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Sample records for 5-year-old children study

  1. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 Years Old Children in Baghdad City, Iraq: A Cross-sectional Study

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha Md; AbdalQader, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the chil...

  2. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Lydian Veldhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. METHODS: This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067 collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  3. Comparative study of occupational performance in children with global developmental delay at 3 and 5 years old

    Patrícia Isabel Candeias Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to compare the occupational performance of children with global developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI, and children with typical development, at 3 and 5 years of age, and to verify what functional areas children with global developmental delay feature more difficulties. Method: This is a comparative descriptive study including a sample of 40 participants, and 20 show Typical Development with 20 presenting diagnosis of Global Development Delay. These two groups were divided into two age subgroups of 10 children (aged 3 to 5 years. Results: The Inventory Pediatric Evaluation of Disability was filled out by parents and the results show that occupational performance of children with developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI is lower than those with typical development, with 3 and 5 years old, in the areas personal, mobility and socialization autonomy. Conclusion: The publication of more studies related to the practice of occupational therapy in Portugal is crucial, thus contributing to the knowledge of professionals and students in this scientific area. In addition, more and more evidence-based practice is an approach adopted by health professionals, including occupational therapists, and to this end it is extremely important to carry out newer studies locally in Portugal.

  4. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  5. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq: a cross-sectional study.

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha; Abdalqader, Mohammed A

    2013-09-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using a weight-for-age z-score based on the World Health Organization 2007 cutoff points, in which any child with a z-score of prevalence rate of underweight children was 18.2%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between males and females (p=0.797). However, the percentage of underweight children was slightly higher among females (18.9%) compared to males (17.6%). There was no association between parents' educational level or employment status and childhood malnutrition. There was no association between a family's movement from their house and childhood malnutrition (p=0.322). Living in an unsafe neighbourhood and having a family member killed during the past five years were significantly associated with childhood malnutrition (p=0.016 and 0.018 respectively). Childhood malnutrition is still a public-health concern in Baghdad city, especially after the war of 2003. Malnutrition is significantly associated with living in unsafe neighbourhoods and at least one family member having been killed during the past five years.

  6. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle among 5-year-old overweight children: Health behavior outcomes of the 'Be active, eat right' study

    A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); L. Veldhuis (Lydian); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study evaluates the effects of an intervention performed by youth health care professionals on child health behaviors. The intervention consisted of offering healthy lifestyle counseling to parents of overweight (not obese) 5-year-old children. Effects of the interventio

  7. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this stud

  8. [Campylobacter enteritis in 0-5-year-old children in the Eindhoven area - and epidemiological study].

    Van Lier, J A; Haverkorn, M J; Waelkens, J J

    1982-04-01

    In the region Eindhoven 36 children with Campylobacter-enteritis were examined from I January 1980 to 31 December 1980. Symptoms were studied and stools were cultured over a four-month period. Abdominal pain and/or diarrhea occurred in more than 90% of patients and were not infrequently of longer duration. Bloody stools were found in 58% of patients and disappeared relatively early during the time of illness, as well as fever and vomiting. After one month Campylobacter could only be cultured in 5% of children; 14 household contacts, who proved to have Campylobacter-enteritis, had also negative stool cultures after one month. Asymptomatic carriership was found in four cases among these household contracts. Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni could not be isolated in stools of a number of asymptomatic individuals, working in the meat industry, who were considered to have a higher risk of infection. This group could therefore not be determined as an endogenous human reservoir. On the other hand Campylobacter was isolated in a few domestic animals without symptoms of illness, as well as in some cattle stables and sites. In these places, where several contaminated animals are together, significant reservoirs for human infection may be present.

  9. Overweight in 5-year-old Children: Assessment and Risk Factors (The Be Active, Eat Right Study)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. Worldwide, about one in ten children at the age of 5 to 17 years have overweight (obesity included). In the last decades there has been a dra

  10. Risk factors for death among children less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2005-2007: a cohort study.

    Ciara E O'Reilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled all children <5 years old, hospitalized with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children <5 years old were enrolled; 107 (9% children died during hospitalization. Nontyphoidal Salmonella were identified in 10% (118, Campylobacter in 5% (57, and Shigella in 4% (42 of 1,137 stool samples; rotavirus was detected in 19% (196 of 1,021 stool samples. Among stools from children who died, nontyphoidal Salmonella were detected in 22%, Shigella in 11%, rotavirus in 9%, Campylobacter in 5%, and S. Typhi in <1%. In multivariable analysis, infants who died were more likely to have nontyphoidal Salmonella (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6·8; 95% CI 3·1-14·9, and children <5 years to have Shigella (aOR = 5·5; 95% CI 2·2-14·0 identified than children who survived. Children who died were less likely to be infected with rotavirus (OR = 0·4; 95% CI 0·2-0·8. Further risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1-8·7; having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4-3·8; having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2-3·8; and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5-4·1. A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen on

  11. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  12. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  13. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed.

  14. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  15. Interracial contact and racial constancy: A multi-site study of racial intergroup bias in 3-5 year old Anglo-British children

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative, valence attributions. Anglo-British children (N = 136) between 3 and 5 years of age with different levels of interracial contact undertook a racial stere...

  16. Interracial Contact and Racial Constancy: A Multi-Site Study of Racial Intergroup Bias in 3-5 Year Old Anglo-British Children

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative,…

  17. Maxillary Arch Dimension Changes of 3-5 Years Old Filipino Children

    Abdol Hamid Zafarmand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the dental arch dimensions in primary dentition of 3-5 years old Filipino children and determining the existence of sexual dimorphism.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 60 Filipino preschool children aged 3-5 years old were selected from Manila city. Study casts were used for measurements of 3 arch dimensions: bicanine width, bimolar width, and arch length. The analyses were performed to compare values within age-groups and within gender-groups, besides reporting mean and standard deviations. The data were subjected to One-way ANOVA and Student t-test.Results: Significant differences were observed regarding dental arch dimensions among different ages and genders (p<0.05. Comparison between genders showed a statistically significant difference in bicanine width at the age of 4 (p=0.04, in bimolar width at age of 5 (p=0.006, and in arch length at age of 4 (p=0.03 and 5 (p=0.02. Differences within male group for different ages showed only arch length dimension was statistically significant (p=0.021. In females, however the comparison between age-groups also revealed a statistically significant difference in bicanine (p= 0.016 and bimolar widths (p=0.027 dimensions.Conclusion: The present study showed that dental arch dimensions, vary among different ages and genders of children. It also showed that a sexual dimorphism does exist between the gender groups.

  18. Consuming cassava as a staple food places children 2-5 years old at risk for inadequate protein intake, an observational study in Kenya and Nigeria

    Gichuki Simon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate protein intake is known to be deleterious in animals. Using WHO consensus documents for human nutrient requirements, the protein:energy ratio (P:E of an adequate diet is > 5%. Cassava has a very low protein content. This study tested the hypothesis that Nigerian and Kenyan children consuming cassava as their staple food are at greater risk for inadequate dietary protein intake than those children who consume less cassava. Methods A 24 hour dietary recall was used to determine the food and nutrient intake of 656 Nigerian and 449 Kenyan children aged 2-5 years residing in areas where cassava is a staple food. Anthropometric measurements were conducted. Diets were scored for diversity using a 12 point score. Pearson's Correlation Coefficients were calculated to relate the fraction of dietary energy obtained from cassava with protein intake, P:E, and dietary diversity. Results The fraction of dietary energy obtained from cassava was > 25% in 35% of Nigerian children and 89% of Kenyan children. The mean dietary diversity score was 4.0 in Nigerian children and 4.5 in Kenyan children, although the mean number of different foods consumed on the survey day in Nigeria was greater than Kenya, 7.0 compared to 4.6. 13% of Nigerian and 53% of Kenyan children surveyed had inadequate protein intake. The fraction of dietary energy derived from cassava was negatively correlated with protein intake, P:E, and dietary diversity. Height-for age z score was directly associated with protein intake and negatively associated with cassava consumption using regression modeling that controlled for energy and zinc intake. Conclusions Inadequate protein intake was found in the diets of Nigerian and Kenyan children consuming cassava as a staple food. Inadequate dietary protein intake is associated with stunting in this population. Interventions to increase protein intake in this vulnerable population should be the focus of future work.

  19. A cluster randomised trial to evaluate a physical activity intervention among 3-5 year old children attending long day care services: study protocol

    Finch Meghan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children are not participating in recommended levels of physical activity and exhibit high levels of sedentary behaviour. Childcare services provide access to large numbers of young children for prolonged periods, yet there is limited experimental evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions implemented in this setting. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a multi-component physical activity intervention, delivered by childcare service staff, in increasing the physical activity levels of children attending long day care services. Methods/Design The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Three hundred children aged between 3-5 years from twenty randomly selected long day care services in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia will be invited to participate in the trial. Ten of the 20 long day care services will be randomly allocated to deliver the intervention with the remaining ten services allocated to a wait list control group. The physical activity intervention will consist of a number of strategies including: delivering structured fundamental movement skill activities, increasing physical activity opportunities, increasing staff role modelling, providing children with a physical activity promoting indoor and outdoor environment and limiting children's small screen recreation and sedentary behaviours. Intervention effectiveness will be measured via child physical activity levels during attendance at long day care. The study also seeks to determine the acceptability and extent of implementation of the intervention by services and their staff participating in the study. Discussion The trial will address current gaps in the research evidence base and contribute to the design and delivery of future interventions promoting physical activity for young children in long day care settings. Trial registration Australian New

  20. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    Lydian Veldhuis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582 and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82, and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55. Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood health.

  1. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-06-06

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.

  2. Metamemory prediction accuracy for simple prospective and retrospective memory tasks in 5-year-old children.

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Ford, Ruth M

    2014-11-01

    It is well documented that young children greatly overestimate their performance on tests of retrospective memory (RM), but the current investigation is the first to examine children's prediction accuracy for prospective memory (PM). Three studies were conducted, each testing a different group of 5-year-olds. In Study 1 (N=46), participants were asked to predict their success in a simple event-based PM task (remembering to convey a message to a toy mole if they encountered a particular picture during a picture-naming activity). Before naming the pictures, children listened to either a reminder story or a neutral story. Results showed that children were highly accurate in their PM predictions (78% accuracy) and that the reminder story appeared to benefit PM only in children who predicted they would remember the PM response. In Study 2 (N=80), children showed high PM prediction accuracy (69%) regardless of whether the cue was specific or general and despite typical overoptimism regarding their performance on a 10-item RM task using item-by-item prediction. Study 3 (N=35) showed that children were prone to overestimate RM even when asked about their ability to recall a single item-the mole's unusual name. In light of these findings, we consider possible reasons for children's impressive PM prediction accuracy, including the potential involvement of future thinking in performance predictions and PM.

  3. Hyperventilation with cold versus dry air in 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma

    Nielsen, Kim G; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    -subject SDs (SDw). The challenge sequence was randomly assigned. A comparator challenge was performed 1 hour later if the first challenge gave a change of 3 SDw or more. Forty 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma were included. Responsiveness to cold versus dry air showed significant, but weak, correlation...... (r(2) = 0.34, p

  4. Factors increasing the caries risk of second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children

    Elfrink, Marlies E C; Schuller, Annemarie A; Veerkamp, Jaap S J; Poorterman, Jan H G; Moll, Henriette A; ten Cate, Bob J M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caries is still a prevalent condition in 5-year-old children. At present, knowledge regarding some aetiological factors, like deciduous molar hypomineralization (DMH), is limited. AIM: To investigate aetiological factors both directly and indirectly associated with caries in second prima

  5. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parallel......, beta-agonist use, and health care resource use in a diary card. Over 12 months of therapy, montelukast significantly reduced the rate of asthma exacerbations by 31.9% compared with placebo. The average rate of exacerbation episodes per patient was 1.60 episodes per year on montelukast compared with 2.......34 episodes on placebo. Montelukast also delayed the median time to first exacerbation by approximately 2 months (p = 0.024), and the rate of inhaled corticosteroid courses (p = 0.027) compared with placebo. Montelukast effectively reduced asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old patients with intermittent...

  6. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  7. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  8. Storyline and Associations Pyramid as Methods of Creativity Enhancement: Comparison of Effectiveness in 5-Year-Old Children

    Smogorzewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…

  9. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  10. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  11. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4–5 year old children

    Wardle Jane

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. Methods One hundred and nine parents of 4–5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS. The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Results Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. Conclusion These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response.

  12. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children.

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Mortensen, Erik L; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest.

  13. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  14. Prescribing Analysis for 2–5 Years Old Children in Bandung During Year 2012

    Ami A. Pratiwi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that irrational use of drugs will give medication errors effect or cause the unwanted side effects. The National Drug Policy (KONAS has developed drug policies that involve all stake-holders in Indonesia in order to minimize the irrational drug use. This study aims to analyze drug prescribing for 2–5 years old children in 14 pharmacies in Bandung during 2012. Approximately 2,195 prescription sheets from 14 pharmacies in Bandung were collected and analyzed by using prescribing indicators from the World Health Organization (WHO. We found an average number of 3.54 drugs in a prescription-sheet. We also found that 75% and 0% of all patients received antibiotics and injection, respectively. In particular, approximately 8% and 33% of all prescribed drugs were included in generic drug list and National List of Essential Medicines (DOEN, respectively. Based on data from the WHO and KONAS, it can be interpreted that the average number of drugs in a prescription-sheet is still high and the use of antibiotics is significantly higher compared to the use of antibiotics in other developing countries. Also, we summarized that the use of drugs according to generic drug list and DOEN are still low.

  15. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy...... and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which...... suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates...

  16. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  17. A cluster randomised trial of a telephone-based intervention for parents to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in their 3- to 5-year-old children: study protocol

    Fletcher Amanda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption in childhood increases the risk of developing chronic disease. Despite this, a substantial proportion of children in developed nations, including Australia, do not consume sufficient quantities of fruits and vegetables. Parents are influential in the development of dietary habits of young children but often lack the necessary knowledge and skills to promote healthy eating in their children. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a telephone-based intervention for parents to increase the fruit and vegetable consumption of their 3- to 5-year-old children. Methods/Design The study, conducted in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia, employs a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Two hundred parents from 15 randomly selected preschools will be randomised to receive the intervention, which consists of print resources and four weekly 30-minute telephone support calls delivered by trained telephone interviewers. The calls will assist parents to increase the availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables in the home, create supportive family eating routines and role-model fruit and vegetable consumption. A further two hundred parents will be randomly allocated to the control group and will receive printed nutrition information only. The primary outcome of the trial will be the change in the child's consumption of fruit and vegetables as measured by the fruit and vegetable subscale of the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Pre-intervention and post-intervention parent surveys will be administered over the telephone. Baseline surveys will occur one to two weeks prior to intervention delivery, with follow-up data collection calls occurring two, six, 12 and 18 months following baseline data collection. Discussion If effective, this telephone-based intervention may represent a promising public health strategy to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in

  18. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year......-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ...

  19. Detection of E.Coli Strains Containing Shiga Toxin (Stx1/2 Gene in Diarrheal Specimens from Children Less than 5 Years Old by PCR Technique and Study of the Patterns of Antibiotic Resistance

    MR Pourmand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC is an emerging bacterial pathogen in developing countries that causes several diseases such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, particularly in children. Aim of the research was detection of STEC in diarrheal specimens from under 5 year olds and study of the patterns of antibiotic resistance of these strains. Methods: In the study,300 fecal samples were collected from children with diarrhea referring to Ali Asghar Hospital. E.coli species were isolated by standard bacteriological and biochemical tests. Presence of shiga toxin genes (stx1/2 was investigated by PCR technique (Qiagen. Antibiogram test for strains containing the toxin gene was performed using 16 different antibiotic discs (MAST by disc diffusion agar (Kirby-Bauer method. Results: From 39 E.coli isolates, 9(23.1% strains were detected by PCR to contain stx1/2 gene. One strain was resistant to all 16 antibiotics. All the STEC strains were sensitive to meropenem (MRP, imipenem (IMI, gentamycin (GEN and nitrofurantoin (NI. 4(44.44% strains showed multi-drug resistant pattern. All these 4strains were resistant to cotrimoxazole(SxT. Also, 6(66.66% strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Conclusion: In Iran, shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC may be a commonly bacterial pathogen causing diarrhea, particularly in children. Therefore, we should use new techniques for investigation of these strains. Increase in number of emerging and new strains that could be resistant to classic antibiotics such as cotrimoxazole may be foreseen. It is suggested that antibiotics prescription programs in treatment of diarrhea causing E.coli strains be updated.

  20. Relationship Between Malocclusion And Behavioral, Demographic And Socioeconomic Variables: A Cross-sectional Study Of 5-year-olds.

    Hebling S.R.; Cortellazzi K.L.; Tagliaferro E.P.; Hebling E.; Ambrosano G.M.; Meneghim M.C.; Pereira A.C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the prevalence and the severity of malocclusion have increased over the years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between malocclusions, such as open bite and crossbite, and behavioral, demographic and socioeconomic variables in a sample of 5-year-old children attending preschools. METHODS: The random sample consisted of 728 preschool children attending 22 public (n = 428) and 18 private (n = 300) preschools. A cali...

  1. Schistosoma haematobium treatment in 1-5 year old children: safety and efficacy of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel.

    Francisca Mutapi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is currently controlled by treatment of schistosome infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ. Children aged up to 5 years are currently excluded from schistosome control programmes largely due to the lack of PZQ safety data in this age group. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of PZQ treatment in such children. METHODS: Zimbabwean children aged 1-5 years (n = 104 were treated with PZQ tablets and side effects were assessed by questionnaire administered to their caregivers within 24 hours of taking PZQ. Treatment efficacy was determined 6 weeks after PZQ administration through schistosome egg counts in urine. The change in infection levels in the children 1-5 years old (n = 100 was compared to that in 6-10 year old children (n = 435. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pre-treatment S. haematobium infection intensity in 1-5 year olds was 14.6 eggs/10 ml urine and prevalence was 21%. Of the 104 children, 3.8% reported side effects within 24 hours of taking PZQ treatment. These were stomach ache, loss of appetite, lethargy and inflammation of the face and body. PZQ treatment significantly reduced schistosome infection levels in 1-5 year olds with an egg reduction rate (ERR of 99% and cure rate (CR of 92%. This was comparable to the efficacy of praziquantel in 6-10 year olds where ERR was 96% and CR was 67%. INTERPRETATION/SIGNIFICANCE: PZQ treatment is as safe and efficacious in children aged 1-5 years as it is in older children aged 6-10 years in whom PZQ is the drug of choice for control of schistosome infections.

  2. Auditory-Verbal Comprehension Development of 2-5 Year Old Normal Persian Speaking Children in Tehran, Iran

    Fariba Yadegari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Understanding and defining developmental norms of auditory comprehension is a necessity for detecting auditory-verbal comprehension impairments in children. We hereby investigated lexical auditory development of Persian (Farsi speaking children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory comprehension of four 2-5 year old normal children of adult’s child-directed utterance at available nurseries was observed by researchers primarily to gain a great number of comprehendible words for the children of the same age. The words were classified into nouns, verbs and adjectives. Auditory-verbal comprehension task items were also considered in 2 sections of subordinates and superordinates auditory comprehension. Colored pictures were provided for each item. Thirty 2-5 year old normal children were randomly selected from nurseries all over Tehran. Children were tested by this task and subsequently, mean of their correct response were analyzed. Results: The findings revealed that there is a high positive correlation between auditory-verbal comprehension and age (r=0.804, p=0.001. Comparing children in 3 age groups of 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 year old, showed that subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension of the former group is significantly lower (p0.05, while the difference between subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension was significant in all age groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: Auditory-verbal comprehension develop much faster at lower than older ages and there is no prominent difference between word linguistic classes including nouns, verbs and adjectives. Slower development of superordinate auditory comprehension implies semantic hierarchical evolution of words.

  3. Temporally selective attention supports speech processing in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    Astheimer, Lori B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2012-01-01

    Recent event-related potential (ERP) evidence demonstrates that adults employ temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech. Doing so is an effective listening strategy since word-initial segments are highly informative. Although the development of this process remains unexplored, directing attention to word onsets may be important for speech processing in young children who would otherwise be overwhelmed by the rapidly changing acoustic signals that constitute speech. We examined the use of temporally selective attention in 3- to 5-year-old children listening to stories by comparing ERPs elicited by attention probes presented at four acoustically matched times relative to word onsets: concurrently with a word onset, 100 ms before, 100 ms after, and at random control times. By 80 ms, probes presented at and after word onsets elicited a larger negativity than probes presented before word onsets or at control times. The latency and distribution of this effect is similar to temporally and spatially selective attention effects measured in adults and, despite differences in polarity, spatially selective attention effects measured in children. These results indicate that, like adults, preschool aged children modulate temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech.

  4. How do parents of 4- to 5-year-old children perceive the weight of their children?

    Luttikhuis, H. G. M. Oude; Stolk, R. P.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A heavier weight in adults is becoming the norm rather than an abnormal weight. Whether the same trend is happening in children is unknown. Objective: To assess the perception of the weight of 4- to 5-year-old children and the recognition of overweight by both parents. Design:

  5. Examining spatial variations in the prevalence of mental health problems among 5-year-old children in Canada.

    Raos, Robert; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine spatial variations in the prevalence rates of the three most common behaviour problems among 5-year-old children in Canada, to establish the data's suitability for potential spatial analyses of factors contributing to the prevalence of such problems. Data on kindergarten children's outcomes are routinely collected for populations of children in Canada using the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a population-level, teacher completed questionnaire. These data have been previously used to estimate prevalence rates of aggression, anxiety, and hyperactivity. The current study geographically analyzed these estimates to examine their consistency in relation to gender differences at larger provincial geographies and smaller Census Subdivision (CSD) geographies. Multilevel analyses were completed to examine the variation in prevalence at both levels of geography. Data for over 150,000 5-year-olds in three Canadian provinces and 410 Census Subdivisions were available for analyses. Prevalence rates of behaviour problems estimated with the EDI showed consistent gender relationships at both levels of aggregation. Controlling for individuals' age and sex, there was significant variation at the CSD level in risk of behavioural problems, and for anxiety and aggression, this was not explained by the distribution of CSDs in different provinces. This suggests local variation in these aspects of children's behaviour, within provinces. These findings open up the opportunity to further explore the utility and variability of EDI-based spatial variation in children's mental health.

  6. Developing a new self-reported scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5

    Tsakos Georgios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the impact of oral health on quality of life of children younger than 8 years is mostly based on parental reports, as methodological and conceptual challenges have hindered the development of relevant validated self-reported measures. This study aimed to develop and assess the reliability and validity of a new self-reported oral health related quality of life measure, the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5, in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional study of two phases. First, consultation focus groups (CFGs with parents of 5-year-olds and review by experts informed the development of the SOHO-5 questionnaire. The second phase assessed its reliability and validity on a sample of grade 1 (5-year-old primary schoolchildren in the Greater Glasgow and Clyde area, Scotland. Data were linked to available clinical oral health information and analysis involved associations of SOHO-5 with subjective and clinical outcomes. Results CFGs identified eating, drinking, appearance, sleeping, smiling, and socialising as the key oral impacts at this age. 332 children participated in the main study and for 296 (55% girls, mean d3mft: 1.3 clinical data were available. Overall, 49.0% reported at least one oral impact on their daily life. The most prevalent impacts were difficulty eating (28.7%, difficulty sleeping (18.5%, avoiding smiling due to toothache (14.9% and avoiding smiling due to appearance (12.5%. The questionnaire was quick to administer, with very good comprehension levels. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.74 and item-total correlation coefficients ranged between 0.30 and 0.60, demonstrating the internal consistency of the new measure. For validity, SOHO-5 scores were significantly associated with different subjective oral health outcomes (current toothache, toothache lifetime experience, satisfaction with teeth, presence of oral cavities and an aggregate measure of clinical and subjective oral health

  7. The left perceptual bias for adult and infant faces in adults and 5-year-old children: face age matters.

    Proietti, Valentina; Pavone, Sarah; Ricciardelli, Paola; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2015-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that adults rely more heavily on information conveyed by the left side of the face in judging emotional state, gender and identity. This phenomenon, called left perceptual bias (LPB), suggests a right hemisphere lateralization of face processing mechanisms. Although specialization of neural mechanisms for processing over-experienced face categories begins during the first year of life, little is known about the developmental trajectory of the LPB and whether or when the bias becomes selective for specific face categories as a result of experience. To address these questions we tested adults (Experiment 1) and 5-year-old children (Experiment 2) with null or limited experience with infants in an identity matching-to-sample task with chimeric adult and infant faces, for which both adults and children have been shown to manifest differential processing abilities. Results showed that 5-year-olds manifest a leftward bias selective for adult faces, and the magnitude of the bias is larger for adult compared to infant faces in adults. This evidence is in line with earlier demonstrations of a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in adults and children and points to the role of experience in shaping neurocognitive specialization for face processing.

  8. Dental Health Status in 3-5 Year Old Kindergarten Children in Tehran-Iran in 2003

    M. Ghandahari-Motlagh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Assessing oral hygiene in children plays an important role in determining the health status of communities and evaluating national health promotion programs. In 1997 in Geneva, international organizations agreed on the global goal of achieving a minimum of 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children.Purpose: This study was aimed to assess the oral health status in Iranian children.Materials and Methods: Among kindergarten children residing in the capital of Iran,Tehran, 400 children between the ages of three and five years were randomly selected and participated in this study. Their deciduous teeth were examined and the health index of dmft was determined for each child. The collected data were analyzed using the oneway ANOVA (with Tukey–Kramer multiple comparisons test for Post Hoc test, t test,and chi square test.Results: In this age group, only 48.3% of the children had no tooth decay. This information shows how far we are from accomplishing the aforementioned goal. A significant increase in tooth decay in these children was correlated with neglecting oral and dental hygiene, and also failing to brush the teeth regularly and wash the mouth after consuming sweets (P<0.001. Unfortunately, visits to dentists for regular checkups are not frequent enough, and dental caries was seen more in children who did not have regular visits than those who did (P<0.001.Conclusion: More accurate planning seems necessary to achieve 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children. More emphasis must be placed on prevention programs and educating public to observe dental hygiene by brushing the teeth regularly, washing the mouth after consuming sweets, and paying their dentists regular visits.

  9. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  10. Molecular and epidemiological study on among children under 5 years old in Nanjing%南京地区婴幼儿杯状病毒感染的分子流行病学研究

    李晓乐; 李丹地; 程卫霞; 谢广成; 高小倩; 孔桂平; 金玉; 段招军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the infected information,clinical symptom and molecular epidemiological characteristics of HuCV infection among children under 5 years old in Nanjing.Methods In Nanjing Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from July 2010 to June 2011,we collected 428 stool specimens from children with diarrhea and 428 asymptomatic controls.Human Calicivirus were tested by using RT-PCR.Then we sequenced the nucleic acid of PCR amplifications and identified the genotype and gene group of prevalent strains.Results 63 ( 14.72% ) out of 428 stool samples were detected as HuCV.58 were norovirus and 5 were sapovirus,while G Ⅱ -4 2006b was the predominant strain of NoV.In the 428 control samples,19 samples were positive for calicivirus,there were 8 NoV and 13 SaV (Including 3 coinfection cases).Conclusion Human caliciviruses with different genotypes circulated among children in Nanjing,and G Ⅱ.2006b is the dominant genotype.%目的 了解南京地区婴幼儿杯状病毒腹泻的感染状况、临床表现以及分子流行病学特征.方法 采集2010年7月至2011年6月南京医科大学附属南京儿童医院5岁以下腹泻患儿粪便标本及儿童保健中心健康婴幼儿粪便标本各428份.采用反转录-聚合酶链反应( RT-PCR)检测杯状病毒,测序确定其基因型别.结果 428份腹泻样本中有63份为杯状病毒阳性,检出率为14.72%.其中诺如病毒GⅡ型58例,未检出诺如病毒GⅠ型,札如病毒5例,以诺如病毒GⅡ-4 2006b型为主要流行株.428份健康对照组标本杯状病毒检出19例,诺如病毒6例,札如病毒11例,2例为诺如病毒GⅡ型和札如病毒混合感染.结论 南京地区婴幼儿中存在不同基因型杯状病毒感染,流行毒株以GⅡ.2006b为主.

  11. Oral Pressure and Nasal Flow on /m/ and /p/ in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Without Cleft Palate.

    Searl, Jeff; Knollhoff, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : (1) To compare oral pressure and nasal airflow in 3- to 5-year-olds versus older children and adults; (2) to describe stability of these measures in 3- to 5-year-olds at two recording times; and (3) to report participation rates of 3- to 5-year-olds for the aerodynamic protocol. Design : Prospective, nonrandomized, convenience samples in four age groups. Setting : University clinic. Participants : A total of 105 individuals without cleft palate and with normal speech for their age who were 3 to 5 (n  =  45), 7 to 9 (n  =  20), 11 to 13 (n  =  20), or 20 to 30 years old (n  =  20). All had normal nasal resonance and absence of nasally obstructive conditions on the testing day. Main Outcome Measures : Oral pressure and nasal airflow on /p/ and /m/ in syllable series and the word "hamper." Results : Oral pressure was significantly higher on /p/ for 3- to 5-year-olds versus the two oldest groups. Nasal airflow on /p/ occurred infrequently across groups. Oral pressure on /m/ was significantly higher for 3- to 5-year-olds versus adults. Nasal airflow on /m/ increased significantly with age. Oral pressure and nasal flow did not differ at two measurement times for the 3- to 5-year-olds. Of the 3- to 5-year-olds, 88% completed the protocol. Conclusions : Oral pressure decreased on /p/ and nasal airflow increased on /m/ from early childhood into adulthood. Nasal air escape on /p/ occurred rarely for speakers of any age; when it did occur, the magnitude was limited. Most preschool-aged children should be able to complete a velopharyngeal aerodynamic protocol, and measures are stable even for these young speakers.

  12. Dental caries and their treatment needs in 3-5 year old preschool children in a Rural District of India

    Devanand Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01. Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.

  13. 0 to 5 year-old children hearing appraisal by encephalic trunk audition evoked potentials

    Bustamante Mejía, César; Unidad de Otoneurología, Sección Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze hearing development and maturation from 0 to 5 years of age by evaluating latency times with encephalic trunk audition evoked potentials (AEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-four 0 to 5 year-old patients were grouped by age and AEP performed with identical parameters; all patients were sedated to avoid interference. RESULTS: Latency times decreased as age increased, denoting age/latency time (V wave) relation as indicator of hearing development and maturation. CONclusiOn: ...

  14. Cross-sectional study on oral health behaviors among children aged 5-year old in Mianyang City,Sichuan%四川省绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康现况调查

    申洋; 刘凡; 蒋莹; 曾庆奇; 常春; 王燕玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康现状,为进一步开展口腔健康教育提供参考依据。方法采用多阶段抽样的方法,抽取绵阳市3所幼儿园285名5岁儿童家长,参照《全国第三次口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中5岁儿童家长问卷对儿童家长进行调查。结果家长对于“窝沟封闭能预防儿童龋齿”的知晓率为11.6%,口腔知识主要来源是电视/广播(64.9%)和报纸/杂志(55.4%);90.2%的家长认同“保护孩子六龄牙很重要”;每天进食含糖食品的儿童为69.0%,75.8%儿童曾有睡前吃甜食行为;3岁以前开始刷牙的儿童占73.0%,每天帮助孩子刷牙和检查刷牙效果的家长占18.6%和19.6%;75.8%的儿童过去1年未进行任何口腔检查,其中46.7%的家长认为儿童牙齿没问题,不需要检查;最近一次口腔就诊的主要原因是急、慢性牙痛,定期检查牙齿的仅占4.2%;知识得分与态度得分之间存在正相关(r =0.285),同行为得分之间存在正相关(r =0.213)。结论绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康行为有待改善,虽然多数儿童家长有较好的口腔健康态度和一定的口腔健康知识,但是转化为实际行动的能力较弱,仍需有针对性的开展健康促进活动,以使儿童形成正确的口腔卫生行为。%Objective To understand the oral health behaviors status among children aged 5-year old in Mianyang city,and provide evidence for further implementing oral health education.Methods Using multistage sampling,285 par-ents of children aged 5-year old were selected in Mianyang city according to 3rd Chinese national oral health investigation cri-teria and children’s oral health behaviors were investigated by questionnaire.Results The awareness rate of parents’for‘Dental sealant could prevent caries for children’ was 11.6%,the main sources of oral knowledge were TV /radio (64.9%),newspaper

  15. Maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure or physical activity in 5-year-old Pima Indian children.

    Salbe, A D; Fontvieille, A M; Pettitt, D J; Ravussin, E

    1998-10-01

    Children of women who have diabetes during pregnancy are more likely to become obese by early adulthood than those of women with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Obesity can result from either excess food intake, low levels of energy expenditure or both. In our study, we tested whether maternal diabetes status influences total energy expenditure (TEE by doubly labelled water), resting metabolic rate (RMR by ventilated hood) and physical activity level (PAL = TEE/RMR and assessed by activity questionnaire). Measurements were taken in 88 5-year-old Pima Indian children, 24 children of women with diabetes (2-h plasma glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l) diagnosed before or during pregnancy and 64 children of women with normal glucose tolerance (2-h plasma glucose pregnancy and no prior history of abnormal glucose tolerance). Although birth weight was higher in children of diabetic than of nondiabetic women (mean +/- SD; 3.8 +/- 0.6 vs 3.5 +/- 0.4 kg, p obesity seen at older ages in the children of women with diabetes could be due to excess energy intake. Alternatively, if energy expenditure does have a role in the aetiology of obesity in these children, perhaps it does so only in older children.

  16. Study on sleep habit among Guiyang City 0 ~ 5 years old children%贵阳市城区0~5岁儿童睡眠习惯的研究

    贺赞群; 邓冰; 孙袁; 王秀荣; 陈丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the main existing sleep habit among Guiyang city 0 ~5 years old children.Methods:1 869 children aged 0 ~ 5 years were selected by stratified random sampling from Guiyang.All the participants'parents were surveyed with questionnaire by front to front.All collected data were analyzed with SPSS statistical software.Results:The main existing problems in sleep habits were as followed:there were 73.8% children cosleeped with their parents,31.1% children needed consolation.Conclusion:Sleeping with their parents is the main bed way of children sleep of Guiyang city,and sleeping in the bed with relative comfort behavior before sleep alone has more dangerous.Therefore,parents should master correct bed way,create a relatively independent and quiet space for their infant,lay the foundation for children’s sleep alone.%目的:了解贵阳市城区0~5岁儿童睡眠习惯的发生现状,以便引起有关卫生部门的重视.方法:采用分层抽样法抽取贵阳市城区1 869名0~5岁儿童作为研究对象,采用统一问卷对受试儿童家长进行现场调查,应用SPSS 17.0统计软件包进行统计学分析.结果:有73.8%的儿童与家人同睡一床,13.7%的儿童与家人同房但不同床睡眠,12.5%的儿童单独睡眠.不同年龄段儿童在睡床习惯上有统计学意义.有31.1%的儿童在夜间睡前需要安慰物.结论:同床睡眠是目前贵阳市城区儿童睡眠的主要睡床方式,且同床睡眠在睡前安慰行为上相对单独睡眠有更大的危险性.因此,父母应该掌握正确的睡床方式,给婴幼儿创造了一个相对独立的、安静的睡眠空间,为其过渡到单独睡眠奠定基础.

  17. [Life style of children and obesity in a population of 5-year-old children].

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Munoz, F; Miginiac, M; Billette, A; Rey, S

    1992-01-01

    The increasing level of childhood obesity has prompted some research into the early risk factors likely to lead to preventive measures. A case-control study was conducted of a five year-old population in the Rhône and Isère administrative "départements" of France during the children's first visit to primary school, with the participation of 327 obese children and 704 controls. Anthropometric data on the children since birth, together with data on their lifestyles, were collected in interviews with parents. "Family obesity" and "obesity at birth" were found to be closely related to the child's obesity at five years old (adjusted OR = 2.7 and 2.1 respectively). Of the environmental factors, the hypothesis tested paid specific attention to television viewing, snacks between meals and lack of sleep. These three variables were all found to be risk factors of obesity at five years old. However after allowing for parental obesity, the only remaining significant risk factor for obesity at five was lack of sleep (adjusted OR = 1.4). The pathogenic assumptions raised by these results are discussed.

  18. Narrative Comprehension Skills in 5-Year-Old Children: Correlational Analysis and Comprehender Profiles

    Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether a variety of cognitive and linguistic factors theoretically considered to be predictive of reading comprehension skills in elementary school children were also predictive of listening comprehension skills in 131 five-year-old children. The results showed that the predictors of young children's listening…

  19. 3677例5岁以下儿童死亡原因分析%Analysis of death dauses and study on the intervention measures in children under 5 years old

    张晓茹

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析山东省枣庄市5岁以下儿童死亡情况、死亡原因及动态变化,为政府部门决策提供依据.方法 对2002至2009年枣庄市5岁以下儿童死亡资料进行统计分析.结果 2002至2009年枣庄市共计出生活产婴儿307 238例,5岁以下儿童死亡3677例,死亡率为11.97‰.婴儿死亡3338例,死亡率为10.86‰,占5岁以下儿童总数的90.78%其中新生儿死亡2665例,死亡率为8.67‰,占婴儿死亡总数的79.84%;1-5岁儿童死亡339例,死亡率为1.10‰,占5岁以下儿童死亡总数的9.22%.不同年龄儿童死亡率差异有统计学意义(x2=2358.90,P<0.05).分别统计各年度不同阶段儿童死亡率,均呈逐年下降趋势,其中5岁以下儿童死亡率(x2=512.93,P<0.05)、婴儿死亡率(x2=491.73,P<0.05)、新生儿死亡率(x2=422.40,P<0.05)、1~5岁儿童死亡率(x2=34.38,P<0.05),均有统计学意义.男童死亡率为11.02‰(1847/165738),女童死亡率为13.10‰(1830/137823),男女死亡率差异有统计学意义(x2=27.94,P<0.05).因抢救无效在医院内死亡者3143例,占85.48%;在家中或就医途中死亡者534例,占14.52%.死因前7位依次为早产或低出生体重、出生窒息、肺炎、其他先天畸形、意外死亡、先天性心脏病和颅内出血,前3位死因致死人数占总死亡人数的59.11%(2174/3677).结论 早产或低出生体重、出生窒息和肺炎是导致5岁以下儿童死亡的主要原因.2002年至2009年枣庄市5岁以下儿童死亡率逐年下降.建立健全妇幼保健三级网络、加强围产期保健、提高产科技术水平、提高危重患者急救能力、普及科学知识和健康教育知识等是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.%Objective To analyze the death materials, death causes and their dynamic change in children under 5 years old in Zaozhuang City during 2002-2009. Methods Cases of death in children under 5 years old during 2002-2009 in Zaozhuang City were collected and analyzed. Results The

  20. Distribution of plaque and gingivitis and associated factors in 3- to 5-year-old Brazilian children.

    Feldens, Eliane Gerson; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Simone Helena

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the distribution of plaque and gingivitis and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and orthodontic variables (spacing in anterior teeth, anterior open bite, and crossbite), and visible plaque level (low, medium, high) in Brazilian preschoolers. The sample comprised 490 3- to 5-year-old children from nursery schools in Canoas, a city in southern Brazil. One single, trained observer examined children's oral cavities and determined visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI). Results showed that 99% of the children had visible plaque and 77% had gingivitis (GBI>0). A positive (r(s)=0.32) and significant correlation was found between VPI and GBI. VPI and GBI were significantly higher in posterior teeth and buccal and lingual surfaces. VPI was significantly higher in boys, children of low-income families, and without spacing in maxillary anterior teeth. Gingivitis was associated with absence of spacing in maxillary anterior teeth and plaque level. The most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children and mothers-particularly those with a low socioeconomic status--to motivate self-care and prevent gingivitis.

  1. Energy balance-related behavioural patterns in 5-year-old children and the longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Stafleu, A.; Thijs, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examined clustering of dietary intake and activity behaviours (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association with BMI and overweight development. Design Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to i

  2. Fertility treatment and child intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons: a cohort study

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    Cohort. METHODS: The children were tested with a neuropsychological battery at age five. In addition to tests of intelligence, attention and executive functions, the follow up included extensive information on important covariates. The analyses were conducted using multiple linear regression and adjusted......OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of fertility treatment and subfertility with offspring intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark 2003-2008. POPULATION: A cohort of 1782 children sampled from the Danish National Birth...... for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy and child gender, child age, and examiner. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children...

  3. Associations Between Swedish Mothers' and 3- and 5-Year-Old Children's Food Intake

    Hansson, L. M.; Heitmann, B. L.; Larsson, Christel

    2016-01-01

    with robust variance. Results The strongest correlations between mothers' and children's food intake were found for pizza and oily fish (r = .70–.80). The weakest correlations were found for sugared drinks and fruit and berries (r = .24–.26). Children's age moderated the relationship between mothers......Objective To investigate associations between mothers' and children's food intake. Design Cross-sectional study. Background variables collected through self-reports and from the register of the total population. Mothers recorded their own and their children's food intake in a diary during 2 4-day....... The final sample of mother–child pairs with complete food records was 189. Main Outcome Measures Mothers' and children's food intake (16 food items). Analysis Spearman rank-order correlation with 95% confidence intervals (2-sided). Moderation was investigated using generalized estimation equations...

  4. Effects of Adjacent Teeth on Caries Status of a Deciduous Tooth in 3-5 Years-Old Children

    S Afroughi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Based on the carried out studies, the prevalence of dental caries in preschool children is high and ranges from 31.64 to 83.7 percents in Iran. The dmft criterion is not able to compute the impact of neighboring teeth on caries status of a tooth in deciduous teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the above issue in a sample of 3-5 years old children in Tehran during 2008-2009. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a group of 400, 3–5 years old children who lived in Tehran and referred to Pediatric Dentistry Department of the Dentistry Faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, for treatment of their deciduous teeth were investigated The demographic variables and mouth health cares data were collected by a questionnaire and the caries status of deciduous teeth were diagnosed by standard methods. The caries statuses were considered as spatially correlated binary data. The auto logistic regression model was implemented for inspecting the association of a tooth and its neighboring teeth which consists of two adjacent teeth and the opponent tooth. The effects of factors were tested using z-score. Results: The fitted model and the computed criteria showed that there was a strong dependency between caries statuses of a tooth and its three neighbors (including the two adjacent and the vertically opponent teeth (p=0.0001. Also the effect of spatial auto covariate which is equivalent to the sum of statuses of nearest neighbors of a tooth is highly significant. Furthermore, the effects of local variables such as jaw and posterior-anterior positions were also highly significant (p=0.0001. Conclusions: In deciduous teeth, the three nearest neighbors have a high effect on a tooth. As a result, the teeth in maxilla and posterior locations are decayed sooner than the other ones. These findings may be considered in preventive programs of health of mouth and tooth in children.

  5. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Its Anemia in 1-5 Years Old Children and Their Mothers in Birjand City

    Azita Fesharakinia

    2014-01-01

    Background &Objective: Micronutrient deficiencies are the most common nutritional disorders in the world in which iron deficiency is the most important one. This study was done for investigating the prevalence of iron deficiency and its anemia in children and their mothers in Birjand city in 2011.Materials & Methods: 143 children of 1-5 years old who referred to the health care centers of Birjand city were chosen by multistage cluster random sampling method and both the children and mothers w...

  6. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Grace S. Marquis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011 was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1 randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2 non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3 prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4 prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies, 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies, 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status, and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status. This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt.

  7. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  8. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  9. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  10. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  11. Evaluation of the relationship between milk consumption and dental caries in 3-5 years old children in Ray city

    J. Mahmodian

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, Tooth decay is still one of the most significant problems in human communities. Tooth decay is defined as a microbial disease that causes demineralization of hard tissues and degradation of organic components of teeth. Although there are various theories on etiology of dental caries, Miller’s acidogenic theory (1890 and Gottileb’s proteolitic theory (1933 have gained the most credibility among the others. In general, status and amount of saliva, oral hygiene, tooth structure, type and quantity of microorganisms and diet are the most important factors that can lead to tooth decay. Since the manner and type of child nutrition during infancy is considered as a significant factor in development and progression of dental caries and also there has not been published any research on this subject in Iran yet, this study was designed and carried out to find the association between the type of milk intake in infancy and the rate of dental caries in 3-5 year old children.

  12. Prevalence of obesity among 2- 5 years old children of Amritsar: A comparison of three criteria

    Navdeep Kaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study of 1879 subjects (949 boys and 930 girls to define the prevalence of overweight and obesity using three reference standards. The study involved affluent preschool children (2-5 years of age from six crèches, fifteen play-pen and three public schools of Amritsar city. Weight and height was obtained for each child and body mass index was calculated according to the formula weight (kg/ height (m². The prevalence of overweight and obesity was then determined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF and World Health Organization (WHO standards. All three methods gave different results. The present study revealed that WHO standards gave higher estimates of overweight and obesity while IOTF gave lower estimates. The level of agreement (k=0.94 between the WHO and CDC standards was higher. The prevalence of childhood obesity is dependent on the growth reference used.

  13. English Speech Acquisition in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Learning Russian and English

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Wright, Kira L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition in Russian-English (RE) bilingual children was investigated, exploring the effects of Russian phonetic and phonological properties on English single-word productions. Russian has more complex consonants and clusters and a smaller vowel inventory than English. Method: One hundred thirty-seven single-word samples…

  14. Physical activity in light of affordances in outdoor environments: qualitative observation studies of 3-5 years olds in kindergarten.

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.

  15. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be active, eat right" study

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); I. Vogel (Ineke); L. van Rossem (Lenie); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIt is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among

  16. Modeling diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years old: a GAM and GLM approach

    sharif mahmood

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper presents the application of generalized additive model (GAM and generalized linear model (GLM as an exploratory tool for analyzing the factors that affect the occurrence of diarrhea of Bangladeshi child. The relation between the factors that are related with occurrence of diarrhea can be obtained by modeling parametric approach (GLM. But in practice the relation is not straight forward and we require elaborate explanations which incline semiparametric regression (GAM. We present a unified approach for analyzing factors affecting diarrhea via GLM and GAM. We applied Akaike's information criterion to select the best model for our data. Our study analyzes nonlinear resolution of covariate not available with traditional parametric models and the results provide some evidence on how to reduce occurrence of diarrhea by improving socio-economic and public health conditions.

  17. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2- and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort.

    Küpers, L K; de Pijper, J J; Sauer, P J J; Stolk, R P; Corpeleijn, E

    2014-04-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of 2 (n=1488) and 5 (n=1366) years. At 2 years, 124 (8.3%) children were overweight and 44 (3.0%) did not eat breakfast daily. At 5 years, 180 (13.2%) children were overweight and 73 (5.3%) did not eat breakfast daily. Children belonging to families of non-Dutch origin, those with lower educated parents and those with single parents skipped breakfast more often. Breakfast skipping in 2- and 5-year-olds is rare in the Netherlands. We found no association between skipping breakfast and overweight, neither at age 2 (odds ratio (OR): 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-5.64)) nor at age 5 (OR: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.19-1.11)). Also the type of breakfast was not related to overweight at 5 years. An explanation for this finding might be that skipping breakfast is not (yet) an issue in these children.

  18. The Effect of Parental Presence on the 5 year-Old Childrens Anxiety and Cooperative Behavior in the First and Second Dental Visit

    Mehrsa Paryab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:One of the most significant problems in pediatric dentistry is behavioral resistance of preschool children in the first visit. There is a debate on parental presence in operation room. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Iranian 5-year-old childrens behavior including anxiety and cooperation relative to parental presence in the first and second dental appointments. Methods:The study was conducted on sixty seven 5-year-old children selected according to inclusion criteria and randomly divided into two subgroups. Children in group I were visited in parents presence and in group II in parents absence. Before the childs first dental visit, parents were interviewed. Forty eight of the children receiving the initial examination were recalled for a second visit. The childrens responses during the Holst procedure of the first visit and restorative second visit were assessed using a combination of two measures including heart rate and clinical behavior. The dentist-patient interactions were regulated by standardized scripts and recorded on videotape. Then, the behavior of the child on the recording during each visit was quantified by two pediatric dentists independently according to Venham 6-point rating scale and Frankle 4-point rating scale. Findings:There were no significant differences between the heart rate measures of children in group I and II in the first and second visit (0.67, 0.8 respectively. There were also no significant differences between the clinical anxiety scores of children in the two groups in the first and second visit (0.98, 0.42 respectively. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the clinical cooperation scores of children in group I and group II in the first and second visit (0.88, 0.40 respectively, neither were there any significant differences between response measures of each child between two visits (P>0.05. In addition, there were no significant differences related to sex, parental

  19. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  20. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.

  1. The relationship between motor performance and parent-rated executive functioning in 3- to 5-year-old children: What is the role of confounding variables?

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Veer, Gerda; Visser, Jan; Cantell, Marja

    2017-01-01

    It is generally agreed that motor performance and executive functioning (EF) are intertwined. As the literature on this issue concerning preschool children is scarce, we examined the relationship between motor performance and parent-rated EF in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children with different le

  2. Results of a Multidisciplinary Treatment Program in 3-Year-Old to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a multidisciplinary intervention program for 3-year-old to 5-year-old overweight and obese children compared with a usual-care program. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial conducted from October 2006 to March 2008. Setting: Groningen Expert Center for Kid

  3. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  4. Impact of sentence length and phonetic complexity on intelligibility of 5-year-old children with cerebral palsy.

    Allison, Kristen M; Hustad, Katherine C

    2014-08-01

    Reduced speech intelligibility is a barrier to effective communication for many children with cerebral palsy (CP). Many variables may impact intelligibility, yet little research attention has sought to quantify these variables. This study examined the influence of sentence characteristics on intelligibility in two groups of children with CP (those with and without dysarthria) and typically-developing children. Questions addressed effects of sentence length on transcription intelligibility among groups; effects of phonetic complexity on intelligibility; and differences in the relationship between sentence characteristics and intelligibility across individual children with dysarthria. Speech samples varying in length from 2-7 words were elicited from 16 children with CP (mean age 59.6 months) and eight typically-developing children (mean age = 59.8 months). One hundred and nineteen naïve listeners made orthographic transcriptions of the children's sentence productions. Sentence length and phonetic complexity affected intelligibility for all groups of children, but had a greater impact on intelligibility for children with dysarthria than those without speech motor impairment. Variable relationships between sentence characteristics and intelligibility were found across individual children with dysarthria. Results suggest that reducing both the length and phonetic complexity of utterances may enhance intelligibility for children with dysarthria. However, there may be important individual differences in the impact of one or both types of sentence characteristics. This highlights the importance of considering individual speech motor profiles when deciding on treatment strategies.

  5. Is Motor Performance in 5.5-Year-Old Children Associated with the Presence of Generalized Joint Hypermobility?

    Boer, R.M. de; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Scheper, M.C.; Sanden, M.W. van der; Engelbert, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) in Dutch children aged 5.5 years, and to examine the association between GJH and motor performance and development over time. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort of 249 children was recruited. GJH was assessed with the Be

  6. Development of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for sapovirus in children under 5-years-old in Regina Margherita Hospital of Turin, Italy.

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Brusin, Martina Rosa; Finotti, Serena; Paderi, Giulia; Gabiano, Clara

    2016-12-02

    Gastroenteritis is a common disease in children. It is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis, but it causes milder illness than do rotavirus and norovirus. There is high variability in the analytical performance of quantitative PCR-based assays among clinical laboratories. This study developed a reverse transcription real-time PCR method to detect SaV in fecal specimens collected from children under 5-years-old with acute gastroenteritis. Of 137 episodes of acute gastroenteritis, 15 (10.9%) were associated with SaV genomic detection, with a median viral load of 6.6(log10) ± 7.1(log10) genomes/mg fecal specimens. There was a significant difference in detection rate between males and females (9.48% (13/15) vs. 1.46% (2/15), p = 0.0232). Among the 15 SaV-positive cases, 6 were also positive for rotavirus. Viral RNA recovery rate ranged from 46% to 77% in the manual RNAzol protocol and from 31% to 90% in the automated Maxwell protocol. We also studied whether human genomic DNA influences the sensitivity of the assay: its presence caused a decrease in PCR sensitivity. The development of a laboratory-designed real-time PCR TaqMan assay for quantitative detection of SaV and the optimization and standardization of this assay, using stools of children with acute gastroenteritis, are described.

  7. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children's construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals.

    Waxman, Sandra R; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children's reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children's reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds' reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children's books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children's books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children's attention to a biological model.

  8. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders Among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan C.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n=476) with prenatal drug exposures documented by maternal interview, urine and meconium assays. Study participants included 400 African-American children from the birth cohort, 208 cocaine-exposed (CE) and 192 non-cocaine-exposed (NCE) who attended a 5-year follow-up assessment and whose caregiver completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Under a generalized linear model (logistic link), Fisher’s exact methods were used to estimate the CE-associated relative risk (RR) of these disorders. Results indicated a modest but statistically robust elevation of ADHD risk associated with increasing levels of PCE (pEstimated cumulative incidence proportions among CE children were 2.9% for ADHD (vs 3.1% NCE); 1.4% for SAD (vs 1.6% NCE); and 4.3% for ODD (vs 6.8% NCE). Findings offer suggestive evidence of increased risk of ADHD (but not ODD or SAD) in relation to an increasing gradient of PCE during gestation.

  9. Associations between sport and screen-entertainment with mental health problems in 5-year-old children

    Dezateux Carol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the benefits of regular physical activity, and risks of sedentary behaviour, in young children. This study investigated associations between participation in sports and screen-entertainment (as components of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and emotional and behavioural problems in this population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from 13470 children (50.9% boys participating in the nationally representative UK Millennium Cohort Study. Time spent participating in sports clubs outside of school, and using screen-entertainment, was reported by the child's mother at child age 5 years, when mental health was also measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results 45% of children did not participate in sport clubs and 61% used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day. Children who participated in sport had fewer total difficulties; emotional, conduct, hyperactivity-inattention and peer relationship problems; and more prosocial behaviours. These relationships were similar in boys and girls. Boys and girls who used screen-entertainment for any duration, and participated in sport, had fewer emotional and behavioural problems, and more prosocial behaviours, than children who used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day and did not participate in sport. Conclusions Longer durations of screen-entertainment usage are not associated with mental health problems in young children. However, our findings suggest an association between sport and better mental health. Further research based on longitudinal data is required to examine causal pathways in these associations and to determine the potential role of this and other forms of physical activity in preventing mental health disorders.

  10. The Influence of Parental Socioeconomic Background and Gender on Self-Regulation among 5-Year-Old Children in Norway

    Størksen, Ingunn; Ellingsen, Ingunn T.; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Self-regulation in young children predicts later social adjustment and academic success across cultural contexts. Therefore, it is crucial to identify factors that promote or inhibit behavioral self-regulation skills. In this study, we focus on gender and socioeconomic status (SES; parental education and income) as possible…

  11. Evaluation of Symmetrical or Asymmetrical Pattern of Nursing Caries in 3-5 Year-Old Children at Kindergartens in Tehran During 2009-2010

    Vahid Pourtalebi Firozabadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nursing Caries (NC is a destructive form of caries because of incorrect nutritional habits in infants that affects deciduous teeth after eruption. Familiarity with the pattern of this type of caries and evaluation of its symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern is necessary for effective and scientific diagnosis and treatment. The aim was to assess the symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects of Nursing Caries in children between3-5 years old.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 kindergartens were randomly selected by the TehranWelfare Organization. 115 children with NC caries entered to study after examination. Written consents were obtained from the parents. The dmfs in upper primary incisors and upper and lower primary canines, as well as the first primary molars were assessed and the caries pattern in terms of symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects wasevaluated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD, Chi-square and Fisher tests.Results: In 53.9% of the children with NC, the anterior teeth were affected symmetrically, while 46.1% indicated an asymmetrical pattern. In general, 32.2% of the teeth were affected in a symmetrical pattern and 67.8% of them in an asymmetrical pattern. About the relationship between the breastfeeding from the right or left breast and the symmetrical pattern of the NC, 51% of the children were equally breastfed from both breasts. However, in the asymmetrical NC pattern with more impact in the right side of dentition, 50% of the children had been breastfed from the left side and in children with more caries in the left side of dentition, 50% of them had been breastfed rom the right side (P=0.01.Conclusion: NC has symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns. Direction of mother for breastfeeding affects the symmetrical and asymmetrical pattern of NC.

  12. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  13. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Ihuoma U. Eneli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI, an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1, development of the FDI content (Study 2, and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3. Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges’ g greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57% of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges’ g≥0.8 occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child’s intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p<0.01 and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p<0.001. The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child’s eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.

  14. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2-5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.

  15. The effect of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract on acute non-inflammatory diarrhea in 1-5 year old children

    Khoshdel Abofazl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.

  16. Appearances Are Deceiving: Observing the World as It Looks and How It Really Is—Theory of Mind Performances Investigated in 3-, 4-, and 5-Year-Old Children

    Lucia Bigozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appearance-reality (AR distinction understanding in preschoolers is worth of further consideration. This also goes for its relationship with false-belief (FB understanding. This study helped fill these gaps by assessing 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children’s performances on an appearance-reality distinction task and by investigating relationships with unexpected location, deceptive content, and deception comprehension task performances. 91 preschoolers participated in this study divided into 3 groups: (1 37 children, M-age 3.4 years; (2 23 children, M-age 4.5 years; (3 31 children, M-age 5.4 years. A developmental trend was found where appearance-reality distinction understanding was significantly influenced by age. If wrong answers were particularly high by 3-year-old children, they greatly decreased by 4- and 5-year-old children. 3-year-old children also tended to fail in FB tasks; instead 4- and 5-year-old children performed AR tasks better than FB tasks. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  17. Cultural Difference in Conflict Management Strategies of Children and Its Development: Comparing 3- and 5-Year-Olds across China, Japan, and Korea

    Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which…

  18. Conversational repair strategies in 3 and 5 year old normal Persian-speaking children in Ahwaz, Iran

    Zahra Ghayoumi Anaraki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The ability of conversational repair is a subset of pragmatic language. When the listener does not understand the speaker's intention, and the speaker cannot find a way of repairing the conversation to make his/her massage clear, communication will fail. This study aims to examine and compare the conversational repair skill in two groups of three and five year old children, to determine different conversational repair strategies and compare these skills among these groups.Methods: One hundred and twenty Persian speaking children of three and five years of Ahwaz, Iran, were selected. The study tools were two series of pictures. During the retelling of the pictures the examiner created a situation to elicit a conversational repair strategy. Percentages of the usage of different kinds of conversational repair in each group were calculated and compared using student's t-test.Results: The usage of repetition and inappropriate response is decreased in the group of five year olds compared to the three year olds, but cue-repair and repetition method is increased. The addition method has remained relatively constant. There was a significant difference between average percentage of using repetition (p=0.04 and cue-repair (p=0.001 of the two groups. The percentage of application of repetition method in three year olds and cue-term method in five year olds were significantly higher than other conversational repair strategies.Conclusion: With the increase in age and development of language skills the probability of using more complex and difficult strategies, like the cue-repair method, increases.

  19. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Veldhuis Lydian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised within 9 Municipal Health Services. The teams are randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The teams measure the weight and height of all children. When a child in the intervention group is detected with overweight according to the international age and gender specific cut-off points of BMI, the prevention protocol is applied. According to this protocol parents of overweight children are invited for up to three counselling sessions during which they receive personal advice about a healthy lifestyle, and are motivated for and assisted in behavioural change. The primary outcome measures are Body Mass Index and waist circumference of the children. Parents will complete questionnaires to assess secondary outcome measures: levels of overweight inducing/reducing behaviours (i.e. being physically active, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages and watching television/playing computer games, parenting styles, parenting practices, and attitudes of parents regarding these behaviours, health-related quality of life of the children, and possible negative side effects of the prevention protocol. Data will be collected at baseline (when the children are aged 5 years, and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Additionally, a process and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted. Discussion In this study called 'Be active, eat right' we evaluate an overweight prevention protocol for use in the setting of Youth Health Care. It is hypothesized that the

  20. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

  1. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2-and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    Kupers, L. K.; de Pijper, J. J.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Stolk, R. P.; Corpeleijn, E.

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of

  2. Odontogenic keratocyst in a 5-year-old child: a rare cause of maxillary swelling in children.

    Smith, I M; Harvey, N; Logan, R M; David, D J; Anderson, P J

    2008-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts in children are uncommon. They are cysts of the jaws that have a tendency for recurrence and are usually seen in adults. We report an exceptionally rare case in a young child and discuss its management.

  3. Teachers of young children (3-5 years old and their interaction with pupils: approaching positive classroom management

    Fryni Paraskevopoulou

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the social and emotional development of children between three to five years old, the factors that affect their in-school behaviour and strategies for positive teacher classroom management. It is suggested that teachers need to reflect upon children’s development in order for an effective classroom management to be achieved. Aspects of teachers’ expectations about interaction between children and teachers will also be exemplified. Literature research was employed as a method to explore the relevant issues.

  4. Cryptosporidiosis Risk in New Zealand Children Under 5 Years Old is Greatest in Areas with High Dairy Cattle Densities.

    Lal, Aparna; Dobbins, Timothy; Bagheri, Nasser; Baker, Michael G; French, Nigel P; Hales, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The public health risks associated with dairy farming intensification are an emerging concern. We examine the association between dairy cattle density and cryptosporidiosis risk in children dairy industry. Multi-level Poisson regression was used to model reported cryptosporidiosis (N = 3869 cases) incidence in relation to dairy cattle densities across urban and rural areas separately, after controlling for microbiological quality of public drinking water supplies and neighbourhood socio-economic factors using the Census Area Unit of residence. Within urban areas, the risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old was significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density IRR 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.9) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. Within rural areas, the incidence risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old were significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density: IRR 1.7 (95% CI 1.3, 2.3) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.5, 2.8) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. These results have public health implications for children living on and in proximity to intensively stocked dairy cattle farms.

  5. Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 3-to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children

    Bocca, Gianni; Ongering, Eva C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The increasing rate of overweight and obesity is alarming. The complications of overweight and obesity at a young age are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese children aged 3-5 years.

  6. A case control study on the risk factors of viral diarrhea in children below 5 years old%5岁以下婴幼儿病毒性腹泻的危险因素配对病例对照研究

    许可; 霍翔; 祖荣强; 李亮; 汤奋扬; 朱凤才; 羊海涛; 汪华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors of viral diarrhea among children below 5 years old. Methods:A case-control study was conducted on two groupe of children matched by sex, age with or without viral diarrhea from hospitals in Xuzhou and Zhenjiang area. The pathogen of diarrhea was confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. Interview was carried out with uniform designed questionnaires. Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis was then performed. Results:Factors that were independently associated with the development of viral diarrhea, would include children's address, weight, parents' Schooling and profession, washing-up sink in kitchen, cutting cooked and uncooked foods by different kitchen knife and target, raising pets, cooker washing hands before cook, the children contacting animals and taking antibiotics one week ago before diarrhea. Anamnesis and rotavims vaccine inoculation were not found associating with viral diarrhea. Multivariate logistic regression model was then fitted with three variables, including washing-up sink in kitchen, cutting cooked and uncooked foods by different kitchen knife and target, taking antibiotics one week ago before diarrhea. The 95% CI of OR was 0.340~0.852, 0.295~0.705 and 2.153~6.227 separately. Conclusion:The risk of viral diarrhea increased with worse hygienic habits and antibiotics taken.%目的:探讨5岁以下婴幼儿病毒性腹泻的危险因素.方法:采用性别、年龄匹配的1:2配对病例对照研究,对江苏省徐州、镇江市县级医疗机构2007年10月至2008年10月收治的5岁以下腹泻儿童500例和对照儿童1 000例进行问卷调查.腹泻的病原体采用酶联免疫吸附剂测定(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)或反转录PCR(reverse transcription-PCR,RT-PCR)进行检测确认.数据采用Cox比例风险模型拟合Logistic回归.结果:单因素分析显示病毒性腹泻患儿的城乡差异、父母受教育程度、职业、家庭饮食卫生(包括厨

  7. Prevalencia de desnutrición en menores de cinco años de Tabasco Malnutrition prevalence in children under 5 years old in Tabasco, Mexico

    Lucio G. Lastra-Escudero

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la prevalencia de desnutrición que se presentó en niños tabasqueños menores de cinco años en 1996, y su evolución entre 1991 y 1996. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal que incluyó a 1 256 niños de 593 comunidades (31 urbanas y 562 rurales de los 17 municipios de Tabasco. Resultados. El indicador peso/edad registró 41% de prevalencia de desnutrición, distribuida en leve (26.12%, moderada (12.62% y severa (2.39%. En niños de entre 1 y 5 años la prevalencia de desnutrición fue de 45%. Conclusiones. De 1991 a 1996 la cifra de niños con desnutrición ha disminuido proporcionalmente al incremento de la nutrición normal. Asimismo, han disminuido de seis a cuatro los municipios con indicadores críticos de desnutrición, con base en las acciones del sector salud en el estado de Tabasco.Objective. To evaluate malnutrition prevalence in children under five years-old in Tabasco, Mexico, during 1996, and their evolution in 1991-1996. Material and methods. A cross-sectional study, including 1 256 children under five years-old in 593 communities (31 urban and 562 rural from 17 sanitary districts. Results. The weight/age indicator for malnutrition in children under five years old showed 59% of children had normal nutrition and 41% with malnutrition, distributed as follows: 26.12% slight, 12.62% moderate and 2.39% severe. In children between 1-5 years old, malnutrition prevalence was 45%. Conclusions. The number of children with malnutrition in Tabasco during the study period (1991-1996 has decreased in proportion to the increase of those with normal nutrition. Based on the health system activities, the number of health districts with critical malnutrition indicators decreased from 6 to 4.

  8. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors in 5-year-old children: Lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    Gubbels Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA and sedentary screen-based behavior in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association of these patterns with weight status (BMI and overweight development up to age 8. Methods Data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (N = 2074 at age 5. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Backward regression analyses were used to examine the association of lifestyle patterns with parent and child background characteristics, as well as the longitudinal associations between the patterns and weight status development. Results Four lifestyle patterns emerged from the PCA: a ‘Television–Snacking’ pattern, a ‘Sports–Computer’ pattern, a ‘Traditional Family’ pattern, and a “Fast’ Food’ pattern. Child gender and parental educational level, working hours and body mass index were significantly associated with the scores for the patterns. The Television–Snacking pattern was positively associated with BMI (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.05; p p = 0.06. In addition, the Sports–Computer pattern was significantly positively associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight at age 7 (OR = 1.28, p  Conclusions The current study showed the added value of including eating routines in cross-behavioral clustering analyses. The findings indicate that future interventions to prevent childhood overweight should address eating routines and activity/inactivity simultaneously, using the synergy between clustered behaviors (e.g. between television viewing and snacking.

  9. Hypomineralized second primary molars: Prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; Schuller, A.A.; Weerheijm, K.L.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  10. Hypomineralized second primary molars : prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    Elfrink, M E C; Schuller, A A; Weerheijm, K L; Veerkamp, J S J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  11. Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; Schuller, A.A.; Weerheijm, K.L.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  12. Cognitive and Emotional Control and Perspective Taking and Their Relations to Empathy in 5-Year-Old Children

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; O'Brien, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The experience of empathy has been described as involving both emotional and cognitive components. The primary hypothesis tested in this study is that cognition and emotion are integrated within 2 distinct types of abilities--control and perspective taking--and that interactions between emotional and cognitive control and between affective and…

  13. An embodiment perspective on number-space mapping in Dutch 3.5-year-old children

    van 't Noordende, Jaccoline E.; Volman, M.J.M.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that block adding, subtracting and counting direction are early forms of number–space mapping. In this study, an embodiment perspective on these skills was taken. Embodiment theory assumes that cognition emerges through sensory–motor interaction with the environment. In li

  14. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    Guxens, Monica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T.; Huss, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Background A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we

  15. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  16. Analysis and preventive measures for the death of children under 5 years old in panyu district%番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析与预防措施

    陈伦能

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To know the current death situation and the change of children under 5 years old in Panyu, and study the measures of decreasing the children mortality. [Method] The death information of children under 5 years old in Panyu during 2007-2010 were analyzed. [Results] The mortality rate of children under 5 years old was 5.83%, 43. 18%of them were neonates, 70. 62% of them were infants; The male children mortality were higher than female children; The mortality rate of children in floating population was significantly higher than that of inhabitant; Top 3 causes of were accidental death.congenital malformation and premature low birth weight; 24.19% of them death without treatment. [Conclusions] The key to reduce the death rate of children under 5 years old is to reduce the death of infant and neonates, especially the care of floating population. It is important to preventing the accidental death and congenital malformation.%[目的]了解番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及变化情况,为制定降低5岁以下儿童死亡的措施提供依据.[方法]对番禺区2007-2010年5岁以下儿童死亡进行回顾分析.[结果]4年来,番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡率平均为5.83‰;新生儿死亡、婴儿死亡分别占5岁以下儿童死亡的43.18%和70.62%;男童死亡率大于女童,流动人口儿童死亡率大于常住人口儿童死亡率;意外死亡、先天畸形、早产低出生体重是5岁以下儿童主要死因;仍有24.19%的儿童死前未接受治疗.[结论]降低婴儿、新生儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键,预防儿童意外死亡和降低出生缺陷率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的当务之急,进一步加强对流动人口的保健管理.

  17. Study on effects of eating behaviors intervention for 3 -5 years old children in Beijing and Shanghai%北京和上海3~5岁儿童饮食行为干预效果的研究

    潘丽莉; 张红梅; 赖建强; 邹淑荣; 董文兰; 杨静; 杨青俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 为改善北京和上海3~5岁儿童的不健康饮食行为及其父母的营养相关知识和态度,采用多途径健康教育进行干预,并对干预效果进行评估.方法 采用多阶段随机整群抽样的方法,从北京、上海各选取810名3~5岁儿童及其家长作为研究对象,根据《中国居民膳食指南》(2007)和《中国孕期、哺乳期妇女以及0-6岁儿童膳食指南》(2007)开展为期6个月的健康教育干预,采用问卷调查的方法分别在干预前后收集儿童饮食行为及其父母营养相关知识、态度等信息.结果 干预后,北京和上海3~5岁儿童偏食、喝含糖饮料的人数比例分别从干预前的44.5%和70.4%降低到35.5%和31.7%,有固定进餐时间、地点、可独立进餐、吃饭定时定量、能专心吃饭的儿童比例分别由干预前的80.0%、87.3%、73.4%、32.1%和27.1%升高到91.7%、91.9%、83.7%、45.9%和41.2%;干预后,儿童父母营养知识的知晓率显著提高,对待儿童饮食行为的态度也有所改善.结论 通过健康教育干预,改善了儿童的不健康饮食行为,丰富了儿童家长的营养知识,改善了其对儿童的饮食行为态度,为其正确指导儿童健康饮食提供了理论基础.%Objective To improve the unhealthy eating behaviors in 3 - 5 years old children and enrich the nutrition knowledge of their parents by the multi-channel health education intervention, and evaluate the effects of intervention. Methods By random multi-stage cluster sampling, 810 children (3-5 years old) and their parents were selected from Beijing and Shanghai respectively. The period of intervention was 6 months. Questionnaire surveys about children' s eating behavior and the knowledge of their parents were conducted before and after the intervention. Results After the intervention, the proportion of partial eclipse and drinking beverage declined from 44. 5% and 70. 4% to35. 5% and 31.7% respectively. The

  18. Global motion perception is independent from contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination and visual acuity in 4.5-year-old children.

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Harding, Jane E; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    Global motion processing depends on a network of brain regions that includes extrastriate area V5 in the dorsal visual stream. For this reason, psychophysical measures of global motion perception have been used to provide a behavioral measure of dorsal stream function. This approach assumes that global motion is relatively independent of visual functions that arise earlier in the visual processing hierarchy such as contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested this assumption by assessing the relationships between global motion perception, contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination (henceforth referred to as contrast sensitivity) and habitual visual acuity in a large group of 4.5-year-old children (n=117). The children were born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment because of prenatal drug exposure or risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia. Motion coherence thresholds, a measure of global motion perception, were assessed using random dot kinematograms. The contrast of the stimuli was fixed at 100% and coherence was varied. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the same stimuli by fixing motion coherence at 100% and varying dot contrast. Stereoacuity was also measured. Motion coherence thresholds were not correlated with contrast sensitivity or visual acuity. However, lower (better) motion coherence thresholds were correlated with finer stereoacuity (ρ=0.38, p=0.004). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were also correlated (ρ=-0.26, p=0.004) with each other. These results indicate that global motion perception for high contrast stimuli is independent of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity and can be used to assess motion integration mechanisms in children.

  19. Mortality of children under 5 years old in Hefei city from 2003 to 2008%合肥市2003-2008年<5岁儿童死亡监测分析

    郭锋; 傅苏林; 邵子瑜; 李迎春

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the mortality trend of children under 5 years old in Hefei city in the past six years, and to provide scientific basis for effective intervention.Methods Data were obtained from the Child Mortality Surveillance Network of Hefei from 2003 to 2008 and analyzed with x2 test.Results The neonatal mortality rate( NMR), infant mortality rate(IMR) ,and moratlity rate under 5 years old (U5MR) were 5.90,8.18,and 9.84 per 1 000 live births in 2008,respectively,which decreased by 40.8% ,34.4%, and 50.7% compared with those of 2003.The infant mortality accounted for 81.5% of the mortality of children under 5 years old and neonatal mortality accounted for 72.2% of infant mortality.The leading causes of the death of the children under 5 years old were accidental asphyxia, birth asphyxia, pneumonia, and drowning in 2003, and preterm birth, birth asphyxia, and congenital heart disease in 2008.The rate of children not treated before the death dereased from 43.75% in 2003 to 23.87% in 2008.Conclusion The mortality rate of the children under 5 years old declined significantly and the control of premature birth, birth asphyxia, and congenital heart disease is the key point to decrease the mortality rate.%目的 了解2003-2008年安徽省合肥市<5岁儿童死亡率流行趋势,为制定有效干预措施和综合防治提供科学依据.方法 利用2003-2008年合肥市<5岁儿童死亡监测资料,采用χ2检验等统计学方法对<5岁儿童死亡情况进行分析.结果 2008年的新生儿死亡率、婴儿死亡率、<5岁儿童死亡率分别为5.90%.、8.18%.和9.84‰,较2003年分别下降了40.8%、34.4%和50.7%;连续6年,合肥市<5岁儿童死亡的年龄构成均以婴儿死亡为主,占81.5%,其中主要为新生儿期死亡,占72.2%;2003年<5岁儿童死因顺位前3位分别为意外窒息、出生窒息、肺炎和溺水,2008年分别为早产、出生窒息和先天性心脏病;儿童死

  20. Three-year follow-up of 3-year-old to 5-year-old children after participation in a multidisciplinary or a usual-care obesity treatment program

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Little is known on the long-term effects of obesity intervention programs in preschool-aged children. We compared the long-term effects of a multidisciplinary treatment program with a usual-care program in seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old overweight or obese children who had particip

  1. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    Ali Vahidi A

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study showed reduced serum zinc levels during febrile seizure. The need for continued research on surface tension in febrile children over several months is recommended. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 972-975

  2. A study of circumcision prevalence and complications in under 5 year old boys in Galleno village-Shahre Ray, Jan 1997

    Tootoonchi P

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine circumcision prevalence and complications in under 5 year old boys. We assessed 181 boys in a cross sectional study at a rutal area in Tehran suburbs, in Jan 1997. Data were collected by an interview about age, circumcision age and method, type of complications, nationality and parent literacy. 126 boys (69% were circumcised, (mean 12 months. Only 27 of them (21.4% were circumcised in neonatal period. 62 boys (49.2% were circumcised with ring methods (plastibell or clamp, 54 boys (42.9% with surgical methods and the others (7.9% with nonmendical methods (traditional. Complications were 9.5% (16 and the higher circumcision age was related significantly with higher complications (P<0.04. In our study was no complication in the boys who circumcised under six months. Complications prevalence were high (9.5%. In neonatal period 34% (9 and in postneonatal period 53% (52 of boys were circumcised with inappropriate methods with age. The most common complications were local infection (43%

  3. Estudo exploratório de opiniões de mães sobre a saúde das crianças menores de 5 anos Estudio exploratorio de opiniones de madres, sobre la salud de niños menores de 5 años An exploratory study: opinions of mothers on the health of children under 5 years old

    Débora Falleiros de Mello

    1996-07-01

    ón sobre la atención al niño, prestada por la red básica de salud en Ribeirão Preto.This study presents opinions of mothers about aspects of children health, 0-59 months, living in suburbs of the city of Ribeirão Preto, using home interviews. Several social-economic characteristics of this population were noted, especially the concerns of mothers related to: childhood disease, general core of their children, distribution of milk tickets, immunization, children's growth and development process. Mothers opinions present concerns about diseases, signs and symptoms, mothers' care, criteria for inclusion-exclusion in the Program of Food Supplementation and aspects about the utilization of the immunization in time Local Basic Health Unit, offering several elements which can contribute to a reflection on the care given to children at the basic level of health services in the city of Ribeirão Preto.

  4. The effect of inhaled budesonide on symptoms, lung function, and cold air and methacholine responsiveness in 2- to 5-year-old asthmatic children

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that measurement of lung function (LF) and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) could serve as supplemental tools in evaluating the efficacy of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic children aged 2 to 5 yr. We studied 38 children (mean age: 53 mo; range: 35 to 71 mo......-acting beta(2)-agonist were monitored with diary cards. LF in awake children was measured as the specific airway resistance (sRaw), using whole-body plethysmography; as resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint); and as resistance and reactance at 5 Hz (Rrs5, Xrs5) by the impulse oscillation technique...... no improvement was found on MCh. In conclusion, inhaled BUD at a total dose of 800 microgram daily significantly improved SSc, asthma exacerbation rates, lung function, and BHR as assessed by CACh in asthmatic children aged 2 to 5 yr....

  5. Study on Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Epidemiology of Younger than 5 Years Old Children with Diarrhea Caused by Rotavirus Infection in Nanjing City in 2009 - 2010%2009-2010年南京地区5岁以下儿童轮状病毒性腹泻临床特点及分子流行病学研究

    林谦; 周进苏; 陆芬; 李晓乐; 李玫; 金玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea arid serotype and the gene variation of rotavirus in Nanjing Children's Hospital from Jul. 2009 to Jun. 2010. Methods From Jul. 2009 to Jun. 2010 in Department of Gastroentefology of Nanjing Chil dren's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, stool samples were collected from 300 hospitalized children with diarrhea. Stool specimens were stored in - 20 ℃. Rotavirus antigen Was detected in stool samples using a commercial enzyme linked immuhosorbent assays (ELISA). Positive specimens were then G and P genotyped by nested RT - PCR with type - specific primers. Results Rotavirus were identi fied in 37. 67% (113/300 cases)of 300 specimens. Rotavirus G3 (44 cases,38. 94% )was the most prevailing serotype,followed by G2 (10 cases,8; 85% ) ,G1 (2 cases,1.77% ) ,C2 + G3 (2 cases,1.77% ) ,G9 (1 case,0.88% ) ,54 cases (47.79% ) were not genotyped. Based onPtyping,P [8] (38 cases,33.63% ) was the most common genotype,followed by P[4] (19 cases,16. 81% ) ,56 cases (49.56%) Were not genotyped. The most common G -P combination was G3P [8] (18/113 cases, 15. 93% ). The prevalence of HRV infection was highest from Oct. 2009 to Jan. 2010. The majority (95.58% ) of subjects positive for HRV were 2 years old or less of age. The HRV positive bases had more serious clinical features than HRV negative cases. Conclusion Rotavirus is the most important pathogen for gastroenteritis in Nanjing, and G3P[8] is the most prevailing serotype.%目的 了解2009年7月-2010年6月南京地区轮状病毒性腹泻的流行病学情况及病毒的血清及基因分型特点,为轮状病毒感染性腹泻的防治提供科学依据.方法 收集2009年7月-2010年6月本科随机留取水样泻患儿粪便标本300份,标本采集后立即保存于- 20℃冰箱,集中进行病毒检测和数据分析.使用ELISA法检测A组人类轮状病毒(HRV),应用Trizol法提取HRV RNA,反转录合成病毒cDNA,采用巢式反转录PCR

  6. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children : Design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); M.K. Struijk (Mirjam); W. Kroeze (Willemieke); A. Oenema (Anke); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.M.W. Bulk-Bunschoten (Anneke); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence

  7. Strong genetic effects on cross-situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year-old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins' self-reports

    Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Caspi, A; Taylor, A; Rijsdijk, FV; Jaffee, [No Value; Ablow, JC; Measelle, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Background: Early childhood antisocial behaviour is a strong prognostic indicator for poor adult mental health. Thus, information about its etiology is needed. Genetic etiology is unknown because most research with young children focuses on environmental risk factors, and the few existing studies of

  8. 1∶2 matched case-control study on birth defect among children aged 0 ~ 5 years old in Chongqing%重庆市0~5岁儿童出生缺陷疾病1∶2配对病例对照研究

    刘俊; 童琦; 邓小霞; 杨柳; 周宗社; 陈庆

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨重庆市儿童出生缺陷疾病发生的危险因素,评估其危险度,为制定出生缺陷干预措施、做好优生优育提供科学依据.方法:采用1∶2配对病例对照研究,对165例病例、330例对照进行调查;使用SAS9.2统计软件进行统计分析,主要采用描述性分析、单因素分析logistic回归分析和多因素1:2匹配条件logistic回归分析方法.结果:有统计学意义的调查因素有:母亲妊娠期先兆流产(OR=80.60)、妊娠合并症(OR=13.06)、母亲家族遗传史(OR=63.40)、父亲患有慢性病(OR=13.01)、父亲饮酒(OR=3.52)、父亲职业有害接触(OR=10.37)、参加婚前检查(OR =0.37)、服用叶酸类药物(OR=0.30)、妊娠期吃鱼虾类食品(OR =0.18).结论:母亲家族遗传史、妊娠期出现先兆流产、有妊娠合并症、父亲患有慢性病、父亲饮酒、父亲职业有害接触是导致出生缺陷发生的危险因素;参加婚前检查、服用叶酸类药物、妊娠期多吃鱼虾类食品是防止出生缺陷发生的保护因素.%Objective: To investigate the risk factors of birth defect in Chongqing City, and to provide scientific evidence for the interventions. Methods; A 1:2 matched case - control study was conducted with 165 cases and 330 controls. Data were analyzed for descriptive study, univariate logistic regression and 1:2 matched conditional logistic regression with SAS9.2 statistical software. Results: The following factors were found to be significantly related to birth defects: threatened abortion during pregnancy ( OR - 80. 60) , pregnancy complication ( OR = 13. 06 ) , history of maternal line ( OR = 63. 40 ) , father with chronic diseases (OR = 13.01) , father's alcohol intake ( OR = 3. 52) , father s occupational contact of harmful substance ( s) (OR = 10. 37) , premarital checkup (OR =0.37) , folic acid supplement (OR =0. 30) , seafood in dietary during pregnancy (OR =0.18). Conclusions: The history of maternal line, threatened

  9. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2-5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Qiu, Ting; Chang, Chen; Li, Yun; Qian, Lu; Xiao, Chao Yong; Xiao, Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Yun Hua; Chu, Kang Kang; Lewis, Mark H; Ke, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2-3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD) at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  10. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2–5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder

    Ting Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs. However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2–3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD at baseline (Time 1 and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2. The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  11. Efeitos do fumo ambiental no trato respiratório inferior de crianças com até 5 anos de idade Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on lower respiratory system of children under 5 years old

    Eanes DB Pereira

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do fumo passivo com morbidade respiratória em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluindo 1.104 crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Por meio de um questionário com os pais das crianças, foram obtidas informações sobre sintomas e doenças respiratórias, história familiar de morbidade respiratória, presença de fumantes nas casas e condições de moradia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 546 meninas e 558 meninos. Das 611 crianças fumantes passivas, 82% tinham problemas respiratórios ("odds ratio" = 1,64; IC 95%:1,21-2,20. As queixas respiratórias mais freqüentes foram: chiado no peito ("odds ratio" =1,66; IC 95%: 1,21-2,27, dispnéia ("odds ratio"=1,91; IC 95%:1,36-2,67, tosse e/ou expectoração("odds ratio" =1,58; IC 95%: 1,13-2,84. A chance de apresentar asma, bronquite ou pneumonia foi maior para as crianças fumantes passivas ("odds ratio" =1,60; IC 95%: 1.11-2.31. CONCLUSÕES: Os principais fatores de risco com chance de predizer morbidade respiratória em crianças com idade de 0 a 5 anos foram: crianças que conviviam com mães fumantes, pais fumantes, presença de mofo em casa, historia familiar de asma ou rinite.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of second-hand smoke in the respiratory system of children under 5 years old. METHODS: A cross sectional study of a total of 1,104 children under 5 years old. Information about respiratory symptoms and illness, family history of respiratory diseases, smoking habits of household members and housing conditions were assessed by home interviews with the children's parents. RESULTS: We studied 546 boys and 558 girls. Among 611 children exposed to second-hand smoke, 82% had respiratory problems (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.20. Children whose parents were smokers at the time of the survey were more likely to experience wheezing than children of nonsmoking parents

  12. Seasonal availability and dietary intake of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit of 2-year-old to 5-year-old children in a rural South African setting growing these crops at household level.

    Faber, Mieke; Laubscher, Ria

    2008-02-01

    This study determined the seasonal availability and dietary intake of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit in a rural South African community growing these crops at household level. Monitoring year-round availability of vegetables and fruit in five local shops during 2004 showed that beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit were seldom available in the shops. The dietary intake of 2-year-old to 5-year-old children was determined during February, May, August and November in 2004 and 2005 using an unquantified food frequency questionnaire and 5-day repeated 24-h recall (2005 only). Consumption of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit showed seasonal variation. Inadequate dietary vitamin A intake ranged from 6% in November to 21% in February and August. beta-Carotene-rich vegetables and fruit contributed 49-74% of the total vitamin A intake. It is concluded that beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit contribute a major part of the dietary vitamin A intake. Consumption of individual beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit fluctuated according to the season; nonetheless, an adequate dietary vitamin A intake was maintained throughout the year for the majority of the study population.

  13. The Frequency of Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus spp.in 3-5-year- old Children with and without Dental Caries

    Moulana, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: The high occurrence of early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common problems in children dentistry. Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp in 3-5 –year- old children with and without dental caries.Material and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 60 children aged 3 -5-years, without any history of systemic disease, who had not received any antibiotic therapy and fluoride usage during the last month. The cases were divided into three groups of early childhood caries, usual caries and caries-free. The infected dentin samples were collected from cervical and proximal in ECC and usual caries group, respectively. Also in all the three groups, the samples of dental plaque from buccal surfaces were collected and immediately immersed into Brain Heart Infusion (BHI broth medium. After that, the diluted sample was plated onto MitisSalivarius agar (Difco for detecting streptococcus mutans and Rogosa agar (Difco for detecting lactobacilli.spp. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square and ANOVA.Results: of the samples taken from dental plaque, S. mutans is observed in 90% of ECC, 80% of proxymolcarries and in 25% of caries-free individuals. Based on the results, the presence of S.mutans in the group of caries is significantly higher than that of without caries, but there is no significant difference between the two groups of caries. In addition, lactobacill.spp is isolated from 60% ofthe samples, but there is no significant difference between two groups of caries and caries-free. The average of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT index in the group with early childhood caries (6.95±1.572 and usual caries (5.80±1.105 is different significantly. Pearson correlation test shows that there is a significant relationship

  14. 乌海市乌达区3~5岁儿童患龋情况调查%A survey of primary teeth caries among 3 ~ 5-year-old children in Wu Hai Wu Da district

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate wuda district, wuhai city for 3 to 5 years old children's teeth caries situation, help the baby teeth caries prevention and control of caries children and oral health. Method Using stratified and cluster sampling method, according to the third national oral health epidemiological survey scheme and technical requirement, of wuda district, wuhai city, 329 for 3 to 5 years old children's teeth caries condition were investigated. Results In 2012, wuda district, 3 ~ 5 years old children's teeth caries rate, caries, dental caries filling composition is 45.6%, 1.72, 4.26%. Gender on deciduous teeth caries rate affect no differences, statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Among various age groups for 3 to 5 years old, caries and caries rate were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion Wuda district, wuhai city for 3 to 5 years old children with dental decay in children number is more, the situation is not optimistic, deal with udaya area for 3 to 5 years old children and their parents to strengthen oral health care education.%  目的调查乌海市乌达区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况,帮助该地区乳牙患龋儿童进行龋齿防治及口腔保健。方法利用分层、整群抽样方法,根据第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案和技术要求,对乌海市乌达区329名3~5岁儿童的乳牙患龋情况进行调查。结果2012年乌达区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋率、龋均、龋齿充填构成比分别是45.6%、1.72、4.26%。性别对乳牙患龋率影响无差异,统计学无意义(P >0.05)。3~5岁各年龄组间患龋率和龋均有统计学差异(P<0.05)。结论乌海市乌达区3~5岁儿童患有龋病儿童数量较多,情况不容乐观,应对乌达区3~5岁儿童及其父母加强口腔卫生保健宣教。

  15. An analysis of mortality of children under 5 years old in Qinhuai district from 2000 to 2008%2000~2008年秦淮区5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析

    顾灵惠; 李忠

    2009-01-01

    目的 掌握南京市秦淮区2000~2008年5岁以下儿童死亡状况,探索有效的干预措施.方法 对2000~2008年秦淮区5岁以下儿童死亡报告卡进行整理、统计.结果 新生儿死亡率、婴儿死亡率、5岁以下儿童死亡率分别为4.20‰、5.83‰、6.65‰.新生儿死亡、婴儿死亡、1~4岁儿童死亡占5岁以下儿童死亡的构成比分别为63.16%、87.72%、12.28%.2000~2008年秦淮区5岁以下儿童死亡率经趋势χ2检验得出χ2=39.81,P=0.0000<0.05,具有下降趋势.5岁以下儿童死因顺位依次为早产与低出生体重、先天性心脏病、其他先天异常、出生窒息、意外窒息、其他肿瘤和肺炎.结论 降低新生儿、婴儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡的关键;预防早产和低出生体重,预防出生缺陷,预防出生窒息刻不容缓.%Objective To investigate mortality rate of children under 5 years old in Qinhuai district of Nanjing city in a period from 2000 to 2008 and explore effective interventions. Methods The report cards of mortality of children under 5 years old in Qinhuai district over a period from 2000 to 2008 were summarized and analyzed statistically. Results The neonatal mortality rate was 4.20‰, the infantile mortality rate was 5.83‰ and the mortality rate of children under 5 years old was 6.65‰. The constituent ratioes of neonatal mortality, the infantile mortality and the mortality of children aged 1~4 years in total mortality rate were 63.16%, 87.72% and 12.28% respectively. By trend χ2 test, in mortality rate of children under 5 years old in Qinhuai district in the period, there was a descending trend (χ2 =39.81,P=0.0000<0.05). The first seven causes of death of children under 5 years old were premature delivery, low birth weight, congenital heart disease, other congenital abnormalities, birth asphyxia, accidental suffocation, and tumors and pneumonia.Conclusion Reducing the neonatal mortality rate and the infantile mortality

  16. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  17. Episodic future thinking in 3- to 5-year-old children: the ability to think of what will be needed from a different point of view.

    Russell, James; Alexis, Dean; Clayton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Assessing children's episodic future thinking by having them select items for future use may be assessing their functional reasoning about the future rather than their future episodic thinking. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we capitalised on the fact that episodic cognition necessarily has a spatial format (Clayton & Russell, 2009; Hassabis & Maguire, 2007). Accordingly, we asked children of 3, 4, and 5 to chose items they would need to play a game (blow football) from the opposite side of the table on which they had never before played. The crucial item was the box that was needed by children to reach the table from the other side. Over four experiments, we demonstrated that, while children of 3 perform poorly on future questions and children of 5 generally perform quite well, children of 4 years find a question about what they themselves will need to play in the future harder to answer than a similar question posed about another child. We suggest that this result is due to the 'growth error' of over-applying newly-developed Level 2 perspective-taking skills (Flavell et al., 1981), which encourages the selection of non-functional items. The data are discussed in terms of perspective-taking abilities in children and of the neural correlates of episodic cognition, navigation, and theory of mind.

  18. The Reliability and Validity of Toe Grip Strength as an Index of Physical Development in 4- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Takahiro Ikeda[1; Osamu Aoyagi[2

    2015-01-01

    Studies on TGS (toe-grip strength) are currently proliferating as a result of the development of the dynamometer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of TGS as a physical function in preschool aged children. The participants were 153 preschoolers. Each participant was measured in terms of his or her TGS and completed a MAT (motor ability test). The reliability of the measurements was investigated via Pearson's r and Cronbach's a through a test-retest method, as well as a Bland-Altman plot. The validity of the TGS value was investigated by measuring the correlation between TGS and each component of the MAT, the principal component analysis, and a two-way layout ANOVA with general linear model (gender and age). All reliability coefficients were more than 0.70. Though all components of the MAT relating to TGS were found to be significant (P 〈 0.05), these correlations were weak. However, TGS was found to be a physical function that relating to the lower limbs and develops with aging. Therefore, TGS was found to be a highly reliable measure of physical function performance in preschoolers.

  19. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars T.; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-01-01

    Background Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC) and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization’s decayed missing filled tooth (dmft) index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis. Results Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417) were 21.8 (CI 20.7–22.9) and 21.3(CI 20.7–21.9) months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9) and 1.7 (SD 2.9) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW) showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65–1.2). Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7). Conclusion PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150 PMID:25938681

  20. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Nancy Birungi

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda.Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's decayed missing filled tooth (dmft index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis.Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417 were 21.8 (CI 20.7-22.9 and 21.3(CI 20.7-21.9 months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9 and 1.7 (SD 2.9 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65-1.2. Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7.PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150.

  1. How do 5-year-olds understand questions?

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes; Teresa Guasti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    the question word was related to the sentential subject or object position of the verb. The findings show that there is considerable variation among languages, but the two factors mentioned consistently affect children’s performance. The cross-linguistic variation shows that three linguistic factors facilitate......The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically...... developing children across 19 European countries, 18 different languages, and 7 language (sub-)families. The study investigated the effects of two factors on question formation: (a) whether the question contains a simple interrogative word like ‘who’ or a complex one like ‘which princess’, and (b) whether...

  2. 5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因分析%The etiology analysis of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old

    陈信; 彭万胜; 瞿色华; 张阵; 武玉猛; 赵武

    2016-01-01

    目的::分析5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因,以提高儿科医生对年幼儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因诊断及治疗水平。方法:回顾性分析85例5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的临床资料。结果:85例非特异性慢性咳嗽患儿病因分布如下:咳嗽变异性哮喘27例(31.8%),上气道咳嗽综合征32例(37.6%),感染后咳嗽16例(18.8%),胃食管反流性咳嗽3例(3.5%),过敏性咳嗽2例(2.4%),病因不明5例(5.9%)。结论:5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的主要病因构成比依次为上气道咳嗽综合征、咳嗽变异性哮喘、感染后咳嗽及其他病因。%Objective:To explore the causes of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old for improving its diagnosis and treatment. Methods:The clinical data of 85 children 5 or under 5 years old with nonspecific chronic cough were retrospectively analyzed. Results:The etiologic distribution of the 85 children with nonspecific chronic cough included 27 cases of cough variant asthma (31. 8%),32 cases of upper airway cough syndrome(37. 6%),16 cases of post-infection cough(18. 8%),3 cases of gastroesophageal reflux cough(3. 5%),2 cases of atopic cough(2. 4%) and 5 cases of unknown etiology(5. 9%). Conclusions:The main causes of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old are the upper airway cough syndrome,cough variant asthma,post-infection cough and other causes in turn.

  3. Suitability of the "'Little DCDQ" for the Identification of DCD in a Selected Group of 3-5-Year-Old South African Children

    Venter, Amné; Pienaar, Anita E.; Coetzee, Dané

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) as soon as possible, we need validated screening instruments that can be used for the early identification of motor coordination delays. The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (Little DCDQ) for…

  4. Clustering of energy balance-related behavioural in 5-year-old children: lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.; Stafleu, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals) and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary screen-based behavior) in

  5. 甲基泼尼松龙治疗5岁以下儿童哮喘的临床分析%Clinical analysis on methylprednisolone in the treatment of asthma in children under 5 years old

    吴小秧; 乐高钟; 刘素云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of methylprednisolone in the treatment of asthma in children under 5 years old. Methods 74 cases with asthma in children under 5 years old from 2011 May to 2013 April in our hospital was selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group,the treatment group was treated with methyl-prednisolone,the control group was treated with hydrocortisone.The therapeutic effect of two groups was observed. Re-sults The total effective rate of the treatment group was 94.59%,which was significantly higher than 75.68%of the con-trol group,with statistical difference (P<0.05).Asthma relief time,rale disappearance time and length of hospital stay in the treatment group was significantly shorter than that in the control group,with statistical difference(P<0.05). Conclu-sion Methylprednisolone in the treatment of asthma in children under 5 years old has significant effect,can effectively improve the clinical symptoms,improve the quality of life.%目的:探讨甲基泼尼松龙治疗5岁以下哮喘患儿的临床效果。方法选取本院2011年5月~2013年4月收治的74例5岁以下哮喘患者作为研究对象,随机将其分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组给予甲基泼尼松龙治疗,对照组给予氢化可的松治疗,观察其治疗效果。结果治疗组的总有效率为94.59%,显著高于对照组的75.68%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组的喘息缓解时间、啰音消失时间以及住院时间显著短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用甲基泼尼松龙治疗5岁以下哮喘患儿效果显著,可有效改善临床症状,提高生活质量。

  6. Analysis on mortality evaluation of children under 5 years old during 2009-2012 in Shanghai%2009至2012年上海市5岁以下儿童死亡评审情况分析

    王四美; 龚群; 何琳; 陈佳英; 张晶

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解上海市5岁以下儿童死亡的现状、原因及动态变化。方法对2008年10月至2012年9月期间全市5岁以下儿童死亡资料及评审结果进行统计分析。结果2009年至2012年本市5岁以下儿童死亡率各年依次为7.03‰、7.09‰、6.60‰、6.07‰。其中年龄方面,各年新生儿及婴儿死亡比例均较高,分别为65%~75%、30%~40%;性别方面,男女性别比稳定在1.5:1左右;户籍方面,非户籍人口死亡所占比(72.05%)高于本市户籍人口(24.33%);在死因顺位方面,先天性心脏病、早产/低体重儿分别位居第1位和第2位,且其所占死亡比例略有上升趋势。结论加强外来流动人口孕产期的保健管理与宣教、早期诊断及积极治疗先心病患儿、降低早产儿及低体重儿的发生,完善高危儿和危重儿的转运及救治措施等是控制上海市5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键。%Objective To understand the current status , reasons and dynamic changes of children mortality under 5 years old in Shanghai . Methods Statistical analysis was conducted on mortality data and evaluation results of children under 5 years old in Shanghai from October 2008 to September 2012.Results The mortality of children under 5 years old during 2009 to 2012 was 7.03‰, 7.09‰, 6.60‰ and 6.07‰, respectively.In terms of age, the proportion of newborn and infant death was higher , and it was 65%-75%and 30%-40%, respectively.In gender, the ratio of male to female was about 1.5.Considering household registration , the non-resident population death (72.05%) was obviously higher than that of resident population (24.33%).In terms of sequence of death causes , congenital heart disease and premature delivery/low birth weight ranked in the first and the second , and the mortality caused by these two factors showed a slight upward trend .Conclusion Strengthening care management and education on

  7. Investigation of the prevalence of anemia among rural children under 5 years old in Shaanxi Province%陕西省农村5岁以下儿童贫血患病状况的调查

    孙雷焕; 张超; 曾令霞; 颜虹

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解陕西省农村3月龄~5岁儿童的贫血患病状况,为降低陕西省农村5岁以下儿童贫血提供参考依据.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样法,对陕西省5个县的1 500户有5岁以下儿童的家庭户进行调查.运用软件Eipdata3.1建立数据库,实行双录入并进行纠错,采用SPSS13.0统计分析软件对数据进行整理和分析.结果 5个县3月龄~5岁儿童贫血患病率为32.0%;6~15月龄贫血患病率较高,以后随着月龄的增长而下降,不同月龄间儿童贫血患病率差异显著;不同地区间的儿童贫血患病率差异显著,蒲城最高为32.3%,佳县最低为16.1%;儿童贫血的主要类型为轻度贫血;不同性别儿童贫血患病率差异不显著;贫血男女童的体重、身高均显著低于非贫血儿童;不同喂养方式儿童的贫血患病率差异显著.结论 陕西省农村5岁以下儿童贫血患病率较高,且以轻度贫血为主;改善喂养方式,普及科学喂养知识,有助于降低儿童贫血患病率.%To understand the prevalence of anemia in 3-month- to 5-year-old children living in rural areas of Shaanxi Province so as to provide the reference for reducing the disease. Methods We investigated 1500 households with children under 5 years old in 5 counties of Shaanxi Province using multi-stage random sampling. Database was set up and data were logically checked with Epi3.1 software. All the data were input with duplication method and analyzed wich SPSS 13.0 software. Results The prevalence of anemia in children aged 3 months to 5 years was 32. 0% in the 5 counties< with significant differences among counties with the highest in Pucheng (32.3%) and the lowest in Jiaxian (16.1%). The prevalence of anemia in children was relatively high in 6 and 15 months of age after birth, but declined when children grew older. The main type was mild anemia. The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between different genders- However, the

  8. Smith-Magenis syndrome with West syndrome in a 5-year-old girl: a long-term follow-up study.

    Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Nakayama, Tojo; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Kure, Shigeo; Kamada, Fumiaki; Abe, Yu; Arai, Natsuko; Togashi, Noriko; Onuma, Akira; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation caused by the heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 17p11.2. We present a long-term follow-up study of a girl with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome. West syndrome became apparent at 7 months of age. Since then, mental retardation, particularly in terms of language development, became increasingly more obvious. The patient's spasms and hypsarrhythmia disappeared after a course of adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy, but focal seizures reappeared at the age of 3 years and 3 months. Her craniofacial dysmorphia and mental retardation became increasingly evident compared to her condition at the onset of West syndrome. Chromosome analysis detected the characteristic 17p deletion, which was then confirmed via fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. This is the second report of a patient with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome; taken together, these results suggest that Smith-Magenis syndrome may be a further cause of West syndrome.

  9. Epidemiological analysis of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old from 2007 to 2010%宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学分析

    韩春玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of obesity in children under 5 years old in Baoji city and to explore the influencing factors of childhood obesity and intervention measures so as to promote children' s health. Methods Data was collected through physical examination and questionnaire survey, and rate and chi-square analysis were made by using SPSS 13.0. Results The prevalence of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old lingered between 11.65% and 18.71% in the period of 2007 to 2010, which was a rather high level. The prevalence in different years was significantly different ( x2 = 65.421, P < 0.05 ). There were significant differences in the prevalence among children of different ages and of different genders (x2 was 12. 821 and 14. 247 respectively, P < 0.05 ). In addition, the prevalence of obesity between urban children and rural children was statistically different ( x2 = 4. 454, P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Combined with the obesity epidemiologic characteristics, key intervention objects were determined. Comprehensive measures such as strengthening health education, promoting children's health care and advocating breastfeeding can reduce childhood obesity rate.%目的 了解宝鸡市5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学特征,探索儿童肥胖的影响因素和干预措施,促进儿童健康.方法 通过体格检查和问卷调查收集资料,并对结果进行率和卡方检验分析.结果 宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖患病率徘徊在11.65%~18.71%,处于一个较高的水平,年度之间患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=65.421,P<0.05);不同年龄段儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=12.821,P<0.05);不同性别儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=14.247,P<0.05);城市与农村间儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.454,P<0.05).结论 结合肥胖的流行病学特点,确定重点干预对象,通过加强健康教育、促进儿童保

  10. 2008-2011年上海市5岁儿童患龋情况调查报告%Analysis of caries status among 5-year-old children in Shanghai from 2008 to 2011

    李存荣; 曾晓莉; 王勋; 徐玮; 陈曦

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查2008- 2011年上海市5岁儿童患龋状况,为分析评价儿童口腔健康状况和服务水平提供依据.方法:采用等容量随机抽样方法,从每个区县随机抽取1所幼儿园5岁儿童(男女各半),2008、2009年各950名,2010、2011年各900名,检测患龋率、龋均、龋失补充填构成比、SiC指数.应用SPSS13.0软件包进行独立样本t检验、方差分析和x2检验.结果:2008-2011年5岁儿童患龋率分别为63.47% 、64.00% 、64.89%和64.44%,龋均分别为2.96、2.99、3.23和3.09,SiC指数分别为7、10、7.20、7.74和7.37,龋失补充填构成比分别为10.93%、12.76%、16.96%和20.63%.患龋率及龋均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),龋失补充填构成比逐年提高(P<0.01),SiC指数是龋均的2倍多.各年间的患龋率及龋均市区均低于郊区(P<0.01),龋失补充填构成比市区显著高于郊区(P<0.01),乳牙龋集中发生在1/3儿童中.结论:上海市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率、龋均指数变化不大,龋失补充填构成比逐年上升,应采取更为积极的措施,控制儿童龋高危人群,进一步改善儿童口腔健康水平.%PURPOSE: To analyze the status of 5-year-old children's oral caries in Shanghai from 2008 to 2011, and to provide information to evaluate oral health status and improve service level. METHODS: By using equal-sized randomly sampling method, this survey was carried out on the caries status of randomly selected 950 children aged 5 years in Shanghai respectively in 2008 and 2009, and 900 children respectively in 2010 and 2011- The data of prevalence of dental caries, dmft, caries filling constituent ratio and SiC index were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package by means of independent-samples t test, one way AN0VA and Chi-square test. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2011, the prevalence of deciduous tooth caries among 5-year-old children was 63.47%, 64.00%, 64.89% and 64.44%, respectively. The

  11. 2009年-2013年茂名地区5岁以下儿童死亡分析%The Analysis of Death About Children under 5 Years Old in a Region from 2009 to 2013

    刘春华

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析某地区5岁以下儿童死亡原因和变化趋势,为卫生行政部门制定干预措施提供科学依据。方法通过县、乡、村三级妇幼保健网络体系,收集2009年-2013年所有出生的活产数和死亡的5岁以下儿童资料,进行质控、汇总、分析。结果5年间某地区新生儿期、婴儿期、<5岁儿童死亡率呈下降趋势,2013年某地区新生儿期、婴儿期、<5岁儿童死亡率分别为2.60‰、3.29‰、4.03‰,比2009年分别降低了26.55%、26.89%、30.52%,前5位死因依次为出生窒息,肺炎、早产或低出生体重儿、先天性心脏病、其他先天性异常。结论加强孕产妇和儿童的保健管理和健康教育,积极开展产前筛查和产前诊断工作,不断强化产、儿科医师急救技能培训,提高对儿科重症的识别和救治能力,从而降低5岁以下儿童死亡。%Objectives To analyze the causes of death and change trend of children under 5 years old, and provide scientific basis for the administrative department of public health.Methods Withthe helpof the three levels ofcounty,townshipandvillagematernalandchildhealthcarenetworkSystem collectsallborndataoflive birthsanddeathsofchildrenundertheageoffive from2009to2013,andcarries onthequality control, analysis andsummary.Results The mortality rate of newborns, infants, children under five decreased between 2009 and 2013.In 2013 newborns, infants, children under the age of five mortality was 2.60‰,3.29‰,4.03 ‰, compared to 2009 was reduced by 26.55%, 26.89% and 30.52%, respectively. The cause of death is birth asphyxia, pneumonia, premature birth or low birth weight infants, congenital heart disease, congenital anomaly. Conclusions To strengthen the health care management and health education, and develop the prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. Strengthen the first aid skills training about pediatrician and maieutologist. To improve the ability of recognition and

  12. Death Analysis of 0~5 Years Old Children from 2003 to 2010 in Ulanhot City%乌兰浩特市2003~2010年0~5岁儿童死亡情况分析

    刘丽媛

    2012-01-01

    儿童死亡率是《中国儿童发展纲要(2001-2010年)》的重要指标之一,也是衡量一个国家或地区的经济文化、卫生状况、妇幼卫生工作质量和服务水平的主要指标.通过对兴安盟乌兰浩特市2003-2010年儿童死亡报告卡进行整理分析,旨在了解乌兰浩特市5岁以下儿童死亡情况,分析死亡率及主要死亡原因,为进一步采取有效干预措施,降低儿童死亡率提供依据.%Child mortality is one of the important indexes in Chinese children development program(2001~2010 year),but also is the main index to measure a country or region’s economic and cultural,health status,maternal and child health work quality,and service level.Through analysis the death report cards from 2003~2010 of Ulanhot city in Xingan league,this article aims to know the children death below 5 years old in Ulanhot,to analyze the mortality and main death reason,and to provide a basis for taking further effective intervention measures to reduce child mortality.

  13. Analysis of the pathogen microbes in 0 to 5 years old children with acute diarrhea%0~5岁小儿急性腹泻病原微生物检验结果分析

    阳正东

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To knowledge the characteristics of pathogen microbes in 0 to 5 years old children with acute diarrhea, and provide the basis for effective treatment. Methods:The 310 stool specimens from less than 5 years old children with diarrhea were collected for routine bacteria culture to screen the pathogenic bacteria from April 2012 to March 2013. The virus was detected using ELISA,and virus genotype was determined by PCR. Results:The virus in 121 cases(39. 03%) were postive,the rotavirus was the main pathogenic virus. The bacteria in 24 cases(7. 74%) were positive,the Salmonella was imjor. Virus and bacterial co-infection was not found. The difference of infection rate between gender was not statistical significance(P>0. 05). Rotavirus infection occured mainly in Autumn and Winter,the popular type was G2,G3,and P[8],18 to 23 weeks old children were a high-risk group. The bacterial and goblet viral diarrhea was prevalent in summer. Conclusions:Rotavirus infection is the main pathogen of infectious diarrhea,bacterial infection also accounted for certain proportion in Yongchuan district. Strengthening the pathogen monitoring can provide the basis for clinical treatment.%目的:了解5岁以下小儿腹泻病原微生物的构成情况,为采取合理有效的治疗措施提供依据。方法:收集2011年4月至2013年3月5岁以下住院腹泻患儿的粪便标本310份,进行常规细菌培养,筛检致病菌;同时采用ELISA法检测病毒,利用聚合酶链反应方法进行病毒分型。结果:病毒检测阳性121例(39.03%),其中人轮状病毒为主要致病病毒;检出致病菌24例(7.74%),以沙门菌为主;未发现病毒和细菌同时感染,男女性患儿感染性腹泻检出率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。人轮状病毒感染主要流行于秋冬季,流行型为G2、G3和P[8],18~23周龄儿童多发;而细菌性和杯状病毒性腹泻主要流行于夏季。结论:永川地区人轮状病毒感染是导致5岁以下婴幼

  14. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Malnutrition in Children under 5 Years Old in Shaoguan City in 2012%2012年韶关市5岁以下儿童营养不良的影响因素分析

    徐晓梅; 魏明香; 韩锦英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the influencing factors of malnutrition in children under the age of 5 years old. Meth-ods 2800 children under 5 years old in the local area were selected. The nutritional status, diet, birth situation, knowledge of family members and so on of the children were investigated;adverse factors of malnutrition in children under 5 years old were ex-plored. Results Of the investigated 2800 cases of children under 5 years old, there were varying degrees of malnutrition in 348 children,accouting for 12.4%, Among them, there were 92 cases of low weight, accounting for 3.3%, 104 cases of overweight, ac-counting for 3.7%, 152 cases of delayed growth and development, accounting for 5.4%. The degree of education of a total of 264 family members of the 348 children with malnutrition was or below junior secondary school level, accounting for 75.9%. The more common supplementary food in the children diet were grain, potato, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and so on. Conclusion The main influencing factors of malnutrition in children under age 5 are the degree of education of the children's family members, the diet and the birth situation. Therefore, the diet of the children should be improved as far as possible and breast feeding is rec-ommended, which are of great significance for the healthy growth of the children in later life.%研究分析5岁以下儿童营养不良的各项影响因素。方法选取该地区2012年5岁以下儿童2800人,对所有儿童的营养状况、饮食情况、出生情况以及家庭各成员知识程度等方面进行调查,探讨5岁以下儿童营养不良的各项不良因素。结果该次调查的2800名5岁以下儿童中,有348名儿童存在不同程度的营养不良,占12.4%,其中:体重偏低92人,占3.3%。体重偏重104人,占3.7%。生长发育延缓152人,占5.4%。在348名营养不良儿童中,家庭成员文化程度在初中及以下的共有264人,占75.9%。儿童

  15. Relationship of concentration of proteins in saliva and dental caries susceptibility in 4~5 year old children%4~5岁儿童唾液中蛋白成分与患龋状况的关系

    王金东; 刘寿桃; 林焕彩; 郝高峰; 乔永刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 初步探讨儿童刺激性全唾液中蛋白成分与乳牙患龋状况的关系.方法 单纯随机抽样法选取4~5岁、性别匹配的高龋(龋、失、补指数≥5,高龋组)和无龋(龋、失、补指数=0,无龋组)儿童各40例.吐取法收集刺激性全唾液,双金鸡纳酸法测定总蛋白含量.十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰氨凝胶电泳定量分析各蛋白成分.结果高龋组儿童唾液中总蛋白含量低于无龋组(P<0.01).平均每个样品分离出i0条可分析条带,两组比较,10 000、28 000、38 000、56 000、77 000蛋白百分含量高龋组均高于无龋组;14 500蛋白百分含量高龋组与无龋组比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.137).结论 患龋程度不同的儿童唾液中,分子量为10000、28 000、38 000、56 000、77 000的蛋白含量有差异,可能与乳牙龋易感性不同有关.%Objective To investigate the correlation between the concentrations of proteins in stimulated whole saliva and the dental caries susceptibilities of deciduous teeth of children. Methods Based on simple random sampling, 40 children of 4~5 years old with high dmft (high-caries group, dmft ^ 5) and 40 children in same age (free-caries group, dmft = 0) were selected. Stimulated whole saliva from each child was collected by direct spitting method. The level of salivary total proteins was measured by means of bicinchoninic/BCA. Sodium dodecyl sul-fate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to separate the salivary proteins. Results The concentrations of proteins in saliva was significantly lower in high-caries group than free-caries group (P<0.01). Ten straps in average were isolated from children's stimulated saliva using 15% SDS-PAGE. About The concentrations of 10 000, 28 000, 38 000, 56 000 and 77 000 proteins was higher in high-caries group than free-caries group, whereas, no statistically significant difference was found in the concentration of 14 500 Da protein (P = 0.137). Conclusion

  16. 婴儿期增重与5岁以下儿童单纯性肥胖的相关性研究%Correlation between infants weight gain and simple obesity of children under 5 years old

    严学勤; 上官予梅; 冯华俊; 廖艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the correlation between infant weight gain and simple obesity of children under 5 years old.Methods From 2006 to 2011 6 746 infants born at Zhongshan Humanitarian Hospital were registered and followed up .Relevant data were recorded . Totally 567 children with simple obesity were chosen in obesity group , and control group was matched with 1:1 in age and gender .Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the influencing factors of children ’ s simple obesity in the aspects of parents ’ educational level , infant birth weight and feeding .Results Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that simple obesity in children had significant correlation with infant birth weight (OR=1.94, 95%CI=1.56,2.32), average weight gain during the first 6 months (OR=2.17, 95%CI=2.11,2.36) and average weight gain during the later 6 months (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.61,2.19) (all P<0.05). Conclusion Children’ s simple obesity is closely correlated with infant birth weight , average weight gain during the first 6 months and average weight gain during the later 6 months when supplementary food is added .%目的:探讨婴儿期增重与5岁以下儿童单纯性肥胖的相关性。方法选取2006年至2011年在中山市博爱医院出生的6746例婴儿进行随访登记,统计相关数据,从中筛选出单纯性肥胖的567例儿童设为肥胖组,并按年龄、性别匹配原则1:1配对者设为对照组,进行父母文化程度、婴儿出生体重、喂养等方面的单因素分析,并进行影响儿童单纯性肥胖的多因素logistics回归分析。结果多因素logistics回归分析显示:与儿童单纯性肥胖显著相关的变量为婴儿出生时的体重( OR=1.94,95%CI=1.56,2.32)、婴儿期前6个月平均增重量(OR=2.17,95%CI=2.11,2.36)及婴儿期后6个月的平均增重量(OR=1.90,95%CI=1.61,2.19),均P<0.05。结论与儿童单纯性肥

  17. The status of malnutrition among the children aged 2~5 years old and the effect factors%2~5岁儿童营养不良状况及其影响因素调查

    程进; 魏锁; 王君; 宋丹丹

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解安徽省某市城区2-5岁在园儿童营养状况,分析相关影响因素,为改善该地区儿童营养状况提供依据.方法:采用分层整群抽样的方法,随机抽取4所公立幼儿园和8所私立幼儿园,对每所幼儿园在园儿童进行一般情况调查、体格发育测量和口腔检查,并采末梢静脉血检测血红蛋白.结果:共调查2 993例儿童,男1 424例,女1 569例,平均月龄为(51.23±11.73)个月,公立幼儿园儿童占64.O%,低体重、生长发育迟缓和消瘦检出率分别为4.2%、4.1%和3.7%,儿童营养不良检出率为7.9%,儿童贫血检出率为33.0%,龋齿检出率为47.4%.单冈素分析显示,男童、贫血、私立幼儿园儿童营养不良检出率较高,月龄越大儿童营养不良检出率越低,患龋齿儿童营养不良检出率较低.多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,女童[0.525(0.397~0.693)]、月龄高[0.976(0.964~0.987)]和牙齿数[0.783(0.624~0.983)]多为儿童营养不良的保护因素,私立幼儿园[2.522(0.397~3.336)]为儿奄营养不良的危险因素.结论:该地区私立幼儿园和低龄儿童营养不良检出率较高,应针对私立幼儿园和低龄儿童实施针对性干预,控制营养不良儿童的发生.%Objective: To understand the nutritional status of children aged 2 ~5 years old from kindergartens of the urban area of one city, analyze the related effect factors, provide a basis for improving the nutritional status of children in the local area. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling method was used to abstract 4 public kindergartens and 8 private kindergartens from the urban area of one city randomly, the general conditions of all the children in kindergartens were surveyed, physical development examination and oral examination were carried out, and their peripheral blood samples were obtained to detect hemoglobin level. Results: 2 993 children were investigated, including 1 424 boys and 1 569 girls, the average age was ( 51.23 ± 11

  18. 上海市2005~2009年健康儿童肠道病毒携带状况调查%Enterovirus Carrying Status among Healthy Children under 5 Years Old in Shanghai from 2005-2009

    李云逸; 孙晓冬; 丁晓光; 陆菁; 刘敏勇; 李崇山

    2012-01-01

    objective To explore the enterovirus (EV ) carrying status among healthy children under 5 years old in Shanghai from 2005 to 2009. Methods Stool samples were collected from healthy children during peak epidemic seasons for the EV (from July to August). EV was isolated from these stool samples and then was serotyped by neutralization using specific antisera. VP1 code gene of all non-polio EV (NPEV) isolated were sequenced in order to identify serotypes. Results 18 polioviruses were isolated from 1630 stool samples and carrying rate of poliovirus was 1.10%. 227 NPEV were isolated from the 1630 stool samples and carrying rate of NPEV was 13.93% . Poliovirus were identified as vaccine strains by national laboratory of Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. There was no wild type poliovirus in Shanghai from 2005 to 2009.Coxsackievirus group B type3 (CVB3)isolates from 2005 to 2009 in Shanghai formed two branch, but genetic diversity was found compared with CVB3 isolates from Europe and America. EV Type71 isolates were C4 subgenotype. Conclusion The EVcarrying rate was decline in healthy children in Shanghai from 2005 to 2009 and maintained polio-free status in Shanghai. We still need to establish and improve EV data bank in Shanghai to make futher realizing of the virus and its epidemic situation among healthy population.%目的 了解上海市2005~2009年≤5岁健康儿童肠道病毒(Enterovirus,EV)携带状况.方法 在EV感染的高发季节(6~8月),采集健康儿童粪便标本进行EV分离和血清型鉴定,对分离到的非脊髓灰质炎(Nonpolio) EV( NPEV)测定VP1编码区核苷酸序列以鉴定其血清型.结果 从1630份粪便标本中共分离到18株脊灰病毒( Poliovirus,PV),阳性率为1.10%;分离到227株NPEV,阳性率为13.93%.PV经中国疾病预防控制中心病毒病预防控制所国家脊灰实验室型内鉴定均为疫苗株.上海市2005~2009年无脊

  19. Analysis of relationship between eating problems of 1~5 years old children and the feeding behavior%1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题与喂养行为的相关性

    邓成; 张雯; 金宇; 冯华俊; 何晓玲; 刘庆嘉; 刘玉玲; 廖艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究父母喂养行为与1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题之间的关系.[方法]采用一般情况问卷、儿童饮食行为干预问卷(IMFeD)及自编父母喂养和营养行为问卷,调查广东省某市就诊于儿童保健门诊、儿童营养门诊的70名1~5岁具有饮食行为问题的儿童的社会人口学资料、饮食行为及喂养行为资料.[结果]喂养焦虑情绪(r=0.591)、不良喂养习惯(r=0.665)均与IMFeD总分呈正相关;喂养焦虑情绪(β=0.49)、不良喂养习惯(β=0.32)进入IMFeD总分的最终方程,是儿童饮食行为问题的危险因素,喂养中情感交流(β=-0.24)与前述两者一同进入了不良进食习惯得分的最终方程,是避免儿童不良进食习惯的保护因素.[结论]家庭不良喂养习惯、家长喂养焦虑情绪可能引发或增强儿童不良饮食行为问题,喂养时家长与儿童的情感交流能在一定程度上对避免和缓解儿童不良进食习惯有积极作用.%[Objective] To analyze the relationship between eating problems of 1~5 years old children and the feeding behavior. [Methods] Cross-sectional survey was conducted. The questionnaire data, containing general state, identification and management of feeding difficulty (IMFeD) , as well as self-compiled questionnaire about parents feeding behavior, which reflect children's socio-demographic,eating problems,as well as parents' feeding behavior. [Results] Both feeding anxiety and adverse feeding behavior of parents were positive relationship with IMFeD total score,the coefficients were respectively 0. 591 and 0. 665; Feeding anxiety(β=0. 49) ,as well as adverse feeding behavior of parents(β = 0. 32),entering the final formula of IMFeD total score, were risk factors of eating problem; feeling communication,in contract, was protective factor. [Conclusion] Adverse feeding behavior and parents' anxiety possibly raise or enhance children's eating problem, feeling communication between parents and child

  20. 西安地区0-5岁儿童骨碱性磷酸酶结果调查分析%Evaluation of neonatal bone alkaline phophatase(NBAP)activity in 0-5 year old children from Xi'an

    孙悦玲; 储亮; 杨珏玲; 寇卉; 王亚峰; 段美婷; 董玲; 陈靓; 曹颖妮; 薛艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the neonatal bone alkaline phophatase (NBAP) activity in 0 to 5 year old children from Xi'an for diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: Assess the NBAP activity in 1140 children from Xi'an at age0 -5 year old using commercial kit. Results: 1. 39. 83% of children participated in this study were with aberrant NBAP activity. Along with clinical symptoms, 29.74% of the children are diagnosed as vitamin D deficient though in different degrees. 2. There was no statistically significant difference between different genders in terms of NBAP activity. 3. The percentage of children diagnosed as vitamin D deficient inversely correlated with the age of the children. Abnormal NBAP level was most prevalent in the group of children less than 1 year old. Conversely, the percentage of children with abnormal NBAP activity was lowest among 3 -5 year old children. 4. There was a correlation between NBAP and the season, as the percentage of children with aberrant NBAP level was much higher in winter and spring as compared with that in summer and winter. Conclusion: Both the prevalence of abnormal NBAP activity and vitamin D deficiency inversely correlates with the age of the children. The percentage of children with abnormal NBAP activity was rather high in Xi'an, surging coming up measures to prevent vitamin D deficiency in children.%目的 调查分析西安地区0-5岁儿童骨碱性磷酸酶(NBAP)活性分布,为防治儿童维生素D缺乏提供依据.方法 对1140名0-5岁儿童应用NBAP试剂盒进行检测.结果 1.NBAP异常检出率为39.83%.结合临床症状等确诊为维生素D不同程度缺乏的儿童占29.74%.2.受检男、女NBAP检测结果之间无显著性差异.3.1岁以下组NBAP异常检出率最高,3-5岁组最低.结合临床症状等确诊为维生素D不同程度缺乏的儿童也随年龄的增长呈下降趋势.4.NBAP结果与季节有关,冬春季异常检出率明显高于夏秋季.结论 NBAP异常检出率和维生

  1. 1217名2~5岁儿童睡眠障碍调查及其相关因素分析%Survey on Sleep Disorders in 1217 Children Aged 2 to 5 Years Old and Analysis of the Correlation Factors

    易彩霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解长沙市开福区1 217名2~5岁儿童睡眠障碍(sleep disorder,SD)状况及其影响因素,为儿童SD的预防和干预提供科学依据.[方法]选取长沙市开福区门诊和入园体检中的1 217名儿童作为调查对象,对其家长进行儿童睡眠状况问卷调查.[结果]1 217名2~5 岁儿童SD总发生率为26.86%,其中常见的睡眠障碍类型如:入睡困难发生率占8.05%,白天多睡,夜间少睡1.07%,磨牙6.33%,用口呼吸1.23%,梦话2.05%,打鼾5.34%;SD的分布存在性别差异,男童打鼾、用口呼吸和磨牙发生率高;儿童SD的主要危险因素为腺样体肥大、肥胖、居室嘈杂、与家人或保姆同睡一床等.[结论]2~5岁儿童SD相关症状发生率较高;儿童保健工作者应加强睡眠健康教育,开展儿童SD筛查,预防儿童SD的发生.%[Objective] To understand the status of sleep disorder(SD) in 1217 children aged 2 to 5 years old in Kaifu district of Changsha and its influential factors in order to provide the evidence for the prevention and intervention of SD children. [Methods] Totally 1217 children in the clinic services and physical examina tion before the kindergartens were enrolled in this study. Their parents were interviewed with sleep questionnaires of children. [Results] The total incidence rate of SD in 1217 children aged 2 to 5 years old was 26.86 %,among which the incidence rate of the common SD such as difficult falling asleep, more sleep time in daytime and few sleep time in night, bruxism, mouth breathing, sleep talking and snoring was 8. 05%, 1. 07%,6.33 %,1.23 %, 2.05 % and 5.34 %, respectively. The distribution of SD had gender difference, and the incidence of snoring, mouth breathing and bruxism in boys was high. The main risk factors of SD in children were adenoidal hypertrophy, obesity, noisy room, sleeping with family numbers or housekeeper in a bed and so on.[Conclusion] The incidence of the related symptoms of SD in children aged 2

  2. 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用关系的研究%Effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas

    苏畅; 张兵; 刘爱东; 杜文雯; 张继国; 张伋; 马玉霞; 张强; 翟凤英

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用的关系.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样的方法,于2009年在西部6省12县贫困农村共调查8141名5岁以下儿童.按WHO推荐标准将调查儿童分为营养不良与营养良好两组,用SAS9.1软件进行分析比较.结果 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养不良率为18.9%;男孩营养不良率(19.9%)显著高于女孩(17.7%,P<0.05);营养不良组近两周内腹泻患病率(9.0%)以及上呼吸道感染患病率(27.9%)显著高于营养良好组(6.9%,25.4%,P<0.05);营养不良组的医疗费用(785.1元)显著高于营养良好组的医疗费用(696.6元,P<0.05);营养不良儿童的门诊就诊率(27.5%)显著高于营养良好儿童的门诊就诊率(25.0%,P<0.05).结论 西部贫困农村儿童营养不良问题仍有待改善,营养状况对儿童的患病率及医疗费用有影响.%Objective To study the effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas. Methods The randomized multi-stage cluster method was used to sample study subjects from poverty rural areas of six western provinces in China. The survey included 8141 children under 5 years old and was carried out in 2009. All of children were divided into two groups, malnutrition group and normal group by WHO standard.Difference of two groups was analyzed with SAS 9. 1. Results In western poverty rural areas, the malnutrition rate of children under 5 years old was 18. 9%. The rate for boys ( 19. 9% ) was significantly higher than that for girls ( 17.7%, P <0. 05). Malnutrition group had higher rate of upper respiratory tract infection (27.9%) and diarrhea (9. 0% ) than those in normal group (25.4% and 6. 9% ) within recent two weeks ( P < 0. 05 ). Mean clinical expenditure of malnutrition group was 785. 1 yuan per year, significantly higher than that of normal group (696. 6 yuan, P <0. 05). Also outpatient

  3. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  4. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).

  5. Death monitoring results of children under 5 years old in Beilin District of Xi'an City from 2010 to 2014%西安市碑林区2010 至2014 年5 岁以下儿童死亡监测分析

    张月芳; 朱亚宁; 王伟; 杨丽芳; 张欢

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the dynamic tendency in variation of death in children under 5 years old in Beilin District of Xi' an City from 2010 to 2014 and to provide evidence for formulating effective intervention measures.Methods Mortality, causes of death, rank and related factors in children under 5 years old were retrospectively analyzed.Results The mortality rate reduced from 8.36‰ in 2010 to 5.30‰in 2014.The death of children was mainly caused by premature birth and low birth weight (36.90%), congenital anomaly (21.43%) and pneumonia (15.48%).Children under 5 years old mainly died in hospital (63.10%).Among the dead children, about 35.29%to 40.00%children did not accept diagnosis before death.Conclusion Maternal check should be strengthened to prevent preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital anomaly.Disseminating knowledge on child health care and conducting regular health examination for children are effective to reduce the mortality rate of children under 5 years old.%目的 对西安市碑林区2010-2014年5岁以下儿童死亡状况的动态变化进行分析,为制定有效干预措施提供依据. 方法 回顾性分析近5年西安市碑林区5岁以下儿童的死亡率、死因构成、顺位及相关因素. 结果 5岁以下儿童死亡率由2010年的8.36‰降至2014年的5.30‰;儿童死亡原因主要集中在早产和低出生体重(36.90%)、先天异常(21.43%)以及肺炎(15.48%);死亡地点主要在医院(63.10%) ,未接受死亡就诊的死亡儿童占35.29%~40.00%. 结论 加强孕产期检查,以预防早产、低出生体重及先天异常的发生. 进行儿童保健知识宣教,定期进行儿童健康检查,是有效降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.

  6. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  7. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  8. 江苏省无锡市惠山区5岁以下儿童十年死亡原因分析%Analysis of the death cause of children less than 5 years old in Huishan district of Wuxi

    俞秋霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析江苏省无锡市惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及保健服务状况,为降低5岁以下儿童死亡率提出有效干预措施.方法 按照《江苏省5岁以下儿童死亡监测方案》,对辖区内5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料进行分析.结果 2001-2010年惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡率6.87‰,婴儿死亡率5.06‰,新生儿死亡率3.75‰,早期新生儿死亡率2.66‰.5岁以下儿童死因前5位顺位分别为意外伤害、早产低出生体质量、先天畸形、先天性心脏病、出生窒息.结论 惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡呈下降趋势,意外伤害、早产低出生体质量为主要死因.有效降低5岁以下儿童死亡率,应加强安全教育,减少意外事故发生,大力提倡婚前医学检查,加强孕期保健及孕期监测,减少出生缺陷,提高产科、儿科医疗质量和急救技术.%Objective To analyze the death cause of children less than 5 years old in Huishan district of Wuxi,in order to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years of age and put forward effective intervention measures.Methods According to “monitoring project of children below 5 years old died in Jiangsu Province”,the death surveillance data of this area of children below 5 years old were analyzed.Results The mortality of children under 5 years of age in Huishan district from 2001 to 2010 was 6.87‰,infant mortality was 5.06‰,the neonatal mortality was 3.75‰ and early neonatal mortality rate was 2.66‰.Death cause of children under 5 years old,the 5 cis-position were accident,premature and low birth weight,congenital malformation,congenital heart disease,birth asphyxia.Conclusion The death of children under 5 years old in Huishan area decreased,accidental injury,premature and low birth weight were the main causes of death.To reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old,should strengthen the safety education,reduce the accident,vigorously promote the pre-marital medical examination

  9. 甘肃省迭部县藏族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔健康知识调查%An investigation of dental caries status of 5-year-old Zang nationality children and their parents′oral health knowledge in Tewo County,Gansu Province

    朱燕燕; 胡晓潘; 李志强

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解甘肃省迭部县藏族5岁儿童龋病发病情况及家长口腔健康知识,为少数民族地区儿童制定龋病防治措施提供参考。方法:参照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查标准和方法,随机选取迭部县5所幼儿园400名藏族5岁儿童进行龋病检查,并对其家长进行龋病流行病学及相关因素问卷调查。结果:迭部县藏族5岁儿童的乳牙患龋率、龋均分别为59.64%、2.53;54.57%的儿童有睡前吃甜点习惯,48.48%的儿童过去12个月没有到医院看过牙,父母大多未了解儿童口腔健康状况,家长口腔卫生知识的知晓率农村组低于城市组。结论:藏族5岁儿童龋病发病率高,儿童口腔健康行为及家长口腔卫生知识有待进一步改进。%AIM:To investigate the dental caries prevalence and their parents′oral health knowledge of 5 -year-old children of Zang nationality in Tewo County,Gansu Province.METHODS:According to the Third National Oral Health Epidemiological Investigation Standard and Method,400 five-year-old children in five kindergartens in Te-wo country were randomly selected in this study.Oral health examination was made to determine dental caries status,a questionnaire was answered for the investigation of the parents′oral health knowledge and the childrens′oral health be-havior.RESULTS:The dental caries prevalence rate and average caries teeth of the children were 59.64%and 2.53 respectively.54.57% of the children had the habit for having dessert before sleeping,48.48%of the children did not see a dentist in the past 12 months.The majority of the parents knew little about the oral health of their children and the parents living in countryside had less oral hygiene knowledge than those living in city.CONCLUSION:Dental caries prevalence is high in 5-year-old Zang nationality children in Tewo county.The oral health behavior of the chil-dren and the oral health knowledge of their

  10. Status of dental caries of primary dentition and the effect of oral health behavior of family in 5-year-old children in Hainan province%海南省5岁儿童乳牙患龋状况及家庭影响因素

    袁芳华; 廖天安; 谢莉莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oral health behavior of family on the dental caries status in the primary dentition of 5-year-old children in Hainan province. Methods By multi-stage, stratified and random sampling, 758 children of five years old selected from the urban and rural areas of Hainan province were investigated for dental caries status, according to World Health Organization criteria. Their parents were also investigated. Results 633 of the 758 questionnaires were filled and withdrawn, accounting for 84.4%. The prevalence of dental caries of 5-year-old children in Hainan province was 76.1%, with the draft of 4.88 and the variance of 21.91, which was 70.3% for children from urban areas and 82.2% for those from rural areas. The consumption of sweets, chocolate, water with sugar and beverage were more in urban children then the rural children. Urban children tend to have better oral health behavior, such as the time of beginning tooth brushing, the frequency of brushing and daily use of fluoridated paste. Conclusion The implementation of a systematic education on oral health behavior of family is in urgent need in Hainan province, especially in the rural areas.%目的 研究家庭口腔健康行为对海南省城乡儿童乳牙患龋状况的影响.方法 采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样的方法,按照《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中牙列状况的检查方法和标准对海南省城乡758例5岁儿童进行乳牙龋病检查,并对受检者的家长进行问卷调查.结果 共下发问卷758份,收到有效问卷633份,应答率为84.4%.包括:(1)海南省5岁儿童乳牙患龋率为76.1%,龋均为4.88,方差为21.91;其中城市儿童乳牙患龋率为70.3%,农村儿童乳牙患龋率为82.2%,农村儿童乳牙患龋率高于城市.(2)口腔健康行为分析表明,农村儿童进食糖果、巧克力、糖水、碳酸饮料等频率高于城市.城市儿童开始刷牙时间、频率、用含氟牙膏的

  11. Alguns fatores associados a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e déficit de peso em menores de 5 anos Some risk factors associated with overweight, stunting and wasting among children under 5 years old

    Márcia R. Vitolo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar fatores socioeconômicos e outras condições de vida familiar associadas a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e baixo peso para a estatura em menores de 5 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliou 3.957 crianças entre 1 mês e 5 anos de idade durante campanha nacional de imunização no município de São Leopoldo (RS em 2002. As condições socioeconômicas e de saneamento das áreas de abrangência das unidades de saúde foram agrupadas por análise de cluster dos setores do censo populacional de 2001. RESULTADOS: Déficit de peso para estatura ocorreu em 2,6% das crianças, baixa estatura em 9,1% e excesso de peso em 9,8%. A regressão logística multivariada sugere que os fatores associados à chance de excesso de peso foram: área de condições socioeconômicas alta (RC = 1,47; IC95% 1,09-1,96, filhos únicos (RC = 1,44; IC95% 1,00-2,07 e peso ao nascer ≥ 2.500 g (RC = 2,21; IC95%1,27-3,83. A chance de déficit de peso associou-se ao baixo peso ao nascer (RC = 3,46; IC95% 2,06-5,80 e idade da mãe OBJECTIVE: To explore whether socioeconomic and sanitary conditions, maternal and child factors are associated with overweight, stunting, and wasting in children under five year old in the city of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,957 children aged 1 month to 5 years conducted in all primary care services of the city during the National Children's Vaccination Day in 2002. Maternal and child factors were assessed by a questionnaire. Children's height and weight were measured. Cluster analysis was used to group the areas served by the primary care services according to socioeconomic and sanitary conditions of the census tracts assessed by the 2001 National Census. RESULTS: Wasting was observed in 2.6% of children, stunting in 9.1% and overweight in 9.8%. The multivariable logistic regression model suggests that overweight was associated with higher socioeconomic status and better sanitation of

  12. Author development of training device for micro-basketball the «Clever ring» as mean of integral psychomotor development of children of 2-5 years old.

    Lakhno E.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A technical device is developed for micro-basketball for integral development of children 1-5 years. In research took part 52 children of age-dependent group of 1-2 years, 56 children of 3-4 years, 56 children, 4-5 years. It is suggested to execute throws in a basket from different distance and under a different corner. Also to give up the balls of different color and size in accordance with a color and size of basket from the set initial position. It is marked that exercises with a ball develop an orientation in space, regulate force and exactness of throw, develop measurement with naked an eye, adroitness, speed of reaction; normalize a volitional sphere emotionally. It is set that application of methods with the use of technical device is instrumental in the increase of indexes of physical preparedness and psychophysiological possibilities of children.

  13. 温州地区5岁以下住院儿童社区获得性肺炎病原学分析%A Study of Viral Etiology of Inpatients below 5 Years Old with Community Acquired Pneumonia in Wenzhou

    王凤美; 罗运春; 朱妍艳; 徐丽丹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the viral etiology of inpatients below 5 years old with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Wenzhou. Methods Children below 5 years old admitted to Yu Ying Children' s Hospital due to CAP between Fcbruary 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled into the study. Their nasopharyngeal secretions (NPS) were obtained as soon as possible ( usually within 24h) for identification of seven kinds of respiratory viral antigens by direct immunofluorescence assay. Results 2247 cases were included in the study, with 37.52% positive rate for some types of viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV ) accounted for 633 ( 75.09% ),parainfluenza virus Ⅲ ( PIV Ⅲ ) 93 (11.03%), influenza virus A (IVA) 55 (6.53%), parainfluenza virus Ⅰ (PIVI) 22 (2.61%),adenovirus (ADV) 17 (2. 00% ), influenza virus B (IVB) 6 (0.71%) , and mixed infection 17 ( 2, 04% ). Conclusion RSV infections were dominant in inpatient children below 5 years old with CAP in Wenzhou, followed by PIV Ⅲ, IVA and PIV 1. The peak season for RSV infection was spring and winter (January to April or November to December). So it is very important that prevention and control of community acquired pneumonia among children be enhanced.%目的 探讨温州地区5岁以下住院患儿社区获得性肺炎(community acquired pneumonia,CAP)病毒病原学感染状况,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 2009年2月-2010年1月在温州医学院附属育英儿童医院儿科确诊为CAP的5岁以下住院患儿,入院当天或次日清晨取其鼻咽部分泌物,采用直接免疫荧光法分别检测呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、腺病毒(ADV)、流感病毒A、B型(IVA、IVB)和副流感病毒I、II、III型(PIV I、PIV II、PIV III)7项呼吸道病毒抗原.结果 2247例患儿中,阳性843例,阳性率为37.52%.其中RSV 633例,占75.09%;PIV III 93例,占11.03%;IVA 55例,占6.53%;PIV I 22例,占2.61%;ADV 17例,占2.00%;IVB 6例,占0.71%;混合感染17例,占2.04%.结论 2009-2010

  14. Avaliação do estado nutricional de ferro e anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas Nutritional assessment of iron status and anemia in children under 5 years old at public daycare centers

    Ana Cláudia F. Vieira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de ferro e a prevalência de anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas da cidade do Recife (PE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 162 crianças, de 6 a 59 meses. O estado nutricional de ferro foi avaliado em termos de reservas corporais (ferritina sérica, transferrinemia (ferro sérico, capacidade total de ligação do ferro e % de saturação da transferrina, eritropoiese (protoporfirina eritrocitária livre e hemoglobinogênese (hemoglobina. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia (hemoglobina 40 µmol/mol heme em 69,6% (IC95% 61,0-77,1 das crianças. Os parâmetros de ferro não apresentaram correlação com o gênero (p > 0,05. No entanto, crianças 24 meses. A significante correlação observada entre reserva, transferrinemia e eritropoiese representa achado compatível com o esperado ciclo de vida do ferro no organismo. CONCLUSÕES: A deficiência de ferro e a anemia parecem ser um importante problema de saúde pública entre as crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas do Recife. Logo, ações efetivas direcionadas à prevenção e ao controle dessa deficiência são fortemente recomendadas nesse contexto ecológico.OBJECTIVE: To assess nutritional iron status and anemia prevalence in children less than 5 years old at public daycare centers in the city of Recife, PE, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, with a systematic random sampling of 162 children aged 6 to 59 months. Nutritional iron status was assessed in terms of body iron reserves (serum ferritin, transferrinemia (serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation %, erythropoiesis (free erythrocyte protoporphyrin and hemoglobin production (hemoglobin. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin 40 µmol/mol heme in 69.6% (95%CI 61.0-77.1 of the children. Iron parameters were not correlated with sex (p > 0.05. However, children 24 months. The significant

  15. Gastroenterites e infecções respiratórias agudas em crianças menores de 5 anos, em área da região Sudeste do Brasil, 1986-1987: II - Diarréias Gastroenteritis and acute respiratory infections among children up to 5 years old in an area of Southeastern Brazil, 1986-1987: II - Diarrhea

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1997-02-01

    morbi-mortalidade por diarréias no Município de São Paulo, durante a década de 80, período em que houve acentuada queda nas internações hospitalares por essa causa. Tal tendência deve ser acompanhada atentamente, pois influenciará modificações nas características da demanda de assistência à saúde infantil.INTRODUCTION: The decrease morbi-mortality gastroenteritis in is related to the factor responsible largely for the fall in infant mortality and mortality from communicable diseases in developing countries. Nevertheless, diarrhea is still a considerable public health problem in these countries, especially among children under 5 years old. OBJECTIVES: To describe some aspects of the of gastroenteritis epidemiology among children up to 5 years old, resident in areas of S. Paulo county. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A probabilistic sample of children up to 5 years old was studied (n=468. The epidemiological survey was undertaken in five areas S. Paulo county (Brazil from March 1986 to May 1987. Data were obtained through household interviews once a month over a year. RESULTS: During the follow-up 139 diarrhea episodes were registered, with a mean duration of 5.5 days. Twenty percent of the diarrhea events were followed by at least one other case in the household. The incidence of gastroenteritis was 2.78 episodes per 100 children/month. The highest incidence affected the children of up to 2 years of age. In 46.1% of the gastroenteritis episodes medical assistance was not sought, the children were treated by their mothers or not at all; 51.8% of the diarrhea events were attended to by the primary health care service, and only 2.1% were attended to by a hospital. No child died as a consequence of diarrhea. Of the therapeutical interventions used the most frequent were oral rehydration (25.2% and oral rehydration with antibiotics (11.5%. Various socio-economic and personal background factors such as living conditions, water supply, sewarage, coverage; family income per

  16. Efeito da suplementação de zinco a crianças de 1 a 5 anos de idade Effects of zinc supplementation on 1- to 5-year old children

    Adriana P. R. Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da suplementação com zinco sobre os parâmetros nutricionais e bioquímicos entre crianças de 12 a 59 meses de idade. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo clínico randomizado unicego com 58 crianças entre 12 e 59 meses participantes do Programa Governamental de Combate a Carências Nutricionais, que fornecia mensalmente 2 kg de leite fortificado com ferro. O grupo intervenção (n = 28 foi suplementado com 10 mg/dia de sulfato de zinco por 4 meses, e o grupo controle (n = 30 recebeu solução placebo. Para avaliação do estado nutricional, utilizaram-se os indicadores peso por estatura e estatura por idade, expressos em escores z, do padrão de referência NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics, parâmetros bioquímicos de ferro e zinco séricos e concentração de hemoglobina e hematócrito. RESULTADOS: A suplementação com zinco não interferiu significativamente sobre as condições antropométricas das crianças. Ambos os grupos apresentavam concentrações iniciais baixas de zinco sérico. Após o término do período de intervenção, a variação nos níveis médios de hemoglobina (p = 0,002 e as concentrações de hematócrito (p = 0,001, zinco (p = 0,023 e ferro séricos (p = 0,013 foram significativamente mais elevadas no grupo suplementado. CONCLUSÃO: A suplementação com zinco promoveu melhora na resposta hemoglobínica e normalizou a concentração sérica de zinco. Os resultados mostram a importância de se estabelecer políticas de combate a carências nutricionais que também possam dar atenção à carência de zinco.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of zinc supplementation on nutritional and biochemical parameters among children aged 12 to 59 months. METHODS: A blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out with 58 children aged 12 to 59 months included in the National Child Nutritional Program, which provided them with 2 kg of iron-fortified milk. The supplementation group (n = 28

  17. 汉中市农村与城区5岁以下儿童死亡对比分析%Contrastive analysis of the death of children under 5 years old in urban and rural areas of Hanzhong

    彭海玲; 白倩; 王琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the death oi children under 5 years old in urban and rural areas of Hanzhong and to explore possible interventional measures. Methods Death data of 5 years old children from 2000 to 2010 in both of urban and rural areas of Hanzhong was analyzed retrospectively. Results The mortality rate of children under 5 years old in Hantai and Nanzheng was 13.65‰ and 20. 32‰, respectively. The mortality rate of newboms , infants , children of 1-4 years old and children under 5 years old in urban area ( Hantai) was much lower than that in rural area ( Nanzheng ) (χ2 value was 16. 89, 42. 69, 17. 54 and 59. 04, respectively, all P 0. 05 ). The causes of death of children under 5 years old in two areas were different. The first five causes of death in the urban were congenital malformation , asphyxia neonatomm , contretemps, premature and low birth weight, and pneumonia, while they were asphyxia neonatorum , pneumonia, contretemps, congenital malformation , and premature and low birth weight in the rural area. Conclusion In the past 11 years, the mortality rate of children under 5 years old of each age groups decreases year by year', and the death rate in the urban area is lower than that in the rural area . Infants and newboms death takes the majority of the death of children under 5 years old. The top five causes of children 's death in the urban and rural area are different , which indicates different impact of economics , culture and medical care on children in urban and rural area . Therefore, the future work in different areas should have their own focus .%目的 对汉中市农村与城区5岁以下儿童死亡进行对比分析,并探讨其干预措施.方法 将2000至2010年汉中市城市与农村5岁以下儿童死亡资料进行回顾性分析.结果 汉台区、南郑县5岁以下儿童死亡率分别为13.65‰和20.32‰;城区(汉台)的新生儿、婴儿、1~4岁、5岁以下死亡率明显低于农村(南郑)(χ2值分别为16.89、42

  18. Death analysis of children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District of Chongqing from 2009 to 2013%重庆市渝中区2009~2013年5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析

    廖义琛; 黄健; 陈红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand death status and related factors of children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District of Chongqing from 2009 to 2013 to provide scientific basis for reducing the mortality rate of children below 5 years old. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out by the surveillance data of death of children below 5 years old in Yuzhong District from 2009 to 2013. Upon the investigation and quality control to the children birth and death by the three-tertiary medical and preven-tive health care network under the jurisdiction according to China′s Maternal and Child Health Monitoring Programme and Death Monitoring Programme of Children under 5 Years Old Programme in China concerning regulations related to death monitoring of children under 5 years old and ICD-10 code of international disease classification.The data adoptedχ2 test. Results The mortality rate of infant,newborns and children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District from 2009 to 2013 was decreased firstly and then in-creased. There was no statistical significance of mortality rate between the male and female children[0.378%(50/13 225) vs. 0.311%(39/12 536)](χ2=0.838,P>0.05). The proportion of premature and low birth weight in the constitution of causes of death was raised significantly,of which,the premature ratio was from 11.76% up to 56.00%,whose difference had statistical significance (trend inspectionχ2=11.650,P<0.05),and the low birth weight was from 23.53%to 56.00%,the difference was statistically sig-nificant(trend inspectionχ2=9.950,P<0.05). Conclusion Strengthening the perinatal health care,reducing the occurrence of birth defect and premature,increasing business skills training for the maternal and child health care,it improves the diagnostic abili-ty of children′s diseases. Meanwhile,relying on the family doctor service mode to strengthen children health management system, strengthening the social medical security ability are the important measures to reduce the mortality

  19. Research on gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea of children under 5 years old and the influence factors%复合凝乳酶胶囊治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻及影响因素研究

    葛丽萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究复合凝乳酶胶囊对治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻和影响因素。方法:选取儿童腹泻患儿100例,均在5岁以下,按年龄比例分为观察组和对照组,观察组在服用复合凝乳酶胶囊的基础上同时进行常规抗炎治疗,对照组只进行常规抗炎治疗。比较两组疗效。结果:观察组总有效率(94.8%)高于对照组(83.3%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。影响腹泻治疗效果的因素主要有药的用量、腹泻程度、小儿的年龄等多种因素有关。结论:复合凝乳酶胶囊对治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻症状有着显著的疗效,并且无明显的不良反应,在临床应用上值得推广。%Objective:To research gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea of children under 5 years old and the influence factors.Methods:100 children with childhood diarrhea were selected.They were all under 5 years old. According to the ratio of age,they were divided into the observation group and the control group.The observation group were also given conventional anti-inflammatory treatment on the basis of taking gastropylor complex capsules.The control group were only given conventional anti-inflammatory treatment.Results:The total effective rate of the observation group(94.8%) was higher than 83.3% of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The factors affecting the treatment of diarrhea effect were drug dosage,the severity of diarrhea,the age of the children and other factors.Conclusion:Gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea symptoms of children under 5 years old has a significant effect, and no significant adverse reactions.It is worthy to be popularized in clinical application.

  20. Investigation of dental caries of 5-year-old children and their parents' oral hygienic knowledge and behavior in Dongxiang, Baoan and Yugu nationalities%东乡族、保安族和裕固族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为调查

    陈琰; 李志强; 聂红兵; 周海静; 练维娟

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解东乡族、保安族和裕固族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为,制定有效的防治措施.方法 采用2005年第3次全国口腔健康流行病学抽样调查方案设计的儿童母亲问卷调查表,整群、分层抽样,抽取东乡族、保安族和裕同族5岁儿童和家长进行儿童龋齿的流行情况调查和家长口腔卫生知识和行为的调查.结果 东乡族儿童乳牙患龋率为76.47%.龋均为3.89颗,保安族儿童乳牙患龋率为56.36%,龋均为2.42颗,裕固族儿童乳牙患龋率为66.89%,龋均为3.16颗.保安族儿奄家长的口腔卫生知识的知晓情况低于其他两个民族.3个民族中多数父母没有真正了解孩子的口腔健康状况,没有认识到定期口腔检查的重要性.结论 针对3个民族儿童乳牙患龋率高以及就诊率低的特点,有必要加强父母的口腔健康教育,维护和提高儿童口腔健康水平.%Objective To understand thc epidemiology of dental caries and their parents' oral health knowledge of 5-year-old children in Dongxiang,Baoan and Yugu nationalities and to make an effective prevention and cure measure. Methods The questionnaire and schedule table ac- cording to standard and method used in the third national oral health were devised. The epi- demiological investigation of dental cavies of 5-year-old children and oral hygiene knowledge and behavior of their parents were made in Dongxiang,Baoan and Yugu nationality by the means of whole and stratified sampling. Results The caries prevalence rate and average caries of 5-year- old children were respectively 76.47% and 3.89 teeth in Dongxiang nationality,56.36% and 2.42 teeth in Baoan nationality,66.89% and 3.16 teeth in Yugu nationality. The parents in Yugu and Dongxiang nationalities had more oral hygiene knowledge than those in Baoan nationality. The majority of the parents knew little about the oral health of their children and the significance of regular oral examination

  1. Pyomyositis in a 5-year-old child.

    Romeo, S; Sunshine, S

    2000-07-01

    We present a case of pyomyositis in an otherwise healthy 5-year-old child that underscores the potential for serious, life-threatening complications. Pyomyositis of the gluteal, psoas, and iliacus muscles was associated with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a large inferior vena cava thrombus, septic pulmonary emboli, and eventual pneumonia. Primary pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle thought to be caused by seeding from a transient bacteremia. The focal infection typically forms an abscess that generally responds to intravenous antibiotics and occasionally requires adjunctive computed tomography-guided aspiration and drainage. This localized infectious process rarely produces further sequelae unless treatment is delayed. Pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires a high clinical suspicion in patients who present with fever, leukocytosis, and localized pain.

  2. Determinación de sensibilización alérgica a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores por fluoroinmuno ensayo-UniCAP Dust mite allergic sensitization in children aged 1 month to 5 years-old using specific IgE determination by unicap fluoroimmunoassay

    ANDREA MEYER K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de asma. Hay escasa información sobre la sensibilización temprana en niños chilenos. Objetivo: Investigar la sensibilización a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores. Método: Revisión de resultados de IgE específica por ensayo UniCAP (Pharmacia contra dermatofagoides de niños de hasta 5 años con sospecha de alergia respiratoria, divididos en 3 grupos de edad: 1-12 meses, 13-35 meses y 3-5 años. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 224 niños, entre 1 mes y 5 años de edad (x 2,65 años ± 1,48 DS, 57,1% de sexo masculino. Su distribución según grupo etario fue: 66 en el grupo 1; 45 en el grupo 2 y 113 en el grupo 3. El 30,6% presentó sensibilización a dermatofagoides (18,2% grupo 1; 33,3% grupo 2 y 36,3% grupo 3. El grupo 3 presentó concentraciones de IgE específica significativamente más elevadas que los otros grupos. Conclusiones: La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es detectable en menores de un año, con frecuencia y nivel que aumentan en forma paralela a la edadDust mite sensitization is considered a major risk factor for pediatric asthma; however, there are few data about early sensitization in Chilean children available. This study aimed to investigate allergic sensitization to mites in infancy and early childhood. The patient population, 224 children aged 0 to 5 years with suspected respiratory allergy, was divided into 3 groups of age: 1 to 12 months-old, 13 to 35 months-old, and 3 to 5 years-old. Sensitization status was ascertained by assessing the specific IgE to mite by UniCAP fluoroimmunoassay (Pharmacia. Sixty eight (30.6% patients were sensitized to mites. The frequency and level of sensitization increased with the age of the children. Our data support that avoidance measures in the domestic environment aimed at the primary prevention of mite-driven sensitization should be introduced at the earliest possible stage

  3. Parents 'child rearing attitude and children's behavioral problems at 2~3 and 4~5 years old in Daxing district of Beijing%北京大兴区农村父母养育方式与2~4岁儿童行为问题

    朱雪娜; 闫淑娟; 李东阳

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the relations between deveopment of'Parents' child rearing attitude and children's behavioral problems in the longitudinal in Daxing districts of Beijing. [Method] At children of 2~3 and 4~5 year of age,109 parents reported their child rearing attitudes with CRPP, and their children's behavioral problems with CBCL. [ Results] 1)There were less punishment(t=15. 680,P=0.000), protection(t=2. 665,P=0. 009) and encouragement of independence(t = 4. 402, P= 0. 000) in 4-year-old than 2-year-old; 2)During the period of two years, there was significant stability in externalizing behaviors, but less stability in internalizing behaviors; 3)There were significant correlation between parents' children rearing attitude and children's behavioral problems: The parents' rejection of 2~3 years old can significant predict internalizing problems of 4~5 years old children(β=-0. 305) and significant prediction can be found between rejection and externalizing problems at the same period(β=-0. 290,β=- 0. 473). [Conclusion] The children's temperament and parenting practices have important impacts on children's behavior problem.%[目的]了解北京市大兴区农村父母养育方式与2~4岁儿童的行为问题的发展变化. [方法]使用父母养育Q分类卡片和Achenbach的儿童行为调查表对大兴区109名儿童在2~3岁、3~4岁进行了纵向追踪调查分析. [结果]1)父母的养育方式4岁组较2岁组惩罚(t=15.680,P=0.000)、保护/担忧(t=2.665,P=0.009)和鼓励独立(t=4.402,P=0.000)均有所减少;2)儿童的外显行为问题具有较高的稳定性,内隐行为问题稳定性相对较低;3)儿童的行为问题与父母养育方式的相互作用较强,儿童2岁时父母的拒绝能预测儿童4岁时的内隐行为(β=-0.305),父母拒绝行为对同一时间段的外显行为问题有预测作用. [结论]父母的养育方式和儿童的行为问题均有较高稳定性,且相互作用.

  4. Conflict resolution in 5-year-old boys: does postconflict affiliative behaviour have a reconciliatory role?

    Ljungberg; Westlund; Lindqvist Forsberg AJ

    1999-11-01

    In nonhuman primates, affiliative behaviours, such as social grooming and various forms of body contact, become more frequent after an aggressive interaction. Since such behaviours lead to a decrease in postconflict aggressive behaviour and displacement activities and to increased social tolerance, they have been labelled reconciliatory. We videofilmed sessions of free play in daycare centres in Stockholm and investigated whether affiliative behaviours used by 5-year-old boys in the postconflict period had a similar reconciliatory function. For 219 conflicts in 21 h 40 min of observation we recorded postconflict affiliative/prosocial, aggressive and displacement behaviours. When affiliative behaviours were shown and accepted by the opponent, aggressive and displacement behaviours decreased and play was promoted. These behaviours thus serve a function similar to reconciliatory behaviour in nonhuman primates and we think it is applicable to call accepted affiliative behaviours in postconflict periods of preschool children reconciliatory. However, conflicts were often polyadic and nonconflict periods consisted of intense play with a rich exchange of affiliative behaviours. These factors were limitations to the postconflict/matched-control method traditionally used in primatological research to document reconciliatory behaviour. We suggest that for preschool children, video recordings and an analysis and description of postconflict affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours can be used instead. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  5. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    Kumar Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case.

  6. The caries related risk factors of 5 years old preschool children in Langfang,Hebei province%河北省廊坊地区5岁学龄前儿童乳牙龋相关行为危险因素调查研究

    高萍; 李富者; 孙鹏; 刘敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the caries related risk factors of 5 years old preschool children in Lang-fang , Hebei province . Methods A multiple stratified and cluster randomized sampling method was used to gain 7 115 years old preschool children .Structured questionnaire were used to collect related information .Re-sponse rate was 95.9% .Results The percentage of children consumes sugary food everyday was 25.2% .55.2%of children brushed their teeth everyday reported by their guardian .The percentage of children started to clean teeth before 2 years old was 12.0% .18.3% of children use fluoridated toothpaste and more than 60.3% of guard-ian did not know the effect of fluoridated toothpaste on teeth .More than 66.3% of guardian did not know preven-tive effect of sealant on the caries .The attitude of the majority of guardian to oral health was positive .The distri-bution of caries related risk factors was related to urbanization and guardian's education .Conclusion Integrated and specified oral health education and promotion program is urgent for the studied population .%目的调查河北廊坊地区5岁儿童乳牙龋相关行为危险因素,为有针对性地提出乳牙龋防治策略提供依据。方法采用分层、多阶段、随机、整群抽样的方法获得5岁儿童711名,由监护人填写结构式问卷,收回有效问卷682份,应答率95.9%。结果25.2%的儿童每天至少进食1次含糖食品。55.2%的5岁儿童每天刷牙,2岁前开始刷牙的只有12.0%。家长报告只有18.3%的孩子使用含氟牙膏,超过60.3%的家长不知道含氟牙膏对牙齿的作用,66.3%的家长不知道窝沟封闭能防龋。绝大部分家长对儿童口腔保健的态度积极。龋危险因素存在城乡差异,且与家长文化程度相关。结论适宜在该地区有针对性开展乳牙龋综合健康教育和促进活动。

  7. The Death Monitoring and Analysis of Children Under 5 Years Old in Huaihua From 2010 To 2014%2010~2014年度怀化市5岁以下儿童死亡监测分析及干预措施

    张爱平; 黄志

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过分析近5年怀化市0~4岁儿童死亡监测中儿童死亡率的变化趋势及主要死因构成,为政府制定进一步降低5岁以下儿童死亡率措施提供科学依据。结果:5年来,监测地区5岁以下儿童死亡率呈逐年下降趋势。主要死亡原因按顺位依次为早产和低出生体重、肺炎、先天性心脏病、出生窒息、其他先天异常、意外窒息、交通意外和溺水等8种因素。新生儿死亡前5位死因依次为早产和低出生体重、出生窒息、肺炎、先天性心脏病和其他先天异常等。死前接受住院治疗的儿童呈现明显上升趋势。结论:采取多种措施,减少新生儿死亡是降低怀化市5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键。另外,加大儿童疾病综合管理技术在基层医疗机构的推广应用;减少出生缺陷;加强宣传教育,降低意外的发生;均可有效的减少5岁以下儿童死亡。%Objective changes through the analysis of child mortality surveillance of death of children aged 0~4 in Huaihua city in recent 5 years and the leading cause of death, provide scientific basis to further reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old measures for the government. Results for 5 years, and the mortality of children under 5 years of age the monitor-ing area decreased year by year. The main causes of death according to the sequence in 8 factors of preterm birth and low birth weight, congenital heart disease, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, other congenital anomalies, accidental suffocation, traffic accident and drowning. Neonatal death 5 major causes of death were premature and low birth weight, birth asphyxia, pneumonia, con-genital heart disease and other congenital disorders. Before the death of hospitalized obvious upward trend therapy in children. Conclusion adopt a variety of measures, reduce the neonatal death is the key to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old in Huaihua city. In addition

  8. 广州地区5岁以下儿童哮喘发生及持续发展的危险因素分析%The risk factors of occurrence and development of asthma in children under 5 years old in Guangzhou area

    程远; 陈德晖; 孙宝清; 郑佩燕; 刘文宽; 蔡勇; 周荣; 罗碧莹; 全小芳

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨5岁以下儿童哮喘发生及持持发展的危险因素.方法 通过对广州地区确诊的5岁以下哮喘患儿150例进行统一标准的问卷调查,并与同地区同年龄段健康儿童117例进行病例对照比较,并结合血嗜酸性粒细胞计数、血清过敏原、血清九项呼吸道病原学、血清支原体IgM抗体测定及病毒咽拭子PCR检测等实验室检查,分析哮喘发生的危险因素,并对研究对象进行跟踪随访,将哮喘组分为哮喘稳定组及哮喘持续组,进行比较分析导致年幼儿童哮喘发生及持续发展至5岁以后的重要危险因素.结果 生后第1年有被动吸烟暴露史、家居环境(潮湿、多花草、有布艺沙发、地毯或毛绒玩具、蟑螂多)、父母及1、2级亲属有过敏史、其他有过敏性疾病史、螨类、屋尘、牛奶、鸡蛋过敏是5岁以下儿童哮喘发病的危险因素(x2=4.99、5.37、16.29、37.32、47.73、48.27、15.27、25.45、25.45、138.47、26.81、9.25、24.35和4.51,均P<0.05).哮喘组中病毒感染阳性率45.33%,支原体感染占44.00%;哮喘稳定组与哮喘持续组的比较显示哮喘持续组的螨类过敏阳性率为76.92%,较哮喘稳定组的27.93%明显升高且差异有统计学意义(xz=28.71,P<0.01).结论 导致5岁以下儿童哮喘发病的危险因素包括吸烟暴露、家居环境、父母过敏史、自身过敏史、病菌感染等因素,其中螨虫过敏是导致5岁以下儿童哮喘症状持续至较大年龄的重要危险因素.%Objective Through the investigation of asthma in children under 5 years old and the healthy children in the same age in Guangzhou area,to analyze the important risk factors of asthma.Methods Through the questionnaire investigation of 150 asthma in children under 5 years old in Guangzhou area,combined the examination with blood eosinophil counts,serum allergen and serum levels of respiratory pathogens,mycoplasma antibody and virus swab PCR,the risk

  9. Professionally applied fluoride gel in low-caries 10.5-year-olds.

    Truin, G J; van 't Hof, M A

    2005-05-01

    The question has been raised whether low-caries children regularly using fluoride toothpaste will benefit from the professional application of additional fluoride gel. To investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually-applied neutral 1% sodium fluoride gel, we carried out a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial (n = 594) in a child population, initially aged 9.5-11.5 years, with baseline caries experience of D3MFS = 0 (decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces of permanent teeth). The mean number of tooth surfaces saved from caries development by fluoride gel application after 4 years was 0.2 D3MFS (SE = 0.17). The preventive fraction (PF) showed a mean relative effect of professionally applied fluoride gel of 18%. The cariostatic effect of the fluoride gel on pits and fissures would have been influenced by the sealant strategy in the study. Professionally applied fluoride gel showed no statistically significant effect on mean D3MFS score in low-caries 9.5- to 11.5-year-olds.

  10. 绵阳市5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为调查%Investigation of dental caries of 5-year-old children and their parents' oral hygienic knowledge and behavior in Mianyang

    徐柄权; 文献英; 郭洪菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of dental caries and their parents' oral health knowledge of 5-year-ol children in Mianyang city.Methods:According to standard,questionnaire and schedule table was executed and effective prevention and cure measure were made.Method used in the third national oral health was devised.The epidemiological investigation of dental caries of 5-year old children and oral hygiene knowledge and behavior of their parents were made in Mianyang by the means of whole and stratifie sampling.Results:The caries prevalence rate of 5-year-old children was 54.9% in Mianyang.The caries prevalence rate of urban an rural was 51.4% and 57.8% respectively.The difference was not statistically significant (x2 =3.07,P > 0.05).The caries prevalenc rate of boy and girl was 55.5% and 54.2% respectively.The difference was not statistically significant (x2 =0.12,P > 0.05).The ma jority of the parents knew the significance of the oral health,but they lacked the basic oral hygiene knowledge.Conclusion:The caries prey alence rate of 5-year-old children is high,it is essential to reinforce the oral health education for the parents and intervention measure in order to promote children's oral health level.%目的:了解绵阳市5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为.方法:参考《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》的标准,采用多阶段分层随机抽样的方法,对5岁儿童和家长进行儿童龋齿的流行情况调查和家长口腔卫生知识和行为的调查.结果:绵阳市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率为54.9%,城、乡患龋率分别为51.4%和57.8%,差异无统计学意义(x2=3.07,P>0.05),男女患龋率分别为55.5%和54.2%,差异无统计学意义(x2=0.12,P>0.05),大多数家长认识到儿童口腔健康的重要性,但基本口腔卫生知识缺乏.结论:绵阳市5岁儿童患龋率高,应加强儿童家长口腔健康教育和干预措施,有助于提高儿童口腔健康水平.

  11. Speaking a tone language enhances musical pitch perception in 3-5-year-olds.

    Creel, Sarah C; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang

    2017-01-16

    Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared the pitch perception of Chinese children who spoke a tone language (i.e., Mandarin) with English-speaking American children. We found that Mandarin-speaking children were more advanced at pitch processing than English-speaking children but both groups performed similarly on a control music task (timbre discrimination). The findings support the Pitch Generalization Hypothesis that tone languages drive attention to pitch in nonlinguistic contexts, and suggest that language learning benefits aspects of music perception in early development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/UY0kpGpPNA0.

  12. Sudden Onset Monoparesis and Dysarthria in a 5-Year-Old boy: A Case Report

    Okhovat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Moyamoya disease (MD is a disorder caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain. As the normal blood vessels narrow and become blocked, a person may suffer a stroke. The MD mainly affects children, although adults may have the condition. This is a rare condition, with a marked prevalence gradient between Asian countries. Case Presentation We report a 5-year-old boy, who was presented with sudden right hand monoparesis and dysarthria. Conclusions The patient was investigated with magnetic resonance angiography and diagnosed as MD.

  13. 中国五岁以下儿童非致死性伤害发生率及影响因素研究%An epidemiological survey on the incidence of non-fatal injury and influencing factors among children under 5 years old in China

    胡国清; 朱松林; 王琦琦; 陈田木; 谭爱春; 何琼; 刘鑫; 徐玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of non-fatal injuries and related influencing factors among children under 5 years old in China. Methods Data involving 10 819 children under 5 years old was from the Fourth National Health Service Survey of China. Injury-related indicators include: history of ever having had an injury, its frequency, cause, location and severity of the injury.A two-level Poissun regression was used to examine the significance of related socio-economic variables. Results The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries among children under 5 years old was 16.0 per 1000 population in the prior 12 months. The first three leading causes of non-fatal injuries were falls,animal bite, fire/bum among children under 1 year old,with the rates as 3.9, 1.8 and 1.8 per 1000 population, respectively. For children aged I to 4 years old, the first three leading causes were animal bite, fall, fire/burn with rates as 6.5,6.0 and 2.9 per 1000 population, respectively. 83.0% and 69.0% of last injuries occurred at home for the above said two age groups. No disability was found among children younger than 1 year old who suffered from a nonfatal injury while for the 1-4 age group, the disability accounted for 1.0% of injury-induced outcomes. After adjusting other variables,boys had 1.57 times the risk of injury compared with girls in the 1-4 age group (P<0.05). The differences on the effects regarding ethmicity,per capita household income, and place were insignificant (P>0.05). None of the socio-economic variables was found that significantly related to the non-fatal injury risk among children under 1 year old (P>0.05). Conclusion The incidence of nonfatal injuries among children under 5 years old was 16.0 per 1000 population in the prior 12 months. The three leading causes of injuries were animal bite, falls, fire/bum respectively. Home was the most common place that non-fatal injuries occurred. Boys had a higher risk of injury compared with girls among

  14. An Investigation of Dental Caries and the Correlative Factors Analysis in 5-year-old Children in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region%某地5岁儿童龋病的情况调查及影响因素分析

    哈斯巴根

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Inner Mongolia 5-year-old children's teeth caries disease status and inlfuencing factors, for the children's teeth caries disease prevention and control of oral health education and provide a theoretical basis. Methods According to the third national oral health epidemiological survey scheme, adopting multistage, stratiifed, such as capacity, the method of random sampling, extraction of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region of urban and rural children aged 5, 660 and three cavities case investigation, and at the same time random questionnaire survey was conducted for parents of children tested, using SPSS13.0 software package for data collection and analysis. Results 5 years old children have the caries rate was 70%, caries average of 3.59. Developing rural caries rate slightly higher than the city, but there was no signiifcant difference (P>0.05), between men and women baby teeth had no signiifcant difference of caries rate (P>0.05), caries were rural higher city (P0.05). Good habits of brushing your teeth, oral health checks on a regular basis, the use of lfuoride toothpaste can reduce children's teeth caries disease occurs, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P0.05); often eat fruits, vegetables, can obviously reduce the children's teeth caries disease occurs, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P0.05),男女之间乳牙患龋率差异也无显著性(P>0.05),龋均农村高于城市(P0.05)。良好的刷牙习惯、定期口腔保健检查、含氟牙膏的使用均能降低儿童乳牙龋病的发生,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);经常食用水果、蔬菜可明显降低儿童乳牙龋病的发生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论内蒙古自治区5岁儿童患龋率、龋均仍都高于我国平均水平,所以仍应大力贯彻实施学龄前儿童乳牙龋病综合干预试点工作,广泛普及口腔健康教育,提高儿童家长口腔保健意识,培养儿童良

  15. Imitation of Hierarchical Structure versus Component Details of Complex Actions by 3- and 5-Year-Olds

    Flynn, Emma; Whiten, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We investigated developmental changes in the level of information children incorporate into their imitation when a model executes complex, hierarchically organized actions. A total of 57 3-year-olds and 60 5-year-olds participated, watching video demonstrations of an "artificial fruit" box being opened through a complex series of nine different…

  16. An investigation on the deciduous dental caries and the related risk factors of 3-5 year-old children in Ningxia Province%宁夏地区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋现况及风险因素分析

    李艳青; 马敏; 于英凡; 刘英

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解宁夏地区3~5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况及相关影响因素。方法:对宁夏地区6个县(市、区)的2952名3~5岁儿童进行口腔健康检查,对患龋高危儿童和无龋儿童家长进行问卷调查,并进行统计分析。结果:①宁夏地区3-5岁儿童乳牙龋均和龋面均分别为2.60和4.19,患龋率为57.41%,回、汉族儿童的患龋率、龋均无统计学差异(P>0.05);②是否为早产、开始刷牙年龄及频率、进甜食频率、有含奶嘴或母亲乳头睡觉习惯、母亲孕期患病等因素在两组儿童间有显著性差异( P<0.05);而是否为低出生体质量、家长学历、饮用水源、喂养方式、是否使用含氟牙膏等因素在两组间无统计学差异( P>0.05);③乳牙患龋与父母口腔保健知识态度、刷牙后及睡前进甜食、进甜食频率、有含奶嘴或母亲乳头睡觉习惯、开始刷牙年龄有关。结论:减少儿童含糖食品的摄入量及频率以及避免婴儿期不当喂养习惯,将早产儿列为龋病好发的弱势人群,给予高度重视。%AIM:To investigate the status of deciduous dental caries and the related risk factors of 3-5 year-old Children in Ningxia Province .METHODS:2952 Children aged 3-5 years old from 6 counties in Ningxia were included for clinical caries examination .Caries-active and caries-free children were selected to complete the questionnaire .SPSS 17.0 statistical software package was used for data analysis .RESULTS:The prevalence of dental caries, dmft, dmfts of the children was 57.41%, 2.51 and 4.19 respectivesy.The prevalence of dental caries was not statistically different between Hui and Han nationalities .Significant difference was found between caries -active and caries-free children in premature delivery , addition of sugar in milk , the age of starting tooth-brushing , frequency of sugar intake and sweet intake before sleep (P0.05).Logistic analy

  17. 上海市0~5岁小于胎龄儿超重及肥胖的分布特点%Distribution characteristics of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children born small for gestational age in Shanghai city

    郭翀; 葛品; 陈津津

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对上海市小于胎龄儿( SGA )的超重及肥胖问题进行横断面现况调查,了解上海市0~5岁SGA儿童超重及肥胖的分布特点。方法对上海市18个市辖区内所有0~5岁的常住儿童展开普查,为SGA儿童建卡,体格检查包括体质量、身长/身高及头围;根据世界卫生组织标准,采用体质量指数( BMI)评价儿童超重及肥胖状况。结果本研究共调查上海市0~5岁儿童728602名,最终符合标准的儿童23871名。其中男9805名(41.4%),女14066名(58.9%)。 SGA儿童4~18月龄的BMI高于适于胎龄儿(AGA)中位值,余年龄节点与AGA基本持平,变化趋势与AGA儿童相同。超重及肥胖在不同年龄SGA男童中的分布比例为7.7%~20.7%,平均15.7%;在女童中的分布比例为5.9%~18.3%,平均12.9%。 SGA男童超重及肥胖的比例高于SGA女童。4~18月龄的超重及肥胖比例显著高于余年龄节点。 SGA儿童中2岁前的超重及肥胖情况与其5岁时的超重及肥胖情况无相关性(P>0.05)。结论与SGA女童相比,SGA男童超重及肥胖问题更为严重。超重的高发时期在4~18月龄。 SGA儿童中2岁前的超重及肥胖情况并未影响到其5岁时的超重及肥胖程度。%Objective To understand the distribution of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children who were born small for gestational age ( SGA) in Shanghai through a cross-sectional investigation. Methods All resident children aged 0-5 years were included, covering all 18 districts in Shanghai. Health-check cards were prepared for SGA children. The check-up included weight,length/height and head circumference. Body mass index ( BMI) was used to evaluate the overweight and obesity according to the standard of World Health Organization ( WHO) . Results This study investigated 728 602 children aged 0-5 years in Shanghai,and ultimately 23 871 of them were defined as SGA,a-mong whom 9 805(41. 4%) were boys and 14 066(58. 9%) were girls. The BMI of SGA children

  18. 2003-2012年北京市5岁以下儿童死亡率和死亡原因分析%Analysis of mortality rate and causes of death among children under 5 years old in Beijing from 2003 to 2012

    闫淑娟; 朱雪娜

    2014-01-01

    性心脏病、肺炎和意外窒息(死亡率分别为59.96/10万,52.57/10万,41.89/10万,24.64/10万和15.61/10万).结论 2003-2012年,北京市城区、近郊区和远郊区县新生儿、婴儿、5岁以下儿童死亡率及先天性心脏病死亡率均有明显的下降趋势,远郊区县5岁以下儿童前8位死因中有6个呈下降趋势,以溺水死亡率下降尤为明显.%Objective To understand the age-specific and cause-specific mortality rate among children under 5 years old in Beijing from 2003 to 2012.Methods Death surveillance data of children under the age of 5 were obtained from Beijing children mortality surveillance network from 2003 to 2012.Neonatal mortality rate (NMR),infant mortality rate (IMR),under 5-year old children mortality rate (U5MR) and the leading cause of death for under 5-year old children in urban,suburbs,and outer suburbs in Beijing were analyzed.Results The NMR,IMR and U5 MR in Beijing were 2.08 (253/121 747),3.11 (379/121 747) and 3.57 (435/121 747) per 1000 live births in 2012,respectively,which declined 54.88%,50.24% and 54.75% compared with the level in 2003 respectively.The children mortality rates showed a decreasing trend in urban,suburb,and outer suburbs during 2003 and 2012 (NMR was decreased from 0.53%,0.42%,and 0.48% in 2003 to 0.20%,0.19%,and 0.23% in 2012 ; IMR was decreased from0.73%,0.58%,and 0.63% in 2003 to 0.30%,0.29%,and 0.35% in 2012; U5MR was decreased from 0.90%,0.72%,and 0.82% to 0.33%,0.34%,and 0.39% in 2012,P <0.01).There was a steady decline in the U5MR due to congenital heart disease,birth asphyxia,premature birth or low birth weight and traffic accident in Beijing from 2003 to 2012.The mortality rate of congenital heart disease declined from 140.63 to 41.89 per 100 000 live births,birth asphyxia declined from 109.38 to 59.96 per 100 000 live births,premature birth or low birth weight declined from 85.94 to 52.57 per 100 000 live births,traffic accident declined from 26.04 to 6

  19. 3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢测量及影响因素分析%Levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide in oral cavity of 3-5 years old healthy children and influencing factors

    高鑫鑫; 时清; 杨圣辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oral cavity of 3-5 years old healthy children and analyze the influencing factors. Methods The levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide in oral cavity were examined in a sample of 340 healthy children aged 3-5 years old. Oral malodor was measured with both organoleptic measurements and a portable volatile hydrogen sulfide monitor. Oral clinical status were assessed Pearson's correlation was used to determine the relationship between organoleptic scores ( OS), the levels of volatile H2S and clinical parameters. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to detect the degree of association between OS and clinical parameters. Results The mean level of volatile H2S was 46. 72 ± 23. 27. The correlation coefficient of OS and H2S was 0. 807. Tongue coating score and oral hygiene index were significantly associated with OS. Conclusion The portable hydrogen sulfide monitor could be used to diagnose oral malodor in children. Tongue coating and debris are the important factors that influence oral malodor in healthy children.%目的 通过检测3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢水平,评估幼儿口腔健康状况,分析幼儿口腔异味的重要影响因素.方法 对340名3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢进行感官分析法评分及分析仪测量,记录多项口腔健康指数,分析感官分析法评分与仪器测量数值的关系,以及与口腔健康指数的多因素Logistic回归关系.结果 3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢水平均值为(46.72±23.27)×10-9.感官分析法评分和硫化氢分析仪读数之间相关系数r=0.807.舌苔指数、简化口腔卫生指数纳入以感官分析法评分为因变量的多因素Logistic回归方程.结论 挥发性硫化氢分析仪可用于临床检测幼儿口腔异味.舌苔、软垢为幼儿口腔异味的重要影响因素.

  20. Amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e oclusopatias em crianças de cinco anos de idade em São Pedro, SP Breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits and malocclusion in 5-year-old children in São Pedro, SP, Brazil

    Isaura Maria Ferraz Rochelle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estimar a frequência de oclusopatias e suas associações com o tipo e o período de amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e informações recebidas pelas mães no pré-natal, em crianças com cinco anos de idade que frequentavam creches municipais. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 162 crianças residentes no município de São Pedro, SP. Em entrevista com cada mãe, informações sobre o tempo e a forma de aleitamento, a presença de hábitos deletérios, e orientações recebidas pela mãe durante o pré-natal foram coletadas. O exame epidemiológico foi realizado nas dependências das creches, por um único examinador, previamente calibrado, sob iluminação direta. As seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: presença e severidade de oclusopatias [ligeiro apinhamento e espaçamento (AE, mordida aberta (MA, sobremordida (SM, mordida cruzada uni ou bilateral (MC, overjet positivo (OV e relação terminal dos segundos molares decíduos (RTM]. A análise dos dados consistiu de análise univariada (teste qui-quadrado e de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de oclusopatias foi de 95,7% (AE = 22,8%; MA = 24,7%; SM = 20,4%; MC = 14,8%; e OV = 13,0%. Na RTM, o terminal reto foi predominante (85,0%. Dentre os hábitos bucais deletérios, o uso de chupeta foi o único indicador de risco (OR = 5,25; p = 0,001 para mordida aberta em crianças que a utilizaram por mais de três anos, detectado nas regressões logísticas. CONCLUSÃO: a prevalência de oclusopatias e de hábitos bucais deletérios na amostra estudada foi alta. As crianças que usavam chupeta por mais de três anos mostraram maior probabilidade de apresentar mordida aberta.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of malocclusion and their associations with the type and period of breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits, and information received by mothers during the pre-natal period, in 5-year-old children attending municipal daycare centers. METHODS: The

  1. Investigation on the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang city%沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题的家庭环境影响因素研究

    李静; 黄彦红; 董颖; 曹春兰; 李荔荔; 张雪娇; 董爽; 倪佳; 马辉

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解影响沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为的家庭环境影响因素,为制定有效的干预措施提供科学依据. [方法]采用多阶段抽样方法随机抽取8个社区和4所幼儿园共1 594名儿童作为调查对象,采用单因素和多因素分析方法进行分析. [结果]多因素分析结果显示,语言鼓励、固定餐桌、使用围嘴为儿童不良饮食行为的保护性因素(P均=0.00),父亲低学历为危险因素(P=0.05). [结论]针对儿童饮食行为家庭环境影响因素,加强父母的健康教育,尤以父亲为重点,提高科学的育儿理念,同时探索有效的干预措施.%[Object] To investigate the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang,and provide the scientific evidence for drawing up effectually intervening measure.[Method] 1 594 healthy children in eight communities and four kindergartens were randomly selected with the method of multiple stage,and analyzed by single factor and multifactor analytical method.[Results] Logistic regression model analysis showed that language encourages and fixed dining table and using bib were these protective factors for the eating behavior problems of children,and the father's low qualifications was the risk factor.[Conclusion] The health education of parents should be enhanced about family environment influencing factors for children's eating behavior problems,especially the father,science philosophy of parents should improve and explore effective interventions.

  2. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154. PMID:25206158

  3. Salter-Harris type-IV displaced distal radius fracture in a 5-year-old.

    Huntley, Samuel R; Summers, Spencer H; Stricker, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fractures are rare in young children and can result in articular incongruity or premature physeal arrest. We describe a 5-year-old boy who sustained a displaced left distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture. The patient had normal wrist function and physeal growth at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. Our patient is by far the youngest reported child with a displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fracture of the distal radius. Prompt anatomic reduction and fixation of a displaced distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture can result in excellent short-term wrist motion with maintenance of physeal function.

  4. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report.

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-05-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154.

  5. Investigation on Risk Factors for Hand-foot-mouth Disease Among Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Areas of Xiangtan Prefecture%湘潭市农村地区5岁以下儿童手足口病危险因素调查

    袁伟; 李新春; 李艳霞; 刘富强

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索湘潭市农村地区5岁以下儿童手足口病(HFMD)发病的危险因素,为防控手足口病提供科学依据. 方法 选择湘潭市农村地区60例HFMD患儿作为病例组,同期同一乡镇60例健康儿童作为对照组,采用统一的调查表进行调查,SPSS13.0软件进行单因素和多因素非条件Logistic回归分析. 结果 确诊的24例HFMD病例中,EV71和CoxA16感染的构成比分别为66.7% (16/24)和4.2%(1/24).单因素分析结果有统计学意义的变量包括居室内外有家禽粪便、儿童近3个月发生上呼吸道感染、腹泻或胃肠炎、儿童作息规律、儿童接种过轮状病毒疫苗共4项因素.多因素分析结果显示儿童作息规律(OR =0.05,95% CI:0.01~0.26),接种过轮状病毒疫苗(OR =0.16,95% CI:0.06~0.40)是儿童HFMD发病的保护因素;近3个月儿童发生上呼吸道感染、腹泻或胃肠炎(OR=11.65,95% CI:3.75~36.15)则是儿童HFMD发病的危险因素. 结论 提高儿童机体免疫力、养成良好的生活卫生习惯有助于控制农村地区儿童HFMD发生.%Objective To explore the risk factors for hand - foot - mouth disease (HFMD) among children under 5 years old in rural areas of Xiangtan prefecture, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of HFMD. Methods Totally, 60 HFMD patients under 5 years old in the rural area of Xiangtan prefecture were recruited into the case group, and 60 healthy children with the same township in the same period were recruited into the control group. Their guardians were investigated with the unified survey questionnaire. The data were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate non - conditional Logistic regression analysis with SPSS13.0. Results Among the pathogens of 24 confirmed HFMD cases, EV71 and CoxA16 constituted 66.7% (16/24) and 4.2% (1/24), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that statistically significant variables included indoor and outdoor poultry manure, upper

  6. Analysis of the prevalence and the etiology of deciduous crossbite for the children aged 3-5 years old in Baotou City%包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合患病率及病因分析

    李婧; 樊永杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合情况,为乳牙反牙合预防和治疗提供参考。方法采取随机抽样的方法,对包头市1414名3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合情况进行调查,对收集的资料进行统计学分析。结果乳牙反牙合患病率为12.02%,男女差异无统计学意义(P<0.05)。个别牙反牙合和前牙反牙合最为常见,构成比分别为47.06%和30.59%。乳尖牙磨耗不足、喂养习惯及口腔不良习惯是导致乳牙反牙合最为常见的原因,构成比分别为33.53%和28.82%。结论应针对包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合常见的类型和病因,积极防治。%Objective To investigate the situation of the deciduous crossbite in baotou for providing theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of deciduous crossbite. Methods A total of 1 414 children between 3 to 5 years old in Baotou were randomly sampled and investigated. The data collected was analyzed by the software SPSS 13. 0. Results The prevalence of deciduous crossbite was 12. 02%, which had no statistical difference in gender. Individual dental crossbite and anterior teeth crossbite was the most common, constituted 47. 06% and 30. 59%. The most common reason led to deciduous crossbite was the inadequate wearness of deciduous canine and poor feeding and oral habits, whose con-stituent ratio was 33. 53% and 28. 82% respectively. Conclusion The prevention and treatment to different categories and etiology of deciduous anterior crossbite should be adopt aggressively.

  7. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  8. Analysis of the Causes of Death among Children under 5 Years Old in Xiaogan City from 2007 to 2011%孝感市2007-2011年5岁以下儿童死亡原因调查分析

    付汉东; 陆敏; 夏耀宗; 郑淑萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查孝感市2007-2011年5岁以下儿童死亡的原因.方法 对2007-2011年孝感市7个县(市)区发生的1 369例5 岁以下儿童死亡原因进行调查分析.结果 2007-2011年孝感市5岁以下儿童死亡1 369例,死亡率为6.37‰(1 369/214 857),不同年份死亡率年均递减率为0.53‰.男性儿童死亡率为5.46‰(716/131 063),女性儿童为7.79‰(653/83 794),差异有统计学意义(χ2=465.35,P<0.01).1 369例死亡儿童年龄≤7 d者679例(占49.60%),8~28 d者121例(占8.84%),29~364 d者273例(占19.94%),1~4岁者296例(占21.62%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=647.38,P<0.01).城市儿童死亡率为5.14‰(542/105 427),农村为7.56‰(827/109 430),差异有统计学意义(χ2=527.15,P<0.01).城市儿童患病死亡469例(占86.53%),意外死亡(包括溺水、意外窒息、交通意外等)73例(占13.47%);农村患病死亡633例(占76.54%),意外死亡194例(占23.46%);差异有统计学意义(χ2=20.38,P<0.01).城市儿童主要患病死亡原因构成前3位是:早产儿和低体质量儿、新生儿窒息、先天性心脏病;农村儿童主要患病死亡原因构成前3位是:新生儿窒息、早产儿和低体质量儿、肺炎.结论 孝感市近5年5岁以下儿童死亡有所减少,其死亡原因主要为早产儿和低体质量儿、新生儿窒息.应加强孕产妇围产期的管理,强化儿童保健系统管理,加强产科质量管理,提高儿童疾病诊治水平、加强儿童意外伤害的防范,增强社会医疗保障能力和儿童救助能力,从根本上降低 5 岁以下儿童死亡.%Objective To analyze the causes of death among children under 5 years old in Xiaogan city from 2007 to 2011. Methods The death causes of 1 369 children under five years old in seven counties of Xiaogan city from 2007 to 201 1 were investigated. Results 1 369 children under five years old died from 2007 to 2011 with a mortality rate of 6. 37‰ ( 1 369/ 214 857 ), and the annual declining rate of these

  9. Finding meaning in a noisy world: exploring the effects of referential ambiguity and competition on 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational word learning.

    Bunce, John P; Scott, Rose M

    2016-04-07

    While recent studies suggest children can use cross-situational information to learn words, these studies involved minimal referential ambiguity, and the cross-situational evidence overwhelmingly favored a single referent for each word. Here we asked whether 2·5-year-olds could identify a noun's referent when the scene and cross-situational evidence were more ambiguous. Children saw four trials in which a novel word occurred with four novel objects; only one object consistently co-occurred with the word across trials. The frequency of distracter objects varied across conditions. When all distracter referents occurred only once (no-competition), children successfully identified the noun's referent. When a high-probability competitor referent occurred on three trials, children identified the target referent if the competitor was absent on the third trial (short-competition) but not if it was present until the fourth trial (long-competition). This suggests that although 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational learning scales up to more ambiguous scenes, it is disrupted by high-probability competitor referents.

  10. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a 5-year-old Iranian boy

    Goudarzipour, K.; Zavvar, N.; Behnam, B.; Ahmadi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (IGS) is a rare syndrome characterized by clinical symptoms and signs of Vitamin B12 deficiency and proteinuria. Our patient was a 5-year-old boy with pallor, lack of appetite, and low weight gain. Laboratory studies showed severe macrocytic anemia, normal reticulocyte count, negative direct coombs test, normal osmotic fragility, and autohemolysis test. He has had intermittent proteinuria since 3 years ago despite normal creatinine level and absence of hematuria or hypertension. Finally, based on low level of serum B12 vitamin and normal folate level accompanied by asymptomatic proteinuria, the diagnosis of IGS was made. Furthermore, his sister has had laboratory abnormalities without any symptoms. IGS responded to B12 replacement therapy dramatically but intermittent proteinuria persisted even after appropriate therapy. PMID:27942180

  11. ASSESSMENT OF A 5-YEAR-OLD REHABILITATED RIPARIAN FOREST: IS IT ALREADY SUSTAINABLE?

    Vinícius Londe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAs important as the establishment of projects of ecological restoration is its assessment post-implementation to know whether the area is becoming self-sustainable or need to be redirected. In this way, this study aimed to know the current situation of a 5-year-old rehabilitated riparian forest,inserted in an anthropogenic impacted region,at the das Velhas River, Minas Gerais State, studying the canopy openness and recruitment of seedlings as plant indicators. 15 plots were allocated in the forest, where hemispherical photographs were taken to analyze the canopy openness and evaluate all seedlings from 0.30 m to 1.30 m height.Canopy openness ranged from 23.7% to 38.8% between seasons and only 192 seedlings were found,from 13 species, five of them exotic and aggressive. Although canopy openness was low, it seems that lateral penetration of light has been favoring the development and dominancy of plants from invasive species, whereas few native ones have been recruited. The exotic/invasive plants may compromise the success of restoration mainly by competition with native planted species. The outcomes evidenced an unsustainability of the riparian forest and the requirement of some management actions to control exotic and invasive plants and ensure the preservation of the area and its ecological roles over time.

  12. HRCT features in a 5-year-old child with follicular bronchiolitis

    Reittner, P.; Fotter, R.; Lindbichler, F.; Tillich, M. [Department of Radiology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A-8036 Graz (Austria); Varga, E.M.; Zach, M. [Department of Pediatrics, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria); Popper, H. [Department of Pathology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria)

    1997-11-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) is the most sensitive radiographic method to image small airways disease. We discuss the HRCT features of follicular bronchiolitis in a 5-year-old boy and correlate them with the histopathological findings. The changes described include centrilobular nodules, bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis, branching opacities and areas of reduced lung attenuation. (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 refs.

  13. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  14. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  15. Bifocal Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities in a 5-Year Old Boy: A Case Report

    K. G. Snoek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the extremely unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a bifocal (cervical as well as lumbar spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORAs. The MRI showed cord oedema at the level of C2 and T10. We propose that during the motor vehicle crash severe propulsion of the head with a flexed lumbar region resulted in a traction injury to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine and maximum flexion caused SCIWORA in C2.

  16. Pallidal deep brain stimulation in a 5-year-old child with dystonic storm: case report.

    Aydin, Sabri; Abuzayed, Bashar; Uysal, Serap; Unver, Olcay; Uzan, Mustafa; Mengi, Murat; Kizilkilic, Osman; Hanci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old child had a medical history of epilepsy and a newly presented mental retardation with a life-threatening dystonic storm. Neuroimagings showed bilateral calcification of the pallidum. Several treatment modalities were performed, but the symptoms showed no significant improvement. The patient was operated on in order to place a deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting bilateral globus pallidum internus (GPi). The dystonia showed a remarkable improvement after surgery, with 81% reduction of dystonia severity after 15 months. To our best knowledge, this is the youngest patient mentioned in the literature to be treated with DBS, which was also life-saving in this case.

  17. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    Hemant V Savant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  18. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  19. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child.

    Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  20. Encouraging 5-year olds to attend to landmarks: A way to improve children’s wayfinding strategies in a virtual environment.

    Jamie eLingwood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wayfinding can be defined as the ability to learn and remember a route through an environment. Previous researchers have shown that young children have difficulties remembering routes. However, very few researchers have considered how to improve young children’s wayfinding abilities. Therefore, we investigated ways to help children increase their wayfinding skills. In two studies, a total of 72 5-year olds were shown a route in a six turn virtual environment and were then asked to retrace this route by themselves. A unique landmark was positioned at each junction and each junction was made up of two paths: a correct choice and an incorrect choice. Two different strategies improved route learning performance. In Experiment 1, verbally labelling landmarks at junctions during the first walk reduced children’s errors at turns, and the number of trials they needed to reach the learning criterion. In Experiment 2, encouraging children to attend to landmarks at junctions on the first walk reduced the children’s errors when making a turn. This is the first study to show that very young children can be taught effective route learning skills.

  1. 3~5岁儿童的攻击—破坏行为与心理理论、气质的关系%The Relationship among Aggressive and Destructive Behavior,Theory of Mind and Temperament in 3~5-year-old Children

    莫书亮; 陶莉莉; 贾蒙蒙; 周宗奎

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how preschoolers' temperament characteristics and the theory of mind can predict their aggressive and destructive behaviors.Ninety children aged 3~5 were measured with theory of mind,aggressive and destructive behavior and temperament.The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between preschoolers' aggressive and destructive behavior and false belief understanding,while a significant correlation among the dimensions of emotionality,activity and social inhibition of temperament.Furthermore,the prediction of preschoolers' false belief understanding to aggressive and destructive behavior can be explained by temperament characteristics.There are some links between theory of mind and temperament.%本研究以90名3~5岁儿童为被试,考察儿童的攻击—破坏行为、心理理论和气质之间的关系。结果表明,儿童的攻击—破坏行为与心理理论的错误信念理解存在显著正相关,与气质的情绪性和活动性显著正相关,与社会抑制性存在显著负相关。儿童的错误信念理解对攻击—破坏行为的预测作用部分可以由气质特征解释。心理理论发展和气质存在一定联系。

  2. Analysis on death causes of children under 5 years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010%2005~2010年兰州市城关区5岁以下儿童死因分析

    马铭; 张淑文; 胡晓婷; 李坚

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析兰州市城关区2005~2010年5岁以下儿童死亡情况及主要死亡原因,为降低兰州市5岁以下儿童死亡率提供依据.方法:按照《中国5岁以下儿童死亡监测方案》,对2005~2010年兰州市城关区447例5岁以下儿童死亡情况进行分析.结果:2005年~2010年兰州市城关区活产数为55 868例,新生儿死亡356例,婴儿死亡408例,5岁以下儿童死亡447例,死亡率分别为6.37‰、7.30‰、8.00‰.5岁以下儿童死亡率呈下降趋势,死亡率最高和最低的年份分别为2007年和2010年.兰州市城关区5岁以下儿童死因顺位前三位依次是新生儿窒息、早产(低出生体重)、其他新生儿疾病.结论:城关区5岁以下儿童死亡仍以新生儿和婴儿死亡为主,积极做好孕期和儿童保健宣传工作,提高保健意识及质量,是降低新生儿和婴儿死亡率,最终减少5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.%Objective: To analyze the death status and main death causes of children under five years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010, and provide a basis for reducing mortality of children under five years old. Methods: According to China death monitoring program of children under five years, the death status of 447 children under five years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010 was analyzed. Results: The number of live neonates in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010 was 55 828, the number of neonatal death was 356, the number of infantile death was 408, the number of children death under five years old was 447, the mortalities were 6.37‰, 7.30‰, and 8.00‰,respectively. The mortality of children under five years old showed a decreasing trend, the mortality in 2007 was the highest, and the mortality in 2010 was the lowest. The top three causes of children death under five years old were neonatal asphyxia, premature birth (low birth weight) , and other neonatal diseases. Conclusion

  3. Surveillance and analysis on diarrheal disease pathogen spectrum among children under 5 years old in Pudong New Area of Shanghai City%上海市浦东新区5岁以下儿童腹泻病病原谱监测分析

    费怡; 孙乔; 傅益飞; 朱渭萍; 薛曹怡

    2013-01-01

    , which showed higher than that of other months (18.48%) (χ2 =7.18,P <0.05).The bacteria detection rate was 15.34%from April to October, showing higher than the rate of oth-er months(3.15%)(χ2 =31.22,P<0.05). [Conclusion] Norovirus is the main pathogen for viral diarrheal diseases in children under five and E .coli is the main pathogen of bacterial diarrheal diseases . All study results suggested that summer and autumn should be as the focus time in prevention and control of bacterial diarrhea , while those of viral diarrhea should cover the whole year .

  4. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as septic knee arthritis in a 5-year-old child.

    Alwattar, Basil J; Strongwater, Allan; Sala, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    Group A streptococci, also known as Streptococcus pyogenes, is a common cause of infection in the pediatric population. Recently, the incidence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, a serious and often deadly manifestation of group A streptococci infection, has increased. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome often presents with complaints of musculoskeletal pain, which frequently leads to early involvement of an orthopaedic surgeon. In this case report, we present a 5-year-old child who presented with a septic arthritis of the knee, whose final diagnosis was streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. A review of the literature and the aspects of this case report emphasize the emergent nature of streptococcal joint infections and the judicious use of orthopaedic intervention in such patients.

  5. Evaluation on booster immunization efficacy of 5 μg hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) techniques in polymorpha yeast of variant dosage in children aged over 5 years old%5岁以上儿童5μg重组乙型肝炎疫苗(酵母)加强免疫效果评价

    陈永弟; 梁晓峰; 姚军; 崔富强; 王富珍; 沈灵智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the efficacy of booster immunization with domestic 5ug Hepatitis B Vaccine Made by Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Techniques in Polymorpha Yeast ( HepB-Y) of variant dosage, in order to provide evidence for establishing immunization strategy. Methods 1728 children, with ages over 5 years were selected, who had been finished the basic immunization of hepatitis B vaccine in age under 1 year old. Blood plasma specimens of all sampled children were detected for hepatitis B virus ( HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (Anti-HBs) and antibodies to hepatitis B virus core antigen (Anti-HBc) by chemiluminescence. They were then classified into two groups of Anti-HBs positive and negative. Children of positive group were immunized one dosage of 5ug HepB-Y, while children of negative group were immunized three dosages of the same vaccine. Blood samples were collected after 1 month,and detected for Anti-HBs. Results The Anti-HBs positive rates were 40. 10%, 94. 04% and 99. 54% respectively of pre-immunization, post-immunization with one dosage and post-immunization with three dosages, there were statistical significant difference between any two among three rates (all P<0. 05). The Anti-HBs positive conversion rate of post-immunization with one dosage and three dosages were 88. 50% and 99. 42% respectively, the difference of positive conversion rate showed statistical significance between two groups (P< 0. 05). After immunization with one dosage in negative group, the aged rates of Anti-HBs positive conversion were dropping with age (P<0. 05). However, after immunization with three dosages, the aged rates of Anti-HBs positive conversion showed no relationship to age (P>0. 05). The average GMT of Anti-HBs negative children immunized with one dosage and three dosages were 450. 47mlu/ml and 664. 95mlu/ml respectively, while the average GMT of Anti-HBs positive children were 3663. 68mlu/ml after one

  6. On Differences of Emotional Display Rules Cognition of 3-5-year-old Children in Different Emotional Situations%3~5岁幼儿在不同情境中情绪表达规则认知差异的研究

    王军利; 卢英俊

    2012-01-01

    The researchers chose 101 children of 3-5 relation upon their cognition of emotional display rules to observe the influence of age, emotional situation and interpersonal Results indicated that children started to differentiate displayed and real emotions at 3; emotional display rules cognition developed rapidly at 4; preschool children's purpose for emotion adjustment was self-protection and it tended to be more socially oriented with increase of age; children had a better understanding of sadness display rules and their emotional display was more compatible with social expectations while they tended to be more self- centered when angry; with presence of friends, children's emotional adjustment was more effective, especially in happy and sad situations. In order to promote children's development in cognition of emotion display rules, adults should foster children's empathy for better social development; they should development children's emotional adjustment ability at the critical age of 4; guide children in reasonable release and adjustment of negative emotion and create a harmonious emotional environment for them.%本研究选取了101名3~5岁幼儿,考察年龄、情绪情境和人际关系背景等对幼儿情绪袁达规则认知的影响。结果显示,幼儿在3岁时开始认识到外部表情和真实情绪的区别;4岁时情绪表达规则认知能力迅速发展;在早期,幼儿进行情绪调节的目的以自我保护目标为主,随着年龄增长而日渐趋向社会定向目标;幼儿对伤心情绪表达规则的理解相对较好,情绪表达更符合社会期望,而在生气情境中表现得更自我中心:当好朋友在场时.幼儿的情绪调节更有效,尤其是在高兴和伤心情境中,其外部情绪表现更符合社会期望。为促进幼儿情绪表达规则认知能力的发展,成人要注意培养幼儿的同理心,促进其交往能力的发展;抓住4岁这个关键期,培养

  7. Teaching 3.5-Year-Olds to Revise Their Beliefs Given Ambiguous Evidence

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Fischer, Adina; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that 3-year-olds fail to learn from statistical data when their prior beliefs conflict with evidence. Are children's beliefs entrenched in their folk theories, or can preschoolers rationally update their beliefs? Motivated by a Bayesian account, we conducted a training study to investigate this question. Children (45…

  8. A CASE REPORT OF A 2.5-YEAR-OLD GIRL WITH ANGELMAN SYNDROME (AS

    Mohammad Reza SALEHI OMRAN,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAngelman Syndrome (AS is a genetically determined syndrome that has a unique behavioral phenotype. This syndrome is described as jerky ataxia and an unusual happy facial expression with pathological laughter. Severe mental retardation is a unique feature of the syndrome, together with microbrachycephaly and abnormal electroencephalographic findings with or without clinical seizures. The patients cannot speak or at most, they have a vocabulary consisting only of a few words. The genetic abnormality of AS has been located on chromosome 15q11-q13. Patients with AS mostly have deletions on the maternally derived allele (75-80% while some of them show paternal uniparental disomy (~2% or a rare imprinting mutation developmental disorder caused by deletion of the maternally-inherited chromosome 15q11-13. A 2.5-year-old girl is presented. Clinical suspicion of AS was raised at the age of 27 months when she presented with mental retardation and epilepsy, absence of speech, inability to gait and paroxysmal episodes of laughter. Moreover, she had facial dysmorphic features such as microbrachycephaly, mid-facial hypoplasia, macrostomia and a prominent mandible. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46 xx with the deletion of 15q chromosome (15q11q13-snrpn/ic Our patient met the classical phenotype and genotype of AS.

  9. A CASE REPORT OF A 2.5-YEAR-OLD GIRL WITH ANGELMAN SYNDROME (AS

    Mohammad Reza SALEHI OMRAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAngelman Syndrome (AS is a genetically determined syndrome that has a unique behavioral phenotype. This syndrome is described as jerky ataxia and an unusual happy facial expression with pathological laughter. Severe mental retardation is a unique feature of the syndrome, together with microbrachycephaly and abnormal electroencephalographic findings with or without clinical seizures. The patients cannot speak or at most, they have a vocabulary consisting only of a few words. The genetic abnormality of AS has been located on chromosome 15q11-q13. Patients with AS mostly have deletions on the maternally derived allele (75-80% while some of them show paternal  uniparental disomy (~2% or a rare imprinting mutation developmental disorder caused by deletion of the maternally-inherited chromosome 15q11-13. A 2.5-year-old girl is presented. Clinical suspicion of AS was raised at the age of 27 months when she presented with mental retardation and epilepsy, absence of speech, inability to gait and paroxysmal episodes of laughter. Moreover, she had facial dysmorphic features such as microbrachycephaly,  mid-facial hypoplasia, macrostomia and a prominent mandible. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46 xx with the deletion of 15q chromosome (15q11q13-snrpn/ic Our patient met the classical phenotype and genotype of AS.Keywords:Angelman syndrome, icrobrachycephaly, Happy facial Phenotype

  10. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW). Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor o...

  11. A Case Study:The Role of Block Building Games in Improving the Social Ability of a 3.5-year-old Child with Hearing Impairment%听障儿童积木建构游戏社会性水平的个案研究

    王段霞; 张倩; 王丽燕; 罗薇

    2013-01-01

      目的通过个案研究探讨教师指导对听障儿童积木建构游戏中社会性水平的影响.方法采用单一被试单基线A-B实验设计,对1例听障儿童积木建构游戏进行指导,跟踪指导效果,采用SPSS 17.0进行数据分析.结果经过教师为期3个月的积木建构区游戏指导,个案简单平行游戏(P<0.05)、互补游戏(P<0.05)在基线期和处理期均有显著性差异,即简单平行游戏减少,互补游戏增多,游戏社会性水平显著提高.结论教师在听障儿童积木建构游戏中的指导能有效提高其游戏社会性水平.%Objective To study the impact of teachers’ instructions on the social ability of a hearing-impaired child in the block building games. Methods By a single-subject A-B experimental design, the instructions were provided for a hearing-impaired child for playing block building games and the follow-up outcomes were observed. The experimental results were then analyzed with SPSS17.0 software. Results After 3 months of teachers’ instructions in block building games, the scores of the subjects showed significant differences in parallel games(P<0.05) and complementary games(P<0.05)as compared with those scores at baseline. The number of simple parallel games decreased and complementary games increased, which indicated the improvement of social ability. Conclusion The instructions of teachers in the block building games can effectively enhance the social skills of hearing-impaired children while playing games.

  12. A rare outcome of iron deficiency and pica: Rapunzel syndrome in a 5-year-old child iron deficiency and pica.

    Islek, Ali; Sayar, Ersin; Yılmaz, Aygen; Boneval, Cem; Artan, Reha

    2014-02-01

    Bezoar is defined as the accumulation of organic or nonbiological substances inside the gastrointestinal system. Trichobezoars are the most frequently detected ones and are mostly present in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The continuance of the trichobezoar tail-shaped extension over the duodenum and jejunum is described in Rapunzel syndrome. Both conditions are rarely reported in children. The present case submitted here is related to a 5-year-old girl referred with an abdominal mass and anemia, diagnosed with Rapunzel syndrome and developing trichobezoar due to iron deficiency and pica.

  13. 2-5岁超常儿童的集合比较及其策略研究%A Study on Comparing Two Sets with Strategies in 2-5-Years Old Gifted Children

    徐浙宁

    2009-01-01

    选取2-5岁超常儿童46名、普通儿童54名,通过测查发现:(1)2-5岁超常儿童的集合比较能力显著优于同年龄普通儿童;(2)2-3岁超常儿童不具备用"数数"比较两个集合的能力,通常依靠"视觉线索"判断集合大小;(3)3-5岁超常儿童自发运用数数策略的能力显著优于普通儿童;(4)3-5岁超常儿童酱遍可以运用数数策略进行两个集合的比较.

  14. 2-5岁超常儿童的计数及其策略研究%A Study on Counting and Its Strategies in Gifted Children of 2-5 Years Old

    徐浙宁; 方俊明

    2006-01-01

    本研究选取2-5岁超常儿童46名、普通儿童54名,通过实验考察了早期超常儿童的计数及其策略.结果显示:(1)超常儿童更早掌握"一一对应"的计数原则;(2)4岁前,超常儿童相对同龄普通儿童能掌握更大范围的基数;特别是3-4岁超常儿童,基本已经掌握了20以内的基数概念,显著优于同年龄普通儿童;(3)2-5岁超常儿童普遍具有比同年龄普通儿童更好的计数策略;(4)4-5岁超常儿童相对同龄普通儿童和3-4岁超常儿童,能够更有效地运用计数策略完成"随机性"计数任务.

  15. 北京市5岁以下儿童轮状病毒腹泻经济负担研究%Study on the Economic Burden of Rotavirus Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years Old in Beijing

    贾蕾; 刘潇潇; 李洪军; 梁妍; 高志勇; 王全意

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解北京市5岁以下儿童轮状病毒(Rotavirus,RV)腹泻经济负担,为RV免疫规划提供建议.方法 在2012年7月到2013年7月,在北京市3家儿童专科医院采集门诊和输液患儿的粪便标本,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay,ELISA)检测粪便标本中的RV抗原,对阳性患儿调查患病的直接费用和间接费用,综合评价北京市RV腹泻的经济负担.结果 分别采集门诊和输液患儿的粪便标本678份、476份,RV阳性者分别为131份(19.3%)、137份(28.8%).RV阳性患儿中,1岁及以下者在门诊和输液患儿中分别占86.3%和94.9%.RV阳性患儿中59名(22.0%)接种了口服轮状病毒减毒活疫苗(Oral Rotavirus Attenuated Live Vaccine,ORV),首剂次接种年龄中位数为1.7岁.输液患儿平均经济负担中位数高于门诊患儿,分别为737.8元和559.4元.估算北京市每年5岁以下儿童RV腹泻经济负担为55 186 462元.结论 北京市RV腹泻经济负担较高,晚于感染年龄接种RV疫苗可能降低其预防RV腹泻的作用,建议根据流行特征细化现有的ORV接种程序.

  16. Soft Drinks Consumption is Associated with Behavior Problems in 5-Year-Olds

    Suglia, Shakira F; Solnick, Sara; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine soda consumption and aggressive behaviors, attention problems, and withdrawn behavior among five-year-old children. Study design The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study is a prospective birth cohort study that follows a sample of mother-child pairs from 20 large cities in the US. Mothers reported children’s behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 and were asked to report how many servings of soda the child drinks on a typical day. Results In the sample of 2929 children, 52% were boys, 51% were African-American 43% consumed at least one serving of soda per day and 4% consumed 4 or more servings per day. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, consuming one (Beta 0.7 95% CI 0.1,1.4), two (Beta 1.8 95%CI 0.8,2.7), three (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.6,3.4) or four or more (Beta 4.7 95%CI 3.2,6.2) servings was associated with a higher aggressive behavior score compared with consuming no soda. Furthermore, those who consumed four or more (Beta 1.7 95%CI 1.0,2.4) soda servings had higher scores on the attention problems subscale. Higher withdrawn behavior scores were noted among those consuming two (Beta 1.0 95%CI 0.3,1.8), or four or more (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.8,3.1) soda servings compared with those who consumed no soda. Conclusion We note an association between soda consumption and negative behavior among very young children; future studies should explore potential mechanisms that could explain this association. PMID:23968739

  17. Nasal Septal Agenesis and Attenuated Lower and Upper Lateral Cartilages in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Sporadic Finding

    Aldaghri, Faris; Mrad, Mohamed Amir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cartilaginous nasal septal agenesis is a rare finding. In fact, just one case has been reported to have congenital agenesis of all nasal cartilages in a 6-year-old child by Bakhshaee et al. The literature review shows another case that was reported by Ozek et al in Turkey, where they reported a case of total nasal agenesis that was associated with Tessier no. 30. We could not find a similar case in the literature where only agenesis of the nasal cartilaginous septum was present. Methods/Case Report: This is a case report of a 5-year-old child presenting to our clinic with agenesis of his nasal septum and attenuation of the upper and lower lateral cartilages. His parents were seeking a corrective procedure to improve the shape of his nose. He was a male child with a right unilateral cleft lip and palate that were corrected surgically in 2009 (lip repair) and 2010 (palate repair), respectively. Results: On postoperative week 3, the patient's mother brought him to the emergency department with a history of falling on his face while playing at home. Examination revealed swelling of the nose but no breathing difficulties. He still had an acceptable augmented nose but with sings of deviation and collapse. Discussion: We report this case to find an answer to how such cases can be approached in the future in terms of the surgical intervention required and to study the options of redoing such cases. PMID:28101289

  18. Pranlukast reduces asthma exacerbations during autumn especially in 1- to 5-year-old boys

    Campos Alberto, Eduardo; Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Yoshinori; Hoshioka, Akira; Abe, Hiroki; Saito, Kimiyuki; Tsubaki, Toshikazu; Haraki, Mana; Sawa, Akiko; Nakayama, Yoshio; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shigeta, Midori; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Background Leukotriene receptor antagonists have been used to prevent virus-induced asthma exacerbations in autumn. Its efficacy, however, might differ with age and sex. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether pranlukast added to usual asthma therapy in Japanese children during autumn, season associated with the peak of asthma, reduces asthma exacerbations. It was also evaluated the effect of age and sex on pranlukast's efficacy. Methods A total of 121 asthmatic children aged 1 to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive regular pranlukast or not according to sex, and were divided in 2 age groups, 1–5 years and 6–14 years. The primary outcome was total asthma score calculated during 8 weeks by using a sticker calendar related to the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms. This open study lasted 60 days from September 15 to November 14, 2007. Results Significant differences in pranlukast efficacy were observed between sex and age groups. Boys aged 1 to 5 years had the lower total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.002), and experienced fewer cold episodes (p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between pranlukast and control group in total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.35), and in the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms (p = 0.67). Conclusion There was a substantial benefit of adding pranlukast to usual therapy in asthmatic children, especially in boys aged 1 to 5 years, during autumn season. PMID:28154801

  19. False-positive "halo" sign on testicular scintigraphy in a 5-year-old boy with epididymitis and hydrocele.

    Santhosh, Sampath; Guha, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bawa, Monika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2011-07-01

    Scintigraphic differentiation between acute torsion, hydrocele and testicular or scrotal abscess can be difficult. Doppler sonography may provide useful complimentary information toward diagnosis. The authors describe a 5-year-old child where epididymitis with hydrocele was misdiagnosed as testicular torsion on scrotal scintigraphy.

  20. Chronic pancreatitis with pancreaticolithiasis and pseudocyst in a 5-year-old boy with homozygous SPINK1 mutation

    Kuehn, Axel C.; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic Radiology - Pediatric Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Teich, Niels; Caca, Karel [University of Leipzig, Department of Internal Medicine II - Gastroenterology / Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Limbach, Anne [University of Leipzig, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    We report a 5-year-old boy with a 5-month history of symptoms owing to chronic pancreatitis. Abdominal imaging revealed a large pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail and concretions in the main pancreatic duct. Successful endoscopic papillotomy and stent implantation were performed. Genetic testing showed homozygous SPINK1-N34S mutation, which is an established risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. (orig.)

  1. A Proposal to Strengthen the Values of Solidarity and Empathy of 4-5-year old Children Attending a Private Institution, in the Province of Heredia (Costa Rica, Through Playful-creative Workshops Aplicación de la propuesta para fortalecer la vivencia de los valores de solidaridad y empatía con niños y niñas de 4 a 5 años, de una institución privada de Heredia, por medio de talleres lúdicos-creativos

    Mónika Vargas Mora

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project was to analyze how solidarity and empathy may be strengthened in 4-5-year old children through playful-creative workshops. The project was conducted in a private institution, in the province of Heredia, Costa Rica. This qualitative research was composed of three stages. First, a diagnostic stage helped us to identify the background of participants in relation to the values being studied; it included interviews and observation of participants. In the second stage, playful-creative workshops were put into practice to strength the values. The last stage was a comparative analysis of the information collected before and after carrying out the activities; it helped us to see if the children’s experience in relation to the values of empathy and solidarity was influenced by the workshops. One of the main conclusions is that by sharing and working with students through this methodology, children became more aware of the feelings of other people, and it improved their relations with other children. Recibido 29 de noviembre de 2012 •  Corregido 01 de mayo de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013El objetivo fue analizar, en qué forma, el desarrollo de talleres lúdico-creativos fortalecen la vivencia de los valores de solidaridad y empatía con niños y niñas de 4 a 5 años que asisten a una institución privada en Heredia. Esta investigación fue de tipo cualitativa y se desarrolló en tres etapas. Una etapa diagnóstica para describir los conocimientos previos de las personas participantes con dichos valores, la cual se llevó a cabo por medio de entrevistas y observaciones no participantes. La segunda etapa consistió en formular y aplicar talleres lúdico-creativos que fortalecieran estos valores en el estudiantado. La última etapa fue un análisis comparativo entre la información recolectada inicialmente y los datos recopilados después de implementada la propuesta, para así verificar si la aplicación de

  2. Classroom Bird Feeding: Giving Flight to the Imaginations of 4- and 5-Year-Olds!

    McLennan, Deanna Pecaski

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how placing a plastic, gazebo-style bird feeder outside the classroom windows one cold autumn morning had been a catalyst for capturing and inspiring the children's imaginations. This empowered them to explore self-directed activities that resulted in meaningful, collaborative learning for most of the school…

  3. Professionally applied fluoride gel in low-caries 10.5-year-olds.

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    The question has been raised whether low-caries children regularly using fluoride toothpaste will benefit from the professional application of additional fluoride gel. To investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually-applied neutral 1% sodium fluoride gel, we carried out a double-blind ran

  4. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis…

  5. Generalized odontodysplasia in a 5-year-old patient with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome: clinical aspects, cone beam computed tomography findings, and conservative clinical approach.

    Damasceno, Juliana Ximenes; Couto, José Luciano Pimenta; Alves, Karla Shangela da Silva; Chaves, Cauby Maia; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Pimenta, Alynne de Menezes Vieira; Fonteles, Cristiane Sá Roriz

    2014-08-01

    This article aims to report the main clinical aspects, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) findings, and conservative oral rehabilitation in a child born from a consanguineous marriage who presented with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome (HSS) and generalized odontodysplasia. A 5-year-old girl presented with a diagnosis of HSS for oral evaluation. Radiographically, all teeth showed wide pulp chambers and roots with thin dentinal walls and open apices, resembling ghost teeth and indicating a diagnosis of odontodysplasia. Oral rehabilitation consisted of partial dentures that were regularly adjusted to conform the device with the pattern of growth and development of the child. CBCT scan provided great insight into HSS, allowing a detailed view of the morphologic aspects and associated trabecular bone pattern. Treatment of these 2 rare conditions in young children must consider the stage of growth and development. Although extremely rare in HSS, odontodysplasia should be investigated and conservatively managed in young children.

  6. T-condylar fracture delayed for 10 days in a 5-year-old boy: a case report and review of the literature

    Shashidhar B Kantharajanna; Vijay Goni; Pebam Sudesh; Nirmal Raj Gopinathan

    2013-01-01

    T-condylar fracture is rare in paediatric age group,especially in skeletally immature children less than 9 years old,with very few cases reported in available literature.We present such a case in a 5 year old child that was initially managed as a supracondylar fracture at another centre before referral to us,10 days after the injury.The child was diagnosed as having a displaced T-condylar fracture on plain radiograph.Open reduction and internal fixation with K-wires was performed.At 2 years follow-up,the child had good range of motion at elbow with 5°of cubitus varus.With this background we discuss the pertinent principles of management of T-condylar fractures in skeletally immature children.

  7. Premature Menarche Associated with Primary Hypothyroidism in a 5.5-Year-Old Girl

    Dhrubajyoti Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with hypothyroidism generally have delayed pubertal development. Rare association with precocious puberty may occur especially in long standing untreated patients. The cardinal features of hypothyroidism induced pseudo precocious pubertal development include thelarche, galactorrhea and menarche. Other characteristics features are an absence of sexual hair and retardation of linear growth. Its manifestation as isolated menarche has been rarely reported. Recently, a five and half year old girl presented to us with history of one episode of vaginal bleeding. A pelvic ultrasonogram revealed multiple cysts in both ovaries and subsequent investigations led to a diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  8. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Smeekens, Sanny; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predictors: child sex, partner support reported by the caregiver, disorganized infant-parent attachment at 15 months, child anger proneness at 28 months, and one of the two parent-child interaction factors observed at 28 months, namely negative parent-child interactions. The other, i.e., a lack of effective guidance, predicted externalizing problems only in highly anger-prone children. Furthermore, mediated pathways of influence were found for the parent-child interaction at 15 months (via disorganized attachment) and parental ego-resiliency (via negative parent-child interaction at 28 months). PMID:17243016

  9. SCANDCLEFT RANDOMIZED TRIALS: SPEECH OUTCOMES IN 5-YEAR-OLDS WITH UCLP - velopharyngeal competency and hypernasality

    Lohmander, Anette; Persson, Christina; Willadsen, Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Adequate velopharyngeal function and speech is a main objective in treatment of cleft palate. The aim was to investigate if there were differences in velopharyngeal competency and hypernasality at 5 years of age in children with UCLP randomized to different surgical methods for primary...... palatal repair were tested against a common procedure. Main Outcome Measures: VPC-Sum, a composite score of velopharyngeal competency, and hypernasality from blinded assessments. Results: Occurrence of more than mild hypernasality and VPC-Sum scores of incompetence varied between 18 and 40......% with no statistical significant difference between the arms in any of the three trials. Conclusions: The methods within each trial revealed similar results regarding velopharyngeal competency at age 5 years. Similar speech outcome was reached with different methods for primary palatal repair but the burden of care...

  10. Brief Report: Circumscribed Attention in Young Children with Autism

    Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    School-aged children and adolescents with autism demonstrate circumscribed attentional patterns to nonsocial aspects of complex visual arrays (Sasson et al. "2008"). The current study downward extended these findings to a sample of 2-5 year-olds with autism and 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Eye-tracking was used to quantify discrete…

  11. Renal infarction secondary to invasive aspergillosis in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Lee, Ju Hyun; Im, Soo Ah; Cho, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus species have angioinvasive properties and can involve extrapulmonary organs by hematogenous spread from the lungs. However, renal involvement by Aspergillus is uncommon and is usually associated with the formation of abscesses. We report an unusual case of invasive renal aspergillosis presenting with extensive renal infarction in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case emphasizes the fact that renal aspergillosis initially presents with only renal infarction, and metastatic-embolism by invasive aspergillosis should be considered in differential diagnosis for any focal lesion of kidney in a patient with leukemia.

  12. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner’s Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy

    Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient. PMID:27656581

  13. Reference range of blood biomarkers for oxidative stress in Thoroughbred racehorses (2–5 years old)

    KUSANO, Kanichi; YAMAZAKI, Masahiko; KIUCHI, Masataka; KANEKO, Kouki; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium is known to play an important role in equine medicine and equine exercise physiology. There are abundant findings in this field; however, not many studies have been conducted for reference ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers in horses. This study was conducted to determine the reference values of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) using blood samples from 372 (191 males, 181 females) Thoroughbred racehorse aged 2 to 5 (3.43 ± 1.10 (mean ± SD)) years old. There were obvious gender differences in oxidative biomarkers, and growth/age-related changes were observed especially in females. Gender and age must be considered when interpreting obtained oxidative stress biomarkers for diagnosis of disease or fitness alterations in Thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:27703408

  14. Representations of eating and of a nutrition program among female caregivers of children under 5 years old in Tizimin, Yucatan, Mexico Representaciones sobre la alimentación y el programa de nutrición entre mujeres responsables de niños mexicanos menores de 5 años Representação da alimentação e de programa alimentar entre mulheres responsáveis por crianças mexicanas menores de 5 anos

    Gloria de los Ángeles Uicab-Pool

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out between January and April 2008 with 14 caregivers of children younger than 5 years residing in Tizimín city, Mexico. It aimed to understand the social representations of eating and the Programa Oportunidades [Opportunity Program] held by caregivers taking into account their social and cultural context. This qualitative investigation with an ethnographic approach was based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two empirical categories emerged: 1 feeding and 2 an aid. The first refers to the caregivers' representation of eating patterns of children younger than 5 years and the second reveals that the program is considered an aid, which favors and helps caregivers to meet part of their needs. The study achieved the proposed objectives since it enabled us to understand caregivers in the complex task of feeding these children and also to propose strategies in several spheres to improve infant nutrition.El estudio fue realizado con 14 responsables del cuidado del menor de 5 años en Tizimín, México, durante el período de enero la abril de 2008. Se buscó comprender las representaciones sociales de estas personas en relación a la alimentación y la los componentes de nutrición del Programa Oportunidades, considerando el contexto social y cultural. La investigación cualitativa con abordaje antropológico, tipo etnográfico tuvo como base la observación participante y las entrevistas semiestructuradas, dirigidas a las responsables. De los resultados emergieron dos categorías empíricas: 1 dar de comer y 2 una ayuda. La primera se refiere a cómo las responsables representan la alimentación del menor de 5 años y la segunda reveló que el Programa es considerado una ayuda y que las apoya a solucionar, en parte, sus necesidades. Se alcanzaron los objetivos al comprender a las responsables en esa tarea compleja que realizan de alimentar a los niños y así proponer estrategias, en varias esferas

  15. Utilidad de la espirometría en preescolares de 4 y 5 años Utility of spirometry in 4 to 5 -years old preschool patients

    Jury Hernández C

    2006-03-01

    respectively. Expiratory time was 6 s in 9.6% (n=17 of patients. Expiratory time was larger in children >5- compared to <5- years old (4.1 ± 1.3 s versus 3.1 ± 0.49 s; p < 0.018. VEF1 variability in 162 children having 2 or 3 acceptable maneuvers was < 0.1 L in 67%, < 5% in 50% and < 10% in 80%. Spirometry was normal in 80.5%, obstructive in 19% and restrictive in one patient. Conclusions:We confirmed that most of the preschool patients are able to perform an adequate spirometric test in terms of acceptability and reproducibility. We suggest to study a normal population of preshool children in order to have normal local data available

  16. Validade do padrão de higiene bucal de crianças aos cinco anos de idade relatado pelas mães Validación del patrón de higiene bucal de niños de cinco años de edad relatado por las madres Validity of 5-year-old children's oral hygiene pattern referred by mothers

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    2011-08-01

    niños no son buenas sustitutas del patrón real de higiene bucal medido por medio de examen clínico bucal de placa dental.OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of oral hygiene questions for children, as commonly used in epidemiological studies, and assess their validity by family income and mother's education. METHODS: A subsample of 1122 children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Southern Brazil (who had participated in a 2009 oral health study was analyzed. The children received dental examinations, and their mothers were interviewed at home. The gold standard for oral hygiene was the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index; from its total score, the outcome was dichotomized into the absence (total score = 0 or presence (total score ≥ 1 of dental plaque. The mothers answered questions related to their child's oral hygiene, including daily toothbrushing, toothbrushing before sleeping and the combination of the two (oral hygiene. These responses were dichotomized into regular and irregular. The validity was determined by calculating the percentages and respective 95% confidence intervals for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of dental plaque was 37.0%. The following sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were observed: 29.6%, 82.5%, 49.8% and 66.6%, respectively, for irregular daily toothbrushing; 41.8%, 64.6%, 40.9% and 65.5%, respectively, for irregular toothbrushing before sleeping; and 48.8%, 60.8%, 42.2% and 67.0%, respectively, for irregular oral hygiene. The validity of the oral hygiene reporting varied across different levels of family income and mother's education. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were higher among children with lower incomes and less educated mothers, while opposite associations were observed for specificity and negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: Oral hygiene questions answered by mothers of five

  17. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  18. Quantitative Effects of Repeated Muscle Vibrations on Gait Pattern in a 5-Year-Old Child with Cerebral Palsy

    Filippo Camerota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate quantitatively and objectively the effects of repeated muscle vibration (rMV of triceps surae on the gait pattern in a 5-year-old patient with Cerebral Palsy with equinus foot deformity due to calf spasticity. Methods. The patient was assessed before and one month after the rMV treatment using Gait Analysis. Results. rMV had positive effects on the patient's gait pattern, as for spatio-temporal parameters (the stance duration and the step length increased their values after the treatment and kinematics. The pelvic tilt reduced its anteversion and the hip reduced the high flexion evidenced at baseline; the knee and the ankle gained a more physiological pattern bilaterally. The Gillette Gait Index showed a significant reduction of its value bilaterally, representing a global improvement of the child's gait pattern. Conclusions. The rMV technique seems to be an effective option for the gait pattern improvement in CP, which can be used also in very young patient. Significant improvements were displayed in terms of kinematics at all lower limb joints, not only at the joint directly involved by the treatment (i.e., ankle and knee joints but also at proximal joints (i.e., pelvis and hip joint.

  19. A 5-year-old girl with a congenital ganglioneuroma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy: a case report

    Ponce-Camacho Marco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ganglioneuroma is a rare, benign, neuroblastic tumor arising mainly from the central or peripheral autonomic nervous system, especially the sympathetic system. The most affected anatomical sites are the posterior mediastinum, retroperitoneum, adrenal gland and head and neck soft tissue. In the current literature, reports of ganglioneuroma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and its cytological appearance are scarce. Case Presentation A 5-year-old girl presented with a mass in the cervical region since birth. Laboratory routine tests were within normal limits, ultrasonography demonstrated a solid and well-circumscribed lesion in the soft tissues of the cervical region. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was carried out, and the obtained smears showed a mixture of mature ganglion cells and groups of spindle cells suggestive of schwann cell origin. A diagnosis of ganglioneuroma was suggested. Core biopsy and surgical resection confirmed this diagnosis. Conclusion Congenital ganglioneuroma of the cervical region is an uncommon soft tissue benign neoplasm of neuroblastic origin, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of head and neck pediatric soft tissue tumors. Fine needle aspiration biopsy technique is a reliable method that can be used with confidence when dealing with pediatric soft tissue tumors.

  20. Severity of Diarrhea and Malnutrition among Under Five-Year-Old Children in Rural Bangladesh

    Ferdous, Farzana; Sumon K. Das; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D.; Latham, Jonathan R.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Ud-Din, Abu I. M. S.; Ishrat J Azmi; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Faruque, Abu S.G.

    2013-01-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%,...

  1. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  2. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to differen

  3. Socioeconomic and clinical variables association wikth risk indicators of dental caries in 5-year-old children

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo proposto foi avaliar a associação das condições socioeconômicas com o risco de cárie dentária e lesão inicial em crianças de 5 anos de idade da cidade de Piracicaba-SP, Brasil, em 2005. A metodologia utilizada consistiu em uma amostra de 728 crianças matriculadas em 22 pré-escolas públicas (n=428) e 18 pré-escolas privadas (n=300). Os exames foram realizados por um examinador previamente calibrado, no pátio das pré-escolas, sob luz natural, com auxílio de espelho bucal plan...

  4. Assessing Selective Sustained Attention in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children: Evidence from a New Paradigm

    Fisher, Anna; Thiessen, Erik; Godwin, Karrie; Kloos, Heidi; Dickerson, John

    2013-01-01

    Selective sustained attention (SSA) is crucial for higher order cognition. Factors promoting SSA are described as exogenous or endogenous. However, there is little research specifying how these factors interact during development, due largely to the paucity of developmentally appropriate paradigms. We report findings from a novel paradigm designed…

  5. Plant Growth Variation At Combined Progeny And Provenance Of 5-Year-Old Intsia Bijuga (Colebr. O.Kuntze In Sobang, Banten

    Hamdan Adma Adinugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate plant growth of Intsia bijuga at 5 years old in Sobang, Banten for supplying good genetic material in the future. Establishment of the trial was conducted in 2007 using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD that consisted of 6 blocks, 100 families nested in 10 provenances, 4 treeplot for each family with a spacing of 4 x4 m. Measurements were taken periodically every year on the survival percentage, total height and stem diameter at the breast height or dbh. At the age of 5 years showed that the significant differences among provenance in survival percentage that ranged from 41.61 to 65.11 %,  average of plant height were 1.04 to 2.82 m and dbh 1.24 to 1.59 cm. The growth variation families also showed significant differences in height and diameter. The survival rate ranged from 12.5-91.67 %, average plant height were 0.52-2.55 m and dbh 0.90-2.44 cm. Individual tree heritability estimate for height was height (0.344 while that of diameter was moderate (0.259. Family heritabilities for height and diameter was considered moderate, namely 0.573 and 0.491 respectively. Genetic correlation between height and diameter growth was positive and high (0.834.

  6. Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161035.html Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5: Study ... 5 years old -- may be at risk of suicide. Black elementary school-age boys seem to have ...

  7. The Use of Reported Speech in Children's Narratives: A Priming Study

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…

  8. A Developmental Difference in Shape Processing and Word-Shape Associations between 4 and 6.5 Year Olds

    Bart Ons

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In distinguishing individual shapes (defined by their contours, older children (6.5 years of age on average performed better than younger children (4 years of age on average, and, although the task did not involve any categorization or generalization, the error pattern was qualitatively affected by shape differences that are generally common distinctions between objects belonging to different categories. The influence of these shape differences was also observed for unfamiliar shapes, demonstrating that the influence of categorization experience was not modulated by the retrieval of shape features from known categories but rather related to a different perception of shape by age. The results suggest a direct influence of categorization experience on more abstract shape processing. When children were distinguishing shapes, new words were paired with the target shapes, and in 2 additional tasks, the acquired name–shape associations were tested. The younger age group was able to remember more words correctly.

  9. [Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) as cause of isolated gamma GT rise in a 5-year old boy with hepatomegaly].

    Wössmann, W; Wiemann, J; Körber, F; Gortner, L

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of HFI is easily missed during childhood. It should be suspected in children presenting with hepatomegaly and an isolated increase in GGT. A carefully taken nutritional history forms the basis of the diagnosis of HFI which can be confirmed by molecular analysis with a sensitivity of > 95%. I.v. fructose tolerance tests and liver biopsies often can be omitted.

  10. A compreensão da gratidão e teoria da mente em crianças de 5 anos The understanding of gratitude and theory of mind in 5-year-olds

    Lia Beatriz de Lucca Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se relações entre compreensão da gratidão (GRA e desenvolvimento de uma teoria da mente (TOM com 228 crianças norteamericanas (53% meninas de 5 anos. Testaram-se as seguintes hipóteses: (a não há diferença de sexo em GRA ou TOM, (b as crianças com melhor desempenho nas tarefas de TOM têm melhor GRA, (c TOM é condição necessária para GRA. Utilizaram-se três tarefas para avaliar TOM: consideração da perspectiva visual, crença falsa de primeira e de segunda ordem. Contaram-se às crianças duas histórias sobre gratidão. Avaliou-se GRA a partir de suas respostas a perguntas feitas após a leitura de cada história. As duas primeiras hipóteses foram confirmadas. A hipótese de que TOM seria condição necessária para GRA não encontrou suficiente suporte empírico.We examined relations between the understanding of gratitude (GRA and the development of a theory of mind (TOM. The study was done with 228 5-year-old North American children (53% female. We tested the following hypotheses: (a there are no sex differences in GRA or TOM, (b children who perform better on TOM tasks have better GRA, (c TOM is a necessary condition for GRA. We used three tasks to evaluate TOM: visual perspective taking, first-order false belief, and second-order false belief. The children were read two vignettes about gratitude. GRA was evaluated based on children's responses to questions asked after each vignette was read. The first two hypotheses were supported. The hypothesis that TOM would be a necessary condition for GRA did not receive sufficient empirical support.

  11. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a 5-year-old boy with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome

    Md. Habibur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a rare clinical and radiological phenomenon is encountered in children compared to adults. In our center, a 5-yearold boy with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS presented with headache and blurring of vision during relapse after a long course of immunosuppressive therapy. Evaluation by computed tomography scan of the brain showed that the child had hypodense areas throughout the occipital region of the brain. All signs of PRES, except papilledema, resolved after seven days of supportive treatment evidenced by subsequent radiological evaluation. PRES should be kept in mind in any nephrotic child who is on prolonged immunosuppressive therapy.

  12. Overweight, Obesity and Underweight Is Associated with Adverse Psychosocial and Physical Health Outcomes among 7-Year-Old Children: The 'Be Active, Eat Right' Study

    A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Limited studies have reported on associations between overweight, and physical and psychosocial health outcomes among younger children. This study evaluates associations between overweight, obesity and underweight in 5-year-old children, and parent-reported health outcomes at

  13. THE SCANDCLEFT RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIALS: SPEECH OUTCOMES IN 5-YEAR-OLDS WITH UCLP – consonant proficiency and errors

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Persson, Christina; Lohmander, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. Design Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicenter study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark, Finland......: 80%, D: 85%. Across all trials, girls achieved better PCC scores, excluding s-errors, than boys (91.0% and 87.5%, respectively) (P=.01). Conclusions PCC scores were higher in arm A than B in Trial 1, whereas no differences were found between arms in Trial 2 or 3. The burden of care in terms...... of secondary pharyngeal surgeries, number of fistulae and speech therapy visits differed....

  14. Teaching Children about the Inverse Relation between Addition and Subtraction

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Hallett, Darcy; Bell, Daniel; Evans, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Two intervention studies are described. Both were designed to study the effects of teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. The interventions were successful with 8-year-old children in Study 1 and to a limited extent with 5-year-old children in Study 2. In Study 1 teaching children about inversion increased…

  15. Psychometric Assessment of the Achenbach & Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist in Pre-schoolers between 4,0 and 5,5 years old of lower Socioeconomic Status

    Sonia Zambrano Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Achenbach and Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist was assessed psychometrically in a group of 100 preschool students between 4,0 and 5,5 years old who attend a public school at Bogota city. It was done by applying formats to parents and teachers. These formats were previously translated, linguistically adapted and piloted. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the total scale was 0,94 -0,94 for parents and 0,95 for teachers-. The analysis of factors by main components saturated the variance in 87%, although it did not correspond to the factors proposed by the original model. This measure gives diagnostic information about the children’s behavioral structure from a multiaxial perspective. Moreover, it identifies profiles of the internalizing and externalizing dimensions of behavior.

  16. Children's and adults' use of verbal information to visually anticipate others' actions: A study on explicit and implicit social-cognitive processing.

    Paulus, Markus; Schuwerk, Tobias; Sodian, Beate; Ganglmayer, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    According to recent theories, social cognition is based on two different types of information-processing; an implicit or action-based one and an explicit or verbal one. The present study examined whether implicit and explicit social-cognitive information processing interact with each other by investigating young children's and adults' use of verbal (i.e., explicit) information to predict others' actions. Employing eye-tracking to measure anticipatory eye-movements as a measure of implicit processing, Experiment 1 presented 1.5-, 2.5-, and 3.5-year-old children as well as adults with agents who announced to move to either of two possible targets. The results show that only the 3.5-year-old children and adults, but not the 1.5- and 2.5-year-old children were able to use verbal information to correctly anticipate others' actions. Yet, Experiments 2 and 3 showed that 2.5-year-old children were able to use explicit information to give a correct explicit answer (Experiment 2) and that they were able to use statistical information to anticipate the other's actions (Experiment 3). Overall, the study is in line with theoretical claims that two types of information-processing underlie human social cognition. It shows that these two inform each other by 3years of age.

  17. Important risk factors of mortality among children aged 1-59 months in rural areas of Shahroud, Iran: A community-based nested case-control study

    Reza Chaman

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators.

  18. Influence of a physical education plan on psychomotor development profiles of preschool children

    Teixeira Costa, Hélder José; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Arufe-Giráldez, Vìctor; Pazos-Couto, José María; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of structured physical education on the psychomotor development of 3 to 5 year-old preschool children. The sample consisted of 324 students of both sexes (3 to 5 year-old) from 9 public kindergarten classes in Porto, Portugal. A battery of psychomotor tests (pre-test) was used to assess the students’ psychomotor development profiles. The sample was divided in 2 groups: an experimental group (162 students) and a control group (162 students). Physic...

  19. Changing the main indicators to assess motor function in children with cerebral palsy spastic form by hydrokinesitherapy

    Taran I.V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the efficiency of the developed technique hydrokinetic system of physical rehabilitation for children 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. Examined the impact of comparing the effectiveness of exercise in the water by two techniques: the author and accepted. In experiment involved 24 people aged 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. The experiment lasted one year, classes were held hydrokinesitherapy 2 times a week. In the study recorde...

  20. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  1. Severity of diarrhea and malnutrition among under five-year-old children in rural Bangladesh.

    Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon K; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D; Latham, Jonathan R; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ud-Din, Abu I M S; Azmi, Ishrat J; Talukder, Kaisar A; Faruque, Abu S G

    2013-08-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%, P household income (1.71 [1.42, 2.07]). Childhood malnutrition was associated with dysentery and dehydrating diarrhea.

  2. School Readiness and Children's Developmental Status. ERIC Digest.

    Zill, Nicholas; And Others

    In order to provide data to help schools respond to the diversity in the backgrounds and educational needs of children entering school, a U.S. Department of Education study asked parents of 3- to 5-year-old children who had not yet started kindergarten about their children's accomplishments that indicated emerging literacy and numeracy skills and…

  3. Language learning and brain reorganization in a 3.5-year-old child with left perinatal stroke revealed using structural and functional connectivity.

    François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a

  4. Symbolic Representation across Domains in Preschool Children.

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examined understanding of notational representation among 3- to 5-year-olds. Children solved problems when shown cards with a picture or word indicating identity or a quantity indicator. In the easier condition, children had difficulty solving the problems as a function of their familiarity with the notation, suggesting weaknesses in…

  5. Prevalencia de desnutrición en menores de cinco años de Tabasco Malnutrition prevalence in children under 5 years old in Tabasco, Mexico

    1998-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la prevalencia de desnutrición que se presentó en niños tabasqueños menores de cinco años en 1996, y su evolución entre 1991 y 1996. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal que incluyó a 1 256 niños de 593 comunidades (31 urbanas y 562 rurales) de los 17 municipios de Tabasco. Resultados. El indicador peso/edad registró 41% de prevalencia de desnutrición, distribuida en leve (26.12%), moderada (12.62%) y severa (2.39%). En niños de entre 1 y 5 años la ...

  6. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses and genotyping of rotavirus A, adenovirus and astrovirus among children under 5 years old in Gabon

    Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: These findings improve our knowledge of circulating enteric viruses in Gabon. The emergence of unusual G6P[6] strain of rotavirus A, predominant, suggested a particular epidemiological surveillance of circulating rotavirus strains during the introduction of vaccination in Gabon.

  7. Overweight, Obesity and Underweight Is Associated with Adverse Psychosocial and Physical Health Outcomes among 7-Year-Old Children: The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    Amy van Grieken; Renders, Carry M.; Wijtzes, Anne I; HiraSing, Remy A.; Hein Raat

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Limited studies have reported on associations between overweight, and physical and psychosocial health outcomes among younger children. This study evaluates associations between overweight, obesity and underweight in 5-year-old children, and parent-reported health outcomes at age 7 years.Methods:Data were used from the 'Be active, eat right' study. Height and weight were measured at 5 and 7 years. Parents reported on child physical and psychosocial health outcomes (e.g....

  8. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. Methods The study was based on a cohort organized to monitor...

  9. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. Methods: The study was based on a cohort organized to monit...

  10. Narrative Development in Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Castilla-Earls, Anny; Petersen, Douglas; Spencer, Trina; Hammer, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the narratives produced by 3-, 4-, and 5- year old Spanish-speaking (SS) children. Narrative productions of 104 typically developing children were collected using a story-retelling task and coded using the Index of Narrative Complexity. The results of this study indicate…

  11. Working memory limitations in children with severe language impairment

    Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an

  12. Secret Keepers: Children's Theory of Mind and Their Conception of Secrecy

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Corson, Kimberly; Sastry, Anuradha; Wright, Holly

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?21) in a university-sponsored preschool programme and children completed a theory of mind (ToM) task. After grouping children into pass/no pass groups for the ToM tasks, analyses using interpretive phenomenology indicated that preschool children explain…

  13. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  14. False Belief, Emotion Understanding, and Social Skills among Head Start and Non-Head Start Children

    Weimer, Amy A.; Guajardo, Nicole R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships among false belief, emotion understanding, and social skills with 60 3- to 5-year-olds (29 boys, 31 girls) from Head Start and two other preschools. Children completed language, false belief, and emotion understanding measures; parents and teachers evaluated children's social skills. Children's false…

  15. Mothers' Production of Hand Gestures While Communicating with their Preschool Children Under Various Task Conditions.

    Gutmann, Arlyne J.; Turnure, James E.

    This study investigates hand gesturing behavior produced by mothers communicating with their first born 2- to 3-year-old children and their 4- to 5-year-old children. Thirty-two mother-child pairs were assigned to groups balanced equally for age and sex. After it was confirmed that the older children produced longer utterances, the mother-child…

  16. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects : clinical communication

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, whichmaybe primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined.Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as looselyarranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the

  17. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz; Bülent Sönmez; Kamuran Karaman; Burhan Beger; Adnan Mercen; Süleyman Alioğlu; Yaşar Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  18. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; SÖNMEZ Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; CESUR, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  19. Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children's Evaluations of Emotional Fantasy

    Carrick, Nathalie; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated children's ability to differentiate emotionally evocative fantastic and real events. Methods: Four- and 5-year-old (n=145) maltreated and nonmaltreated children viewed images depicting positive and negative fantastic and real events and reported…

  20. Children's Comprehension of Two Types of Syntactic Ambiguity

    Zimmer, Elly Jane

    2017-01-01

    This study asks whether children accept both interpretations of ambiguous sentences with contexts supporting each option. Twenty-six 3- to 5-year-old English-speaking children and a control group of 30 English-speaking adults participated in a truth value judgment task. As a step towards evaluating the complexity of syntactic ambiguity, the…

  1. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  2. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  3. An Ecological Exploration of Young Children's Digital Play: Framing Children's Social Experiences with Technologies in Early Childhood

    Arnott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines an ecological framework for describing children's social experiences during digital play. It presents evidence from a study that explored how 3- to 5-year-old children negotiated their social experiences as they used technologies in preschool. Utilising a systematic and iterative cycle of data collection and analysis,…

  4. Does Valence Matter? Effects of Negativity on Children's Early Understanding of the Truth and Lies

    Wandrey, Lindsay; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Early deceptive behavior often involves acts of wrongdoings on the part of children. As a result, it has often been assumed, although not tested directly, that children are better at identifying lies about wrongdoing than lies about other activities. We tested this assumption in two studies. In Study 1, 67 3- to 5-year-olds viewed vignettes in…

  5. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Ch

  6. Knowing When to Be "Rational": Flexible Economic Decision Making and Executive Function in Preschool Children

    Lee, Wendy S. C.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to delay gratification may not indicate poor control or irrationality, but might be an adaptive response. Two studies investigated 3.5- and 4.5-year-old children's ability to adapt their delay and saving behavior when their preference (e.g., to delay or not delay) became nonadaptive. In Study 1 (N = 140), children's delay preference was…

  7. The Joint Effects of Risk Status, Gender, Early Literacy and Cognitive Skills on the Presence of Dyslexia among a Group of High-Risk Chinese Children

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…

  8. Neuropsychological development in 2~5 years old offspring of hypertension disorder complicating pregnancy%妊娠高血压疾病患者子代2~5岁神经心理发育现况调查

    杨柳; 刘丽; 郑冬梅; 王志明; 解雅春; 王忠清; 花琛; 王忆军; 张慧颖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探求妊娠期高血压疾病(hypertensioh disorder complicating pregnancy,HDCP)对其子代神经心理发育的影响. [方法]采用1:1配对的病例对照研究方法,随访HDCP患者2~5岁子代与正常对照儿童各27人,运用"0~6岁小儿神经心理发育量表"对两组儿童的智能进行评价,并收集两组儿童的生活环境及生活习惯行为等. [结果]HDCP子代在妊娠天数、出生体重及出生身长方面均低于正常儿童(P<0.05).在神经心理发育方面,显示出HDCP子代在语言和社交两个维度上的智能以及发育商方面显著低于正常对照儿童(P<0.05).在生活环境办面,社交行为智能发育与被动吸烟呈负相关,而与常住人口呈正相关(P<0.05).在生活行为方式方面,社交行为智能发育和发育商与每日户外活动时间、喜欢与同龄儿童交流呈正相关(P<0.05),而与每日观看电视/电脑的时间呈负相关(P<0.05).[结论]HDCP患者生活环境和生活行为方式对儿童的神经心理发育有影响.%[Objective]To explore the effect of hypertension disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP) on neuropsychological development of their 2~5 years old offspring.[Methods]Using 1 : 1 matched case-control study method, chosen 27 offspring in HDCP group and control group.The intelligence was evaluated utilizing 0~6 years infant neuropsychological development scale.The relevant informations were collected, including living environments and lifestyle behaviors.[Results]The offspring with HDCP mother were lower than the normal children in the gestational duration days, birth weight and birth length (P<0.05).The language and socialization dimension of neuropsychological development and developmental quotient (DQ) were lower in offspring of HDCP than those of control in 2~5 years old (P<0.05).On the living environment, there was negative correlation between socialization and passive smoking (P<0.05), but positive correlation between

  9. 3-5-year-old Children's Understanding of the Psychological Nature of Dreams and the Development%3-5岁幼儿对梦的心理属性的理解及其发展状况

    孥良功; 徐琴美

    2012-01-01

    以杭州市两所幼儿园的96-名幼儿为被试,考察幼儿对梦的心理属性的理解及其发展状况。结果表明:(1)3岁幼儿已经初步理解了梦的非物质性,并认为梦具有共享性;4岁幼儿能较好地理解梦的非物质性,并初步理解了梦的非共享性;5岁幼儿能较好地理解梦同时具有非物质性和非共享性特点。(2)3-4岁幼儿对梦的非物质性的理解好于对非共享性的理解。%Taldng 96 children from 2 kindergartens in Hangzhou as subjects, the researchers studied their understanding of the psychological nature of dreams and its development, the results indicated that (1) 3 year olds had a primitive understanding of the immaterial nature of dreams and believed dreams were shared; 4 year olds obtained a better understanding of immaterial nature of dreams and a primitive understanding of dreams' private nature; and the 5 year olds had a good understanding of both natures of dreams; (2) 3-4-year olds had a better understanding of the immaterial nature than the private nature of dreams.

  10. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  11. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  12. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  13. The Development of Recipient-Dependent Sharing Behavior and Sharing Expectations in Preschool Children

    Paulus, Markus; Moore, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the development of sharing expectations and sharing behavior in 3 groups of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. We examined (a) whether preschool children expect a person to share more with a friend than with a disliked peer and (b) whether their expectation about others' sharing behavior depends on whether there is a cost or…

  14. The Pathway to English Word Reading in Chinese ESL Children: The Role of Spelling

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…

  15. The Effectiveness of Preschool for Children from Low-Income Families: A Review of the Literature.

    Helmich, Edith

    This report, one of several background papers for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education, examines the effects of preschool experience on Illinois children from low income families. The 1980 U. S. Census for Illinois identified 81,959 preschool-age children (3 to 5 years old) from poverty-level families; 54 of these young…

  16. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  17. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Risk for Inattention and Negative Emotionality in Children

    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714).…

  18. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  19. The role of extrinsic rewards and cue-intention association in prospective memory in young children

    Sheppard, D.P.; Kretschmer, A.; Knispel, E.; Vollert, B.; Altgassen, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also

  20. A Study of Bones = Un Estudio de Huesos.

    Kogan, Yvonne

    Proving that project work can be done with young children who are schooled in a full-immersion program in a second language, this article describes a study of bones undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. The article discusses the process and shows the results achieved by the children during the three phases of the…

  1. The Role of Physical Context, Verbal Skills, Non-Parental Care, Social Support, and Type of Parental Discipline in the Development of ToM Capacity in Five-Year-Old Children

    Galende, Nuria; de Miguel, Manuel Sanchez; Arranz, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of family context on the performance of 5-year-old children (N = 70) in theory of mind (ToM) tasks. The children's performances were assessed during individual sessions held at school. Children's verbal skills were assessed using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT). Interviews were also…

  2. Deciduous teeth caries status and impact factors in a 5 year old Guangxi cohort%广西5岁儿童乳牙龋病相关因素分析

    李晓捷; 黄华; 黄高明; 何克新

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the status of deciduous caries in a population 5-year olds in Guangxi and the possible relative influencing factors, thus to provide scientific basis for the establishment of oral health care policies in Guangxi. METHODS: An Equal-sized stratified multi-stage randomly sampling design was applied to obtain a representative sample group consisted of Guangxi residents aged 5 years, with a gender ratio of 1:1. The caries on the crown of deciduous teeth was assessed; thereafter the data including their oral health habits, diet condition, and family -related factors etc. were obtained through questionnaires from children's parents. RESULTS: In the group aged 5, the caries rate was 80.7% , and the mean dmft(decayed, missed and filled teeth) was 6.06, there was no significant difference of prevalence between two sexes (P >0.05). In a multivariale logislic regression model, three factors including Zhuang nationality, the knowledge of fluoride toothpaste and checking the effect of children' s teeth brushing were proved to be relevant to deciduous teeth caries, although in single variable analysis the data showed that except these key variables more factors such as the frequency of intake of dairy products and the start age of bushing teeth also exhibited obvious impact on the status of deciduous caries. CONCLUSION: More efforts are in crucial need to help the rural and Zhuang children with their oral health behavior through promoting their parents' awareness, attitude and behavior of oral health.%目的:调查广西5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况及相关影响因素,为儿童龋病预防提供资料.方法:采用多阶段、分层、等容量、随机抽样的方法抽取广西420名5岁儿童进行乳牙龋病检查,同时对其家长进行现场问卷调查.对调查结果采用卡方检验分析和多因素非条件Logistic回归分析.结果:乳牙患龋率和龋均分别为80.7%、6.06,男女间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).单因素分析表

  3. Children's Attention to Sample Composition in Learning, Teaching and Discovery

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.; Brickman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Two studies compared children's attention to sample composition--whether a sample provides a diverse representation of a category of interest--during teacher-led and learner-driven learning contexts. In Study 1 (n = 48), 5-year-olds attended to sample composition to make inferences about biological properties only when samples were presented by a…

  4. Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…

  5. Children Use Different Cues to Guide Noun and Verb Extensions

    Childers, Jane B.; Heard, M. Elaine; Ring, Kolette; Pai, Anushka; Sallquist, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning new words involves decoding both how a word fits the current situation and how it could be used in new situations. Three studies explore how two types of cues--sentence structure and the availability of multiple instances--affect children's extensions of nouns and verbs. In each study, 2.5-year-olds heard nouns, verbs, or no new word…

  6. Changing the main indicators to assess motor function in children with cerebral palsy spastic form by hydrokinesitherapy

    Taran I.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the efficiency of the developed technique hydrokinetic system of physical rehabilitation for children 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. Examined the impact of comparing the effectiveness of exercise in the water by two techniques: the author and accepted. In experiment involved 24 people aged 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. The experiment lasted one year, classes were held hydrokinesitherapy 2 times a week. In the study recorded the performance evaluation of basic motor functions to the experiment, six months later, and after the experiment. It is shown that an important component of physical rehabilitation of patients is hydrokinesotherapy. Shows the direction of the development of motor skills of children 3-5 years old. Study of the development of indicators basic motor functions.

  7. The Digital Playground: Kindergarten Children Learning Sign Language through Multimedia

    Ellis, Kirsten; Blashki, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses a study of 4-5 year old children's use of technology to assist and enhance the acquisition of a play lexicon within a formal educational setting. The new language system to be learned was Auslan, a signed/nonverbal language. A purpose specific software program was developed by the authors, "Auslan Kids," in order to…

  8. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain size of young children with autism

    Farah Ashrafzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome of social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. While the impairments associated with ASD tend to deteriorate from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance that the syndrome is diagnosed at an early age. One means of facilitating this is through understanding how the brain of people with ASD develops from early childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for in vivo and non-invasive investigations of the morphology of the human brain, especially when the subjects are children. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of existing structural MRI studies that have investigated brain size in ASD children of up to 5 years old. Methods: In this study, we systematically reviewed published papers that describe research studies in which the brain size of ASD children has been examined. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for all relevant original articles that described the use of MRI techniques to study ASD patients who were between 1 and 5 years old. To be included in the review, all studies needed to be cohort and case series that involved at least 10 patients. No time limitations were placed on the searched articles within the inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria were non-English articles, case reports, and articles that described research involving subjects that were not within the qualifying age range of 1-5 years old.Result: After an initial screening process through which the title, abstracts, and full text of the articles were reviewed to confirm they met the inclusion criteria, a total of 10 relevant articles were studied in depth. All studies found that children with ASD who were within the selected age range had a larger brain size than children without ASD.Discussion: The findings of recent studies indicate that the vast majority of ASD patients exhibit an enlarged brain; however, the extent of

  9. Correlates of toothbrushing in preschool children by their parents in four ethnic groups in the Netherlands.

    Verrips, G.H.; Kalsbeek, H.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Filedt, T.L.; Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    A previous study among Amsterdam 5-year-old children showed that on average, the older the child at the onset of toothbrushing and the less frequent the toothbrushing, the more life time caries experience it had. The aim of the present study was to assess correlates of these two caries risk factors,

  10. Correlates of toothbrushing in preschool children by their parents in four ethnic groups in The Netherlands

    Verrips, G.H.; Kalsbeek, H.; Woerkum, C.M. van; Koelen, M.; Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    A previous study among Amsterdam 5-year-old children showed that on average, the older the child at the onset of toothbrushing and the less frequent the toothbrushing, the more life time caries experience it had. The aim of the present study was to assess correlates of these two caries risk factors,

  11. Self-reported health-related quality of life in kindergarten children : psychometric properties of the Kiddy-KINDL

    Villalonga-Olives, E.; Kiese-Himmel, C.; Witte, C.; Almansa, J.; Dusilova, I.; Hacker, K.; von Steinbuechel, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the psychometric properties of the German self-reported version of the Kiddy-KINDL that measures Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in 3 to 5 year old kindergarten children. Study design: The population of the study comprised baseline data of a longitudinal study whose main

  12. [Helicobacter pylori infection in children without dyspepsia in Curundu and Parque Lefevre].

    Halphen, G M; Lindsay Estupiñán, J; Márquez, L E; Pon Chow, R L; Méndez, J R; Brandáriz, C; Oduber, L; Chanis, R

    1998-01-01

    A study of seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori determined by ELISA IgG, was conducted in 83 consecutive healthy children. The majority of the children (55%) had the bacterium. Seropositivity was demonstrated in 55% of the age group 0-5 years old, in 47% of 6-10, and in 67%, of the group 11 to 15. Of the children without sanitary inside their homes 86% were seropositive, versus 47% of the children with sanitary in their homes.

  13. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…

  14. Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning about the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Toyama, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…

  15. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  16. Classification Accuracy of Nonword Repetition when Used with Preschool-Age Spanish-Speaking Children

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to (a) describe and compare the nonword repetition (NWR) performance of preschool-age Spanish-speaking children (3- to 5-year-olds) with and without language impairment (LI) across 2 scoring approaches and (b) to contrast the classification accuracy of a Spanish NWR task when item-level and percentage…

  17. Concurrent and Longitudinal Links between Children's and Their Friends' Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Preschool

    Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal links between children's own and their nominated best friends' antisocial and prosocial behavior were studied in a normative sample of 3-5-year-olds (N = 203). Moderating effects of age and gender were also explored. Subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to obtain teacher ratings of…

  18. Acquisition of /s/-Clusters in Dutch-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders

    Gerrits, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of word initial s clusters of 3-5 year old Dutch children with phonological disorders. Within these clusters, sl was produced correctly most often, whereas sn and sx were the more difficult clusters. In cluster reductions, s+obstruent and sl clusters reduction patterns followed the Sonority Sequencing…

  19. Preschool Based JASPER Intervention in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism: Pilot RCT

    Goods, Kelly Stickles; Ishijima, Eric; Chang, Ya-Chih; Kasari, Connie

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study, we tested the effects of a novel intervention (JASPER, Joint Attention Symbolic Play Engagement and Regulation) on 3 to 5 year old, minimally verbal children with autism who were attending a non-public preschool. Participants were randomized to a control group (treatment as usual, 30 h of ABA-based therapy per week) or a…

  20. Measurement and Facilitation of Affectionate Behaviour in the Play of Young Children.

    Marton, John P.; Acker, Loren E.

    This study attempted to determine whether simple, naturalistic procedures could be used to increase the rate of physically affectionate behaviors directed at stuffed toy animals and at peers in the play of 4- and 5-year-old children. Procedures were developed for scoring affection and aggression during group play. The context of reading a story…

  1. The Impact of Foreign Housemaids on the Children of Working Mothers: A Case Study from Jordan

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2014-01-01

    The role of grandparents and other close relatives in caring for the children of working mothers has been diminishing in modern societies everywhere including Jordan. Concurrently, the dependence on housemaids to care for the children of working mothers has been on the rise. The impact of housemaids on young Jordanian children (4-5 years old) was…

  2. Three-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis of Prehension Movements in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: New Insights on Motor Impairment

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Piazza, Caterina; Villa, Laura; Molteni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at better clarifying whether action execution impairment in autism depends mainly on disruptions either in feedforward mechanisms or in feedback-based control processes supporting motor execution. To this purpose, we analyzed prehension movement kinematics in 4- and 5-year-old children with autism and in peers with typical…

  3. Adult derived genetic blood pressure scores and blood pressure measured in different body postures in young children

    Jansen, Maria Ac; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.; Visseren, Frank Lj; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Leusink, Maarten; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Der Zee, Anke H Maitland Van; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    2017-01-01

    Aims Several genes are related to blood pressure (BP) levels in adults, but it is largely unknown whether these genes also determine BP early in life. Methods Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured in 720 5-year-old children from the WHeezing-Illnesses-STudy-LEidsche-Rijn (WHISTLER)

  4. A design study to develop young children's understanding of multiplication and division

    Bicknell, Brenda; Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Nguyen, Nhung

    2016-12-01

    This design study investigated the use of multiplication and division problems to help 5-year-old children develop an early understanding of multiplication and division. One teacher and her class of 15 5-year-old children were involved in a collaborative partnership with the researchers. The design study was conducted over two 4-week periods in May-June and October-November. The focus in this article is on three key aspects of classroom teaching: instructional tasks, the use of representations, and discourse, including the mathematics register. Results from selected pre- and post-assessment tasks within a diagnostic interview showed that there were improvements in addition and subtraction as well as multiplication and division, even though the teaching had used multiplication and division problems. Students made progress on all four operational domains, with effect sizes ranging from approximately two thirds of a standard deviation to 2 standard deviations. Most of the improvement in students' number strategies was in moving from `counting all' to `counting on' and `skip counting'. The findings challenge the idea that learning experiences in addition and subtraction should precede those in multiplication and division as suggested in some curriculum documents.

  5. Children's (In)ability to Recover from Garden Paths in a Verb-Final Language: Evidence for Developing Control in Sentence Processing

    Choi, Youngon; Trueswell, John C.

    2010-01-01

    An eye-tracking study explored Korean-speaking adults' and 4- and 5-year-olds' ability to recover from misinterpretations of temporarily ambiguous phrases during spoken language comprehension. Eye movement and action data indicated that children, but not adults, had difficulty in recovering from these misinterpretations despite strong…

  6. Enteropatógenos associados com diarréia infantil (< 5 anos de idade em amostra da população da área metropolitana de Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil Enteropathogens associated with diarrheal disease in infants (< 5 years old in a population sample in Greater Metropolitan Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Felice Jaqueline Schnack

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a presença de enteropatógenos em 94 casos de diarréia e 45 casos-controle em crianças de 0 a 5 anos de idade, atendidas no Centro de Saúde Municipal de Criciúma, Santa Catarina. Entre os parasitos isolados, o Cryptosporidium (85,1% foi o mais freqüente, seguido pela Entamoeba histolytica (56,4% e a Giardia lamblia (4,3%. Quatro amostras apresentaram Escherichia coli enteropatogênica (4,3%. A Samonella e a Shiguella não foram detectadas em nenhuma amostra. Somente um caso foi positivo para o rotavírus (1,1%.Enteropathogens were investigated in 94 children with diarrhea and 45 age-matched controls, 0 to 5 years old, attending an outpatient unit in Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Cryptosporidium (85.1% topped the list of parasite isolates, followed by Entamoeba histolytica (56.4% and Giardia lamblia (4.3%. Four samples contained enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (4.3%. Samonella and Shiguella were not detected. Only one sample contained rotavirus (1.1%.

  7. "Pink Is a Girl's Color": A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergarteners' Discussions about Gender Roles

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…

  8. Children poisoning by carbamate: a descriptive study - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p193

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study had as its aim to characterize the children under 5 years old, attended with exogenous poisoning by carbamate (popularly called “chumbinho” – “small shot” at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza and to relate the signs and symptoms detected in this type of poisoning. It concerned a descriptive study, with a sample of 65 children attended during the period of 1998 to 2000, in Fortaleza, Ceará. It was noticed that the most affected age group was of those with 1 to 3 years old, not being verified any significant difference between sexes. The most evident signs and symptoms were myosis, vomits, profuse perspiration and sialorrhea and the predominant treatment was the use of active coal. It is concluded, therefore, that there is a need of putting into effect the health education, calling the society’s attention to the risks of the inadequate “chumbinho” use in the domiciliar environment.

  9. "The dog see the queen": Investigating Optional Infinitives in Multilingual Children

    Tulloh, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Children acquiring English as a first language go through a stage of optionally producing non-finite verb forms in ungrammatical contexts. This is often referred to as the optional infinitive stage of language development. This study investigates whether multilingual children aged between 3 and 5 years old produce more optional infinitives than their monolingual peers, in line with a constructivist account of first language acquisition (e.g. Gathercole, 2007; Paradis, 2010). The results showe...

  10. What happens to cavitated primary teeth over time? A 3.5-year prospective cohort study in China

    Hu, X.; Chen, X.; Fan, M.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Data showed that among 5-year-old Chinese, 96.7% of cavitated primary teeth were left untreated. The study aimed to report on the course of cavitated primary teeth within the Chinese health-care system over a period of 3.5 years. METHODS: Selection of high caries risk children for inclus

  11. Does Theory of Mind in Pre-Kindergarten Predict the Ability to Think about a Reader's Mind in Elementary School Compositions? A Longitudinal Study

    Peskin, Joan; Comay, Julie; Chen, Xi; Prusky, Carly

    2016-01-01

    A critical skill in emergent writing is the developing ability to take the perspective of different readers; however, the precursors of this skill have not yet been identified. In this longitudinal study, 105 children (90 after attrition) were tested at 3 time points: pre-kindergarten (3-4 years old, n = 105), kindergarten (5 years old, n = 97),…

  12. Evaluation of theory of mind: A study with students from public and private schools

    Rodrigues,Marisa Cosenza; Pelisson, Maíze Carla Costa; Silveira,Flávia Fraga; Ribeiro, Nathalie Nehmy; Silva, Renata de Lourdes Miguel da

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the development of the theory of mind in preschool children aged 4 and 5 years old, along with potential interactions among gender, age and whether children were from private or public schools. A total of 178 children (91 students from public schools and 87 from private schools) participated in the study. After securing ethical compliance with applicable guidelines, we applied the Theory-of-Mind-Scale. There was no evidence of differences regarding gender (p< 0.38). Differ...

  13. 吉林省边境地区≤5岁健康儿童肠道病毒携带状况调查%Enterovirus Carrying Status Among Healthy Children Under 5 Years Old in Jilin Province Frontier

    王爽; 常新; 周剑惠; 陈超; 刘影; 李大强; 程涛; 陶育晖; 许强

    2006-01-01

    目的 了解吉林省边境地区≤5岁健康儿童肠道病毒(EV)携带状况.方法 对采集的健康儿童粪便标本分离病毒,用微量板法中和试验进行鉴定.结果 125份粪便标本中共检出EV 27株,阳性率为21.6%.其中埃柯病毒25株,柯萨奇病毒1株,脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)病毒1株.结论 吉林省边境地区≤5岁健康儿童EV携带率较高,未发现脊灰野病毒.

  14. 辽宁省5岁儿童乳牙龋及家庭影响因素的分析%Dental caries status and family risk factors in 5-year-old children of Liaoning Province

    张颖; 程睿波; 刘璐

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究辽宁省5岁儿童乳牙龋齿患病情况与家庭因素的关系.方法:对792名5岁儿童进行患龋情况调查,并随机抽取396名儿童父(母)问卷.对影响乳牙龋的相关因素进行χ2检验及Logistic回归分析.结果:父(母)的文化程度和孩子睡前进食甜点对乳牙龋有显著的影响.结论:加强对家长的口腔卫生保健知识的指导,控制儿童睡前甜食和饮料摄入,是防止乳牙龋发生的有效途径.

  15. Caries Risk Factors for Deciduous Teeth among 5-year-old Children in Fuzhou%福州市5岁儿童乳龋危险因素研究

    冯岩; 李威; 卢友光

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解福州市5岁儿童乳牙龋的危险因素,为预防儿童乳牙龋提供依据.方法 调查1 848名福州市5岁儿童口腔健康情况,对影响乳牙龋发生的社会和行为因素进行Logistic回归分析.结果 乳牙龋与多种流行病学危险因素有关,包括儿童的一般情况、母亲妊娠和分娩情况、婴幼儿期患病和服药情况、喂养情况、口腔卫生情况、就医行为及母亲的口腔健康知识情况等.Logistic回归分析结果显示,家庭月收入高、足月生产、母亲自然分娩、母亲分娩年龄较大、每天吃零食次数少和经常检查牙齿是儿童乳龋的保护性因素.结论 改善儿童口腔卫生状况应作为口腔疾病预防工作的重点.

  16. 3~5岁幼儿对情绪表达规则的理解与运用%On 3-5-Year-Old Children's Understanding and Use of Emotional Display Rules

    张金荣; 杜春霞; 杨丽珠

    2010-01-01

    本研究随机选取某幼儿园96名3~5岁幼儿,运用情境实验法考察其对情绪表达规则的理解与运用.研究结果表明,幼儿在3岁时已具有一定的区分内外情绪差异的能力,4岁左右这种能力开始迅速发展,且在积极和消极情境下发展趋势较一致,幼儿性别与情境类型的交互作用显著.在策略运用上,平静化策略出现频率最高,掩饰策略次之,夸大和弱化策略的运用相对较少.

  17. The Characteristics of the Emotion Regulation of 4-5 Year-old Children in Negative Emotional Situation%4~5岁儿童消极情绪情境中的情绪调节特点

    姜旭; 钱文

    2015-01-01

    情绪调节能力是儿童适应社会生活、维持人际关系必须具备的能力之一.研究者采用实验方法探究4~5岁儿童在消极情绪情境中的情绪调节特点.结果发现,六种情绪调节策略的运用中,替代活动策略的运用在此期间有显著的发展.无论是4岁组还是5岁组儿童,运用最多的是问题解决策略,最少的是发泄策略.此外,4岁组幼儿更多运用自我安慰和被动应付策略,5岁组幼儿则更多运用替代活动策略.

  18. Tympanal and rectal temperature comparison in children younger than 5-year-old%5岁以下儿童直肠温与鼓膜温差异性比较

    张跃晖

    2001-01-01

    对5岁以下儿童进行直肠温与鼓膜温差异性比较,为临床实践提供依据.结果:在体温正常或发热的儿童中,其鼓膜温与直肠温具有高度相关性;得出鼓膜温与直肠温的均差为0.29±0.34℃,具有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:鼓膜温与直肠温具有高度相关性,两者的均差虽存在差异性,但临床上不影响医疗判断及处置.

  19. Correction: Bougma, K., et al. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1384–1416

    Karim Bougma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have found an inadvertent error in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. One standard error was not converted into standard deviation and this affected the following effect sizes and intelligence quotient (IQ:[...

  20. Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Preschool Children with ADHD

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Marks, David J.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Chacko, Anil; Curchack, Jocelyn T.; Yoon, Carol A.; Healey, Dione M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether cognitive enhancement can be delivered through play to preschoolers with ADHD and whether it would affect severity of ADHD symptoms. Method: Twenty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children and their parents participated in separate group sessions (3-5 children/group). Child groups were introduced games designed to enhance…

  1. Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study

    Peterson Kelly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating, and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada. Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight, and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight

  2. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Eugen Zaretsky; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Katrin Neumann

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year- old monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS) language test and 476 chi...

  3. Development of drugs for severe malaria in children

    Cheah, PY; Parker, M.; Dondorp, AM

    2016-01-01

    Over 90% of deaths attributable to malaria are in African children under 5 years old. Yet, new treatments are often tested primarily in adult patients and extrapolations have proven to be sometimes invalid, especially in dosing regimens. For studies in severe malaria an additional complication is that the decline in severe malaria in adult patients precludes sufficiently powered trials in adults, before the intervention can be tested in the ultimate target group, paediatric severe malaria. In...

  4. Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a retrospective study of 27 years

    Khor Chee-Sieng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A total of 10269 respiratory samples from all children5 years old received at the hospital's diagnostic virology laboratory between 1982-2008 were included in the study. Immunofluorescence staining (for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-3, and adenovirus and virus isolation were performed. The yearly hospitalization rates and annual patterns of laboratory-confirmed viral RTIs were determined. Univariate ANOVA was used to analyse the demographic parameters of cases. Multiple regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to analyse the correlation between RSV cases and meteorological parameters. Results A total of 2708 cases were laboratory-confirmed using immunofluorescence assays and viral cultures, with the most commonly detected being RSV (1913, 70.6%, parainfluenza viruses (357, 13.2%, influenza viruses (297, 11.0%, and adenovirus (141, 5.2%. Children infected with RSV were significantly younger, and children infected with influenza viruses were significantly older. The four main viruses caused disease throughout the year, with a seasonal peak observed for RSV in September-December. Monthly RSV cases were directly correlated with rain days, and inversely correlated with relative humidity and temperature. Conclusion Viral RTIs, particularly due to RSV, are commonly detected in respiratory samples from hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur

  5. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF NEPHROTIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Vijayalakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the incidence, age and sex related demographics in children with Nephrotic Syndrome (NS and to find the aetiology in atypical cases of NS by renal biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study was a single centre, descriptive, prospective and observational cross sectional study. All patients who were admitted in the department of paediatrics with Nephrotic syndrome during the study period of 2 years from July 2010 to June 2012 were included. The demographics and renal biopsy results were analys ed further. RESULTS : Total number of cases of NS was 44 against total Paediatric admissions of 4827. Incidence of NS was 0.91% (44/4827 among all paediatric admissions. Male to female ratio was 2.14:1. Majority of NS cases were 3 - 5 years old (36.36%, n=44 , followed by 5 - 7 years (29.55%, n=44, 7 - 9 years (18.18%, n=44 and 1 - 3 years (15.91%, n=44. Total number of renal biopsies done was 18, out of which 14 (77.78%, n=18 had minimal change disease (MCNS and 3 (16.67%, n=18 had Focal Segmental Glomerulos clerosis (FSGS and 1 (5.55%, n=18 had anti Glomerular Basement Membrane disease. CONCLUSION: The incidence of Nephrotic syndrome in children was 0.91% (44/4827 among total paediatric admissions, had male preponderance with ratio of males to females of 2 .14:1, most commonly affecting children of 3 - 5 years of age and the most common aetiology being Minimal Change Disease (MCD.

  6. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Herrmann, Esther; Keupp, Stefanie; Hare, Brian; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Humans make decisions about when and with whom to cooperate based on their reputations. People either learn about others by direct interaction or by observing third-party interactions or gossip. An important question is whether other animal species, especially our closest living relatives, the nonhuman great apes, also form reputations of others. In Study 1, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human children experienced a nice experimenter who tried to give food/toys to the subject and a mean experimenter who interrupted the food/toy giving. In studies 2 and 3, nonhuman great apes and human children could only passively observe a similar interaction, in which a nice experimenter and a mean experimenter interacted with a third party. Orangutans and 2.5-year-old human children preferred to approach the nice experimenter rather than the mean one after having directly experienced their respective behaviors. Orangutans, chimpanzees, and 2.5-year-old human children also took into account experimenter actions toward third parties in forming reputations. These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes.

  7. Experiencia de caries en dentición primaria en niños de 5 años, Medellín, Colombia/ Caries experience in primary dentition among 5-year-olds in Medellin, Colombia

    Blanca S. Ramírez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: estimar la experiencia de caries dental en niños de 5 años de edad de Medellín, Colombia. Metodología: los datos se obtuvieron en una muestra probabilística de 486 niños, examinados para el diagnóstico de experiencia de caries en dentina y de lesiones limitadas al esmalte dental. Se calcularon los índices de experiencia de caries ceo-d clásico y ceo-d modificado (ceod-m. Se realizaron pruebas Chi-Cuadrado y t student. Resultados: el 54,7% de los niños de estratos bajos y el 26 % de los estratos medio y altos tenían experiencia de caries en dentina; los porcentajes aumentan a 88,6% y 50,7% respectivamente, cuando se incluyen lesiones limitadas al esmalte dental. Los promedios de los índices ceod clásico (ceod-c y ceod modificado (ceod-m fueron fue 1,9±2,9, 4,9±4,6 respectivamente. En los niños de estratos bajos el ceod clásico fue 2,2±3,1 y en los de estratos altos fue 0,6±1,2; mientras que los valores del ceod-m fueron 5,4±4,7 y 1,9±2,8 respectivamente. Conclusión: los niños de estrato socioeconómico bajo de Medellín, a la edad de cinco años tienen altos niveles de caries dental, resultado que indica la necesidad de implementar programas preventivos y de atención en salud bucal desde edades tempranas./ Abstract Objective: To estimate the experience of dental caries among five-year-olds from Medellín, Colombia. Methodology: data were obtained from a random probabilistic sample of 486 children who were examined for caries experience in dentin and caries limited to tooth enamel. The classic dmft and modified dmft caries experience indexes were calculated. Similarly, Chi-square and student t tests were conducted. Results: the percentage of children with caries experience was 54.7% for children of lower classes, and 26% for children of middle and upper classes. These percentages increased to 88.6% and 50.7% respectively after including lesions limited to dental enamel. The averages of the classic and

  8. Astrovirus infection in young children with diarrhea hospitalized at Beijing Children's Hospital

    刘春艳; 申昆玲; 王树欣; 刘亚谊; 照日格图

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was to assess certain epidemiological and clinical characteristics of astrovirus infection in children with diarrhea below 5 years old hospitalized at the Beijing Children's Hospital. Methods From September 1999 to August 2001, a total of 288 children with diarrhea below 5 years old hospitalized at Beijing Children's Hospital were studied. Fecal specimens collected from each patient were tested for astrovirus by using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and further serotyped by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using serotype-specific primers. Results Astrovirus antigen was positive in 9.0% of the patients, and the rate of coinfection with rotavirus was 19.2% among the astrovirus positive patients. The patients with astrovirus infection were at the age of 7 days to 17 months, most (92.3%) of them were less than 12 months. Astrovirus infection occurred mainly between October and March of the following year. Main symptoms included watery stool, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Increased activity of myocardial enzyme was seen in 4 patients. Of the 22 astrovirus positive specimens, 14 were successfully serotyped by RT-PCR and they were all serotype 1. Conclusions The overall incidence of astrovirus infection in young children with diarrhea hospitalized at the Beijing Children's Hospital was 9.0%. The predominant serotype was type 1. Astrovirus may play an important role in viral diarrhea in young children in Beijing, China.

  9. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb 10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels 10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, panemia.

  10. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  11. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  12. Fitness and Your 4-to 5-Year Old

    ... and riding a tricycle or bicycle with training wheels. Many parents look to organized sports to get preschoolers active. But the average 4- ... Obstacle course: Set up an obstacle course with chairs, boxes, and toys for the ... or join other kids in sports or complains of pain after being active, talk ...

  13. Children's use of linguistic information when learning in a bilingual context.

    Atagi, Natsuki; Goldenberg, Elizabeth R; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2016-04-01

    Children prefer to learn from people who are like themselves. However, who is considered "like themselves" is complex for bilingual children. Thus, the current study examined whether children's language experiences affect who they prefer to imitate. A sample of 3- to 5-year-old monolingual English-speaking children (n=16), Japanese-English bilingual children (n=16), and children bilingual in English and a non-Japanese language (n=16) watched videos of a monolingual English speaker and a Japanese-English bilingual speaker playing with novel toys and were asked to play with the same novel toys. Although all children--regardless of language background--imitated the monolingual speaker at similar rates, the two bilingual groups imitated the bilingual speaker more often than did the monolingual children. Such results suggest that experience in speaking two languages affects children's imitation behaviors.

  14. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: A cross sectional study

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com, E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5 year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb < 10 g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb < 8 g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb > 10 g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb > 10 g/dL. The Pb levels < 100 {mu}g/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had > 10 {mu}g/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200 {mu}g/L, whereas 47% had > 200 {mu}g/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r = -0.514 and r = -0.685) and Fe contents (r = -0.522, r = -0.762, p < 0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  15. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  16. Quality of relationships between preschool children and their divorced mothers

    Argyrakouli Ε.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the consequences of parental divorce on preschool children aged 2,5 to 6,5 years old. More specifically, conflict, dependence and positive aspects of relationship were investigated. A total of 29 divorced mothers and their preschool children and 29 matched control married mothers and their children were ascertained from a general population. Mothers completed the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS developed by Pianta (1992. Mother –reported PCRS scores showed no differences on dependence and positive aspects of relationship, but conflict scale was significantly lower in children of divorce than in controls. However, younger children of divorced mothers (2,5 -4 years had significantly higher dependence on their mothers than the older ones (4-6,5. Additionally, mothers’ higher education was related to children less dependence and less conflict.

  17. STUDYING REPRESENTATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS WITH KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN USING A GEOGRAPHICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

    GABRIELA ALINA TĂMAȘ

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed 21 drawings on the topic "My house" as drawn by 18 pre-school children attending a kindergarten in the town of Dej, Cluj County, Romania. I carried out the research during the 2013-2014 school year, analyzing the houses drawn by 4/5-year-old, 5/6-year-old, and 6/7-year-old children, considering these drawings as spatial representations. I also analyzed the same drawings of the houses from a psychological perspective.

  18. Age-related carbon dioxide reactivity in children after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

    Maa, Tensing; Yeates, Keith Owen; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to assess carbon dioxide reactivity (CO2R) in children following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS This prospective observational study enrolled children younger than 18 years old following moderate and severe TBI. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated children had daily CO2R testing performed by measuring changes in their bilateral middle cerebral artery flow velocities using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) after a transient increase in minute ventilation. The cohort was divided into 3 age groups: younger than 2 years (n = 12); 2 to 5 years old (n = 9); and older than 5 years (n = 17). RESULTS Children younger than 2 years old had a lower mean CO2R over time. The 2-5-year-old age group had higher mean CO2R than younger patients (p = 0.01), and the highest CO2R values compared with either of the other age groups (vs > 5 years old, p = 0.046; vs < 2 years old, p = 0.002). Having a lower minimum CO2R had a statistically significant negative effect on outcome at discharge (p = 0.0413). Impaired CO2R beyond Postinjury Day 4 trended toward having an effect on outcome at discharge (p = 0.0855). CONCLUSIONS Abnormal CO2R is prevalent in children following TBI, and the degree of impairment varies by age. No clinical or laboratory parameters were identified as risk factors for impaired CO2R. Lower minimum CO2R values are associated with worse outcome at discharge.

  19. Studies in children.

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases.

  20. Malnutrition, Overweight, and Obesity among Urban and Rural Children in North of West Azerbijan, Iran

    Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malnutrition is one of the most important causes for improper physical and mental development of children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a growing matter of public health concern worldwide. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and obesity in children under 5 years old in Salmas district. Methods. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 902 of children under 5 years old to assess the nutritional status in Salmas district and performed from 16 until 30 October, 2011, with the cooperation of the Office of Community Nutrition Improvement and the United Nations Children’s Fund. ENA (Emergency Nutrition Assessment and Spss software were used for data analysis. Results. 49.6% of children were boys and 50.4% were girls. The prevalence of malnutrition based on underweight, stunting, and wasting was estimated to be 2.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4% among children, respectively. Stunting was more common in rural areas and this difference was significant (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this area stunting, overweight and obesity were the most important priorities that health officials must pay more attention to. ENA software has a special ability to determine the samples and clusters and is a simple, rapid, and accurate method, especially in epidemiological studies in the country, and can be a convenient tool and its use is suggested for the same studies.

  1. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  2. Pre-school social abilities: Construction and validation of a scale for children in contexts of poverty

    Ana Betina Lacunza; Alejandro Castro Solano; Norma Contini

    2009-01-01

    Social abilities are an essential part of human activity since they have a bearing on self-con­fidence, adoption of roles, self-regulation of behavior and academic performance, among other aspects. This study presents the process of construction and validation of a scale of social abilities for pre-school children. The scale was administered to 318 parents of 3 to 5 years old children of low socio-economic status who attend Primary Health Care Centers in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Cons...

  3. Feeding practices and early childhood caries: a cross-sectional study of preschool children in kanpur district, India.

    Prakasha Shrutha, Santhebachalli; Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Giri, Kolli Yada; Alam, Sarwar

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children's health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3-5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3-5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur district, India. Dental caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria. A pretested questionnaire with 9 questions was used for collecting information regarding mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. Chi-square test (χ (2)) and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 48% with mean dmft of 2.03 ± 2.99. Boys (57%) were affected more than girls (43%) which was found to be statistically significant (P feeding practices on early childhood caries can help in the development of appropriate oral health promotion strategies.

  4. Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?☆

    McEwen, Fiona S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (≥2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR = 3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background. PMID:24268376

  5. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  6. PSYCHO-MOTRIC REHABILITATION IN CHILDREN WITH AGENESIS OF CORPUS CALLOSUM (Case study

    Zărnica I. Manuela Mirela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of corpus callosum is a new challenge for the puluridisciplinary team, in their efforts for the rehabilitation of childrens with this diagnose, because is a rare congenital desease with an unknown frequence of emergence. Scope. This paperwork aims to present the approach modalities of the child with agenesis of corpus callousum and the means of physical therapy that may help. Methods. This is a case study of a 5 years old girl with asenesis of corpus callosum. For assessment we used motor assessment, range of motion, reflexes. Exercises from different positions were done as games and motric songs. Sensory stimulation was also done. Rezults. By direct observation of the patient we observed significant improvement in motor function. We also foud unexpected improvement of quiet stance and dynamic balance, sensory-motor coordination. Conclusions. Game, tha main therapeutic method through its form, diversity and characteristics - atractivity, directness, creativity, movement freedom – is the main supplement of child psicho-motric development. A balanced distribution of influences upon motricity, psychic, thinking and action, nonverbal and expression language, represent the qualitative peculiarity of specialist’s and parents efforts.

  7. Pleasant emotional induction broadens the visual world of young children.

    Poirel, Nicolas; Cassotti, Mathieu; Beaucousin, Virginie; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    These experiments aimed at studying the influence of emotional context on global/local visual processing in children. Children 5 years old, known to present an immature global visual bias, and 8 years old, known to pay attention predominantly to global information, were placed in either a neutral or pleasant emotional context and subsequently presented with a global/local visual judgement task. As with previous findings for adults, both age groups presented a pronounced perceptual bias toward global information following exposure to emotionally pleasant pictures. Interestingly, younger children, who do not present a global bias during the neutral exposure, presented the same preference for global information as older children when exposed to the pleasant context. These findings indicate that emotion may strongly affect visual perception in children, with important implications for educational practice and models of cognition.

  8. What drives prescribing of asthma medication to preschool wheezing children? A primary care study.

    Montella, Silvia; Baraldi, Eugenio; Bruzzese, Dario; Mirra, Virginia; Di Giorgio, Angela; Santamaria, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    There is limited information on which data primary care pediatricians (PCPs) use to decide whether to prescribe or not asthma maintenance treatment, and what drives prescribing a specific therapy. The study aim was to investigate how prescribing anti-asthma maintenance treatment to preschool wheezing children is influenced by patient, family, environmental, and PCP characteristics. We conducted a cross-sectional study at 32 PCPs sites in Campania, Italy. Medical, family, and environmental information of 376 preschool wheezy children, and characteristics of the enrolled PCPs were collected. Main outcome measures of multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses were the prescribing of maintenance treatment, and the prescription of a combined therapy as opposed to monotherapy. Variables significantly associated with long-term inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and/or leukotriene modifiers prescription included frequent wheezing (OR = 7.19), emergency department (ED) visits (OR = 2.21), personal allergic diseases (OR = 8.49), day-care/kindergarten attendance (OR = 2.67), a high PCP prescribing volume (OR = 2.74), and a low proportion of 0- to 5-year-old patients with wheezing diagnosis (OR = 1.16). Leukotriene modifiers plus ICS were much more likely prescribed than ICS or leukotriene modifiers alone to older children (OR = 1.06) and to patients experiencing frequent wheezing (OR = 3.00), ED visits (OR = 3.12), or tobacco smoke exposure during the first 2 years of life (OR = 2.04). Finally, PCP's characteristics significantly associated with ICS plus leukotriene modifiers prescription were group practice (OR = 4.16) and a high prescribing volume (OR = 1.45). Our findings suggest that child characteristics alone are not sufficient to explain how PCPs decide to prescribe maintenance treatment and which therapy to assign, but variables associated to PCPs are crucial as well.

  9. Associations between characteristics of the home food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

    Wyse Rebecca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood is critical to the development of lifelong food habits. Given the high proportion of children with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, identification of modifiable factors associated with higher consumption may be useful in developing interventions to address this public health issue. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the home food environment that are associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of Australian preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with 396 parents of 3 to 5 year-old children attending 30 preschools within the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using a valid and reliable subscale from the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Associations were investigated between children's fruit and vegetable intake and characteristics of the home food environment including parental role-modeling, parental providing behaviour, fruit and vegetable availability, fruit and vegetable accessibility, pressure to eat, family eating policies and family mealtime practices. Characteristics of the home food environment that showed evidence of an association with children's fruit and vegetable consumption in simple regression models were entered into a backwards stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression analysis used generalised linear mixed models, controlled for parental education, household income and child gender, and was adjusted for the correlation between children's fruit and vegetable consumption within a preschool. Results The multiple regression analysis found positive associations between children's fruit and vegetable consumption and parental fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.005, fruit and vegetable availability (p = 0.006 and accessibility (p = 0.012, the number of occasions each day that parents provided their child with fruit and vegetables

  10. The Impact of the Multi-sensory Program Alfabeto on the Development of Literacy Skills of Third Stage Pre-school Children

    von Staa, Betina; Reis, Loureni; Scandola, Matilde Conceição Lescano

    Here we present the results of the pilot-project undertaken in ten Pre-Schools with third stage (5 year-old) children who used ALFABETO Multi-sensory Program. The study shows that the project rendered meaningful results as to the development of writing hypotheses among the children who had access to the program. We also observed the opinions of the teachers involved in the project, who mentioned that ALFABETO motivated students to develop their reading, writing and oral skills, and promoted socialization and interaction among students.

  11. Lead poisoning of children in Africa, III. Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Nriagu, J; Oleru, N T; Cudjoe, C; Chine, A

    1997-04-30

    This study investigated the prevalence of elevated blood lead (PbB) levels in children 1-6 years old in Kaduna, a medium size city in northern Nigeria. Mean PbB was found to be 10.6 micrograms/dl, and 2% of the children had PbB levels greater than 30 micrograms/dl. Highest average PbB levels were found in children 5 years old and was attributed to the tendency for this age group to play longer in contaminated outdoor environments. The strongest associations were found between PbB and whether the family owned a car or lived in a house on a tarred road. Potential sources of lead in the city as well as household and behavior risk factors likely to result in exposure of children to lead are discussed. This study provides additional data pointing to childhood lead poisoning as being a major public health problem in urban areas of Africa.

  12. Focusing and shifting attention in human children (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Humans often must coordinate co-occurring activities, and their flexible skills for doing so would seem to be uniquely powerful. In 2 studies, we compared 4- and 5-year-old children and one of humans' nearest relatives, chimpanzees, in their ability to focus and shift their attention when necessary. The results of Study 1 showed that 4-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their ability to monitor two identical devices and to sequentially switch between the two to collect a reward, and that they were less successful at doing so than 5-year-old children. In Study 2, which required subjects to alternate between two different tasks, one of which had rewards continuously available whereas the other one only occasionally released rewards, no species differences were found. These results suggest that chimpanzees and human children share some fundamental attentional control skills, but that such abilities continue to develop during human ontogeny, resulting in the uniquely human capacity to succeed at complex multitasking.

  13. Young Children's Knowledge of the Symbolic Nature of Writing

    Treiman, Rebecca; Hompluem, Lana; Gordon, Jessica; Decker, Kristina; Markson, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments with one hundred and fourteen 3- to 5-year-old children examined whether children understand that a printed word represents a specific spoken word and that it differs in this way from a drawing. When an experimenter read a word to children and then a puppet used a different but related label for it, such as "dog" for the…

  14. Five Years Old Preschool Children's Motor-Verbal Skills:A Follow-up into the First-grade

    Azade Mirzaei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective : "n "nThe major objective of this study was to determine the means and 95% confidence interval of normal 6 years old children's motor-verbal skills. Based on the results of this study we could develop a measure to diagnose abnormal motor skills. In addition, in this follow-up study, we compared the first-graders' motor-verbal skills to their own skills one year earlier. "nMethod: In this follow-up study, the development of motor-verbal skills was studied in 220 normal readers in the first-grade after 1 year. We administered naming speed test and word and phrase repetition to assess motor-verbal skills. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and paired t-test. "nResults: The mean of the 6 years old first-graders' speed naming was 87 words per 100 second. In addition, means and standard deviations of word and phrase repetition were 8.41(2.92 and 6.51(1.73 respectively. In addition,, paired t-test showed a significant difference between naming speed, word and phrase repetition first-grade and 5 years old children score(naming speed: t=10.95, p<0.001, word repetition: t= 14.23, p<0.001, phrase repetition: t=12.11, p<0.001 . Conclusion:In general, 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills significantly improved after one year. Furthermore, the results of this study provide the norm for speech and language pathologists and other professionals. It is important to note that if 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills are under this norm, it will be anticipated that they are at the risk of literacy problem and dyslexia.

  15. Effects of Perceptual and Conceptual Similarity in Lexical Priming of Young Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings

    Hartfield, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conceptual and perceptual properties of words on the speed and accuracy of lexical retrieval of children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during a picture-naming task. Participants consisted of 13 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS. All participants had speech, language, and hearing development within normal limits, with the exception of stuttering for CWS. Both talker groups participated in a picture-naming tas...

  16. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds.

  17. Effects of discrete emotions on young children's ability to discern fantasy and reality.

    Carrick, Nathalie; Quas, Jodi A

    2006-11-01

    This study examined 3- to 5-year-olds' (N = 128; 54% girls) ability to discriminate emotional fantasy and reality. Children viewed images depicting fantastic or real events that elicited several emotions, reported whether each event could occur, and rated their emotional reaction to the image. Children were also administered the Play Behavior Questionnaire and Pretend Action Tasks to assess play behaviors. Findings revealed age-related improvements in performance and biases in judgment based on the emotion depicted. Children reported that happy fantastic events could occur significantly more often than frightening and angry fantastic events and that happy real events could occur significantly more often than frightening and angry real events. Children's emotional reactions to the images but not play behaviors were significantly related to their fantasy-reality distinctions. Implications for the relation between emotions and children's fantasy-reality distinctions are discussed.

  18. The effects of tempo and familiarity on children's affective interpretation of music.

    Mote, Jasmine

    2011-06-01

    When and how does one learn to associate emotion with music? This study attempted to address this issue by examining whether preschool children use tempo as a cue in determining whether a song is happy or sad. Instrumental versions of children's songs were played at different tempos to adults and children ages 3 to 5 years. Familiar and unfamiliar songs were used to examine whether familiarity affected children's identification of emotion in music. The results indicated that adults, 4 year olds and 5 year olds rated fast songs as significantly happier than slow songs. However, 3 year olds failed to rate fast songs differently than slow songs at above-chance levels. Familiarity did not significantly affect children's identification of happiness and sadness in music.

  19. Study the Age of Hearing Loss Diagnosis and the Related Factors in a Group of School-Age Children in Baghch-e-Ban School of Hard of Hearing

    Mahnaz Ahmadi

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of the age of hearing loss diagnosis in every society is recommended to be compared with standard criteria to establish common dirth in management and rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to determine the age of hearing loss diagnosis with respect to common criteria in Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing children in Tehran.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 445 children in stages 2, 6 and 10 of Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing participated. the research was performed by means of the three-stages questionaires that children filled with help of their parents.Results: The mean age of detection of hearing loss in both acquired and congenital hearing loss in children was 3.5 year-old. while the age in which hearing loss was doubted was 1.8 year-old. In another word the mean age of hearing loss detection decreased as the hearing loss increases(in moderate- profound hearing loss(P<0.01. Conclusion: among the refrence sources for refering children with hearing loss the least refering was related to physicians. Adversly the mean age of doubting and detection of hearing loss increased in children with family history of hearing loss.(P<0.01. Meanwhile no relationship was detected between the age of diagnosis of hearing loss and the number of deaf members in the family(P<0.02.

  20. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Full Text Available ... about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept ... treatments based on what is known to work in adults. To improve clinical care of children, more ...

  1. Selectivity in social and asocial learning: investigating the prevalence, effect and development of young children's learning preferences.

    Flynn, Emma; Turner, Cameron; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

    2016-03-19

    Culture evolution requires both modification and faithful replication of behaviour, thus it is essential to understand how individuals choose between social and asocial learning. In a quasi-experimental design, 3- and 5-year-olds (176), and adults (52) were presented individually with two novel artificial fruits, and told of the apparatus' relative difficulty (easy versus hard). Participants were asked if they wanted to attempt the task themselves or watch an experimenter attempt it first; and then had their preference either met or violated. A significant proportion of children and adults (74%) chose to learn socially. For children, this request was efficient, as observing a demonstration made them significantly quicker at the task than learning asocially. However, for 5-year-olds, children who selected asocial learning were also found to be highly efficient at the task, showing that by 5 years children are selective in choosing a learning strategy that is effective for them. Adults further evidenced this trend, and also showed selectivity based on task difficulty. This is the first study to examine the rates, performance outcomes and developmental trajectory of preferences in asocial and social learning, ultimately informing our understanding of innovation.

  2. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  3. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    José Manuel Ramos; Paula Molés-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinchón

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia.Results: A total of 324 children were included(59.6% male) whose median age was 16.4months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval(CI): 40.0%–50.8%]under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101(68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46(31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children(28.7%; 95% CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children(16.5%; 95% CI: 13.0%–21.1%)it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies(n = 44, 13.6%; 95% CI: 10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children(9.9%; 95% CI: 7.1%–13.3%), of which 23(71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children(5.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10(3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea(n = 9; 2.8%),infected wound and ulcer(n = 7; 2.2%), and burns(n = 6; 1.9%).Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  4. The Role of Extrinsic Rewards and Cue-Intention Association in Prospective Memory in Young Children.

    Sheppard, Daniel Patrick; Kretschmer, Anett; Knispel, Elisa; Vollert, Bianka; Altgassen, Mareike

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also having to remember to respond differently to certain target pictures (prospective memory task). The level to which the target picture was associated with the intention was manipulated across two conditions (low- or high-association) for all participants, whilst half of the participants were promised a reward for good prospective memory performance. Results showed a main effect of age, with the 7-year-olds outperforming the 5-year-olds. Furthermore, there was a main effect of reward, with those promised a reward performing better than those who were not. No effect was found for cue-association, with the participants of both age groups performing equally well in both association conditions. No significant interactions were found between any of the variables. The potentially important role of reward in young children's everyday prospective memory tasks, and possible reasons for the lack of a reflexive-associative effect, are discussed.

  5. The Role of Extrinsic Rewards and Cue-Intention Association in Prospective Memory in Young Children.

    Daniel Patrick Sheppard

    Full Text Available The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39 and 7-years-old (n = 40. Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also having to remember to respond differently to certain target pictures (prospective memory task. The level to which the target picture was associated with the intention was manipulated across two conditions (low- or high-association for all participants, whilst half of the participants were promised a reward for good prospective memory performance. Results showed a main effect of age, with the 7-year-olds outperforming the 5-year-olds. Furthermore, there was a main effect of reward, with those promised a reward performing better than those who were not. No effect was found for cue-association, with the participants of both age groups performing equally well in both association conditions. No significant interactions were found between any of the variables. The potentially important role of reward in young children's everyday prospective memory tasks, and possible reasons for the lack of a reflexive-associative effect, are discussed.

  6. Daily animal exposure and children's biological concepts.

    Geerdts, Megan S; Van de Walle, Gretchen A; LoBue, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    A large body of research has focused on the developmental trajectory of children's acquisition of a theoretically coherent naive biology. However, considerably less work has focused on how specific daily experiences shape the development of children's knowledge about living things. In the current research, we investigated one common experience that might contribute to biological knowledge development during early childhood-pet ownership. In Study 1, we investigated how children interact with pets by observing 24 preschool-aged children with their pet cats or dogs and asking parents about their children's daily involvement with the pets. We found that most of young children's observed and reported interactions with their pets are reciprocal social interactions. In Study 2, we tested whether children who have daily social experiences with animals are more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than children without pets. Both 3- and 5-year-olds with pets were more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than those without pets. Similarly, both older and younger children with pets showed less anthropocentric patterns of extension of novel biological information. The results suggest that having pets may facilitate the development of a more sophisticated, human-inclusive representation of animals.

  7. Lexical Development in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Sheng, Li; Lu, Ying; Kan, Pui Fong

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (3-5-year-olds, 6-8-year-olds) participated in a picture identification task and a picture naming task in both languages. Results revealed age-related growth in English, but not Mandarin vocabulary. Composite vocabulary was larger than either single-language vocabulary in the younger children but…

  8. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children after Road Traffic Accidents

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Timm, Karin; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) in children after road traffic accidents (RTAs). Method: Sixty-eight children (6.5-14.5 years old) were interviewed 4-6 weeks and 12 months after an RTA with the Child PTSD Reaction Index (response rate 58.6%). Their mothers (n = 60)…

  9. Talking about Pretending: Young Children's Explicit Understanding of Representation.

    Watson, Anne C.; Guajardo, Nicole Ruther

    2000-01-01

    Investigated young children's ability to talk about representational aspects of pretense. Found that 5-year-olds, but very few 4-year-olds, can explain why certain actions should not be called pretending; young children discriminate between pictures of thinking and pretending based on a depiction of action; and preschoolers are less able than…

  10. Relations between Colorblind Socialization and Children's Racial Bias: Evidence from European American Mothers and Their Preschool Children

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    To examine European American parents' racial socialization, mothers (n = 84) were videotaped while reading 2 race-themed books to their 4- to 5-year-old children and completed surveys concerning their racial attitudes and behaviors. Children completed measures of their racial attitudes and both groups (mothers and preschoolers) predicted the…

  11. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: The case of picture naming skills

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  12. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: the case of picture naming skills

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  13. Beyond hearing : social-emotional outcomes following cochlear implantation in young children

    Ketelaar, Lizet

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to hearing children, children with hearing loss more often experience social-emotional problems. This thesis aimed to assess whether this was also true for 1-to-5-year-old children who had received a cochlear implant (CI) to remediate their hearing loss. In comparison to hearing peers,

  14. Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…

  15. Associations Between Household Food Insecurity in Early Childhood and Children's Kindergarten Skills.

    Johnson, Anna D; Markowitz, Anna J

    2017-03-21

    Using nationally representative data on a recent birth cohort of U.S.-born children in low-income households (n = 2,800-3,700), this study investigates associations between the timing and intensity of early childhood food insecurity and children's kindergarten reading, math, and social-emotional outcomes. Descriptive patterns reveal that approximately 20% of low-income 0- to 5-year-old children reside in food-insecure households. Food insecurity experienced during early childhood is unfavorably associated with social-emotional outcomes in kindergarten, controlling for household income and prior assessments of child social-emotional skills. Results are less consistent for cognitive outcomes but similar in magnitude. If replicated, findings may inform policy efforts to reduce disparities in early skills for approximately 15 million U.S. children in food-insecure households.

  16. Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-speaking children.

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif, 1996). The results also suggest that the input language uniquely shapes verb learning such that English-speaking children require grammatical support to learn verbs, whereas Chinese children require pragmatic as well as grammatical support. This research bears on how universally shared cognitive factors and language-specific linguistic factors interact in lexical development.

  17. The effect of face exploration on postural control in healthy children.

    Goulème, Nathalie; Seassau, Magali; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to explore how face exploration affects postural control in healthy children. The novelty here is that eye movements and posture were simultaneously recorded. Three groups of children participated in the study: 12 children of 7.8±0.5 years old, 13 children of 10.4±0.5 years old and 12 children of 15.7±0.9 years old. Eye movements were recorded by video-oculography and postural stability was recorded by a platform. Children were invited to explore five emotional faces (neutral, happy, sad fear and angry). Analysis of eye movements was done on saccadic latency, percentage of exploration time spent and number of saccades for each specific region of interest (ROI): eyes, nose and mouth. Analysis of posture was made on surface area, sway length and mean velocity of the center of pressures (CoP). Results showed that visual strategies, exploration and postural control develop during childhood and adolescence. Indeed, after nine years-old, children started to look the eyes ROI firstly, then the nose ROI and finally the mouth ROI. The number of saccades decreased with the age of children. The percentage of exploration time spent in eyes ROI was longer than the others ROIs and greater for unpleasant faces (sad, fear and angry) with respect to pleasant emotional face (happy). We found that in front of sad and happy faces the surface area of the CoP was significantly larger compared to other faces (neutral and angry). These results suggest that visual strategies and postural control change during children's development and can be influenced by the emotional face.

  18. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  19. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Kirkeskov L, Kristiansen E, Bøggild H, von Platen-Hallermund F, Sckerl H, Carlsen A, Larsen MJ, Poulsen S. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers. Community...... Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract - Objectives: To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Methods: The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period...... with data on dental caries from the Danish National Board of Health database on child dental health for 5-year-old children born in 1989 and 1999, and for 15-year-old children born in 1979 and 1989. The number of children included in the cohorts varied between 41.000 and 48.000. Logistic regression was used...

  20. Children Use Wealth Cues to Evaluate Others.

    Kristin Shutts

    Full Text Available Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4-5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4-6 years also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people's relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity. Study 3 revealed that children (5-9 years use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children's attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development.

  1. Children Use Wealth Cues to Evaluate Others.

    Shutts, Kristin; Brey, Elizabeth L; Dornbusch, Leah A; Slywotzky, Nina; Olson, Kristina R

    2016-01-01

    Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4-5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4-6 years) also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people's relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity). Study 3 revealed that children (5-9 years) use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children's attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development.

  2. The Effects of Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy on Executive Function in Five-Year-Old Children

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the parent and teacher forms of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were completed by the mothers......Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...

  3. La importancia de los cuentos conocidos en el aprendizaje del inglés como lengua extranjera: una propuesta metodológica para el aula de 5 años1 / The importance of well-known stories to English language learning: a methodological proposal for 5 years old students

    Mª del Mar González-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las narraciones de cuentos son un recurso ampliamente utilizado en la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera en el aula de educación infantil, pudiéndose introducir de diferentes modos. En el trabajo presentamos el diseño de una propuesta para fomentar la participación de los niños en la narración de cuentos en inglés que son ya conocidos en su lengua madre. Este enfoque, basado en dos métodos, el TPR-Storytelling y el método Artigal, se pone a prueba en una clase con niños de 5 años, en una intervención educativa de 3 sesiones. Los resultados de este estudio piloto muestran la eficacia de la propuesta en relación al grado de participación en la actividad, comprensión general y adquisición de vocabulario. Por otra parte, esta experiencia visibiliza las fortalezas y aspectos a mejorar de la propuesta, permitiendo el rediseño de la misma en este sentido. Abstract Storytelling is a common resource to teach English as a foreign language to very young children, this can be done in different ways. In this paper, we present the design of an approach to foster children’s participation in English storytelling of well-known stories in their mother tongue. This approach, based on two methods, TPR-Storytelling and Artigal’s, is tested in a class of five-year old children, in a 3-session educational intervention. The results of this pilot study show the effectiveness of the proposal in terms of degree of participation in the activity, general understanding and vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the experience brings to the fore the strengths and weaknesses of the method and allows its redesign on these grounds.

  4. 5岁乳牙龋与父母口腔健康知信行的现况研究%The survey on relation between 5-year-old children's primary tooth caries and knowledge-behavior-attitude of their parents toward oral health

    高永梅; 韩晓兰; 颜雨春

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况与其父母的口腔健康知信行,为儿童口腔预防提供资料.方法 采用多阶段、分层、等容量、随机抽样的方法抽取5岁儿童432名进行乳牙冠龋的检查,同时对被抽取儿童父母进行一对一现场问卷调查.结果 乳牙患龋率和龋均为65.66%、3.38,城乡分别为55.56%、2.35和75.81%、4.42,城乡之间差异具有显著性;其中父母对口腔健康的认识、儿童开始刷牙的年龄、父母是否帮助刷牙及父母的文化程度等相关因素都对乳牙患龋有明显影响.结论 父母的文化程度及社会经济地位决定其对儿童口腔健康的认识,并影响儿童健康口腔行为的建立,影响儿童龋病的流行.

  5. The prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition and the risk factors of 5-year-old children in Northeast of China%东北地区5岁儿童乳牙患龋状况及影响因素的抽样调查分析

    张颖; 程睿波; 程敏; 李岩

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究东北地区5岁儿童乳牙龋病患病情况,探讨影响龋患的因素.方法:采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样方法,对东北三省2353例5岁儿童进行患龋情况调查,并随机抽取1191例儿童家长问卷.应用SPSS12.0软件包对影响乳牙龋的相关因素进行x2检验及Logistic回归分析.结果:东北地区5岁儿童乳牙患龋率为75.82%,高于全国的平均水平.吉林省儿童患龋率最高,黑龙江与辽宁省较低,后两者无显著性差异(P>0.05).农村患龋高于城市.父(母)的文化程度(P<0.001)和孩子睡前进食甜点(P=0.006)对乳牙龋有显著影响.结论:加强对东北地区儿童家长的口腔健康教育和口腔卫生指导,控制儿童睡前甜食和饮料摄入,是防止乳牙龋发生的有效途径.

  6. Development of 2-5-Year-Old Children's Emotion Understanding and Its Relation with Linguistic Ability%2~5岁儿童情绪理解能力发展及其与语言能力的关系

    王异芳; 何曲枝; 苏彦捷

    2010-01-01

    本研究选取143名2~5岁儿童作为被试,以表情再认、表情命名、情绪观点采择任务考察其情绪理解能力发展水平,以皮博迪"图画一词汇"测验考察其语言能力发展水平,并分析儿童情绪理解能力发展与语言能力之间的关系.结果表明:(1)3~4岁是儿童获得表情再认和表情命名能力的关键年龄,4~5岁是儿童情绪观点采择能力发展的关键年龄;(2)对学前儿童而言,表情再认任务最容易,其次是表情命名任务,情绪观点采择任务最困难;(3)儿童的情绪理解能力与语言能力显著相关,即使在控制了年龄因素的影响后,相关仍然显著.

  7. Survey on the prevalence and risk indices of early childhood caries among 5-year-old children in mountainous areas of North Guangdong%粤北山区早期儿童龋患病状况及危险指标调查

    李剑波; 林焕彩

    2015-01-01

    目的 描述粤北山区5岁儿童早期儿童龋(early childhood caries,ECC)患病状况,分析影响ECC患病的危险指标,探讨儿童ECC患病状况与留守现象的关系.方法 通过横断面调查方法对粤北山区的河源、韶关和梅州市827名5岁儿童ECC患病状况及可能的危险指标进行调查.结果 827名儿童ECC患病率为88.6%,龋均为7.8±5.7,龋面均为18.0±17.5,龋面充填率为0.28%.协方差分析结果发现,母亲受教育程度初中或以下、有釉质发育缺陷、餐间甜食频率大于2次/d、营养不良、有看牙医行为及河源连平、韶关新丰地区的儿童龋失补牙面值较高.此外,ECC随月龄的递增而加重,其严重程度与留守现象不相关.结论 粤北山区5岁儿童ECC患病状况严重,ECC充填率很低,治疗需要较高;ECC患病的危险指标是母亲受教育程度较低、有牙釉质发育缺陷、较高的餐间甜食频率和营养不良;未发现ECC的患病状况与留守现象相关.

  8. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

    Senthil Eagappan, AR; Rao, V. Arun Prasad; Sujatha, S.; Senthil, D.; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Rajaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC). The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4.5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs) score; forty caries-free children (control group), forty children with dmfs 1.5 (ECC group), and forty with dmfs ⩾6 (severe ECC group). Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658) was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children. PMID:27605992

  9. Bacterial Interstitial Nephritis in Children

    Bobadilla Chang, Fernando; Departamento de Ciencias Dinámicas Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Villanueva, Dolores; Departamento de Ciencias Dinámicas Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnosis approach to urinary tract infections in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records from 103 children with diagnosis of interstitial bacterial nephritis were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was supported by the dramatic involvement of renal parenquima, which is not addressed as "urinary tract infection". RESULTS: From all 103 patients, 49 were 2-years-old or younger, 33 were between 2 and 5-years-old, and 21 were between 6 to 10. Clinical picture inc...

  10. Identification of children who may benefit from self-hypnosis at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Geisler Susan C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional difficulties can trigger respiratory symptoms. Thus, children presenting with respiratory complaints may benefit from a psychological intervention. The purpose of this study was to define the proportion of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center who may benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, as a psychological intervention. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all newly referred patients to the SUNY Upstate Medical University Pediatric Pulmonary Center during an 18 month period beginning January 1, 2000. Patients were offered hypnosis if they presented with symptoms or signs suggestive of psychological difficulties. Hypnosis was taught in one or two 15–45 minute sessions by a pediatric pulmonologist. Results Of 725 new referrals, 424 were 0–5 years old, 193 were 6–11 years old, and 108 were 12–18 years old. Diagnoses of anxiety, habit cough, or vocal cord dysfunction accounted for 1% of the 0–5 year olds, 20% of the 6–11 year olds, and 31% of the 12–18 year olds. Hypnotherapy was offered to 1% of 0–5 year olds, 36% of 6–11 year olds, and 55% of 12–18 year olds. Of 81 patients who received instruction in self-hypnosis for anxiety, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, or inspiratory difficulties, 75% returned for follow-up, and among the returning patients 95% reported improvement or resolution of their symptoms. Conclusion A large number of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center appeared to benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, which can be taught easily as a psychological intervention.

  11. The Assessment of Postural Control, Reflex Integration, and Bilateral Motor Coordination of Young Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    DeGangi, Georgia; Larsen, Lawrence A.

    A measurement device, Assessment of Sensorimotor Integration in Preschool Children, was developed to assess postural control, reflex integration and bilateral motor integration in developmentally delayed children (3 to 5 years old). The test was administered to 113 normal children and results were compared with data collected on 23 developmentally…

  12. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  13. Effects of food on physical and sleep complaints in children with ADHD: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Pelsser, Lidy M; Frankena, Klaas; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N

    2010-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common behavioural disorder in children, may be associated with comorbid physical and sleep complaints. Dietary intervention studies have shown convincing evidence of efficacy in reducing ADHD symptoms in children. In this pilot study, we investigated the effects of an elimination diet on physical and sleep complaints in children with ADHD. A group of 27 children (3.8-8.5 years old), who all met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for ADHD, were assigned randomly to either a diet group (15/27) or a control group (12/27). The diet group followed a 5-week elimination diet; the control group adhered to their normal diet. Parents of both groups had to keep an extended diary and had to monitor the behaviour and the physical and sleep complaints of their child conscientiously. The primary endpoint was the clinical response, i.e. a decrease of physical and sleep complaints, at the end of the trial, based on parent ratings on a Physical Complaints Questionnaire. The number of physical and sleep complaints was significantly decreased in the diet group compared to the control group (p < 0.001), with a reduction in the diet group of 77% (p < 0.001, effect size = 2.0) and in the control group of 17% (p = 0.08, effect size = 0.2). Specific complaints that were significantly reduced were in three domains: headaches or bellyaches, unusual thirst or unusual perspiration, and sleep complaints. The reduction of complaints seemed to occur independently of the behavioural changes (p = 0.1). However, the power of this comparison was low. A positive correlation existed between the reduction of physical and behavioural symptoms (p < 0.01). The reduction did not differ between children with or without an atopic constitution (p = 0.7). An elimination diet may be an effective instrument to reduce physical complaints in children with ADHD, but more research is needed to determine the effects of

  14. Consumption of recommended food groups among children from medically underserved communities.

    Kranz, Sibylle; Mitchell, Diane C; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Huang, Shirley H; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Stettler, Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    This cross-sectional study of 2- to 12-year-olds living in medically underserved areas examined the proportion of children meeting the food group intake recommendations for fruits, vegetables, total grains, dairy, and meat/meat alternatives by age group and body weight status. Based on 24-hour recalls collected between July 2004 and March of 2005, mean food group intake and deviation from the recommended intake amounts were determined (actual intake minus recommended intake). Measured weight and height were used to calculate body mass index z scores using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Data analyses were done for two age groups (2- to 5-year-olds and 6- to 12-year-olds) (n=214), by weight status categories (underweight or healthy weight [ or = 95th percentile]), and were repeated for the subset of children with biologically plausible reports. The majority of children lived in low-income households. More 2- to 5-year-olds met intake recommendations compared with 6- to 12-year-olds. Overall, the proportion of children meeting the food group intake recommendations was low with the exception of the meat group, which was met by 52% and 93% of the 2- to 5- and 6- to 12-year-old children, respectively. There was a positive association between the proportion of younger children meeting the fruits or total grains recommendation and increasing body weight. The data support the importance of community-level nutrition intervention programs to improve children's diet quality in low-income, medically underserved areas and suggest that such interventions may help reduce the risk of obesity.

  15. Effects of first aid training in the kindergarten - a pilot study

    Myklebust Anne G

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. Methods A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. Results The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Conclusion Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten.

  16. Acute appendicitis in preschoolers: a study of two different populations of children

    Sivridis Efthimios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the incidence and the risk factors implicated in acute appendicitis in preschoolers in our region. Methods Over a 7-year period, 352 children underwent appendectomy for suspected acute appendicitis. Of these, data for 23 children were excluded because no inflammation of the appendix was found on subsequent histology. Of the remaining 329, 82 were ≤ 5 years old (i.e., preschool children and 247 were 5-14 years old. These two groups of children were further divided according to their religion into Muslims and Christian Orthodox: 43 of the children aged ≤ 5 years were Muslims and 39 were Christian Orthodox. A household questionnaire was designed to collect data concerning age, gender, type of residence area, living conditions, vegetable consumption, and family history of surgery for acute appendicitis as preschool children. The removed appendices were also assessed histologically for the amount of lymphoid tissue. Results Acute appendicitis of preschoolers developed more frequently in Muslims (39.4% than in Christians (17.7%; p p p > 0.05. Conclusions In our region, the percentage of preschool-aged Muslim children with acute appendicitis was remarkably high. One possible explanation for this finding could be the higher amount of lymphoid tissue in the wall of the appendix in Muslim preschool children together with their low standard of hygiene.

  17. Differences in Cognitive Processes Underlying the Collaborative Activities of Children and Chimpanzees

    Fletcher, Grace E.; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We compared the performance of 3- and 5-year-old children with that of chimpanzees in two tasks requiring collaboration via complementary roles. In both tasks, children and chimpanzees were able to coordinate two complementary roles with peers and solve the problem cooperatively. This is the first experimental demonstration of the coordination of…

  18. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  19. What Would Batman Do? Self-Distancing Improves Executive Function in Young Children

    White, Rachel E.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    This experimental research assessed the influence of graded levels of self-distancing--psychological distancing from one's egocentric perspective--on executive function (EF) in young children. Three- (n = 48) and 5-year-old (n = 48) children were randomly assigned to one of four manipulations of distance from the self (from proximal to distal:…

  20. Sociocultural Input Facilitates Children's Developing Understanding of Extraordinary Minds

    Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.; Evans, E. Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Three- to 5-year-old (N = 61) religiously schooled preschoolers received theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks about the mental states of ordinary humans and agents with exceptional perceptual or mental capacities. Consistent with an anthropomorphism hypothesis, children beginning to appreciate limitations of human minds (e.g., ignorance) attributed those…

  1. Japanese Children's and Adults' Awareness of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Toyama, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    In Experiment 1, Japanese children (4-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds (n = 78)) and adults (n = 36), answered questions about the possibility of psychogenic bodily reactions, i.e., bodily outcomes with origins in the mind. The 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers typically denied that bodily conditions could originate in mental states. Developmentally,…

  2. Nonegocentrism and Communication Mode Switching in Black Preschool Children

    Meissner, Judith A.; Apthorp, Helen

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-nine 4- and 5-year-old lower socioeconomic status black children were administered a simple communication task in which the experimenter was either blindfolded or could see the array of toy referents. The results indicated that the majority of subjects gave appropriate responses in both the blindfolded and nonblindfolded conditions. (JMB)

  3. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  4. Pre-school social abilities: Construction and validation of a scale for children in contexts of poverty

    Ana Betina Lacunza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social abilities are an essential part of human activity since they have a bearing on self-con­fidence, adoption of roles, self-regulation of behavior and academic performance, among other aspects. This study presents the process of construction and validation of a scale of social abilities for pre-school children. The scale was administered to 318 parents of 3 to 5 years old children of low socio-economic status who attend Primary Health Care Centers in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Considering the evolutionary and contextual charac­teristics relative to the process of acquisition of social abilities, a different protocol for every age group was designed. The result was a scale with confidence and validity characteristics. The validation of these instruments is helpful for evaluating children in poverty contexts since they enable us to distinguish social resources that allow children’s adaptation.

  5. Impact of Reminders on Children's Cognitive Flexibility, Intrinsic Motivation, and Mood Depends on Who Provides the Reminders.

    Qu, Li; Ong, Jing Y

    2015-01-01

    Reminding children to think about alternatives is a strategy adults often use to promote children's cognitive flexibility, as well as children's engagement in and enjoyment of the task. The current study investigated whether the impacts of reminders on kindergarten children's cognitive flexibility, intrinsic motivation, and mood are moderated by who provides the reminders. Eighty-three healthy 5-year-old kindergarten children were randomly assigned to 2 (Reminder: no reminders vs. Reminders) × 2 (Agent: Tester vs. Partner) conditions. Children's cognitive flexibility was measured via the Block Sorting Task (Garton and Pratt, 2001; Fawcett and Garton, 2005). Children reported their motivation and mood before Block Sorting, after practicing for Block Sorting, and after the actual Block Sorting. Children's intrinsic motivation was measured by evaluating children's choices during a period of free play after Block Sorting. The results revealed that, depending on who provides the reminders, reminding children of alternatives can influence kindergarten children's performance on Block Sorting, children's intrinsic motivation, and children's self-reported mood.

  6. Five-Year-Olds' Fascination for Television: A Comparative Study.

    Hake, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Compared 5-year-olds' understanding of and fascination with a public service and a commercial television program; also compared parents' and children's perspectives. Found that children were particularly fascinated by sequences containing conflicts and aggression. Sixteen of 20 children chose the commercial channel program. Parents showed insight…

  7. [Variations in tooth decay rates among children 5 and 12 years old in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Lucas, Simone Dutra; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Mendonça, Lisette Lobato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this ecological study was to analyze to what extent World Health Organization goals were met in relation to dental caries in 2000 in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, identifying factors associated with variation in DMFT and the occurrence of DMFT < or = 3 among 12-year-old children and in the percentage of caries-free 5-year-olds. Secondary data from different sources were used. Linear regression and multiple logistic regression techniques were applied to the analysis of the numerical and dichotomous dependent variables. Socioeconomic and dental services supply/utilization indicators were used as potential explanatory variables. The goals expressed by DMFT < or = 3 at 12 years and a minimum of 50% caries-free 5-year-olds were met by 37% and 9% of the State's municipalities, respectively. In general the dependent variables were associated with socioeconomic level, and no associations were identified with dental care. The results should not be generalized, but they do suggest inequities in oral health and the role played by socioeconomic factors and water fluoridation.

  8. The effect of dietary resistant starch type 2 on the microbiota and markers of gut inflammation in rural Malawi children

    Resistant starch (RS) decreases intestinal inflammation in some settings. We tested the hypothesis that gut inflammation will be reduced with dietary supplementation with RS in rural Malawian children. Eighteen stunted 3-5-year-old children were supplemented with 8.5 g/day of RS type 2 for 4 weeks. ...

  9. Prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders among children attending primary health care centers in Mosul, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

    Al-Jawadi Asma A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are more vulnerable to the affects of war and violence than adults. At the time of initiation of this study, nothing was known about the prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders. The aim of the present study is to measure the point prevalence of mental disorders among children of 1–15 years age in the city of Mosul, Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Four primary health care centers were chosen consecutively as a study setting. The subjects of the present study were mothers who came to the primary health care center for vaccination of their children. The chosen mothers were included by systematic sampling randomization. All children (aged 1–15 that each mother had were considered in the interview and examination. Results Out of 3079 children assessed, 1152 have childhood mental disorders, giving a point prevalence of 37.4%, with a male to female ratio of to 1.22:1. The top 10 disorders among the examined children are post-traumatic stress disorder (10.5%, enuresis (6%, separation anxiety disorder (4.3%, specific phobia (3.3% stuttering and refusal to attend school (3.2% each, learning and conduct disorders (2.5% each, stereotypic movement (2.3% and feeding disorder in infancy or early childhood (2.0%. Overall, the highest prevalence of mental disorders was among children 10–15 years old (49.2% while the lowest was among 1–5 year olds (29.1%. Boys are more affected than girls (40.2% and 33.2%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mental disorders are a common condition highly prevalent amongst the children and early adolescents in Mosul. Data from the present study mirrors the size of the problem in local community. Several points deserve attention, the most important of which include giving care at the community level, educating the public on mental health, involving communities and families, monitoring community mental health indicators, and

  10. A STUDY ON LICHEN PLANUS IN CHILDREN

    Neerja Puri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lichen planus is considered to be rare in children. However, it does not appear to be uncommon in Indian subcontinent. Aims: The study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile of childhood lichen planus. Material and Methods: We selected 30 children with LP for the study. The children selected were below the age of 14 years of age. Results and Discussion: In our study, it was seen that that the maximum onset of disease was between 5-9 years of age and mean age of children with LP was 6.8 years. The commonest type of LP in children was classical LP seen in 60% children, followed by actinic LP in 20% children. LP hypertrophicus and linear LP were seen in 10% patients each. Nail changes were seen in 10% patients.

  11. Comparación e Inferencia en la Categorización de Artefactos No Familiares: Un Estudio con Niños Pequeños Comparison and Inference in the Categorization of Non-Familiar Artifacts: A Study With Young Children

    Andrea Sabina Taverna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigaciones sobre el desarrollo de categorías muestran que procesos cognitivos como la comparación y la inferencia promueven el conocimiento conceptual. Este artículo reporta el estudio de estos procesos en la categorización de objetos no familiares, utilizando una prueba de elecciones forzosas y palabra extendida, manipulando propiedades funcionales de objetos nuevos. Utilizando una muestra accidental, el Estudio 1 examinó si 42 niños de 3 a 5 años extendían un nombre nuevo a un artefacto no familiar en base a su función, encontrándose un desempeño exitoso solo a los 5 años. El Estudio 2 investigó la comparación en la formación de categorías en 48 niños de 4 años y en el Estudio 3 se estudiaron los efectos de la inferencia en 24 niños de 4 años. Únicamente los niños que compararon artefactos bajo un rótulo común sortearon el sesgo perceptivo, formando categorías nuevas, no así los que fueron invitados a realizar inferencias en base a propiedades. Se discuten los alcances de la comparación y las limitaciones de la inferencia en la categorización de objetos en ausencia de conocimiento conceptual previo.Prior research on category development has shown that cognitive processes such as comparison and inductive inference promote conceptual development, highlighting particular aspects of children's existing conceptual knowledge. This paper reports the study of children's comparison and inductive inference in the categorization of non-familiar objects. It used a forced-choice and word extension task with novel artifacts, manipulating their functional properties. Using an accidental sample, Study 1 assessed whether 2 to 5 years old children extended a novel word to a non-familiar artifact based of its function. It was found that only 5-year-olds succeeded. Study 2 tested the effects of comparison in the formation of categories in 48 4-year-olds and Study 3 the effects of inference in 24 4-year-old children. Only children

  12. Distribution of capsular types and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombian children. Pneumococcal Study Group in Colombia.

    Castañeda, E; Leal, A L; Castillo, O; De La Hoz, F; Vela, M C; Arango, M; Trujillo, H; Levy, A; Gama, M E; Calle, M; Valencia, M L; Parra, W; Agudelo, N; Mejía, G I; Jaramillo, S; Montoya, F; Porras, H; Sánchez, A; Saa, D; Di Fabio, J L; Homma, A

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of childhood pneumonia in the developing world. This study describes the type distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal isolates from Colombian children and is part of the Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA), a PAHO regional initiative designed to determine the ideal serotype composition of a protein polysaccharide pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for use in children less than 5 years old in Latin America. In Colombia, during the study period, centres in Bogota, Medellin, and Cali collected 324 S. pneumoniae isolates from invasive diseases, 238 (73.5%) from children under the age of 2. Pneumonia was the clinical diagnosis in 41.3% cases, meningitis in 41%, and sepsis in 11.2%. The seven most frequent types included 14(21.9%), 5(10.5%), 23F(9.6%), 1(9%), 6B(9%), 19F(7.1%), and 6A(6.2%). The frequency of diminished susceptibility to penicillin (DSP) was 12%, with 8.9% of isolates showing intermediate level resistance and 3.1% showing high level resistance. Among DSP isolates, 23% were also resistant to cefotaxime, 33.3% to erythromycin, 48.7% to chloramphenicol, and 74.3% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Multiple resistance was detected in 59% of the isolates that have DSP. Penicillin resistance was associated with types 23F (53.8%) and 14 (25.6%). These data provides information on capsular types prevalent in Colombia that will not only allow the formulation of an ideal vaccine for the region but also reinforce the need for ongoing regional surveillance.

  13. Overweight, obesity and underweight is associated with adverse psychosocial and physical health outcomes among 7-year-old children: the 'Be active, eat right' study.

    Amy van Grieken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited studies have reported on associations between overweight, and physical and psychosocial health outcomes among younger children. This study evaluates associations between overweight, obesity and underweight in 5-year-old children, and parent-reported health outcomes at age 7 years. METHODS: Data were used from the 'Be active, eat right' study. Height and weight were measured at 5 and 7 years. Parents reported on child physical and psychosocial health outcomes (e.g. respiratory symptoms, general health, happiness, insecurity and adverse treatment. Regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were fitted to predict health outcomes at age 7 years. RESULTS: The baseline study sample consisted of 2,372 children mean age 5.8 (SD 0.4 years; 6.2% overweight, 1.6% obese and 15.0% underweight. Based on parent-report, overweight, obese and underweight children had an odds ratio (OR of 5.70 (95% CI: 4.10 to 7.92, 35.34 (95% CI: 19.16; 65.17 and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.84, respectively, for being treated adversely compared to normal weight children. Compared to children with a low stable body mass index (BMI, parents of children with a high stable BMI reported their child to have an OR of 3.87 (95% CI: 1.75 to 8.54 for visiting the general practitioner once or more, an OR of 15.94 (95% CI: 10.75 to 23.64 for being treated adversely, and an OR of 16.35 (95% CI: 11.08 to 24.36 for feeling insecure. CONCLUSION: This study shows that overweight, obesity and underweight at 5 years of age is associated with more parent-reported adverse treatment of the child. Qualitative research examining underlying mechanisms is recommended. Healthcare providers should be aware of the possible adverse effects of childhood overweight and also relative underweight, and provide parents and children with appropriate counseling.

  14. The Development of Arabic Digit Knowledge in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

    Birgit Knudsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that Arabic digit knowledge rather than non-symbolic number knowledge is a key foundation for arithmetic proficiency at the start of a child’s mathematical career. We document the developmental trajectory of 4- to 7-year-olds’ proficiency in accessing magnitude information from Arabic digits in five tasks differing in magnitude manipulation requirements. Results showed that children from 5 years onwards accessed magnitude information implicitly and explicitly, but that 5-year-olds failed to access magnitude information explicitly when numerical magnitude was contrasted with physical magnitude. Performance across tasks revealed a clear developmental trajectory: children traverse from first knowing the cardinal values of number words to recognizing Arabic digits to knowing their cardinal values and, concurrently, their ordinal position. Correlational analyses showed a strong within-child consistency, demonstrating that this pattern is not only reflected in group differences but also in individual performance.

  15. Lunch is in the bag: increasing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches of preschool-aged children.

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Harrist, Ronald B; Staskel, Deanna M; Almansour, Fawaz D

    2010-07-01

    Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are important sources of nutrients for healthy growth and development of young children. Recent evidence suggests that sack lunches packed by parents for children to consume at child-care centers do not regularly meet the goal of one serving of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. Lunch Is In The Bag is a child-care center-based nutrition education program targeted at parents of preschool-aged children to increase the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches sent from home that was pilot tested in fall 2008. In a quasiexperimental design, six child-care centers were paired by size before being randomly assigned to intervention (n=3) and comparison (n=3) groups. The parents of caregivers with primary responsibility for preparing the sack lunches of the 3- to 5-year-old children attending the centers were enrolled as parent-child dyads. The intervention included parent handouts, classroom activities, education stations, and teacher training. The contents of the lunch sacks for both the intervention group and comparison group were recorded for 3 nonconsecutive days before and immediately after the intervention period to measure the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. A total of 132 parent-child dyads completed the study, 81 in the intervention group and 51 in the comparison group. Direct observation of children's lunches from the intervention group showed an increase in predicted mean number of servings of vegetables, from 0.41 to 0.65 (Pwhole grains, from 0.54 to 1.06 (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the mean number of servings of fruit. Lunch Is In The Bag, which is designed to fit in the child-care environment and targets parents of 3- to 5-year-old children, is a feasible intervention for improving the nutritional quality of sack lunches.

  16. Children in Asian cultures say yes to yes-no questions: Common and cultural differences between Vietnamese and Japanese children.

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether children's response tendency toward yes-no questions concerning objects is a common phenomenon regardless of languages and cultures. Vietnamese and Japanese 2- to 5-year-old (N = 108) were investigated. We also examined whether familiarity with the questioning issue has any effect on Asian children's yes bias. As the result, Asian children showed a yes bias to yes-no questions. The children's response tendency changes dramatically with their age: Vietnamese and Japanese 2- and 3-year-olds showed a yes bias, but 5-year-olds did not. However, Asian 4-year-olds also showed a yes bias only in the familiar condition. Also, Asian children showed a stronger yes bias in the familiar condition than the unfamiliar condition. These two findings in Asian children were different from the previous finding investigated North American children (Fritzley & Lee, 2003). Moreover, there was a within-Asian cross-cultural difference. Japanese children showed different response tendencies, which were rarely observed in Vietnamese children. Japanese 2-year-olds and some 3-year-olds showed a "no answer" response: they tended not to respond to an interviewer's questions. Japanese 4- and 5-year-olds also showed an "I don't know" response when they were asked about unfamiliar objects. Japanese children tended to avoid a binary decision. We discussed the cross-cultural differences.

  17. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  18. Computerized games to study the development of attention in childhood.

    Berger, A; Jones, L; Rothbart, M K; Posner, M I

    2000-05-01

    Children enjoy playing games. We can take advantage of this in the designs of computerized tasks that will engage their interest. These designs also serve to advance the study of chronometric measures, such as manual and saccadic reaction times and event related potentials, with young children. The goals of our method development are (1) to allow for comparable tasks across a wide variety of ages, (2) to make possible comparisons of child performance with data gathered in adult cognitive studies, and (3) to help to support inferences about the development of underlying mechanisms. We have designed a battery of computerized tasks in order to study the development of attention functions of alertness, orienting, and executive control during childhood. Our purpose is to describe each of these tasks in detail and present the results that have been obtained so far. The battery was tested using a sample of 5-year-old children as subjects.

  19. Parental Website-Descriptions of Children's Imaginary Companions

    Francine C Jellesma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Past research shows that imaginary companions are a normal phenomenon in childhood and do not indicate risk for psychopathology. The aim of this study was to see if parents are nevertheless concerned about imaginary companions. Internet-forums were searched in English, German, and Dutch in order to answer this question. Parental messages about present imaginary companions were analysed. Analyses of 89 posts made on a diverse set of internet-forums for parents revealed that half the parents expressed concerns about imaginary companions, especially parents with children older than 4.5 years old. When the imaginary companion was older than the child, parents were more likely to be concerned. Almost all messages were about imaginary companions, which might indicate that parents are less concerned about personified objects. The results signify that parents need more information in order to ensure they know imaginary companions are a normal childhood-experience.

  20. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China.

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-09-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3-5 years: 1500 children; Age 6-12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3-5 years of age (all p 6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3-5 years old (p allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.

  1. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  2. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition- associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤−2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤−2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1- 2 years. We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  3. Adults' representations of the Earth: implications for children's acquisition of scientific concepts.

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2007-11-01

    When children are asked to draw the Earth they often produce intriguing pictures in which, for example, people seem to be standing on a flat disc or inside a hollow sphere. These drawings, and children's answers to questions, have been interpreted as indicating that children construct naïve, theory-like mental models of the Earth (e.g. Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992). However, recent studies using different methods have found little or no evidence of these mental models, and report that many young children have some scientific knowledge of the Earth. To examine the reasons for these contrasting findings, adults (N=350) were given the drawing task previously given to 5-year-old children. Fewer than half of the adults' pictures were scientific, and 15% were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings. Up to half of the answers to questions (e.g. 'Where do people live?') were non-scientific. Open-ended questions and follow-up interviews revealed that non-scientific responses were given because adults found the apparently simple task confusing and challenging. Since children very probably find it even more difficult, these findings indicate that children's non-scientific responses, like adults', often result from methodological problems with the task. These results therefore explain the discrepant findings of previous research, and support the studies which indicate that children do not have naïve mental models of the Earth.

  4. Parent-child interaction over time in families of young children with borderline intellectual functioning.

    Fenning, Rachel M; Baker, Jason K; Baker, Bruce L; Crnic, Keith A

    2014-06-01

    A previous study suggested that mothers of 5-year-old children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed lower positive engagement with their children as compared with both mothers of typically developing children and mothers of children with significant developmental delays (Fenning, Baker, Baker, & Crnic, 2007). The current study integrated father data and followed these families over the subsequent 1-year period. Parent and child behavior were coded from naturalistic home observations at both waves. Results revealed that mothers of children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed a greater increase in negative-controlling parenting from child age 5 to 6 than did other mothers; fathers displayed more negative-controlling behavior in comparison to fathers of typically developing children. In addition, children with borderline intellectual functioning themselves exhibited a more significant escalation in difficult behavior than did typically developing children. Cross-lagged analyses for the sample as a whole indicated that maternal negative-controlling behavior predicted subsequent child difficulties, whereas negative paternal behavior was predicted by earlier child behavior. In conjunction with evidence from Fenning et al. (2007), these findings suggest a complex, dynamic, and systemic developmental pattern in the emotional behavior of families of children with borderline intellectual functioning. Implications and areas in need of additional research are discussed.

  5. The relation of age to the severity of Type I diabetes in children

    Suliman H Al-Fifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between the age and severity of Type 1 diabetes in children 0 - 5 years and more than 5 years of age admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia over a 7-year period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of children less than 13 years of age with Type 1 diabetes admitted to the Pediatric Department, between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2006. Results: A total of 181 children with Type1 diabetes were admitted to the hospital during this period. Of these, 27.6% were children 5 years or less, while 72.4% were more than 5 years of age. The duration of symptoms was longer in younger children compared to older patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 31.4% of the younger children, and in 15.3% of the children more than 5 years old. Hospital stay was also longer in children less than 5 years of age. Most significant differences were in the younger children′s group and affected the biochemical test results. Conclusion: The present study showed that more younger children present to the hospital late, and in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis compared to older patients. Efforts should be directed at improving the knowledge and skills of the primary health care personnel to be able to diagnose and refer these cases earlier.

  6. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S.; Friederici, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network. PMID:27812160

  7. The Incidence of Attachment Objects and Oral Habits at Bedtime in Two Longitudinal Samples of Children Aged 1.5-7 Years.

    Mahalski, Pauline A.

    1983-01-01

    Mothers in one sample were interviewed when children were 1.5, 2, and 2.5 years old, while mothers in the other sample answered questionnaires when their children were 3.5, 5, and 7 years old. Strong emotional attachment to objects and finger-sucking were most prevalent around 2 years of age. (MP)

  8. Factors Related to Overweight in Kindergarten School Children

    Helwiah Umniyati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a significant public health problem of the twenty first century. An increasing number of preschool children are becoming overweight. Although many risk factors have been identified for school-age children, less is known about this young age group. This study was aimed to determine factors associated with overweight among preschool children. Study design was a cross sectional survey. Sample in this study was 90 children aged 3–6 years old in Bina Putik Kindergarten School in Cempaka Putih District (total sampling. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample were 24.4% and 13.3% respectively. There were significant relationships between overweight and some variables using chi-square test such as: age of the children, having overweight parents, nutritional knowledge of the mother, duration of breast feeding, frequency of fast food consumption (p5 years old. It could be concluded that mother’s knowledge on nutrition played an important role in preventing overweight children. Suggested recommendation in order to prevent overweight since childhood was by increasing mother’s knowledge through optimizing relevant programs in the Puskesmas.

  9. Subjective Social Status and Psychological Distress in Mothers of Young Children.

    Michelson, Nicole; Riis, Jenna L; Johnson, Sara B

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Perceptions of social standing have increasingly well-documented relationships with health. Higher subjective social status (SSS) is associated with better psychological well-being among women, and mothers of newborns. The relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of young children, however, is largely unknown. SSS may provide insight into aspects of maternal functioning that are relevant to parenting capacity, as well as insight into future health; in addition, SSS is brief, and may be perceived as less intrusive than other measures of socioeconomic status or mental health. We evaluated the relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of 5-year-old children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods One hundred and sixty-two mothers of 5-year old children, who participated in a study of child self-regulation, completed surveys that assessed sociodemographics, mental health, and perceived social support. The MacArthur Scale of SSS used pictures of ten-rung ladders to assess respondents' social position in relation to the US (SES ladder) and their community (community ladder). Quantile regression models were used to assess the relationship between maternal psychological distress (perceived social support, depressive symptoms, anxiety) and the ladders (individually and together), adjusting for maternal age, race, education, and number of children. To examine whether the SSS-health relationships differed by race, the models were also stratified by race. Results Community ladder ranking was positively associated with social support (β = 1.34, SE = 0.33, p social support (β = 1.17, SE = 0.52, p social standing in one's community is associated with maternal psychological well-being. Community SSS may be particularly influential for Black/African-American mothers' well-being.

  10. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Fateme GHASEMI

    2014-04-01

    C, Donati F. Febrile Seizures and Parental Anxiety: Does Information Help? Swiss Med Wkly 2001;131:556–60.4. Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia (PA: WB Saunders Company; 2011. p.2017.5. Pisacane A, Sansone R, Impagliazzo N, Coppola A, Rolando P, D’Apuzzo A, et al. Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Convulsions: Case-control Study in Children under 2 Years. BMJ 1996;313 (7053:343.6. Lozoff B, Beard J, Connor J, Barbara F, Georgieff M, Schallert T, et al. Long-lasting Neural and Behavioral Effects of Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Nutr Rev 2006;64(5 Pt 2:34–43.7. Parks YA, Wharton BA. Iron Deficiency and the Brain. Acta Paediatr Scand 1989;361:(Suppl 1:71–7.8. Ur-Rehman N, Billoo AG. Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Seizures. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005;15(6:338-40.9. Daoud AS, Batieha A, Abu-Ekteish F, Gharaibeh N, Ajlouni S, Hijazi S. Iron Status: A Possible Risk Factor for the First Febrile Seizure. Epilepsia 2002;43(7:740-3.10. Hartfield DS, Tan J, Yager JY, Rosychuk RJ, Spady D, Haines C, et al. The Association between Iron Deficiency and Febrile Seizures in Childhood. Clin Pediatr (Phila 2009;48(4:420-6.11. Momen A, Nikfar R, Karimi B. Evaluation of Iron Status in 9-month to 5-year-old Children with Febrile Seizures: A Case-control Study in the South West of Iran. Iran JChild Neurol 2010;4(2:45-50.12. Talebian A, Momtazmanesh N. Febrile Seizures and Anemia. Iran J Child Neurol 2007;31-3.13. Kobrinsky NL, Yager JY, Cheang MS, Yatscoff RW, Tenenbein M. Does Iron Deficiency Raise the Seizure Threshold? J Child Neurol 1995;10(2:105–9.14. Salehi Omran MR, Tamaddoni A, Nasehi MM, Babazadeh H, Alizadeh Navaei R. Iron Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-control Study. Iran J Child Neurol 2009:3(3:40-3.15. Amirsalari S, Keihanidost Z, Ahmadi M, Sabouri A, Kavemanesh Z, Afshar P, et al. Relationship between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Seizures. Iran J Child

  11. Epidemiology, Seasonality and Factors Associated with Rotavirus Infection among Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2008–2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

    Omore, Richard; Tate, Jacqueline E.; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Ayers, Tracy; Williamson, John; Moke, Feny; Schilling, Katie A.; Awuor, Alex O.; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, John B.; Oundo, Joseph; Parashar, Umesh D.; Parsons, Michele B.; Bopp, Cheryl C.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Nuorti, J. Pekka; Mintz, Eric D.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors associated with rotavirus diarrhea and to describe severity of illness among children <5 years old with non-dysenteric, moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in rural western Kenya. Methods We analyzed data from children <5 years old with non-dysenteric MSD enrolled as cases in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Kenya. A non-dysenteric MSD case was defined as a child with ≥3 loose stools in 24 hrs. and one or more of the following: sunken eyes, skin tenting, intravenous rehydration, or hospitalization, who sought care at a sentinel health center within 7 days of illness onset. Rotavirus antigens in stool samples were detected by ELISA. Demographic and clinical information was collected at enrollment and during a single follow-up home visit at approximately 60 days. We analyzed diarrhea severity using a GEMS 17 point numerical scoring system adapted from the Vesikari score. We used logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with rotavirus infection. Results From January 31, 2008 to September 30, 2012, among 1,637 (92%) non-dysenteric MSD cases, rotavirus was detected in stools of 245 (15.0%). Rotavirus-positive compared with negative cases were: younger (median age, 8 vs. 13 months; p<0.0001), had more severe illness (median severity score, 9 vs 8; p<0.0001) and had to be hospitalized more frequently (37/245 [15.1%] vs. 134/1,392 [9.6%]), p <0.013). Independent factors associated with rotavirus infection included age 0–11 months old (aOR = 5.29, 95% CI 3.14–8.89) and presenting with vomiting ≥3 times/24hrs (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.91–3.48]). Rotavirus was detected more commonly in warm and dry months than in the cool and rainy months (142/691 [20%] vs 70/673 [10%]) p<0.0001). Conclusions Diarrhea caused by rotavirus is associated with severe symptoms leading to hospitalization. Consistent with other settings, infants had the greatest burden of disease. PMID:27494517

  12. Engaging young children in collective curriculum design

    Goulart, Maria Inês Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of being predetermined and controlled by the latter. We draw on a cultural-historical approach and on the theory of structure and agency to analyze the events showing the complexity of the activity inside a classroom of very young children by science education standards. Data were collected in the context of a science unit in an early-childhood education program in Belo Horizonte. Our study suggests that (a) throughout the movement of agency|passivity || schema|resources one can observe participative thinking, a form of collective consciousness that arises in and from lived experience; (b) learning is a process in which a group is invested in searching for solutions while they create schemas and rearrange resources to evolve a new structure; and (c) the emergent curriculum is a powerful form of praxis that develops children's participation from early childhood on.

  13. Children with Imaginary Companions Focus on Mental Characteristics When Describing Their Real-life Friends

    Davis, Paige E.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Relations between having an imaginary companion (IC) and (i) descriptions of a real-life friend, (ii) theory of mind performance, and (iii) reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties were investigated in a sample of 5-year-olds (N?=?159). Children who had an IC were more likely than their peers without an IC to describe their best…

  14. Young Children's Response Tendencies toward Yes-No Questions Concerning Actions

    Fritzley, V. Heather; Lindsay, Rod C. L.; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated response tendencies of preschoolers toward yes-no questions about actions. Two hundred 2- to 5-year-old children were asked questions concerning actions commonly associated with particular objects (e.g., drinking from a cup) and actions not commonly associated with particular objects (e.g., kicking a toothbrush). The…

  15. Does Language Influence the Accuracy of Judgments of Stuttering in Children?

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether stuttering judgment accuracy is influenced by familiarity with the stuttering speaker's language. Method: Audiovisual 7-min speech samples from nine 3- to 5-year-olds were used. Icelandic children who stutter (CWS), preselected for different levels of stuttering, were subdivided into 5-s intervals. Ten experienced…

  16. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  17. Young Children's Fast Mapping and Generalization of Words, Facts, and Pictograms

    Deak, Gedeon O.; Toney, Alexis J.

    2013-01-01

    To test general and specific processes of symbol learning, 4- and 5-year-old children learned three kinds of abstract associates for novel objects: words, facts, and pictograms. To test fast mapping (i.e., one-trial learning) and subsequent learning, comprehension was tested after each of four exposures. Production was also tested, as was…

  18. Talking about Writing: What We Can Learn from Conversations between Parents and Their Young Children

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    In six analyses using the Child Language Data Exchange System known as CHILDES, we explored whether and how parents and their 1.5- to 5-year-old children talk about writing. Parent speech might include information about the similarity between print and speech and about the difference between writing and drawing. Parents could convey similarity…

  19. Phonological Processing and Emergent Literacy in Spanish-speaking Preschool Children

    Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M., McDonald, Renee; Corbitt-Shindler, Deborah , Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Phonological awareness (PA), phonological memory (PM), and phonological access to lexical storage (also known as RAN), play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPAs) in 147 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children whose native language was…

  20. Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults from Asia and Africa

    Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…

  1. Detailed Analysis of Language Development of Preschool Children in ECE Program. Technical Report No. 4.

    Hines, Brainard W.

    This report is concerned with the language skills category of objectives of the Early Childhood Education (ECE) Program. The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability (ITPA) was the primary instrument used for evaluation of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in three treatment groups: (1) mobile educational facility, TV, and paraprofessional, (2) TV…

  2. "THE BACON" Not "the Bacon": How Children and Adults Understand Accented and Unaccented Noun Phrases

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4- and 5-year-old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., "the bacon") with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less…

  3. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…

  4. Talking with Children: Tips for Caregivers, Parents, and Teachers during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    ... upset. They may start to show the same emotions as their caregivers, or they may act differently, like crying for no reason or withdrawing from people and not playing with their toys. Children, 3–5 years old, may be able to understand the effects of an outbreak. If they are very upset ...

  5. Tips for Talking with and Helping Children and Youth Cope After a Disaster or Traumatic Event

    ... upset. They may start to show the same emotions as their caregivers, or they may act differently, like crying for no reason, withdrawing from people, and not playing with their toys. Children, 3–5 years old, can understand the effects of trauma. They may have trouble adjusting to ...

  6. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream.

  7. Preschool-aged children's jumps: imitation performances.

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Ramanantsoa, Marie-Martine; Golomer, Eveline

    2010-04-01

    Imitative behavior underlaid by perception and action links during children's development in complex locomotor skills has been the object of relatively few studies. In order to explore children's motor coordination modes, 130 children divided into five age groups from 3.5 to 7.5 years were instructed to imitate jumping tasks in spontaneous motor situation and in various imitative contexts by an adult providing verbal orders and gestural demonstrations. Their conformity to the model, stability and variability scores were coded from a video analysis when they performed jumps with obstacles. To evaluate their postural-motor control level, the durations of the preparatory phase and jumping flights were also timed. Results showed that all age groups generated the demonstrator's goal but not necessarily the same coordination modes of jumping. In imitation with temporal proximity, the model helped the youngest age groups to adopt his coordination modes and stabilized only the oldest age groups' performances starting from 5.5 years old, without effect on learning imitation. Differences between the youngest and oldest children in the jump duration suggested that the reproduction of a complex motor activity such as jumping with a one foot take-off would require resolution and adjustment of main postural stability.

  8. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  9. Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.

    Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  10. 夏季与秋季钩梢对5年生毛竹竹材物理力学性质的影响%Influence of Obtruncation in Summer and Autumn on Physical and Mechanical Properties of 5 Years Old Culms of Phyllostachys pubescens

    董敦义; 李子川; 桂仁意; 俞友明

    2015-01-01

    毛竹林钩梢是预防雪灾的重要抚育措施,一般在秋季进行。而随着劳动力成本日趋高涨,劳动强度相对较低的夏季钩梢则成为了一种新的技术选择。为了弄清夏季钩梢对竹材物理力学性质的影响,试验分别选取夏季钩梢、秋季钩梢和未钩梢毛竹( Phyllostachys pubescens)林的5年生立竹试材,比较分析钩梢尤其是夏季钩梢对竹材物理力学性质的影响。结果表明:夏季或秋季钩梢对竹材的3种密度指标(基本密度、气干密度和绝干密度)、体积干缩率、顺纹抗压强度、顺纹抗剪强度和弦向抗弯弹性模量均没有显著影响。钩梢毛竹竹材的纵向干缩率显著低于未钩梢毛竹,顺纹抗拉强度显著高于未钩梢毛竹,而同时弦向抗弯强度也高于未钩梢毛竹,差异接近显著水平( P=0.0501);夏季钩梢竹材的径向干缩率高于秋季钩梢和未钩梢毛竹,差异也接近显著水平( P=0.0508)。逐项分析结果表明钩梢显著降低了基部竹材的纵向干缩率,夏季钩梢对增加竹材径向干缩率的作用主要表现在基部和中部。竹材力学性质的逐项分析结果表明不同钩梢处理同一部位间没有显著差异,但其部位效应更加显著。以上结果说明夏季钩梢与秋季钩梢均不会降低毛竹竹材的物理使用价值。%Obtruncation management in autumn is widely used in northern Zhejiang Province to protect Moso bamboo plantation from snow disaster. As the labor costs rise steadily, relatively lower labor intensive management,i.e.,obtrucation in summer,may be a better choice. But there exists a question on whether this practice would adversely affect the physical and mechanical properties of bamboo culms.This study investigated the influence of obtruncation on 5⁃year⁃old culms of Phyllostachys pubescens by determining the parameters of the physical and mechanical properties of three parts

  11. Stick with your group: young children's attitudes about group loyalty.

    Misch, Antonia; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2014-10-01

    For adults, loyalty to the group is highly valued, yet little is known about how children evaluate loyalty. We investigated children's attitudes about loyalty in a third-party context. In the first experiment, 4- and 5-year-olds watched a video of two groups competing. Two members of the losing group then spoke. The disloyal individual said she wanted to win and therefore would join the other group. The loyal individual said she also wanted to win but would stay with her group. Children were then asked five forced-choice questions about these two individuals' niceness, trustworthiness, morality, and deservingness of a reward. The 5-year-olds preferred the loyal person across all questions; results for the 4-year-olds were considerably weaker but in the same direction. The second experiment investigated the direction of the effect in 5-year-olds. In this experiment, children answered questions about either a loyal individual, a disloyal individual, or a neutral individual. Children rated both the loyal and neutral individuals more positively than the disloyal individual across a number of measures. Thus, whereas disloyal behavior is evaluated unfavorably by children, loyal behavior is the expected norm. These results suggest that, at least from 5 years of age, children understand that belonging to a group entails certain commitments. This marks an important step in their own ability to negotiate belonging and become trustworthy and reliable members of their social groups.

  12. Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes at preschool age for children with very low birth weight.

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wang, Lan-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight children without major impairment at 5 years of age, as well as to identify the contribution of early neurodevelopmental assessment to preterm children's later developmental outcomes. The participants in this study included 126 children who were prematurely born with very low birth weight. Outcomes of the childrens' later development were measured in tests that factored cognitive function, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. The results indicated that more than 50% of full-scale intelligence and 30% of both motor performance and adaptive behavior at the age of 5 can be explained by four predictors. The four predictors include preterm children's medical complications at birth, maternal education, early motor assessments, and cognitive assessments. Adding each test score obtained in early ages provides additional information to predict children's cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior at 5 years of age. Manifold assessments conducted in multiple time periods strengthen the predictive values of later developmental outcomes. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that very low birth weight children tend to have lower adaptive behavior at 5 years old. With regard to our findings, we believe that having adaptive function is a reflection of a child's overall integrated abilities. Further study is warranted to increase understanding of this topic, as well as to be able to predict adaptive strengths and weakness and pinpoint limiting factors that may be useful for targeting behaviors in intervention.

  13. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and autoimmune hyperthyroidism in a 10,5 years-old girl

    Huseyin Demirbilek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is an autosomal dominant inherited multisystem disease associated with several endocrine disorders. Association of NF1 and hyperthyroidism is extremely rare. All previously reported cases were in adult age group. Herein, we present autoimmune thyrotoxicosis associated to NF1 in a pediatric patient presenting with goiter and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 805-808

  14. Fulminate Hepatic Failure in a 5 Year Old Female after Inappropriate Acetaminophen Treatment

    Irena Kasmi

    2015-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers should considered probable acetaminophen toxicity in any child who has received the drug and presented with liver failure. When there is a high index of suspicion of acetaminophen toxicity NAC should be initiated and continued until there are no signs of hepatic dysfunction.

  15. Percutaneous transsplenic embolization of esophageal varices in a 5-year-old child

    Rasinska, G.; Wermenski, K.; Rajszys, P.

    A five-year-old girl with portal vein thrombosis and severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage recurring after repeated endoscopic sclerotherapy was successfully embolized via an ultrasonically guided transsplenic catheterization of the splenic vein.

  16. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit in a 5-year-old girl with microphthalmia

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy......ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy...

  17. Validation of a Dutch language screening instrument for 5-year-old preterm infants.

    Knuijt, S.; Sondaar, M.; Kleine, M.J. de; Kollee, L.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The validation of the Dutch Taal Screenings Test (TST), a language-screening test, which is included in a follow-up instrument developed to enable paediatricians to assess 5-y-old preterm infants for their motor, cognitive and speech and language development. METHODS: The speech and language de

  18. Perceptual evidence for protracted development in monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tone production in preschool children in Taiwan.

    Wong, Puisan

    2013-01-01

    This study used the same methodology in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to examine the perceived accuracy of monosyllabic Mandarin tones produced by 4- and 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and combined the findings with those of 3-year-olds reported in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to track the development of monosyllabic tone production in preschool children. Tone productions of adults and children were collected in a picture naming task and low-pass filtered to remove lexical information and reserve tone information. Five native-speakers categorized the target tones in the filtered productions. Children's tone accuracy was compared to adults' to determine mastery and developmental changes. The results showed that preschool children in Taiwan have not fully mastered the production of monosyllabic Mandarin tones. None of the tones produced by the children in the three age groups reached adult-like accuracy. Little developmental change was found in children's tone accuracy during the preschool years. A similar order of accuracy of the tones was observed across the three age groups and the order appeared to follow the order of articulatory complexity in producing the tones. The findings suggest a protracted course of development in children's acquisition of Mandarin tones and that tone development may be constrained by physiological factors.

  19. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  20. Conforming to coordinate: children use majority information for peer coordination.

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Humans are constantly required to coordinate their behaviour with others. As this often relies on everyone's convergence on the same strategy (e.g., driving on the left side of the road), a common solution is to conform to majority behaviour. In this study, we presented 5-year-old children with a coordination problem: To retrieve some rewards, they had to choose the same of four options as a peer partner--in reality a stooge--whose decision they were unable to see. Before making a choice, they watched a video showing how other children from their partner's peer group had behaved; a majority chose the same option and a minority chose a different one. In a control condition, children watched the same video but could then retrieve the reward irrespective of their partner's choice (i.e., no coordination was necessary). Children followed the majority more often when coordination was required. Moreover, conformers mostly justified their choices by referring to the majority from the video demonstration. This study is the first to show that young children are able to strategically coordinate decisions with peers by conforming to the majority.