和20.63%.患龋率及龋均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),龋失补充填构成比逐年提高(P<0.01),SiC指数是龋均的2倍多.各年间的患龋率及龋均市区均低于郊区(P<0.01),龋失补充填构成比市区显著高于郊区(P<0.01),乳牙龋集中发生在1/3儿童中.结论:上海市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率、龋均指数变化不大,龋失补充填构成比逐年上升,应采取更为积极的措施,控制儿童龋高危人群,进一步改善儿童口腔健康水平.%PURPOSE: To analyze the status of 5-year-old children's oral caries in Shanghai from 2008 to 2011, and to provide information to evaluate oral health status and improve service level. METHODS: By using equal-sized randomly sampling method, this survey was carried out on the caries status of randomly selected 950 children aged 5 years in Shanghai respectively in 2008 and 2009, and 900 children respectively in 2010 and 2011- The data of prevalence of dental caries, dmft, caries filling constituent ratio and SiC index were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package by means of independent-samples t test, one way AN0VA and Chi-square test. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2011, the prevalence of deciduous tooth caries among 5-year-old children was 63.47%, 64.00%, 64.89% and 64.44%, respectively. The

  18. Death Analysis of 0~5 Years Old Children from 2003 to 2010 in Ulanhot City%乌兰浩特市2003~2010年0~5岁儿童死亡情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽媛

    2012-01-01

    儿童死亡率是《中国儿童发展纲要(2001-2010年)》的重要指标之一,也是衡量一个国家或地区的经济文化、卫生状况、妇幼卫生工作质量和服务水平的主要指标.通过对兴安盟乌兰浩特市2003-2010年儿童死亡报告卡进行整理分析,旨在了解乌兰浩特市5岁以下儿童死亡情况,分析死亡率及主要死亡原因,为进一步采取有效干预措施,降低儿童死亡率提供依据.%Child mortality is one of the important indexes in Chinese children development program(2001~2010 year),but also is the main index to measure a country or region’s economic and cultural,health status,maternal and child health work quality,and service level.Through analysis the death report cards from 2003~2010 of Ulanhot city in Xingan league,this article aims to know the children death below 5 years old in Ulanhot,to analyze the mortality and main death reason,and to provide a basis for taking further effective intervention measures to reduce child mortality.

  19. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Malnutrition in Children under 5 Years Old in Shaoguan City in 2012%2012年韶关市5岁以下儿童营养不良的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓梅; 魏明香; 韩锦英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the influencing factors of malnutrition in children under the age of 5 years old. Meth-ods 2800 children under 5 years old in the local area were selected. The nutritional status, diet, birth situation, knowledge of family members and so on of the children were investigated;adverse factors of malnutrition in children under 5 years old were ex-plored. Results Of the investigated 2800 cases of children under 5 years old, there were varying degrees of malnutrition in 348 children,accouting for 12.4%, Among them, there were 92 cases of low weight, accounting for 3.3%, 104 cases of overweight, ac-counting for 3.7%, 152 cases of delayed growth and development, accounting for 5.4%. The degree of education of a total of 264 family members of the 348 children with malnutrition was or below junior secondary school level, accounting for 75.9%. The more common supplementary food in the children diet were grain, potato, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and so on. Conclusion The main influencing factors of malnutrition in children under age 5 are the degree of education of the children's family members, the diet and the birth situation. Therefore, the diet of the children should be improved as far as possible and breast feeding is rec-ommended, which are of great significance for the healthy growth of the children in later life.%研究分析5岁以下儿童营养不良的各项影响因素。方法选取该地区2012年5岁以下儿童2800人,对所有儿童的营养状况、饮食情况、出生情况以及家庭各成员知识程度等方面进行调查,探讨5岁以下儿童营养不良的各项不良因素。结果该次调查的2800名5岁以下儿童中,有348名儿童存在不同程度的营养不良,占12.4%,其中:体重偏低92人,占3.3%。体重偏重104人,占3.7%。生长发育延缓152人,占5.4%。在348名营养不良儿童中,家庭成员文化程度在初中及以下的共有264人,占75.9%。儿童

  20. Relationship of concentration of proteins in saliva and dental caries susceptibility in 4~5 year old children%4~5岁儿童唾液中蛋白成分与患龋状况的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金东; 刘寿桃; 林焕彩; 郝高峰; 乔永刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 初步探讨儿童刺激性全唾液中蛋白成分与乳牙患龋状况的关系.方法 单纯随机抽样法选取4~5岁、性别匹配的高龋(龋、失、补指数≥5,高龋组)和无龋(龋、失、补指数=0,无龋组)儿童各40例.吐取法收集刺激性全唾液,双金鸡纳酸法测定总蛋白含量.十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰氨凝胶电泳定量分析各蛋白成分.结果高龋组儿童唾液中总蛋白含量低于无龋组(P<0.01).平均每个样品分离出i0条可分析条带,两组比较,10 000、28 000、38 000、56 000、77 000蛋白百分含量高龋组均高于无龋组;14 500蛋白百分含量高龋组与无龋组比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.137).结论 患龋程度不同的儿童唾液中,分子量为10000、28 000、38 000、56 000、77 000的蛋白含量有差异,可能与乳牙龋易感性不同有关.%Objective To investigate the correlation between the concentrations of proteins in stimulated whole saliva and the dental caries susceptibilities of deciduous teeth of children. Methods Based on simple random sampling, 40 children of 4~5 years old with high dmft (high-caries group, dmft ^ 5) and 40 children in same age (free-caries group, dmft = 0) were selected. Stimulated whole saliva from each child was collected by direct spitting method. The level of salivary total proteins was measured by means of bicinchoninic/BCA. Sodium dodecyl sul-fate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to separate the salivary proteins. Results The concentrations of proteins in saliva was significantly lower in high-caries group than free-caries group (P<0.01). Ten straps in average were isolated from children's stimulated saliva using 15% SDS-PAGE. About The concentrations of 10 000, 28 000, 38 000, 56 000 and 77 000 proteins was higher in high-caries group than free-caries group, whereas, no statistically significant difference was found in the concentration of 14 500 Da protein (P = 0.137). Conclusion

  1. 婴儿期增重与5岁以下儿童单纯性肥胖的相关性研究%Correlation between infants weight gain and simple obesity of children under 5 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严学勤; 上官予梅; 冯华俊; 廖艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the correlation between infant weight gain and simple obesity of children under 5 years old.Methods From 2006 to 2011 6 746 infants born at Zhongshan Humanitarian Hospital were registered and followed up .Relevant data were recorded . Totally 567 children with simple obesity were chosen in obesity group , and control group was matched with 1:1 in age and gender .Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the influencing factors of children ’ s simple obesity in the aspects of parents ’ educational level , infant birth weight and feeding .Results Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that simple obesity in children had significant correlation with infant birth weight (OR=1.94, 95%CI=1.56,2.32), average weight gain during the first 6 months (OR=2.17, 95%CI=2.11,2.36) and average weight gain during the later 6 months (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.61,2.19) (all P<0.05). Conclusion Children’ s simple obesity is closely correlated with infant birth weight , average weight gain during the first 6 months and average weight gain during the later 6 months when supplementary food is added .%目的:探讨婴儿期增重与5岁以下儿童单纯性肥胖的相关性。方法选取2006年至2011年在中山市博爱医院出生的6746例婴儿进行随访登记,统计相关数据,从中筛选出单纯性肥胖的567例儿童设为肥胖组,并按年龄、性别匹配原则1:1配对者设为对照组,进行父母文化程度、婴儿出生体重、喂养等方面的单因素分析,并进行影响儿童单纯性肥胖的多因素logistics回归分析。结果多因素logistics回归分析显示:与儿童单纯性肥胖显著相关的变量为婴儿出生时的体重( OR=1.94,95%CI=1.56,2.32)、婴儿期前6个月平均增重量(OR=2.17,95%CI=2.11,2.36)及婴儿期后6个月的平均增重量(OR=1.90,95%CI=1.61,2.19),均P<0.05。结论与儿童单纯性肥

  2. The status of malnutrition among the children aged 2~5 years old and the effect factors%2~5岁儿童营养不良状况及其影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程进; 魏锁; 王君; 宋丹丹

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解安徽省某市城区2-5岁在园儿童营养状况,分析相关影响因素,为改善该地区儿童营养状况提供依据.方法:采用分层整群抽样的方法,随机抽取4所公立幼儿园和8所私立幼儿园,对每所幼儿园在园儿童进行一般情况调查、体格发育测量和口腔检查,并采末梢静脉血检测血红蛋白.结果:共调查2 993例儿童,男1 424例,女1 569例,平均月龄为(51.23±11.73)个月,公立幼儿园儿童占64.O%,低体重、生长发育迟缓和消瘦检出率分别为4.2%、4.1%和3.7%,儿童营养不良检出率为7.9%,儿童贫血检出率为33.0%,龋齿检出率为47.4%.单冈素分析显示,男童、贫血、私立幼儿园儿童营养不良检出率较高,月龄越大儿童营养不良检出率越低,患龋齿儿童营养不良检出率较低.多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,女童[0.525(0.397~0.693)]、月龄高[0.976(0.964~0.987)]和牙齿数[0.783(0.624~0.983)]多为儿童营养不良的保护因素,私立幼儿园[2.522(0.397~3.336)]为儿奄营养不良的危险因素.结论:该地区私立幼儿园和低龄儿童营养不良检出率较高,应针对私立幼儿园和低龄儿童实施针对性干预,控制营养不良儿童的发生.%Objective: To understand the nutritional status of children aged 2 ~5 years old from kindergartens of the urban area of one city, analyze the related effect factors, provide a basis for improving the nutritional status of children in the local area. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling method was used to abstract 4 public kindergartens and 8 private kindergartens from the urban area of one city randomly, the general conditions of all the children in kindergartens were surveyed, physical development examination and oral examination were carried out, and their peripheral blood samples were obtained to detect hemoglobin level. Results: 2 993 children were investigated, including 1 424 boys and 1 569 girls, the average age was ( 51.23 ± 11

  3. 上海市2005~2009年健康儿童肠道病毒携带状况调查%Enterovirus Carrying Status among Healthy Children under 5 Years Old in Shanghai from 2005-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云逸; 孙晓冬; 丁晓光; 陆菁; 刘敏勇; 李崇山

    2012-01-01

    objective To explore the enterovirus (EV ) carrying status among healthy children under 5 years old in Shanghai from 2005 to 2009. Methods Stool samples were collected from healthy children during peak epidemic seasons for the EV (from July to August). EV was isolated from these stool samples and then was serotyped by neutralization using specific antisera. VP1 code gene of all non-polio EV (NPEV) isolated were sequenced in order to identify serotypes. Results 18 polioviruses were isolated from 1630 stool samples and carrying rate of poliovirus was 1.10%. 227 NPEV were isolated from the 1630 stool samples and carrying rate of NPEV was 13.93% . Poliovirus were identified as vaccine strains by national laboratory of Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. There was no wild type poliovirus in Shanghai from 2005 to 2009.Coxsackievirus group B type3 (CVB3)isolates from 2005 to 2009 in Shanghai formed two branch, but genetic diversity was found compared with CVB3 isolates from Europe and America. EV Type71 isolates were C4 subgenotype. Conclusion The EVcarrying rate was decline in healthy children in Shanghai from 2005 to 2009 and maintained polio-free status in Shanghai. We still need to establish and improve EV data bank in Shanghai to make futher realizing of the virus and its epidemic situation among healthy population.%目的 了解上海市2005~2009年≤5岁健康儿童肠道病毒(Enterovirus,EV)携带状况.方法 在EV感染的高发季节(6~8月),采集健康儿童粪便标本进行EV分离和血清型鉴定,对分离到的非脊髓灰质炎(Nonpolio) EV( NPEV)测定VP1编码区核苷酸序列以鉴定其血清型.结果 从1630份粪便标本中共分离到18株脊灰病毒( Poliovirus,PV),阳性率为1.10%;分离到227株NPEV,阳性率为13.93%.PV经中国疾病预防控制中心病毒病预防控制所国家脊灰实验室型内鉴定均为疫苗株.上海市2005~2009年无脊

  4. Analysis of relationship between eating problems of 1~5 years old children and the feeding behavior%1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题与喂养行为的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓成; 张雯; 金宇; 冯华俊; 何晓玲; 刘庆嘉; 刘玉玲; 廖艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究父母喂养行为与1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题之间的关系.[方法]采用一般情况问卷、儿童饮食行为干预问卷(IMFeD)及自编父母喂养和营养行为问卷,调查广东省某市就诊于儿童保健门诊、儿童营养门诊的70名1~5岁具有饮食行为问题的儿童的社会人口学资料、饮食行为及喂养行为资料.[结果]喂养焦虑情绪(r=0.591)、不良喂养习惯(r=0.665)均与IMFeD总分呈正相关;喂养焦虑情绪(β=0.49)、不良喂养习惯(β=0.32)进入IMFeD总分的最终方程,是儿童饮食行为问题的危险因素,喂养中情感交流(β=-0.24)与前述两者一同进入了不良进食习惯得分的最终方程,是避免儿童不良进食习惯的保护因素.[结论]家庭不良喂养习惯、家长喂养焦虑情绪可能引发或增强儿童不良饮食行为问题,喂养时家长与儿童的情感交流能在一定程度上对避免和缓解儿童不良进食习惯有积极作用.%[Objective] To analyze the relationship between eating problems of 1~5 years old children and the feeding behavior. [Methods] Cross-sectional survey was conducted. The questionnaire data, containing general state, identification and management of feeding difficulty (IMFeD) , as well as self-compiled questionnaire about parents feeding behavior, which reflect children's socio-demographic,eating problems,as well as parents' feeding behavior. [Results] Both feeding anxiety and adverse feeding behavior of parents were positive relationship with IMFeD total score,the coefficients were respectively 0. 591 and 0. 665; Feeding anxiety(β=0. 49) ,as well as adverse feeding behavior of parents(β = 0. 32),entering the final formula of IMFeD total score, were risk factors of eating problem; feeling communication,in contract, was protective factor. [Conclusion] Adverse feeding behavior and parents' anxiety possibly raise or enhance children's eating problem, feeling communication between parents and child

  5. 南京郊区3~5岁儿童龋病流行情况及相关因素研究%Primary tooth caries and associated factors among 3-5-year-old children in suburban areas of Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 朱玲; 刘子晗; 李虎; 蔡晨星; 吴婴南

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of caries among 3-5-year-old children in suburban areas of Nanjing. Methods Apply the method of multistage and random sampling and get on the samples of 384 3-to-5-year-old children in suburban areas of Nanjing. Collect the survey data completed by the parents. The related factors of dental caries were analyzed by chi-square test and Logistic regression. Results The caries prevalence rate of primary tooth was 60.68%. The mean dmft and dmfs were 2.70 and 4.08 respectively. The factors associated with caries were:age,preference to eating sweet food and mother level of education. Conclusions There is high prevalence of primary tooth caries among children from 3 to 5 years old in suburban areas of Nanjing. It is necessary to reinforce early preventive measures.%目的 调查南京郊区3~5岁儿童龋病的流行情况及相关因素.方法 采用多阶段、随机抽样的方法抽取南京郊区384名3~5岁儿童,对其进行口腔检查并发放问卷,由家长填写后统一收回.对龋病相关因素调查结果采用x2检验和Logistic回归分析.结果 南京郊区3~5岁儿童患龋率为60.68%,龋均及龋面均分别为2.70和4.08;年龄、甜食的喜好程度及母亲文化程度与儿童乳牙龋相关.结论 南京郊区3~5岁儿童的患龋率较高,需开展早期预防工作.

  6. 1217名2~5岁儿童睡眠障碍调查及其相关因素分析%Survey on Sleep Disorders in 1217 Children Aged 2 to 5 Years Old and Analysis of the Correlation Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易彩霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解长沙市开福区1 217名2~5岁儿童睡眠障碍(sleep disorder,SD)状况及其影响因素,为儿童SD的预防和干预提供科学依据.[方法]选取长沙市开福区门诊和入园体检中的1 217名儿童作为调查对象,对其家长进行儿童睡眠状况问卷调查.[结果]1 217名2~5 岁儿童SD总发生率为26.86%,其中常见的睡眠障碍类型如:入睡困难发生率占8.05%,白天多睡,夜间少睡1.07%,磨牙6.33%,用口呼吸1.23%,梦话2.05%,打鼾5.34%;SD的分布存在性别差异,男童打鼾、用口呼吸和磨牙发生率高;儿童SD的主要危险因素为腺样体肥大、肥胖、居室嘈杂、与家人或保姆同睡一床等.[结论]2~5岁儿童SD相关症状发生率较高;儿童保健工作者应加强睡眠健康教育,开展儿童SD筛查,预防儿童SD的发生.%[Objective] To understand the status of sleep disorder(SD) in 1217 children aged 2 to 5 years old in Kaifu district of Changsha and its influential factors in order to provide the evidence for the prevention and intervention of SD children. [Methods] Totally 1217 children in the clinic services and physical examina tion before the kindergartens were enrolled in this study. Their parents were interviewed with sleep questionnaires of children. [Results] The total incidence rate of SD in 1217 children aged 2 to 5 years old was 26.86 %,among which the incidence rate of the common SD such as difficult falling asleep, more sleep time in daytime and few sleep time in night, bruxism, mouth breathing, sleep talking and snoring was 8. 05%, 1. 07%,6.33 %,1.23 %, 2.05 % and 5.34 %, respectively. The distribution of SD had gender difference, and the incidence of snoring, mouth breathing and bruxism in boys was high. The main risk factors of SD in children were adenoidal hypertrophy, obesity, noisy room, sleeping with family numbers or housekeeper in a bed and so on.[Conclusion] The incidence of the related symptoms of SD in children aged 2

  7. 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用关系的研究%Effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏畅; 张兵; 刘爱东; 杜文雯; 张继国; 张伋; 马玉霞; 张强; 翟凤英

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用的关系.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样的方法,于2009年在西部6省12县贫困农村共调查8141名5岁以下儿童.按WHO推荐标准将调查儿童分为营养不良与营养良好两组,用SAS9.1软件进行分析比较.结果 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养不良率为18.9%;男孩营养不良率(19.9%)显著高于女孩(17.7%,P<0.05);营养不良组近两周内腹泻患病率(9.0%)以及上呼吸道感染患病率(27.9%)显著高于营养良好组(6.9%,25.4%,P<0.05);营养不良组的医疗费用(785.1元)显著高于营养良好组的医疗费用(696.6元,P<0.05);营养不良儿童的门诊就诊率(27.5%)显著高于营养良好儿童的门诊就诊率(25.0%,P<0.05).结论 西部贫困农村儿童营养不良问题仍有待改善,营养状况对儿童的患病率及医疗费用有影响.%Objective To study the effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas. Methods The randomized multi-stage cluster method was used to sample study subjects from poverty rural areas of six western provinces in China. The survey included 8141 children under 5 years old and was carried out in 2009. All of children were divided into two groups, malnutrition group and normal group by WHO standard.Difference of two groups was analyzed with SAS 9. 1. Results In western poverty rural areas, the malnutrition rate of children under 5 years old was 18. 9%. The rate for boys ( 19. 9% ) was significantly higher than that for girls ( 17.7%, P <0. 05). Malnutrition group had higher rate of upper respiratory tract infection (27.9%) and diarrhea (9. 0% ) than those in normal group (25.4% and 6. 9% ) within recent two weeks ( P < 0. 05 ). Mean clinical expenditure of malnutrition group was 785. 1 yuan per year, significantly higher than that of normal group (696. 6 yuan, P <0. 05). Also outpatient

  8. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  9. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).

  10. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  11. 江苏省无锡市惠山区5岁以下儿童十年死亡原因分析%Analysis of the death cause of children less than 5 years old in Huishan district of Wuxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞秋霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析江苏省无锡市惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及保健服务状况,为降低5岁以下儿童死亡率提出有效干预措施.方法 按照《江苏省5岁以下儿童死亡监测方案》,对辖区内5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料进行分析.结果 2001-2010年惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡率6.87‰,婴儿死亡率5.06‰,新生儿死亡率3.75‰,早期新生儿死亡率2.66‰.5岁以下儿童死因前5位顺位分别为意外伤害、早产低出生体质量、先天畸形、先天性心脏病、出生窒息.结论 惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡呈下降趋势,意外伤害、早产低出生体质量为主要死因.有效降低5岁以下儿童死亡率,应加强安全教育,减少意外事故发生,大力提倡婚前医学检查,加强孕期保健及孕期监测,减少出生缺陷,提高产科、儿科医疗质量和急救技术.%Objective To analyze the death cause of children less than 5 years old in Huishan district of Wuxi,in order to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years of age and put forward effective intervention measures.Methods According to “monitoring project of children below 5 years old died in Jiangsu Province”,the death surveillance data of this area of children below 5 years old were analyzed.Results The mortality of children under 5 years of age in Huishan district from 2001 to 2010 was 6.87‰,infant mortality was 5.06‰,the neonatal mortality was 3.75‰ and early neonatal mortality rate was 2.66‰.Death cause of children under 5 years old,the 5 cis-position were accident,premature and low birth weight,congenital malformation,congenital heart disease,birth asphyxia.Conclusion The death of children under 5 years old in Huishan area decreased,accidental injury,premature and low birth weight were the main causes of death.To reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old,should strengthen the safety education,reduce the accident,vigorously promote the pre-marital medical examination

  12. 甘肃省迭部县藏族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔健康知识调查%An investigation of dental caries status of 5-year-old Zang nationality children and their parents′oral health knowledge in Tewo County,Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕燕; 胡晓潘; 李志强

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解甘肃省迭部县藏族5岁儿童龋病发病情况及家长口腔健康知识,为少数民族地区儿童制定龋病防治措施提供参考。方法:参照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查标准和方法,随机选取迭部县5所幼儿园400名藏族5岁儿童进行龋病检查,并对其家长进行龋病流行病学及相关因素问卷调查。结果:迭部县藏族5岁儿童的乳牙患龋率、龋均分别为59.64%、2.53;54.57%的儿童有睡前吃甜点习惯,48.48%的儿童过去12个月没有到医院看过牙,父母大多未了解儿童口腔健康状况,家长口腔卫生知识的知晓率农村组低于城市组。结论:藏族5岁儿童龋病发病率高,儿童口腔健康行为及家长口腔卫生知识有待进一步改进。%AIM:To investigate the dental caries prevalence and their parents′oral health knowledge of 5 -year-old children of Zang nationality in Tewo County,Gansu Province.METHODS:According to the Third National Oral Health Epidemiological Investigation Standard and Method,400 five-year-old children in five kindergartens in Te-wo country were randomly selected in this study.Oral health examination was made to determine dental caries status,a questionnaire was answered for the investigation of the parents′oral health knowledge and the childrens′oral health be-havior.RESULTS:The dental caries prevalence rate and average caries teeth of the children were 59.64%and 2.53 respectively.54.57% of the children had the habit for having dessert before sleeping,48.48%of the children did not see a dentist in the past 12 months.The majority of the parents knew little about the oral health of their children and the parents living in countryside had less oral hygiene knowledge than those living in city.CONCLUSION:Dental caries prevalence is high in 5-year-old Zang nationality children in Tewo county.The oral health behavior of the chil-dren and the oral health knowledge of their

  13. Status of dental caries of primary dentition and the effect of oral health behavior of family in 5-year-old children in Hainan province%海南省5岁儿童乳牙患龋状况及家庭影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳华; 廖天安; 谢莉莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oral health behavior of family on the dental caries status in the primary dentition of 5-year-old children in Hainan province. Methods By multi-stage, stratified and random sampling, 758 children of five years old selected from the urban and rural areas of Hainan province were investigated for dental caries status, according to World Health Organization criteria. Their parents were also investigated. Results 633 of the 758 questionnaires were filled and withdrawn, accounting for 84.4%. The prevalence of dental caries of 5-year-old children in Hainan province was 76.1%, with the draft of 4.88 and the variance of 21.91, which was 70.3% for children from urban areas and 82.2% for those from rural areas. The consumption of sweets, chocolate, water with sugar and beverage were more in urban children then the rural children. Urban children tend to have better oral health behavior, such as the time of beginning tooth brushing, the frequency of brushing and daily use of fluoridated paste. Conclusion The implementation of a systematic education on oral health behavior of family is in urgent need in Hainan province, especially in the rural areas.%目的 研究家庭口腔健康行为对海南省城乡儿童乳牙患龋状况的影响.方法 采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样的方法,按照《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中牙列状况的检查方法和标准对海南省城乡758例5岁儿童进行乳牙龋病检查,并对受检者的家长进行问卷调查.结果 共下发问卷758份,收到有效问卷633份,应答率为84.4%.包括:(1)海南省5岁儿童乳牙患龋率为76.1%,龋均为4.88,方差为21.91;其中城市儿童乳牙患龋率为70.3%,农村儿童乳牙患龋率为82.2%,农村儿童乳牙患龋率高于城市.(2)口腔健康行为分析表明,农村儿童进食糖果、巧克力、糖水、碳酸饮料等频率高于城市.城市儿童开始刷牙时间、频率、用含氟牙膏的

  14. Author development of training device for micro-basketball the «Clever ring» as mean of integral psychomotor development of children of 2-5 years old.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhno E.G.; Kozina Zh.L.; Jagiello Marina

    2012-01-01

    A technical device is developed for micro-basketball for integral development of children 1-5 years. In research took part 52 children of age-dependent group of 1-2 years, 56 children of 3-4 years, 56 children, 4-5 years. It is suggested to execute throws in a basket from different distance and under a different corner. Also to give up the balls of different color and size in accordance with a color and size of basket from the set initial position. It is marked that exercises with a ball deve...

  15. Torpedo maculopathy with an anisometropic amblyopia in a 5-year-old Caucasian girl: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dutra-Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of asymptomatic female Caucasian children with torpedo maculopathy. A 5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for routine evaluation. The ophthalmic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes, without any changes in the biomicroscopy. Fundus examination showed normal findings in one eye, whereas in the contralateral eye it disclosed, in the temporal sector of the macular region, a whitish, atrophic, oval chorioretinal lesion with clearly defined margins. Posterior evaluations documented the stability of the lesion. Torpedo maculopathy diagnosis is based on its characteristic shape and peculiar location. The differential diagnosis has to be estabilished versus choroidal lesions (melanoma and nevus, congenital or iatrogenic hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and particularly versus the congenital pigmented lesions associated with Gardner's syndrome.

  16. Author development of training device for micro-basketball the «Clever ring» as mean of integral psychomotor development of children of 2-5 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhno E.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A technical device is developed for micro-basketball for integral development of children 1-5 years. In research took part 52 children of age-dependent group of 1-2 years, 56 children of 3-4 years, 56 children, 4-5 years. It is suggested to execute throws in a basket from different distance and under a different corner. Also to give up the balls of different color and size in accordance with a color and size of basket from the set initial position. It is marked that exercises with a ball develop an orientation in space, regulate force and exactness of throw, develop measurement with naked an eye, adroitness, speed of reaction; normalize a volitional sphere emotionally. It is set that application of methods with the use of technical device is instrumental in the increase of indexes of physical preparedness and psychophysiological possibilities of children.

  17. Avaliação do estado nutricional de ferro e anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas Nutritional assessment of iron status and anemia in children under 5 years old at public daycare centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia F. Vieira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de ferro e a prevalência de anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas da cidade do Recife (PE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 162 crianças, de 6 a 59 meses. O estado nutricional de ferro foi avaliado em termos de reservas corporais (ferritina sérica, transferrinemia (ferro sérico, capacidade total de ligação do ferro e % de saturação da transferrina, eritropoiese (protoporfirina eritrocitária livre e hemoglobinogênese (hemoglobina. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia (hemoglobina 40 µmol/mol heme em 69,6% (IC95% 61,0-77,1 das crianças. Os parâmetros de ferro não apresentaram correlação com o gênero (p > 0,05. No entanto, crianças 24 meses. A significante correlação observada entre reserva, transferrinemia e eritropoiese representa achado compatível com o esperado ciclo de vida do ferro no organismo. CONCLUSÕES: A deficiência de ferro e a anemia parecem ser um importante problema de saúde pública entre as crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas do Recife. Logo, ações efetivas direcionadas à prevenção e ao controle dessa deficiência são fortemente recomendadas nesse contexto ecológico.OBJECTIVE: To assess nutritional iron status and anemia prevalence in children less than 5 years old at public daycare centers in the city of Recife, PE, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, with a systematic random sampling of 162 children aged 6 to 59 months. Nutritional iron status was assessed in terms of body iron reserves (serum ferritin, transferrinemia (serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation %, erythropoiesis (free erythrocyte protoporphyrin and hemoglobin production (hemoglobin. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin 40 µmol/mol heme in 69.6% (95%CI 61.0-77.1 of the children. Iron parameters were not correlated with sex (p > 0.05. However, children 24 months. The significant

  18. Gastroenterites e infecções respiratórias agudas em crianças menores de 5 anos, em área da região Sudeste do Brasil, 1986-1987: II - Diarréias Gastroenteritis and acute respiratory infections among children up to 5 years old in an area of Southeastern Brazil, 1986-1987: II - Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1997-02-01

    morbi-mortalidade por diarréias no Município de São Paulo, durante a década de 80, período em que houve acentuada queda nas internações hospitalares por essa causa. Tal tendência deve ser acompanhada atentamente, pois influenciará modificações nas características da demanda de assistência à saúde infantil.INTRODUCTION: The decrease morbi-mortality gastroenteritis in is related to the factor responsible largely for the fall in infant mortality and mortality from communicable diseases in developing countries. Nevertheless, diarrhea is still a considerable public health problem in these countries, especially among children under 5 years old. OBJECTIVES: To describe some aspects of the of gastroenteritis epidemiology among children up to 5 years old, resident in areas of S. Paulo county. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A probabilistic sample of children up to 5 years old was studied (n=468. The epidemiological survey was undertaken in five areas S. Paulo county (Brazil from March 1986 to May 1987. Data were obtained through household interviews once a month over a year. RESULTS: During the follow-up 139 diarrhea episodes were registered, with a mean duration of 5.5 days. Twenty percent of the diarrhea events were followed by at least one other case in the household. The incidence of gastroenteritis was 2.78 episodes per 100 children/month. The highest incidence affected the children of up to 2 years of age. In 46.1% of the gastroenteritis episodes medical assistance was not sought, the children were treated by their mothers or not at all; 51.8% of the diarrhea events were attended to by the primary health care service, and only 2.1% were attended to by a hospital. No child died as a consequence of diarrhea. Of the therapeutical interventions used the most frequent were oral rehydration (25.2% and oral rehydration with antibiotics (11.5%. Various socio-economic and personal background factors such as living conditions, water supply, sewarage, coverage; family income per

  19. Death analysis of children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District of Chongqing from 2009 to 2013%重庆市渝中区2009~2013年5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖义琛; 黄健; 陈红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand death status and related factors of children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District of Chongqing from 2009 to 2013 to provide scientific basis for reducing the mortality rate of children below 5 years old. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out by the surveillance data of death of children below 5 years old in Yuzhong District from 2009 to 2013. Upon the investigation and quality control to the children birth and death by the three-tertiary medical and preven-tive health care network under the jurisdiction according to China′s Maternal and Child Health Monitoring Programme and Death Monitoring Programme of Children under 5 Years Old Programme in China concerning regulations related to death monitoring of children under 5 years old and ICD-10 code of international disease classification.The data adoptedχ2 test. Results The mortality rate of infant,newborns and children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District from 2009 to 2013 was decreased firstly and then in-creased. There was no statistical significance of mortality rate between the male and female children[0.378%(50/13 225) vs. 0.311%(39/12 536)](χ2=0.838,P>0.05). The proportion of premature and low birth weight in the constitution of causes of death was raised significantly,of which,the premature ratio was from 11.76% up to 56.00%,whose difference had statistical significance (trend inspectionχ2=11.650,P<0.05),and the low birth weight was from 23.53%to 56.00%,the difference was statistically sig-nificant(trend inspectionχ2=9.950,P<0.05). Conclusion Strengthening the perinatal health care,reducing the occurrence of birth defect and premature,increasing business skills training for the maternal and child health care,it improves the diagnostic abili-ty of children′s diseases. Meanwhile,relying on the family doctor service mode to strengthen children health management system, strengthening the social medical security ability are the important measures to reduce the mortality

  20. 汉中市农村与城区5岁以下儿童死亡对比分析%Contrastive analysis of the death of children under 5 years old in urban and rural areas of Hanzhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海玲; 白倩; 王琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the death oi children under 5 years old in urban and rural areas of Hanzhong and to explore possible interventional measures. Methods Death data of 5 years old children from 2000 to 2010 in both of urban and rural areas of Hanzhong was analyzed retrospectively. Results The mortality rate of children under 5 years old in Hantai and Nanzheng was 13.65‰ and 20. 32‰, respectively. The mortality rate of newboms , infants , children of 1-4 years old and children under 5 years old in urban area ( Hantai) was much lower than that in rural area ( Nanzheng ) (χ2 value was 16. 89, 42. 69, 17. 54 and 59. 04, respectively, all P 0. 05 ). The causes of death of children under 5 years old in two areas were different. The first five causes of death in the urban were congenital malformation , asphyxia neonatomm , contretemps, premature and low birth weight, and pneumonia, while they were asphyxia neonatorum , pneumonia, contretemps, congenital malformation , and premature and low birth weight in the rural area. Conclusion In the past 11 years, the mortality rate of children under 5 years old of each age groups decreases year by year', and the death rate in the urban area is lower than that in the rural area . Infants and newboms death takes the majority of the death of children under 5 years old. The top five causes of children 's death in the urban and rural area are different , which indicates different impact of economics , culture and medical care on children in urban and rural area . Therefore, the future work in different areas should have their own focus .%目的 对汉中市农村与城区5岁以下儿童死亡进行对比分析,并探讨其干预措施.方法 将2000至2010年汉中市城市与农村5岁以下儿童死亡资料进行回顾性分析.结果 汉台区、南郑县5岁以下儿童死亡率分别为13.65‰和20.32‰;城区(汉台)的新生儿、婴儿、1~4岁、5岁以下死亡率明显低于农村(南郑)(χ2值分别为16.89、42

  1. Efeito da suplementação de zinco a crianças de 1 a 5 anos de idade Effects of zinc supplementation on 1- to 5-year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. R. Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da suplementação com zinco sobre os parâmetros nutricionais e bioquímicos entre crianças de 12 a 59 meses de idade. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo clínico randomizado unicego com 58 crianças entre 12 e 59 meses participantes do Programa Governamental de Combate a Carências Nutricionais, que fornecia mensalmente 2 kg de leite fortificado com ferro. O grupo intervenção (n = 28 foi suplementado com 10 mg/dia de sulfato de zinco por 4 meses, e o grupo controle (n = 30 recebeu solução placebo. Para avaliação do estado nutricional, utilizaram-se os indicadores peso por estatura e estatura por idade, expressos em escores z, do padrão de referência NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics, parâmetros bioquímicos de ferro e zinco séricos e concentração de hemoglobina e hematócrito. RESULTADOS: A suplementação com zinco não interferiu significativamente sobre as condições antropométricas das crianças. Ambos os grupos apresentavam concentrações iniciais baixas de zinco sérico. Após o término do período de intervenção, a variação nos níveis médios de hemoglobina (p = 0,002 e as concentrações de hematócrito (p = 0,001, zinco (p = 0,023 e ferro séricos (p = 0,013 foram significativamente mais elevadas no grupo suplementado. CONCLUSÃO: A suplementação com zinco promoveu melhora na resposta hemoglobínica e normalizou a concentração sérica de zinco. Os resultados mostram a importância de se estabelecer políticas de combate a carências nutricionais que também possam dar atenção à carência de zinco.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of zinc supplementation on nutritional and biochemical parameters among children aged 12 to 59 months. METHODS: A blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out with 58 children aged 12 to 59 months included in the National Child Nutritional Program, which provided them with 2 kg of iron-fortified milk. The supplementation group (n = 28

  2. Analysis on test results of blood lead level for children aged 3 to 5-year-old in Jianghan District, Wuhan City%武汉市江汉区3~5岁儿童血铅检测结果分析

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    杜亚琴

    2012-01-01

      目的:了解武汉市江汉区托幼机构3~5岁儿童血铅水平及铅中毒状态.方法:对托幼机构儿童进行健康体检的5457例3~5岁儿童进行血铅检测,并将儿童分为3岁~,4岁~,5岁~,3个年龄组,数据采用χ2检验.结果:3~5岁儿童平均血铅水平为(57.73±30.14)μg/L,检出铅中毒320例,检出率为5.86%,男童的血铅水平及铅中毒检出率较女童高.结论:绝大多数儿童的血铅含量是正常范围,男童较女童更易患铅中毒.要注意控制儿童接触铅的途径,增加宣教,定期开展铅中毒筛查,早期发现中毒,早期干预铅中毒.%  Objiective:To understand the blood lead level and lead poisoning status for children aged 3 to 5-year-old in childcare institutions of Jianghan District, Wuhan City. Methods: 5457 cases healthy children aged 3 to 5-year-old received blood lead test, and they were divided into 3~group,4~group and 5~group,then the results were analysed by χ2 test.Results: The average blood lead level of children aged 3 to 5-year-old was (57.73 ± 30.14) µg / L, detected 320 cases of High Blood Lead with a detection rate of 5.86%.The blood lead level and the detection rate of high blood lead for boys were higher than those for gilrs. Conclusion: The vast majority of children's blood lead level is the normal range, boys than girls are more susceptible to lead poisoning. Pay attention to control children's exposure, strengthening propaganda and education, regularly carry out lead poisoning screening, early detection of poisoning, early intervention of lead poisoning.

  3. 武汉市洪山区近10年5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析%Analysis of the Death of Children under 5 Years Old During the Past Ten Years in Hong-shan District,Wuhan City

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    喻玉珍; 彭陈岑

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the distribution,the causes and the influencing factors of the death among children under 5 years old in Hongshan district.Methods A retrospective method was used to analyze the deaths of children under 5 years old during the past 10 years’.Results The average mortality rate among children under 5 years was 8.42 ‰ during the past 10 years.The top five causes of death were:prematurity,congenital heart dis-ease,birth asphyxia,pneumonia,and accidental death.Conclusions The key point of reducing the mortality rate of children under 5 years old is reducing neonatal mortality,correcting prenatal abnormalities,increasing collaboration between obstetric and neonatal department,and actively preventing intrapartum and post-natal abnormalities.%目的:探讨武汉市洪山区5岁以下儿童死亡的分布规律、主要死因构成及其影响因素。方法采用回顾性方法,对洪山区近10年来5岁以下儿童死亡情况进行统计分析。结果10年间5岁以下儿童死亡率平均为8.42‰。死亡原因前5位依次是:早产、先天性心脏病、出生窒息、肺炎、意外死亡。结论降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键是降低新生儿死亡率,纠正产前异常,加大产科和新生儿科协作,积极预防产时、产后异常,减少儿童死亡。

  4. Research on gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea of children under 5 years old and the influence factors%复合凝乳酶胶囊治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛丽萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究复合凝乳酶胶囊对治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻和影响因素。方法:选取儿童腹泻患儿100例,均在5岁以下,按年龄比例分为观察组和对照组,观察组在服用复合凝乳酶胶囊的基础上同时进行常规抗炎治疗,对照组只进行常规抗炎治疗。比较两组疗效。结果:观察组总有效率(94.8%)高于对照组(83.3%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。影响腹泻治疗效果的因素主要有药的用量、腹泻程度、小儿的年龄等多种因素有关。结论:复合凝乳酶胶囊对治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻症状有着显著的疗效,并且无明显的不良反应,在临床应用上值得推广。%Objective:To research gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea of children under 5 years old and the influence factors.Methods:100 children with childhood diarrhea were selected.They were all under 5 years old. According to the ratio of age,they were divided into the observation group and the control group.The observation group were also given conventional anti-inflammatory treatment on the basis of taking gastropylor complex capsules.The control group were only given conventional anti-inflammatory treatment.Results:The total effective rate of the observation group(94.8%) was higher than 83.3% of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The factors affecting the treatment of diarrhea effect were drug dosage,the severity of diarrhea,the age of the children and other factors.Conclusion:Gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea symptoms of children under 5 years old has a significant effect, and no significant adverse reactions.It is worthy to be popularized in clinical application.

  5. Investigation of dental caries of 5-year-old children and their parents' oral hygienic knowledge and behavior in Dongxiang, Baoan and Yugu nationalities%东乡族、保安族和裕固族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为调查

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    陈琰; 李志强; 聂红兵; 周海静; 练维娟

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解东乡族、保安族和裕固族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为,制定有效的防治措施.方法 采用2005年第3次全国口腔健康流行病学抽样调查方案设计的儿童母亲问卷调查表,整群、分层抽样,抽取东乡族、保安族和裕同族5岁儿童和家长进行儿童龋齿的流行情况调查和家长口腔卫生知识和行为的调查.结果 东乡族儿童乳牙患龋率为76.47%.龋均为3.89颗,保安族儿童乳牙患龋率为56.36%,龋均为2.42颗,裕固族儿童乳牙患龋率为66.89%,龋均为3.16颗.保安族儿奄家长的口腔卫生知识的知晓情况低于其他两个民族.3个民族中多数父母没有真正了解孩子的口腔健康状况,没有认识到定期口腔检查的重要性.结论 针对3个民族儿童乳牙患龋率高以及就诊率低的特点,有必要加强父母的口腔健康教育,维护和提高儿童口腔健康水平.%Objective To understand thc epidemiology of dental caries and their parents' oral health knowledge of 5-year-old children in Dongxiang,Baoan and Yugu nationalities and to make an effective prevention and cure measure. Methods The questionnaire and schedule table ac- cording to standard and method used in the third national oral health were devised. The epi- demiological investigation of dental cavies of 5-year-old children and oral hygiene knowledge and behavior of their parents were made in Dongxiang,Baoan and Yugu nationality by the means of whole and stratified sampling. Results The caries prevalence rate and average caries of 5-year- old children were respectively 76.47% and 3.89 teeth in Dongxiang nationality,56.36% and 2.42 teeth in Baoan nationality,66.89% and 3.16 teeth in Yugu nationality. The parents in Yugu and Dongxiang nationalities had more oral hygiene knowledge than those in Baoan nationality. The majority of the parents knew little about the oral health of their children and the significance of regular oral examination

  6. Determinación de sensibilización alérgica a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores por fluoroinmuno ensayo-UniCAP Dust mite allergic sensitization in children aged 1 month to 5 years-old using specific IgE determination by unicap fluoroimmunoassay

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    ANDREA MEYER K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de asma. Hay escasa información sobre la sensibilización temprana en niños chilenos. Objetivo: Investigar la sensibilización a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores. Método: Revisión de resultados de IgE específica por ensayo UniCAP (Pharmacia contra dermatofagoides de niños de hasta 5 años con sospecha de alergia respiratoria, divididos en 3 grupos de edad: 1-12 meses, 13-35 meses y 3-5 años. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 224 niños, entre 1 mes y 5 años de edad (x 2,65 años ± 1,48 DS, 57,1% de sexo masculino. Su distribución según grupo etario fue: 66 en el grupo 1; 45 en el grupo 2 y 113 en el grupo 3. El 30,6% presentó sensibilización a dermatofagoides (18,2% grupo 1; 33,3% grupo 2 y 36,3% grupo 3. El grupo 3 presentó concentraciones de IgE específica significativamente más elevadas que los otros grupos. Conclusiones: La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es detectable en menores de un año, con frecuencia y nivel que aumentan en forma paralela a la edadDust mite sensitization is considered a major risk factor for pediatric asthma; however, there are few data about early sensitization in Chilean children available. This study aimed to investigate allergic sensitization to mites in infancy and early childhood. The patient population, 224 children aged 0 to 5 years with suspected respiratory allergy, was divided into 3 groups of age: 1 to 12 months-old, 13 to 35 months-old, and 3 to 5 years-old. Sensitization status was ascertained by assessing the specific IgE to mite by UniCAP fluoroimmunoassay (Pharmacia. Sixty eight (30.6% patients were sensitized to mites. The frequency and level of sensitization increased with the age of the children. Our data support that avoidance measures in the domestic environment aimed at the primary prevention of mite-driven sensitization should be introduced at the earliest possible stage

  7. A Report of Epidemiological Investigation of Deciduous Tooth Caries in Children Aged 3-5 Years Old of Zhengzhou City%郑州市区3~5岁儿童乳牙龋病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云霞; 张安民; 隋丽娜; 王鹏飞; 严枭

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To know the condition of Deciduous tooth caries in children aged 3-5 years old of Zhengzhou city,and provide basis to population prevention genesis and the development of Deciduous tooth caries of children.Methods:By clustersampling and multi-stage stratified random sampling , children aged 3-5 years old in Zhengzhou city were selected to Investigate the status of Deciduous tooth caries, the result was analyzed by SPSS12.0 statistical software.Result: The whole incidence of Deciduous tooth caries was 51.28%, DMFT was 2.86,DMFS was 5.77, incidence of Deciduous tooth caries of boy was 52.29%, incidence of girl was 50.27%, it is no statistical difference. The DMFT of children with dmft≥6 was7.10,the DMFS was20.79;The incidence of Deciduous tooth caries and DMFT and DMFS increased gradual y as the children were growing up (P0.05).Conclusion:Although the incidence of Deciduous tooth caries in children aged 3-5 years old of Zhengzhou city was high, fil ing rate was lower. Necessary measures for early population prevention of Deciduous tooth caries for preschool children must be taken, in order to promote children's physical and mental health.%目的:了解郑州市区3~5学龄前儿童乳牙龋患状况,为群体预防儿童乳牙龋的发生和发展提供依据。方法:采用整群、分层随机多阶段抽样方案抽取郑州市区的适龄儿童,对其患龋状况进行调查,结果采用SPSS12.0统计软件进行分析。结果:郑州市区3~5岁儿童乳牙整体患龋率51.28%,龋均2.86,龋面均5.77,男童52.29%,女童50.27%,差异无统计学意义。龋失补牙数≥6的髙龋儿童龋均、龋面均为7.10和20.79。随着年龄的增长,其患龋率及龋均、龋面均增高,不同年龄组之间的差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:郑州市区3~5岁儿童乳牙龋发病率高,龋齿充填率却较低。提示应尽早加强对学龄前儿童乳牙龋病的群体的预防和治疗,促进儿童的身心健康。

  8. The caries related risk factors of 5 years old preschool children in Langfang,Hebei province%河北省廊坊地区5岁学龄前儿童乳牙龋相关行为危险因素调查研究

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    高萍; 李富者; 孙鹏; 刘敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the caries related risk factors of 5 years old preschool children in Lang-fang , Hebei province . Methods A multiple stratified and cluster randomized sampling method was used to gain 7 115 years old preschool children .Structured questionnaire were used to collect related information .Re-sponse rate was 95.9% .Results The percentage of children consumes sugary food everyday was 25.2% .55.2%of children brushed their teeth everyday reported by their guardian .The percentage of children started to clean teeth before 2 years old was 12.0% .18.3% of children use fluoridated toothpaste and more than 60.3% of guard-ian did not know the effect of fluoridated toothpaste on teeth .More than 66.3% of guardian did not know preven-tive effect of sealant on the caries .The attitude of the majority of guardian to oral health was positive .The distri-bution of caries related risk factors was related to urbanization and guardian's education .Conclusion Integrated and specified oral health education and promotion program is urgent for the studied population .%目的调查河北廊坊地区5岁儿童乳牙龋相关行为危险因素,为有针对性地提出乳牙龋防治策略提供依据。方法采用分层、多阶段、随机、整群抽样的方法获得5岁儿童711名,由监护人填写结构式问卷,收回有效问卷682份,应答率95.9%。结果25.2%的儿童每天至少进食1次含糖食品。55.2%的5岁儿童每天刷牙,2岁前开始刷牙的只有12.0%。家长报告只有18.3%的孩子使用含氟牙膏,超过60.3%的家长不知道含氟牙膏对牙齿的作用,66.3%的家长不知道窝沟封闭能防龋。绝大部分家长对儿童口腔保健的态度积极。龋危险因素存在城乡差异,且与家长文化程度相关。结论适宜在该地区有针对性开展乳牙龋综合健康教育和促进活动。

  9. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

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    Kumar Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case.

  10. Effects of nutritional status on intelligence development of children under 5 years old in poverty areas%贫困地区5岁以下儿童营养状况对智力发育的影响研究

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    杜文雯; 石剑; 翟凤英; 张兵; 苏畅; 张继国; 马玉霞; 刘爱东; 张强; 张伋; 刘建

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析贫困地区5岁以下儿童营养状况与智力发育的关系.方法 对广西、甘肃4个贫困县404名5岁以下儿童进行问卷调查,神经心理发育测验,体格测量,血样检测.按发育商水平将调查对象分为智力正常和智力低下两组,分析比较两组儿童的社会人口学因素、贫血率、血中微量营养素水平的差异.对发育商与生长发育指标做相关性分析.结果 404名5岁以下儿童的智力低下率为12.62%.两组儿童间父亲文化程度和母亲文化程度的分布差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),智力低下组儿童父母文化程度水平较智力正常组低.智力低下组儿童血浆维生素A水平(232.5±117.89 ng/mL)明显低于智力正常组(286.64±107.46 ng/mL,P<0.05).年龄别身高Z评分(HAZ)、年龄别体重Z评分(WAZ)均与发育商呈显著性正相关,相关系数分别为0.1558(P<0.05)和0.1495(P<0.05).结论 5岁以下儿童智力发育与营养状况有关,应通过营养教育、营养改善等措施提高父母知识水平,促进儿童正常生长发育,提高体内微量营养素水平.%Objective To analyze the relationship of nutritional status and intelligence development of children under 5 years old in poverty areas. Methods 404 children under 5 years old from 4 counties of Guangxi and Gansu provinces were concluded as subjects. Questionnaire survey, neuropsychological examination, physical examination and biochemical tests were conducted in the survey. According to the development quotient ( DQ), children were divided into normal mental group and mental retardation group, which were compared in the following aspects: social demographic factors,anemia rate and micronutrients levels in blood. Results Mental retardation rate of 404 children was 12. 62%. Distribution of parental education levels were significantly different in the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ), which indicated that parents of children in mental retardation group had lower education levels

  11. The Death Monitoring and Analysis of Children Under 5 Years Old in Huaihua From 2010 To 2014%2010~2014年度怀化市5岁以下儿童死亡监测分析及干预措施

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    张爱平; 黄志

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过分析近5年怀化市0~4岁儿童死亡监测中儿童死亡率的变化趋势及主要死因构成,为政府制定进一步降低5岁以下儿童死亡率措施提供科学依据。结果:5年来,监测地区5岁以下儿童死亡率呈逐年下降趋势。主要死亡原因按顺位依次为早产和低出生体重、肺炎、先天性心脏病、出生窒息、其他先天异常、意外窒息、交通意外和溺水等8种因素。新生儿死亡前5位死因依次为早产和低出生体重、出生窒息、肺炎、先天性心脏病和其他先天异常等。死前接受住院治疗的儿童呈现明显上升趋势。结论:采取多种措施,减少新生儿死亡是降低怀化市5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键。另外,加大儿童疾病综合管理技术在基层医疗机构的推广应用;减少出生缺陷;加强宣传教育,降低意外的发生;均可有效的减少5岁以下儿童死亡。%Objective changes through the analysis of child mortality surveillance of death of children aged 0~4 in Huaihua city in recent 5 years and the leading cause of death, provide scientific basis to further reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old measures for the government. Results for 5 years, and the mortality of children under 5 years of age the monitor-ing area decreased year by year. The main causes of death according to the sequence in 8 factors of preterm birth and low birth weight, congenital heart disease, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, other congenital anomalies, accidental suffocation, traffic accident and drowning. Neonatal death 5 major causes of death were premature and low birth weight, birth asphyxia, pneumonia, con-genital heart disease and other congenital disorders. Before the death of hospitalized obvious upward trend therapy in children. Conclusion adopt a variety of measures, reduce the neonatal death is the key to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old in Huaihua city. In addition

  12. 广州地区5岁以下儿童哮喘发生及持续发展的危险因素分析%The risk factors of occurrence and development of asthma in children under 5 years old in Guangzhou area

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    程远; 陈德晖; 孙宝清; 郑佩燕; 刘文宽; 蔡勇; 周荣; 罗碧莹; 全小芳

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨5岁以下儿童哮喘发生及持持发展的危险因素.方法 通过对广州地区确诊的5岁以下哮喘患儿150例进行统一标准的问卷调查,并与同地区同年龄段健康儿童117例进行病例对照比较,并结合血嗜酸性粒细胞计数、血清过敏原、血清九项呼吸道病原学、血清支原体IgM抗体测定及病毒咽拭子PCR检测等实验室检查,分析哮喘发生的危险因素,并对研究对象进行跟踪随访,将哮喘组分为哮喘稳定组及哮喘持续组,进行比较分析导致年幼儿童哮喘发生及持续发展至5岁以后的重要危险因素.结果 生后第1年有被动吸烟暴露史、家居环境(潮湿、多花草、有布艺沙发、地毯或毛绒玩具、蟑螂多)、父母及1、2级亲属有过敏史、其他有过敏性疾病史、螨类、屋尘、牛奶、鸡蛋过敏是5岁以下儿童哮喘发病的危险因素(x2=4.99、5.37、16.29、37.32、47.73、48.27、15.27、25.45、25.45、138.47、26.81、9.25、24.35和4.51,均P<0.05).哮喘组中病毒感染阳性率45.33%,支原体感染占44.00%;哮喘稳定组与哮喘持续组的比较显示哮喘持续组的螨类过敏阳性率为76.92%,较哮喘稳定组的27.93%明显升高且差异有统计学意义(xz=28.71,P<0.01).结论 导致5岁以下儿童哮喘发病的危险因素包括吸烟暴露、家居环境、父母过敏史、自身过敏史、病菌感染等因素,其中螨虫过敏是导致5岁以下儿童哮喘症状持续至较大年龄的重要危险因素.%Objective Through the investigation of asthma in children under 5 years old and the healthy children in the same age in Guangzhou area,to analyze the important risk factors of asthma.Methods Through the questionnaire investigation of 150 asthma in children under 5 years old in Guangzhou area,combined the examination with blood eosinophil counts,serum allergen and serum levels of respiratory pathogens,mycoplasma antibody and virus swab PCR,the risk

  13. 绵阳市5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为调查%Investigation of dental caries of 5-year-old children and their parents' oral hygienic knowledge and behavior in Mianyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柄权; 文献英; 郭洪菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of dental caries and their parents' oral health knowledge of 5-year-ol children in Mianyang city.Methods:According to standard,questionnaire and schedule table was executed and effective prevention and cure measure were made.Method used in the third national oral health was devised.The epidemiological investigation of dental caries of 5-year old children and oral hygiene knowledge and behavior of their parents were made in Mianyang by the means of whole and stratifie sampling.Results:The caries prevalence rate of 5-year-old children was 54.9% in Mianyang.The caries prevalence rate of urban an rural was 51.4% and 57.8% respectively.The difference was not statistically significant (x2 =3.07,P > 0.05).The caries prevalenc rate of boy and girl was 55.5% and 54.2% respectively.The difference was not statistically significant (x2 =0.12,P > 0.05).The ma jority of the parents knew the significance of the oral health,but they lacked the basic oral hygiene knowledge.Conclusion:The caries prey alence rate of 5-year-old children is high,it is essential to reinforce the oral health education for the parents and intervention measure in order to promote children's oral health level.%目的:了解绵阳市5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为.方法:参考《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》的标准,采用多阶段分层随机抽样的方法,对5岁儿童和家长进行儿童龋齿的流行情况调查和家长口腔卫生知识和行为的调查.结果:绵阳市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率为54.9%,城、乡患龋率分别为51.4%和57.8%,差异无统计学意义(x2=3.07,P>0.05),男女患龋率分别为55.5%和54.2%,差异无统计学意义(x2=0.12,P>0.05),大多数家长认识到儿童口腔健康的重要性,但基本口腔卫生知识缺乏.结论:绵阳市5岁儿童患龋率高,应加强儿童家长口腔健康教育和干预措施,有助于提高儿童口腔健康水平.

  14. Status of malnutrition and its influencing factors in children under 5 years old in Guangnan District of Yunnan Province in 2009-2010%2009~2010年云南省广南县0~5岁儿童营养不良状况及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵江; 陈升文; 万蓉; 路涛; 王竹; 郑克勤

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析2009 ~2010年云南贫困农村地区0~5岁儿童营养不良状况及其影响因素.方法 采用随机整群分层抽样的方法,抽取云南省广南县贫困县农村地区1002名0~5岁儿童,通过询问调查、血红蛋白检测和膳食调查进行问卷调查,并测量身高、体重,采用Z评分法进行营养状况评价,计算营养不良率.采用非条件Logistic回归多因素分析.结果 2009 ~2010年云南贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童低体重率为18.8%,生长迟缓率为34.3%,消瘦率为3.1%.排除了其他变量的影响后显示,2岁以下儿童未喂过母乳的比喂过母乳的儿童容易发生营养不良;2岁以下儿童过去7天添加辅食蔬菜和水果天数较多的比少的不容易发生营养不良;2岁以下儿童与同龄孩子比较情况好的比差的和差不多的不容易发生营养不良.结论 云南贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童营养不良状况不容忽视.儿童营养不良的影响因素主要有2岁以下儿童的喂养方式、2岁以下婴幼儿辅食添加、2岁以下儿童与同龄孩子比较情况等.%Objective To analyze the status of malnutrition and its influencing factors in children under 5 years old in Guangnan District of Yunnan Province in 2009 - 2010. Methods By the random cluster sampling and stratified sampling methods, 1002 children within 5 years old in rural areas were selected from poverty-stricken counties in Yunnan Province. The questionnaire survey including questionnaire, anthronpometric measurement and dietary survey such as height and weight were used respectively for the survey. Z score was used for evaluating the nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was calculated by statistics software. Multiple factors analysis was finished by non condition Logistic regression in software. Results During 2009 -2010, of all children under the age of 5 years old, the underweight rate is 18. 8% , stunted growth rate is 34. 3% and emaciation

  15. 中国五岁以下儿童非致死性伤害发生率及影响因素研究%An epidemiological survey on the incidence of non-fatal injury and influencing factors among children under 5 years old in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国清; 朱松林; 王琦琦; 陈田木; 谭爱春; 何琼; 刘鑫; 徐玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of non-fatal injuries and related influencing factors among children under 5 years old in China. Methods Data involving 10 819 children under 5 years old was from the Fourth National Health Service Survey of China. Injury-related indicators include: history of ever having had an injury, its frequency, cause, location and severity of the injury.A two-level Poissun regression was used to examine the significance of related socio-economic variables. Results The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries among children under 5 years old was 16.0 per 1000 population in the prior 12 months. The first three leading causes of non-fatal injuries were falls,animal bite, fire/bum among children under 1 year old,with the rates as 3.9, 1.8 and 1.8 per 1000 population, respectively. For children aged I to 4 years old, the first three leading causes were animal bite, fall, fire/burn with rates as 6.5,6.0 and 2.9 per 1000 population, respectively. 83.0% and 69.0% of last injuries occurred at home for the above said two age groups. No disability was found among children younger than 1 year old who suffered from a nonfatal injury while for the 1-4 age group, the disability accounted for 1.0% of injury-induced outcomes. After adjusting other variables,boys had 1.57 times the risk of injury compared with girls in the 1-4 age group (P<0.05). The differences on the effects regarding ethmicity,per capita household income, and place were insignificant (P>0.05). None of the socio-economic variables was found that significantly related to the non-fatal injury risk among children under 1 year old (P>0.05). Conclusion The incidence of nonfatal injuries among children under 5 years old was 16.0 per 1000 population in the prior 12 months. The three leading causes of injuries were animal bite, falls, fire/bum respectively. Home was the most common place that non-fatal injuries occurred. Boys had a higher risk of injury compared with girls among

  16. How do 5-year-olds understand questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes; Teresa Guasti, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    developing children across 19 European countries, 18 different languages, and 7 language (sub-)families. The study investigated the effects of two factors on question formation: (a) whether the question contains a simple interrogative word like ‘who’ or a complex one like ‘which princess’, and (b) whether...... the question word was related to the sentential subject or object position of the verb. The findings show that there is considerable variation among languages, but the two factors mentioned consistently affect children’s performance. The cross-linguistic variation shows that three linguistic factors facilitate...

  17. An Investigation of Dental Caries and the Correlative Factors Analysis in 5-year-old Children in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region%某地5岁儿童龋病的情况调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈斯巴根

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Inner Mongolia 5-year-old children's teeth caries disease status and inlfuencing factors, for the children's teeth caries disease prevention and control of oral health education and provide a theoretical basis. Methods According to the third national oral health epidemiological survey scheme, adopting multistage, stratiifed, such as capacity, the method of random sampling, extraction of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region of urban and rural children aged 5, 660 and three cavities case investigation, and at the same time random questionnaire survey was conducted for parents of children tested, using SPSS13.0 software package for data collection and analysis. Results 5 years old children have the caries rate was 70%, caries average of 3.59. Developing rural caries rate slightly higher than the city, but there was no signiifcant difference (P>0.05), between men and women baby teeth had no signiifcant difference of caries rate (P>0.05), caries were rural higher city (P0.05). Good habits of brushing your teeth, oral health checks on a regular basis, the use of lfuoride toothpaste can reduce children's teeth caries disease occurs, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P0.05); often eat fruits, vegetables, can obviously reduce the children's teeth caries disease occurs, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P0.05),男女之间乳牙患龋率差异也无显著性(P>0.05),龋均农村高于城市(P0.05)。良好的刷牙习惯、定期口腔保健检查、含氟牙膏的使用均能降低儿童乳牙龋病的发生,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);经常食用水果、蔬菜可明显降低儿童乳牙龋病的发生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论内蒙古自治区5岁儿童患龋率、龋均仍都高于我国平均水平,所以仍应大力贯彻实施学龄前儿童乳牙龋病综合干预试点工作,广泛普及口腔健康教育,提高儿童家长口腔保健意识,培养儿童良

  18. 上海市0~5岁小于胎龄儿超重及肥胖的分布特点%Distribution characteristics of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children born small for gestational age in Shanghai city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭翀; 葛品; 陈津津

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children who were born small for gestational age ( SGA) in Shanghai through a cross-sectional investigation. Methods All resident children aged 0-5 years were included, covering all 18 districts in Shanghai. Health-check cards were prepared for SGA children. The check-up included weight,length/height and head circumference. Body mass index ( BMI) was used to evaluate the overweight and obesity according to the standard of World Health Organization ( WHO) . Results This study investigated 728 602 children aged 0-5 years in Shanghai,and ultimately 23 871 of them were defined as SGA,a-mong whom 9 805(41. 4%) were boys and 14 066(58. 9%) were girls. The BMI of SGA children were higher than that of appropriate for gestational age( AGA) from 4 to 18 months,while for the rest of the time,they were basically the same. There was no difference in changing tendency of BMI between SGA children and those AGA children. The distri-bution of overweight and obesity according to the standard of WHO in SGA boys among different ages was 7. 7% to 20. 7%, and 15. 7% in average;the distribution of SGA girls among different ages was 5. 9% to 18. 3%,and 12. 9% in average. The proportion of overweight at the age of 4-18 months was significantly higher than that of other ages. There was no correlation between overweight at 0-2 years old and overweight at the age of 5(P>0. 05). Conclusions Com-pared with SGA girls,overweight and obesity in SGA boys were more serious. The age of 4-18 months were the period of high incidence of overweight. There was no correlation between overweight at 0-2 years old and overweight at the age of 5.%目的:通过对上海市小于胎龄儿( SGA )的超重及肥胖问题进行横断面现况调查,了解上海市0~5岁SGA儿童超重及肥胖的分布特点。方法对上海市18个市辖区内所有0~5岁的常住儿童展开普查,为SGA儿童建卡,体格检查包

  19. An investigation on the deciduous dental caries and the related risk factors of 3-5 year-old children in Ningxia Province%宁夏地区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋现况及风险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳青; 马敏; 于英凡; 刘英

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解宁夏地区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况及相关影响因素。方法:对宁夏地区6个县(市、区)的2952名3~5岁儿童进行口腔健康检查,对患龋高危儿童和无龋儿童家长进行问卷调查,并进行统计分析。结果:①宁夏地区3-5岁儿童乳牙龋均和龋面均分别为2.60和4.19,患龋率为57.41%,回、汉族儿童的患龋率、龋均无统计学差异(P>0.05);②是否为早产、开始刷牙年龄及频率、进甜食频率、有含奶嘴或母亲乳头睡觉习惯、母亲孕期患病等因素在两组儿童间有显著性差异( P<0.05);而是否为低出生体质量、家长学历、饮用水源、喂养方式、是否使用含氟牙膏等因素在两组间无统计学差异( P>0.05);③乳牙患龋与父母口腔保健知识态度、刷牙后及睡前进甜食、进甜食频率、有含奶嘴或母亲乳头睡觉习惯、开始刷牙年龄有关。结论:减少儿童含糖食品的摄入量及频率以及避免婴儿期不当喂养习惯,将早产儿列为龋病好发的弱势人群,给予高度重视。%AIM:To investigate the status of deciduous dental caries and the related risk factors of 3-5 year-old Children in Ningxia Province .METHODS:2952 Children aged 3-5 years old from 6 counties in Ningxia were included for clinical caries examination .Caries-active and caries-free children were selected to complete the questionnaire .SPSS 17.0 statistical software package was used for data analysis .RESULTS:The prevalence of dental caries, dmft, dmfts of the children was 57.41%, 2.51 and 4.19 respectivesy.The prevalence of dental caries was not statistically different between Hui and Han nationalities .Significant difference was found between caries -active and caries-free children in premature delivery , addition of sugar in milk , the age of starting tooth-brushing , frequency of sugar intake and sweet intake before sleep (P0.05).Logistic analy

  20. 3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢测量及影响因素分析%Levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide in oral cavity of 3-5 years old healthy children and influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鑫鑫; 时清; 杨圣辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oral cavity of 3-5 years old healthy children and analyze the influencing factors. Methods The levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide in oral cavity were examined in a sample of 340 healthy children aged 3-5 years old. Oral malodor was measured with both organoleptic measurements and a portable volatile hydrogen sulfide monitor. Oral clinical status were assessed Pearson's correlation was used to determine the relationship between organoleptic scores ( OS), the levels of volatile H2S and clinical parameters. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to detect the degree of association between OS and clinical parameters. Results The mean level of volatile H2S was 46. 72 ± 23. 27. The correlation coefficient of OS and H2S was 0. 807. Tongue coating score and oral hygiene index were significantly associated with OS. Conclusion The portable hydrogen sulfide monitor could be used to diagnose oral malodor in children. Tongue coating and debris are the important factors that influence oral malodor in healthy children.%目的 通过检测3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢水平,评估幼儿口腔健康状况,分析幼儿口腔异味的重要影响因素.方法 对340名3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢进行感官分析法评分及分析仪测量,记录多项口腔健康指数,分析感官分析法评分与仪器测量数值的关系,以及与口腔健康指数的多因素Logistic回归关系.结果 3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢水平均值为(46.72±23.27)×10-9.感官分析法评分和硫化氢分析仪读数之间相关系数r=0.807.舌苔指数、简化口腔卫生指数纳入以感官分析法评分为因变量的多因素Logistic回归方程.结论 挥发性硫化氢分析仪可用于临床检测幼儿口腔异味.舌苔、软垢为幼儿口腔异味的重要影响因素.

  1. Cortisol Secreting Adrenal Adenoma in a 5 Year Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursharan Singh Narang,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal adenoma is a rare endocrinal tumor in children. It can present with features of Cushing's syndrome. We present a case report of five years old female child who came with morbid obesity and hypertension. The patient manifested polyphagia, weight gain, and changes in sleep patterns. During physical examination we found a full-moon face, bulkiness in the cervico-dorsal (buffalo-hump region, high blood pressure.

  2. Amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e oclusopatias em crianças de cinco anos de idade em São Pedro, SP Breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits and malocclusion in 5-year-old children in São Pedro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Maria Ferraz Rochelle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estimar a frequência de oclusopatias e suas associações com o tipo e o período de amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e informações recebidas pelas mães no pré-natal, em crianças com cinco anos de idade que frequentavam creches municipais. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 162 crianças residentes no município de São Pedro, SP. Em entrevista com cada mãe, informações sobre o tempo e a forma de aleitamento, a presença de hábitos deletérios, e orientações recebidas pela mãe durante o pré-natal foram coletadas. O exame epidemiológico foi realizado nas dependências das creches, por um único examinador, previamente calibrado, sob iluminação direta. As seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: presença e severidade de oclusopatias [ligeiro apinhamento e espaçamento (AE, mordida aberta (MA, sobremordida (SM, mordida cruzada uni ou bilateral (MC, overjet positivo (OV e relação terminal dos segundos molares decíduos (RTM]. A análise dos dados consistiu de análise univariada (teste qui-quadrado e de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de oclusopatias foi de 95,7% (AE = 22,8%; MA = 24,7%; SM = 20,4%; MC = 14,8%; e OV = 13,0%. Na RTM, o terminal reto foi predominante (85,0%. Dentre os hábitos bucais deletérios, o uso de chupeta foi o único indicador de risco (OR = 5,25; p = 0,001 para mordida aberta em crianças que a utilizaram por mais de três anos, detectado nas regressões logísticas. CONCLUSÃO: a prevalência de oclusopatias e de hábitos bucais deletérios na amostra estudada foi alta. As crianças que usavam chupeta por mais de três anos mostraram maior probabilidade de apresentar mordida aberta.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of malocclusion and their associations with the type and period of breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits, and information received by mothers during the pre-natal period, in 5-year-old children attending municipal daycare centers. METHODS: The

  3. Investigation on the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang city%沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题的家庭环境影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 黄彦红; 董颖; 曹春兰; 李荔荔; 张雪娇; 董爽; 倪佳; 马辉

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解影响沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为的家庭环境影响因素,为制定有效的干预措施提供科学依据. [方法]采用多阶段抽样方法随机抽取8个社区和4所幼儿园共1 594名儿童作为调查对象,采用单因素和多因素分析方法进行分析. [结果]多因素分析结果显示,语言鼓励、固定餐桌、使用围嘴为儿童不良饮食行为的保护性因素(P均=0.00),父亲低学历为危险因素(P=0.05). [结论]针对儿童饮食行为家庭环境影响因素,加强父母的健康教育,尤以父亲为重点,提高科学的育儿理念,同时探索有效的干预措施.%[Object] To investigate the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang,and provide the scientific evidence for drawing up effectually intervening measure.[Method] 1 594 healthy children in eight communities and four kindergartens were randomly selected with the method of multiple stage,and analyzed by single factor and multifactor analytical method.[Results] Logistic regression model analysis showed that language encourages and fixed dining table and using bib were these protective factors for the eating behavior problems of children,and the father's low qualifications was the risk factor.[Conclusion] The health education of parents should be enhanced about family environment influencing factors for children's eating behavior problems,especially the father,science philosophy of parents should improve and explore effective interventions.

  4. 甘肃省贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童营养不良和贫血状况调查%Malnutrition and anemia status of children under 5 years old in poverty rural areas of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文莉; 杨海霞; 陈瑞; 王文龙; 李慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析甘肃省贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童营养不良和贫血状况及其影响因素,为制定儿童营养相关的策略和政策提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样方法,对1398名调查对象的营养状况进行分析,用Z评分法和血红蛋白值评价儿童营养和贫血状况,用Logistic回归分析可能的影响因素,应用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计分析.结果 调查儿童中低出生体重儿占5.4%;近2周有腹泻和上呼吸道疾病的儿童分别占15.1%和31.1%;6个月内婴幼儿的母乳喂养率、混合喂养率和人工喂养率分别为45.3%、43.2%和11.4%.儿童的生长迟缓率为11.7%、低体重率为7.8%、消瘦率为6.6%、贫血率为11.7%,儿童生长迟缓率、低体重率、消瘦率和贫血率在各月龄组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),其中24 ~36月龄组生长迟缓率最高,低体重率、消瘦率和贫血率的患病高峰在6~12月龄,各月龄组性别间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).多因素分析结果表明,儿童生长迟缓的影响因素是出生体重(OR=1.001),低体重的影响因素有月龄(OR=1.019)、出生体重(OR=1.001),消瘦的影响因素有月龄(OR=1.054)和出生体重(OR=1.001),贫血的影响因素为月龄(OR=1.029).结论 甘肃省贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童营养不良和贫血状况仍然较为严重,应针对各年龄段儿童营养不良状况特点制定相应干预措施,从而改善甘肃省贫困地区儿童营养健康状况.%Objective To analyze malnutrition and anemia status and its possible influence factors among children under 5 years old in poverty rural areas of Gansu Province, and provide evidence for establishment of children nutrition related policies. Methods 1398 subjects were selected by multistage cluster sampling to analysis the nutrition status. The situation of malnutrition and anemia of children were evaluated by Z-scores and hemoglobin concentration, and its influence

  5. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-05-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154.

  6. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154. PMID:25206158

  7. Analysis of the prevalence and the etiology of deciduous crossbite for the children aged 3-5 years old in Baotou City%包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合患病率及病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婧; 樊永杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合情况,为乳牙反牙合预防和治疗提供参考。方法采取随机抽样的方法,对包头市1414名3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合情况进行调查,对收集的资料进行统计学分析。结果乳牙反牙合患病率为12.02%,男女差异无统计学意义(P<0.05)。个别牙反牙合和前牙反牙合最为常见,构成比分别为47.06%和30.59%。乳尖牙磨耗不足、喂养习惯及口腔不良习惯是导致乳牙反牙合最为常见的原因,构成比分别为33.53%和28.82%。结论应针对包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合常见的类型和病因,积极防治。%Objective To investigate the situation of the deciduous crossbite in baotou for providing theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of deciduous crossbite. Methods A total of 1 414 children between 3 to 5 years old in Baotou were randomly sampled and investigated. The data collected was analyzed by the software SPSS 13. 0. Results The prevalence of deciduous crossbite was 12. 02%, which had no statistical difference in gender. Individual dental crossbite and anterior teeth crossbite was the most common, constituted 47. 06% and 30. 59%. The most common reason led to deciduous crossbite was the inadequate wearness of deciduous canine and poor feeding and oral habits, whose con-stituent ratio was 33. 53% and 28. 82% respectively. Conclusion The prevention and treatment to different categories and etiology of deciduous anterior crossbite should be adopt aggressively.

  8. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us. PMID:27424019

  9. ASSESSMENT OF A 5-YEAR-OLD REHABILITATED RIPARIAN FOREST: IS IT ALREADY SUSTAINABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Londe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAs important as the establishment of projects of ecological restoration is its assessment post-implementation to know whether the area is becoming self-sustainable or need to be redirected. In this way, this study aimed to know the current situation of a 5-year-old rehabilitated riparian forest,inserted in an anthropogenic impacted region,at the das Velhas River, Minas Gerais State, studying the canopy openness and recruitment of seedlings as plant indicators. 15 plots were allocated in the forest, where hemispherical photographs were taken to analyze the canopy openness and evaluate all seedlings from 0.30 m to 1.30 m height.Canopy openness ranged from 23.7% to 38.8% between seasons and only 192 seedlings were found,from 13 species, five of them exotic and aggressive. Although canopy openness was low, it seems that lateral penetration of light has been favoring the development and dominancy of plants from invasive species, whereas few native ones have been recruited. The exotic/invasive plants may compromise the success of restoration mainly by competition with native planted species. The outcomes evidenced an unsustainability of the riparian forest and the requirement of some management actions to control exotic and invasive plants and ensure the preservation of the area and its ecological roles over time.

  10. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  11. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised. PMID:27489968

  12. Delayed tumor resection in a 5-year-old child with bilateral Wilms tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Samuel P.; Pulliam, Joseph F.; D'Orazio, John A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the case of a 5-year-old girl whose abdominal pain and distension were caused by Wilms tumor of the kidney. Because of the bilateral nature of her disease, she was spared biopsy or initial nephrectomy as part of her treatment course. Rather, she was treated presumptively for Wilms tumor based primarily on radiologic findings. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, dactinomycin and doxorubicin was given to facilitate nephron-sparing surgery for tumor resection. Her ini...

  13. Bifocal Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities in a 5-Year Old Boy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Snoek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the extremely unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a bifocal (cervical as well as lumbar spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORAs. The MRI showed cord oedema at the level of C2 and T10. We propose that during the motor vehicle crash severe propulsion of the head with a flexed lumbar region resulted in a traction injury to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine and maximum flexion caused SCIWORA in C2.

  14. Renal Stone Associated with the Ketogenic Diet in a 5-Year Old Girl with Intractable Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ji Na; Song, Ji Eun; Shin, Jae Il; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Jae Seung

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a 5-year-old girl who developed a renal stone while following the ketogenic diet to treat refractory seizure disorder. Three months after initiating the ketogenic diet, she developed severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The spot urine calcium-to-creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio and 24-hour urine evaluation showed hypercalciuria. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a stone in the right ureteropelvic junction, resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. The renal s...

  15. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  16. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  17. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant V Savant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  18. Encouraging 5-year olds to attend to landmarks: A way to improve children’s wayfinding strategies in a virtual environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie eLingwood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wayfinding can be defined as the ability to learn and remember a route through an environment. Previous researchers have shown that young children have difficulties remembering routes. However, very few researchers have considered how to improve young children’s wayfinding abilities. Therefore, we investigated ways to help children increase their wayfinding skills. In two studies, a total of 72 5-year olds were shown a route in a six turn virtual environment and were then asked to retrace this route by themselves. A unique landmark was positioned at each junction and each junction was made up of two paths: a correct choice and an incorrect choice. Two different strategies improved route learning performance. In Experiment 1, verbally labelling landmarks at junctions during the first walk reduced children’s errors at turns, and the number of trials they needed to reach the learning criterion. In Experiment 2, encouraging children to attend to landmarks at junctions on the first walk reduced the children’s errors when making a turn. This is the first study to show that very young children can be taught effective route learning skills.

  19. Contexto familiar e alterações oclusais em pré-escolares no município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Influence of familiar context and malocclusion in children aged 0-5 years-old in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Regis Aranha Rossi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a prevalência e a associação entre variáveis sócio-ambientais e a maloclusão infantil. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, em crianças de 1-5 anos, residentes em seis áreas do Programa de Saúde da Família, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Foram sorteadas 360 famílias pré-estratificadas, pelo cadastro das famílias das Unidade de Saúde da Família (USF (415 pré-escolares. Após a identificação, foram realizadas visitas domiciliares onde foram entrevistados os pais/responsáveis e as crianças examinadas. Foram utilizados como instrumentos a ficha A - Sistema de Atenção Básica, e o exame oclusal - presença ou ausência de alteração e tipo de desvio. A análise de regressão logística foi utilizada (pOBJECTIVES: the purpose was to investigate the prevalence and the association between social and environmental variables and the children malocclusion. METHODS: the population for this cross-sectional study comprised 360 families (415 schoolchildren resident in six areas where the Family Health Program is running in Salvador in the Brazilian State of Bahia. The dental examinations were carried out using criteria identifying the presence and type of malloclusion and a structured interview conducted with children's mothers or guardians. "Document A" and CAGE were used to report the social and environmental variables. Logistic regression (stepwise forward procedure, p<0.05 analyses were performed. RESULTS: the prevalence of malocclusion was 34.5%. Most families (77.2% lived in dwellings with thick partition walls. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were 64.8% and of these, 50.6% for the duration of the first seven months of life or more. 89.6% did not have the habit of digital suction, but the use of a pacifier was registered in 47%. The multivariate analysis identified an association with malocclusion: the number of individuals aged under 14 years in the household (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 1.02 - 2.26, digital sucking (OR=1.75; 95%CI: 1

  20. 3~5岁儿童的攻击—破坏行为与心理理论、气质的关系%The Relationship among Aggressive and Destructive Behavior,Theory of Mind and Temperament in 3~5-year-old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫书亮; 陶莉莉; 贾蒙蒙; 周宗奎

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how preschoolers' temperament characteristics and the theory of mind can predict their aggressive and destructive behaviors.Ninety children aged 3~5 were measured with theory of mind,aggressive and destructive behavior and temperament.The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between preschoolers' aggressive and destructive behavior and false belief understanding,while a significant correlation among the dimensions of emotionality,activity and social inhibition of temperament.Furthermore,the prediction of preschoolers' false belief understanding to aggressive and destructive behavior can be explained by temperament characteristics.There are some links between theory of mind and temperament.%本研究以90名3~5岁儿童为被试,考察儿童的攻击—破坏行为、心理理论和气质之间的关系。结果表明,儿童的攻击—破坏行为与心理理论的错误信念理解存在显著正相关,与气质的情绪性和活动性显著正相关,与社会抑制性存在显著负相关。儿童的错误信念理解对攻击—破坏行为的预测作用部分可以由气质特征解释。心理理论发展和气质存在一定联系。

  1. Analysis on death causes of children under 5 years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010%2005~2010年兰州市城关区5岁以下儿童死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马铭; 张淑文; 胡晓婷; 李坚

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析兰州市城关区2005~2010年5岁以下儿童死亡情况及主要死亡原因,为降低兰州市5岁以下儿童死亡率提供依据.方法:按照《中国5岁以下儿童死亡监测方案》,对2005~2010年兰州市城关区447例5岁以下儿童死亡情况进行分析.结果:2005年~2010年兰州市城关区活产数为55 868例,新生儿死亡356例,婴儿死亡408例,5岁以下儿童死亡447例,死亡率分别为6.37‰、7.30‰、8.00‰.5岁以下儿童死亡率呈下降趋势,死亡率最高和最低的年份分别为2007年和2010年.兰州市城关区5岁以下儿童死因顺位前三位依次是新生儿窒息、早产(低出生体重)、其他新生儿疾病.结论:城关区5岁以下儿童死亡仍以新生儿和婴儿死亡为主,积极做好孕期和儿童保健宣传工作,提高保健意识及质量,是降低新生儿和婴儿死亡率,最终减少5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.%Objective: To analyze the death status and main death causes of children under five years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010, and provide a basis for reducing mortality of children under five years old. Methods: According to China death monitoring program of children under five years, the death status of 447 children under five years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010 was analyzed. Results: The number of live neonates in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010 was 55 828, the number of neonatal death was 356, the number of infantile death was 408, the number of children death under five years old was 447, the mortalities were 6.37‰, 7.30‰, and 8.00‰,respectively. The mortality of children under five years old showed a decreasing trend, the mortality in 2007 was the highest, and the mortality in 2010 was the lowest. The top three causes of children death under five years old were neonatal asphyxia, premature birth (low birth weight) , and other neonatal diseases. Conclusion

  2. [Enteropathogens associated with diarrheal disease in infants (< 5 years old) in a population sample in Greater Metropolitan Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Felice Jaqueline; Fontana Ld, Lidiani de Medeiros; Barbosa, Paulo Roberto; Silva, Loraine Storch Meyer da; Baillargeon, Clair Maria Martinello; Barichello, Tatiana; Póvoa, Marinete Marins; Cavasini, Carlos Eug nio; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas

    2003-01-01

    Enteropathogens were investigated in 94 children with diarrhea and 45 age-matched controls, 0 to 5 years old, attending an outpatient unit in Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Cryptosporidium (85.1%) topped the list of parasite isolates, followed by Entamoeba histolytica (56.4%) and Giardia lamblia (4.3%). Four samples contained enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (4.3%). Samonella and Shiguella were not detected. Only one sample contained rotavirus (1.1%). PMID:12973585

  3. Surveillance and analysis on diarrheal disease pathogen spectrum among children under 5 years old in Pudong New Area of Shanghai City%上海市浦东新区5岁以下儿童腹泻病病原谱监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费怡; 孙乔; 傅益飞; 朱渭萍; 薛曹怡

    2013-01-01

    , which showed higher than that of other months (18.48%) (χ2 =7.18,P <0.05).The bacteria detection rate was 15.34%from April to October, showing higher than the rate of oth-er months(3.15%)(χ2 =31.22,P<0.05). [Conclusion] Norovirus is the main pathogen for viral diarrheal diseases in children under five and E .coli is the main pathogen of bacterial diarrheal diseases . All study results suggested that summer and autumn should be as the focus time in prevention and control of bacterial diarrhea , while those of viral diarrhea should cover the whole year .

  4. Evaluation on booster immunization efficacy of 5 μg hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) techniques in polymorpha yeast of variant dosage in children aged over 5 years old%5岁以上儿童5μg重组乙型肝炎疫苗(酵母)加强免疫效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永弟; 梁晓峰; 姚军; 崔富强; 王富珍; 沈灵智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the efficacy of booster immunization with domestic 5ug Hepatitis B Vaccine Made by Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Techniques in Polymorpha Yeast ( HepB-Y) of variant dosage, in order to provide evidence for establishing immunization strategy. Methods 1728 children, with ages over 5 years were selected, who had been finished the basic immunization of hepatitis B vaccine in age under 1 year old. Blood plasma specimens of all sampled children were detected for hepatitis B virus ( HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (Anti-HBs) and antibodies to hepatitis B virus core antigen (Anti-HBc) by chemiluminescence. They were then classified into two groups of Anti-HBs positive and negative. Children of positive group were immunized one dosage of 5ug HepB-Y, while children of negative group were immunized three dosages of the same vaccine. Blood samples were collected after 1 month,and detected for Anti-HBs. Results The Anti-HBs positive rates were 40. 10%, 94. 04% and 99. 54% respectively of pre-immunization, post-immunization with one dosage and post-immunization with three dosages, there were statistical significant difference between any two among three rates (all P<0. 05). The Anti-HBs positive conversion rate of post-immunization with one dosage and three dosages were 88. 50% and 99. 42% respectively, the difference of positive conversion rate showed statistical significance between two groups (P< 0. 05). After immunization with one dosage in negative group, the aged rates of Anti-HBs positive conversion were dropping with age (P<0. 05). However, after immunization with three dosages, the aged rates of Anti-HBs positive conversion showed no relationship to age (P>0. 05). The average GMT of Anti-HBs negative children immunized with one dosage and three dosages were 450. 47mlu/ml and 664. 95mlu/ml respectively, while the average GMT of Anti-HBs positive children were 3663. 68mlu/ml after one

  5. A case of ocular thelaziasis in a 2.5 years old Holstein heifer

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    Mousa Daradka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2.5-years-old, Holstein lactating dairy cow was presented to the Veterinary Health Center with severe conjunctivitis and exuberant granulation tissue formation of the left eye. Upon close examination of the eye, a 2-cm long slender-shaped nematode was found in the conjunctival sac. The nematode was examined by a veterinary parasitologist and determined to be Thelazia species. The exuberant granulation tissue was surgically removed and a total of 0.5 mL of 1% levamisole was injected subconjunctivally. Levamesole was also injected subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight and repeated after 15 days. The cow made a complete recovery within 25 days following treatment. This is the first case report of ocular thelaziasis in dairy cattle in Jordan.

  6. Delayed tumor resection in a 5-year-old child with bilateral Wilms tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Samuel P; Pulliam, Joseph F; D'Orazio, John A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a 5-year-old girl whose abdominal pain and distension were caused by Wilms tumor of the kidney. Because of the bilateral nature of her disease, she was spared biopsy or initial nephrectomy as part of her treatment course. Rather, she was treated presumptively for Wilms tumor based primarily on radiologic findings. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, dactinomycin and doxorubicin was given to facilitate nephron-sparing surgery for tumor resection. Her initial chemotherapeutic course was complicated by tumor lysis syndrome manifested by elevated serum uric acid and was treated effectively with hyperhydration and alkalization of intravenous fluids. The patient's disease responded well to chemotherapy, and she underwent successful tumor excision after 12 weeks of chemotherapy. The resected tumor was identified as anaplastic Wilms tumor, illustrating that pathologic identification of Wilms tumor is possible even after multiple cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and marked tumor shrinkage. PMID:24964423

  7. Symptomatic imperforate Cowper's syringocele in a 5-year-old boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Cowper's syringocele is a rare anomaly in childhood. It is caused by the obstruction of the duct of Cowper's gland. Depending of the type and size of the syringocele, and the age of the patient, the treatment for symptomatic lesions could be endoscopic deroofing or open perineal surgery. Case report. We report a case of symptomatic imperforate syringocele in a 5-year-old boy. Although the syringocele are usually best shown on voiding cysto-urethrography, there was not any detectable extrinsic impression or filling defect in the bulbar urethra. Ultrasonography guided perineal puncture with contrast filling of the cystic lesion was used to detect the connection of the Cowper's duct to the ventral surface of bulbar urethra. Conclusions. In imperforate syringocele, ultrasonography could be useful imaging technique especially in young patients, to evaluate urethra and perineal lesions and for percutaneous guided procedures. (author)

  8. On Differences of Emotional Display Rules Cognition of 3-5-year-old Children in Different Emotional Situations%3~5岁幼儿在不同情境中情绪表达规则认知差异的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军利; 卢英俊

    2012-01-01

    The researchers chose 101 children of 3-5 relation upon their cognition of emotional display rules to observe the influence of age, emotional situation and interpersonal Results indicated that children started to differentiate displayed and real emotions at 3; emotional display rules cognition developed rapidly at 4; preschool children's purpose for emotion adjustment was self-protection and it tended to be more socially oriented with increase of age; children had a better understanding of sadness display rules and their emotional display was more compatible with social expectations while they tended to be more self- centered when angry; with presence of friends, children's emotional adjustment was more effective, especially in happy and sad situations. In order to promote children's development in cognition of emotion display rules, adults should foster children's empathy for better social development; they should development children's emotional adjustment ability at the critical age of 4; guide children in reasonable release and adjustment of negative emotion and create a harmonious emotional environment for them.%本研究选取了101名3~5岁幼儿,考察年龄、情绪情境和人际关系背景等对幼儿情绪袁达规则认知的影响。结果显示,幼儿在3岁时开始认识到外部表情和真实情绪的区别;4岁时情绪表达规则认知能力迅速发展;在早期,幼儿进行情绪调节的目的以自我保护目标为主,随着年龄增长而日渐趋向社会定向目标;幼儿对伤心情绪表达规则的理解相对较好,情绪表达更符合社会期望,而在生气情境中表现得更自我中心:当好朋友在场时.幼儿的情绪调节更有效,尤其是在高兴和伤心情境中,其外部情绪表现更符合社会期望。为促进幼儿情绪表达规则认知能力的发展,成人要注意培养幼儿的同理心,促进其交往能力的发展;抓住4岁这个关键期,培养

  9. Custo-efetividade da escovação dental supervisionada convencional e modificada na prevenção da cárie em molares permanentes de crianças de 5 anos de idade Cost-effectiveness of conventional and modified supervised toothbrushing in preventing caries in permanent molars among 5-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O custo-efetividade de um programa modificado de escovação dental supervisionada foi comparado ao programa convencional. Participaram 284 crianças de 5 anos com, pelo menos, um molar permanente com a superfície oclusal irrompida/hígida. Nas unidades de controle, o programa convencional composto de atividade educativa com distribuição de escova e creme dental fluorado foi desenvolvido quatro vezes por ano. Nas unidades de teste, as crianças receberam também escovação profissional nas superfícies oclusais desses dentes, realizada por auxiliar de saúde bucal, empregando-se a técnica de escovação vestíbulo-lingual cinco vezes por ano. Cárie de esmalte/dentina foi registrada nas superfícies vestibular, oclusal e lingual dos molares permanentes durante 18 meses. A razão da densidade de incidência (RDI foi estimada usando o modelo de regressão de Poisson, sendo 50% menor entre os meninos no grupo de teste (p = 0,016. O programa modificado custou R$ 3,04 por criança. A razão de custo-efetividade marginal foi de R$ 10,71 por lesão evitada entre os meninos. O programa modificado foi custo-efetivo nos meninos.The cost-effectiveness of a modified supervised toothbrushing program was compared to a conventional program. A total of 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In the control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice was carried outfour times per year. With the test group, children also underwent professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a dental assistant five times per year. Enamel/dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars for a period of18 months. The incidence density (ID ratio was estimated using Poisson's regression model. The ID was 50% lower among boys in the test group (p = 0.016. The cost of the

  10. A CASE REPORT OF A 2.5-YEAR-OLD GIRL WITH ANGELMAN SYNDROME (AS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHI OMRAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAngelman Syndrome (AS is a genetically determined syndrome that has a unique behavioral phenotype. This syndrome is described as jerky ataxia and an unusual happy facial expression with pathological laughter. Severe mental retardation is a unique feature of the syndrome, together with microbrachycephaly and abnormal electroencephalographic findings with or without clinical seizures. The patients cannot speak or at most, they have a vocabulary consisting only of a few words. The genetic abnormality of AS has been located on chromosome 15q11-q13. Patients with AS mostly have deletions on the maternally derived allele (75-80% while some of them show paternal  uniparental disomy (~2% or a rare imprinting mutation developmental disorder caused by deletion of the maternally-inherited chromosome 15q11-13. A 2.5-year-old girl is presented. Clinical suspicion of AS was raised at the age of 27 months when she presented with mental retardation and epilepsy, absence of speech, inability to gait and paroxysmal episodes of laughter. Moreover, she had facial dysmorphic features such as microbrachycephaly,  mid-facial hypoplasia, macrostomia and a prominent mandible. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46 xx with the deletion of 15q chromosome (15q11q13-snrpn/ic Our patient met the classical phenotype and genotype of AS.Keywords:Angelman syndrome, icrobrachycephaly, Happy facial Phenotype

  11. A CASE REPORT OF A 2.5-YEAR-OLD GIRL WITH ANGELMAN SYNDROME (AS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHI OMRAN,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAngelman Syndrome (AS is a genetically determined syndrome that has a unique behavioral phenotype. This syndrome is described as jerky ataxia and an unusual happy facial expression with pathological laughter. Severe mental retardation is a unique feature of the syndrome, together with microbrachycephaly and abnormal electroencephalographic findings with or without clinical seizures. The patients cannot speak or at most, they have a vocabulary consisting only of a few words. The genetic abnormality of AS has been located on chromosome 15q11-q13. Patients with AS mostly have deletions on the maternally derived allele (75-80% while some of them show paternal uniparental disomy (~2% or a rare imprinting mutation developmental disorder caused by deletion of the maternally-inherited chromosome 15q11-13. A 2.5-year-old girl is presented. Clinical suspicion of AS was raised at the age of 27 months when she presented with mental retardation and epilepsy, absence of speech, inability to gait and paroxysmal episodes of laughter. Moreover, she had facial dysmorphic features such as microbrachycephaly, mid-facial hypoplasia, macrostomia and a prominent mandible. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46 xx with the deletion of 15q chromosome (15q11q13-snrpn/ic Our patient met the classical phenotype and genotype of AS.

  12. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ...

  13. Why Do Some but not All 5-year-Old Dutch Children Draw Scalar Implicatures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Myrthe; Overweg, Jennigje; van Hout, Anna; Stravakaki, Stravoula; Lalioti, Marina; Konstantinopoulou, Polyxeni

    2013-01-01

    This book contains 51 chapters based on papers presented at the GALA (Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition) conference held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in 2011. It thus reflects the GALA 2011 scientific presentations and discussions and raises issues that are currently at the centre of languag

  14. A Case Study:The Role of Block Building Games in Improving the Social Ability of a 3.5-year-old Child with Hearing Impairment%听障儿童积木建构游戏社会性水平的个案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王段霞; 张倩; 王丽燕; 罗薇

    2013-01-01

      目的通过个案研究探讨教师指导对听障儿童积木建构游戏中社会性水平的影响.方法采用单一被试单基线A-B实验设计,对1例听障儿童积木建构游戏进行指导,跟踪指导效果,采用SPSS 17.0进行数据分析.结果经过教师为期3个月的积木建构区游戏指导,个案简单平行游戏(P<0.05)、互补游戏(P<0.05)在基线期和处理期均有显著性差异,即简单平行游戏减少,互补游戏增多,游戏社会性水平显著提高.结论教师在听障儿童积木建构游戏中的指导能有效提高其游戏社会性水平.%Objective To study the impact of teachers’ instructions on the social ability of a hearing-impaired child in the block building games. Methods By a single-subject A-B experimental design, the instructions were provided for a hearing-impaired child for playing block building games and the follow-up outcomes were observed. The experimental results were then analyzed with SPSS17.0 software. Results After 3 months of teachers’ instructions in block building games, the scores of the subjects showed significant differences in parallel games(P<0.05) and complementary games(P<0.05)as compared with those scores at baseline. The number of simple parallel games decreased and complementary games increased, which indicated the improvement of social ability. Conclusion The instructions of teachers in the block building games can effectively enhance the social skills of hearing-impaired children while playing games.

  15. Water fluoridation, tooth decay in 5 year olds, and social deprivation measured by the Jarman score: analysis of data from British dental surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C M; Taylor, G O; Whittle, J. G.; Evans, D.; Trotter, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of water fluoridation, both artificial and natural, on dental decay, after socioeconomic deprivation was controlled for. DESIGN: Ecological study based on results from the NHS dental surveys in 5 year olds in 1991-2 and 1993-4 and Jarman underprivileged area scores from the 1991 census. SETTING: Electoral wards in three areas: Hartlepool (naturally fluoridated), Newcastle and North Tyneside (fluoridated), and Salford and Trafford (non-fluoridated). SUBJECTS: 5...

  16. Chronic pancreatitis with pancreaticolithiasis and pseudocyst in a 5-year-old boy with homozygous SPINK1 mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Axel C.; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic Radiology - Pediatric Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Teich, Niels; Caca, Karel [University of Leipzig, Department of Internal Medicine II - Gastroenterology / Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Limbach, Anne [University of Leipzig, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    We report a 5-year-old boy with a 5-month history of symptoms owing to chronic pancreatitis. Abdominal imaging revealed a large pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail and concretions in the main pancreatic duct. Successful endoscopic papillotomy and stent implantation were performed. Genetic testing showed homozygous SPINK1-N34S mutation, which is an established risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. (orig.)

  17. Behavioral Treatment of Acute Onset School Refusal in a 5-year Old Girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosschalk, Philip O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the behavioral treatment of acute onset school refusal in a 5-year old girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A functional classification was used to select a treatment approach that involved the parent and teacher using shaping, positive reinforcement and extinction. Results showed that by the end of the fifth week of…

  18. A Proposal to Strengthen the Values of Solidarity and Empathy of 4-5-year old Children Attending a Private Institution, in the Province of Heredia (Costa Rica, Through Playful-creative Workshops Aplicación de la propuesta para fortalecer la vivencia de los valores de solidaridad y empatía con niños y niñas de 4 a 5 años, de una institución privada de Heredia, por medio de talleres lúdicos-creativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónika Vargas Mora

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project was to analyze how solidarity and empathy may be strengthened in 4-5-year old children through playful-creative workshops. The project was conducted in a private institution, in the province of Heredia, Costa Rica. This qualitative research was composed of three stages. First, a diagnostic stage helped us to identify the background of participants in relation to the values being studied; it included interviews and observation of participants. In the second stage, playful-creative workshops were put into practice to strength the values. The last stage was a comparative analysis of the information collected before and after carrying out the activities; it helped us to see if the children’s experience in relation to the values of empathy and solidarity was influenced by the workshops. One of the main conclusions is that by sharing and working with students through this methodology, children became more aware of the feelings of other people, and it improved their relations with other children. Recibido 29 de noviembre de 2012 •  Corregido 01 de mayo de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013El objetivo fue analizar, en qué forma, el desarrollo de talleres lúdico-creativos fortalecen la vivencia de los valores de solidaridad y empatía con niños y niñas de 4 a 5 años que asisten a una institución privada en Heredia. Esta investigación fue de tipo cualitativa y se desarrolló en tres etapas. Una etapa diagnóstica para describir los conocimientos previos de las personas participantes con dichos valores, la cual se llevó a cabo por medio de entrevistas y observaciones no participantes. La segunda etapa consistió en formular y aplicar talleres lúdico-creativos que fortalecieran estos valores en el estudiantado. La última etapa fue un análisis comparativo entre la información recolectada inicialmente y los datos recopilados después de implementada la propuesta, para así verificar si la aplicación de

  19. Validation of calculation algorithms for organ doses in CT by measurements on a 5 year old paediatric phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabin, Jérémie; Mencarelli, Alessandra; McMillan, Dayton; Romanyukha, Anna; Struelens, Lara; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-06-01

    Many organ dose calculation tools for computed tomography (CT) scans rely on the assumptions: (1) organ doses estimated for one CT scanner can be converted into organ doses for another CT scanner using the ratio of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) between two CT scanners; and (2) helical scans can be approximated as the summation of axial slices covering the same scan range. The current study aims to validate experimentally these two assumptions. We performed organ dose measurements in a 5 year-old physical anthropomorphic phantom for five different CT scanners from four manufacturers. Absorbed doses to 22 organs were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters for head-to-torso scans. We then compared the measured organ doses with the values calculated from the National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for CT (NCICT) computer program, developed at the National Cancer Institute. Whereas the measured organ doses showed significant variability (coefficient of variation (CoV) up to 53% at 80 kV) across different scanner models, the CoV of organ doses normalised to CTDIvol substantially decreased (12% CoV on average at 80 kV). For most organs, the difference between measured and simulated organ doses was within  ±20% except for the bone marrow, breasts and ovaries. The discrepancies were further explained by additional Monte Carlo calculations of organ doses using a voxel phantom developed from CT images of the physical phantom. The results demonstrate that organ doses calculated for one CT scanner can be used to assess organ doses from other CT scanners with 20% uncertainty (k  =  1), for the scan settings considered in the study.

  20. Mothers' Mediational Style and the Effects on Language Development in 3 to 5 Year-olds

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Mothers and their children aged 3 -5.5 (14 girls and 26 boys) were videotaped in two situations: a) mother reading with the child and b) child constructing a puzzle with the mother. Children's language development was assessed with the CELF, a norm referenced language test. Two scorers rated the videotapes for mediational and interactions and directive interactions. Using Feuerstein's Mediated Learning Experience criteria (MLE) mediational interactions were coded: Regulation of Behavior, Shar...

  1. Fertility treatment and child intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, B; Mortensen, E L; Kesmodel, U S

    2014-01-01

    for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy and child gender, child age, and examiner. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children...

  2. Classroom Bird Feeding: Giving Flight to the Imaginations of 4- and 5-Year-Olds!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Deanna Pecaski

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how placing a plastic, gazebo-style bird feeder outside the classroom windows one cold autumn morning had been a catalyst for capturing and inspiring the children's imaginations. This empowered them to explore self-directed activities that resulted in meaningful, collaborative learning for most of the school…

  3. Input Effects on the Acquisition of a Novel Phrasal Construction in 5 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Boyd, Jeremy K.; Thomson, Jennifer; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiments demonstrate that children as young as five years old (M = 5:2) generalize beyond their input on the basis of minimal exposure to a novel argument structure construction. The novel construction that was used involved a non-English phrasal pattern: VN[subscript 1]N[subscript 2], paired with a novel abstract meaning:…

  4. Professionally applied fluoride gel in low-caries 10.5-year-olds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    The question has been raised whether low-caries children regularly using fluoride toothpaste will benefit from the professional application of additional fluoride gel. To investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually-applied neutral 1% sodium fluoride gel, we carried out a double-blind ran

  5. T-condylar fracture delayed for 10 days in a 5-year-old boy: a case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shashidhar B Kantharajanna; Vijay Goni; Pebam Sudesh; Nirmal Raj Gopinathan

    2013-01-01

    T-condylar fracture is rare in paediatric age group,especially in skeletally immature children less than 9 years old,with very few cases reported in available literature.We present such a case in a 5 year old child that was initially managed as a supracondylar fracture at another centre before referral to us,10 days after the injury.The child was diagnosed as having a displaced T-condylar fracture on plain radiograph.Open reduction and internal fixation with K-wires was performed.At 2 years follow-up,the child had good range of motion at elbow with 5°of cubitus varus.With this background we discuss the pertinent principles of management of T-condylar fractures in skeletally immature children.

  6. Generalized odontodysplasia in a 5-year-old patient with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome: clinical aspects, cone beam computed tomography findings, and conservative clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Juliana Ximenes; Couto, José Luciano Pimenta; Alves, Karla Shangela da Silva; Chaves, Cauby Maia; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Pimenta, Alynne de Menezes Vieira; Fonteles, Cristiane Sá Roriz

    2014-08-01

    This article aims to report the main clinical aspects, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) findings, and conservative oral rehabilitation in a child born from a consanguineous marriage who presented with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome (HSS) and generalized odontodysplasia. A 5-year-old girl presented with a diagnosis of HSS for oral evaluation. Radiographically, all teeth showed wide pulp chambers and roots with thin dentinal walls and open apices, resembling ghost teeth and indicating a diagnosis of odontodysplasia. Oral rehabilitation consisted of partial dentures that were regularly adjusted to conform the device with the pattern of growth and development of the child. CBCT scan provided great insight into HSS, allowing a detailed view of the morphologic aspects and associated trabecular bone pattern. Treatment of these 2 rare conditions in young children must consider the stage of growth and development. Although extremely rare in HSS, odontodysplasia should be investigated and conservatively managed in young children.

  7. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predicto...

  8. Brief Report: Circumscribed Attention in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    School-aged children and adolescents with autism demonstrate circumscribed attentional patterns to nonsocial aspects of complex visual arrays (Sasson et al. "2008"). The current study downward extended these findings to a sample of 2-5 year-olds with autism and 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Eye-tracking was used to quantify discrete…

  9. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predictors: child sex, partner support reported by the caregiver, disorganized infant-parent attachment at 15 months, child anger proneness at 28 months, and one of the two parent-child interaction factors observed at 28 months, namely negative parent-child interactions. The other, i.e., a lack of effective guidance, predicted externalizing problems only in highly anger-prone children. Furthermore, mediated pathways of influence were found for the parent-child interaction at 15 months (via disorganized attachment) and parental ego-resiliency (via negative parent-child interaction at 28 months). PMID:17243016

  10. Improvement of Fine Motor Skills in Children with Visual Impairment: An Explorative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A. M.; Cox, R. F. A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement…

  11. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner’s Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient. PMID:27656581

  12. Renal infarction secondary to invasive aspergillosis in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Hyun; Im, Soo Ah; Cho, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus species have angioinvasive properties and can involve extrapulmonary organs by hematogenous spread from the lungs. However, renal involvement by Aspergillus is uncommon and is usually associated with the formation of abscesses. We report an unusual case of invasive renal aspergillosis presenting with extensive renal infarction in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case emphasizes the fact that renal aspergillosis initially presents with only renal infarction, and metastatic-embolism by invasive aspergillosis should be considered in differential diagnosis for any focal lesion of kidney in a patient with leukemia.

  13. Reference range of blood biomarkers for oxidative stress in Thoroughbred racehorses (2–5 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUSANO, Kanichi; YAMAZAKI, Masahiko; KIUCHI, Masataka; KANEKO, Kouki; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium is known to play an important role in equine medicine and equine exercise physiology. There are abundant findings in this field; however, not many studies have been conducted for reference ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers in horses. This study was conducted to determine the reference values of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) using blood samples from 372 (191 males, 181 females) Thoroughbred racehorse aged 2 to 5 (3.43 ± 1.10 (mean ± SD)) years old. There were obvious gender differences in oxidative biomarkers, and growth/age-related changes were observed especially in females. Gender and age must be considered when interpreting obtained oxidative stress biomarkers for diagnosis of disease or fitness alterations in Thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:27703408

  14. Improvement of fine motor skills in children with visual impairment: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis)

  15. Improvement of fine motor skills in children with visual impairment: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis)

  16. Representations of eating and of a nutrition program among female caregivers of children under 5 years old in Tizimin, Yucatan, Mexico Representaciones sobre la alimentación y el programa de nutrición entre mujeres responsables de niños mexicanos menores de 5 años Representação da alimentação e de programa alimentar entre mulheres responsáveis por crianças mexicanas menores de 5 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria de los Ángeles Uicab-Pool

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out between January and April 2008 with 14 caregivers of children younger than 5 years residing in Tizimín city, Mexico. It aimed to understand the social representations of eating and the Programa Oportunidades [Opportunity Program] held by caregivers taking into account their social and cultural context. This qualitative investigation with an ethnographic approach was based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two empirical categories emerged: 1 feeding and 2 an aid. The first refers to the caregivers' representation of eating patterns of children younger than 5 years and the second reveals that the program is considered an aid, which favors and helps caregivers to meet part of their needs. The study achieved the proposed objectives since it enabled us to understand caregivers in the complex task of feeding these children and also to propose strategies in several spheres to improve infant nutrition.El estudio fue realizado con 14 responsables del cuidado del menor de 5 años en Tizimín, México, durante el período de enero la abril de 2008. Se buscó comprender las representaciones sociales de estas personas en relación a la alimentación y la los componentes de nutrición del Programa Oportunidades, considerando el contexto social y cultural. La investigación cualitativa con abordaje antropológico, tipo etnográfico tuvo como base la observación participante y las entrevistas semiestructuradas, dirigidas a las responsables. De los resultados emergieron dos categorías empíricas: 1 dar de comer y 2 una ayuda. La primera se refiere a cómo las responsables representan la alimentación del menor de 5 años y la segunda reveló que el Programa es considerado una ayuda y que las apoya a solucionar, en parte, sus necesidades. Se alcanzaron los objetivos al comprender a las responsables en esa tarea compleja que realizan de alimentar a los niños y así proponer estrategias, en varias esferas

  17. Utilidad de la espirometría en preescolares de 4 y 5 años Utility of spirometry in 4 to 5 -years old preschool patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jury Hernández C

    2006-03-01

    respectively. Expiratory time was 6 s in 9.6% (n=17 of patients. Expiratory time was larger in children >5- compared to <5- years old (4.1 ± 1.3 s versus 3.1 ± 0.49 s; p < 0.018. VEF1 variability in 162 children having 2 or 3 acceptable maneuvers was < 0.1 L in 67%, < 5% in 50% and < 10% in 80%. Spirometry was normal in 80.5%, obstructive in 19% and restrictive in one patient. Conclusions:We confirmed that most of the preschool patients are able to perform an adequate spirometric test in terms of acceptability and reproducibility. We suggest to study a normal population of preshool children in order to have normal local data available

  18. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  19. The influence of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch. and irrigation on yield of 5-years-old apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Warabieda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae on yield of apple trees was investigated. The experiment was conducted on rrigated and non-irrigated 5-years-old apple trees of 'Close' and 'Jonagold' cultivars grafted on M.9. The population size of the pest exceeded four and two times the valid (in Poland economic injury level on trees of 'Close' and 'Jonagold' cultivars respectively. No significant influence of mites on yield and its quality (mean fruit weight and fruit colour was observed on both apple cultivars. Irrigation had positive effect on yield and quality of 'Jonagold'. On the contrary, trees of ' Close' cultivar were positively influenced by irrigation only regarding fruits colour. Results of the study support opinion that the economic injury level for apple orchards, with respect to two-spotted spider mite, should be higher than it is up to now.

  20. Preventive education and birth order as co-determinants of IQ in disadvantaged 5-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boat, B W; Campbell, F A; Ramey, C T

    1986-01-01

    The effects of preventive education and birth order on IQ scores of 95 economically disadvantaged children at risk for retarded intellectual development were studied. Experimental first- and later-born children participated from birth in a 5-year programme of systematic educational intervention. An equal number of children served as controls and received no systematic intervention. First-borns prevailed as the brighter children in both the educational treatment group and the control group when Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) full scale and verbal IQ scores were compared. Furthermore, mothers of first-borns (70% of whom were only-born at age 5) achieved significantly higher WAIS scores than did mothers of later-born children. Results suggest that later-born disadvantaged children are at greatest risk for developmental retardation. PMID:3955795

  1. Quantitative Effects of Repeated Muscle Vibrations on Gait Pattern in a 5-Year-Old Child with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Camerota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate quantitatively and objectively the effects of repeated muscle vibration (rMV of triceps surae on the gait pattern in a 5-year-old patient with Cerebral Palsy with equinus foot deformity due to calf spasticity. Methods. The patient was assessed before and one month after the rMV treatment using Gait Analysis. Results. rMV had positive effects on the patient's gait pattern, as for spatio-temporal parameters (the stance duration and the step length increased their values after the treatment and kinematics. The pelvic tilt reduced its anteversion and the hip reduced the high flexion evidenced at baseline; the knee and the ankle gained a more physiological pattern bilaterally. The Gillette Gait Index showed a significant reduction of its value bilaterally, representing a global improvement of the child's gait pattern. Conclusions. The rMV technique seems to be an effective option for the gait pattern improvement in CP, which can be used also in very young patient. Significant improvements were displayed in terms of kinematics at all lower limb joints, not only at the joint directly involved by the treatment (i.e., ankle and knee joints but also at proximal joints (i.e., pelvis and hip joint.

  2. The Timeline of Influenza Virus Shedding in Children and Adults in a Household Transmission Study of Influenza in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sophia; Lopez, Roger; Kuan, Guillermina; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Gordon, Aubree

    2016-05-01

    In a household transmission study in Nicaragua, children under 6 years old had a longer duration of presymptomatic influenza virus shedding than adults. The duration of postsymptomatic influenza virus shedding was longest in children 0-5 years old, followed by children 6-15 years of age and adults. PMID:26910589

  3. Evaluation of the relationship between milk consumption and dental caries in 3-5 years old children in Ray city

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mahmodian; Naghavi; H. Nekoie

    1994-01-01

    Undoubtedly, Tooth decay is still one of the most significant problems in human communities. Tooth decay is defined as a microbial disease that causes demineralization of hard tissues and degradation of organic components of teeth. Although there are various theories on etiology of dental caries, Miller’s acidogenic theory (1890) and Gottileb’s proteolitic theory (1933) have gained the most credibility among the others. In general, status and amount of saliva, oral hygiene, tooth structure, t...

  4. Assessing Selective Sustained Attention in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children: Evidence from a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna; Thiessen, Erik; Godwin, Karrie; Kloos, Heidi; Dickerson, John

    2013-01-01

    Selective sustained attention (SSA) is crucial for higher order cognition. Factors promoting SSA are described as exogenous or endogenous. However, there is little research specifying how these factors interact during development, due largely to the paucity of developmentally appropriate paradigms. We report findings from a novel paradigm designed…

  5. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to differen

  6. An Examination of the Associations among Multiple Memory Systems, Past Tense, and Vocabulary in Typically Developing 5-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…

  7. Plasma levels of D-dimer in a 5-year-old girl with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, QIANG; LIN, CHANG-SONG

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported high levels of D-dimer associated with multiple joint pain in a 5-year-old patient with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). While treatment with methotrexate (MTX), hydroxychloroquine and methylprednisolone was found to reduce the D-dimer level and alleviated joint pain, the fever was not effectively controlled. Addition of etanercept to the treatment regimen from week 2 resulted in a clinical remission. Following 4–6 months of therapy, the D-dimer level of the patient returned to the normal range, and symptoms of noticeable joint pain and fever were absent. A literature search showed that the levels of D-dimer may be associated with JIA disease severity, and can serve as a prognostic biomarker for JIA treatment. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, while MTX therapy effectively reduced D-dimer levels, addition of etanercept to the treatment regimen was required to achieve a long-lasting remission of clinical symptoms, including fever. PMID:26998032

  8. False-positive “halo” sign on testicular scintigraphy in a 5-year-old boy with epididymitis and hydrocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphic differentiation between acute torsion, hydrocele and testicular or scrotal abscess can be difficult. Doppler sonography may provide useful complimentary information toward diagnosis. The authors describe a 5-year-old child where epididymitis with hydrocele was misdiagnosed as testicular torsion on scrotal scintigraphy

  9. Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161035.html Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5: Study ... 5 years old -- may be at risk of suicide. Black elementary school-age boys seem to have ...

  10. Acute lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in a group of Egyptian children under 5 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    El-kholy Amany A; El-anany Mervat G; Mansi Yasmeen A; Fattouh Aya M; El-karaksy Hanaa M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in infants and young children. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of ALRTI associated with RSV among children5 years old in Egypt. Patients and Methods We enrolled 427 children5 years old diagnosed with ALRTI attending the outpatient clinic or Emergency Department (ED) of Children Hospital, Cairo University during a one-...

  11. The Dominance of Spatial Memory over Color or Form in 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Pattern Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.

    The relative importance of spatial-position as a memory aid in a block pattern reproduction task was investigated by analyzing the object-selection and object-placement strategies of 69 nursery school children. Subjects were given a task modeled on Piaget's assessment of Static Reproductive Images and Action that had been modified into a…

  12. A compreensão da gratidão e teoria da mente em crianças de 5 anos The understanding of gratitude and theory of mind in 5-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Beatriz de Lucca Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se relações entre compreensão da gratidão (GRA e desenvolvimento de uma teoria da mente (TOM com 228 crianças norteamericanas (53% meninas de 5 anos. Testaram-se as seguintes hipóteses: (a não há diferença de sexo em GRA ou TOM, (b as crianças com melhor desempenho nas tarefas de TOM têm melhor GRA, (c TOM é condição necessária para GRA. Utilizaram-se três tarefas para avaliar TOM: consideração da perspectiva visual, crença falsa de primeira e de segunda ordem. Contaram-se às crianças duas histórias sobre gratidão. Avaliou-se GRA a partir de suas respostas a perguntas feitas após a leitura de cada história. As duas primeiras hipóteses foram confirmadas. A hipótese de que TOM seria condição necessária para GRA não encontrou suficiente suporte empírico.We examined relations between the understanding of gratitude (GRA and the development of a theory of mind (TOM. The study was done with 228 5-year-old North American children (53% female. We tested the following hypotheses: (a there are no sex differences in GRA or TOM, (b children who perform better on TOM tasks have better GRA, (c TOM is a necessary condition for GRA. We used three tasks to evaluate TOM: visual perspective taking, first-order false belief, and second-order false belief. The children were read two vignettes about gratitude. GRA was evaluated based on children's responses to questions asked after each vignette was read. The first two hypotheses were supported. The hypothesis that TOM would be a necessary condition for GRA did not receive sufficient empirical support.

  13. Overweight, Obesity and Underweight Is Associated with Adverse Psychosocial and Physical Health Outcomes among 7-Year-Old Children: The 'Be Active, Eat Right' Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Limited studies have reported on associations between overweight, and physical and psychosocial health outcomes among younger children. This study evaluates associations between overweight, obesity and underweight in 5-year-old children, and parent-reported health outcomes at

  14. A short-term longitudinal study of relational aggression and social skills of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Miyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study was designed to examine relational aggression associated with social skills and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of preschool children. Relational aggression, social skills (self-control skills, friendship making skills, and assertion skills), and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of one hundred and twenty 5-year old children were assessed two times across a 6-months period by using teacher rating measures. For the data analysis, the children were divided according to th...

  15. Mathematical Skills in 3- and 5-Year-Olds with Spina Bifida and Their Typically Developing Peers: A Longitudinal Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Stubbs, Allison; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M.; Smith-Chant, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual–spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months o...

  16. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal......-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. METHODS: The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p...... to girls in the lowest quartile. No significant associations were observed with leptin, or among boys. A mediating effect of insulin or leptin on later obesity was not observed. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest, that for girls, prenatal exposure to POPs may play a role for later development of metabolic...

  17. Teaching Children about the Inverse Relation between Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Hallett, Darcy; Bell, Daniel; Evans, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Two intervention studies are described. Both were designed to study the effects of teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. The interventions were successful with 8-year-old children in Study 1 and to a limited extent with 5-year-old children in Study 2. In Study 1 teaching children about inversion increased…

  18. Changing the main indicators to assess motor function in children with cerebral palsy spastic form by hydrokinesitherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Taran I.V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the efficiency of the developed technique hydrokinetic system of physical rehabilitation for children 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. Examined the impact of comparing the effectiveness of exercise in the water by two techniques: the author and accepted. In experiment involved 24 people aged 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. The experiment lasted one year, classes were held hydrokinesitherapy 2 times a week. In the study recorde...

  19. Young Children Can Tell Strategic Lies after Committing a Transgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D.; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether young children make strategic decisions about whether to lie to conceal a transgression based on the lie recipient's knowledge. In Experiment 1, 168 3- to 5-year-olds were asked not to peek at the toy in the experimenter's absence, and the majority of children peeked. Children were questioned about their…

  20. “Stop eating lollies and do lots of sports”: a prospective qualitative study of the development of children’s awareness of dietary restraint and exercise to lose weight

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel F. Rodgers; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Damiano, Stephanie R; Gregg, Karen J; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Beliefs surrounding the usefulness of dietary restriction and physical activity as means of body shape and size modification is already present in children as young as 5-years-old, and these beliefs may increase the risk of unhealthy weight control behaviours later in life. To date, however, little is known regarding the development of these beliefs in younger children. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore young (aged 3- to 5-years old) children’s conceptualisati...

  1. Overweight, Obesity and Underweight Is Associated with Adverse Psychosocial and Physical Health Outcomes among 7-Year-Old Children: The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    OpenAIRE

    Amy van Grieken; Renders, Carry M.; Wijtzes, Anne I; HiraSing, Remy A.; Hein Raat

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Limited studies have reported on associations between overweight, and physical and psychosocial health outcomes among younger children. This study evaluates associations between overweight, obesity and underweight in 5-year-old children, and parent-reported health outcomes at age 7 years.Methods:Data were used from the 'Be active, eat right' study. Height and weight were measured at 5 and 7 years. Parents reported on child physical and psychosocial health outcomes (e.g....

  2. A Cross-sectional Study for Determinations of Prevention Behaviors of Domestic Accidents in Mothers with Children Less than 5- year

    OpenAIRE

    Farbod Ebadi Fardazar; Kamyar Mansori; Mahnaz Solhi; Syyedeh Shahrbanou Hashemi; Erfan Ayubi; Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani; Salman Khazaei; Shiva Mansouri hanis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidents are the first cause of death in children under 5- year, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of prevention behavior of domestic accidents in mothers of children fewer than 5 years old based on protection motivation theory )PMT(. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 190 mothers were randomly selected. The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire about prev...

  3. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses and genotyping of rotavirus A, adenovirus and astrovirus among children under 5 years old in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: These findings improve our knowledge of circulating enteric viruses in Gabon. The emergence of unusual G6P[6] strain of rotavirus A, predominant, suggested a particular epidemiological surveillance of circulating rotavirus strains during the introduction of vaccination in Gabon.

  4. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  5. Secret Keepers: Children's Theory of Mind and Their Conception of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Corson, Kimberly; Sastry, Anuradha; Wright, Holly

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?21) in a university-sponsored preschool programme and children completed a theory of mind (ToM) task. After grouping children into pass/no pass groups for the ToM tasks, analyses using interpretive phenomenology indicated that preschool children explain…

  6. Children's Social Category-Based Giving and Its Correlates: Expectations and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Maggie P.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Do young children use information about gender and race to guide their prosocial gestures, and to what extent is children's selective prosociality related to other intergroup phenomena? Two studies tested 3- to 5-year-old children's allocation of resources to, social preferences for, and expectations about the behaviors of unfamiliar people who…

  7. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, whichmaybe primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined.Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as looselyarranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the

  8. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  9. Robots and Rodents: Children's Inferences about Living and Nonliving Kinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipson, Jennifer L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate…

  10. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Ch

  11. Does Valence Matter? Effects of Negativity on Children's Early Understanding of the Truth and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Lindsay; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Early deceptive behavior often involves acts of wrongdoings on the part of children. As a result, it has often been assumed, although not tested directly, that children are better at identifying lies about wrongdoing than lies about other activities. We tested this assumption in two studies. In Study 1, 67 3- to 5-year-olds viewed vignettes in…

  12. Knowing When to Be "Rational": Flexible Economic Decision Making and Executive Function in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wendy S. C.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to delay gratification may not indicate poor control or irrationality, but might be an adaptive response. Two studies investigated 3.5- and 4.5-year-old children's ability to adapt their delay and saving behavior when their preference (e.g., to delay or not delay) became nonadaptive. In Study 1 (N = 140), children's delay preference was…

  13. The Joint Effects of Risk Status, Gender, Early Literacy and Cognitive Skills on the Presence of Dyslexia among a Group of High-Risk Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…

  14. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children’s construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals

    OpenAIRE

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children’s reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and ...

  15. Neuropsychological development in 2~5 years old offspring of hypertension disorder complicating pregnancy%妊娠高血压疾病患者子代2~5岁神经心理发育现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 刘丽; 郑冬梅; 王志明; 解雅春; 王忠清; 花琛; 王忆军; 张慧颖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探求妊娠期高血压疾病(hypertensioh disorder complicating pregnancy,HDCP)对其子代神经心理发育的影响. [方法]采用1:1配对的病例对照研究方法,随访HDCP患者2~5岁子代与正常对照儿童各27人,运用"0~6岁小儿神经心理发育量表"对两组儿童的智能进行评价,并收集两组儿童的生活环境及生活习惯行为等. [结果]HDCP子代在妊娠天数、出生体重及出生身长方面均低于正常儿童(P<0.05).在神经心理发育方面,显示出HDCP子代在语言和社交两个维度上的智能以及发育商方面显著低于正常对照儿童(P<0.05).在生活环境办面,社交行为智能发育与被动吸烟呈负相关,而与常住人口呈正相关(P<0.05).在生活行为方式方面,社交行为智能发育和发育商与每日户外活动时间、喜欢与同龄儿童交流呈正相关(P<0.05),而与每日观看电视/电脑的时间呈负相关(P<0.05).[结论]HDCP患者生活环境和生活行为方式对儿童的神经心理发育有影响.%[Objective]To explore the effect of hypertension disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP) on neuropsychological development of their 2~5 years old offspring.[Methods]Using 1 : 1 matched case-control study method, chosen 27 offspring in HDCP group and control group.The intelligence was evaluated utilizing 0~6 years infant neuropsychological development scale.The relevant informations were collected, including living environments and lifestyle behaviors.[Results]The offspring with HDCP mother were lower than the normal children in the gestational duration days, birth weight and birth length (P<0.05).The language and socialization dimension of neuropsychological development and developmental quotient (DQ) were lower in offspring of HDCP than those of control in 2~5 years old (P<0.05).On the living environment, there was negative correlation between socialization and passive smoking (P<0.05), but positive correlation between

  16. Evaluation of behavioral skills training to prevent gun play in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Miltenberger, Raymond G; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ training.

  17. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  18. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Risk for Inattention and Negative Emotionality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714).…

  19. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  20. Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training to Prevent Gun Play in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ…

  1. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  2. Domain Differences in the Weights of Perceptual and Conceptual Information in Children's Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendruck, Gil; Peretz, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Visual appearance is one of the main cues children rely on when categorizing novel objects. In 3 studies, testing 128 3-year-olds and 192 5-year-olds, we investigated how various kinds of information may differentially lead children to overlook visual appearance in their categorization decisions across domains. Participants saw novel animals or…

  3. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  4. Cultural Variations in the Socialization of Young Children's Anger and Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Pamela M.; Tamang, Babu Lal; Shrestha, Srijana

    2006-01-01

    Tamang and Brahman Nepali children have culturally specific emotion scripts that may reflect different emotion socialization experiences. To study emotion socialization, the child-adult interactions of 119 children (3-5 years old) were observed and 14 village elders were interviewed about child competence in Tamang and Brahman villages. Tamang…

  5. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  6. A Study of Bones = Un Estudio de Huesos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Yvonne

    Proving that project work can be done with young children who are schooled in a full-immersion program in a second language, this article describes a study of bones undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. The article discusses the process and shows the results achieved by the children during the three phases of the…

  7. Deciduous teeth caries status and impact factors in a 5 year old Guangxi cohort%广西5岁儿童乳牙龋病相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓捷; 黄华; 黄高明; 何克新

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the status of deciduous caries in a population 5-year olds in Guangxi and the possible relative influencing factors, thus to provide scientific basis for the establishment of oral health care policies in Guangxi. METHODS: An Equal-sized stratified multi-stage randomly sampling design was applied to obtain a representative sample group consisted of Guangxi residents aged 5 years, with a gender ratio of 1:1. The caries on the crown of deciduous teeth was assessed; thereafter the data including their oral health habits, diet condition, and family -related factors etc. were obtained through questionnaires from children's parents. RESULTS: In the group aged 5, the caries rate was 80.7% , and the mean dmft(decayed, missed and filled teeth) was 6.06, there was no significant difference of prevalence between two sexes (P >0.05). In a multivariale logislic regression model, three factors including Zhuang nationality, the knowledge of fluoride toothpaste and checking the effect of children' s teeth brushing were proved to be relevant to deciduous teeth caries, although in single variable analysis the data showed that except these key variables more factors such as the frequency of intake of dairy products and the start age of bushing teeth also exhibited obvious impact on the status of deciduous caries. CONCLUSION: More efforts are in crucial need to help the rural and Zhuang children with their oral health behavior through promoting their parents' awareness, attitude and behavior of oral health.%目的:调查广西5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况及相关影响因素,为儿童龋病预防提供资料.方法:采用多阶段、分层、等容量、随机抽样的方法抽取广西420名5岁儿童进行乳牙龋病检查,同时对其家长进行现场问卷调查.对调查结果采用卡方检验分析和多因素非条件Logistic回归分析.结果:乳牙患龋率和龋均分别为80.7%、6.06,男女间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).单因素分析表

  8. Changing the main indicators to assess motor function in children with cerebral palsy spastic form by hydrokinesitherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taran I.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the efficiency of the developed technique hydrokinetic system of physical rehabilitation for children 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. Examined the impact of comparing the effectiveness of exercise in the water by two techniques: the author and accepted. In experiment involved 24 people aged 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. The experiment lasted one year, classes were held hydrokinesitherapy 2 times a week. In the study recorded the performance evaluation of basic motor functions to the experiment, six months later, and after the experiment. It is shown that an important component of physical rehabilitation of patients is hydrokinesotherapy. Shows the direction of the development of motor skills of children 3-5 years old. Study of the development of indicators basic motor functions.

  9. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain size of young children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ashrafzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome of social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. While the impairments associated with ASD tend to deteriorate from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance that the syndrome is diagnosed at an early age. One means of facilitating this is through understanding how the brain of people with ASD develops from early childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for in vivo and non-invasive investigations of the morphology of the human brain, especially when the subjects are children. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of existing structural MRI studies that have investigated brain size in ASD children of up to 5 years old. Methods: In this study, we systematically reviewed published papers that describe research studies in which the brain size of ASD children has been examined. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for all relevant original articles that described the use of MRI techniques to study ASD patients who were between 1 and 5 years old. To be included in the review, all studies needed to be cohort and case series that involved at least 10 patients. No time limitations were placed on the searched articles within the inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria were non-English articles, case reports, and articles that described research involving subjects that were not within the qualifying age range of 1-5 years old.Result: After an initial screening process through which the title, abstracts, and full text of the articles were reviewed to confirm they met the inclusion criteria, a total of 10 relevant articles were studied in depth. All studies found that children with ASD who were within the selected age range had a larger brain size than children without ASD.Discussion: The findings of recent studies indicate that the vast majority of ASD patients exhibit an enlarged brain; however, the extent of

  10. Paternal Depression and Risk for Child Neglect in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…

  11. Self-reported health-related quality of life in kindergarten children : psychometric properties of the Kiddy-KINDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalonga-Olives, E.; Kiese-Himmel, C.; Witte, C.; Almansa, J.; Dusilova, I.; Hacker, K.; von Steinbuechel, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the psychometric properties of the German self-reported version of the Kiddy-KINDL that measures Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in 3 to 5 year old kindergarten children. Study design: The population of the study comprised baseline data of a longitudinal study whose main

  12. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  13. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…

  14. Concurrent and Longitudinal Links between Children's and Their Friends' Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal links between children's own and their nominated best friends' antisocial and prosocial behavior were studied in a normative sample of 3-5-year-olds (N = 203). Moderating effects of age and gender were also explored. Subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to obtain teacher ratings of…

  15. Classification Accuracy of Nonword Repetition when Used with Preschool-Age Spanish-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to (a) describe and compare the nonword repetition (NWR) performance of preschool-age Spanish-speaking children (3- to 5-year-olds) with and without language impairment (LI) across 2 scoring approaches and (b) to contrast the classification accuracy of a Spanish NWR task when item-level and percentage…

  16. Acquisition of /s/-Clusters in Dutch-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of word initial s clusters of 3-5 year old Dutch children with phonological disorders. Within these clusters, sl was produced correctly most often, whereas sn and sx were the more difficult clusters. In cluster reductions, s+obstruent and sl clusters reduction patterns followed the Sonority Sequencing…

  17. Scaffolding Interactions with Preschool Children: Comparisons between Chinese Mothers and Teachers across Different Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese adults adjusted their scaffolding in interactions with children during problem-solving tasks. Fifty-seven 5-year-olds (from low and high socioeconomic status [SES] backgrounds) completed a playlike task (puzzle) and a school-like task (worksheet) with their mothers and teachers, respectively. Adult-child…

  18. Measurement and Facilitation of Affectionate Behaviour in the Play of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, John P.; Acker, Loren E.

    This study attempted to determine whether simple, naturalistic procedures could be used to increase the rate of physically affectionate behaviors directed at stuffed toy animals and at peers in the play of 4- and 5-year-old children. Procedures were developed for scoring affection and aggression during group play. The context of reading a story…

  19. Generic Language Use Reveals Domain Differences in Young Children's Expectations about Animal and Artifact Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore domain differences in young children's expectations about the structure of animal and artifact categories. We examined 5-year-olds' and adults' use of category-referring generic noun phrases (e.g., "Birds fly") about novel animals and artifacts. The same stimuli served as both animals and artifacts;…

  20. Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning about the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…

  1. Using the Microcomputer to Enhance Language Experiences and the Development of Cooperative Play among Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlstein, Eleanor A.; Croft, Doreen J.

    Current interest and controversy about the use of microcomputers with young children led to a study of 13 3- to 5-year-old girls and boys enrolled at the De Anza College Child Development Center in Cupertino, California. Designed to determine the effectiveness of the computer in enhancing language experiences and development of cooperative play…

  2. Preschool Based JASPER Intervention in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism: Pilot RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, Kelly Stickles; Ishijima, Eric; Chang, Ya-Chih; Kasari, Connie

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study, we tested the effects of a novel intervention (JASPER, Joint Attention Symbolic Play Engagement and Regulation) on 3 to 5 year old, minimally verbal children with autism who were attending a non-public preschool. Participants were randomized to a control group (treatment as usual, 30 h of ABA-based therapy per week) or a…

  3. Dyadic Collaboration among Preschool-Age Children and the Benefits of Working with a More Socially Advanced Peer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongeon; Lee, Jeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the learning effects of collaborative group work under heterogeneous group composition among 5-year-old children, especially in terms of their social skills. To this end, the study utilized an experimental research design wherein 3 groups of differently composed dyads and a group of students who worked alone…

  4. The Impact of Foreign Housemaids on the Children of Working Mothers: A Case Study from Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2014-01-01

    The role of grandparents and other close relatives in caring for the children of working mothers has been diminishing in modern societies everywhere including Jordan. Concurrently, the dependence on housemaids to care for the children of working mothers has been on the rise. The impact of housemaids on young Jordanian children (4-5 years old) was…

  5. Letter Names and Alphabet Book Reading by Senior Kindergarteners: An Eye Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Landry, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The study monitored the eye movements of twenty 5-year-old children while reading an alphabet book to examine the manner in which the letters, words, and pictures were fixated and the relation of attention to print to alphabetic knowledge. Children attended little to the print, took longer to first fixate print than illustrations, and labeled…

  6. The Effect of Retention Interval Task Difficulty on Young Children's Prospective Memory: Testing the Intention Monitoring Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Moses, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of retention interval task difficulty on 4- and 5-year-olds' prospective memory (PM) to test the hypothesis that children periodically monitor their intentions during the retention interval and that disrupting this monitoring may result in poorer PM performance. In addition, relations among PM, working memory,…

  7. Redefinition of Space and Equipment in the Kindergarten and Involving the Children in the Process of Designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bika, Anastasia

    This research examined the extent to which 2.5- to 5-year-old children in three Kindergarten classrooms in Thessaloniki, Greece could be taught about the use of classroom space and equipment. The study combined the theoretical perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, and Frangos with the views of theater director Peter Brook. Mixed-age groups of…

  8. Children draw more affiliative pictures following priming with third-party ostracism

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ruiting; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a strong need to belong. Thus, when signs of ostracism are detected, adults often feel motivated to affiliate with others in order to re-establish their social connections. This study investigated the importance of affiliation to young children following priming with ostracism. Four- and 5-year-old children were primed with either ostracism or control videos and their understanding of, and responses to, the videos were measured. Results showed that children were able to report tha...

  9. An anthropological approach to the evaluation of preschool children exposed to pesticides in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Guillette, E A; Meza, M M; Aquilar, M G; Soto, A D; Garcia, I E

    1998-01-01

    In this comparative study, we compensated for many of the known variables that influence children's growth and development by selecting two groups of 4-5-year-old Yaqui children who reside in the Yaqui Valley of northwestern Mexico. These children share similar genetic backgrounds, diets, water mineral contents, cultural patterns, and social behaviors. The major difference was their exposure to pesticides. Pesticides have been applied to the agricultural area of the valley since the late 1940...

  10. The Impact of Frequency Modulation (FM) System Use and Caregiver Training on Young Children with Hearing Impairment in a Noisy Listening Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Thien

    2011-01-01

    The two objectives of this single-subject study were to assess how an FM system use impacts parent-child interaction in a noisy listening environment, and how a parent/caregiver training affect the interaction between parent/caregiver and child. Two 5-year-old children with hearing loss and their parent/caregiver participated. Experiment 1 was…

  11. Τhe contribution of music and movement activities to creative thinking in pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Χρονοπούλου, Έλενα; Ρήγα, Βασιλική

    2012-01-01

    As interest in creativity is rising, kindergarten teachers are looking for ways to strengthen the creative po-tential of young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music and movement ac-tivities to creative thinking in preschool children. A three month educational programme was designed and implemented, using an experimental research method. The effect on fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of thought of 5-year-old children, as well as how the program...

  12. Characterization of children under five with severe protein-energy malnutrition treated in a clinic in Timor Leste

    OpenAIRE

    Anagalys Ortega Alvelay; Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola; Denis Monzón Vega; Mabel Vega Galindo

    2010-01-01

    Background: protein-energy malnutrition is a very common condition in third world countries. In children morbidity and mortality associated with it have increased. Objective: to characterize children with severe protein-energy malnutrition treated at a clinic in Timor Leste in the period from january to june 2009. Methods: an observational, descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study conducted in all children under 5 years old who attended consultation during that period. Inclusion and ex...

  13. Enteropatógenos associados com diarréia infantil (< 5 anos de idade em amostra da população da área metropolitana de Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil Enteropathogens associated with diarrheal disease in infants (< 5 years old in a population sample in Greater Metropolitan Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Jaqueline Schnack

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a presença de enteropatógenos em 94 casos de diarréia e 45 casos-controle em crianças de 0 a 5 anos de idade, atendidas no Centro de Saúde Municipal de Criciúma, Santa Catarina. Entre os parasitos isolados, o Cryptosporidium (85,1% foi o mais freqüente, seguido pela Entamoeba histolytica (56,4% e a Giardia lamblia (4,3%. Quatro amostras apresentaram Escherichia coli enteropatogênica (4,3%. A Samonella e a Shiguella não foram detectadas em nenhuma amostra. Somente um caso foi positivo para o rotavírus (1,1%.Enteropathogens were investigated in 94 children with diarrhea and 45 age-matched controls, 0 to 5 years old, attending an outpatient unit in Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Cryptosporidium (85.1% topped the list of parasite isolates, followed by Entamoeba histolytica (56.4% and Giardia lamblia (4.3%. Four samples contained enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (4.3%. Samonella and Shiguella were not detected. Only one sample contained rotavirus (1.1%.

  14. Children poisoning by carbamate: a descriptive study - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p193

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study had as its aim to characterize the children under 5 years old, attended with exogenous poisoning by carbamate (popularly called “chumbinho” – “small shot” at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza and to relate the signs and symptoms detected in this type of poisoning. It concerned a descriptive study, with a sample of 65 children attended during the period of 1998 to 2000, in Fortaleza, Ceará. It was noticed that the most affected age group was of those with 1 to 3 years old, not being verified any significant difference between sexes. The most evident signs and symptoms were myosis, vomits, profuse perspiration and sialorrhea and the predominant treatment was the use of active coal. It is concluded, therefore, that there is a need of putting into effect the health education, calling the society’s attention to the risks of the inadequate “chumbinho” use in the domiciliar environment.

  15. Malnutrition, Overweight, and Obesity among Urban and Rural Children in North of West Azerbijan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou; Fariba Babaei; Parvin Ayremlou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Malnutrition is one of the most important causes for improper physical and mental development of children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a growing matter of public health concern worldwide. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and obesity in children under 5 years old in Salmas district. Methods. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 902...

  16. Somatotype is more interactive with strength than fat mass and physical activity in peripubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Marta, Carlos; Marinho, D. A.; Costa, A. M.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Marques, M C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the interaction between somatotype, body fat and physical activity in prepubescent children. This was a cross!sectional study design involving 312 children (160 girls, 152 boys) aged between 10 and 11.5 years old (10.8 ± 0.4 years old). Evaluation of body composition was done determining body mass index and body fat by means of skin!fold measurements, using the method described by Slaughter. Somatotype was comput...

  17. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.; van Son, Maarten J M; Van De Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Child emotional and behaviour problems and parental worries about the child were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist at both time points. Parents’ level of acute subjective distress was assess...

  18. The circle of life: A cross-cultural comparison of children's attribution of life-cycle traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Emily R R; Barrett, Justin L

    2016-06-01

    Do children attribute mortality and other life-cycle traits to all minded beings? The present study examined whether culture influences young children's ability to conceptualize and differentiate human beings from supernatural beings (such as God) in terms of life-cycle traits. Three-to-5-year-old Israeli and British children were questioned whether their mother, a friend, and God would be subject to various life-cycle processes: Birth, death, ageing, existence/longevity, and parentage. Children did not anthropomorphize but differentiated among human and supernatural beings, attributing life-cycle traits to humans, but not to God. Although 3-year-olds differentiated significantly among agents, 5-year-olds attributed correct life-cycle traits more consistently than younger children. The results also indicated some cross-cultural variation in these attributions. Implications for biological conceptual development are discussed. PMID:26718951

  19. Pneumococci in nasopharyngeal samples from Filipino children with acute respiratory infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Lankinen, K. S.; Leinonen, M; Tupasi, T E; Haikala, R; Ruutu, P.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract was studied in 318 Filipino children less than 5 years old with an acute lower respiratory tract infection. Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 292 children. With both quantitative bacterial culture and detection of capsular polysaccharide antigens by coagglutination, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and latex agglutination, pneumococci were found in 160 (70%) of the 227 samples eligible for analysis. Culture was posit...

  20. What happens to cavitated primary teeth over time? A 3.5-year prospective cohort study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Chen, X.; Fan, M.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Data showed that among 5-year-old Chinese, 96.7% of cavitated primary teeth were left untreated. The study aimed to report on the course of cavitated primary teeth within the Chinese health-care system over a period of 3.5 years. METHODS: Selection of high caries risk children for inclus

  1. Does Theory of Mind in Pre-Kindergarten Predict the Ability to Think about a Reader's Mind in Elementary School Compositions? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Joan; Comay, Julie; Chen, Xi; Prusky, Carly

    2016-01-01

    A critical skill in emergent writing is the developing ability to take the perspective of different readers; however, the precursors of this skill have not yet been identified. In this longitudinal study, 105 children (90 after attrition) were tested at 3 time points: pre-kindergarten (3-4 years old, n = 105), kindergarten (5 years old, n = 97),…

  2. Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Preschool Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Marks, David J.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Chacko, Anil; Curchack, Jocelyn T.; Yoon, Carol A.; Healey, Dione M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether cognitive enhancement can be delivered through play to preschoolers with ADHD and whether it would affect severity of ADHD symptoms. Method: Twenty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children and their parents participated in separate group sessions (3-5 children/group). Child groups were introduced games designed to enhance…

  3. Young Children's Recognition of Commonalities between Animals and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kayoko; Hatano, Giyoo

    1996-01-01

    Results from several experiments indicated that by age 5, children distinguished animals and plants from nonliving things in terms of growth; many 5-year olds attributed growth, intake of food and water, and illness to both animals and plants; and 5-year olds responded affirmatively when asked whether plants would manifest phenomena similar to…

  4. Do pre-natal and post-natal economic shocks have a long-lasting effect on the height of 5-year-old children? Evidence from 20 sentinel sites of rural and urban Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Woldehanna, Tassew

    2010-01-01

    While the Ethiopian national emergency and food security programmes support farmers hit by area-wide shocks such as crop failure brought about by drought, insects and pests, idiosyncratic shocks such as illness and death of household member, loss of assets and separation of family or divorce are not covered by any of the current programmes. In the absence of social assistance programmes to support vulnerable households, these idiosyncratic shocks may lead to serious malnutrition among poor ch...

  5. Tympanal and rectal temperature comparison in children younger than 5-year-old%5岁以下儿童直肠温与鼓膜温差异性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃晖

    2001-01-01

    对5岁以下儿童进行直肠温与鼓膜温差异性比较,为临床实践提供依据.结果:在体温正常或发热的儿童中,其鼓膜温与直肠温具有高度相关性;得出鼓膜温与直肠温的均差为0.29±0.34℃,具有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:鼓膜温与直肠温具有高度相关性,两者的均差虽存在差异性,但临床上不影响医疗判断及处置.

  6. A Child Development Centre (C.D.C.) Based on the World of Work and Everyday Life: A Case of Quality Education Provision for 2.5-5 Year Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangos, Christos

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the organization and activities of the Child Development Centre (CDC) of Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, which operates as a model preschool and kindergarten for over 300 similar institutions throughout Greece. The CDC utilizes art, music, visits to workplaces, movement activities, foreign languages and customs, computers,and free…

  7. The Influence of Mini-basketball to 4~5 Years Old Children's Coordinate Ability%小篮球运动对4~5岁儿童协调能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭蕾; 冯振杰

    2013-01-01

    小篮球对于学前儿童来说既是一种运动器材,又是一种玩具,学前儿童可以用不同的力量来滚球、抛接球,球的空间就会产生各种变化,有利于幼儿根据运动的需求控制肌肉力量,发展空间方位知觉和身体协调能力.本研究通过实验证实了小篮球运动不仅可以提高幼儿的运动兴趣,而且可以提高幼儿的协调能力、丰富幼儿的体育锻炼内容.

  8. Young children do not succeed in choice tasks that imply evaluating chances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Vittorio; Fontanari, Laura; Gonzalez, Michel; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Blaye, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    Preverbal infants manifest probabilistic intuitions in their reactions to the outcomes of simple physical processes and in their choices. Their ability conflicts with the evidence that, before the age of about 5years, children's verbal judgments do not reveal probability understanding. To assess these conflicting results, three studies tested 3-5-year-olds on choice tasks on which infants perform successfully. The results showed that children of all age groups made optimal choices in tasks that did not require forming probabilistic expectations. In probabilistic tasks, however, only 5-year-olds made optimal choices. Younger children performed at random and/or were guided by superficial heuristics. These results suggest caution in interpreting infants' ability to evaluate chance, and indicate that the development of this ability may not follow a linear trajectory. PMID:27015350

  9. Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a retrospective study of 27 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khor Chee-Sieng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A total of 10269 respiratory samples from all children5 years old received at the hospital's diagnostic virology laboratory between 1982-2008 were included in the study. Immunofluorescence staining (for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-3, and adenovirus and virus isolation were performed. The yearly hospitalization rates and annual patterns of laboratory-confirmed viral RTIs were determined. Univariate ANOVA was used to analyse the demographic parameters of cases. Multiple regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to analyse the correlation between RSV cases and meteorological parameters. Results A total of 2708 cases were laboratory-confirmed using immunofluorescence assays and viral cultures, with the most commonly detected being RSV (1913, 70.6%, parainfluenza viruses (357, 13.2%, influenza viruses (297, 11.0%, and adenovirus (141, 5.2%. Children infected with RSV were significantly younger, and children infected with influenza viruses were significantly older. The four main viruses caused disease throughout the year, with a seasonal peak observed for RSV in September-December. Monthly RSV cases were directly correlated with rain days, and inversely correlated with relative humidity and temperature. Conclusion Viral RTIs, particularly due to RSV, are commonly detected in respiratory samples from hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur

  10. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF NEPHROTIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

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    Vijayalakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the incidence, age and sex related demographics in children with Nephrotic Syndrome (NS and to find the aetiology in atypical cases of NS by renal biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study was a single centre, descriptive, prospective and observational cross sectional study. All patients who were admitted in the department of paediatrics with Nephrotic syndrome during the study period of 2 years from July 2010 to June 2012 were included. The demographics and renal biopsy results were analys ed further. RESULTS : Total number of cases of NS was 44 against total Paediatric admissions of 4827. Incidence of NS was 0.91% (44/4827 among all paediatric admissions. Male to female ratio was 2.14:1. Majority of NS cases were 3 - 5 years old (36.36%, n=44 , followed by 5 - 7 years (29.55%, n=44, 7 - 9 years (18.18%, n=44 and 1 - 3 years (15.91%, n=44. Total number of renal biopsies done was 18, out of which 14 (77.78%, n=18 had minimal change disease (MCNS and 3 (16.67%, n=18 had Focal Segmental Glomerulos clerosis (FSGS and 1 (5.55%, n=18 had anti Glomerular Basement Membrane disease. CONCLUSION: The incidence of Nephrotic syndrome in children was 0.91% (44/4827 among total paediatric admissions, had male preponderance with ratio of males to females of 2 .14:1, most commonly affecting children of 3 - 5 years of age and the most common aetiology being Minimal Change Disease (MCD.

  11. Children's Norm Enforcement in Their Interactions With Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Denis A Engemann; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how children negotiate social norms with peers. In Study 1, 48 pairs of 3- and 5-year-olds (N = 96) and in Study 2, 48 pairs of 5- and 7-year-olds (N = 96) were presented with sorting tasks with conflicting instructions (one child by color, the other by shape) or identical instructions. Three-year-olds differed from older children: They were less selective for the contexts in which they enforced norms, and they (as well as the older children to a lesser extent) used gr...

  12. Household poisoning exposure among children of Mexican-born mothers: an ethnographic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mull, D S; Agran, P. F.; Winn, D. G.; Anderson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore reasons for high rates of unintentional poisoning among Latino children under 5 years old. DESIGN: Ethnographic interviews were carried out using a sample of mothers identified via door-to-door canvassing in an area with documented high injury rates among Latino children. Interviews included many open-ended and follow-up questions to elicit a detailed family history and emphasized observation of conditions and behaviors in the homes. SETTING: Low-income neighborhoods of ...

  13. Experiences with the Streptococcus Mutans in Lakota Sioux (SMILeS) Study: Risk factors for Caries in American Indian Children 0–3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, David; Dawson, Deborah; Kramer, Katherine; Schumacher, Amy; Warren, John; Marshall, Teresa; Starr, Delores; Phipps, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is a terribly aggressive and devastating disease that is all too common in lower socio-economic children, but none more so that what is encountered in American Indian Tribes. Nationwide, approximately 27% of 2–5 year olds have decay while 62% percent of American Indian/Alaska Native children in the same age group have a history of decay (IHS 2010, NHANES 1999–2002). We have conducted a study of children from birth to 36 months of age on Pine Reservation to gain a better understanding of the variables that come into play in the development of this disease, from transmission and acquisition of Streptococcus mutans genotypes from mother to child to multiple dietary and behavioral components. This article describes how we established a direct partnership with the Tribe and the many opportunities and challenges we faced in performing this 5-year field study.

  14. A Cross-sectional Study for Determinations of Prevention Behaviors of Domestic Accidents in Mothers with Children Less than 5- year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Ebadi Fardazar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents are the first cause of death in children under 5- year, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of prevention behavior of domestic accidents in mothers of children fewer than 5 years old based on protection motivation theory PMT(. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 190 mothers were randomly selected. The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire about prevention behaviors of home accidents in children less than five years based on the structures of protection motivation theory.then collected data entered in the software SPSS-22 and were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical tests. Results: Mean of perceived response efficacy was in good level and mean of other structures of PMT were in moderate level. There was a significant correlations between the scores of perceived vulnerability (r=.39, P

  15. Study on Rotavirus Infection and Its Genotyping in Children Below 5 Years in South West Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaran, Azarakhsh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Neisi, Niloofar; Hoseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rasti, Mojtaba; Teymurirad, Majid; Teimoori, Ali; Varnaseri, Mehran; Makvandi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Human rotaviruses are the most important agents for severe dehydrating diarrhea in children below 5 years old. Rotaviruses (RV) is a serious public health problem in developing and developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and their genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods For this study, 200 stool samples from children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were collected between October 2011 and March 2012. Initially all stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the VP6 rotavirus gene. Determination of rotavirus genotypes was carried out by performing RT-PCR for G and P types. Altogether, 15 samples were sequenced. Results Out of 200 stool samples, 100 (50%) had rotavirus antigen detected by ELISA and 73 (36.5%) were found positive by RT-PCR. Of the rotavirus strains identified, only 63 (86.3%) were positive for both VP7 and VP4 while 10 (13.7%) strains were found nontypeable. Rotavirus infection accounts for 36.5% of gastroenteritis cases in samples from symptomatic children. The most prevalent rotavirus genotypes were G1P [8] (80%) followed by G2P [4] (20%). Conclusions Our results suggest that group A rotavirus is a major pathogene of acute diarrhea in Ahvaz city. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other countries. PMID:27307959

  16. Causes of Deaths in Children under-Five Years Old at a Tertiary Hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ntuli, Sam Thembelihle; Malangu, Ntambwe; Alberts, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and timely information on the causes of child deaths is essential in guiding efforts to improve child survival, by providing data from which health profiles can be constructed and relevant health policies formulated. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of death in children younger than 5 years-old in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Methods: Death certificates from the Pietersburg/Mankweng hospital complex, for the period of January 1, 2008 through Decembe...

  17. Astrovirus infection in young children with diarrhea hospitalized at Beijing Children's Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春艳; 申昆玲; 王树欣; 刘亚谊; 照日格图

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was to assess certain epidemiological and clinical characteristics of astrovirus infection in children with diarrhea below 5 years old hospitalized at the Beijing Children's Hospital. Methods From September 1999 to August 2001, a total of 288 children with diarrhea below 5 years old hospitalized at Beijing Children's Hospital were studied. Fecal specimens collected from each patient were tested for astrovirus by using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and further serotyped by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using serotype-specific primers. Results Astrovirus antigen was positive in 9.0% of the patients, and the rate of coinfection with rotavirus was 19.2% among the astrovirus positive patients. The patients with astrovirus infection were at the age of 7 days to 17 months, most (92.3%) of them were less than 12 months. Astrovirus infection occurred mainly between October and March of the following year. Main symptoms included watery stool, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Increased activity of myocardial enzyme was seen in 4 patients. Of the 22 astrovirus positive specimens, 14 were successfully serotyped by RT-PCR and they were all serotype 1. Conclusions The overall incidence of astrovirus infection in young children with diarrhea hospitalized at the Beijing Children's Hospital was 9.0%. The predominant serotype was type 1. Astrovirus may play an important role in viral diarrhea in young children in Beijing, China.

  18. Experiencia de caries en dentición primaria en niños de 5 años, Medellín, Colombia/ Caries experience in primary dentition among 5-year-olds in Medellin, Colombia

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    Blanca S. Ramírez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: estimar la experiencia de caries dental en niños de 5 años de edad de Medellín, Colombia. Metodología: los datos se obtuvieron en una muestra probabilística de 486 niños, examinados para el diagnóstico de experiencia de caries en dentina y de lesiones limitadas al esmalte dental. Se calcularon los índices de experiencia de caries ceo-d clásico y ceo-d modificado (ceod-m. Se realizaron pruebas Chi-Cuadrado y t student. Resultados: el 54,7% de los niños de estratos bajos y el 26 % de los estratos medio y altos tenían experiencia de caries en dentina; los porcentajes aumentan a 88,6% y 50,7% respectivamente, cuando se incluyen lesiones limitadas al esmalte dental. Los promedios de los índices ceod clásico (ceod-c y ceod modificado (ceod-m fueron fue 1,9±2,9, 4,9±4,6 respectivamente. En los niños de estratos bajos el ceod clásico fue 2,2±3,1 y en los de estratos altos fue 0,6±1,2; mientras que los valores del ceod-m fueron 5,4±4,7 y 1,9±2,8 respectivamente. Conclusión: los niños de estrato socioeconómico bajo de Medellín, a la edad de cinco años tienen altos niveles de caries dental, resultado que indica la necesidad de implementar programas preventivos y de atención en salud bucal desde edades tempranas./ Abstract Objective: To estimate the experience of dental caries among five-year-olds from Medellín, Colombia. Methodology: data were obtained from a random probabilistic sample of 486 children who were examined for caries experience in dentin and caries limited to tooth enamel. The classic dmft and modified dmft caries experience indexes were calculated. Similarly, Chi-square and student t tests were conducted. Results: the percentage of children with caries experience was 54.7% for children of lower classes, and 26% for children of middle and upper classes. These percentages increased to 88.6% and 50.7% respectively after including lesions limited to dental enamel. The averages of the classic and

  19. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb 10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels 10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, pintoxication and Fe deficient anemia. PMID:20801490

  20. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

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    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  1. Prevalence of dental attrition in in vitro fertilization children of West Bengal

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    Sudipta Kar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental attrition is one of the problems affecting the tooth structure. It may affect both in vitro fertilization (IVF and spontaneously conceived children. Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate and to compare the prevalence of dental attrition in deciduous dentition of IVF and spontaneously conceived children. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional case control study dental attrition status of 3-5 years old children were assessed. The case group consisted of term, singleton babies who were the outcome of IVF in the studied area in 2009. Subjects and Methods: The control group consisted of term, first child, singleton and spontaneously conceived 3-5 years old children who were also resident of the studied area. A sample of 153 IVF and 153 spontaneously conceived children was examined according to Hansson and Nilner classification. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square tests (χ2 or Z test. Results: No statistically significant difference found in studied (IVF children and control group (spontaneously conceived children. Conclusions: IVF children are considered same as spontaneously conceived children when studied in relation to dental attrition status.

  2. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  3. "Bacterial Meningitis in children and adolescents: an observational study based on the national surveillance system"

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    Dickinson Félix O

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis is a group of life threatening infections that mostly affect children and adolescents, and may be the cause of severe neurological sequelae. Cuba has implemented massive vaccination programmes against both Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup C in 1979 and B in 1987, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (1999, two of the main causal pathogens. We described and discussed some epidemiological aspects of the current status of bacterial meningitis to learn from the Cuban experience. Methods A nationwide observational study on children and adolescents from 1 to 18 years old was carried out from 1998 to 2003, estimating the incidence and case-fatality rate by age group and causal pathogens, as well as the seasonality and frequency of overcrowded dormitories. The association between disease and attendance to day care centres or boarding schools was estimated by using relative risk (Chi-squared test and Fisher Exact Test. Results The overall number of cases was 1023; the incidence ranged from 3.4 to 8.5 per 100 000 population, with the higher figures in children 1–5 years old (16.8 per 100 000 population. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B were the main identified agents. The average case-fatality rate was 10.5% and the most lethal agents were Streptococcus pneumoniae (27% and Haemophilus influenzae type b (10.7%. Overall percentage of cases who slept in overcrowded dormitories was 15%, reaching 30.6% in adolescents. Seasonality was only evident among meningococcal meningitis cases between September–October. The attendance to boarding high school showed an association with disease only in 1998 and 1999 (RR = 2.1; p > 0.05. Conclusion The highest incidence of bacterial meningitis was observed among children from 1–5 years old. Pneumococcus was both the leading causal and the most lethal agent. Sleeping in overcrowded dormitories was more frequent among

  4. Decrease in Hospitalizations for Pneumonia in Children under Five Years of Age in an Indian Reservation in Panama after the Introduction of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7)

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Nieto Guevara; Carlos Daza; Rebecca Smith

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the impact of Heptavalent-Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7) in Panama on indigenous children younger than 5 years old, based on clinical pneumonia cases. This study demonstrates a significant 41.2% reduction in hospitalizations and 38.6% reduction in referrals for pneumonia following the introduction of PCV7. Burden of disease from pneumonia appears reduced in the ≤12-month- and 13-to-24-month-old groups.

  5. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

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    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  6. Cerebellar Neuroblastoma in 2.5 Years Old Child

    OpenAIRE

    Pedram, Mohammad; Vafaie, Majid; Fekri, Kiavash; Haghi, Sabahat; Rashidi, Iran; Pirooti, Chia

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the third most common malignancy of childhood, after leukemia and brain tumors. Only 2% of all neuroblastoma occur in the brain. Primary cerebellar neuroblastoma is an specific subset of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNET). Meduloblastoma is a relatively common and well-established entity, consisting of primitive and multipotential cells that may exhibit some evidence of neuroblastic or gliad differentiation. But cerebellar neuroblastoma with ultrastractural evidence of s...

  7. Fitness and Your 4-to 5-Year Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throughout their lives. And staying fit can improve self-esteem , prevent obesity, and decrease the risk of serious illnesses such as high blood ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Nutrition & Fitness Center Kids ...

  8. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... importance of using car seats , supervising kids around swimming pools, using bicycle helmets and other protective gear, ... serious infection or a chronic condition, such as asthma . Significant symptoms include: changes in weight or eating ...

  9. Characteristics of occlusion in primary dentition of preschool children of Udaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Sapna; Panwar, Sunil; Bolar, Dinesh Rao; Sanghavi, Mitesh Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to study the occlusion characteristics of the primary dentition in a group of 3–5 year-old Indian children and the differences with age in the same group. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey based on examination of the primary dentition of 200 preschool children aged 3–5 years who were selected from nursery schools in Udaipur, India, using a stratified random sampling technique. The study group was assessed for the several occlusal parameters, wh...

  10. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: A cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com, E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5 year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb < 10 g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb < 8 g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb > 10 g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb > 10 g/dL. The Pb levels < 100 {mu}g/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had > 10 {mu}g/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200 {mu}g/L, whereas 47% had > 200 {mu}g/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r = -0.514 and r = -0.685) and Fe contents (r = -0.522, r = -0.762, p < 0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  11. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

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    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  12. Lead levels and cognitive abilities in Peruvian children Níveis de chumbo e funções cognitivas em crianças peruanas

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann M.; Joel E Salinas-Piélago; María del Rosario Gutiérrez-Campos; Ricardo D Mandamiento-Ayquipa; María del Carmen Yara-Hokama; Johny Ponce-Canchihuamán; Jorge Castro-Morales

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To study the relationship between blood lead levels and cognitive abilities of children exposed to this metal. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study that included 134 children aged 6 to 8.5 years old from 3 schools with different risks of lead exposure located in El Callao (Peru). Cognitive assessments were made by means of the Graphic Test of Reasoning (GTR) and the Kohs Block Design Test (KBDT). Blood lead levels and other laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Children with ...

  13. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    OHASHI, AYUMI; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; ADLY LABEEB, SHOKRIA; GHAREDS MOHAMED, ASMAA; CHIANG, CHIFA; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas ...

  14. The Effect of 5-year-old planting ginseng on Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in Adult Rats%5年生种植人参对成年大鼠下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江一川; 张虹; 付雯雯; 徐华丽; 于晓风; 睢大筼

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察5年生种植人参食用对成年大鼠下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴的影响,探讨人参食用对机体内分泌系统功能的调节作用。方法正常成年Wistar大鼠随机分为10组,即:对照组,5年生种植人参原粉小、中、大剂量(0.25、0.5、1.0g生药/kg)组,5年生种植人参水提物小、中、大剂量(0.25、0.5、1.0g生药/kg)组,5年生种植人参醇提物小、中、大剂量(0.25、0.5、1.0g生药/kg)组,每组14只。各组大鼠连续灌胃给药3个月,观察下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴变化。结果与对照组比较,人参原粉中、大剂量组和人参醇提物大剂量组均可使正常成年大鼠血浆CRH含量降低(P0.05)。结论人参原粉和人参醇提物对正常成年大鼠下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴具有一定的调节作用。%Objective To observe the effect of 5-year-old planting ginseng on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in normal adult rats, and to investigate the regulation of body's endocrine function through the edible of ginseng. Methods Normal adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 10 groups:control group, the low, medium, high-dose groups of original powder of 5-year-old planting ginseng (0.25,0.5 and 1.0g crude drug / kg); the low, medium, high-dose groups of water extract from5-year-old planting ginseng (0.25,0.5 and 1.0g crude drug/kg);the low, medium, high-dose group of ethanol extract from 5-year-old planting ginseng (0.25,0.5 and 1.0g crude drug / kg), fourteen rats for each group. The rats were administered orally three consecutive months, and observed the changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. Results Compared with the control group, plasma CRH was lower in medium, high-dose groups of ginseng original powder and high-dose group of ethanol extract from ginseng in normal adult rats (P0.05). Each dose group of ginseng original powder,ginseng water extract and ethanol extract from ginseng had no

  15. The role of extrinsic rewards and cue-intention association in prospective memory in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Patrick Sheppard; Anett Kretschmer; Elisa Knispel; Bianka Vollert; Mareike Altgassen

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also having to remember to respond differently to certain target pictures (prospective memory task). The level to which the target picture was associated with the intention was manipulated across two c...

  16. Studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases.

  17. Studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases. PMID:22997878

  18. Quality of relationships between preschool children and their divorced mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrakouli Ε.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the consequences of parental divorce on preschool children aged 2,5 to 6,5 years old. More specifically, conflict, dependence and positive aspects of relationship were investigated. A total of 29 divorced mothers and their preschool children and 29 matched control married mothers and their children were ascertained from a general population. Mothers completed the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS developed by Pianta (1992. Mother –reported PCRS scores showed no differences on dependence and positive aspects of relationship, but conflict scale was significantly lower in children of divorce than in controls. However, younger children of divorced mothers (2,5 -4 years had significantly higher dependence on their mothers than the older ones (4-6,5. Additionally, mothers’ higher education was related to children less dependence and less conflict.

  19. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years old school going children in rural Gurgaon, India: An epidemiological study

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    Meenu Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Hardly any information is available on the oral health status of children in Gurgaon. Thus, the present study was conducted among 5-year-old and 12-years-old children in schools in rural Gurgaon. Materials and Methods: A total of 1003 children were examined of which 619 were in 5 years age group and 384 in 12 years group. The prevalence of dental caries was studied using dentition status and treatment needs index. For dental calculus criteria of Community Periodontal and for dental fluorosis Dean′s index was used. Results: In 5 years age group prevalence of dental caries was 68.5%, dental fluorosis was 22.5% and treatment needs were 63.7%. In 12 year age group prevalence of dental caries was 37.5%, dental fluorosis was 76.04%, highest community periodontal index score was 2, seen in 80.2% and overall treatment needs were 44.3%. Conclusion: Preventive approaches seem to be a viable alternative to tackle the overwhelming problem of dental caries and other oral diseases. Provision of oral health education in schools and school based preventive programs are important for improvement of this situation.

  20. Stress Management Techniques for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Francesca M.

    The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stress management techniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…

  1. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

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    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  2. Malnutrition, Overweight, and Obesity among Urban and Rural Children in North of West Azerbijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malnutrition is one of the most important causes for improper physical and mental development of children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a growing matter of public health concern worldwide. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and obesity in children under 5 years old in Salmas district. Methods. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 902 of children under 5 years old to assess the nutritional status in Salmas district and performed from 16 until 30 October, 2011, with the cooperation of the Office of Community Nutrition Improvement and the United Nations Children’s Fund. ENA (Emergency Nutrition Assessment and Spss software were used for data analysis. Results. 49.6% of children were boys and 50.4% were girls. The prevalence of malnutrition based on underweight, stunting, and wasting was estimated to be 2.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4% among children, respectively. Stunting was more common in rural areas and this difference was significant (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this area stunting, overweight and obesity were the most important priorities that health officials must pay more attention to. ENA software has a special ability to determine the samples and clusters and is a simple, rapid, and accurate method, especially in epidemiological studies in the country, and can be a convenient tool and its use is suggested for the same studies.

  3. Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Fiona S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (≥2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR = 3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background. PMID:24268376

  4. PSYCHO-MOTRIC REHABILITATION IN CHILDREN WITH AGENESIS OF CORPUS CALLOSUM (Case study

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    Zărnica I. Manuela Mirela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of corpus callosum is a new challenge for the puluridisciplinary team, in their efforts for the rehabilitation of childrens with this diagnose, because is a rare congenital desease with an unknown frequence of emergence. Scope. This paperwork aims to present the approach modalities of the child with agenesis of corpus callousum and the means of physical therapy that may help. Methods. This is a case study of a 5 years old girl with asenesis of corpus callosum. For assessment we used motor assessment, range of motion, reflexes. Exercises from different positions were done as games and motric songs. Sensory stimulation was also done. Rezults. By direct observation of the patient we observed significant improvement in motor function. We also foud unexpected improvement of quiet stance and dynamic balance, sensory-motor coordination. Conclusions. Game, tha main therapeutic method through its form, diversity and characteristics - atractivity, directness, creativity, movement freedom – is the main supplement of child psicho-motric development. A balanced distribution of influences upon motricity, psychic, thinking and action, nonverbal and expression language, represent the qualitative peculiarity of specialist’s and parents efforts.

  5. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  6. The association of gut microbiota with body weight and body mass index in preschool children of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Sepp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods: Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97. Results: At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006 was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product. The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026 and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014 in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens’ weight (adj R2=− 0.481, p=0.015. Conclusion: The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age.

  7. Associations between characteristics of the home food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

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    Wyse Rebecca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood is critical to the development of lifelong food habits. Given the high proportion of children with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, identification of modifiable factors associated with higher consumption may be useful in developing interventions to address this public health issue. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the home food environment that are associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of Australian preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with 396 parents of 3 to 5 year-old children attending 30 preschools within the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using a valid and reliable subscale from the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Associations were investigated between children's fruit and vegetable intake and characteristics of the home food environment including parental role-modeling, parental providing behaviour, fruit and vegetable availability, fruit and vegetable accessibility, pressure to eat, family eating policies and family mealtime practices. Characteristics of the home food environment that showed evidence of an association with children's fruit and vegetable consumption in simple regression models were entered into a backwards stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression analysis used generalised linear mixed models, controlled for parental education, household income and child gender, and was adjusted for the correlation between children's fruit and vegetable consumption within a preschool. Results The multiple regression analysis found positive associations between children's fruit and vegetable consumption and parental fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.005, fruit and vegetable availability (p = 0.006 and accessibility (p = 0.012, the number of occasions each day that parents provided their child with fruit and vegetables

  8. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children. A descriptive study in Tehran, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency, etiology (viral infection or vaccination), presenting signs and symptoms, response to therapy, complication and course of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in our hospitals. A 2-year retrospective, descriptive, chart review of children with final diagnosis of ADEM in 2 hospitals (Hazrat Rasool and Mofid in Tehran, Iran during 2000-2002) was carried out. The diagnosis is based upon clinical presentation, physical examination and ruling out of other disease (imaging, laboratories and so forth) of expert pediatric neurologists. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was documented in all cases by characteristics MRI changes included inflammation and demyelination in subcortical or periventricular regions. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were diagnosed in 15 patients. More than half of patients were between 9-14 years old. It was rare in 1-5 years old children. It had an abrupt onset, preceding infection/vaccination with no gender differences. Approximately 46.4% of cases had a recent upper respiratory tract illness. Varicella zoster virus infection, urinary tract infection, and mycoplasma pneumoniae were observed. Presentation signs included ataxia, decreased consciousness, fever plus nausea/vomiting, cranial nerve involvement, dysarthric speech, convulsion, hemiparesis, paresthesia, meningismus, and headache. We identified inflammation and demyelination in subcortical than periventricular lesions by magnetic resonance imaging. Prognosis was excellent with low mortality rate (6.6%). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is common in our children, possibly because of the high prevalence of causative infections. Due to advances in control of traditional exanthematous diseases such as measle, rubella and so forth, most cases of ADEM in this study followed non-specific upper respiratory infections. Differentiation of ADEM from a single episode of multiple sclerosis is difficult. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis should be carried out

  9. The Impact of the Multi-sensory Program Alfabeto on the Development of Literacy Skills of Third Stage Pre-school Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Staa, Betina; Reis, Loureni; Scandola, Matilde Conceição Lescano

    Here we present the results of the pilot-project undertaken in ten Pre-Schools with third stage (5 year-old) children who used ALFABETO Multi-sensory Program. The study shows that the project rendered meaningful results as to the development of writing hypotheses among the children who had access to the program. We also observed the opinions of the teachers involved in the project, who mentioned that ALFABETO motivated students to develop their reading, writing and oral skills, and promoted socialization and interaction among students.

  10. Young children's behavioral and emotional responses to different social norm violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardecker, Susanne; Schmidt, Marco F H; Roden, Meike; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-10-01

    From an early age, children can talk meaningfully about differences between moral and conventional norms. But does their understanding of these differences manifest itself in their actual behavioral and emotional reactions to norm violations? And do children discriminate between norm violations that affect either themselves or a third party? Two studies (N=224) were conducted in which children observed conventional game rule violations and moral transgressions that either disadvantaged themselves directly or disadvantaged an absent third party. Results revealed that 3- and 5-year-olds evaluated both conventional and moral transgressions as normative breaches and protested against them. However, 5-year-olds also clearly discriminated these types of transgressions along further dimensions in that (a) they tattled largely on the moral violation and less on the conventional violation and (b) they showed stronger emotional reactions to moral violations compared to conventional violations. The 3-year-olds' responses to moral and conventional transgressions, however, were less discriminatory, and these younger children responded rather similarly to both kinds of violations. Importantly, most children intervened both as victims of the transgression and as unaffected third parties alike, providing strong evidence for their agent-neutral understanding of social norms. PMID:27429365

  11. Characterization of children under five with severe protein-energy malnutrition treated in a clinic in Timor Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagalys Ortega Alvelay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: protein-energy malnutrition is a very common condition in third world countries. In children morbidity and mortality associated with it have increased. Objective: to characterize children with severe protein-energy malnutrition treated at a clinic in Timor Leste in the period from january to june 2009. Methods: an observational, descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study conducted in all children under 5 years old who attended consultation during that period. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. To obtain the data an examination, a clinical and nutritional assessment and a review of the medical records was performed for each patient. Results: the most affected age group was from 0 to 2 years old (61, 3 % with a predominance of females (57 %. The predominant type of malnutrition was marasmus (66,7 %, which predominated in children from 0 to 2 years old (68,6 %, whereas in children suffering from kwashiorkor the predominant age group was from 3 to 5 years old (53,4 %. The non-measurement at birth was more frequent (50, 6 %, as well as the improper weaning (in 91, 6 % of the cases and the sustained breastfeeding beyond six months of age observed in 96, 4 % of children. Conclusion: the age group from 0 to 2 years old, female sex, improper weaning and breastfeeding maintained after six months of age were predominant. A relationship between age, weaning and breastfeeding for the type of malnutrition with a reliability of 99 % was found.

  12. Lead poisoning of children in Africa, III. Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, J; Oleru, N T; Cudjoe, C; Chine, A

    1997-04-30

    This study investigated the prevalence of elevated blood lead (PbB) levels in children 1-6 years old in Kaduna, a medium size city in northern Nigeria. Mean PbB was found to be 10.6 micrograms/dl, and 2% of the children had PbB levels greater than 30 micrograms/dl. Highest average PbB levels were found in children 5 years old and was attributed to the tendency for this age group to play longer in contaminated outdoor environments. The strongest associations were found between PbB and whether the family owned a car or lived in a house on a tarred road. Potential sources of lead in the city as well as household and behavior risk factors likely to result in exposure of children to lead are discussed. This study provides additional data pointing to childhood lead poisoning as being a major public health problem in urban areas of Africa.

  13. HUMAN TRAFFICKING. TRAFFICKING IN CHILDREN. PRACTICAL ASPECTS REGARDING CHILDREN EXPLOITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca-Ioana Rosu

    2010-01-01

    900 thousand children are working in their own households and 70 thousand were victims of worst forms of child labor, including sexual exploitation, forced work, trafficking in children, involvement in criminal activities and risk exposure. Also, approximately 3 thousand street children were involved in: products selling in the street, beggary or windshields washing. In Roma communities, the work of young children (even of 5 years old) is still a frequent practice. Isolated cases of girls inv...

  14. [Lichen striatus. Epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittart, J A; Pegas, J R; Sant'Ana, L A; Pires, M C

    1989-01-01

    The authors are showing a retrospective study of 53 cases of lichen striatus concerning sex, colour, age, place of lesions, associated diseases and period of the year of occurrence of the dermatosis. There was a larger number of cases in females of white race and age-between 2 and 5 years old. A greater occurrence was observed in the months of September and March which correspond to spring and summer. Adding the fact that there have been more cases in children, at times in brothers and the trend to spontaneous involution, the authors suggest the possibility of a virus as etiology to this entity. PMID:2666785

  15. Young Children's Knowledge of the Symbolic Nature of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Hompluem, Lana; Gordon, Jessica; Decker, Kristina; Markson, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments with one hundred and fourteen 3- to 5-year-old children examined whether children understand that a printed word represents a specific spoken word and that it differs in this way from a drawing. When an experimenter read a word to children and then a puppet used a different but related label for it, such as "dog" for the…

  16. Five Years Old Preschool Children's Motor-Verbal Skills:A Follow-up into the First-grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Mirzaei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective : "n "nThe major objective of this study was to determine the means and 95% confidence interval of normal 6 years old children's motor-verbal skills. Based on the results of this study we could develop a measure to diagnose abnormal motor skills. In addition, in this follow-up study, we compared the first-graders' motor-verbal skills to their own skills one year earlier. "nMethod: In this follow-up study, the development of motor-verbal skills was studied in 220 normal readers in the first-grade after 1 year. We administered naming speed test and word and phrase repetition to assess motor-verbal skills. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and paired t-test. "nResults: The mean of the 6 years old first-graders' speed naming was 87 words per 100 second. In addition, means and standard deviations of word and phrase repetition were 8.41(2.92 and 6.51(1.73 respectively. In addition,, paired t-test showed a significant difference between naming speed, word and phrase repetition first-grade and 5 years old children score(naming speed: t=10.95, p<0.001, word repetition: t= 14.23, p<0.001, phrase repetition: t=12.11, p<0.001 . Conclusion:In general, 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills significantly improved after one year. Furthermore, the results of this study provide the norm for speech and language pathologists and other professionals. It is important to note that if 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills are under this norm, it will be anticipated that they are at the risk of literacy problem and dyslexia.

  17. Young children understand the normative force of standards of equal resource distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Kaufmann, Marlen; Lohse, Karoline

    2016-10-01

    Much recent research has shown that children are sensitive to basic principles of fair distribution of resources much earlier than previously assumed. Under appropriate circumstances, toddlers and sometimes even infants both expect that others will follow principles of equal distribution of resources and do so themselves. But from these findings it remains unclear whether young children understand and follow such principles of fairness as normative rules. The current study tested for such an understanding of the normative force of principles of resource distribution with a novel method. In the study, 3- and 5-year-olds witnessed how a (puppet) agent distributed resources jointly earned by herself and a fellow agent in equal or unequal ways. In one condition, the child herself or himself was this fellow agent, and in another condition it was an unrelated third party. Children spontaneously protested frequently against unfair distributions both when they themselves were affected and when another third party was affected (and never did so after fair distributions), with 5-year-olds doing so in more explicitly normative terms than 3-year-olds. These findings suggest that young children indeed understand principles of fair distribution as normatively binding regardless of whether they are personally affected or not. PMID:27329180

  18. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds.

  19. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and ...

  20. The effects of tempo and familiarity on children's affective interpretation of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Jasmine

    2011-06-01

    When and how does one learn to associate emotion with music? This study attempted to address this issue by examining whether preschool children use tempo as a cue in determining whether a song is happy or sad. Instrumental versions of children's songs were played at different tempos to adults and children ages 3 to 5 years. Familiar and unfamiliar songs were used to examine whether familiarity affected children's identification of emotion in music. The results indicated that adults, 4 year olds and 5 year olds rated fast songs as significantly happier than slow songs. However, 3 year olds failed to rate fast songs differently than slow songs at above-chance levels. Familiarity did not significantly affect children's identification of happiness and sadness in music. PMID:21668112

  1. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    , home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. Main outcome measure  WPPSI-R. Results  There were no systematic or significant differences in general intelligence between children of mothers reporting binge drinking and children of mothers......Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1617 women and their children...

  2. Study the Age of Hearing Loss Diagnosis and the Related Factors in a Group of School-Age Children in Baghch-e-Ban School of Hard of Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ahmadi

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of the age of hearing loss diagnosis in every society is recommended to be compared with standard criteria to establish common dirth in management and rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to determine the age of hearing loss diagnosis with respect to common criteria in Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing children in Tehran.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 445 children in stages 2, 6 and 10 of Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing participated. the research was performed by means of the three-stages questionaires that children filled with help of their parents.Results: The mean age of detection of hearing loss in both acquired and congenital hearing loss in children was 3.5 year-old. while the age in which hearing loss was doubted was 1.8 year-old. In another word the mean age of hearing loss detection decreased as the hearing loss increases(in moderate- profound hearing loss(P<0.01. Conclusion: among the refrence sources for refering children with hearing loss the least refering was related to physicians. Adversly the mean age of doubting and detection of hearing loss increased in children with family history of hearing loss.(P<0.01. Meanwhile no relationship was detected between the age of diagnosis of hearing loss and the number of deaf members in the family(P<0.02.

  3. Acute lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in a group of Egyptian children under 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-kholy Amany A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the most important causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI in infants and young children. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of ALRTI associated with RSV among children5 years old in Egypt. Patients and Methods We enrolled 427 children5 years old diagnosed with ALRTI attending the outpatient clinic or Emergency Department (ED of Children Hospital, Cairo University during a one- year period. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from the patients, kept on ice and processed within 2 hours of collection. Immunoflourescent assay (IFA for RSV was performed. Results 91 cases (21.3% had viral etiology with RSV antigens detected in 70 cases (16.4%. The RSV positive cases were significantly younger than other non-RSV cases (mean age 8.2 months versus 14.2 months, p Conclusion RSV is the most common viral etiology of ALRTI in children below 5 years of age, especially in young infants below 6 months of age. It is more prevalent in winter and tends to cause severe infection.

  4. Children base their investment on calculated pay-off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    Full Text Available To investigate the rise of economic abilities during development we studied children aged between 3 and 10 in an exchange situation requiring them to calculate their investment based on different offers. One experimenter gave back a reward twice the amount given by the children, and a second always gave back the same quantity regardless of the amount received. To maximize pay-offs children had to invest a maximal amount with the first, and a minimal amount with the second. About one third of the 5-year-olds and most 7- and 10-year-olds were able to adjust their investment according to the partner, while all 3-year-olds failed. Such performances should be related to the rise of cognitive and social skills after 4 years.

  5. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  6. Children's Pragmatic Inferences as a Route for Learning About the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Alexandra C; Frank, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether children can infer category properties based on how a speaker describes an individual (e.g., saying something is a "small zib" implies that zibs are generally bigger than this one). Three- to 5-year-olds (N = 264) from a university preschool and a children's museum were tested on their ability to make this sort of contrast inference. Children made some inferences from adjective choice alone (Experiment 1); performance increased as more cues to contrast were added (Experiments 2 and 3). Control studies show that these findings are not due to the particular properties used or the structure of these tasks (Experiments 4 and 5). These findings suggest that sensitivity to speakers' production choices may help children learn about the world. PMID:27189407

  7. Two-Year-Old Children Interpret Abstract, Purely Geometric Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Carey, Susan C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, 2.5-year-old children spontaneously used geometric information from 2D maps to locate objects in a 3D surface layout, without instruction or feedback. Children related maps to their corresponding layouts even though the maps differed from the layouts in size, mobility, orientation, dimensionality, and perspective, and even when…

  8. Relations between Colorblind Socialization and Children's Racial Bias: Evidence from European American Mothers and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    To examine European American parents' racial socialization, mothers (n = 84) were videotaped while reading 2 race-themed books to their 4- to 5-year-old children and completed surveys concerning their racial attitudes and behaviors. Children completed measures of their racial attitudes and both groups (mothers and preschoolers) predicted the…

  9. Instant Video Revisiting for Reflection: Extending the Learning of Children and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong B.; Broderick, Jane T.

    This article discusses how instant video revisiting (IVR) promotes reflective thinking for both teachers and children. IVR was used as a daily classroom experience with both the children and the teachers throughout one semester in two preschool classrooms with children 2.5 to 5 years old. The teachers used a digital video camera to generate data…

  10. Beyond hearing : social-emotional outcomes following cochlear implantation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Lizet

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to hearing children, children with hearing loss more often experience social-emotional problems. This thesis aimed to assess whether this was also true for 1-to-5-year-old children who had received a cochlear implant (CI) to remediate their hearing loss. In comparison to hearing peers,

  11. Teaching others rule-use improves executive function and prefrontal activations in young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Sakata, Yoko; Ishibashi, Mikako; Ishikawa, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Intervention of executive function during early childhood is an important research topic. This study examined the effect of a child-friendly intervention program, where children interacted with a doll or a puppet. Children were presented with cognitive shifting tasks before and after an intervention. In the intervention, children interacted with a doll or a puppet, and taught rules of the cognitive shifting tasks to the object. As the results, 3- to 5-year-old children significantly improved the performances and strengthened activations in the lateral prefrontal regions as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. The results suggest that interaction with a doll or a puppet may have a significant impact on the development of executive function. PMID:26175706

  12. Teaching others rule-use improves executive function and prefrontal activations in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eMoriguchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intervention of executive function during early childhood is an important research topic. This study examined the effect of a child-friendly intervention program, where children interacted with a doll or a puppet. Children were presented with cognitive shifting tasks before and after an intervention. In the intervention, children interacted with a doll or a puppet, and taught rules of the cognitive shifting tasks to the object. As the results, 3- to 5-year-old children significantly improved the performances and strengthened activations in the lateral prefrontal regions as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. The results suggest that interaction with a doll or a puppet may have a significant impact on the development of executive function.

  13. Q Fever Chronic Osteomyelitis in Two Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Beatriz; Morais, Andreia; Santos, Ana Sofia; Tavares, Delfin; Seves, Graça; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-11-01

    We report 2 cases of chronic Q fever osteomyelitis in 10- and 5-year-old girls who presented with distal right femoral and left parasternal granulomatous osteomyelitis, respectively. Both were treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampin with good response. Q fever osteomyelitis is a challenging diagnosis in children, and the choice of antimicrobial treatment is difficult because of limited available data. PMID:26226441

  14. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed. PMID:12220049

  15. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Senthil Eagappan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO, a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC. The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4–5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs score; forty caries-free children (control group, forty children with dmfs 1–5 (ECC group, and forty with dmfs ≥6 (severe ECC group. Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658 was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children.

  16. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Eagappan, AR; Rao, V. Arun Prasad; Sujatha, S.; Senthil, D.; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Rajaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC). The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4.5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs) score; forty caries-free children (control group), forty children with dmfs 1.5 (ECC group), and forty with dmfs ⩾6 (severe ECC group). Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658) was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children. PMID:27605992

  17. Identification of children who may benefit from self-hypnosis at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisler Susan C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional difficulties can trigger respiratory symptoms. Thus, children presenting with respiratory complaints may benefit from a psychological intervention. The purpose of this study was to define the proportion of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center who may benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, as a psychological intervention. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all newly referred patients to the SUNY Upstate Medical University Pediatric Pulmonary Center during an 18 month period beginning January 1, 2000. Patients were offered hypnosis if they presented with symptoms or signs suggestive of psychological difficulties. Hypnosis was taught in one or two 15–45 minute sessions by a pediatric pulmonologist. Results Of 725 new referrals, 424 were 0–5 years old, 193 were 6–11 years old, and 108 were 12–18 years old. Diagnoses of anxiety, habit cough, or vocal cord dysfunction accounted for 1% of the 0–5 year olds, 20% of the 6–11 year olds, and 31% of the 12–18 year olds. Hypnotherapy was offered to 1% of 0–5 year olds, 36% of 6–11 year olds, and 55% of 12–18 year olds. Of 81 patients who received instruction in self-hypnosis for anxiety, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, or inspiratory difficulties, 75% returned for follow-up, and among the returning patients 95% reported improvement or resolution of their symptoms. Conclusion A large number of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center appeared to benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, which can be taught easily as a psychological intervention.

  18. The Assessment of Postural Control, Reflex Integration, and Bilateral Motor Coordination of Young Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGangi, Georgia; Larsen, Lawrence A.

    A measurement device, Assessment of Sensorimotor Integration in Preschool Children, was developed to assess postural control, reflex integration and bilateral motor integration in developmentally delayed children (3 to 5 years old). The test was administered to 113 normal children and results were compared with data collected on 23 developmentally…

  19. La importancia de los cuentos conocidos en el aprendizaje del inglés como lengua extranjera: una propuesta metodológica para el aula de 5 años1 / The importance of well-known stories to English language learning: a methodological proposal for 5 years old students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Mar González-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las narraciones de cuentos son un recurso ampliamente utilizado en la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera en el aula de educación infantil, pudiéndose introducir de diferentes modos. En el trabajo presentamos el diseño de una propuesta para fomentar la participación de los niños en la narración de cuentos en inglés que son ya conocidos en su lengua madre. Este enfoque, basado en dos métodos, el TPR-Storytelling y el método Artigal, se pone a prueba en una clase con niños de 5 años, en una intervención educativa de 3 sesiones. Los resultados de este estudio piloto muestran la eficacia de la propuesta en relación al grado de participación en la actividad, comprensión general y adquisición de vocabulario. Por otra parte, esta experiencia visibiliza las fortalezas y aspectos a mejorar de la propuesta, permitiendo el rediseño de la misma en este sentido. Abstract Storytelling is a common resource to teach English as a foreign language to very young children, this can be done in different ways. In this paper, we present the design of an approach to foster children’s participation in English storytelling of well-known stories in their mother tongue. This approach, based on two methods, TPR-Storytelling and Artigal’s, is tested in a class of five-year old children, in a 3-session educational intervention. The results of this pilot study show the effectiveness of the proposal in terms of degree of participation in the activity, general understanding and vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the experience brings to the fore the strengths and weaknesses of the method and allows its redesign on these grounds.

  20. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  1. Custo-efetividade da escovação dental supervisionada convencional e modificada na prevenção da cárie em molares permanentes de crianças de 5 anos de idade Cost-effectiveness of conventional and modified supervised toothbrushing in preventing caries in permanent molars among 5-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Frazão

    2012-01-01

    O custo-efetividade de um programa modificado de escovação dental supervisionada foi comparado ao programa convencional. Participaram 284 crianças de 5 anos com, pelo menos, um molar permanente com a superfície oclusal irrompida/hígida. Nas unidades de controle, o programa convencional composto de atividade educativa com distribuição de escova e creme dental fluorado foi desenvolvido quatro vezes por ano. Nas unidades de teste, as crianças receberam também escovação profissional nas superfíci...

  2. Contexto familiar e alterações oclusais em pré-escolares no município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Influence of familiar context and malocclusion in children aged 0-5 years-old in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Thaís Regis Aranha Rossi; Laíra Sá Lopes; Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: avaliar a prevalência e a associação entre variáveis sócio-ambientais e a maloclusão infantil. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, em crianças de 1-5 anos, residentes em seis áreas do Programa de Saúde da Família, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Foram sorteadas 360 famílias pré-estratificadas, pelo cadastro das famílias das Unidade de Saúde da Família (USF) (415 pré-escolares). Após a identificação, foram realizadas visitas domiciliares onde foram entrevistados os pais/responsáveis e as crian...

  3. 3~5岁幼儿自我延迟满足的发展特点及其中澳跨文化比较%STRATEGIES USED BY 3 TO 5 YEARS OLD CHILDREN ON A SELF-IMPOSED DELAY OF GRATIFICATION TASK INCLUDING A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON BETWEEN CHINA AND AUSTRALIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽珠; 王江洋; 刘文; Monica Cuskelly; Airong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    采用实验室实验和情境观察相结合的方法,考察了我国3~5岁幼儿自我延迟满足发展的特点及中澳幼儿自我延迟满足的跨文化差异.研究结果表明:(1)3~5岁幼儿自我延迟满足平均延迟时间随年龄增长而延长;3岁幼儿使用延迟策略少,4岁幼儿主要使用寻求策略,5岁幼儿主要使用寻求策略和自我分心、问题解决策略,自我言语控制策略在整个幼儿期始终不具有显著优势性.(2)澳大利亚幼儿自我延迟满足发展水平高于我国同龄幼儿;在延迟策略选择上中澳幼儿既具有差异性,又具有一定的相似性;文化价值观通过教育影响着幼儿自我延迟满足的发展.

  4. Survey on the prevalence and risk indices of early childhood caries among 5-year-old children in mountainous areas of North Guangdong%粤北山区早期儿童龋患病状况及危险指标调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑波; 林焕彩

    2015-01-01

    目的 描述粤北山区5岁儿童早期儿童龋(early childhood caries,ECC)患病状况,分析影响ECC患病的危险指标,探讨儿童ECC患病状况与留守现象的关系.方法 通过横断面调查方法对粤北山区的河源、韶关和梅州市827名5岁儿童ECC患病状况及可能的危险指标进行调查.结果 827名儿童ECC患病率为88.6%,龋均为7.8±5.7,龋面均为18.0±17.5,龋面充填率为0.28%.协方差分析结果发现,母亲受教育程度初中或以下、有釉质发育缺陷、餐间甜食频率大于2次/d、营养不良、有看牙医行为及河源连平、韶关新丰地区的儿童龋失补牙面值较高.此外,ECC随月龄的递增而加重,其严重程度与留守现象不相关.结论 粤北山区5岁儿童ECC患病状况严重,ECC充填率很低,治疗需要较高;ECC患病的危险指标是母亲受教育程度较低、有牙釉质发育缺陷、较高的餐间甜食频率和营养不良;未发现ECC的患病状况与留守现象相关.

  5. 4~5岁幼儿积木建构水平与几何空间能力发展特点及两者之间的关系%The Characteristics and the Relationship between Block Building Level and Spatial Skills in 4-5 Year-old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓霞; 闫颖; 许晓晖

    2014-01-01

    本研究以北京市一所公立幼儿园的65名4~5岁幼儿为被试,采用个别测查法考察4~5岁幼儿的积木建构水平及几何空间能力发展特点,并对两者的关系进行探究.结果表明:(1)4~5岁幼儿积木建构从简单的二维结构逐渐过渡到三维结构,且没有显著的性别差异.(2)4~5岁幼儿的几何空间能力处于中等偏上水平,女孩空间图形及方位识别能力高于男孩.(3)4~5岁幼儿积木建构水平等级不同,几何空间能力得分存在显著差异,说明积木建构水平与几何空间能力之间存在一定关系.

  6. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and treatments based on what is known to ... children's health with the goal to develop treatments, drugs, and devices specific to children. Resources for a ...

  7. Acute appendicitis in preschoolers: a study of two different populations of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivridis Efthimios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the incidence and the risk factors implicated in acute appendicitis in preschoolers in our region. Methods Over a 7-year period, 352 children underwent appendectomy for suspected acute appendicitis. Of these, data for 23 children were excluded because no inflammation of the appendix was found on subsequent histology. Of the remaining 329, 82 were ≤ 5 years old (i.e., preschool children and 247 were 5-14 years old. These two groups of children were further divided according to their religion into Muslims and Christian Orthodox: 43 of the children aged ≤ 5 years were Muslims and 39 were Christian Orthodox. A household questionnaire was designed to collect data concerning age, gender, type of residence area, living conditions, vegetable consumption, and family history of surgery for acute appendicitis as preschool children. The removed appendices were also assessed histologically for the amount of lymphoid tissue. Results Acute appendicitis of preschoolers developed more frequently in Muslims (39.4% than in Christians (17.7%; p p p > 0.05. Conclusions In our region, the percentage of preschool-aged Muslim children with acute appendicitis was remarkably high. One possible explanation for this finding could be the higher amount of lymphoid tissue in the wall of the appendix in Muslim preschool children together with their low standard of hygiene.

  8. Effects of first aid training in the kindergarten - a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. Methods A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. Results The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management) correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Conclusion Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten. PMID:21356047

  9. Effects of first aid training in the kindergarten - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myklebust Anne G

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. Methods A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. Results The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Conclusion Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten.

  10. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  11. What Would Batman Do? Self-Distancing Improves Executive Function in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rachel E.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    This experimental research assessed the influence of graded levels of self-distancing--psychological distancing from one's egocentric perspective--on executive function (EF) in young children. Three- (n = 48) and 5-year-old (n = 48) children were randomly assigned to one of four manipulations of distance from the self (from proximal to distal:…

  12. 学龄前听障儿童与健听儿童不同语句的语调声学特点比较%The Comparative Study of Intonation Pronunciation in Preschool Children with Hearing Impairments and Normal Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易玲; 张磊; 周静

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to study the characteristics of intonation pronunciation in preschool children with hearing impairments .Methods A total of 30 of 4~5 years old children with hearing impairment and 30 of 4~5 years old children with normal hearing were enrolled in this study .With statement intonation and ques-tion intonation as test material ,the compartment between the children in two groups were obtained .Results Pre-school children were generally increased the ending point and slope to distinguish statement intonation .There were still differences between hearing -impaired children and normal children .Under statement intonation condition :the children with hearing impairments showed a significantly lower level of the slope of the high and level boundary tone than the normal children ,the starting point and the ending point of the falling boundary tone in hearing -impaired children were significantly lower than those of in normal children ;Meanwhile ,under question intonation condition :com-pared with normal children ,the slope of the high and level boundary tone ,the rising boundary tone and the falling -rising boundary tone in hearing -impaired children were significantly lower .The starting point ,the ending point ,the high and level boundary tone ,and the falling boundary tone in hearing -impaired children were significantly lower .Conclusion To implement targeted therapy during question intonation training for hearing -impaired children ,the acoustics characteristics of boundary tone are required to assess and monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation .%目的:探讨学龄前听障儿童不同语句语调的声学特点,为其语调训练提供参考。方法选取4~5岁听障儿童和健听儿童各20例,以自编陈述和疑问语句为测试材料,获得两组儿童边界调的起点值、终点值和频率值,分析不同语调类型和儿童类型之间的差异及相互影响。结果两类学龄前儿童疑问句边界调的

  13. When the body reveals the mind: Children's use of others' body orientation to understand their focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Murillo, Esther; Sodian, Beate

    2016-08-01

    A considerable amount of research has examined children's ability to rely on explicit social cues such as pointing to understand others' referential intentions. Yet, skillful social interaction also requires reliance on and learning from implicit cues (i.e., cues that are not displayed with the explicit intention to teach or inform someone). From an embodied point of view, orienting movements and body orientation are salient cues that reveal something about a person's intentional relations without being explicit communicative cues. In three experiments, the current study investigated the development of the ability to use body information in a word learning situation. To this end, we presented 2-year-old children, 3.5-year-old children, and adults with movies on an eye-tracking screen in which an actor oriented her upper body to one of two objects while uttering a novel word. The results show that the 3.5-year-old children and adults, but not the 2-year-old children, related the novel word to the referred object (Experiments 1 and 2). Yet, when the actor oriented her body to one object while pointing to the other object, children of both age groups relied on the pointing cue (Experiment 3). This suggests that by 3.5 years children use another's body orientation as an indicator of her intentional relations but that they prioritize explicit social cues over the implicit body posture cues. Overall, the study supports theoretical views that an appreciation of others' intentional relations does not emerge as an all-or-nothing ability but rather emerges gradually during the course of early development. PMID:27152841

  14. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  15. Japanese Children's and Adults' Awareness of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    In Experiment 1, Japanese children (4-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds (n = 78)) and adults (n = 36), answered questions about the possibility of psychogenic bodily reactions, i.e., bodily outcomes with origins in the mind. The 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers typically denied that bodily conditions could originate in mental states. Developmentally,…

  16. The epidemiology of rotavirus disease in under-five-year-old children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in central Uganda, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwogi, Josephine; Malamba, Samuel; Kigozi, Brian; Namuwulya, Prossy; Tushabe, Phionah; Kiguli, Sarah; Byarugaba, Denis Karuhize; Desselberger, Ulrich; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Karamagi, Charles

    2016-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken during 2012-2013 to determine the prevalence, strains and factors associated with rotavirus infection among under-5-year-old children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Uganda. Rotaviruses were detected in 37 % (263/712) of the children. The most prevalent strains were G9P[8] (27 %, 55/204) and G12P[4] (18.6 %, 38/204). Mixed infections were detected in 22.5 % (46/204) of the children. The study suggests that consumption of raw vegetables (OR = 1.45, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.03) and family ownership of dogs (OR = 1.9, 95 % CI = 1.04-3.75) increases the risk of rotavirus infection. The study findings will be used to assess the impact of RV vaccination in Uganda. PMID:26724820

  17. A STUDY ON LICHEN PLANUS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lichen planus is considered to be rare in children. However, it does not appear to be uncommon in Indian subcontinent. Aims: The study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile of childhood lichen planus. Material and Methods: We selected 30 children with LP for the study. The children selected were below the age of 14 years of age. Results and Discussion: In our study, it was seen that that the maximum onset of disease was between 5-9 years of age and mean age of children with LP was 6.8 years. The commonest type of LP in children was classical LP seen in 60% children, followed by actinic LP in 20% children. LP hypertrophicus and linear LP were seen in 10% patients each. Nail changes were seen in 10% patients.

  18. The effect of dietary resistant starch type 2 on the microbiota and markers of gut inflammation in rural Malawi children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS) decreases intestinal inflammation in some settings. We tested the hypothesis that gut inflammation will be reduced with dietary supplementation with RS in rural Malawian children. Eighteen stunted 3-5-year-old children were supplemented with 8.5 g/day of RS type 2 for 4 weeks. ...

  19. Prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders among children attending primary health care centers in Mosul, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

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    Al-Jawadi Asma A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are more vulnerable to the affects of war and violence than adults. At the time of initiation of this study, nothing was known about the prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders. The aim of the present study is to measure the point prevalence of mental disorders among children of 1–15 years age in the city of Mosul, Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Four primary health care centers were chosen consecutively as a study setting. The subjects of the present study were mothers who came to the primary health care center for vaccination of their children. The chosen mothers were included by systematic sampling randomization. All children (aged 1–15 that each mother had were considered in the interview and examination. Results Out of 3079 children assessed, 1152 have childhood mental disorders, giving a point prevalence of 37.4%, with a male to female ratio of to 1.22:1. The top 10 disorders among the examined children are post-traumatic stress disorder (10.5%, enuresis (6%, separation anxiety disorder (4.3%, specific phobia (3.3% stuttering and refusal to attend school (3.2% each, learning and conduct disorders (2.5% each, stereotypic movement (2.3% and feeding disorder in infancy or early childhood (2.0%. Overall, the highest prevalence of mental disorders was among children 10–15 years old (49.2% while the lowest was among 1–5 year olds (29.1%. Boys are more affected than girls (40.2% and 33.2%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mental disorders are a common condition highly prevalent amongst the children and early adolescents in Mosul. Data from the present study mirrors the size of the problem in local community. Several points deserve attention, the most important of which include giving care at the community level, educating the public on mental health, involving communities and families, monitoring community mental health indicators, and

  20. Burden of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy in School ged children

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    Artan Shkoza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is the most common neurological complication in cancer treatment and probably the most common toxic neuropathy in our environment. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence and discomfort caused by neuropathic symptoms in children treated for hematologic cancers. The study included all children admitted to the pediatric oncology service at the University Hospital Center “Mother Teresa”, Tirana, by the year 2011 – 2013 divided in three diagnosis groups: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, or other solid tumors. In a prospective cohort setting, data were collected by standard questionnaire for symptoms and signs of neurological damage, according to The Pediatric - Modified Total Neuropathy Scale (Ped - mTNS, as well as clinical evaluation of pin sensibility, vibration sensibility, muscle strength and deep tendon reflexes (DTR. The results obtained from Ped-mTNS, showed the high incidence of sensory and motor symptoms as well as functional deficits in balance and manual dexterity in children treated with anticancer drugs. Ped-mTNS scores, as the first measure designed to assess CIPN in school-aged children, are significantly higher for children undergoing neurotoxic chemotherapy. Even though the neuropathy in these children was relatively mild, it was associated with functional deficits in balance and manual dexterity, suggesting clinical importance. An important limiting factor of this study is the exclusion of children younger than 5 years old, whom discomfort is evident but not properly evaluated.

  1. Overweight, obesity and underweight is associated with adverse psychosocial and physical health outcomes among 7-year-old children: the 'Be active, eat right' study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy van Grieken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited studies have reported on associations between overweight, and physical and psychosocial health outcomes among younger children. This study evaluates associations between overweight, obesity and underweight in 5-year-old children, and parent-reported health outcomes at age 7 years. METHODS: Data were used from the 'Be active, eat right' study. Height and weight were measured at 5 and 7 years. Parents reported on child physical and psychosocial health outcomes (e.g. respiratory symptoms, general health, happiness, insecurity and adverse treatment. Regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were fitted to predict health outcomes at age 7 years. RESULTS: The baseline study sample consisted of 2,372 children mean age 5.8 (SD 0.4 years; 6.2% overweight, 1.6% obese and 15.0% underweight. Based on parent-report, overweight, obese and underweight children had an odds ratio (OR of 5.70 (95% CI: 4.10 to 7.92, 35.34 (95% CI: 19.16; 65.17 and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.84, respectively, for being treated adversely compared to normal weight children. Compared to children with a low stable body mass index (BMI, parents of children with a high stable BMI reported their child to have an OR of 3.87 (95% CI: 1.75 to 8.54 for visiting the general practitioner once or more, an OR of 15.94 (95% CI: 10.75 to 23.64 for being treated adversely, and an OR of 16.35 (95% CI: 11.08 to 24.36 for feeling insecure. CONCLUSION: This study shows that overweight, obesity and underweight at 5 years of age is associated with more parent-reported adverse treatment of the child. Qualitative research examining underlying mechanisms is recommended. Healthcare providers should be aware of the possible adverse effects of childhood overweight and also relative underweight, and provide parents and children with appropriate counseling.

  2. Distribution of capsular types and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombian children. Pneumococcal Study Group in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, E; Leal, A L; Castillo, O; De La Hoz, F; Vela, M C; Arango, M; Trujillo, H; Levy, A; Gama, M E; Calle, M; Valencia, M L; Parra, W; Agudelo, N; Mejía, G I; Jaramillo, S; Montoya, F; Porras, H; Sánchez, A; Saa, D; Di Fabio, J L; Homma, A

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of childhood pneumonia in the developing world. This study describes the type distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal isolates from Colombian children and is part of the Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA), a PAHO regional initiative designed to determine the ideal serotype composition of a protein polysaccharide pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for use in children less than 5 years old in Latin America. In Colombia, during the study period, centres in Bogota, Medellin, and Cali collected 324 S. pneumoniae isolates from invasive diseases, 238 (73.5%) from children under the age of 2. Pneumonia was the clinical diagnosis in 41.3% cases, meningitis in 41%, and sepsis in 11.2%. The seven most frequent types included 14(21.9%), 5(10.5%), 23F(9.6%), 1(9%), 6B(9%), 19F(7.1%), and 6A(6.2%). The frequency of diminished susceptibility to penicillin (DSP) was 12%, with 8.9% of isolates showing intermediate level resistance and 3.1% showing high level resistance. Among DSP isolates, 23% were also resistant to cefotaxime, 33.3% to erythromycin, 48.7% to chloramphenicol, and 74.3% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Multiple resistance was detected in 59% of the isolates that have DSP. Penicillin resistance was associated with types 23F (53.8%) and 14 (25.6%). These data provides information on capsular types prevalent in Colombia that will not only allow the formulation of an ideal vaccine for the region but also reinforce the need for ongoing regional surveillance.

  3. The Development of Arabic Digit Knowledge in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Knudsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that Arabic digit knowledge rather than non-symbolic number knowledge is a key foundation for arithmetic proficiency at the start of a child’s mathematical career. We document the developmental trajectory of 4- to 7-year-olds’ proficiency in accessing magnitude information from Arabic digits in five tasks differing in magnitude manipulation requirements. Results showed that children from 5 years onwards accessed magnitude information implicitly and explicitly, but that 5-year-olds failed to access magnitude information explicitly when numerical magnitude was contrasted with physical magnitude. Performance across tasks revealed a clear developmental trajectory: children traverse from first knowing the cardinal values of number words to recognizing Arabic digits to knowing their cardinal values and, concurrently, their ordinal position. Correlational analyses showed a strong within-child consistency, demonstrating that this pattern is not only reflected in group differences but also in individual performance.

  4. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  5. Children : Their Place in Organization Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Donncha

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that children and childhood constitute a ¿white space¿ in organization studies, which should now be explored, mapped and analysed.Rather than being separate, children and organization are deeply implicated in one another, which provides a rich basis for theoretical inquiry. The paper draws on Spivak's concept of the subaltern and on actor-network theory to articulate how and where organization studies might critically engage with, and find a place for, children and childhood...

  6. A STUDY ON LICHEN PLANUS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Puri; Asha Puri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lichen planus is considered to be rare in children. However, it does not appear to be uncommon in Indian subcontinent. Aims: The study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile of childhood lichen planus. Material and Methods: We selected 30 children with LP for the study. The children selected were below the age of 14 years of age. Results and Discussion: In our study, it was seen that that the maximum onset of disease was between 5-9 years of age and mean age of children ...

  7. Parental Website-Descriptions of Children's Imaginary Companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine C Jellesma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Past research shows that imaginary companions are a normal phenomenon in childhood and do not indicate risk for psychopathology. The aim of this study was to see if parents are nevertheless concerned about imaginary companions. Internet-forums were searched in English, German, and Dutch in order to answer this question. Parental messages about present imaginary companions were analysed. Analyses of 89 posts made on a diverse set of internet-forums for parents revealed that half the parents expressed concerns about imaginary companions, especially parents with children older than 4.5 years old. When the imaginary companion was older than the child, parents were more likely to be concerned. Almost all messages were about imaginary companions, which might indicate that parents are less concerned about personified objects. The results signify that parents need more information in order to ensure they know imaginary companions are a normal childhood-experience.

  8. Computerized games to study the development of attention in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A; Jones, L; Rothbart, M K; Posner, M I

    2000-05-01

    Children enjoy playing games. We can take advantage of this in the designs of computerized tasks that will engage their interest. These designs also serve to advance the study of chronometric measures, such as manual and saccadic reaction times and event related potentials, with young children. The goals of our method development are (1) to allow for comparable tasks across a wide variety of ages, (2) to make possible comparisons of child performance with data gathered in adult cognitive studies, and (3) to help to support inferences about the development of underlying mechanisms. We have designed a battery of computerized tasks in order to study the development of attention functions of alertness, orienting, and executive control during childhood. Our purpose is to describe each of these tasks in detail and present the results that have been obtained so far. The battery was tested using a sample of 5-year-old children as subjects.

  9. Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2006-01-01

    Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) was designed to study the adaptation process of the immigrant second generation which is defined broadly as United States-born children with at least one foreign-born parent or children born abroad but brought at an early age to the United States. The original survey was conducted with large samples of second-generation immigrant children attending the 8th and 9th grades in public and private schools in the metropolitan areas of Miami/Ft. Laude...

  10. The relation of age to the severity of Type I diabetes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman H Al-Fifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between the age and severity of Type 1 diabetes in children 0 - 5 years and more than 5 years of age admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia over a 7-year period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of children less than 13 years of age with Type 1 diabetes admitted to the Pediatric Department, between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2006. Results: A total of 181 children with Type1 diabetes were admitted to the hospital during this period. Of these, 27.6% were children 5 years or less, while 72.4% were more than 5 years of age. The duration of symptoms was longer in younger children compared to older patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 31.4% of the younger children, and in 15.3% of the children more than 5 years old. Hospital stay was also longer in children less than 5 years of age. Most significant differences were in the younger children′s group and affected the biochemical test results. Conclusion: The present study showed that more younger children present to the hospital late, and in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis compared to older patients. Efforts should be directed at improving the knowledge and skills of the primary health care personnel to be able to diagnose and refer these cases earlier.

  11. Adults' representations of the Earth: implications for children's acquisition of scientific concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2007-11-01

    When children are asked to draw the Earth they often produce intriguing pictures in which, for example, people seem to be standing on a flat disc or inside a hollow sphere. These drawings, and children's answers to questions, have been interpreted as indicating that children construct naïve, theory-like mental models of the Earth (e.g. Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992). However, recent studies using different methods have found little or no evidence of these mental models, and report that many young children have some scientific knowledge of the Earth. To examine the reasons for these contrasting findings, adults (N=350) were given the drawing task previously given to 5-year-old children. Fewer than half of the adults' pictures were scientific, and 15% were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings. Up to half of the answers to questions (e.g. 'Where do people live?') were non-scientific. Open-ended questions and follow-up interviews revealed that non-scientific responses were given because adults found the apparently simple task confusing and challenging. Since children very probably find it even more difficult, these findings indicate that children's non-scientific responses, like adults', often result from methodological problems with the task. These results therefore explain the discrepant findings of previous research, and support the studies which indicate that children do not have naïve mental models of the Earth.

  12. Parent-child interaction over time in families of young children with borderline intellectual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Rachel M; Baker, Jason K; Baker, Bruce L; Crnic, Keith A

    2014-06-01

    A previous study suggested that mothers of 5-year-old children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed lower positive engagement with their children as compared with both mothers of typically developing children and mothers of children with significant developmental delays (Fenning, Baker, Baker, & Crnic, 2007). The current study integrated father data and followed these families over the subsequent 1-year period. Parent and child behavior were coded from naturalistic home observations at both waves. Results revealed that mothers of children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed a greater increase in negative-controlling parenting from child age 5 to 6 than did other mothers; fathers displayed more negative-controlling behavior in comparison to fathers of typically developing children. In addition, children with borderline intellectual functioning themselves exhibited a more significant escalation in difficult behavior than did typically developing children. Cross-lagged analyses for the sample as a whole indicated that maternal negative-controlling behavior predicted subsequent child difficulties, whereas negative paternal behavior was predicted by earlier child behavior. In conjunction with evidence from Fenning et al. (2007), these findings suggest a complex, dynamic, and systemic developmental pattern in the emotional behavior of families of children with borderline intellectual functioning. Implications and areas in need of additional research are discussed.

  13. The Incidence of Attachment Objects and Oral Habits at Bedtime in Two Longitudinal Samples of Children Aged 1.5-7 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalski, Pauline A.

    1983-01-01

    Mothers in one sample were interviewed when children were 1.5, 2, and 2.5 years old, while mothers in the other sample answered questionnaires when their children were 3.5, 5, and 7 years old. Strong emotional attachment to objects and finger-sucking were most prevalent around 2 years of age. (MP)

  14. Impact of Low Blood Lead Concentrations on IQ and School Performance in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jianghong Liu; Linda Li; Yingjie Wang; Chonghuai Yan; Xianchen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance. Participants and Methods Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3–5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assesse...

  15. Subjective Social Status and Psychological Distress in Mothers of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Nicole; Riis, Jenna L; Johnson, Sara B

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Perceptions of social standing have increasingly well-documented relationships with health. Higher subjective social status (SSS) is associated with better psychological well-being among women, and mothers of newborns. The relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of young children, however, is largely unknown. SSS may provide insight into aspects of maternal functioning that are relevant to parenting capacity, as well as insight into future health; in addition, SSS is brief, and may be perceived as less intrusive than other measures of socioeconomic status or mental health. We evaluated the relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of 5-year-old children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods One hundred and sixty-two mothers of 5-year old children, who participated in a study of child self-regulation, completed surveys that assessed sociodemographics, mental health, and perceived social support. The MacArthur Scale of SSS used pictures of ten-rung ladders to assess respondents' social position in relation to the US (SES ladder) and their community (community ladder). Quantile regression models were used to assess the relationship between maternal psychological distress (perceived social support, depressive symptoms, anxiety) and the ladders (individually and together), adjusting for maternal age, race, education, and number of children. To examine whether the SSS-health relationships differed by race, the models were also stratified by race. Results Community ladder ranking was positively associated with social support (β = 1.34, SE = 0.33, p psychological distress and community SSS among Black/African-American mothers. Discussion The findings suggest that perceived social standing in one's community is associated with maternal psychological well-being. Community SSS may be particularly influential for Black/African-American mothers' well-being.

  16. Engaging young children in collective curriculum design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Maria Inês Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of being predetermined and controlled by the latter. We draw on a cultural-historical approach and on the theory of structure and agency to analyze the events showing the complexity of the activity inside a classroom of very young children by science education standards. Data were collected in the context of a science unit in an early-childhood education program in Belo Horizonte. Our study suggests that (a) throughout the movement of agency|passivity || schema|resources one can observe participative thinking, a form of collective consciousness that arises in and from lived experience; (b) learning is a process in which a group is invested in searching for solutions while they create schemas and rearrange resources to evolve a new structure; and (c) the emergent curriculum is a powerful form of praxis that develops children's participation from early childhood on.

  17. Epidemiology, Seasonality and Factors Associated with Rotavirus Infection among Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2008–2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omore, Richard; Tate, Jacqueline E.; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Ayers, Tracy; Williamson, John; Moke, Feny; Schilling, Katie A.; Awuor, Alex O.; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, John B.; Oundo, Joseph; Parashar, Umesh D.; Parsons, Michele B.; Bopp, Cheryl C.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Nuorti, J. Pekka; Mintz, Eric D.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors associated with rotavirus diarrhea and to describe severity of illness among children <5 years old with non-dysenteric, moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in rural western Kenya. Methods We analyzed data from children <5 years old with non-dysenteric MSD enrolled as cases in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Kenya. A non-dysenteric MSD case was defined as a child with ≥3 loose stools in 24 hrs. and one or more of the following: sunken eyes, skin tenting, intravenous rehydration, or hospitalization, who sought care at a sentinel health center within 7 days of illness onset. Rotavirus antigens in stool samples were detected by ELISA. Demographic and clinical information was collected at enrollment and during a single follow-up home visit at approximately 60 days. We analyzed diarrhea severity using a GEMS 17 point numerical scoring system adapted from the Vesikari score. We used logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with rotavirus infection. Results From January 31, 2008 to September 30, 2012, among 1,637 (92%) non-dysenteric MSD cases, rotavirus was detected in stools of 245 (15.0%). Rotavirus-positive compared with negative cases were: younger (median age, 8 vs. 13 months; p<0.0001), had more severe illness (median severity score, 9 vs 8; p<0.0001) and had to be hospitalized more frequently (37/245 [15.1%] vs. 134/1,392 [9.6%]), p <0.013). Independent factors associated with rotavirus infection included age 0–11 months old (aOR = 5.29, 95% CI 3.14–8.89) and presenting with vomiting ≥3 times/24hrs (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.91–3.48]). Rotavirus was detected more commonly in warm and dry months than in the cool and rainy months (142/691 [20%] vs 70/673 [10%]) p<0.0001). Conclusions Diarrhea caused by rotavirus is associated with severe symptoms leading to hospitalization. Consistent with other settings, infants had the greatest burden of disease. PMID:27494517

  18. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Brown, William H.; McIver, Kerry L.; Howie, Erin K.; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3-to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the…

  19. Whom to ask for help? Children's developing understanding of other people's action capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, M.A.; Moore, C.L.

    2011-01-01

    We often rely on other people's help to accomplish tasks and to attain goals. People, however, differ in their physical action capabilities. Some persons are therefore better able to provide help than others. We investigated 2.5-, 3.5-, and 5-year-old children's ability to take other person's action

  20. Memory, Maternal Representations, and Internalizing Symptomatology among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…

  1. Children with Imaginary Companions Focus on Mental Characteristics When Describing Their Real-life Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paige E.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Relations between having an imaginary companion (IC) and (i) descriptions of a real-life friend, (ii) theory of mind performance, and (iii) reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties were investigated in a sample of 5-year-olds (N?=?159). Children who had an IC were more likely than their peers without an IC to describe their best…

  2. Young Children's Fast Mapping and Generalization of Words, Facts, and Pictograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Gedeon O.; Toney, Alexis J.

    2013-01-01

    To test general and specific processes of symbol learning, 4- and 5-year-old children learned three kinds of abstract associates for novel objects: words, facts, and pictograms. To test fast mapping (i.e., one-trial learning) and subsequent learning, comprehension was tested after each of four exposures. Production was also tested, as was…

  3. Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults from Asia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…

  4. Developing a Tool for Assessing Social-Emotional Functioning of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinherz, Helen; And Others

    Described are the development and field testing of the Revised 1977 Behavior Checklist, one component of a multidisciplinary batter to assess social and emotional dysfunction in populations of 4- and 5-year-old children entering kindergarten. The total screening battery is outlined and development of the 1976 Pilot Version of the Behavior…

  5. Young Children's Inductive Generalizations about Social Categories: When Is Gender Essential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.; Allen, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated 3- to 5-year-olds' inductive generalizations about social categories. In Experiment 1, participants were shown pictures of children contrasting in appearance and either gender or classmate status, and were asked to generalize either biological properties or behaviors. Contrary to expectations, performance did not…

  6. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  7. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream. PMID:12286296

  8. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream.

  9. Children's Expectations and Understanding of Kinship as a Social Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, Annie C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    In order to navigate the social world, children need to understand and make predictions about how people will interact with one another. Throughout most of human history, social groups have been prominently marked by kinship relations, but few experiments have examined children's knowledge of and reasoning about kinship relations. In the current studies, we investigated how 3- to 5-year-old children understand kinship relations, compared to non-kin relations between friends, with questions such as, "Who has the same grandmother?" We also tested how children expect people to interact based on their relations to one another, with questions such as "Who do you think Cara would like to share her treat with?" Both in a storybook context and in a richer context presenting more compelling cues to kinship using face morphology, 3- and 4-year-old children failed to show either robust explicit conceptual distinctions between kin and friends, or expectations of behavior favoring kin over friends, even when asked about their own social partners. By 5 years, children's understanding of these relations improved, and they showed some expectation that others will preferentially aid siblings over friends. Together, these findings suggest that explicit understanding of kinship develops slowly over the preschool years. PMID:27065213

  10. First possession, history, and young children's ownership judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Defeyter, Margaret A; Neary, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    It is impossible to perceive who owns an object; this must be inferred. One way that children make such inferences is through a first possession bias--when two agents each use an object, children judge the object belongs to the one who used it first. Two experiments show that this bias does not result from children directly inferring ownership from first possession; the experiments instead support an alternative account according to which the first possession bias reflects children's historical reasoning. In Experiment 1, eighty-five 3- to 5-year-olds only based inferences on first possession when it was informative about the past. In Experiment 2, thirty-two 5-year-olds based ownership judgments on testimony about past contact, while disregarding testimony about future contact.

  11. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme GHASEMI

    2014-04-01

    C, Donati F. Febrile Seizures and Parental Anxiety: Does Information Help? Swiss Med Wkly 2001;131:556–60.4. Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia (PA: WB Saunders Company; 2011. p.2017.5. Pisacane A, Sansone R, Impagliazzo N, Coppola A, Rolando P, D’Apuzzo A, et al. Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Convulsions: Case-control Study in Children under 2 Years. BMJ 1996;313 (7053:343.6. Lozoff B, Beard J, Connor J, Barbara F, Georgieff M, Schallert T, et al. Long-lasting Neural and Behavioral Effects of Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Nutr Rev 2006;64(5 Pt 2:34–43.7. Parks YA, Wharton BA. Iron Deficiency and the Brain. Acta Paediatr Scand 1989;361:(Suppl 1:71–7.8. Ur-Rehman N, Billoo AG. Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Seizures. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005;15(6:338-40.9. Daoud AS, Batieha A, Abu-Ekteish F, Gharaibeh N, Ajlouni S, Hijazi S. Iron Status: A Possible Risk Factor for the First Febrile Seizure. Epilepsia 2002;43(7:740-3.10. Hartfield DS, Tan J, Yager JY, Rosychuk RJ, Spady D, Haines C, et al. The Association between Iron Deficiency and Febrile Seizures in Childhood. Clin Pediatr (Phila 2009;48(4:420-6.11. Momen A, Nikfar R, Karimi B. Evaluation of Iron Status in 9-month to 5-year-old Children with Febrile Seizures: A Case-control Study in the South West of Iran. Iran JChild Neurol 2010;4(2:45-50.12. Talebian A, Momtazmanesh N. Febrile Seizures and Anemia. Iran J Child Neurol 2007;31-3.13. Kobrinsky NL, Yager JY, Cheang MS, Yatscoff RW, Tenenbein M. Does Iron Deficiency Raise the Seizure Threshold? J Child Neurol 1995;10(2:105–9.14. Salehi Omran MR, Tamaddoni A, Nasehi MM, Babazadeh H, Alizadeh Navaei R. Iron Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-control Study. Iran J Child Neurol 2009:3(3:40-3.15. Amirsalari S, Keihanidost Z, Ahmadi M, Sabouri A, Kavemanesh Z, Afshar P, et al. Relationship between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Seizures. Iran J Child

  12. Young children's racial awareness and affect and their perceptions about mothers' racial affect in a multiracial context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana

    2011-11-01

    There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories. PMID:21199507

  13. Perceptual evidence for protracted development in monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tone production in preschool children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan

    2013-01-01

    This study used the same methodology in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to examine the perceived accuracy of monosyllabic Mandarin tones produced by 4- and 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and combined the findings with those of 3-year-olds reported in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to track the development of monosyllabic tone production in preschool children. Tone productions of adults and children were collected in a picture naming task and low-pass filtered to remove lexical information and reserve tone information. Five native-speakers categorized the target tones in the filtered productions. Children's tone accuracy was compared to adults' to determine mastery and developmental changes. The results showed that preschool children in Taiwan have not fully mastered the production of monosyllabic Mandarin tones. None of the tones produced by the children in the three age groups reached adult-like accuracy. Little developmental change was found in children's tone accuracy during the preschool years. A similar order of accuracy of the tones was observed across the three age groups and the order appeared to follow the order of articulatory complexity in producing the tones. The findings suggest a protracted course of development in children's acquisition of Mandarin tones and that tone development may be constrained by physiological factors.

  14. Developmental changes in children's normative reasoning across learning contexts and collaborative roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Anne E; Young, Andrew G

    2016-08-01

    What influences children's normative judgments of conventional rules at different points in development? The current study explored the effects of two contextual factors on children's normative reasoning: the way in which the rules were learned and whether the rules apply to the self or others. Peer dyads practiced a novel collaborative board game comprising two complementary roles. Dyads were either taught both the prescriptive (i.e., what to do) and proscriptive (i.e., what not to do) forms of the rules, taught only the prescriptive form of the rules, or created the rules themselves. Children then judged whether third parties were violating or conforming to the rules governing their own roles and their partner's roles. Early school-aged children's (6- to 7-year-olds; N = 60) normative judgments were strongest when they had been taught the rules (with or without the proscriptive form), but were more flexible for rules they created themselves. Preschool-aged children's (4- to 5-year-olds; N = 60) normative judgments, however, were strongest when they were taught both the prescriptive and proscriptive forms of the rules. Additionally, preschoolers exhibited stronger normative judgments when the rules governed their own roles rather than their partner's roles, whereas school-aged children treated all rules as equally normative. These results demonstrate that children's normative reasoning is contingent on contextual factors of the learning environment and, moreover, highlight 2 specific areas in which children's inferences about the normativity of conventions strengthen over development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27359156

  15. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  16. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  17. Conforming to coordinate: children use majority information for peer coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Humans are constantly required to coordinate their behaviour with others. As this often relies on everyone's convergence on the same strategy (e.g., driving on the left side of the road), a common solution is to conform to majority behaviour. In this study, we presented 5-year-old children with a coordination problem: To retrieve some rewards, they had to choose the same of four options as a peer partner--in reality a stooge--whose decision they were unable to see. Before making a choice, they watched a video showing how other children from their partner's peer group had behaved; a majority chose the same option and a minority chose a different one. In a control condition, children watched the same video but could then retrieve the reward irrespective of their partner's choice (i.e., no coordination was necessary). Children followed the majority more often when coordination was required. Moreover, conformers mostly justified their choices by referring to the majority from the video demonstration. This study is the first to show that young children are able to strategically coordinate decisions with peers by conforming to the majority.

  18. Sensing the Coherence of Biology in Contrast to Psychology: Young Children's Use of Causal Relations to Distinguish Two Foundational Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jane E.; Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly…

  19. Further Evidence of the Reliability and Validity of DSM-IV ODD and CD in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Humphries, Marisha; Duax, Jeanne; Donald, Radiah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the reliability and validity of DSM-IV oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) and symptoms using the Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorders Schedule and generate data on the manifestation of symptoms of ODD and CD in 3- to 5-year-old children. Method: One hundred twenty-three consecutive referrals to a child and…

  20. Fulminate Hepatic Failure in a 5 Year Old Female after Inappropriate Acetaminophen Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kasmi

    2015-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers should considered probable acetaminophen toxicity in any child who has received the drug and presented with liver failure. When there is a high index of suspicion of acetaminophen toxicity NAC should be initiated and continued until there are no signs of hepatic dysfunction.

  1. Percutaneous transsplenic embolization of esophageal varices in a 5-year-old child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasinska, G.; Wermenski, K.; Rajszys, P.

    A five-year-old girl with portal vein thrombosis and severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage recurring after repeated endoscopic sclerotherapy was successfully embolized via an ultrasonically guided transsplenic catheterization of the splenic vein.

  2. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit in a 5-year-old girl with microphthalmia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy......ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy...

  3. Similar performance of Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems in young children with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sawicki, Gregory S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the severity of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), scoring systems based on chest radiographs (CXRs), CT and MRI have been used extensively, although primarily in research settings rather than for clinical purposes. It has recently been shown that those based on CXRs (primarily the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems) are as sensitive and valid as those based on CT. The reproducibility and correlation of both systems to pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recently investigated and were found to be statistically identical. However, the relative performance of these systems has not been specifically assessed in children younger than 5 years old with mild lung disease, a critical age range in which PFTs is rarely performed. To investigate and compare the performance of the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems in children 0-5 years old with predominantly mild lung disease. Fifty-five patients 0-5 years old with 105 CXRs were included in the study. Given that the goal was to compare system performance in mild disease, only the first two CXRs from each patient were included (all but five patients had two images). When only one image was available in the target age range, it only was included. Agreement between the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems was assessed using a 2X2 contingency table assuming binary classification of CF lung disease using CXR scoring systems (mild vs. non-mild). In the absence of PFTs or another external gold standard for comparison, the Wisconsin system was used as an arbitrary gold standard against which the Brasfield was compared. Correlation between the two systems was assessed via a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for repeated measures. Scores were rated as mild or non-mild based on published numerical cutoffs for each system. The systems agreed on 89/105 (85%) and disagreed on 16/105 (15%) of the CXRs. Agreement between the two systems was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Relative sensitivity and specificity of the

  4. Similar performance of Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems in young children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the severity of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), scoring systems based on chest radiographs (CXRs), CT and MRI have been used extensively, although primarily in research settings rather than for clinical purposes. It has recently been shown that those based on CXRs (primarily the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems) are as sensitive and valid as those based on CT. The reproducibility and correlation of both systems to pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recently investigated and were found to be statistically identical. However, the relative performance of these systems has not been specifically assessed in children younger than 5 years old with mild lung disease, a critical age range in which PFTs is rarely performed. To investigate and compare the performance of the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems in children 0-5 years old with predominantly mild lung disease. Fifty-five patients 0-5 years old with 105 CXRs were included in the study. Given that the goal was to compare system performance in mild disease, only the first two CXRs from each patient were included (all but five patients had two images). When only one image was available in the target age range, it only was included. Agreement between the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems was assessed using a 2X2 contingency table assuming binary classification of CF lung disease using CXR scoring systems (mild vs. non-mild). In the absence of PFTs or another external gold standard for comparison, the Wisconsin system was used as an arbitrary gold standard against which the Brasfield was compared. Correlation between the two systems was assessed via a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for repeated measures. Scores were rated as mild or non-mild based on published numerical cutoffs for each system. The systems agreed on 89/105 (85%) and disagreed on 16/105 (15%) of the CXRs. Agreement between the two systems was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Relative sensitivity and specificity of the

  5. The use of definite and indefinite articles by children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polite, Elgustus J; Leonard, Laurence B; Roberts, Felicia D

    2011-08-01

    Among the grammatical limitations seen in English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) is a prolonged period of using articles (e.g., a, the) inconsistently. Most studies documenting this difficulty have focused on article omission and have not made the distinction between definite and indefinite article contexts. In this study, there were 36 participants: 12 5-year-olds with SLI, 12 typically-developing children matched for age, and 12 younger, typically-developing children matched with participants in the SLI group according to mean length of utterance. All 36 children participated in a task requiring indefinite article use, and a task requiring use of the definite article, in which the referent of the noun had already been established in the discourse. The children with SLI showed less use of definite articles in particular, relative to both groups of typically-developing children. Substitutions as well as omissions were seen. The findings suggest that the article limitations of the children with SLI were attributable in part to an incomplete understanding of how definite articles are to be used.

  6. Intervertebral disc calcification in children: Case description and review of relevant literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intervertebral disc calcification is a rare condition in children; in most cases, it is asymptomatic and therefore not diagnosed. In our study, we present a case of idiopathic intervertebral disc calcification within the cervical segment, at the level of C2/C3 and C4/C5 vertebrae in a 5-year-old girl with torticollis. Basic neurological examination supplemented by X-ray examination was performed, showing calcification within the cervical segment at the level of C2/C3 and C4/C5 vertebrae. In order to complement the diagnostics, a CT scan of the cervical spine was performed; the scan confirmed the diagnosis and revealed additional calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament at the level of C4/C5 vertebrae

  7. Seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection among children and adolescents in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Li Wei; Cutter, Jeffery; James, Lyn; Goh, Kee Tai

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a pediatric seroprevalence study of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Singapore, a dengue endemic city-state. Residual sera from 1,200 Singapore residents aged 1-17 years seen in two hospitals between 2008 and 2010 were tested for anti-DENV IgG antibodies. The overall seroprevalence was 10.4% (95%CI: 8.7-12.1%). There had been a marked decline in seroprevalence in the 15-19-year age group over the last three decades, while the prevalence in the 1-5-year olds (12.6%) was significantly higher than that of the 1996-1997 pediatric survey (0.8%). The overall dengue seroprevalence in children and adolescents remained low.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and capsular types of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echániz-Aviles, G; Velázquez-Meza, M E; Carnalla-Barajas, M N; Soto-Noguerón, A; Solórzano-Santos, F; Pérez Miravete, A; Gatica-Marquina, R; di Fabio, J L

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA) initiative, we conducted a surveillance study to determine the relative prevalence of capsular types of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive isolates in children less than 5 years old. We collected 220 isolates and found 33 of the 90 known types, with type 23F as the most common followed by types 6A+B, 14, 19F, and 19A. High penicillin resistance was found in 49 strains (22.2%), 31 belonging to type 23F. Twenty-nine (13.1%) were resistant to erythromycin, 95 (43.1%) were resistant to chloramphenicol, and 24 (10.9%) were resistant to cefotaxime. No strains were resistant to vancomycin.

  9. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  10. National Children's Study: update in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Steven; Songco, David; Kramer, Barnett S; Guttmacher, Alan E

    2011-01-01

    The National Children's Study will examine the effects of the environment and genetics on the growth, development, and health of children across the United States; it will follow participants from before birth until age 21 years. The goal of the study is to improve the health and well-being of children and contribute to understanding the roles various factors play in health and disease. Findings from the study will be made available as the research progresses, making potential benefits known to the public as soon as possible. A robust pilot study, or Vanguard Study, is underway to generate data for designing the subsequent Main Study. The goals of the Vanguard Study are feasibility, acceptability, and cost, and the goals of the Main Study will be exposure-response relationships and biological, environmental, and genetic interactions. The initial Vanguard Study experience among 7 study centers was successful in many ways, including delineating the topics to explore for the next phase of the Vanguard Study. Three different recruitment strategies are under evaluation to determine what approach to use for the Main Study. The organization of National Children's Study operations is currently based on a new decentralized business model. PMID:21259268

  11. Clinical Study on Ocular Trauma in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zicai Huang; Hongni Li; Yixia Huang; Zhongxia Zhou

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of ocular trauma in children and put forward the major treatment and prevention of ocular trauma in children.Methods: To analyze the clinical data by 77 eyes in 77 cases of ocular trauma in children from April 1999 to February 2002. Results: The male and female were in the ratio of 2.21: 1. Right eye ocular traumas were more than left ones. Ocular penetrating trauma was 83.12% and blunt trauma 12.99%. 41 cases (53.25%) were injured by themselves while 33 cases by others. 90.91% patients came from the countryside.Conclusion: The rate of blindness of children with ocular trauma could be reduced by prompt treatment. The study indicated that ocular trauma preventive publicity should be faced in the countryside in order to improve the understanding of the severity of ocular trauma and treat it as a social problem.

  12. Children's Schooling and Parents' Investment in Children: Evidence from the Head Start Impact Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander M. Gelber; Adam Isen

    2011-01-01

    Parents may have important effects on their children, but little work in economics explores whether children's schooling opportunities crowd out or encourage parents' investment in children. We analyze data from the Head Start Impact Study, which granted randomly-chosen preschool-aged children the opportunity to attend Head Start. We find that Head Start causes a substantial increase in parents' involvement with their children--such as time spent reading to children, math activities, or days ...

  13. Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Jarahi, Lida

    2016-06-01

    Despite the strong evidence of child safety seats (CSSs) effectiveness in reducing injuries, it is still rarely used in some societies. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of CSS use in Mashad, Iran. Five hundred ninety kindergarten children whose parents owned a car were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked about using CSS for their children, reasons for CSS use/non-use, demographics, history of road traffic injuries and receiving any advice on CSS. Of families, 25.5% expressed that they used CSS for their child at present or any time in the past, but only 6.3% of children travelled restrained in CSS at the time of study. Age-appropriate CSS use was reported in 14.5% of infants and 2.3% of 1-5-year-old children. A significant relationship was observed between lower child age, higher maternal education and high family income with CSS use. The main reasons for CSS none-use were reported as not feeling the need (42%), followed by its high price (22%). Use of CSS was uncommon. The financial concerns and information gap about the essential need for CSS should be considered as priorities for action especially among lower socio-economic groups of society. PMID:25077890

  14. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H M; Wang, J D; Zhang, X L

    2006-11-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mgkg(-1)). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure.

  15. Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Jarahi, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Despite the strong evidence of child safety seats (CSSs) effectiveness in reducing injuries, it is still rarely used in some societies. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of CSS use in Mashad, Iran. Five hundred ninety kindergarten children whose parents owned a car were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked about using CSS for their children, reasons for CSS use/non-use, demographics, history of road traffic injuries and receiving any advice on CSS. Of families, 25.5% expressed that they used CSS for their child at present or any time in the past, but only 6.3% of children travelled restrained in CSS at the time of study. Age-appropriate CSS use was reported in 14.5% of infants and 2.3% of 1-5-year-old children. A significant relationship was observed between lower child age, higher maternal education and high family income with CSS use. The main reasons for CSS none-use were reported as not feeling the need (42%), followed by its high price (22%). Use of CSS was uncommon. The financial concerns and information gap about the essential need for CSS should be considered as priorities for action especially among lower socio-economic groups of society.

  16. Factors affecting young children's use of pronouns as referring expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A L; Brooks, P; Tomasello, M

    2000-12-01

    Most studies of children's use of pronouns have focused either on the morphology of personal pronouns or on the anaphoric use of pronouns by older children. The current two studies investigated factors affecting children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions-in contrast with their use of full nouns and null references. In the first study it was found that 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children did not use pronouns differentially whether the adult (a) modeled a pronoun or a noun for the target object or (b) did or did not witness the target event (although there was evidence that they did notice and take account of the adult's witnessing in other ways). In the second study it was found that children of this same age (a) do not use pronouns to avoid unfamiliar or difficult nouns but (b) do use pronouns differently depending on the immediately preceding discourse of the experimenter (whether they were asked a specific question such as "What did X do?" or a general question such as "What happened?"). In the case of specific questions, children prefer to use a null reference but use some pronouns as well (almost never using full nouns); in the case of the generic questions, children use pronouns even more often (and use nouns more as well). This finding was corroborated by some new analyses of children's use of pronouns in specific discourse situations in previously published studies. These findings suggest that children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions in early language development is influenced more by the immediately preceding discourse than other kinds of factors. PMID:11193956

  17. A geographical analysis of speech-language pathology services to support multilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonald, Simon

    2014-06-01

    The speech-language pathology workforce strives to provide equitable, quality services to multilingual people. However, the extent to which this is being achieved is unknown. Participants in this study were 2849 members of Speech Pathology Australia and 4386 children in the Birth cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Statistical and geospatial analyses were undertaken to identify the linguistic diversity and geographical distribution of Australian speech-language pathology services and Australian children. One fifth of services offered by Speech Pathology Australia members (20.2%) were available in a language other than English. Services were most commonly offered in Australian Sign Language (Auslan) (4.3%), French (3.1%), Italian (2.2%), Greek (1.6%), and Cantonese (1.5%). Among 4-5-year-old children in the nationally representative LSAC, 15.3% regularly spoke and/or understood a language other than English. The most common languages spoken by the children were Arabic (1.5%), Italian (1.2%), Greek (0.9%), Spanish (0.9%), and Vietnamese (0.9%). There was a mismatch between the location of and languages in which multilingual services were offered, and the location of and languages spoken by children. These findings highlight the need for SLPs to be culturally competent in providing equitable services to all clients, regardless of the languages they speak.

  18. Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children with Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Kooy-Hofland, Verna A. C.; Van der Kooy, Jacoba; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized…

  19. Processing of Perceptual Information Is More Robust than Processing of Conceptual Information in Preschool-Age Children: Evidence from Costs of Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna V.

    2011-01-01

    Is processing of conceptual information as robust as processing of perceptual information early in development? Existing empirical evidence is insufficient to answer this question. To examine this issue, 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with a flexible categorization task, in which target items (e.g., an open red umbrella) shared category…

  20. IMPACT OF CANINE ASSISTED THERAPY ON EMOTIONS AND MOTIVATION LEVEL IN CHILDREN WITH REDUCED MOBILITY IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewiadomska Monika

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine assisted therapy is increasingly used in the treatment of children with various diseases. The participation of a dog in classes evokes positive emotions in children, which are often an important factor in the success of a therapy. Purpose: The aim of this study was to present the influence of emotions on the level of motivation toward physical activity in children with reduced mobility. Material: The study involved six 5-year-old children, i.e. 5 boys and one girl, who had refused to participate in physical activity classes. They reacted with anxiety, anger and did not want to exercise. Assessment of feelings and emotions of the children was based on observations and interviews with parents. Results: After introducing a dog to the physical activity classes, the children changed their attitude not only to training, but also to themselves and their classmates. There was an observed increase in their motivation for the exercises. Such a significant impact of a dog on child’s emotions can be very important in the therapeutic process and is reported and recognized by many specialists. Conclusions: Canine assisted therapy sessions could be promoted in the treatment of children with locomotor impairment, as well as with other disabilities such as autism, obesity, cerebral palsy, learning difficulties and depression.

  1. Pathways to Language: A Naturalistic Study of Children with Williams Syndrome and Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata; Eilam, Ariela

    2013-01-01

    This is a naturalistic study of the development of language in Hebrew-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with Down syndrome (DS), whose MLU extended from 1[multiplied by]0 to 4[multiplied by]4. Developmental curves over the entire span of data collection revealed minor differences between children with WS, children with DS,…

  2. Erythema infectiosumin children: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prćić Šonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema infectiositm is a childhood illness characterized by mild constitutional symptoms and a blotchy or maculo-papular lacy rash on the cheeks (slapped - cheek spreading primarily to the extremities and trunk. The disease- is-caused by human parvovirus B19. Erythema infectiosum epidemics occur in a cyclic fashion, mostly during winter and spring months. The diagnosis of erythema infectiosum is usually based on the appearance and pattern of the rash. The aim of our study was to establish the frequency and clinical characteristics of erythema infectiosum in children, in the period between 2000 and 2004 at the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care, Department of Dermatology, Novi Sad. There were 0.23% of children with a clinical picture of infectious erythema. There was an outbreak of erythema infectiosum from December 2001 to September 2002. The highest number of cases was detected in April and May of 2002. from 2003 to 2004, no cases with infekctious erythema were diagnosed. The average age of infected children was 7.38. Female children were affected slightly more often than male (56.41%:43.58%. Pruritus was detected in 10.26% of children. The most constant clinical sign was reticular exanthema on the limbs, present in 100% of cases, followed by 89.74% of cheek exanthema, while limb and trunk exanthema was present in 7.68% of children. Adenopathies and mild constitutional symptoms were present in 5.12% of children. No complications were recorded in any of the cases. .

  3. Young children's understanding of pretend crying: the effect of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokawa, Ai

    2011-09-01

    Reasoning about another's pretend and real crying is related to ma'ny important social cognitive abilities (e.g., emotional understanding, appearance-reality, and theory of mind). This study investigated whether children aged 6 years and younger could distinguish between instances of pretend crying and real crying as presented in stories. Sixty-five Japanese children aged 4-6 years were given stories within two contexts (Play and Non-play). In the Play context, the protagonist of the story was pretending to cry or really crying during a pretend play activity. In the Non-play context, the protagonist was also pretending to cry or really crying after his/her toy had been hidden by another child. The children answered questions about these crying events. The results showed that the 4- and 5-year-olds showed significantly better understanding of pretend crying in the Play context compared to the Non-play context. In the Non-play context, they were significantly less likely to understand the cause of pretend crying compared to the 6-year-olds. The results suggest that the context of pretend play facilitates the children's understanding of pretend crying. PMID:21848743

  4. Children draw more affiliative pictures following priming with third-party ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruiting; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2015-06-01

    Humans have a strong need to belong. Thus, when signs of ostracism are detected, adults often feel motivated to affiliate with others in order to reestablish their social connections. This study investigated the importance of affiliation to young children following priming with ostracism. Four- and 5-year-old children were primed with either ostracism or control videos and their understanding of, and responses to, the videos were measured. Results showed that children were able to report that there was exclusion in the ostracism videos, and that they recognized that the ostracized individual felt sad. Most interestingly, when subsequently asked to draw a picture of themselves and their friend, children primed with ostracism depicted relationships that were significantly more affiliative. Children drew themselves and their friend standing significantly closer together and adults rated their drawings as more affiliative overall. These findings introduce drawing as a useful new method for measuring social motivations and processes following an experimental manipulation, and demonstrate that affiliation is particularly important to children following even a vicarious experience of social exclusion. PMID:25915591

  5. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing. PMID:24682808

  6. Updated results of a pilot study of low dose craniospinal irradiation plus chemotherapy for children under five with cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (medulloblastoma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Children under 5 years old with medulloblastoma (MB) have a poor prognosis. They are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of craniospinal irradiation (CSART) and have a higher relapse rate when treated with low-dose CSART alone. We, thus, embarked on a prospective trial testing the usefulness of very low dose CSART and adjuvant chemotherapy. This is an update of a previous report on these patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 1988 and March 1990, 10 patients with medulloblastoma were treated using 18 Gy radiation therapy (RT) to the craniospinal axis, a posterior fossa (PF) boost to 50.4-55.8 Gy and chemotherapy consisting of vincristine (VCR) weekly during RT. This was followed by VCR, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), and lomustine (CCNU) for eight, 6-week cycles. Patients between 18 and 60 months of age without evidence of tumor dissemination were eligible for study. Follow-up was available until September 1994 with a median follow-up for living patients of 6.3 years from diagnosis. Results: Actuarial survival at over 6 years is 70 ± 20%. Three of the 10 patients relapsed and died. In one patient, the relapse developed in the spine and brain outside the posterior fossa, in the second, concurrently in the posterior fossa, brain and spine, and the third, only in the spine. One surviving child developed a brain stem infarct 4.8 years after diagnosis and has since almost fully recovered. A mean intelligence quotient (IQ) score of 103 in six patients surviving at least 1 year is unchanged from the baseline group score of 107. Five children tested at baseline and 2 years following treatment had IQ scores of 101 and 102, respectively. Six children tested at baseline and at 3 years had IQ scores of 106 and 96, respectively. Excluding the child tested shortly after his brain stem infarct, baseline and 3 year IQ scores were 103 and 97, respectively. Five of the seven long-term survivors grew at rates significantly below their expected

  7. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli are not a significant cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised children in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacsa Alexander S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC infections in the Arabian Gulf including Kuwait is not known. The prevalence of DEC (enterotoxigenic [ETEC], enteropathogenic [EPEC], enteroinvasive [EIEC], enterohemorrhagic [EHEC] and enteroaggregative [EAEC] was studied in 537 children5 years old hospitalised with acute diarrhoea and 113 matched controls from two hospitals during 2005–07 by PCR assays using E. coli colony pools. Results The prevalence of DEC varied from 0.75% for EHEC to 8.4% for EPEC (mostly atypical variety in diarrhoeal children with no significant differences compared to that in control children (P values 0.15 to 1.00. Twenty-seven EPEC isolates studied mostly belonged to non-traditional serotypes and possessed β and θ intimin subtypes. A total of 54 DEC isolates from diarrhoeal children and 4 from controls studied for antimicrobial susceptibility showed resistance for older antimicrobials, ampicillin (0 to 100%, tetracycline (33 to 100% and trimethoprim (22.2 to 100%; 43.1% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (resistant to 3 or more agents. Six (10.4% DEC isolates produced extended spectrum β-lactamases and possessed genetic elements (blaCTX-M, blaTEM and ISEcp1 associated with them. Conclusion We speculate that the lack of significant association of DEC with diarrhoea in children in Kuwait compared to countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf Region may be attributable to high environmental and food hygiene due to high disposable income in Kuwait.

  8. Usefulness of nutritional indices and classifications in predicting death of malnourished children

    OpenAIRE

    Briend, A; Dykewicz, C.; Graven, K; Mazumder, R. N.; Wojtyniak, B; Bennish, M.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of nutritional indices and classifications in predicting the death of children under 5 years old was evaluated by comparing measurements of 34 children with diarrhoea who died in a Dhaka hospital with those of 318 patients who were discharged in a satisfactory condition. In a logistic regression analysis mid-upper arm circumference was found to be as effective as other nutritional indices in predicting death. Combinations of different indices did not improve the prediction. Arm...

  9. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  10. Family Adversity, Positive Peer Relationships, and Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Longitudinal Perspective on Risk and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lapp, Amie L.

    2002-01-01

    Peer acceptance and friendships were examined as moderators in the link between family adversity and child externalizing behavioral problems. Data on family adversity (i.e., ecological disadvantage, violent marital conflict, and harsh discipline) and child temperament and social information processing were collected during home visits from 585 families with 5-year-old children. Children's peer acceptance, friendship, and friends' aggressiveness were assessed with sociometric methods in kinder...

  11. Children and their parents : A comparative study of the legal position of children

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is a book about children and their parents. There are many different kinds of children and at least about as many different kinds of parents. In addition to the many different disciplines that study children and their parents, such as sociology, psychology, child studies and gender studies, to name but a few, this study concerns a legal question with regard to the parent-child relationship, namely how the law assigns parents to children. This subject is approached in a comparative legal ...

  12. El desarrollo de la inferencia analógica en niños que viven en sectores urbanos pobres The development of analogical inference in children living in slums

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    Mariela Orozco-Hormaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo de la inferencia analógica en 405 niños de 3, 4 y 5 años, que viven en sectores urbanos pobres de las ciudades Colombianas de Cali y Santa Marta. Con este fin, se les propuso individualmente un problema de inferencia analógica. Los resultados muestran que niños de todas las edades son capaces de solucionar el problema utilizando la estrategia que requiere establecer inferencia y relaciones de analogía, aunque el porcentaje de niños de 5 años que la usa es significativamente mayor que el de los otros dos grupos. Los resultados obtenidos permiten discutir dos tendencias en el desarrollo cognitivo: una centrada en la edad y la otra en el variabilidad intra e inter-individual.The development of analogical inference is described through the study of 405 children aged 3, 4 and 5 years old, living in poor urban neighborhoods in two Colombian cities - Cali (204 and Santa Marta (201. In order to accomplish the objective, children were asked to individually solve an inference problem based on analogical relations. Independently of their age, children were able to solve the problem using a strategy that requires establishing inference and analogical relations. Nevertheless, a higher percentage of the 5-year-old children tend to use that strategy more often. The results obtained allow the discussion of two conceptions of development: one focused on the age and the other on intra- and inter-individual variability.

  13. Children's understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis

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    Amy L. Fielden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old and Year 6 (10–11 years old, and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006 identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full.

  14. Attachment styles in maltreated children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, R; Cohen, O; Sapir, Y; Weizman, A

    2000-01-01

    The study compares the emotional impact of maltreatment on the attachment styles in three groups of children aged 6-12 years: children of drug-user fathers (n = 76), physically abused children (n = 41), neglected children (n = 38); non-abused/non-neglected children (n = 35)--control group. The secure style characterized 52% of the children of drug-user fathers and the insecure style characterized the other 48% (anxious/ambivalent or avoidant); physically abused children were characterized mainly by the avoidant attachment style, and neglected children by the anxious/ambivalent style. The conclusion is that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and sustained suspicion towards others; neglected children are at risk of social withdrawal, social rejection and feelings of incompetence, and children of drug-user fathers may be at risk of behavioral problems and drug use in adolescence.

  15. Can bilingual children turn one language off? Evidence from perceptual switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Quam, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    Bilinguals have the sole option of conversing in one language in spite of knowing two languages. The question of how bilinguals alternate between their two languages, activating and deactivating one language, is not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the development of this process by researching bilingual children's abilities to selectively integrate lexical tone based on its relevance in the language being used. In particular, the current study sought to determine the effects of global conversation-level cues versus local (within-word phonotactic) cues on children's tone integration in newly learned words. Words were taught to children via a conversational narrative, and word recognition was investigated using the intermodal preferential-looking paradigm. Children were tested on recognition of words with stimuli that were either matched or mismatched in tone in both English and Mandarin conversations. Results demonstrated that 3- to 4-year-olds did not adapt their interpretation of lexical tone changes to the language being spoken. In contrast, 4- to 5-year-olds were able to do so when supported by informative within-word cues. Results suggest that preschool children are capable of selectively activating a single language given word-internal cues to language.

  16. Renal disorders in children: a Nigerian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, F U; Eke, N N

    1994-06-01

    A 5-year prospective study of 699 children with various renal disorders from around the Rivers State, which is in the eastern part of Nigeria, was carried out to investigate the prevalence and significance of renal disorders in a third world country with no facilities for paediatric dialysis and transplantation. Renal disorders accounted for 1.1% of the total outpatients and hospital admissions. The commonest renal disorders were urinary tract infection (UTI, 68.9%); nephrotic syndrome (NS 14.6%) and acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (11.4%). Patients with UTI had no vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR); 22.5% of NS patients were steroid sensitive. Wilms' tumour (1.6%) was the second commonest childhood malignant tumour; 8 of 17 cases of obstructive uropathy were secondary to meatal stenosis following circumcision. Fifteen children developed end-stage renal failure (ESRF), mainly due to chronic glomerulonephritis, giving a prevalence rate of 7.5 children per year per million childhood population. Hence, renal disorders are common in Nigeria and although VUR is rare, ESRF may approximate figures seen in the western world. This highlights the need to improve the country's socioeconomic conditions, make medical facilities more available to children and prevent renal diseases that may lead to ESRF.

  17. Observational study of children with aerophagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Aerophagia is a rare disorder in children. The diagnosis is often delayed, especially when it occurs concomitantly with constipation. The aim of this report is to increase awareness about aerophagia. This study describes 2 girls and 7 boys, 2 to 10.4 years of age, with functional constipation and gaseous abdominal distention. The abdomen was visibly distended, nontender, and tympanitic in all. Documenting less distention on awakening helped to make the diagnosis. Air swallowing, belching, and flatulence were infrequently reported. The rectal examination often revealed a dilated rectal ampulla filled with gas or stool and gas. The abdominal X-ray showed gaseous distention of the colon in all and of the stomach and small bowel in 8 children. Treatment consisted of educating parents and children about air sucking and swallowing, encouraging the children to stop the excessive air swallowing, and suggesting to them not to use drinking straws and not to drink carbonated beverages. The aerophagia resolved in all in 2 to 20 months (mean=8 months). PMID:18445758

  18. 北京市2003-2012年5岁以下儿童意外死亡流行病学分析%Epidemiological study on the trend of accidental deaths among children under five in Beijing, during 2003-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫淑娟; 朱雪娜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the trend of accidental death among children under 5 years of age in Beijing.Methods Cases of death in children under 5 years old in Beijing,during 2003-2012 were collected,to analyze the strength and trends of accidental death,main causes of accident and its epidemiological features. Results The overall accidental death was 8.47% of all death among children under 5 years old in Beijing during 2003-2012. During these 10 years,data showed a downward trend on the mortality rates on injuries(P<0.05),especially on drowning,in 1-4 year old and rural children under five years of age. In 2012,the accidental death rate of children under five was 6.37/105. The 5 main causes of accidental deaths were suffocation,traffic accident,falling,poisoning and drowning,in order of size. The main causes of death were suffocation in the 0-1 year group, suffocation and traffic accident in the 1-2 year group and traffic accident in the 3-4 year group. The proportion of deaths due to traffic accident increased gradually with age. Area distribution showed that accidental deaths mainly happened in rural area(52.19%),with two main types as traffic accident and suffocation. Conclusion The reduction of accidental death rate among children under 5 years old in Beijing mainly was caused by the decline of accident mortality in 1-4 year old and children in the rural areas. Our data suggested that the focus in reducing the accidental death rate among children under 5 years old in Beijing should target on the prevention of infant suffocation and traffic accidents among the 1-4 year old,with rural areas in particular.%目的:了解北京市<5岁儿童意外死亡的流行病学分布特点和变化趋势。方法收集2003-2012年北京市<5岁儿童死亡病例资料,分析意外死亡发生强度、变化趋势、主要意外死因及其流行病学分布。结果2003-2012年北京市<5岁儿童意外死亡占儿童总死亡的8.47%,儿童意外死亡

  19. Validade do padrão de higiene bucal de crianças aos cinco anos de idade relatado pelas mães Validación del patrón de higiene bucal de niños de cinco años de edad relatado por las madres Validity of 5-year-old children's oral hygiene pattern referred by mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Morales Cascaes; Karen Glazer Peres; Marco Aurélio Peres; Flávio Fernando Demarco; Iná Santos; Alicia Matijasevich; Aluísio J. D. Barros

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar a validade de perguntas freqüentemente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos sobre higiene bucal de crianças e compará-la segundo renda familiar e escolaridade da mãe. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 1.122 crianças participantes do subestudo de saúde bucal de 2009 da Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas, RS, 2004. As crianças foram examinadas e suas mães entrevistadas no domicílio. O padrão-ouro da condição de higiene bucal foi avaliado por meio do Índice de Higiene Oral Simplifica...

  20. Validade do padrão de higiene bucal de crianças aos cinco anos de idade relatado pelas mães Validación del patrón de higiene bucal de niños de cinco años de edad relatado por las madres Validity of 5-year-old children's oral hygiene pattern referred by mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a validade de perguntas freqüentemente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos sobre higiene bucal de crianças e compará-la segundo renda familiar e escolaridade da mãe. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 1.122 crianças participantes do subestudo de saúde bucal de 2009 da Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas, RS, 2004. As crianças foram examinadas e suas mães entrevistadas no domicílio. O padrão-ouro da condição de higiene bucal foi avaliado por meio do Índice de Higiene Oral Simplificado e a partir do seu escore total o desfecho foi dicotomizado em: placa dental ausente (escore total = 0 e presente (escore total ≥ 1. As perguntas testadas sobre o padrão de higiene bucal das crianças foram formuladas às mães e incluíram: freqüência diária de escovação, escovação antes de dormir e a combinação dessas duas (higiene bucal, com suas opções de resposta dicotomizadas em regular e irregular. A validade foi determinada por meio do cálculo dos valores percentuais e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança de sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de placa dental foi 37,0%. Os valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo foram, respectivamente: 29,6%, 82,5%, 49,8% e 66,6%, para freqüência de escovação diária irregular; 41,8%, 64,6%, 40,9% e 65,5%, para escovação antes de dormir irregular; 48,8%, 60,8%, 42,2% e 67,0%, para higiene bucal irregular. A validade do padrão de higiene bucal variou conforme o nível de renda familiar e a escolaridade da mãe, e a sensibilidade e o valor preditivo positivo foram maiores entre os indivíduos com menor renda familiar e com mães menos escolarizadas e o oposto, para a especificidade e o valor preditivo negativo. CONCLUSÕES: Perguntas sobre higiene bucal respondidas pelas mães de crianças não são boas substitutas do padrão real de higiene bucal medido por meio do exame clínico bucal de placa dental.OBJETIVO: Determinar la validación de preguntas frecuentemente utilizadas en estudios epidemiológicos sobre higiene bucal de niños y compararla según renta familiar y escolaridad de la madre. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 1.122 niños participantes del sub-estudio de salud bucal de 2009 de la Cohorte de Nacimientos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, 2004. Los niños fueron examinados y sus madres entrevistadas en el domicilio. El patrón-oro de la condición de higiene bucal fue evaluado por medio del Índice de Higiene Oral Simplificado y a partir del escore total el resultado fue dicotomizado en: placa dental ausente (escore total=0 y presente (escore total ≥1. Las preguntas testadas sobre el patrón de higiene bucal de los niños fueron formuladas a las madres e incluyeron: frecuencia diaria de cepillado, cepillado antes de dormir y la combinación de esas dos (higiene bucal, con sus opciones de respuesta dicotomizadas en regular e irregular. La validez fue determinada por medio del cálculo de los valores porcentuales y respectivos intervalos de 95% de confianza de sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y valor predictivo negativo. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de placa dental fue 37,0%. Los valores de sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y valor predictivo negativo fueron, respectivamente: 29,6%, 82,5%, 49,8% y 66,6%, para frecuencia de cepillado diaria irregular; 41,8%, 64,6%, 40,9% y 65,5%, para cepillado antes de dormir irregular; 48,8%, 60,8%, 42,2% y 67,0%, para higiene bucal irregular. La validez del patrón de higiene bucal varió conforme el nivel de renta familiar y la escolaridad de la madre, y la sensibilidad y el valor predictivo positivo fueron mayores entre los individuos con menor renta familiar y con madres menos escolarizadas y el opuesto, para la especificidad y el valor predictivo negativo. CONCLUSIONES: Preguntas sobre higiene bucal respondidas por las madres de niños no son buenas sustitutas del patrón real de higiene bucal medido por medio de ex