WorldWideScience

Sample records for 5-day extended therapy

  1. Efficacy of a 5-day extended therapy program during lactation with cephapirin sodium in dairy cows chronically infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean-Philippe; DesCôteaux, Luc; DuTremblay, Denis; Beaudry, Francis; Elsener, Johanne

    2009-12-01

    This study determined the efficacy of a 5-day extended therapy with cephapirin sodium in dairy cows chronically infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Chronically infected cows selected from 14 dairy herds in the St-Hyacinthe region, Québec were randomly allocated to a group of 31 cows treated for 5 consecutive days with 200 mg of cephapirin per quarter BID or a group of 30 untreated control cows. Bacteriological cure was determined by 3 negative bacterial cultures at 10, 24, and 31 days after treatment. The cow cure rates were 25.8% (8/31) in the treated cows and 3.3% (1/30) in the control group (P = 0.013). The quarter cure rates at first sampling post-treatment were 77.6% (38/49) and 18% (9/50) in the treated and the control groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). A 5-day extended therapy with cephapirin is effective in treating cows chronically infected with S. aureus.

  2. Evaluation of short-term clinical efficacy of 3-day therapy with azithromycin in comparison with 5-day cefcapene-pivoxyl for acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Takeharu; Rikimaru, Toru; Tokunaga, Naoto; Higashi, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Yoichiro; Matsuo, Kazuhiko

    2011-08-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis is one of the few conditions for which antibiotics are advocated among common upper respiratory infections. Although a 3-day course of azithromycin is attracting attention as a treatment of choice for the condition, it is not clear if the efficacy of the treatment is comparable with that of treatment with cephalosporins. A prospective, randomized, comparative multicenter study was conducted to compare the efficacy of azithromycin (AZM) given once daily for 3 days with that of cefcapene-pivoxyl (CFPN-PI) divided into three daily doses for 5 days. 88 patients (male: 38, mean age: 16.5) were treated with AZM and 69 (male: 34, mean age: 16.9) with CFPN-PI. The symptoms of all but 5 (2 for AZM and 3 for CFPN-PI) of the patients were resolved by the 8th day of the treatment. By the 4th day of the treatment, criteria for clinical efficacy were fulfilled in 71 (80.7%) subjects who were treated with AZM and in 48 (67.6%) of those treated with CFPN-PI (p = 0.07). The same figures on the 8th day of the treatment were 86 (97.7%) and 68 (95.8%), respectively (p = 0.66), confirming there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between the two treatments. Mild adverse reactions were reported by two patients treated with AZM and by none treated with CFPN-PI. The clinical efficacy of a 3-day course with AZM was comparable with that of a 5-day course of CFPN-PI for GAS tonsillopharyngitis.

  3. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days Print A A A en ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  4. [Antibiotic therapy against acute tonsillopharyngitis in children due to group A beta-hemolytic streptococci: comparison of clinical efficacy, the bactericidal effects, and effects on oral flora between cefditoren pivoxil for 5 days and amoxicillin for 10 days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Naoki; Nagai, Kensuke; Hidaka, Hidenobu; Otsu, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yuhei; Ikezawa, Shigeru; Honma, Shinichi; Shindo, Shizuo; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2011-06-01

    We compared the clinical efficacy, the bactericidal effects, effect on the oral microbial flora, and adverse reactions between cefditoren pivoxil (CDTR-PI) for 5 days and amoxicillin (AMPC) for 10 days in children with acute group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis, and simultaneously examined the emm genotype and drug susceptibility of the isolated GAS. The results showed that the clinical efficacy was 100% for CDTR-PI and 97.9% for AMPC, with no difference between the two groups, and the bacterial elimination rate was 100% in both groups. No serious adverse event was noted in either group. On the other hand, concerning changes in the oral microbial flora between before and after treatment, the amount of bacteria showed no change in the CDTR-PI group (p = 0.5761) but clearly decreased in the AMPC group (p = 0.0049). This indicates that CDTR-PI does not disturb the oral microbial flora compared with AMPC. Also, the emm types determined in the 112 GAS strains isolated in this study were similar to those that have recently been isolated frequently in Japan. Concerning the drug resistance, none of the isolates showed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, but 45% of them were resistant to macrolides. The advantages of short-term treatment are considered to include a lower cost, improvement in drug compliance, decrease in the frequency of the occurrence of adverse reactions, decrease in the frequency of the appearance of drug-resistant strains, and alleviation of the psychological burden of patients and their parents. For these reasons, we conclude that CDTR-PI for 5 days is a useful option for the treatment of acute GAS tonsillopharyngitis in children.

  5. TRACTION-EXTENDED THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR DEGENERATIVE DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Zhirnov; D. P. Krest'yanov; A. K. Vasil'kin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey of 148 patients with an lumbar degenerative disease, there have been studied immediate and medium-term results of the comprehensive conservative treatment of the patients with and without application of traction exposure on the spine. It was found out that the traction of the spine leads to a quicker and more durable relief of symptoms in comparison with the control groups where traction therapy wasn't carried out. Application of the traction-extended therapy in three plan...

  6. Physical and occupational therapy in inpatient stroke rehabilitation: the contribution of therapy extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Hui; Putman, Koen; Nichols, Diane; McGinty, Molly E; DeJong, Gerben; Smout, Randall J; Horn, Susan

    2010-11-01

    To understand the use of therapy extenders in stroke rehabilitation. Descriptive analysis of a prospective observational cohort study. Two hundred ninety-eight patients with moderate stroke and 284 with severe stroke from 5 inpatient rehabilitation facilities with complete physical and occupational therapy data are included in the study. Overall, occupational therapists and assistants contributed ∼70% and 21% of all occupational therapy hours, respectively. For physical therapy, these percentages in moderate group (60% vs. 31%) differ from those in severe group (65% vs. 23%). Some variations in the use of therapy extenders are noted in both disciplines across sites. Physical and occupational therapists spend more time in delivering advanced activities that include ongoing integrated evaluation and treatment planning or modification. Their assistants spend more time in delivering lower-level activities, such as bed mobility, transfers, dressing, or nonfunctional activities. Also, therapists are more likely to assign responsibility to assistants to treat moderate motor impairment among patients with stroke. Characterizing therapy practice in stroke rehabilitation is not straightforward. It is multifactorial and takes into account the (1) type of therapy, (2) therapy activity, (3) therapy provider including extender personnel, (4) specific training in stroke, and (5) years of experience. Future research to examine the association between use of therapy extenders and outcomes is recommended.

  7. TRACTION-EXTENDED THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR DEGENERATIVE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zhirnov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the survey of 148 patients with an lumbar degenerative disease, there have been studied immediate and medium-term results of the comprehensive conservative treatment of the patients with and without application of traction exposure on the spine. It was found out that the traction of the spine leads to a quicker and more durable relief of symptoms in comparison with the control groups where traction therapy wasn't carried out. Application of the traction-extended therapy in three planes with a usage of robotized set for dry skeletal traction of a new generation KinetracKNX-7000 is proved to increase the effectiveness of treatment for the patients with stated pathology, fasten regress of the pain syndrome and clinical symptomatology, lead to more durable and lasting remission of the desease, in comparison with the patients that had traction of the spine in one plane only during the treatment.

  8. Extended drug delivery by contact lenses for glaucoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Chun; Burke, Michael T; Carbia, Blanca E; Plummer, Caryn; Chauhan, Anuj

    2012-08-20

    We combine laboratory-based timolol release studies and in vivo pharmacodynamics studies in beagle dogs to evaluate the efficacy of glaucoma therapy through extended wear contact lenses. Commercial contact lenses cannot provide extended delivery of ophthalmic drugs and so the studies here focused on increasing the release duration of timolol from ACUVUE TruEye contact lenses by incorporating vitamin E diffusion barriers. The efficacy of timolol delivered via extended wear contact lenses was then compared to eye drops in beagle dogs that suffer from spontaneous glaucoma. The lenses were either replaced every 24h or continuously worn for 4 days, and the pharmacodynamics effect of changes in the intraocular pressure (IOP) of timolol from the ACUVUE TruEye contact lenses can be significantly increased by incorporation of vitamin E. The in vivo studies showed that IOP reduction from baseline by pure contact lens on daily basis was comparable with that by eye drops but with only 20% of drug dose, which suggested higher drug bioavailability for contact lenses. In addition, by inclusion of vitamin E into the lenses, the IOP was reduced significantly during the 4-day treatment with continuous wear of lens.

  9. Case manager as therapy extender for cognitive behavior therapy of serious mental illness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, Narsimha R; Schmidt, Lisa T; Snyder, Richard P

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based intervention for individuals with serious mental illness and potentiates standard medication management. Americans receiving publicly funded treatment for serious mental illnesses have limited access to CBT and hence we need to devise innovative ways of providing access to this important intervention. We present a case of a man who had severe disability, was medication resistant, and diagnosed with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. After being home bound for many years he was provided CBT utilizing his existing case manager as a therapy extender. The specific roles of the primary therapist and case manager as well as the improvement in quality of life of the individual are delineated. This case report opens up the possibility of further studying case managers as therapy extenders for treating serious mental illnesses.

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian...

  12. Locomotor therapy with extended-release crystalline glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vasilyevich Badokin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical glucocorticoid (GC therapy for locomotor diseases is an extremely important component of a comprehensive program to treat inflammatory and, to a lesser extent, degenerative diseases. It reduces the time of hospitalization by 5—10 days in this category of patients, has a prompt and potent anti-inflammatory effect, and shows predictable efficiency. This therapy shows good tolerability and high safety and prevents serious adverse reactions to GC treatment.

  13. Many Breast Cancer Survivors Don't Get Life-Extending Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163387.html Many Breast Cancer Survivors Don't Get Life-Extending Therapy Study ... reduce the likelihood that women diagnosed with certain breast cancers will experience a recurrence of their disease. However, ...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  20. [In vitro study of platelet preservation during 5 days in reduced-thickness bags].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Babault, C; Desbois, I; Degenne, M; Binet, C; Garnier, C; Chassaigne, M

    1989-02-01

    An in vitro study of platelet concentrates storage for 5 days was performed in PVC bags. Modification of the original three-day containers were introduced by thickness reduction. The results at fifth day were comparable to those at third day in standard plastic bags. During storage, variations of platelet counts were very slight with a low LDH release. PH was stable with a good maintenance of phase microscope platelet morphology. PCO2 and PO2 measurements showed a satisfactory gas permeability which could explain a limited lactate production. If in vivo studies of transfusion recovery confirm these data, platelet concentrates storage could be extended up to 5 days by such modifications of standard three-day PVC bags.

  1. Extended duration dual antiplatelet therapy and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmariah, Sammy; Mauri, Laura; Doros, Gheorghe; Galper, Benjamin Z; O'Neill, Kelly E; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Kereiakes, Dean J; Yeh, Robert W

    2015-02-28

    Treatment with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor is commonly used in patients with cardiovascular disorders. The overall effect of such treatment on all-cause mortality is unknown. In the Dual Antiplatelet Therapy (DAPT) Study, continuation of dual antiplatelet therapy beyond 12 months after coronary stenting was associated with an unexpected increase in non-cardiovascular death. In view of the potential public health importance of these findings, we aimed to assess the effect of extended duration dual antiplatelet therapy on mortality by doing a meta-analysis of all randomised, controlled trials of treatment duration in various cardiovascular disorders. We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to identify randomised controlled trials assessing the effect of extended duration versus no or short duration dual antiplatelet therapy, published before Oct 1, 2014. We did a meta-analysis to pool results with a hierarchical Bayesian random-effects model. The primary outcomes were hazard ratios comparing rates of all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular death. Including the DAPT Study, we identified 14 eligible trials that randomly assigned 69,644 participants to different durations of dual antiplatelet therapy. Compared with aspirin alone or short duration dual antiplatelet therapy (≤6 months), continued treatment was not associated with a difference in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·05, 95% credible interval [CrI] 0·96-1·19; p=0·33). Similarly, cardiovascular (1·01, 0·93-1·12; p=0·81) and non-cardiovascular mortality (1·04, 0·90-1·26; p=0·66) were no different with extended duration versus short duration dual antiplatelet therapy or aspirin alone. Extended duration dual antiplatelet therapy was not associated with a difference in the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, or non-cardiovascular death compared with aspirin alone or short duration dual antiplatelet therapy. None. Copyright © 2015

  2. Changing Paradigm of Hemophilia Management: Extended Half-Life Factor Concentrates and Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Riten; Dunn, Amy; Carcao, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Management of hemophilia has evolved significantly in the last century-from recognition of the causative mechanism in the 1950s to commercially available clotting factor concentrates in the 1960s. Availability of lyophilized concentrates in the 1970s set the stage for home-based therapy, followed by introduction of virally attenuated plasma-derived, and then recombinant factor concentrates in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. The subsequent years saw a paradigm shift in treatment goals from on-demand therapy to prophylactic factor replacement starting at an early age, to prevent hemarthrosis becoming the standard of care for patients with severe hemophilia. In the developed world, the increasing use of home-based prophylactic regimens has significantly improved the quality of life, and life expectancy of patients with severe hemophilia. Seminal developments in the past 5 years, including the commercial availability of extended half-life factor concentrates and the publication of successful results of gene therapy for patients with hemophilia B, promise to further revolutionize hemophilia care over the next few decades. In this review, we summarize the evolution of management for hemophilia, with a focus on extended half-life factor concentrates and gene therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Glaucoma therapy by extended release of timolol from nanoparticle loaded silicone-hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Jung; Abou-Jaoude, Michelle; Carbia, Blanca E; Plummer, Caryn; Chauhan, Anuj

    2013-01-10

    Glaucoma is the second major cause of blindness in the world after cataract. Glaucoma management through eye drops that reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) has major deficiencies including low patient compliance and low bioavailability. Extended wear contact lenses that deliver glaucoma drugs for extended periods could increase patient compliance, while also increasing the bioavailability. To develop extended wear contact lenses that can also provide extended glaucoma therapy, we disperse nanoparticles of PGT (propoxylated glyceryl triacylate) that contain a glaucoma drug timolol. The particles can also be loaded into prefabricated lenses by soaking the lenses in a solution of particles in ethanol. The particle loaded gels can release timolol in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for about a month at room temperature. The most likely rate controlling mechanism is hydrolysis of the ester bond that links timolol to the PGT matrix, but other mechanisms such as water and drug diffusion, drug dissolution, drug-polymer chain cleavage, time-dependent drug permeability within the polymeric matrix, etc. may also be important. Nanoparticle incorporation in the silicone hydrogels results in reduction in ion and oxygen permeabilities, and an increase in modulus, and the impact on each of these properties is proportional to the particle loading. A gel with 5% particle loading can deliver timolol at therapeutic doses for about a month at room temperature, with a minimal impact on critical lens properties. Preliminary animal studies in Beagle dogs conducted with lenses in which particles are loaded by soaking the lenses in ethanol show a reduction in IOP.

  4. Identify high risk estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients for extended endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JunJie; Jiang, Yizhou; Liu, Yirong; Shao, Zhimin

    2017-02-01

    To demonstrate the patterns of breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive diseases and to identify high-risk candidates for extended endocrine therapy. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database, we identified ER-positive patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 (cohort 1 [C1]) and between 2001 and 2005 (cohort 2 [C2]). The patterns of BCSM were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. A risk classification model was developed, and X-tile software was used to divide patients with high BCSM rates into 3 risk groups. The annual BCSM rate of C2 was decreased by one-third and was maintained at 10-15 (per 1000 persons per year) from year 2 to year 10. Long-term mortality risks still persisted in C2, especially in patients with node-positive, grade 3 or T3 disease, who should be considered as "clinical-high-risk". These patients were further divided into 3 risk groups through our model: for C1, 42.2% were in the low-risk group, 38.9% in the medium-risk group, and 18.9% in the high-risk group; and for C2, 45.5% were in the low-risk group, 38.2% in the medium-risk group and 16.2% in the high-risk group (p risk group. ER-positive patients with node-positive, grade 3 or T3 diseases had sustained risks of death throughout the 10-year time frame, and our model is helpful to identify patients with high risk who are candidates for extended endocrine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer following Gastrectomy and Extended Lymphadenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Snyder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although randomized trials suggest a survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (XRT for gastric adenocarcinoma, its use in patients who undergo an extended lymphadenectomy is less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine if a survival benefit exists in gastric cancer patients who receive adjuvant XRT following resection with extended lymphadenectomy. Methods. The SEER registry was queried for records of patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma from 1988 to 2007. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess independent prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS. Results. Of 15,060 patients identified, 3,208 (21% received adjuvant XRT. Adjuvant XRT was independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.67, CI 0.64–0.71 and DSS (HR 0.69, CI 0.65–0.73 in stages IB through IV (M0. This OS and DSS benefit persisted regardless of the extent of lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, lymphadenectomy with >25 LN resected was associated with improved OS and DSS compared with 25 LNs results in improved OS and DSS compared with patients who have fewer LNs resected.

  6. Efficacy of extended ceftiofur intramammary therapy for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Headrick, S J; Moorehead, H; Lunn, P; Dowlen, H H; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Chester, S T; Moseley, W M

    2004-08-01

    Little research has focused on treatment of cows with subclinical mastitis during lactation. Ceftiofur is a new broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic for veterinary use that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by interfering with enzymes essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Ceftiofur should be effective against a wide range of contagious and environmental mastitis pathogens. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of ceftiofur for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows, and to determine if extended therapy regimens enhanced efficacy of ceftiofur. Holstein and Jersey dairy cows (n = 88) from 3 dairy research herds were used. Cows were enrolled in the study based on milk somatic cell counts >400,000/mL and isolation of the same mastitis pathogen in 2 samples obtained 1 wk apart. Cows with one or more intramammary infections (IMI) were blocked by parity and DIM and allocated randomly to 1 of 3 different ceftiofur treatment regimens: 2-d (n = 49 IMI), 5-d (n = 41 IMI), and 8-d (n = 38 IMI) treatment regimens. For all groups, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered via intramammary infusion. Eighteen cows with 38 IMI were included as an untreated negative control group. A bacteriological cure was defined as a treated infected mammary quarter that was bacteriologically negative for the presence of previously identified bacteria at 14 and 28 d after the last treatment. Efficacy of ceftiofur therapy against all subclinical IMI was 38.8, 53.7, and 65.8% for the 2-, 5-, and 8-d ceftiofur treatment regimens, respectively. Four of 38 (10.5%) IMI in control cows were cured spontaneously without treatment. All 3 ceftiofur treatment regimens were significantly better than the negative control, and the 8-d extended ceftiofur treatment regimen treatment group was significantly better than the standard 2-d treatment group. Pathogen groups had significantly different cure rates from one another. The cure

  7. Paliperidone extended-release: does it have a place in antipsychotic therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Schönfeldt-Lecuona

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximilian Gahr1,*, Markus A Kölle1,*, Carlos Schönfeldt-Lecuona1, Peter Lepping2, Roland W Freudenmann11Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry, Glyndwr University, Wales, UK *Both authors contributed equally and their order was determined by coin toss.Abstract: Paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone, the active metabolite of risperidone, was approved for treating schizophrenia worldwide in 2006 as paliperidone extended-release (PER, and became the first second-generation antipsychotic specifically licensed for treating schizoaffective disorder in 2009. However, at the same time, its comparatively high cost gave rise to concerns about the cost-effectiveness of PER as compared with its precursor, risperidone. This paper reviews the existing knowledge of the pharmacology, kinetics, efficacy, tolerability, and fields of application of PER, and compares PER with risperidone in order to determine whether it has a place in antipsychotic therapy. An independent assessment of all relevant publications on PER published until July 2010 was undertaken. PER has a unique pharmacological profile, including single dosing, predominantly renal excretion, low drug–drug interaction risk, and differs from risperidone in terms of mode of action and pharmacokinetics. High-level evidence suggests that PER is efficacious and safe in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and acute manic episodes. There is a striking lack of published head-to-head comparisons between PER and risperidone, irrespective of indication. Low-level evidence shows a lower risk for hyperprolactinemia and higher patient satisfaction with PER than with risperidone. PER adds to the still limited arsenal of second-generation antipsychotics. In the absence of direct comparisons with risperidone, it remains difficult to come to a final verdict on the potential additional therapeutic benefits of PER which would justify its substantially

  8. Output calculation of electron therapy at extended SSD using an improved LBR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhatib, Hassaan A.; Gebreamlak, Wondesen T., E-mail: wondtassew@gmail.com; Wright, Ben W.; Neglia, William J. [South Carolina Oncology Associates, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States); Tedeschi, David J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Mihailidis, Dimitris [CAMC Cancer Center and Alliance Oncology, Charleston, West Virginia 25304 (United States); Sobash, Philip T. [The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States); Fontenot, Jonas D. [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    calculate the output factor of electron therapy at extended SSD. The percentage difference between the calculated and the measured output factors of irregularly shaped cutouts in a clinical useful SSD region was within 2%. Similar results were obtained for all available electron energies of both Varian 2100C and ELEKTA Synergy machines.

  9. Light Delivery Over Extended Time Periods Enhances the Effectiveness of Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Mukund; Bellnier, David A.; Vaughan, Lurine A.; Spernyak, Joseph A.; Mazurchuk, Richard; Foster, Thomas H.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The rate of energy delivery is a principal factor determining the biological consequences of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In contrast to conventional high irradiance treatments, recent preclinical and clinical studies have focused on low irradiance schemes. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between irradiance, photosensitizer dose and PDT dose with regard to treatment outcome and tumor oxygenation in a rat tumor model. Experimental Design Using the photosensitizer HPPH (2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2 devinyl pyropheophorbide), a wide range of PDT doses that included clinically relevant photosensitizer concentrations were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and oxygen tension measurements were performed along with the Evans blue exclusion assay to assess vascular response, oxygenation status and tumor necrosis. Results In contrast to high incident laser power (150 mW), low power regimens (7 mW) yielded effective tumor destruction. This was largely independent of PDT dose (drug-light product), with up to 30-fold differences in photosensitizer dose and 15-fold differences in drug-light product. For all drug-light products, the duration of light treatment positively influenced tumor response. Regimens utilizing treatment times of 120–240 mins showed marked reduction in signal intensity in T2-weighted MR images at both low (0.1 mg/kg) and high (3 mg/kg) drug doses compared to short duration (6–11 mins) regimens. Significantly greater reductions in pO2 were observed with extended exposures, which persisted after completion of treatment. Conclusions These results confirm the benefit of prolonged light exposure, identify vascular response as a major contributor and suggest that duration of light treatment (time) may be an important new treatment parameter. PMID:18451247

  10. What Do We See?: Extending Understanding of Visual Experience in the Art Therapy Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience and meaning making in art therapy constitute more than looking at the image created. Clients and therapists utilize the environment of therapy in ways that have been hitherto unrecognized. This article presents a key finding from an art-based study of the experience of the art therapy room from the perspectives of client and…

  11. What Do We See?: Extending Understanding of Visual Experience in the Art Therapy Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience and meaning making in art therapy constitute more than looking at the image created. Clients and therapists utilize the environment of therapy in ways that have been hitherto unrecognized. This article presents a key finding from an art-based study of the experience of the art therapy room from the perspectives of client and…

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sigma-Theta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sigma-Theta (Potential Density Anomaly) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Buoyancy Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Air Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Net Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Net Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Barometric (Air) Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Barometric (Air) Pressure data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sea Surface Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Potential Density Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Potential Density Anomaly (sigma-theta) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Latent Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Latent Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Total Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Total Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. Effect of extended follow-up in a specialized heart failure clinic on adherence to guideline recommended therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gislason, Gunnar; Videbaek, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The optimal duration of a public heart failure (HF) clinic programme is unknown. This substudy of the NT-proBNP stratified follow-up in outpatient heart failure clinics (NorthStar) trial was designed to evaluate the effect of extended follow-up in an outpatient HF clinic on long......-term adherence to guideline-based therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with HF with reduced EF on optimal medical therapy (n = 921) were randomized to either extended follow-up in the HF clinic (n = 461) or discharge to primary care (n = 460) and followed for a median of 4.1 years (range: 13 months to 6.......30, 95% CI 0.85-2.00, P = 0.238). CONCLUSIONS: Extended follow-up in an outpatient HF clinic did not improve long-term adherence to guideline-based therapy, and adherence did not deteriorate when follow-up was shifted from the HF clinic to primary care....

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  10. 5-Day repeated inhalation and 28-day post-exposure study of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hoon; Han, Sung Gu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Boo Wook; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Ee; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Heon Sang; Song, Nam Woong; Ahn, Kangho; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has recently been attracting increasing attention due to its unique electronic and chemical properties and many potential applications in such fields as semiconductors, energy storage, flexible electronics, biosensors and medical imaging. However, the toxicity of graphene in the case of human exposure has not yet been clarified. Thus, a 5-day repeated inhalation toxicity study of graphene was conducted using a nose-only inhalation system for male Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of three groups (20 rats per group) were compared: (1) control (ambient air), (2) low concentration (0.68 ± 0.14 mg/m(3) graphene) and (3) high concentration (3.86 ± 0.94 mg/m(3) graphene). The rats were exposed to graphene for 6 h/day for 5 days, followed by recovery for 1, 3, 7 or 28 days. The bioaccumulation and macrophage ingestion of the graphene were evaluated in the rat lungs. The exposure to graphene did not change the body weights or organ weights of the rats after the 5-day exposure and during the recovery period. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, protein and albumin between the exposed and control groups. However, graphene ingestion by alveolar macrophages was observed in the exposed groups. Therefore, these results suggest that the 5-day repeated exposure to graphene only had a minimal toxic effect at the concentrations and time points used in this study.

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 20C Isotherm Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/),...

  12. Extended Duration Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Coronary Stenting Among Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Subanalysis of the Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secemsky, Eric A; Yeh, Robert W; Kereiakes, Dean J; Cutlip, Donald E; Steg, P Gabriel; Massaro, Joseph M; Apruzzese, Patricia K; Mauri, Laura

    2017-05-08

    This study sought to determine whether patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) experience different reductions in ischemic event and increases in bleeding events with extended duration dual antiplatelet therapy versus those without PAD. Patients with PAD have increased ischemic and bleeding risks after coronary stenting. The DAPT (Dual Antiplatelet Therapy) study randomized 11,648 patients free from ischemic and bleeding events 12 months after coronary stenting to continued thienopyridine plus aspirin therapy for an additional 18 months versus aspirin therapy alone. The effects of continued thienopyridine on myocardial infarction (MI) or stent thrombosis, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (death, MI, or stroke) and bleeding (GUSTO [Global Utilization of t-PA and Streptokinase for Occluded Coronary Arteries] moderate or severe) were assessed among those with versus without PAD. Among 11,648 randomized patients, 649 (5.57%) had PAD. Between 12 and 30 months, randomized patients with PAD had higher rates of MI/stent thrombosis (6.03% vs. 2.92%; p antiplatelet therapy is associated with consistent ischemic benefit and bleeding harm among patients with and without PAD. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological evaluation of octenidine dihydrochloride mouth rinse after 5 days' use in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Alev Aksoy; Cetin, Emel Sesli; Hüssein, Emad; Adiloglu, Ali Kudret

    2009-07-01

    To determine the absolute and relative antibacterial activity of octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) against total and cariogenic bacteria in saliva samples of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances during 5 days of usage. The study group consisted of 5 male and 13 female subjects who were selected from patients in the Clinic of Orthodontics. Each patient was given physiologic saline (PS), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine complex (PVP-I), and OCT every morning for 5 days, each separated by a 2-week interval. Total and cariogenic bacteria in saliva samples of orthodontically treated patients with fixed appliances were collected during 5 days of usage. Unstimulated saliva was collected as a baseline sample. Saliva samples were collected at 15 minutes, and on the second, third, and fifth day after rinsing the mouth with any of the solutions for 30 seconds, and bacterial counts were detected. OCT showed an ultimate reduction of total viable oral bacteria, Lactobacillus species, and Streptococcus mutans in vivo. OCT also had a significantly greater inhibitory effect than 0.2% CHX and 7.5% PVP-I, from the beginning of the study until the fifth day after the orthodontic appliances were bonded (P < .1). OCT compared favorably with respect to CHX and PVP-I complex in orthodontically treated patients with fixed appliances (P

  14. Comparative Study of 5-Day and 10-Day Cefditoren Pivoxil Treatments for Recurrent Group A β-Hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Kikuta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of short-course therapy with cephalosporins for treatment of group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS pharyngitis is still controversial. Subjects were 226 children with a history of at least one episode of GABHS pharyngitis. Recurrence within the follow-up period (3 weeks after initiation of therapy occurred in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and in 1 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group; the incidence of recurrence being significantly higher in the 5-day treatment group. Bacteriologic treatment failure (GABHS isolation without overt pharyngitis at follow-up culture was observed in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and 17 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. A 5-day course of oral cephalosporins is not always recommended for treatment of GABHS pharyngitis in children who have repeated episodes of pharyngitis.

  15. Use of the extended therapy outcome measure for children with dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderby, Pam

    2014-08-01

    Increasing demand on healthcare resources has led to a greater emphasis on the examination of the impact of service delivery on outcomes. Clinical assessments frequently do not cover all aspects of change associated with interventions for those with complex conditions. This paper reviews the need for more comprehensive outcome measurement suitable for clinical practice and benchmarking. It describes an extension of the Therapy Outcome Measure for specific use in reflecting the impact of the broad range of interventions commonly required when managing children with dysarthria. Three case histories are used to illustrate the approach, and data from four speech-language pathology services are used to illustrate the value of benchmarking.

  16. Stimulant therapy in the management of ADHD: mixed amphetamine salts (extended release).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V

    2007-09-01

    The efficacy of amphetamines in the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. However, their value in improving the symptoms of ADHD has been compromised by concerns about compliance, abuse potential and adverse events. An extended-release formulation of mixed amphetamine salts (MAS XR) provided the first long-acting amphetamine formulation, and thus, filled an important gap in available treatments for ADHD. MAS XR has been shown to improve ADHD symptoms in children, adolescents and adults in both short- and long-term studies. The drug is generally well tolerated in clinical trials. Although its safety profile in patients with concomitant cardiovascular conditions in a real-world setting has yet to be fully evaluated, a tolerability study of mixed amphetamine salts in adults with ADHD who were being treated for primary essential hypertension showed that these patients can be safely treated with MAS XR.

  17. Simultaneous And Extended Delivery Of Stavudine, Lamivudine And Nevirapine In Fixed Dose Combination Using Sandwiched Osmotic Tablets For Hiv Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, M Ranga; Rajendran, N N

    2015-01-01

    Current HIV-therapy recommends combination of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Stavudine and lamivudine are administered as fixed combination while nevirapine as separate dosage form which often results in poor compliance and adherence to therapy by patients and therefore, there is a need to develop dosage forms that can overcome the problems of currently available dosage forms for treatment of HIV infection. The present study developed a single unit osmotic system for simultaneous and extended delivery of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine that can ensure patients compliance and adherence to HIV-therapy. Sandwich osmotic pump tablets (SOPTs) of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine in fixed dose combination were designed and evaluated for the effect of variables such as PEO (polymer), KCl (osmogen), and orifice diameter on the physicochemical characteristics and the release behavior of the drugs. A 24 h zero order release of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine from the formulations was observed and the release rate of the drugs was found to be affected by PEO, KCl, and orifice diameter. The in vitro release data of SOPT correlated with in vivo predictions by super - position method. The results of the study propose that a single unit osmotic system (SOPT) of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine is beneficial to overcome the disadvantages of currently available dosage forms for effective control of HIV infection.

  18. Extended interferon-alpha therapy accelerates telomere length loss in human peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M O'Bryan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type I interferons have pleiotropic effects on host cells, including inhibiting telomerase in lymphocytes and antiviral activity. We tested the hypothesis that long-term interferon treatment would result in significant reduction in average telomere length in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a flow cytometry-based telomere length assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from the Hepatitis-C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C study, we measured T cell telomere lengths at screening and at months 21 and 45 in 29 Hepatitis-C virus infected subjects. These subjects had failed to achieve a sustained virologic response following 24 weeks of pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin treatment and were subsequently randomized to either a no additional therapy group or a maintenance dose pegylated-IFNα group for an additional 3.5 years. Significant telomere loss in naïve T cells occurred in the first 21 months in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere losses were similar in both groups during the final two years. Expansion of CD8(+CD45RA(+CD57(+ memory T cells and an inverse correlation of alanine aminotransferase levels with naïve CD8(+ T cell telomere loss were observed in the control group but not in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere length at screening inversely correlated with Hepatitis-C viral load and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sustained interferon-alpha treatment increased telomere loss in naïve T cells, and inhibited the accumulation of T cell memory expansions. The durability of this effect and consequences for immune senescence need to be defined.

  19. Does the adolescent patellar tendon respond to 5 days of cumulative load during a volleyball tournament?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ark, M; Docking, S I; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Rudavsky, A; Rio, E; Zwerver, J; Cook, J L

    2016-02-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) has a high prevalence in jumping athletes. Excessive load on the patellar tendon through high volumes of training and competition is an important risk factor. Structural changes in the tendon are related to a higher risk of developing patellar tendinopathy. The critical tendon load that affects tendon structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate patellar tendon structure on each day of a 5-day volleyball tournament in an adolescent population (16-18 years). The right patellar tendon of 41 players in the Australian Volleyball Schools Cup was scanned with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) on every day of the tournament (Monday to Friday). UTC can quantify structure of a tendon into four echo types based on the stability of the echo pattern. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test for change of echo type I and II over the tournament days. Participants played between eight and nine matches during the tournament. GEE analysis showed no significant change of echo type percentages of echo type I (Wald chi-square = 4.603, d.f. = 4, P = 0.331) and echo type II (Wald chi-square = 6.070, d.f. = 4, P = 0.194) over time. This study shows that patellar tendon structure of 16-18-year-old volleyball players is not affected during 5 days of cumulative loading during a volleyball tournament. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Playback Station #2 for Cal Net and 5-day-recorder tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jerry P.

    1978-01-01

    A second system (Playback Station #2) has been set up to play back Cal Net 1" tapes and 5-day-recorder 1/2" tapes. As with the first playback system (Playback Station #1) the tapes are played back on a Bell and Howell VR3700B tape deck and the records are written out on a 16-channel direct-writing Siemens "0scillomink." Separate reproduce heads, tape guides, and tape tension sensor rollers are required for playing back 111 tapes and 1/2" tapes, but changing these tape deck components is a simple task that requires only a few minutes. The discriminators, patch panels, selector switches, filters, time code translators, and signal conditioning circuits for the time code translators and for the tape-speed-compensation signal are all mounted in an equipment rack that stands beside the playback tape deck. Changing playback speeds (15/16 ips or 3 3/4 ips) or changing from Cal Net tapes to 5-day-recorder tapes requires only flipping a few switches and/or changing a few patch cables on the patch panel (in addition to changing the reproduce heads, etc., to change from 1" tape to 1/2" tape). For the Cal Net tapes, the system provides for playback of 9 data channels (680 Hz thru 3060 Hz plus 400 Hz) and 3 time signals (IRIG-E, IRIG-C, and WWVB) at both 15/16 ips (x1 speed) and 3 3/4 ips (x4 speed). Available modes of compensation (using either a 4688 Hz reference or a 3125 Hz reference) are subtractive, capstan, capstan plus subtractive, or no compensation.

  1. The 6.5-day wave and its seasonal variability in the middle and upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-L.; Talaat, E. R.; Roble, R. G.; Lieberman, R. S.; Riggin, D. M.; Yee, J.-H.

    2004-11-01

    The zonal wave number 1 planetary wave of period near 6.5 days is a robust feature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region with prominent seasonal variability as revealed by ground based and satellite observations. This wave and its seasonal variability are well reproduced in a recent one model year run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) with its lower boundary specified according to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction analysis (year 1993). Wavelet analysis of the model output shows that in the MLT region the wave maximizes before and after the equinoxes and minimizes at solstices. The wave amplitudes at the equinoxes are smaller than the peaks before and after but are still larger than the wave amplitudes at solstices. However, at the lower boundary near 30 km the wave peaks are predominantly between fall and the following spring. By examining the episodes of maximum and minimum wave amplitude and by conducting additional control experiments using the TIME-GCM, the structure of this planetary wave and the factors determining the wave characteristics and seasonal variability are studied in detail. It is found that the wave source, mean wind structure, instability, and the critical layers of the wave can all affect the wave response in the MLT region and can have a strong seasonal dependence. Before and after equinox, the wave follows the waveguide and propagates from the stratosphere to the summer mesosphere/mesopause, where it may amplify due to baroclinic/barotropic instability. Such instability is usually absent from the equinoctial atmosphere, so that there is no wave amplification at equinox. At solstice the wave decays significantly when propagating away from its winter source due to the strong eastward winter stratospheric jet. In the summer side the westward jet is also strong, and the meridional and vertical extension of the

  2. Review of levetiracetam, with a focus on the extended release formulation, as adjuvant therapy in controlling partial-onset seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M Ulloa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol M Ulloa, Allen Towfigh, Joseph SafdiehDepartment of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Levetiracetam is a second-generation antiepileptic drug (AED with a unique chemical structure and mechanism of action. The extended release formulation of levetiracetam (Keppra XR™; UCB Pharma was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years of age and older with epilepsy. This approval is based on a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational trial. Levetiracetam XR allows for once-daily dosing, which may increase compliance and, given the relatively constant plasma concentrations, may minimize concentration-related adverse effects. Levetiracetam’s mode of action is not fully elucidated, but it has been found to target high-voltage, N-type calcium channels as well as the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A. Levetiracetam has nearly ideal pharmacokinetics. It is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral ingestion, is ‹10% protein-bound, demonstrates linear kinetics, is minimally metabolized through a pathway independent of the cytochrome P450 system, has no significant drug–drug interactions, and has a wide therapeutic index. The most common reported adverse events with levetiracetam XR were somnolence, irritability, dizziness, nausea, influenza, and nasopharyngitis. Levetiracetam XR provides an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures.Keywords: levetiracetam, partial-onset seizures, antiepileptic drugs

  3. Interhemispheric structure and variability of the 5-day planetary wave from meteor radar wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, H.; Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Singer, W.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    A study of the quasi-5-day wave (5DW) was performed using meteor radars at conjugate latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. These radars are located at Esrange, Sweden (68° N) and Juliusruh, Germany (55° N) in the Northern Hemisphere, and at Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (54° S) and Rothera Station, Antarctica (68° S) in the Southern Hemisphere. The analysis was performed using data collected during simultaneous measurements by the four radars from June 2010 to December 2012 at altitudes from 84 to 96 km. The 5DW was found to exhibit significant short-term, seasonal, and interannual variability at all sites. Typical events had planetary wave periods that ranged between 4 and 7 days, durations of only a few cycles, and infrequent strongly peaked variances and covariances. Winds exhibited rotary structures that varied strongly among sites and between events, and maximum amplitudes up to ~ 20 m s-1. Mean horizontal velocity covariances tended to be largely negative at all sites throughout the interval studied.

  4. Higher Prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in Patients on Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang-Lim; Whang, Dong-Hee; Park, Dong-Won; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Yeong-Hoon; Chin, Ho-Jun; Kim, Suhnggown; Koo, Ho-Seok

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is higher in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) than in patients who did not undergo RRT. We investigated the presence of KP (Klebsiella pneumoniae) in patients who underwent RRT. All data were collected retrospectively by accessing patient medical records from 2004 to 2011 for the culture results of all patients who were positive for KP. We grouped the patients by the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) into a KP ESBL(-) group (KP[-]) and a KP ESBL(+) group (KP[+]). In total, 292 patients (23.1%) were in the KP(+) group, and 974 patients (76.9%) were in the KP(-) group. A greater percentage of KP(+) was found in patients who underwent RRT (7.5%) than in patients who did not undergo RRT (3.2%) (OR, 2.479; 95% CI,1.412-4.352). A Cox's hazard proportional model analysis was performed, and for patients with pneumonia, the risk of KP(+) was 0.663 times higher in patients who had lower albumin levels, 2.796 times higher in patients who had an inserted Levin tube, and 4.551 times higher in patients who underwent RRT. In conclusion, RRT can be a risk factor for KP(+) in patients with pneumonia.

  5. Amikacin therapy for urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yeon; Choi, Su-Mi; Park, Sun Hee; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The number of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is increasing. In an outpatient setting, there are limited therapeutic options to treat ESBL-producing pathogens. We evaluated the outcomes of amikacin outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) for UTIs caused by ESBL-EC in patients not pre-treated with carbapenem. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of amikacin OPAT for UTIs caused by ESBL-EC. Results: From November 2011 to October 2012, eight females, who could not be hospitalized for carbapenem treatment, were treated with amikacin OPAT for nine episodes of non-bacteremic ESBL-EC UTIs. Seven of the eight patients had one or more comorbidities. Of the nine UTI cases, three had symptomatic lower UTIs and six had non-bacteremic upper UTIs. In all of the cases, symptomatic and laboratory improvements were observed following amikacin OPAT. One patient showed a delayed relapse with bilateral microabscesses 3 weeks after treatment cessation; however, a clinical and microbiological cure was eventually reached. All of the patients were able to tolerate amikacin OPAT without any significant nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity. Conclusions: Amikacin OPAT represents a feasible therapeutic option for non-bacteremic UTIs caused by ESBL-EC in settings with limited resources. PMID:26767869

  6. Predicting adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV in Tanzania: A test of an extended theory of planned behaviour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Kasia; Lyimo, Ramsey A; Hospers, Harm J; van der Ven, Andre; de Bruin, Marijn

    2017-02-13

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV is widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Adherence is crucial to successful treatment. This study aimed to apply an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model to predict objectively measured adherence to cART in Tanzania. Prospective observational study (n = 158) where patients completed questionnaires on demographics (Month 0), socio-cognitive variables including intentions (Month 1), and action planning and self-regulatory processes hypothesised to mediate the intention-behaviour relationship (Month 3), to predict adherence (Month 5). Taking adherence was measured objectively using the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS) caps. Model tests were conducted using regression and bootstrap mediation analyses. Perceived behavioural control (PBC) was positively (β = .767, p behavioural measure, identified PBC as the main driver of adherence intentions. The effect of intentions on adherence was only indirect through self-regulatory processes, which were the main predictor of objectively assessed adherence.

  7. Amikacin therapy for urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yeon; Choi, Su-Mi; Park, Sun Hee; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The number of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is increasing. In an outpatient setting, there are limited therapeutic options to treat ESBL-producing pathogens. We evaluated the outcomes of amikacin outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) for UTIs caused by ESBL-EC in patients not pre-treated with carbapenem. We retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of amikacin OPAT for UTIs caused by ESBL-EC. From November 2011 to October 2012, eight females, who could not be hospitalized for carbapenem treatment, were treated with amikacin OPAT for nine episodes of non-bacteremic ESBL-EC UTIs. Seven of the eight patients had one or more comorbidities. Of the nine UTI cases, three had symptomatic lower UTIs and six had non-bacteremic upper UTIs. In all of the cases, symptomatic and laboratory improvements were observed following amikacin OPAT. One patient showed a delayed relapse with bilateral microabscesses 3 weeks after treatment cessation; however, a clinical and microbiological cure was eventually reached. All of the patients were able to tolerate amikacin OPAT without any significant nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity. Amikacin OPAT represents a feasible therapeutic option for non-bacteremic UTIs caused by ESBL-EC in settings with limited resources.

  8. Outcomes of a 5-day physiotherapy programme for functional (psychogenic) motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G; Ricciardi, L; Demartini, B; Hunter, R; Joyce, E; Edwards, M J

    2015-03-01

    Patients with functional motor disorder (FMD) are commonly seen by physiotherapists and there is growing evidence to support a physical rehabilitation approach. There are, however, few descriptions in the literature of the content of successful physiotherapy treatment. This prospective cohort study reports the practicalities and outcomes of a pilot 5-day physiotherapy programme. Patients were referred from a specialist movement disorders clinic. The treatment consisted of education and movement retraining, with a long-term self-management focus. Education and movement retraining was based on a pathophysiological model for FMD that stresses the importance of self-focussed attention and illness belief. Patients were assessed at baseline, end of treatment and 3-month follow-up. 47 patients completed the programme, mean symptom duration was 5.5 years, 64 % were unemployed due to ill health. At the end of treatment, 65 % rated their symptoms as "very much improved" or "much improved", this reduced to 55 % at 3 months. At follow-up, there was a significant improvement in physical domains of the SF-36, Berg Balance Scale and 10 Metre Timed Walk. Measures of mental health did not change. This prospective cohort study adds to the growing evidence that supports the use of specialist physiotherapy treatment for FMD. Improvements here were made despite the cohort having characteristics associated with poor prognosis. We argue that specific treatment techniques are important and have the potential to improve physical function, quality of life and may prove to be a cost-effective treatment for selected patients with FMD.

  9. Pilot study: rapidly cycling hypobaric pressure improves pain after 5 days in adiposis dolorosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Herbst

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Karen L Herbst1, Thomas Rutledge21Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, California, USAAbstract: Adiposis dolorosa (AD is a rare disorder of painful nodular subcutaneous fat ­accompanied by fatigue, difficulty with weight loss, inflammation, increased fluid in ­adipose ­tissue (lipedema and lymphedema, and hyperalgesia. Sequential compression relieves ­lymphedema pain; we therefore hypothesized that whole body cyclic pneumatic hypobaric compression may relieve pain in AD. To avoid exacerbating hyperalgesia, we utilized a touch-free method, which is delivered via a high-performance altitude simulator, the Cyclic Variations in Altitude ConditioningTM (CVACTM process. As a pilot study, 10 participants with AD completed pain and quality of life questionnaires before and after 20–40 minutes of CVAC process daily for 5 days. Participants lost weight (195.5 ± 17.6–193.8 ± 17.3 lb; P = 0.03, and bioimpedance significantly decreased (510 ± 36–490 ± 38 ohm; P = 0.01. There was a significant decrease in scores on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (P = 0.039, in average (P = 0.002, highest (P = 0.029, lowest (P = 0.04, and current pain severity (P = 0.02 on the Visual Analogue Scale, but there was no change in pain quality by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. There were no significant changes in total and physical SF-36 scores, but the mental score improved significantly (P = 0.049. There were no changes in the Pain Disability Index or Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. These data present a potential, new, noninvasive means of treating pain in AD by whole body pneumatic compression as part of the CVAC process. Although randomized, controlled trials are needed to confirm these data, the CVAC process could potentially help in treating AD pain and other chronic pain disorders.Keywords: bioimpedance, chronic pain, lipedema

  10. Comparative study of 5-day cefcapene-pivoxil and 10-day amoxicillin or cefcapene-pivoxil for treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    In order to compare the bacteriological and clinical efficacy and safety of cefcapene-pivoxil (CFPN-PI) for 5 days, CFPN-PI for 10 days, and amoxicillin (AMPC) for 10 days for the treatment of pharyngitis due to group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) in children, a prospective multicenter randomized open-label comparative study was performed with 12 pediatric clinics in Asahikawa between June 2006 and February 2007. Two hundred and fifty children (age range 6 months to 12 years) with signs and symptoms of acute pharyngitis were enrolled. All had a positive throat culture for GAS and were fully evaluable. Eighty-two patients received CFPN-PI 9-10 mg/kg/day three times a day for 5 days, 88 received CFPN-PI three times a day for 10 days, and 80 received AMPC three times a day for 10 days. The CFPN-PI for 5 days regimen, the CFPN-PI for 10 days regimen, and the AMPC for 10 days regimen produced bacteriological eradication at the end of treatment in 93.8%, 96.2%, and 91.7% of the patients, respectively. The clinical cure rate observed at the end of therapy was 100% of the patients in the three groups. Relapse rates were 1.3% in CFPN-PI for 5 days, 4.0% in CFPN-PI for 10 days, and 2.9% in AMPC for 10 days. There were no significant differences in eradication rate, clinical cure rate, and relapse rate between the three treatment groups. The only adverse effects were infrequent diarrhea in all three groups, and a rash which occurred in 6 patients (8.0%) of the AMPC treatment group. Five days of treatment with CFPN-PI was as efficacious in bacteriological eradication and clinical response as 10 days of CFPN-PI or AMPC treatment.

  11. Benefits and Risks of Extended Duration Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After PCI in Patients With and Without Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Robert W; Kereiakes, Dean J; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Windecker, Stephan; Rinaldi, Michael J; Gershlick, Anthony H; Cutlip, Donald E; Cohen, David J; Tanguay, Jean-Francois; Jacobs, Alice; Wiviott, Stephen D; Massaro, Joseph M; Iancu, Adrian C; Mauri, Laura

    2015-05-26

    The benefits and risks of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy may be different for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with more stable presentations. This study sought to assess the benefits and risks of 30 versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy among patients undergoing coronary stent implantation with and without MI. The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, compared 30 versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting. The effect of continued thienopyridine on ischemic and bleeding events among patients initially presenting with versus without MI was assessed. The coprimary endpoints were definite or probable stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary safety endpoint was GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Arteries) moderate or severe bleeding. Of 11,648 randomized patients (9,961 treated with drug-eluting stents, 1,687 with bare-metal stents), 30.7% presented with MI. Between 12 and 30 months, continued thienopyridine reduced stent thrombosis compared with placebo in patients with and without MI at presentation (MI group, 0.5% vs. 1.9%, p therapy, 30 months of dual antiplatelet therapy reduced the risk of stent thrombosis and MI in patients with and without MI, and increased bleeding. (The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study [The DAPT Study]; NCT00977938). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on efficacy and safety of extended thienopyridine therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenyi; Yeh, James; Chen, Jian; Liu, Mao; Ke, Jianting; Tan, Guangyi; Lin, Xiufang

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential benefits and risks of extended thienopyridine therapy beyond 12 months after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation remain unclear. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. The adverse clinical endpoints were compared between 12 months group (aspirin alone) and >12 months group (additional thienopyridine plus aspirin after 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used as summary statistics. A random-effect model was used in the meta-analysis process. Results Finally, three RCTs incorporating 16,265 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that the incidences of myocardial infarction (1.55% vs. 2.90%; OR =0.58; 95% CI, 0.40–0.84; P=0.004) and stent thrombosis (0.32% vs. 0.98%; OR =0.35; 95% CI, 0.20–0.62; P12 months group were significantly lower than the 12 months group. However, compared to the 12 months group, the extended thienopyridine therapy markedly increased the risk of bleeding events (2.09% vs. 1.28%; OR =1.64; 95% CI, 1.23–2.17; P<0.001). The risks of stroke (0.78% vs. 0.84%; P=0.67) and cardiac death (0.94% vs. 0.89%; P=0.61) were similar between the two groups. Conclusions The synthesis of available evidence indicates that a regimen of extended thienopyridine therapy beyond 12 months may significantly reduce the risks of myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis but increase the risk of bleeding events in the patients who have received DESs implantation. PMID:27747163

  13. Continuing Assessment of the 5-Day Sodium Carbonate-Ammonium Nitrate Extraction Assay as an Indicator Test for Silicon Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Wendy; Friedrich, Russell L; Kim, Sujin; Sturtz, Douglas; Frantz, Jonathan; Altland, James; Krause, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The 5-day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay (5-day method) has been recognized by the American Association of Plant Food Control Officials as a validated test method to identify fertilizers or beneficial substances that provide plant-available silicon (Si). The test method used the molybdenum blue colorimetric assay to quantify percentage Si; however, laboratories may use inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for elemental analysis. To examine the use of either colorimetric or ICP-OES methods for Si determination, the 5-day method was performed on the following Si-containing compounds; wollastonite, sand, biochar, and a basic oven furnace (BOF) slag. Grow-out studies using Zinnia elegans were also performed using varying rates of the wollastonite, biochar, and BOF slag. Our results show using the 5-day method, wollastonite had the highest extracted amounts of silicic acid (H4SiO4) at 4% followed by biochar (2%), BOF slag (1%), and sand (0%). Extraction values calculated using either the molybdenum blue colorimetric assay or ICP-OES for detection of the H4SiO4 had a significant correlation, supporting the application of either detection method for this type of analysis. However, when extracted values were compared to amounts of Si taken up by the plants, the 5-day method overestimated both wollastonite and biochar. While this method is a valid indicator test for determining a soluble Si source, other plant species and methods should be perused to potentially provide more quantitative analyses for plant-available Si content of all materials.

  14. A Concept for Extending the Applicability of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy through Motor Cortex Activity Feedback Using a Neural Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas E. Ward

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a concept for the extension of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT through the use of feedback of primary motor cortex activity. CIMT requires residual movement to act as a source of feedback to the patient, thus preventing its application to those with no perceptible movement. It is proposed in this paper that it is possible to provide feedback of the motor cortex effort to the patient by measurement with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Significant changes in such effort may be used to drive rehabilitative robotic actuators, for example. This may provide a possible avenue for extending CIMT to patients hitherto excluded as a result of severity of condition. In support of such a paradigm, this paper details the current status of CIMT and related attempts to extend rehabilitation therapy through the application of technology. An introduction to the relevant haemodynamics is given including a description of the basic technology behind a suitable NIRS system. An illustration of the proposed therapy is described using a simple NIRS system driving a robotic arm during simple upper-limb unilateral isometric contraction exercises with healthy subjects.

  15. Nosocomial extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia in hemodialysis patients and the implications for antibiotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Yang

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: In accordance with our previous study, our results have demonstrated the inferiority of flomoxef to carbapenems in the treatment of HD access-related ESBL-Kp bacteremia and provide an insight into the possibility of using ertapenem rather than flomoxef as an initial or de-escalating therapy for infections caused by ESBL-producing bacteria.

  16. Preoperative indication for systemic therapy extended to patients with early-stage breast cancer using multiparametric 7-tesla breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, A M T; Veldhuis, W B; Menke-Pluijmers, M B E; van der Kemp, W J M; van der Velden, T A; Viergever, M A; Mali, W P T M; Kock, M C J M; Westenend, P J; Klomp, D W J; Gilhuijs, K G A

    2017-01-01

    To establish a preoperative decision model for accurate indication of systemic therapy in early-stage breast cancer using multiparametric MRI at 7-tesla field strength. Patients eligible for breast-conserving therapy were consecutively included. Patients underwent conventional diagnostic workup and one preoperative multiparametric 7-tesla breast MRI. The postoperative (gold standard) indication for systemic therapy was established from resected tumor and lymph-node tissue, based on 10-year risk-estimates of breast cancer mortality and relapse using Adjuvant! Online. Preoperative indication was estimated using similar guidelines, but from conventional diagnostic workup. Agreement was established between preoperative and postoperative indication, and MRI-characteristics used to improve agreement. MRI-characteristics included phospomonoester/phosphodiester (PME/PDE) ratio on 31-phosphorus spectroscopy (31P-MRS), apparent diffusion coefficients on diffusion-weighted imaging, and tumor size on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. A decision model was built to estimate the postoperative indication from preoperatively available data. We included 46 women (age: 43-74yrs) with 48 invasive carcinomas. Postoperatively, 20 patients (43%) had positive, and 26 patients (57%) negative indication for systemic therapy. Using conventional workup, positive preoperative indication agreed excellently with positive postoperative indication (N = 8/8; 100%). Negative preoperative indication was correct in only 26/38 (68%) patients. However, 31P-MRS score (p = 0.030) and tumor size (p = 0.002) were associated with the postoperative indication. The decision model shows that negative indication is correct in 21/22 (96%) patients when exempting tumors larger than 2.0cm on DCE-MRI or with PME>PDE ratios at 31P-MRS. Preoperatively, positive indication for systemic therapy is highly accurate. Negative indication is highly accurate (96%) for tumors sized ≤2,0cm on DCE-MRI and with PME

  17. Translocation and biokinetic behavior of nanoscaled europium oxide particles within 5 days following an acute inhalation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzenberg, Otto; Kock, Heiko; Schaudien, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscaled europium oxide (Eu2O3) particles were inhaled by rats after acute exposure and the potential translocation of particles followed by chemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was investigated. An aqueous dispersion (phosphate buffer/bovine serum albumin) of a commercially available Eu2O3 particle fraction consisting partially of nanoscaled particles was aerosolized with pressurized air. After rapid evaporation, rats inhaled the dry aerosol for 6 h in a single exposure resulting in an alveolar calculated dose of approximately 39.5 μg Eu2O3. Using chemical analysis, 36.8 μg Eu2O3 was detected 1 h after lung inhalation. The amount declined slightly to 34.5 μg after 1 day and 35.0 μg after 5 days. The liver showed an increase of Eu2O3 from 32.3 ng 1 h up to 294 ng 5 days after inhalation. Additionally, lung-associated lymph nodes, thymus, kidneys, heart and testis exhibited an increase of europium over the period investigated. In the blood, the highest amount of europium was found 1 h after treatment whereas feces, urine and mesenteric lymph nodes revealed the highest amount 1 day after treatment. Using TEM analysis, particles could be detected only in lungs, and in the liver, no particles were detectable. In conclusion, the translocation of Eu2O3 within 5 days following inhalation could be determined very precisely by chemical analysis. A translocation of Eu2O3 particulate matter to liver was not detectable by TEM analysis; thus, the overproportional level of 0.8% of the lung load observed in the liver after 5 days suggests a filtering effect of dissolved europium with accumulation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Case of septic shock caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli after transrectal prostate biopsy, successfully treated by endotoxin adsorption therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Yusuke; Fukui, Naotaka; Kageyama, Yukio; Higashi, Yotsuo

    2013-09-01

    A 62-year-old man, with a family history of prostate cancer, referred to our hospital because of elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (6.02 ng/ml). After prophylactic administration of antibiotics (cefotiam), transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed. He was admitted to the hospital due to high fever the next evening. His blood pressure was below the shock level, and his renal function deteriorated progressively. Suspecting septic shock, the patient was treated with Meropenem, γ-globulin, and dopamine, which were not effective. Then, endotoxin adsorption therapy was employed and the condition of the patient recovered soon after the initiation of the therapy. Extended spectrum β -lactamase-producing Escherichia coli was found in his urine. Pathological diagnosis of the biopsy specimen was atypical glands.

  19. Confirming the 115.5-day periodicity in the X-ray light curve of ULX NGC 5408 X-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Han; Tao An; Jun-Yi Wang; Ji-Ming Lin; Ming-Jie Xie; Hai-Guang Xu; Xiao-Yu Hong; Sandor Frey

    2012-01-01

    The Swift/XRT light curve of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 was re-analyzed with two new numerical approaches,the Weighted Wavelet Ztransform and CLEANest,and the results are different from previous studies.Both techniques detected a prominent periodicity with a time scale of 115.5 ± 1.5 days,in excellent agreement with the detection of the same periodicity first reported by Strohmayer.Monte Carlo simulations were employed to test the statisitical confidence of the 115.5-day periodicity,yielding a statistical significance of > 99.98% (or >3.8σ).The robust detection of the 115.5-day quasi-periodic oscillations,if they are due to the orbital motion of the binary,would infer a mass of a few thousand M⊙ for the central black hole,implying there is an intermediate-mass black hole in NGC 5408 X-1.

  20. Extended disease-free interval of 6 years in a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patient treated with G207 oncolytic viral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whisenhunt Jr TR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas R Whisenhunt Jr, Kiran F Rajneesh, James R Hackney, James M Markert Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a relentless primary central nervous system malignancy that remains resistant to conventional therapy despite major advances in clinical neurooncology. This report details the case of a patient who had failed conventional treatment for recurrent GBM and was ultimately treated with a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 vector, G207. Methods: Case report detailing the outcomes of one patient enrolled into the gene therapy arm of the Neurovir G207 protocol whereby stereotactic injection of 120 µL G207 viral suspension containing 1×107 plaque-forming units (or active viral particles was made into the enhancing region of the tumor. Results: In this patient, despite aggressive surgical resection, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, tumor progression occurred. However, with G207 oncolytic therapy and brief exposures to second and third treatments, this patient had an extended survival time of 7.5 years and a 6-year apparent disease-free interval, an extraordinarily unusual finding in the pretemozolomide era. Conclusion: With minimal adjunctive chemotherapy, including one course of temozolomide, one course of procarbazine, and four cycles of irinotecan, the patient survived over 7 years before the next recurrence. Addition of G207 to this patient’s traditional therapy may have been the critical treatment producing her prolonged survival. This report demonstrates the potential for long-term response to a one-time treatment with oncolytic HSV and encourages continued research on oncolytic viral therapy for GBM. Keywords: oncolytic virotherapy, malignant glioma, tumor, herpes simplex, HSV-1, immunotherapy

  1. Split-field vs extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans for oropharyngeal cancer: Which spares the larynx? Which spares the thyroid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yao; Chen, Josephine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leary, Celeste I. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Shugard, Erin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Yom, Sue S., E-mail: yoms@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Radiation of the low neck can be accomplished using split-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (sf-IMRT) or extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (ef-IMRT). We evaluated the effect of these treatment choices on target coverage and thyroid and larynx doses. Using data from 14 patients with cancers of the oropharynx, we compared the following 3 strategies for radiating the low neck: (1) extended-field IMRT, (2) traditional split-field IMRT with an initial cord-junction block to 40 Gy, followed by a full-cord block to 50 Gy, and (3) split-field IMRT with a full-cord block to 50 Gy. Patients were planned using each of these 3 techniques. To facilitate comparison, extended-field plans were normalized to deliver 50 Gy to 95% of the neck volume. Target coverage was assessed using the dose to 95% of the neck volume (D{sub 95}). Mean thyroid and larynx doses were computed. Extended-field IMRT was used as the reference arm; the mean larynx dose was 25.7 ± 7.4 Gy, and the mean thyroid dose was 28.6 ± 2.4 Gy. Split-field IMRT with 2-step blocking reduced laryngeal dose (mean larynx dose 15.2 ± 5.1 Gy) at the cost of a moderate reduction in target coverage (D{sub 95} 41.4 ± 14 Gy) and much higher thyroid dose (mean thyroid dose 44.7 ± 3.7 Gy). Split-field IMRT with initial full-cord block resulted in greater laryngeal sparing (mean larynx dose 14.2 ± 5.1 Gy) and only a moderately higher thyroid dose (mean thyroid dose 31 ± 8 Gy) but resulted in a significant reduction in target coverage (D{sub 95} 34.4 ± 15 Gy). Extended-field IMRT comprehensively covers the low neck and achieves acceptable thyroid and laryngeal sparing. Split-field IMRT with a full-cord block reduces laryngeal doses to less than 20 Gy and spares the thyroid, at the cost of substantially reduced coverage of the low neck. Traditional 2-step split-field IMRT similarly reduces the laryngeal dose but also reduces low-neck coverage and delivers very high doses to the thyroid.

  2. Elimination kinetics of cephapirin sodium in milk after an 8-day extended therapy program of daily intramammary infusion in healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorden, P J; van der List, M; Lehman, F D; Lantz, R K; Constable, P D

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the elimination kinetics of extended therapy with intramammary (IMM) cephapirin in lactating dairy cattle. Eight healthy Holstein-Friesian cows were administered cephapirin (200mg) into all 4 mammary glands every 24 h after milking. Cows were milked 3 times per day and concentrations of cephapirin and desacetyl cephapirin were determined in bucket milk using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Milk concentration-time data after the last of the 8 IMM infusions were fitted using compartment and noncompartmental models. The maximum cephapirin concentration was 128±57 µg/mL (mean ± SD), the elimination rate constant from the central compartment was 0.278±0.046 (h(-1)), clearance was 0.053±0.023 L/h, the half time for elimination was 2.55±0.40 h, and the mean residence time was 2.65±0.79 h. The cephapirin concentration was below the approved tolerance in all cows by 96 h after the last infusion, which is the labeled withholding time for the preparation used. Extended therapy for 8 d provided milk cephapirin concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for common gram-positive mastitis pathogens (0.1 to 1.0 µg/mL) for the duration of therapy and for an additional 16 to 32 h after the end of treatment. Our findings suggest that this IMM cephapirin sodium formulation, which is labeled for 2 doses 12 h apart, could be administered at a 24-h interval for up to 8 d in cows milked 3 times per day, with no significant effect on residue levels by 96 h after the last treatment. Longer withdrawal times would be prudent for cows with low milk production.

  3. Nanofluidic Digital PCR and Extended Genotyping of RAS and BRAF for Improved Selection of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients for Anti-EGFR Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, Daniel; Santos, Cristina; Lopez-Doriga, Adriana; Grasselli, Julieta; Nadal, Marga; Sanjuan, Xavier; Marin, Fátima; Vidal, Joana; Montal, Robert; Moreno, Victor; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Argiles, Guillem; Elez, Elena; Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Montagut, Clara; Tabernero, Josep; Capellá, Gabriel; Salazar, Ramon

    2016-05-01

    The clinical significance of low-frequent RAS pathway-mutated alleles and the optimal sensitivity cutoff value in the prediction of response to anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the added value of genotyping an extended RAS panel using a robust nanofluidic digital PCR (dPCR) approach. A panel of 34 hotspots, including RAS (KRAS and NRAS exons 2/3/4) and BRAF (V600E), was analyzed in tumor FFPE samples from 102 mCRC patients treated with anti-EGFR therapy. dPCR was compared with conventional quantitative PCR (qPCR). Response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were correlated to the mutational status and the mutated allele fraction. Tumor response evaluations were not available in 9 patients and were excluded for response rate analysis. Twenty-two percent of patients were positive for one mutation with qPCR (mutated alleles ranged from 2.1% to 66.6%). Analysis by dPCR increased the number of positive patients to 47%. Mutated alleles for patients only detected by dPCR ranged from 0.04% to 10.8%. An inverse correlation between the fraction of mutated alleles and radiologic response was observed. ROC analysis showed that a fraction of 1% or higher of any mutated alleles offered the best predictive value for all combinations of RAS and BRAF analysis. In addition, this threshold also optimized prediction both PFS and OS. We conclude that mutation testing using an extended gene panel, including RAS and BRAF with a threshold of 1% improved prediction of response to anti-EGFR therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 1106-12. ©2016 AACR.

  4. Evaluation of platelets prepared by apheresis and stored for 5 days. In vitro and in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanwell, A.; Gulliksson, H.; Berg, B.K.; Jansson, B.A.; Svensson, L.A.

    1989-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of storage on apheresis platelets collected with a closed-system blood cell separator, an in vitro investigation was performed, with measurements of pH, lactate, ATP, the ratio of ATP to the total adenine nucleotide content, and adenylate kinase. Unmodified apheresis platelets and apheresis platelets with plasma added were compared with conventional platelets stored in PL-1240 or PL-732 plastic containers. During 6 days of storage, there were similar changes in all variables with one exception: the extracellular activity of adenylate kinase was lower in apheresis platelets with plasma than in the other three groups (p less than 0.01). In vivo studies were carried out with 111Indium-labeled autologous platelets in eight volunteers. Apheresis platelets with 100 mL of plasma added were stored in two 1000-mL containers (PL-732) at 22 degrees C during agitation. Platelets from one of the containers were labeled with 111Indium and transfused into the volunteer within 24 hours. Platelets from the other container were labeled after 5 days of storage and transfused into the same donor. There were no significant differences between apheresis platelets stored for 1 day and those stored for 5 days: the mean percentage of recovery was 58.4 and 57.6 percent, t1/2 was 69 and 67 hours, and the survival time was 5.5 and 5.6 days, respectively.

  5. Impact of Extended Combination Antiretroviral Therapy on the Decline of HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Giuseppe; Chimbwandira, Frank; Wouters, Kristien; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Jere, Haswell; Mancinelli, Sandro; Ceffa, Susanna; Erba, Fulvio; Palombi, Leonardo; Marazzi, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce HIV transmission and incident infections. In recent years, Malawi has significantly increased the number of individuals on combination antiretroviral drugs through more inclusive treatment policies. Using a retrospective observational cohort design, records with HIV test results were reviewed for pregnant women attending a referral hospital in Malawi over a 5-year period, with viral load measurements recorded. HIV prevalence over time was determined, and results correlated with population viral load. A total of 11 052 women were included in this analysis, with 440 (4.1%) HIV infections identified. HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women in Malawi halved from 6.4% to 3.0% over 5 years. Mean viral loads of adult patients decreased from 120 000 copies/mL to less than 20 000 copies/mL. Results suggest that community viral load has an effect on HIV incidence rates in the population, which in turn correlates with reduced HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women.

  6. Extending parent-child interaction therapy for early childhood internalizing problems: new advances for an overlooked population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Aubrey L; Puliafico, Anthony C; Kurtz, Steven M S; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Although efficacious psychological treatments for internalizing disorders are now well established for school-aged children, until recently there have regrettably been limited empirical efforts to clarify indicated psychological intervention methods for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders presenting in early childhood. Young children lack many of the developmental capacities required to effectively participate in established treatments for mood and anxiety problems presenting in older children, making simple downward extensions of these treatments for the management of preschool internalizing problems misguided. In recent years, a number of research groups have successfully adapted and modified parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), originally developed to treat externalizing problems in young children, to treat various early internalizing problems with a set of neighboring protocols. As in traditional PCIT, these extensions target child symptoms by directly reshaping parent-child interaction patterns associated with the maintenance of symptoms. The present review outlines this emerging set of novel PCIT adaptations and modifications for mood and anxiety problems in young children and reviews preliminary evidence supporting their use. Specifically, we cover (a) PCIT for early separation anxiety disorder; (b) the PCIT-CALM (Coaching Approach behavior and Leading by Modeling) Program for the full range of early anxiety disorders; (c) the group Turtle Program for behavioral inhibition; and (d) the PCIT-ED (Emotional Development) Program for preschool depression. In addition, emerging PCIT-related protocols in need of empirical attention--such as the PCIT-SM (selective mutism) Program for young children with SM--are also considered. Implications of these protocols are discussed with regard to their unique potential to address the clinical needs of young children with internalizing problems. Obstacles to broad dissemination are addressed, and we consider

  7. EMG and heart rate responses decline within 5 days of daily whole-body vibration training with squatting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rosenberger

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the acute effects of a 5-day daily whole-body vibration (WBV training on electromyography (EMG responses of the m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius lateralis, heart rate (HR, continuously recorded, and blood lactate levels. The purpose of the study was to investigate the adaptation of muscle activity, heart rate and blood lactate levels during 5 days of daily training. Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either squat exercises with vibration at 20 Hz on a side alternating platform (SE+V, n = 20, age  = 31.9±7.5 yrs., height  = 178.8±6.2 cm, body mass  = 79.2±11.4 kg or squat exercises alone (SE, n = 21, age  = 28.4±7.3 years, height  = 178.9±7.4 cm, body mass  = 77.2±9.7 kg. On training day 1, EMG amplitudes of the m. rectus femoris were significantly higher (P<0.05 during SE+V than during SE. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant on training days 3 and 5. The heart rate (HR response was significantly higher (P<0.05 during SE+V than during SE on all training days, but showed a constant decline throughout the training days. On training day 1, blood lactate increased significantly more after SE+V than after SE (P<0.05. On the following training days, this difference became much smaller but remained significantly different. The specific physiological responses to WBV were largest on the initial training day and most of them declined during subsequent training days, showing a rapid neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptation to the vibration stimulus.

  8. Computerised therapy for depression with clinician vs. assistant and brief vs. extended phone support: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gega Lina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT involves standardised, automated, interactive self-help programmes delivered via a computer. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies have shown than cCBT reduces depressive symptoms as much as face-to-face therapy and more than waiting lists or treatment as usual. cCBT’s efficacy and acceptability may be influenced by the “human” support offered as an adjunct to it, which can vary in duration and can be offered by people with different levels of training and expertise. Methods/design This is a two-by-two factorial RCT investigating the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of cCBT supplemented with 12 weekly phone support sessions are either brief (5–10 min or extended (20–30 min and are offered by either an expert clinician or an assistant with no clinical training. Adults with non-suicidal depression in primary care can self-refer into the study by completing and posting to the research team a standardised questionnaire. Following an assessment interview, eligible referrals have access to an 8-session cCBT programme called Beating the Blues and are randomised to one of four types of support: brief-assistant, extended-assistant, brief-clinician or extended-clinician. A sample size of 35 per group (total 140 is sufficient to detect a moderate effect size with 90% power on our primary outcome measure (Work and Social Adjustment Scale; assuming a 30% attrition rate, 200 patients will be randomised. Secondary outcome measures include the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Data on clinical outcomes, treatment usage and patient experiences are collected in three ways: by post via self-report questionnaires at week 0 (randomisation and at weeks 12 and 24 post-randomisation; electronically by the cCBT system every time patients log-in; by phone during assessments, support sessions and exit interviews. Discussion

  9. Lipid droplet dynamics and insulin sensitivity upon a 5-day high-fat diet in Caucasians and South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmink, Anne; Bakker, Leontine E. H.; Guigas, Bruno; Kornips, Esther; Schaart, Gert; Meinders, A. Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2017-01-01

    A 5-day High-Fat High-Calorie diet (HFHC-diet) reduces insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) in South Asian, but not Caucasian healthy lean males. We aimed to investigate if differences in myocellular lipid handling are underlying this differential response. A two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle biopsies were performed in 12 healthy lean Caucasian and South Asian males (BMI < 25 kg/m2, 19–25 years) before and after a 5-day HFHC-diet (regular diet + 375 mL cream/day; 1275 kcal/day; 94% fat). Triglyceride extractions and Western Blots for lipid droplet and mitochondrial proteins were performed. Intramyocellular lipid content and HFHC-diet response were similar between ethnicities (group effect: P = 0.094; diet effect: +~30%, P = 0.044). PLIN5 protein content increased upon the HFHC-diet (P = 0.031) and tended to be higher in South Asians (0.87 ± 0.42 AU vs. 1.35 ± 0.58 AU, P = 0.07). 4-HNE tended to increase in South Asians upon the HFHC-diet (interaction effect: P = 0.057). In Caucasians ΔPLIN5 content correlated with ΔRd (Caucasians: r = 0.756, P = 0.011; South Asians: r = −0.085, P = 0.816), while in South Asians Δ4-HNE associated with ΔPLIN5 content (Caucasians: r = 0.312, P = 0.380; South Asians: r = 0.771, P = 0.003). These data indicate that in Caucasians, PLIN5 may be protective against HFHC-diet induced insulin resistance, which for reasons not yet understood is not observed in South Asians, who possess increased lipid peroxidation levels. PMID:28195217

  10. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest.

  11. Clinical recommendation on paliperidone extended-release tablet in schizophrenia therapy%帕利哌酮缓释片临床用药指导意见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒良; 蔡焯基; 吉中孚; 江开达; 司天梅; 张鸿燕; 梅其一; 贾福军; 陆峥

    2011-01-01

    精神分裂症是一组病因未明的精神疾病,其病程迁延,易慢性化,多数患者会出现精神残疾.目前的治疗目标不仅是控制症状,还要改善患者的社会功能.文中综述了帕利哌酮缓释片的药理特点,并就其临床使用提出指导意见.帕利哌酮缓释片是一种新型第二代抗精神病药,其有效成分帕利哌酮是利培酮的活性代谢产物,同时OROS控释技术可以带来平稳的血药浓度.帕利哌酮缓释片起效迅速,能够全面有效控制症状,安全性良好,同时可以显著改善患者的社会功能.%Schizophrenia is a group of disabling disorders with uncertain cause. Its course can be presented as one episode or span into a chronic state, ultimately requiring lifelong treatment. The treatment goals of schizophrenia are to rapidly control symptoms, and to gain a result of improved personal and social functioning. In this paper, clinical recommendation on paliperidone extended-release (ER) tablet in schizophrenia therapy was reviewed. Paliperidone ER is a recently developed atypical antipsychotic drug available for the treatment of schizo-phrenia. Paliperidone (9-hydroxy risperidone) is the major active metabolite of risperidone. By the unique extended-release delivery system, paliperidone ER can steadily deliver paliperidone and maintain steady plasma concentrations. It is efficacious in improving symptoms and social functioning of schizophrenia patients, and is well tolerated.

  12. Aminoglycoside therapy for childhood urinary tract infection due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Beom; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Soo Young; Jeong, Dae Chul; Kang, Jin Han

    2015-10-13

    The rate of urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacterial strains requiring carbapenem therapy has been increasing in children. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of non-carbapenem antibiotic therapy on childhood UTIs caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Medical records of children diagnosed with febrile UTIs due to E. coli or K. pneumoniae between 2010 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The enrolled children were divided into two groups: the ESBL group and the non-ESBL group. Clinical characteristics and therapeutic responses were compared between the two groups. A total of 211 episodes of UTI (204 caused by E. coli; seven caused by K. pneumoniae) were identified in 205 children. Twenty-two (10.4 %) episodes were categorized into the ESBL group. There was no significant difference in the type of antibiotic administered between the two groups. No carbapenems were administered; however, aminoglycosides were administered for 79.1 % of the total episodes. Although empirical antibiotics were appropriate for more episodes in the non-ESBL group compared with the ESBL group (100.0 % vs. 90.9 %, p = 0.011), there were no significant differences in the frequency of defervescence, bacterial eradication from the urine, acute pyelonephritis and vesicoureteral reflux or fever duration between the two groups. Non-carbapenem antibiotics showed favourable therapeutic effects on childhood UTIs caused by ESBL-producing strains. Aminoglycosides can be an alternative to carbapenems in such cases.

  13. Extended helical tomo-therapy and concomitant chemotherapy for an uterine cervix carcinoma: dosimetry parameters and hematological toxicity; Tomotherapie helicoidale etendue et chimiotherapie concomitante pour un cancer du col de l'uterus: parametres dosimetriques et toxicite hematologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, H.; Thomas, L.; Belhomme, S.; Chemin, A.; Caron, J.; Dejean, C.; Kantor, G.; Richaud, P. [Institut Bergonie, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Floquet, A.; Guyon, F. [Institut Bergonie, Dept. de Chirurgie, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2009-10-15

    the extended tomo-therapy associated to concomitant chemotherapy is feasible and allows a dose escalation at the ganglions level. It is necessary to continue to study the dosimetry parameters at the hematopoietic marrow level that are predictive for a hematological toxicity. (N.C.)

  14. Long-term changes in human colonic Bifidobacterium populations induced by a 5-day oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irène Mangin

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE. At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log(10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log(10 (p = 0.003 and 8.1±0.5 log(10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log(10 (p = 0.003, respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p = 0.01. Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.

  15. Long-term changes in human colonic Bifidobacterium populations induced by a 5-day oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Irène; Lévêque, Christophe; Magne, Fabien; Suau, Antonia; Pochart, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old) were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE). At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log(10) (p = 0.003) and 8.1±0.5 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log(10) (p = 0.003), respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p = 0.01). Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.

  16. Azithromycin 1.5g Over 5 Days Compared to 1g Single Dose in Urethral Mycoplasma genitalium: Impact on Treatment Outcome and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tim R H; Fairley, Christopher K; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bissessor, Melanie; Vodstrcil, Lenka; Chow, Eric P F; Grant, Mieken; Danielewski, Jennifer; Garland, Suzanne M; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the impact of extended azithromycin (1.5g over 5 days) on selection of macrolide resistance and microbiological cure in men with Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis during 2013-2015 and compared this to cases treated with azithromycin 1g in 2012-2013. Microbiological cure was determined for men with M. genitalium urethritis treated with azithromycin 1.5g using quantitative polymerase chain reaction specific for M. genitalium DNA on samples 14-100 days post-treatment. Pre- and post-treatment macrolide resistance mutations were detected by sequencing the 23 S gene. There was no difference in proportions with microbiological cure between azithromycin 1.5g and 1g: 62/106 (58%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49%, 68%) and 56/107 (52%; 95%CI 42-62%), P = .34, respectively. Also, there was no difference in the proportion of wild-type 23 S rRNA (presumed macrolide sensitive) infections cured after 1.5g and azithromycin 1g: 28/34 (82%; 95%CI 65-92%) and 49/60 (82%; 95%CI 70-90%), P=1.0, respectively. There was no difference between 1.5g and 1g in the proportions of wild-type infections with post-treatment resistance mutations: 4/34 (12%; 95%CI 3-27%) and 11/60 (18%; 95%CI 10-30%), respectively, P = .40. Pre-treatment resistance was present in 51/98 (52%; 95%CI 42-62%) cases in 2013-2015 compared to 47/107 (44%; 95%CI 34-54%) in 2012-2013, P = .25. Extended azithromycin 1.5g was no more effective than a single 1g dose at achieving cure of M. genitalium urethritis and importantly did not reduce the selection of macrolide resistance. Nonmacrolide and new approaches for the treatment of M. genitalium urethritis are required. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 5-day Harmonic Climatologies (1982-2008) (NODC Accession 0071182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a global, 4km 5-day sea surface temperature climatology derived from harmonic analysis of the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 sea...

  18. Gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly and significant wave height from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 satellites (NODC Accession 0065055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and Ku Band significant wave height (SWH-KU) observed from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2...

  19. Duodenal and Other Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical and Endometrial Cancer Treated With Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Paraaortic Lymph Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poorvu, Philip D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sadow, Cheryl A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Townamchai, Kanokpis; Damato, Antonio L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize the rates of acute and late duodenal and other gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities among patients treated for cervical and endometrial cancers with extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) to the paraaortic nodes and to analyze dose-volume relationships of GI toxicities. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent EF-IMRT to the paraaortic nodes, of whom 46 met the inclusion criteria for GI toxicity and 45 for duodenal toxicity analysis. The median prescribed dose to the paraaortic nodes was 54 Gy (range, 41.4-65 Gy). The 4 duodenal segments, whole duodenum, small bowel loops, peritoneum, and peritoneum plus retroperitoneal segments of colon were contoured retrospectively, and dosimetric analysis was performed to identify dose-volume relationships to grade ≥3 acute (<90 day) and late (≥90 day) GI toxicity. Results: Only 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced acute grade ≥3 GI toxicity and 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced late grade ≥3 GI toxicity. The median dose administered to these 6 patients was 50.4 Gy. One of 12 patients who received 63 to 65 Gy at the level of the renal hilum experienced grade 3 GI toxicity. Dosimetric analysis of patients with and without toxicity revealed no differences between the mean absolute or fractional volumes at any 5-Gy interval between 5 Gy and the maximum dose. None of the patients experienced duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment of paraaortic nodes with IMRT is associated with low rates of GI toxicities and no duodenal-specific toxicity, including patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. This technique may allow sufficient dose sparing of the bowel to enable safe dose escalation to at least 65 Gy.

  20. TU-CD-304-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION and BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY): Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy: Development of Novel Arc Delivery Techniques Integrating Dynamic Table Motion for Extended Volume Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, E; Hoppe, R; Million, L; Loo, B; Koong, A; Xing, L; Hsu, A; Fahimian, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Otto, K [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Integration of coordinated robotic table motion with inversely-planned arc delivery has the potential to resolve table-top delivery limitations of large-field treatments such as Total Body Irradiation (TBI), Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI), and Cranial-Spinal Irradiation (CSI). We formulate the foundation for Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy (TMAT), and using Varian Developer Mode capabilities, experimentally investigate its practical implementation for such techniques. Methods: A MATLAB algorithm was developed for inverse planning optimization of the table motion, MLC positions, and gantry motion under extended-SSD geometry. To maximize the effective field size, delivery trajectories for TMAT TBI were formed with the table rotated at 270° IEC and dropped vertically to 152.5cm SSD. Preliminary testing of algorithm parameters was done through retrospective planning analysis. Robotic delivery was programmed using custom XML scripting on the TrueBeam Developer Mode platform. Final dose was calculated using the Eclipse AAA algorithm. Initial verification of delivery accuracy was measured using OSLDs on a solid water phantom of varying thickness. Results: A comparison of DVH curves demonstrated that dynamic couch motion irradiation was sufficiently approximated by static control points spaced in intervals of less than 2cm. Optimized MLC motion decreased the average lung dose to 68.5% of the prescription dose. The programmed irradiation integrating coordinated table motion was deliverable on a TrueBeam STx linac in 6.7 min. With the couch translating under an open 10cmx20cm field angled at 10°, OSLD measurements along the midline of a solid water phantom at depths of 3, 5, and 9cm were within 3% of the TPS AAA algorithm with an average deviation of 1.2%. Conclusion: A treatment planning and delivery system for Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy of extended volumes has been established and experimentally demonstrated for TBI. Extension to other treatment

  1. VLTI/AMBER interferometric observations of the recurrent Nova RS Oph 5.5 days after outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Chesneau, O; Millour, F; Hummel, C; De Souza, A D; Bonneau, D; Vannier, M; Rantakyro, F T; Spang, A; Malbet, F; Mourard, D; Bode, M F; O'brien, T J; Skinner, G K; Petrov, R; Stee, P; Tatulli, E; Vakili, F; Chesneau, Olivier; Hummel, Ch.; Stee, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    We report on interferometric AMBER/VLTI observations of the recurrent nova RS Oph five days after its outburst on 2006 Feb 12. Using three baselines from 44 to 86m, and a spectral resolution of 1500, we measured the extension of the emission in the K band continuum and in the BrG and HeI2.06 micron lines. The continuum visibilities were interpreted by fitting simple geometric models consisting of uniform and Gaussian ellipses, ring and binary models. The visibilities and differential phases in the BrG line were interpreted using skewed ring models aiming to perform a limited parametric reconstruction of the extension and kinematics of the line forming region. The limited uv coverage does not allow discrimination between filled models and rings. Binary models are discarded because the measured closure phase in the continuum is close to zero. The visibilities in the lines are at a low level compared to their nearby continuum, consistent with a more extended line forming region for HeI2.06 than BrG. The ellipse ...

  2. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend...... beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences....... First, we outline the background of the debate and discuss different argumentative strategies for ExE. In particular, we distinguish ExE from cognate but more moderate claims about the embodied and situated nature of cognition and emotion (Section 1). We then dwell upon two dimensions of ExE: emotions...

  3. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  4. A PHASE-I STUDY OF 1,2-DIAMMINOMETHYL-CYCLOBUTANE-PLATINUM (II)-LACTATE (D-19466 LOBAPLATIN) ADMINISTERED DAILY FOR 5 DAYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIETEMA, JA; DEVRIES, EGE; SLEIJFER, DT; WILLEMSE, PHB; GUCHELAAR, HJ; UGES, DRA; AULENBACHER, P; VOEGELI, R; MULDER, NH

    A phase I trial was conducted with lobaplatin (D-19466; 1,2-diamminomethyl-cyclobutane-platinum (II)-lactate) i.v. bolus daily for 5 days every 4 weeks. After entering five patients toxicity appeared to be related to renal function, therefore the individual dose (total dose 20-100 mg m-2 over 5

  5. Extending Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  6. A model-based approach to investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and response to antihypertensive therapies: extending the Guyton model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallow, K Melissa; Lo, Arthur; Beh, Jeni; Rodrigo, Manoj; Ermakov, Sergey; Friedman, Stuart; de Leon, Hector; Sarkar, Anamika; Xiong, Yuan; Sarangapani, Ramesh; Schmidt, Henning; Webb, Randy; Kondic, Anna Georgieva

    2014-05-01

    Reproducibly differential responses to different classes of antihypertensive agents are observed among hypertensive patients and may be due to interindividual differences in hypertension pathology. Computational models provide a tool for investigating the impact of underlying disease mechanisms on the response to antihypertensive therapies with different mechanisms of action. We present the development, calibration, validation, and application of an extension of the Guyton/Karaaslan model of blood pressure regulation. The model incorporates a detailed submodel of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), allowing therapies that target different parts of this pathway to be distinguished. Literature data on RAAS biomarker and blood pressure responses to different classes of therapies were used to refine the physiological actions of ANG II and aldosterone on renin secretion, renal vascular resistance, and sodium reabsorption. The calibrated model was able to accurately reproduce the RAAS biomarker and blood pressure responses to combinations of dual-RAAS agents, as well as RAAS therapies in combination with diuretics or calcium channel blockers. The final model was used to explore the impact of underlying mechanisms of hypertension on the blood pressure response to different classes of antihypertensive agents. Simulations indicate that the underlying etiology of hypertension can impact the magnitude of response to a given class of therapy, making a patient more sensitive to one class and less sensitive others. Given that hypertension is usually the result of multiple mechanisms, rather than a single factor, these findings yield insight into why combination therapy is often required to adequately control blood pressure.

  7. Extending Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...

  8. Comparison of 4- versus 5-day Co-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) + timed artificial insemination protocols in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Roberto A; Fishman, Heidi J; Jones, Arthur L; Ferrer, Maria S; Jenerette, Mathews; Vaughn, Aimee

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pregnancy rate after timed artificial insemination (P/TAI) in dairy heifers treated with 4- versus 5-day Co-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocols. A total of 120 Holstein heifers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The heifers received an intravaginal CIDR insert containing 1.38 g of progesterone for 4 days (Monday-Friday 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR; n = 60) or 5 days (5-day Co-Synch + CIDR; n = 60). At the time of CIDR removal, 25 mg of PGF2α was injected intramuscularly, and 72 hours after CIDR removal, the heifers received 100 μg of GnRH intramuscularly and were artificially inseminated. Artificial insemination was performed by an experienced technician, using commercial frozen-thawed semen from a single sire. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography per rectum 32 days after TAI. Categorical data were analyzed using proc logistic and the chi-square test, whereas continuous variables were analyzed using the t-test of Statistical Analysis Systems. Heifers in the 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR group had an acceptable P/TAI32 (55.0%, 33 of 60), which was not different (P = 0.35) from that observed in the 5-day Co-Synch + CIDR group (63.3%, 38 of 60). Progesterone concentration at CIDR insertion or estradiol concentration at TAI did not influence the pregnancy outcomes. Interestingly, estradiol concentration at TAI was greater in the 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR group compared to the 5-day Co-Synch + CIDR group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the Monday to Friday 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR protocol resulted in adequate P/TAI in dairy heifers, which was similar to that of the 5-day Co-Synch + CIDR protocol. This novel protocol might represent a promising hormonal treatment for TAI in dairy heifers, facilitating their reproductive management routine, while maintaining an adequate fertility.

  9. Quality measure attainment with dapagliflozin plus metformin extended-release as initial combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a post hoc pooled analysis of two clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kelly F; Katz, Arie; Sheehan, John J

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of quality measures attempts to improve safety and health outcomes and to reduce costs. In two Phase III trials in treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes, dapagliflozin 5 or 10 mg/d as initial combination therapy with metformin extended-release (XR) significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C) from baseline to 24 weeks and allowed higher proportions of patients to achieve A1C LDL-C) as well as vital status measures of blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). The proportion of patients achieving A1C, BP, and LDL-C individual and composite measures was assessed, as was the proportion with baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 who lost ≥4.5 kg. Subgroup analyses by baseline BMI were also performed. Results A total of 194 and 211 patients were treated with dapagliflozin 5- or 10-mg/d combination therapy, respectively, and 409 with metformin monotherapy. Significantly higher proportions of patients achieved A1C ≤6.5%, LDL-C <100 mg/dL across treatment groups. A higher proportion of patients with baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 lost ≥4.5 kg with combination therapy. Combination therapy had a more robust effect on patients with higher baseline BMI. Conclusion Initial combination therapy with dapagliflozin 5 or 10 mg/d and metformin improved quality measures relevant to clinical outcomes and diabetes care.

  10. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P 6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.

  11. Urinary creatine and methylamine excretion following 4 x 5 g x day(-1) or 20 x 1 g x day(-1) of creatine monohydrate for 5 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Florance, James; Kumps, Alain; Sanvura, Robertine; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of two creatine monohydrate supplementation regimes on 24-h urinary creatine and methylamine excretion. Nine male participants completed two trials, separated by 6 weeks. Participants ingested 4 x 5 g x day(-1) creatine monohydrate for 5 days in one trial and 20 x 1 g x day(-1) for 5 days in the other. We collected 24-h urine samples on 2 baseline days (days 1-2), during 5 days of supplementation (days 3-7), and for 2 days post-supplementation (days 8-9). Urine was assayed for creatine using high-performance liquid chromatography and methylamine using gas chromatography. Less creatine was excreted following the 20 x 1 g x day(-1) regime (49.25 +/- 10.53 g) than the 4 x 5 g x day(-1) regime (62.32 +/- 9.36 g) (mean +/- s; P x 1 g x day(-1) and 4 x 5 g x day(-1) regimes, respectively (P x 1 g x day(-1) doses suggests a greater retention in the body and most probably in the muscle. Lower and more frequent doses of creatine monohydrate appear to further attenuate formation of methylamine.

  12. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...

  13. Evaluation of risk of nephrotoxicity with high dose, extended-interval colistin administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Dewan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate the risk of nephrotoxicity with high-dose, extended-interval regimen of colistin administration in critical ill patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on patients suffering from sepsis due to Gram-negative infection susceptible only to colistin. The dosing schedule for colistin was 9 million units stat followed by 4.5 million units at 12 hourly interval (adjusted as per body weight and renal functions. The serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were estimated at the start of therapy and daily during therapy. Results: Thirty-one patients suffering ventilator associated pneumonia (61.29%, blood stream infections (29.03% and urinary tract infections (9.67% due to Gram-negative multiple drug resistance organisms were assessed. Most commonly isolated organism were Acinetobacter baumannii (54.83%, Klebsiella pneumonia (16.12% and Pseudomonas (29.03%. Five patients (16.12% developed acute kidney injury within 4-5 days of start of therapy and returned to baseline after 6 days with no patient requiring renal replacement therapy or discontinuation of colistin. Conclusion: Our study showed that high-dose, extended-interval colistin can be given to critically ill patients without any significant risk of nephrotoxicity.

  14. Extended Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We extend the chameleon models by considering Scalar-Fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyse models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where inter...

  15. Efficacy of Targeted 5-day Combined Parenteral and Intramammary Treatment of Clinical Mastitis Caused by Penicillin-Susceptible or Penicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taponen, S; Jantunen, A; Pyörälä, E; Pyörälä, S

    2003-01-01

    Combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was compared to parenteral treatment only. Cows with clinical mastitis (166 mastitic quarters) caused by S. aureus treated by veterinarians of the Ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine during routine farm calls were included. Treatment was based on in vitro susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolate. Procaine penicillin G (86 cases due to β-lactamase negative strains) or amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (24 cases due to β-lactamase positive strains) was administered parenterally and intramammarily for 5 days. Efficacy of treatments was assessed 2 and 4 weeks later by physical examination, bacteriological culture, determination of CMT, somatic cell count and NAGase activity in milk. Quarters with growth of S. aureus in at least one post-treatment sample were classified as non-cured. As controls we used 41 clinical mastitis cases caused by penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates treated with procaine penicillin G parenterally for 5 days and 15 cases due to penicillin-resistant isolates treated with spiramycin parenterally for 5 days from the same practice area. Bacteriological cure rate after the combination treatment was 75.6% for quarters infected with penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, and 29.2% for quarters infected with penicillin-resistant isolates. Cure rate for quarters treated only parenterally with procaine penicillin G was 56.1% and that for quarters treated with spiramycin 33.3%. The difference in cure rates between mastitis due to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. aureus was highly significant. Combined treatment was superior over systemic treatment only in the β-lactamase negative group. PMID:14650544

  16. Development and validation of a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast for patients with grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weger, Letty A; Beerthuizen, Thijs; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Sont, Jacob K

    2014-08-01

    One-third of the Dutch population suffers from allergic rhinitis, including hay fever. In this study, a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast was developed and validated for grass pollen allergic patients in the Netherlands. Using multiple regression analysis, a two-step pollen and hay fever symptom prediction model was developed using actual and forecasted weather parameters, grass pollen data and patient symptom diaries. Therefore, 80 patients with a grass pollen allergy rated the severity of their hay fever symptoms during the grass pollen season in 2007 and 2008. First, a grass pollen forecast model was developed using the following predictors: (1) daily means of grass pollen counts of the previous 10 years; (2) grass pollen counts of the previous 2-week period of the current year; and (3) maximum, minimum and mean temperature (R (2)=0.76). The second modeling step concerned the forecasting of hay fever symptom severity and included the following predictors: (1) forecasted grass pollen counts; (2) day number of the year; (3) moving average of the grass pollen counts of the previous 2 week-periods; and (4) maximum and mean temperatures (R (2)=0.81). Since the daily hay fever forecast is reported in three categories (low-, medium- and high symptom risk), we assessed the agreement between the observed and the 1- to 5-day-ahead predicted risk categories by kappa, which ranged from 65 % to 77 %. These results indicate that a model based on forecasted temperature and grass pollen counts performs well in predicting symptoms of hay fever up to 5 days ahead.

  17. [Structural and functional organization of the vestibular apparatus in rats maintained under weightless conditions for 19.5 days aboard the satellite "Cosmos-782"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Ia A; Gazenko, O G; Titova, L K; Bronshteĭn, A A; Govardovskiĭ, V I

    1978-01-01

    Vestibular apparatus was investigated in rats subjected to weightlessness for 19.5 days in the satelite "Cosmos-782" and experienced acceleration on launching and landing. Some structural and functional changes were noted. They were seen in otolith clinging to the utricular receptor surface and in the peripheral arrangement of the nucleolus in the nuclei of the receptor cells. It is also possible that increased edema of the vestibular tissue resulted in destruction of some receptor cells, and within the otolith--changes in the form and structure of otoconia. In the horizontal crista the cupula was separated.

  18. Structural and Functional Organization of the Vestibular Apparatus in Rats Subjected to Weightlessness for 19.5 Days Aboard the Kosmos-782 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Y. A.; Gazenko, O. G.; Titova, L. K.; Bronshteyn, A. A.; Govardovskiy, V. I.; Pevzner, R. A.; Gribakin, G. G.; Aronova, M. Z.; Kharkeyevich, T. A.; Tsirulis, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    The vestibular apparatus was investigated in rats subjected to weightlessness for 19.5 days. The vestibular apparatus was removed and its sections were fixed in a glutaraldehyde solution for investigation by light and electron microscopes. Structural and functional charges were noted in the otolith portions of the ear, with the otolith particles clinging to the utricular receptor surface and with the peripheral arrangement of the nucleolus in the nuclei of the receptor cells. It is possible that increased edema of the vestibular tissue resulted in the destruction of some receptor cells and in changes in the form and structure of the otolith. In the horizontal crista, the capula was separated.

  19. Long-term survival of diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the trigeminal region extending to the Meckel's cave treated by CHASER therapy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshihide; Kato, Naoki; Itoh, Kuniaki; Hasegawa, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old man with a history of malignant lymphoma of the cecum presented with lancinating facial pain in the left. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumor in the Meckel's cave extending along the trigeminal nerve. The tumor was partially removed via left retrosigmoid lateral suboccipital craniotomy. Histological examination showed findings consistent with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, which was later confirmed to be metastatic lesion from the cecal lesion. Postoperative chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, high dose, cytarabine, steroid (dexamethasone), etoposide, and rituximab (CHASER) followed by whole brain irradiation (30 Gy) resulted in complete remission. Although facial pain persisted, the patient's general condition remained favorable and he did not experience recurrence over the 51-month follow-up period. Histological confirmation and awareness of malignant lymphoma are very important to determine the therapeutic strategy and to avoid misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. Long-term survival of patients with metastatic malignant lymphoma in the Meckel's cave extending along the trigeminal nerve was very rare. In addition, metastatic malignant lymphoma in the extra-axial and peripheral nervous tissue might be different from primary central nervous system lymphoma in the white matter, since the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents against malignant lymphomas in the extra-axial regions is not attenuated by the blood brain barrier.

  20. Quality measure attainment with dapagliflozin plus metformin extended-release as initial combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a post hoc pooled analysis of two clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell KF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly F Bell, Arie Katz, John J Sheehan AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, USA Background: The use of quality measures attempts to improve safety and health outcomes and to reduce costs. In two Phase III trials in treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes, dapagliflozin 5 or 10 mg/d as initial combination therapy with metformin extended-release (XR significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C from baseline to 24 weeks and allowed higher proportions of patients to achieve A1C <7% vs dapagliflozin or metformin monotherapy. Objective: A pooled analysis of data from these two studies assessed the effect of dapagliflozin 5 or 10 mg/d plus metformin XR (combination therapy compared with placebo plus metformin XR (metformin monotherapy on diabetes quality measures. Quality measures include laboratory measures of A1C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C as well as vital status measures of blood pressure (BP and body mass index (BMI. The proportion of patients achieving A1C, BP, and LDL-C individual and composite measures was assessed, as was the proportion with baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 who lost ≥4.5 kg. Subgroup analyses by baseline BMI were also performed. Results: A total of 194 and 211 patients were treated with dapagliflozin 5- or 10-mg/d combination therapy, respectively, and 409 with metformin monotherapy. Significantly higher proportions of patients achieved A1C ≤6.5%, <7%, or <8% with combination therapy vs metformin monotherapy (P<0.02. Significantly higher proportions of patients achieved BP <140/90 mmHg (P<0.02 for each dapagliflozin dose and BP <130/80 mmHg (P<0.02 with dapagliflozin 5 mg/d only with combination therapy vs metformin monotherapy. Similar proportions (29%–33% of patients had LDL-C <100 mg/dL across treatment groups. A higher proportion of patients with baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 lost ≥4.5 kg with combination therapy. Combination therapy had a more robust effect on patients with higher baseline BMI. Conclusion

  1. A whole-genome microarray study of Arabidopsis thaliana semisolid callus cultures exposed to microgravity and nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions for 5 days on board of Shenzhou 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Svenja; Spirer, Ina; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Nieselt, Kay; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

  2. A Whole-Genome Microarray Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Semisolid Callus Cultures Exposed to Microgravity and Nonmicrogravity Related Spaceflight Conditions for 5 Days on Board of Shenzhou 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Fengler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes, this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

  3. A single dose of bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization increases prolificacy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, F; Hernández-Cerón, J; Orozco, V; Hernández, J A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2007-11-01

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) enhances ovarian follicular and embryonic development in sheep and cattle. In the present study, the objective was to assess whether bST given 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization improves prolificacy and lambing rate in sheep. Pelibuey ewes (n=92) exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals received an intravaginal sponge containing 45mg of FGA for 12 days. Five days before sponge withdrawal, ewes were treated with either 125mg of bST sc (bST group; n=47) or saline solution (control; n=45). After the sponge was removed, ewes were observed for estrus and subsequently mated twice. Lambing rate and prolificacy was determined at birth. Blood samples were taken from the time of treatment until day 15 after estrus in eight ewes from the bST group and nine from the control group. Concentrations of IGF-I were determined by immunoradiometric assay and progesterone by RIA. Treatment with bST increased (P0.05). IGF-I concentrations were greater (P0.05) between groups. It is concluded that a single dose of bST 5 days before progestin withdrawal increases lambing rate and prolificacy in sheep. These effects are associated with an increase in circulating concentrations of IGF-I.

  4. Mean winds, temperatures and the 16- and 5-day planetary waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Bear Lake Observatory (42° N 111° W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, K. A.; Taylor, M. J.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric temperatures and winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been measured simultaneously using the Aura satellite and a meteor radar at Bear Lake Observatory (42° N, 111° W). The data presented in this study is from the interval March 2008 to July 2011. The mean winds observed in the summer-time over Bear Lake Observatory show the meridional winds to be equatorward at all heights during April-August and to reach monthly-mean speeds of -12 ms-1. The mean winds are closely related to temperatures in this region of the atmosphere and in the summer the coldest mesospheric temperatures occur about two weeks after the strongest equatorward meridional winds. In other seasons the meridional winds are poleward, reaching monthly-mean values of up to 12 ms-1. The zonal winds are eastward through most of the year and in the summer strong eastward zonal wind shears of up to ~4.5 ms-1 km-1 are present. However, westward winds are observed at the upper heights in winter and sometimes during the equinoxes. Considerable inter-annual variability is observed in the mean winds and temperatures. Comparisons of the observed winds with URAP and HWM-07 reveal some significant differences. Our radar zonal wind observations are generally more weakly eastward than these predicted by the URAP model zonal winds. Considering the radar meridional winds, in comparison to the HWM-07 our observations reveal equatorward flow at all heights in the summer whereas HWM-07 suggests that only weakly equatorward, or even poleward, flows occur at the lower heights. However, the zonal winds observed by the radar and modelled by HWM-07 are generally similar in structure and strength. Signatures of the 16- and 5-day planetary waves are clearly evident in both the radar-wind data and Aura-temperature. Short-lived wave events can reach large amplitudes of up to ~15 ms-1 and 8 K and 20 ms-1 and 10 K for the 16- and 5-day wave, respectively. A clear seasonal and short-term variability are

  5. Pharmacological study of cefoxitin as an alternative antibiotic therapy to carbapenems in treatment of urinary tract infections due to extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guet-Revillet, H; Emirian, A; Groh, M; Nebbad-Lechani, B; Weiss, E; Join-Lambert, O; Bille, E; Jullien, V; Zahar, J R

    2014-08-01

    Cefoxitin could be an alternative to carbapenems in extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) infections. However, pharmacological and clinical data regarding cefoxitin are limited. Using a recent pharmacological model and the MICs of ESBL-EC collected from pyelonephritis, we determined the probabilities to reach four pharmacological targets: free cefoxitin concentrations above the MIC during 50% and 100% of the administration interval (T>MIC = 50% and T>MIC = 100%, respectively) and free cefoxitin concentrations above 4× MIC during 50% and 100% of the administration interval (T>4MIC = 50% and T>4MIC = 100%, respectively). Cefoxitin could be used to treat ESBL-EC pyelonephritis, but administration modalities should be optimized according to MICs in order to reach pharmacological targets.

  6. Evaluation of intraoperative bleeding during an endoscopic surgery of nasal polyposis after a pre-operative single dose versus a 5-day course of corticosteroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atighechi, Saeid; Azimi, Mohammad Reza; Mirvakili, Seyyed Abbas; Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-09-01

    Nasal polyps are associated with the inflammation of the nasal cavity and the sinus mucosa. When medical treatment cannot solve a patient's problem, a functional endoscopic sinus surgery may be indicated. Bleeding impairs the surgery field during operation and increases the operation risk and time. Pre-operative corticosteroids can reduce bleeding during surgery. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of pre-operative single-dose prednisolone (1 mg/Kg/dose 24 h before surgery) versus 5-day prednisolone (1 mg/Kg/day before operation) on the bleeding volume and the surgery field quality during FESS. In this mono blind randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with bilateral nasal polyps were randomly assigned in two groups. The first group (A) received a single dose of 1 mg/Kg/dose prednisolone on the day before the surgery. The second group (B) received 1 mg/Kg/day prednisolone for 5 days before the operation. The patients were operated on under general anesthesia through the same protocol. The mean arterial blood pressure was 70-80 mm Hg in both groups. The surgeons were not aware of the patients' group. The bleeding volume and the surgeons' opinion about the surgery field quality were recorded at the end of the procedure and analyzed by Chi-square and t test. The two groups were not significantly different in their overall demographic and clinical characteristics. The mean bleeding volume during the operation was 266.5 ± 96.31 ml in group A and 206 ± 52.81 ml in group B; there was a significant difference between the groups (P value = 0.038). There was no significant difference between the groups in the surgeons' opinion about the surgery field quality (P value = 0.09). In conclusion, unlike a single dose (1 mg/kg/dose), treatment with 5-day prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) can reduce blood loss during FESS more efficiently and may improve the surgery field quality slightly. But this difference is not clinically significant.

  7. Radiotherapy versus concurrent 5-day cisplatin and radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Long-term results of a Phase III randomized trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Viorica; Coza, Ovidiu; Ghilezan, Nicolae [' Ion Chiricuta' Cancer Institute, Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; ' Iuliu Hatieganu' Univ. of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ordeanu, Claudia; Todor, Nicolae [' Ion Chiricuta' Cancer Institute, Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Traila, Alexandru [' Ion Chiricuta' Cancer Institute, Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Dept. of Surgery; Rancea, Alin [' Iuliu Hatieganu' Univ. of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); ' Ion Chiricuta' Cancer Institute, Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Dept. of Surgery

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To prove the superiority of concurrent radiochemotherapy (RTCT) over radiotherapy (RT) alone in locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Patients and Methods: In this randomized monocentric phase III study, 566 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were included: 284 in arm A (RT) and 282 in arm B (concurrent RTCT with cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} x 5 days). 238 patients (42%) were in stage IIB, 209 (37%) in stage IIIA, and 119 (21%) in stage IIIB. The median follow-up was 62.8 months. RT to the pelvis was delivered to a dose of 46 Gy/23 fractions. A cervical boost was given using the X-ray arch technique or high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy at a dose of 10 Gy. Thereafter, patients were evaluated: those with good response optionally underwent surgery and the others continued RT until 64 Gy/pelvis (with or without CT according to randomization) and 14 Gy/central tumor volume. Results: The 5-year survival rate was statistically significantly superior in the concurrent RTCT group (74%) versus the RT group (64%; p < 0.05). In patients undergoing surgery after RT or RTCT, superior results were obtained, compared to the nonoperated patients: 5-year survival rate 86% versus 53% (p < 0.01). 192 failures were recorded: 109 (38%) after RT alone versus 83 (29%) after concurrent RTCT (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study prove the obvious superiority of concurrent RTCT with 5-day cisplatin compared to RT alone in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma, regarding local control (78% vs. 67%) and 5-year survival rates (74% vs. 64%). (orig.)

  8. Hepatic transcriptomic alterations for N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) and p-toluidine after 5-day exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, June K; Shockley, Keith R; Morgan, Daniel L; Brix, Amy; Travlos, Gregory S; Gerrish, Kevin; Michael Sanders, J; Ton, T V; Pandiri, Arun R

    2017-04-01

    N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT), an accelerant for methyl methacrylate monomers in medical devices, was a liver carcinogen in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in a 2-year oral exposure study. p-Toluidine, a structurally related chemical, was a liver carcinogen in mice but not in rats in an 18-month feed exposure study. In this current study, liver transcriptomic data were used to characterize mechanisms in DMPT and p-toluidine liver toxicity and for conducting benchmark dose (BMD) analysis. Male F344/N rats were exposed orally to DMPT or p-toluidine (0, 1, 6, 20, 60 or 120 mg/kg/day) for 5 days. The liver was examined for lesions and transcriptomic alterations. Both chemicals caused mild hepatic toxicity at 60 and 120 mg/kg and dose-related transcriptomic alterations in the liver. There were 511 liver transcripts differentially expressed for DMPT and 354 for p-toluidine at 120 mg/kg/day (false discovery rate threshold of 5 %). The liver transcriptomic alterations were characteristic of an anti-oxidative damage response (activation of the Nrf2 pathway) and hepatic toxicity. The top cellular processes in gene ontology (GO) categories altered in livers exposed to DMPT or p-toluidine were used for BMD calculations. The lower confidence bound benchmark doses for these chemicals were 2 mg/kg/day for DMPT and 7 mg/kg/day for p-toluidine. These studies show the promise of using 5-day target organ transcriptomic data to identify chemical-induced molecular changes that can serve as markers for preliminary toxicity risk assessment.

  9. Increased cleavage and blastocyst rate in ewes treated with bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pardo, A; Hernández-Cerón, J; Rojas-Maya, S; Valencia, J; Rodríguez-Cortez, A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2011-05-01

    Treatment with bovine somatotropin (bST) during estrous synchronization increased fertility and prolificacy in sheep. In the present study, a single dose of bST 5 days before the end of progestin treatment improved cleavage and embryo development. Stage of estrous cycle was synchronized in ewes (n=32) with progestin and superovulation was induced by use of FSH. Five days before the end of progestin treatment, ewes were randomly assigned to two groups: bST group (n=16) received a depot injection of 125 mg of bST sc (Lactotropina, Elanco, México) and the control group (n=16) received saline solution. Estrous was detected with rams fitted with an apron every 2 h and estrous sheep were mated every 8 h whilst in estrous. Embryos were recovered on Day 7 post mating, assessed microscopically and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Cell number in blastocysts was counted after Hoechst 33342 staining. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin and progesterone were determined in eight sheep per group from the day of bST treatment to the day of embryo recovery. Cleavage rate, percentage of transferable embryos (transferable embryos/cleaved) and percentage of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage (blastocyst/cleaved) were compared between groups by logistic regression. IGF-I, insulin and progesterone plasma concentrations were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements and cell number by ANOVA. Cleavage rate was greater (Psheep. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin were greater (P<0.01) in the bST-treated group. No changes were observed in progesterone concentrations (P=0.5). It is concluded that bST injection 5 days before progestin removal increases cleavage rate and the proportion of embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. These effects are associated with an increase in IGF-I and insulin concentrations.

  10. [Switching the Treatment Regime from PRN (pro re nata, as needed) to T&E (Treat and Extend) for Intravitreal Therapy with Anti-VEGF Agents in Private Practice or Small Institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imesch, P; Sarra, G-M

    2016-12-13

    In everyday practice, intravitreal therapy in an "as needed" regimen (pro re nata, PRN) is less predictable and requires more visits (monitoring and injections taken together) with poorer functional results than with the treat and extend (T&E) regimen. Current literature supports the benefit of a switch. However, practical advice is still missing. This article provides "best practice" recommendations for private practice or smaller institutions for the change from PRN to T&E. The requirements are organisational adjustments, staff training, definition of the scenario triggering the switch (A - functional or anatomical deterioration; B - general switch at a predefined date), counselling of the patients, defining benchmarks for the follow-up of the switch and preparing for higher capacity utilisation during the transition (shorter treatment intervals during the switching phase). Guidance is provided for each phase (a, preparation; b, transition; and c, follow-up). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation of Neuroprotection Achieved by Extended Selective Brain Cooling Therapy in a Rat Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi-Chun May; Shear, Deborah A; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Leung, Lai Yee; Wei, Guo; Chen, Zhiyong; Tortella, Frank C

    2016-03-01

    Brain hypothermia has been considered as a promising alternative to whole-body hypothermia in treating acute neurological disease, for example, traumatic brain injury. Previously, we demonstrated that 2-hours selective brain cooling (SBC) effectively mitigated acute (≤24 hours postinjury) neurophysiological dysfunction induced by a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats. This study evaluated neuroprotective effects of extended SBC (4 or 8 hours in duration) on sub-acute secondary injuries between 3 and 21 days postinjury (DPI). SBC (34°C) was achieved via extraluminal cooling of rats' bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA). Depending on the experimental design, SBC was introduced either immediately or with a 2- or 4-hour delay after PBBI and maintained for 4 or 8 hours. Neuroprotective effects of SBC were evaluated by measuring brain lesion volume, axonal injury, neuroinflammation, motor and cognitive functions, and post-traumatic seizures. Compared to untreated PBBI animals, 4 or 8 hours SBC treatment initiated immediately following PBBI produced comparable neuroprotective benefits against PBBI-induced early histopathology at 3 DPI as evidenced by significant reductions in brain lesion volume, axonal pathology (beta-amyloid precursor protein staining), neuroinflammation (glial fibrillary acetic protein stained-activated astrocytes and rat major histocompatibility complex class I stained activated microglial cell), and post-traumatic nonconvulsive seizures. In the later phase of the injury (7-21 DPI), significant improvement on motor function (rotarod test) was observed under most SBC protocols, including the 2-hour delay in SBC initiation. However, SBC treatment failed to improve cognitive performance (Morris water maze test) measured 13-17 DPI. The protective effects of SBC on delayed axonal injury (silver staining) were evident out to 14 DPI. In conclusion, the CCA cooling method of SBC produced neuroprotection measured across multiple

  12. Prognostic Impact of External Beam Radiation Therapy in Patients Treated With and Without Extended Surgery and Intraoperative Electrons for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer: 16-Year Experience in a Single Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Felipe A. [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Sole, Claudio V., E-mail: cvsole@uc.cl [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Alvarez de Sierra, Pedro [Service of General Surgery, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Espí, Marina [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Blanco, Jose [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors associated with survival in patients after intraoperative electrons containing resective surgical rescue of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Methods and Materials: From January 1995 to December 2011, 60 patients with LRRC underwent extended surgery (n=38: multiorgan [43%], bone [28%], soft tissue [38%]) or nonextended (n=22) surgical resection, including a component of intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT) to the pelvic recurrence tumor bed. Twenty-eight (47%) of these patients also received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (range, 30.6-50.4 Gy). Survival outcomes were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 36 months (range, 2-189 months), and the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year rates for locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) were 86%, 52%, and 44%; and 78%, 53%, 43%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, R1 resection, EBRT at the time of pelvic rerecurrence, no tumor fragmentation, and non-lymph node metastasis retained significance with regard to LRR. R1 resection and no tumor fragmentation showed a significant association with OS after adjustment for other covariates. Conclusions: EBRT treatment integrated for rescue, resection radicality, and not involved fragmented resection specimens are associated with improved LRC in patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer. Additionally, tumor fragmentation could be compensated by EBRT. Present results suggest that a significant group of patients with LRRC may benefit from EBRT treatment integrated with extended surgery and IOERT.

  13. First 5-days follow-up and correlation study between urinary cysteinyl leukotrienes and edema values in primary spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolnenec-Baneva Natalija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: After intracerebral hemorrhage cysteinyl leukotrienes (C4, D4, E4 are synthetisized in the contact brain parenchyma-extravasated blood and participate in producing of edema formation. The study aim is a 5-days follow up (admittance/3th day/5th day of urinary cysteinyl leukotrienes, hematoma and edema volume in patients with primary spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage and to determine the relationship: edema/haematoma and edema/leukotrienes. Methods: An enzyme immunoassay for leukotrienes measuring in the urine samples from 62 patients with hemorrhage during the first 5 days (admittance/3th day/5th day and 80 health controls is used. Hematoma and edema volume is visualised and measured by computed-tomography. Results: Admission values of leukotrienes were significantly higher in the hemorrhagic patients (min = 268.61; max = 5787.36; mean = 1842.20 ± 1413.19 pg/ml/mg creatinine versus control subjects (min = 297.8; max = 1684.2; mean = 918.6 ± 332 (p 0.05. The edema (mean: 12.86 ± 13.52; 22.38 ± 21.10; 28.45 ± 29.41 cm3 showed very high significance (p 0.05 of moderate strength is found between edema and hematoma; and significant positive correlation (r = 0.6; p 0.05 at admittance, r = - 0.05 (p > 0. 05 on the 3th day (nonexistence of linear correlation, the sign minus presents their tendency for the opposite movement in their values and r = 0.2 (p > 0.05 on the 5th day are found (positive linear nonsignificant correlation of slight strength. Conclusion: Significant urinary leukotrienes excretion (a brain capacity for significant leukotreienes synthesis and significant edema progression versus constant haematoma are found. The edema size followed the hematoma size of moderate extent. The edema showed an inverse dependence of the leukotrienes (a tendency for opposite movement of their values, the high leukotrienes values at admittance bring to greater edema volume on the third/the fifth day, respectively. Elevated

  14. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-02-01

    Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P sedentary ageing men.

  15. Investigating Choroid Plexus Volume and Capillaries Length in 15.5 Day Foetus of Diabetic Mothers Compared to Normal Foetus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder with systemic complications. Children of diabetic mothers are at risk of many disorders such as major and minor vascular injuries, retinopathy, and atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes on changes in choroid plexus volume and capillaries length in 15.5 day foetus. Methods: in this experimental study which was conducted on 30 male wistar rats, animals were divided into two groups; an experimental and a control group (n=10. Streptotosin was injected (55 mg/kg in experimental group to induce diabetes while in control group intra-peritoneal injection of buffer citrate was done for four weeks. In the last day of the fourth week, mating was done and zero day of pregnancy was determined with vaginal plug observation. on 15th day of pregnancy, rats were anatomized and a foetus was chosen from each mother. After foetal head fixation and tissue processing, serial horizontal sections were prepared and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Choroid plexus volume was measured by stereological techniques and the results were analysed using ANOVA statistical test. Results: Results showed a significant difference between Choroid plexus volume and capillaries length in experimental and control groups, so that Choroid plexus volume and capillaries length were increased significantly in foetus of diabetic mothers(P<0.05. Conclusion: It is likely that maternal hyper-glycaemia induces a kind of angiogenesis in foetus that can cause many brain disorders.

  16. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P < 0.01). Lean body mass displayed a significant interaction (P < 0.01) due to an increase in INT between phases B and C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: 6 weeks of LfHIIT exercise feasible and effective method to induce clinically relevant improvements in absolute and relative PPO, but does not improve static balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  17. Effects of a 5-day treatment with the UV-filter octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammer, Holger; Schlecht, Christiane; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Schmutzler, Cornelia; Gotthardt, Inka; Köhrle, Josef; Jarry, Hubertus

    2007-09-05

    Octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) is one of the most frequently used UV-filters in sunscreens to protect the skin against the noxious influence of UV radiation. Recently, OMC was suspected to act as an "endocrine active chemical" (EAC) with estrogenic actions. While EACs have been investigated thoroughly for interference with reproductive function in mammalians, surprisingly little efforts have been made to investigate an interference of EACs with the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis despite the expression of estrogen receptors in all parts of this axis. Therefore, we conducted an in vivo study with ovariectomised rats treated for 5 days with different doses of OMC or 17beta-estradiol (E2) as a control. Determined parameters comprised serum levels of TSH, T4 and T3, hypothalamic TRH mRNA expression, protein-expression of the sodium-iodide-symporter (NIS) and the TSH receptor and the activities of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in the thyroid and the T3-responsive hepatic type I 5'deiodinase (Dio1) in the liver. While E2 did not affect TSH-, T4- or T3-levels, OMC caused a dose-dependent decrease of serum concentrations of all of these hormones. TRH expression remained unaffected, while in the thyroid, expression of the TSH receptor but not of NIS was stimulated by OMC. TPO activity was unaltered but Dio1 activity was reduced by OMC. Thus, our results demonstrate a non-estrogenic interference of OMC within the rodent HPT axis with inadequate feedback response to impaired thyroid hormone status, indicated by decreased serum thyroid hormone and hepatic Dio1 levels.

  18. High-Dose and Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage NK/T-Cell Lymphoma of Waldeyer's Ring: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xi-Wen; Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com; Fang, Hui; Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Ren, Hua; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric benefit, treatment outcome, and toxicity of high-dose and extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with early-stage NK/T-cell lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring (WR-NKTCL). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage WR-NKTCL who received extended-field IMRT were retrospectively reviewed. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy to the primary involved regions and positive cervical lymph nodes (planning target volume requiring radical irradiation [PTV{sub 50}]) and 40 Gy to the negative cervical nodes (PTV{sub 40}). Dosimetric parameters for the target volume and critical normal structures were evaluated. Locoregional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median mean doses to the PTV{sub 50} and PTV{sub 40} were 53.2 Gy and 43.0 Gy, respectively. Only 1.4% of the PTV{sub 50} and 0.9% of the PTV{sub 40} received less than 95% of the prescribed dose, indicating excellent target coverage. The average mean doses to the left and right parotid glands were 27.7 and 28.4 Gy, respectively. The 2-year OS, PFS, and LRC rates were 71.2%, 57.4%, and 87.8%. Most acute toxicities were grade 1 to 2, except for grade ≥3 dysphagia and mucositis. The most common late toxicity was grade 1-2 xerostomia, and no patient developed any ≥grade 3 late toxicities. A correlation between the mean dose to the parotid glands and the degree of late xerostomia was observed. Conclusions: IMRT achieves excellent target coverage and dose conformity, as well as favorable survival and locoregional control rates with acceptable toxicities in patients with WR-NKTCL.

  19. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy Extended Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    20 Figure 23: Axonal injury is seen in various regions throughout the micro pig brain after central FPI. Representative photo- micrographs of APP ...in a micropig fluid percussion injury model. National Neurotrauma Society Symposium, June 28-July 1, 2015, Santa Fe, New Mexico . 40. Mondello S...Santa Fe, New Mexico . 41. Bramlett H, Furones-Alonso O, Sanchez-Molano J, Sequiera D, Moreno W, Dietrich WD: Evaluation of Glibenclamide in the

  20. Extended Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Boost for Lymph Node–Positive Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Regional Control and Recurrence Patterns in the Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, John A.; Kim, Hayeon; Choi, Serah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Sukumvanich, Paniti; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Comerci, John T. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for nodal staging in locally advanced cervical cancer; however the false negative rate for para-aortic disease are 20% to 25% in PET-positive pelvic nodal disease. Unless surgically staged, pelvis-only treatment may undertreat para-aortic disease. We have treated patients with PET-positive nodes with extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to address the para-aortic region prophylactically with concomitant boost to involved nodes. The purpose of this study was to assess regional control rates and recurrence patterns. Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with cervical cancer (stage IBI-IVA) diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 with PET-avid pelvic nodes treated with extended field IMRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant boost to involved nodes to a median of 55 Gy in 25 fractions) with concurrent cisplatin and brachytherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The nodal location was pelvis-only in 41 patients (67%) and pelvis + para-aortic in 20 patients (33%). There were a total of 179 nodes, with a median number of positive nodes of 2 (range, 1-16 nodes) per patient and a median nodal size of 1.8 cm (range, 0.7-4.5 cm). Response was assessed by PET/CT at 12 to 16 weeks. Results: Complete clinical and imaging response at the first follow-up visit was seen in 77% of patients. At a mean follow-up time of 29 months (range, 3-116 months), 8 patients experienced recurrence. The sites of persistent/recurrent disease were as follows: cervix 10 (16.3%), regional nodes 3 (4.9%), and distant 14 (23%). The rate of para-aortic failure in patients with pelvic-only nodes was 2.5%. There were no significant differences in recurrence patterns by the number/location of nodes, largest node size, or maximum node standardized uptake value. The rate of late grade 3+ adverse events was 4%. Conclusions: Extended field IMRT was well tolerated and resulted in low regional recurrence

  1. Impaired T-wave amplitude adaptation to heart-rate induced by cardiac deconditioning after 5-days of head-down bed-rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiani, Enrico G.; Pellegrini, Alessandro; Bolea, Juan; Sotaquira, Miguel; Almeida, Rute; Vaïda, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    The study of QT/RR relationship is important for the clinical evaluation of possible risk of acquired or congenital ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In the hypothesis that microgravity exposure could induce changes in the repolarization mechanisms, our aim was to test if a short 5-days strict 6° head-down bed-rest (HDBR) could induce alterations in the QT/RR relationship and spatial repolarization heterogeneity. Twenty-two healthy men (mean age 31±6) were enrolled as part of the European Space Agency HDBR studies. High fidelity (1000 Hz) 24 h Holter ECG (12-leads, Mortara Instrument) was acquired before (PRE), the last day of HDBR (HDT5), and four days after its conclusion (POST). The night period (23:00-06:30) was selected for analysis. X, Y, Z leads were derived and the vectorcardiogram computed. Selective beat averaging was used to obtain averages of P-QRS-T complexes preceded by the same RR (10 ms bin amplitude, in the range 900-1200 ms). For each averaged waveform (i.e., one for each bin), T-wave maximum amplitude (Tmax), T-wave area (Tarea), RTapex, RTend, ventricular gradient (VG) magnitude and spatial QRS-T angle were computed. Non-parametric Friedman test was applied. Compared to PRE, at HDT5 both RTapex and RTend resulted shortened (-4%), with a decrease in T-wave amplitude (-8%) and area (-13%). VG was diminished by 10%, and QRS-T angle increased by 14°. At POST, QT duration and area parameters, as well as QRS-T angle were restored while Tmax resulted larger than PRE (+5%) and VG was still decreased by 3%. Also, a marked loss in strength of the linear regression with RR was found at HDT5 in Tmax and Tarea, that could represent a new dynamic marker of increased risk for life-threatening arrhythmias. Despite the short-term HDBR, ventricular repolarization during the night period was affected. This should be taken into account in astronauts for risk assessment during space flight.

  2. On generalized extending modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi

    2007-01-01

    A module M is called generalized extending if for any submodule N of M, there is a direct summand K of M such that N≤K and K/N is singular. Any extending module and any singular module are generalized extending. Any homomorphic image of a generalized extending module is generalized extending. Any direct sum of a singular (uniform) module and a semi-simple module is generalized extending. A ring R is a right Co-H-ring ifand only ifall right R modules are generalized extending modules.

  3. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of extended-release guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine hydrochloride for symptom relief as an adjunctive therapy to antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, Craig; Gentile, Deborah A; Skoner, David P

    2008-07-01

    This study assessed the efficacy and safety of guaifenesin 600 mg and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride 60 mg extended-release bilayer tablets in providing relief of acute respiratory symptoms when used as an adjunct to antibiotics in patients with an acute respiratory infection (ARI). Adult patients experiencing symptoms of ARI and meeting the physician's usual diagnostic criteria for oral antibiotic treatment were prescribed an antibiotic and randomized to adjunctive guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine hydrochloride or matching placebo twice daily for 7 days. Patients completed symptom diaries and treatment assessments twice daily and attended office visits on Days 4 and 8. The safety/intent-to-treat (ITT) population analysis included 601 patients (guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine, n = 303; placebo, n = 298). Mean symptom scores were lower with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine from Day 3 for every symptom assessed, with statistically significant improvements in total symptom score from Day 3 (P = 0.026). The greatest effects of treatment with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine were observed for nasal congestion and sinus headache. Time to overall relief was shorter with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine (P = 0.038). Significantly more patients reported "the medication was helping during the day" on Day 2 with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine (P = 0.002). Patient assessments of symptom relief showed a significant preference for guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine versus placebo (P = 0.021). Treatment with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine was well tolerated. Insomnia (2.6%), nausea (2.3%), and headache (1.3%) were the most common treatment-related adverse effects. As adjunctive therapy for symptom relief for patients taking antibiotics for ARIs, guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine shortened time to relief and improved bothersome respiratory symptoms better than placebo, with greatest effects seen for nasal congestion and sinus headache.

  4. Efficacy of Mirror Therapy Containing Functional Tasks in Poststroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Hwang, Hye-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of mirror therapy containing functional tasks on upper extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with subacute stroke. Methods The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the mirror therapy group (30 patients) and the sham therapy group (30 patients). The mirror therapy group underwent a mirror therapy program together with conventional therapy for 20 minutes per day on 5 days per week for 4 weeks. The control group received a sh...

  5. Extended-release niacin therapy and risk of ischemic stroke in patients with cardiovascular disease: the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcome (AIM-HIGH) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Koon K; Goldstein, Larry B; Chaitman, Bernard R; Grant, Shannon; Weintraub, William S; Anderson, David C; Sila, Cathy A; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Padley, Robert J; Kostuk, William J; Boden, William E

    2013-10-01

    In Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial, addition of extended-release niacin (ERN) to simvastatin in participants with established cardiovascular disease, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglycerides had no incremental benefit, despite increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Preliminary analysis based on incomplete end point adjudication suggested increased ischemic stroke risk among participants randomized to ERN. This final analysis was conducted after complete AIM-HIGH event ascertainment to further explore potential relationship between niacin therapy and ischemic stroke risk. There was no group difference in trial primary composite end point at a mean 36-month follow-up among 3414 patients (85% men; mean age, 64±9 years) randomized to simvastatin plus ERN (1500-2000 mg/d) versus simvastatin plus matching placebo. In the intention-to-treat analysis, there were 50 fatal or nonfatal ischemic strokes: 18 (1.06%) in placebo arm versus 32 (1.86%) in ERN arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.78 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.00-3.17; P=0.050). Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between ischemic stroke risk and >65 years of age (HR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.82-7.05; P=0.0002), history of stroke/transient ischemic attack/carotid disease (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.23-3.88; P=0.0079), elevated baseline Lp(a) (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.25-6.27 comparing the middle with the lowest tertile; HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.002-5.30 comparing the highest with the lowest tertile; overall P=0.042) but a nonsignificant association with ERN (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.97-3.11; P=0.063). Although there were numerically more ischemic strokes with addition of ERN to simvastatin that reached nominal significance, the number was small, and multivariable analysis accounting for known risk factors did not support a significant association between niacin and ischemic stroke risk. http

  6. SU-E-T-812: Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy-Total Body Irradiation (VMAT-TBI) V.s. Conventional Extended SSD-TBI (cTBI): A Dosimetric Comparisom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, L; Folkerts, M; Lee, H; Ramirez, E; Timmerman, R; Abdulrahman, R; Jiang, S; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To perform a dosimetric evaluation on a new developed volumetric modulated arc therapy based total body irradiation (VMAT-TBI). Methods: Three patients were CT scanned with an indexed rotatable body frame to get whole body CT images. Concatenated CT images were imported in Pinnacle treatment planning system and whole body and lung were contoured as PTV and organ at risk, respectively. Treatment plans were generated by matching multiple isocenter volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) fields of the upper body and multiple isocenter parallel-opposed fields of the lower body. For each plan, 1200 cGy in 8 fractions was prescribed to the whole body volume and the lung dose was constrained to a mean dose of 750 cGy. Such a two-level dose plan was achieved by inverse planning of the torso VMAT fields. For comparison, conventional standing TBI (cTBI) plans were generated on the same whole body CT images at an extended SSD (550cm).The shape of compensators and lung blocks are simulated using body segments and lung contours Compensation was calculated based on the patient CT images, in mimic of the standing TBI treatment. The whole body dose distribution of cTBI plans were calculated with a home-developed GPU Monte Carlo dose engine. Calculated cTBI dose distribution was prescribed to the mid-body point at umbilical level. Results: The VMAT-TBI treatment plans of three patients’ plans achieved 80.2%±5.0% coverage of the total body volume within ±10% of the prescription dose, while cTBI treatment plans achieved 72.2%±4.0% coverage of the total body volume. The averaged mean lung dose of all three patients is lower for VMAT-TBI (7.48 cGy) than for cTBI (8.96 cGy). Conclusion: The proposed patient comfort-oriented VMAT-TBI technique provides for a uniform dose distribution within the total body while reducing the dose to the lungs.

  7. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    ELC – Extended Life Coolant SCA – Supplemental Coolant Additive SOW – Scope of Work SwRI – Southwest Research Institute TARDEC – Tank Automotive...ethylene or propylene glycol and 35% extended life coolant #1 (ELC1) with a balance of water. At a higher ELC1 content of 45% or 50%, the mass loss...UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS EXTENDED LIFE COOLANT TESTING INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 478 by Gregory A. T. Hansen Edwin A

  8. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  9. Quantum Extended Supersymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Grigore, D R; Grigore, Dan Radu; Scharf, Gunter

    2003-01-01

    We analyse some quantum multiplets associated with extended supersymmetries. We study in detail the general form of the causal (anti)commutation relations. The condition of positivity of the scalar product imposes severe restrictions on the (quantum) model. It is problematic if one can find out quantum extensions of the standard model with extended supersymmetries.

  10. Extended Theories of Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatibene Lorenzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended theories of gravitation are naturally singled out by an analysis inspired by the Ehelers-Pirani-Schild framework. In this framework the structure of spacetime is described by a Weyl geometry which is enforced by dynamics. Standard General Relativity is just one possible theory within the class of extended theories of gravitation. Also all Palatini f(R theories are shown to be extended theories of gravitation. This more general setting allows a more general interpretation scheme and more general possible couplings between gravity and matter. The definitions and constructions of extended theories will be reviewed. A general interpretation scheme will be considered for extended theories and some examples will be considered.

  11. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties. Extending upon this model......, we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: The skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically extended minds. We...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  12. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  13. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  14. A 5-day method for determination of soluble silicon concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer materials using a sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dennis; Rodrigues, Hugh; Kinsey, Charles; Korndörfer, Gaspar; Pereira, Hamilton; Buck, Guilherme; Datnoff, Lawrence; Miranda, Stephen; Provance-Bowley, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A 5-day method for determining the soluble silicon (Si) concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer products was developed using a sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)-ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis at 660 nm. The 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method can be applied to quantify the plant-available Si in solid fertilizer products at levels ranging from 0.2 to 8.4% Si with an LOD of 0.06%, and LOQ of 0.20%. This Si extraction method for fertilizers correlates well with plant uptake of Si (r2 = 0.96 for a range of solid fertilizers) and is applicable to solid Si fertilizer products including blended products and beneficial substances. Fertilizer materials can be processed as received using commercially available laboratory chemicals and materials at ambient laboratory temperatures. The single-laboratory validation of the 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method has been approved by The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials for testing nonliquid Si fertilizer products.

  15. Symmetric Extended Ockham Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S. Blyth; Jie Fang

    2003-01-01

    The variety eO of extended Ockham algebras consists of those algealgebra with an additional endomorphism k such that the unary operations f and k commute. Here, we consider the cO-algebras which have a property of symmetry. We show that there are thirty two non-isomorphic subdirectly irreducible symmetric extended MS-algebras and give a complete description of them.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06D15, 06D30

  16. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  17. An extended day program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a pilot project evaluation, carried out as an action investigation whose aim was to provide a better quality extended day for primary school students. The project included the training of teachers involved in extended day program, designing of special activities performed by teachers with children once a week as well as changes and equipping of premises where children stay. The aims of the program were conception and performance of activities in a less formal way than during regular instructional days, linking of learning at school and acquired knowledge to everyday experiences, and work on contents contributing to the development of child's interests and creativity. The program was accomplished in a Belgrade primary school during the 2001/2002 academic year, comprising students of 1st and 2nd grades (N=77. The effects of the program were monitored throughout the academic year (observation and teachers' reports on accomplished workshops and at the end of the academic year (teachers and students' opinions of the program, academic achievement and creativity of students attending the extended day program compared with students not attending it. Findings about positive effects of the program on students' broadening of interests and willingness to express themselves creatively, indicate unequivocally that there is a need for developing special extended day programs. The extended day program is an opportunity for school to exert greater educational influence that has yet to be tapped.

  18. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... from an undue focus on intra-academic debates; engage in author-itarian theoretical policing; feign relevance through symbolic radicalism; and repackage common sense. We take these critiques as an opportunity to offer an extended model of critical performativity that involves focusing on issues...

  19. Parameterization of extended systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The YJBK parameterization (of all stabilizing controllers) is extended to handle systems with additional sensors and/or actuators. It is shown that the closed loop transfer function is still an affine function in the YJBK parameters in the nominal case. Further, some closed-loop stability results...

  20. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  1. Introduction to Extended Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Donev, S

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the motivations and results obtained so far in the frame of a particular non-linearization of Classical Electrodynamics, which was called Extended Electrodynamics. The main purpose pursued with this non-linear extension of the classical Maxwell's equations is to have a reliable field-theoretical approach in describing (3+1) soliton-like electromagnetic formations, in particular, to build an extended and finite field model of free photons and photon complexes. The first chapter gives a corresponding analysis of Maxwell theory and introduces the new equations. The second chapter gives a full account of the results, including the photon-like solutions, in the vacuum case. A new concept, called scale factor, is defined and successfully used. Two ways for describing the intrinsic angular momentum are given. Interference of two photon-like solutions is also considered. The third chapter considers interaction with external fields (continuous media) on the base of establishing correspondence bet...

  2. Extended Theories of Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatibene Lorenzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of extended theories of gravitation we shall discuss physical equivalences among different formalisms and classical tests. As suggested by the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild framework, the conformal invariance will be preserved and its effect on observational protocols discussed. Accordingly, we shall review standard tests showing how Palatini f(R-theories naturally passes solar system tests. Observation protocols will be discussed in this wider framework.

  3. Extended Ensemble Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Iba, Yukito

    2000-01-01

    ``Extended Ensemble Monte Carlo''is a generic term that indicates a set of algorithms which are now popular in a variety of fields in physics and statistical information processing. Exchange Monte Carlo (Metropolis-Coupled Chain, Parallel Tempering), Simulated Tempering (Expanded Ensemble Monte Carlo), and Multicanonical Monte Carlo (Adaptive Umbrella Sampling) are typical members of this family. Here we give a cross-disciplinary survey of these algorithms with special emphasis on the great f...

  4. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  5. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  6. extendFromReads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-03

    This package assists in genome assembly. extendFromReads takes as input a set of Illumina (eg, MiSeq) DNA sequencing reads, a query seed sequence and a direction to extend the seed. The algorithm collects all seed--]matching reads (flipping reverse--]orientation hits), trims off the seed and additional sequence in the other direction, sorts the remaining sequences alphabetically, and prints them aligned without gaps from the point of seed trimming. This produces a visual display distinguishing the flanks of multi-]copy seeds. A companion script hitMates.pl collects the mates of seed--]hi]ng reads, whose alignment reveals longer extensions from the seed. The collect/trim/sort strategy was made iterative and scaled up in the script denovo.pl, for de novo contig assembly. An index is pre--]built using indexReads.pl that for each unique 21--]mer found in all the reads, records its gfateh of extension (whether extendable, blocked by low coverage, or blocked by branching after a duplicated sequence) and other characteristics. Importantly, denovo.pl records all branchings that follow a branching contig endpoint, providing contig-]extension information

  7. Inequalities of extended beta and extended hypergeometric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Saiful R

    2017-01-01

    We study the log-convexity of the extended beta functions. As a consequence, we establish Turán-type inequalities. The monotonicity, log-convexity, log-concavity of extended hypergeometric functions are deduced by using the inequalities on extended beta functions. The particular cases of those results also give the Turán-type inequalities for extended confluent and extended Gaussian hypergeometric functions. Some reverses of Turán-type inequalities are also derived.

  8. Extended Testability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.

  9. Extended associative memories

    OpenAIRE

    J.H Sossa Azuela; R. Barrón Fernández

    2007-01-01

    The #945; #946; associative memories recently developed in Ref 10 have proven to be powerful tools for memorizing and recalling patterns when they appear distorted by noise. However they are only useful in the binary case. In this paper we show that it is possible to extend these memories now to the gray-level case. To get the desired extension, we take the original operators #945; and #946;, foundation of the #945; #946; memories, and propose a more general family of operators. We find t...

  10. Branes in extended spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Sakatani, Yuho

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to the brane worldvolume theory based on the geometry of extended field theories; double field theory and exceptional field theory. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that one can reproduce the conventional bosonic string/membrane actions, and the M5-brane action in the weak field approximation. At a glance, the proposed 5-brane action without approximation looks different from the known M5-brane actions, but it is consistent with the known non-linear self-duality relation, and it may provide a new formulation of a single M5-brane action. Actions for exotic branes are also discussed.

  11. Efficacy and safety profile of combination of tramadol-diclofenac versus tramadol-paracetamol in patients with acute musculoskeletal conditions, postoperative pain, and acute flare of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a Phase III, 5-day open-label study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandanwale, Ajay S; Sundar, Subramanian; Latchoumibady, Kaliaperumal; Biswas, Swati; Gabhane, Mukesh; Naik, Manoj; Patel, Kamlesh

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of tramadol and diclofenac versus a standard approved FDC of tramadol and paracetamol, in patients with acute moderate to severe pain. Methods A total of 204 patients with moderate to severe pain due to acute musculoskeletal conditions (n=52), acute flare of osteoarthritis (n=52), acute flare of rheumatoid arthritis (n=50), or postoperative pain (n=50) were enrolled in the study at baseline. Each disease category was then randomized to receive either of two treatments for 5 days: group A received an FDC of immediate-release tramadol hydrochloride (50 mg) and sustained-release diclofenac sodium (75 mg) (one tablet, twice daily), and group B received an FDC of tramadol hydrochloride (37.5 mg) and paracetamol (325 mg) (two tablets every 4–6 hours, up to a maximum of eight tablets daily). The primary efficacy end points were reductions in pain intensity from baseline at day 3 and day 5 as assessed by a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score. Results Group A showed a significant reduction in the VAS score for overall pain from baseline on day 3 (P=0.001) and day 5 (P<0.0001) as compared with group B. The combination of tramadol-diclofenac resulted in few mild to moderate adverse events (nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and gastritis), which required minimal management, without any treatment discontinuation. The number of adverse events in group A was nine (8.82%) compared with 22 (21.78%) in group B, after 5 days of treatment. Conclusion An FDC of tramadol-diclofenac showed a significantly greater reduction in pain intensity and was well tolerated compared with tramadol-paracetamol, resulting in better analgesia in patients suffering from moderate to severe pain due to acute musculoskeletal conditions, postoperative pain following orthopedic surgery, or acute flare of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25152629

  12. [Tactics of treatment for extended burns of various affection depth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, O M

    2012-02-01

    Investigation was based on analysis of the treatment results of 75 children, suffering extended superficial and deep skin burns squared 15-30% of body surface. There was proved, that sequence of excision of superficial and deep necrotic scab influences the burn disease course. There was elaborated algorithm of sequence of the operative treatment stages in patients, suffering extended superficial skin burns, coexisting with deep burns, the superficial necrotic scab definitely, was excised after trauma and a deep one--in the second stage. The superficial and deep necrotic scab excision before 7-9th day after trauma have promoted significant reduction of the intoxication syndrome severity, the middle molecular mass peptides, indices of peroxidal oxidization of lipids, oxidizing modification of proteins, clinical signs of SIRS, rate of septic complications in 1.75 times, the stationary treatment time of severely ill patients by (7.2 +/- 1.5) days.

  13. Determining the inventory impact of extended-shelf-life platelets with a network simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, John T

    2017-09-06

    The regulatory shelf life for platelets (PLTs) in many jurisdictions is 5 days. PLT shelf life can be extended to 7 days with an enhanced bacterial detection algorithm. Enhanced testing, however, comes at a cost, which may be offset by reductions in wastage due to longer shelf life. This article describes a method for estimating systemwide reductions in PLT outdates after PLT shelf life is extended. A simulation was used to evaluate the impact of an extended PLT shelf life within a national blood network. A network model of the Canadian Blood Services PLT supply chain was built and validated. PLT shelf life was extended from 5 days to 6, 7, and 8 days and runs were completed to determine the impact on outdates. Results suggest that, in general, a 16.3% reduction in PLT wastage can be expected with each additional day that PLT shelf life is extended. Both suppliers and hospitals will experience fewer outdating units, but wastage will decrease at a faster rate at hospitals. No effect was seen by blood group, but there was some evidence that supplier site characteristics influences both the number of units wasted and the site's ability to benefit from extended-shelf-life PLTs. Extended-shelf-life PLTs will reduce wastage within a blood supply chain. At 7 days, an improvement of 38% reduction in wastage can be expected with outdates being equally distributed between suppliers and hospital customers. © 2017 AABB.

  14. Extending the MINLO method

    CERN Document Server

    Frederix, Rikkert

    2015-01-01

    We consider improving POWHEG+MINLO simulations, so as to also render them NLO accurate in the description of observables receiving contributions from events with lower parton multiplicity than present in their underlying NLO calculation. On a conceptual level we follow the strategy of the so-called MINLO' programs. Whereas the existing MINLO' framework requires explicit analytic input from higher order resummation, here we derive an effective numerical approximation to these ingredients, by imposing unitarity. This offers a way of extending the MINLO' method to more complex processes, complementary to the known route which uses explicit computations of high-accuracy resummation inputs. Specifically, we have focused on Higgs-plus-two-jet production (HJJ) and related processes. We also consider how one can cover three units of multiplicity at NLO accuracy, i.e. we consider how the HJJ-MINLO simulation may yield NLO accuracy for inclusive H, HJ, and HJJ quantities. We perform a feasibility study assessing the po...

  15. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  16. Extended Theories of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein's Theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in Astrophysics, Cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like Inflation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Large Scale Structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f (R)-gravity and scalar-tensor gravity in the metric and Pala...

  17. Extending over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Marie Herget

    Studies of general extenders (GEs), such as Eng. and stuff like that, or something, typically find that it is a feature of youth speech, sometimes correlated with sex and class (e.g. Dubois 1992, Stubbe and Holmes 1995, Cheshire 2007, Tagliamonte and Denis 2010, Pichler and Levey 2011), but only...... that variants with sådan noget, though prevalent across the board, may be stigmatized, since they are produced mainly by young WC males, and exhibit an overall drop in frequency over time. In our paper, we will use GEs in Danish as a case study for evaluating prevailing assumptions about the relationship...... few have a design enabling them to distinguish unequivocally between age grading and communal change. In this paper, we present the results of a large-scale study of GEs in Danish, based on Copenhagen data from the LANCHART corpus, encompassing speech from three age cohorts, of which two have been...

  18. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  19. Extended Ewald summation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylänpää, Ilkka; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-09-01

    We present a technique to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational labor in the calculation of long-range interactions in systems with periodic boundary conditions. We extend the well-known Ewald method by using a linear combination of screening Gaussian charge distributions instead of only one. This enables us to find faster converging real-space and reciprocal space summations. The combined simplicity and efficiency of our method is demonstrated, and the scheme is readily applicable to large-scale periodic simulations, classical as well as quantum. Moreover, apart from the required a priori optimization the method is straightforward to include in most routines based on the Ewald method within, e.g., density-functional, molecular dynamics, and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  20. Stars with Extended Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.

    2002-12-01

    This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA, Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the presented talks in written form as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Cees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.

  1. Can Asymmetry of Solar Activity be Extended into Extended Cycle?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the use of the Royal Greenwich Observatory data set of sunspot groups, an attempt is made to examine the north-south asymmetry of solar activity in the "extended" solar cycles. It is inferred that the asymmetry established for individual solar cycles does not extend to the "extended" cycles.

  2. Sepsis Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli: Comparison of Severity of Sepsis, Delay of Anti-Infective Therapy and ESBL Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Ivo; Kohler, Christian; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Gastmeier, Petra; Schwab, Frank; Kola, Axel; Deja, Maria; Leistner, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are associated with increased mortality. Outcome differences due to various species of ESBL-E or ESBL genotypes are not well investigated. We conducted a cohort study to assess risk factors for mortality in cases of ESBL-E bacteremia (K. pneumoniae or E. coli) and the risk factors for sepsis with organ failure. All consecutive patients of our institution from 2008 to 2011 with bacteremia due to ESBL-E were included. Basic epidemiological data, underlying comorbidities, origin of bacteremia, severity of sepsis and delay of appropriate anti-infective treatment were collected. Isolates were PCR-screened for the presence of ESBL genes and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases. Cox proportional hazard regression on mortality and multivariable logistic regression on risk factors for sepsis with organ failure was conducted. 219 cases were included in the analysis: 73.1% due to E. coli, 26.9% due to K. pneumoniae. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (ESBL-E. coli, 23.8% vs. ESBL-K. pneumoniae 27.1%, p = 0.724). However, the risk of sepsis with organ failure was associated in cases of K. pneumoniae bacteremia (OR 4.5, p<0.001) and patients with liver disease (OR 3.4, p = 0.004) or renal disease (OR 6.8, p<0.001). We found significant differences in clinical presentation of ESBL-E bacteremia due to K. pneumoniae compared to E. coli. As K. pneumoniae cases showed a more serious clinical presentation as E. coli cases and were associated with different risk factors, treatment and prevention strategies should be adjusted accordingly. PMID:27442425

  3. Piperacillin/tazobactam as an alternative antibiotic therapy to carbapenems in the treatment of urinary tract infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: an in silico pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guet-Revillet, Hélène; Tomini, Elise; Emirian, Aurélie; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Lécuyer, Hervé; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Jullien, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) as an alternative treatment to carbapenems for infections involving extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) remains debated. In this study, the probabilities of pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment with different TZP regimens in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) were evaluated in the context of pyelonephritis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 144 ESBL-Ec and 111 ESBL-Kp from pyelonephritis were measured, and two previously published population pharmacokinetic models were used to determine by Monte Carlo simulation the probabilities of reaching two PD targets (50%fT>MIC and 100%fT>MIC) with TZP doses of 4 g three times daily and 4.5 g four times daily given as short (1 h) or prolonged (4 h) infusions or as 12-18 g/day continuous infusions. Only MICs of the 133 ESBL-Ec and 74 ESBL-Kp strains susceptible to TZP according to inhibition zone diameter were considered for the simulations. Results were similar with the two models, and only prolonged and continuous infusions allowed to reach 50%fT>MIC with a probability of >90% irrespective of bacterial species. Continuous infusion and prolonged infusion combined with the maximum dosage were the only condition allowing to achieve 100%fT>MIC with a probability of >70% with this population of ESBL-Ec. A probability of >90% to reach 100%fT>MIC with ESBL-Kp could be obtained only with the 18 g/day continuous-infusion regimen. TZP may be used for treatment for mild pyelonephritis involving susceptible ESBL-Ec provided that administration modalities are optimised. Conversely, for ESBL-Kp the risk of treatment failure may be higher, supporting the use of continuous infusion.

  4. Sepsis Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli: Comparison of Severity of Sepsis, Delay of Anti-Infective Therapy and ESBL Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Christian; Gürntke, Stephan; Steinmetz, Ivo; Kohler, Christian; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Gastmeier, Petra; Schwab, Frank; Kola, Axel; Deja, Maria; Leistner, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are associated with increased mortality. Outcome differences due to various species of ESBL-E or ESBL genotypes are not well investigated. We conducted a cohort study to assess risk factors for mortality in cases of ESBL-E bacteremia (K. pneumoniae or E. coli) and the risk factors for sepsis with organ failure. All consecutive patients of our institution from 2008 to 2011 with bacteremia due to ESBL-E were included. Basic epidemiological data, underlying comorbidities, origin of bacteremia, severity of sepsis and delay of appropriate anti-infective treatment were collected. Isolates were PCR-screened for the presence of ESBL genes and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases. Cox proportional hazard regression on mortality and multivariable logistic regression on risk factors for sepsis with organ failure was conducted. 219 cases were included in the analysis: 73.1% due to E. coli, 26.9% due to K. pneumoniae. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (ESBL-E. coli, 23.8% vs. ESBL-K. pneumoniae 27.1%, p = 0.724). However, the risk of sepsis with organ failure was associated in cases of K. pneumoniae bacteremia (OR 4.5, pESBL-E bacteremia due to K. pneumoniae compared to E. coli. As K. pneumoniae cases showed a more serious clinical presentation as E. coli cases and were associated with different risk factors, treatment and prevention strategies should be adjusted accordingly.

  5. Extended chameleon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, Philippe; Tamanini, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    We extend the chameleon models by considering scalar-fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyze models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where interesting signatures might arise in the galaxy rotation curves.

  6. Chirally extended quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, R C; Tan, C I; Richard C Brower; Yue Shen; Chung-I Tan

    1994-01-01

    We propose an extended Quantum Chromodynamics (XQCD) Lagrangian in which the fermions are coupled to elementary scalar %\\sigma and \\pi fields through a Yukawa coupling which preserves chiral invariance. Our principle motivation is to find a new lattice formulation for QCD which avoids the source of critical slowing down usually encountered as the bare quark mass is tuned to the chiral limit. The phase diagram and the weak coupling limit for XQCD are studied. They suggest a conjecture that the continuum limit of XQCD is the same as the continuum limit of conventional lattice formulation of QCD. As examples of such universality, we present the large N solutions of two prototype models for XQCD, in which the mass of the spurious pion and sigma resonance go to infinity with the cut-off. Even if the universality conjecture turns out to be false, we believe that XQCD will still be useful as a low energy effective action for QCD phenomenology on the lattice. Numerical simulations are recommended to further investiga...

  7. On the extended loop calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Griego, J R

    1995-01-01

    Some features of extended loops are considered. In particular, the behaviour under diffeomorphism transformations of the wavefunctions with support on the extended loop space are studied. The basis of a method to obtain analytical expressions of diffeomorphism invariants via extended loops are settled. Applications to knot theory and quantum gravity are considered.

  8. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  9. Sequential necrotizing fasciitis caused by the monomicrobial pathogens Streptococcus equisimilis and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akiko; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressing bacterial infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue that is associated with a high mortality rate and is caused by a single species of bacteria or polymicrobial organisms. Escherichia coli is rarely isolated from patients with monomicrobial disease. Further, there are few reports of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli associated with necrotizing fasciitis. We report here our treatment of an 85-year-old man who was admitted because of necrotizing fasciitis of his right thigh. Streptococcus equisimilis was detected as a monomicrobial pathogen, and the infection was cured by amputation of the patient's right leg and the administration of antibiotics. However, 5 days after discontinuing antibiotic therapy, he developed necrotizing fasciitis on his right upper limb and died. ESBL-producing E. coli was the only bacterial species isolated from blood and skin cultures. This case demonstrates that ESBL-producing E. coli can cause monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis, particularly during hospitalization and that a different bacterial species can cause disease shortly after a previous episode.

  10. [Combined hormonal contraception in cycles artificially extended].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Alamilla, Edgardo; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Hernández-Ruiz, M A; Briones-Landa, Carlos Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To compare the bleeding patterns, satisfaction and tolerability of 3 different contraceptive in an extended regimens in the service of Family Planning of the North Central Hospital of PEMEX. Healthy, adult women with desire of contraception for one year (N 120) were randomly assigned to receive oral contraceptive drospirenone/ethinyl E2 (group1), the norelgestromin/ethinyl E2 transdermal patch (group 2) and vaginal ring etonogestrel/ ethinyl E2 (group 3) in an extended regimen (42 consecutive days, 1 hormone-free week). Study assessments were conducted at scheduled visits at the time of initial screening, at baseline after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Subjects recorded menstrual associated symptoms bleeding data and completed satisfaction questionnaires. Subjects and investigators provided overall assessments of the regimens. Extended use of 3 different contraceptive resulted in fewer bleeding days in every group (66.6%, 55% and 58.3% P 0.0024), and less mastalgia and menstrual pain. Subjects were highly satisfied with three regimens (93.3%, 96.6% and 91.6% P 0.00421). Although not mayor adverse events were reported with this regimen, there was an increase in spotting days; it decreased with each successive cycle of therapy. Efficacy and safety were similar to those reported for traditional cycle. Extended-contraceptive regimen delays menses and reduces bleeding, a profile that may be preferred by women who seek flexibility with their contraceptive method.

  11. Comparison of different methods to isolate 3.5-day and 4-day blastocysts from Kunming mice%昆明小鼠3.5d和4d囊胚不同分离方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓云; 徐绍业

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outbreed Kunming mice as the main experimental animals for natural science research in China have a lowsuccessful rate in establishment of embryonic stem cell line.OBJECTIVE: To explore the method of isolation and culture of murine embryonic stem cells and the best time to collect embryosof Kunming species.METHODS: Blastocysts obtained from 3.5-day and 4-day embryos after mating were treated with intact embryo cultivation andimmuosurgery. Inner cell masses were isolated and cultured on a feeder layer of mouse embryo fobroblasts (MEF). And colonygrowth was observed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Adherent rate of inner cell mass by inatact embryo cultural method were higher than those byimmunosurgical method from 4-day (P 0.05);全胚法培养4 d囊胚的内细胞团贴壁率显著高于免疫外科法(P < 0.05),但原代克隆形成率显著低于免疫外科法(P < 0.05);全胚法培养4 d囊胚的原代克隆形成率显著高于3.5 d囊胚(P < 0.05);免疫外科法分离4 d囊胚内细胞团的贴壁率和原代克隆形成率显著高于以同样方法分离培养的3.5 d囊胚(P < 0.05).结果显示用免疫外科法分离4 d囊胚更适合于昆明小鼠胚胎干细胞的体外分离培养.

  12. PASylation of Murine Leptin Leads to Extended Plasma Half-Life and Enhanced in Vivo Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morath, Volker; Bolze, Florian; Schlapschy, Martin; Schneider, Sarah; Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Seyfarth, Katrin; Klingenspor, Martin; Skerra, Arne

    2015-05-04

    Leptin plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis and appetite and, thus, has attracted attention for therapeutic approaches in spite of its limited pharmacological activity owing to the very short circulation in the body. To improve drug delivery and prolong plasma half-life, we have fused murine leptin with Pro/Ala/Ser (PAS) polypeptides of up to 600 residues, which adopt random coil conformation with expanded hydrodynamic volume in solution and, consequently, retard kidney filtration in a similar manner as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Relative to unmodified leptin, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering revealed an approximately 21-fold increase in apparent size and a much larger molecular diameter of around 18 nm for PAS(600)-leptin. High receptor-binding activity for all PASylated leptin versions was confirmed in BIAcore measurements and cell-based dual-luciferase assays. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed a much extended plasma half-life after ip injection, from 26 min for the unmodified leptin to 19.6 h for the PAS(600) fusion. In vivo activity was investigated after single ip injection of equimolar doses of each leptin version. Strongly increased and prolonged hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation was detected for PAS(600)-leptin. Also, a reduction in daily food intake by up to 60% as well as loss in body weight of >10% lasting for >5 days was observed, whereas unmodified leptin was merely effective for 1 day. Notably, application of a PASylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (SMLA) led to the opposite effects. Thus, PASylated leptin not only provides a promising reagent to study its physiological role in vivo but also may offer a superior drug candidate for clinical therapy.

  13. Delayed endoluminal vacuum therapy for rectal anastomotic leaks after rectal resection in a swine model: a new treatment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Shada, Amber; Ritter, Lane A; Mauro, David M; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Feldman, Sanford H; Kleiner, Daniel E

    2014-04-01

    Anastomotic leaks are a dreaded surgical complication following colorectal operations. Creation of a temporary proximal diverting ileostomy is used in high-risk anastomoses, however, additional surgical risk is accumulated with its creation and reversal. Endoluminal vacuum therapy has been shown to seal anastomotic defects in the prophylactic setting in a pig model and we hypothesized it could be utilized in a delayed fashion to rescue subjects with an active anastomotic leak. Yorkshire pigs underwent rectal resection, intentional leak confirmed by fluoroscopy, and endoluminal vacuum therapy device placement to low continuous suction. Following treatment, a contrast enema and necropsy was performed for gross and histopathology. Pigs underwent 2 (or 5) days of free intraperitoneal leak prior to device placement and 5 (or 7) subsequent days of endoluminal vacuum therapy. Six of seven early-treated pigs sealed their anastomotic defect, while two of the four treated pigs in this extended group sealed the defect. Endoluminal vacuum therapy is feasible and well tolerated in a pig model, and it has been shown to seal a significant number of freely leaking anastomoses in the early period (86%). This technology warrants further study as it may provide a noninvasive means to treatment of anastomotic leaks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. On core stability and extendability

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.

  15. On core stability and extendability

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.

  16. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  17. Nosocomial pneumonia : rationalizing the approach to empirical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriesse, Gunnar I; Verhoef, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) causes considerable morbidity and mortality. It is the second most common nosocomial infection and the leading cause of death from hospital-acquired infections. In 1996 the American Thoracic Society (ATS) published guidelines for empirical therapy of HAP. This review focuses on the literature that has appeared since the ATS statement. Early diagnosis of HAP and its etiology is crucial in guiding empirical therapy. Since 1996, it has become clear that differentiating mere colonization from etiologic pathogens infecting the lower respiratory tract is best achieved by employing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or protected specimen brush (PSB) in combination with quantitative culture and detection of intracellular microorganisms. Endotracheal aspirate and non-bronchoscopic BAL/PSB in combination with quantitative culture provide a good alternative in patients suspected of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Since culture results take 2-3 days, initial therapy of HAP is by definition empirical. Epidemiologic studies have identified the most frequently involved pathogens: Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus ('core pathogens'). Empirical therapy covering only the 'core pathogens' will suffice in patients without risk factors for resistant microorganisms. Studies that have appeared since the ATS statement issued in 1996, demonstrate several new risk factors for HAP with multiresistant pathogens. In patients with risk factors, empirical therapy should consist of antibacterials with a broader spectrum. The most important risk factors for resistant microorganisms are late onset of HAP (>/=5 days after admission), recent use of antibacterial therapy, and mechanical ventilation. Multiresistant bacteria of specific interest are methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and extended

  18. Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, Jennifer R; Bailey, Steffani R; Crew, Erin; Varady, Ann; Lembke, Anna; McFall, Danielle; Jeon, Anna; Killen, Diana; Killen, Joel D; David, Sean P

    2017-08-01

    To test the potential benefit of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to not extending CBT on long-term abstinence from smoking. Two-group parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive non-extended CBT (n = 111) or extended CBT (n = 112) following a 26-week open-label treatment. Community clinic in the United States. A total of 219 smokers (mean age: 43 years; mean cigarettes/day: 18). All participants received 10 weeks of combined CBT + bupropion sustained release (bupropion SR) + nicotine patch and were continued on CBT and either no medications if abstinent, continued bupropion + nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) if increased craving or depression scores, or varenicline if still smoking at 10 weeks. Half the participants were randomized at 26 weeks to extended CBT (E-CBT) to week 48 and half to non-extended CBT (no additional CBT sessions). The primary outcome was expired CO-confirmed, 7-day point-prevalence (PP) at 52- and 104-week follow-up. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. PP abstinence rates at the 52-week follow-up were comparable across non-extended CBT (40%) and E-CBT (39%) groups [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55, 1.78]. A similar pattern was observed across non-extended CBT (39%) and E-CBT (33%) groups at the 104-week follow-up (OR = 0.79; 95% CI= 0.44, 1.40). Prolonging cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. CAMERA-BASED SOFTWARE IN REHABILITATION/THERAPY INTERVENTION (extended)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Use of an affordable, easily adaptable, ‘non-specific camera-based software’ that is rarely used in the field of rehabilitation is reported in a study with 91 participants over the duration of six workshop sessions. ‘Non-specific camera-based software’ refers to software that is not dependent...... on specific hardware. Adaptable means that human tracking and created artefact interaction in the camera field of view is relatively easily changed as one desires via a user-friendly GUI. The significance of having both available for contemporary intervention is argued. Conclusions are that the mature, robust...

  20. CAMERA-BASED SOFTWARE IN REHABILITATION/THERAPY INTERVENTION (extended)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    on specific hardware. Adaptable means that human tracking and created artefact interaction in the camera field of view is relatively easily changed as one desires via a user-friendly GUI. The significance of having both available for contemporary intervention is argued. Conclusions are that the mature, robust...

  1. Anecdotal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikan, L E

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, many advances in medicine have been serendipitous. Are serendipitous and anecdotal synonymous? Many of our materia medica today relate to initial probes and anecdotal reports that matured to full investigation and therapeutic indications. The recent situation regarding Skin Cap is one that highlights the downside of this scenario. Several drugs in the US continue usage largely related to anecdotal indications, and anecdotal extension of legend indications is a standard for American Dermatology. The situation with systemic drugs, such as Trental, zinc preparations, imidazoles for extended indications, lysine and melatonin, all will be discussed. Topical preparations such as skin cap, cantharone, Vioform, all also are included in this category. It is important to place this topic in perspective in regards to geographic variation and therapeutic need. Many diseases lacking specific therapy are important targets for anecdotal therapy, and this will foster continued approaches in this area. The growing standardization of medicine and pharmaceutical regulation, threatens the anecdotal approach, but it provides still an important link to the future for some forms of therapy in diseases that are difficult to treat. Traditionally, the anecdote has been the first step in the therapeutic chain. Withering discovery of the benefits of the common fox glove in dropsy, was followed by many other anecdotes arriving via folk-medicine in the New World. This approach of utilizing folk medicine has now reached new heights, with very active searches by major pharmaceutical companies throughout the third world for remedies that may have potential. Couched with this is the history of anecdotal "snake-oil" remedies, that clearly had no benefit to anyone except the huckster marketing same. The excesses in this area of unproven and false therapies, led to the gradual organization of therapeutic trials and the Food and Drug Administration in the US as we know it today. The

  2. Quantum Mechanics of Extended Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Sastry, R R

    2000-01-01

    We propose a quantum mechanics of extended objects that accounts for the finite extent of a particle defined via its Compton wavelength. The Hilbert space representation theory of such a quantum mechanics is presented and this representation is used to demonstrate the quantization of spacetime. The quantum mechanics of extended objects is then applied to two paradigm examples, the fuzzy (extended object) harmonic oscillator and the Yukawa potential. In the second example the phenomenological coupling constant of the $\\omega$ meson which mediates the short range and repulsive nucleon force as well as the repulsive core radius are theoretically predicted.

  3. Extended scaling in high dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, B.; Chatelain, C.; Dhall, C.; Kenna, R.; Low, R.; Walter, J.-C.

    2008-11-01

    We apply and test the recently proposed 'extended scaling' scheme in an analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of Ising systems above the upper critical dimension. The data are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations using both the conventional Wolff cluster algorithm and the Prokof'ev-Svistunov worm algorithm. As already observed for other models, extended scaling is shown to extend the high-temperature critical scaling regime over a range of temperatures much wider than that achieved conventionally. It allows for an accurate determination of leading and sub-leading scaling indices, critical temperatures and amplitudes of the confluent corrections.

  4. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Tamanini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from $\\Lambda$CDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  5. Autophagy in photodynamic therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in human diseases. It is a highly ... visualized by transmission electron microscope. (TEM), and so it ... membrane structure named phagophore which extends and .... therapy and cell imaging. ... under oxidative stress. Biochim ...

  6. Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

  7. Extended gcd of quadratic integers

    CERN Document Server

    Miled, Abdelwaheb

    2010-01-01

    Computation of the extended gcd of two quadratic integers. The ring of integers considered is principal but could be euclidean or not euclidean ring. This method rely on principal ideal ring and reduction of binary quadratic forms.

  8. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...

  9. Extended New Generalized Lindley Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Shibu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider an extended version of new generalized Lindley distribution (NGLD. We refer to this new generalization as the extended new generalized Lindley distribution (ENGLD. A comprehensive account of the mathematical properties of the new distribution including estimation is presented. A real life data set is considered here to illustrate the relevance of the new model and compared it with other forms of Lindley models using method of moment estimation and method of maximum likelihood estimation.

  10. Predominance of healthcare-associated cases among episodes of community-onset bacteraemia due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Lesprit, Philippe; Ruckly, Stephane; Eden, Aurelia; Hikombo, Hitoto; Bernard, Louis; Harbarth, Stephan; Timsit, Jean-François; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are endemic pathogens worldwide. Infection with ESBL-PE may be associated with inadequate antibiotic therapy and a poor outcome. However, risk factors for ESBL-PE community-acquired infections are ill-defined. An observational multicentre study was performed in 50 hospitals to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for community-acquired ESBL-PE bacteraemia. All patients presenting with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia were recorded over a 2-month period (between June and November 2013). Risk factors and 14-day outcomes of patients were investigated. Among 682 Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia episodes recorded, 58 (8.5%) were caused by ESBL-PE. The most frequent species isolated were Escherichia coli (537; 76.7%) and Klebsiella spp. (68; 9.7%), of which 49 (9.1%) and 8 (11.8%), respectively, were ESBL-producers. Most ESBL-PE episodes were healthcare-associated, and only 22 (38%) were apparently community-acquired. The main risk factor for community-acquired ESBL-PE bacteraemia was a prior hospital stay of ≥5 days within the past year. The overall 14-day survival was 90%; only 4 (6.9%) of 58 patients with ESBL-PE bacteraemia died. Inadequate initial antibiotic therapy was administered to 55% of patients with ESBL-PE bacteraemia but was not associated with increased 14-day mortality. Although many patients had community-onset ESBL-PE bacteraemia, almost two-thirds of the episodes were actually healthcare-associated, and true community-acquired ESBL-PE bacteraemia remains rare. In our essentially non-severely ill population, inappropriate initial therapy was not associated with a higher risk of mortality.

  11. Reverse sequential therapy achieves a similar eradication rate as standard sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Feng-Woei; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Tsai, Tzung-Jium; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Peng, Nan-Jin; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-02-01

    Sequential therapy is a two-step therapy achieving a promising eradication rate for Helicobacter pylori infection. The rationale of sequential method has been proposed that amoxicillin weakens bacterial cell walls in the initial phase of treatment, preventing the development of drug efflux channels for clarithromycin and metronidazole used in the second phase. The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled study was to investigate whether the efficacy of reverse sequential therapy was noninferior to sequential therapy in the treatment of H. pylori infection. From January 2009 to December 2010, consecutive H. pylori-infected patients were randomly assigned to receive either sequential therapy (a 5-day dual therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin, followed by a 5-day triple therapy with pantoprazole plus clarithromycin and metronidazole) or reverse sequential therapy (a 5-day triple therapy with pantoprazole plus clarithromycin and metronidazole, followed by a 5-day dual therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin). H. pylori status was examined 6 weeks after the end of treatment by rapid urease and histology or urea breath test. One hundred and twenty-two H. pylori-infected participants were randomized to receive sequential (n = 60) or reverse sequential therapy (n = 62). The eradication rates, by intention-to-treat analysis, were similar: 91.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.1-98.7%) for sequential therapy and 96.7% (95% CI: 92.2-101.2%) for reverse sequential therapy (p = .44). Per-protocol analysis also showed similar results: 91.8% (95% CI: 84.9-98.7%) for sequential group and 96.7% (95% CI: 92.2-101.2%) for reverse sequential therapy (p = .43). The two treatments exhibited comparable frequencies of adverse events (11.3% vs 6.7%, respectively) and drug compliance (98.4% vs 100%, respectively). The overall resistance rates of antibiotics were clarithromycin 10.5%, amoxicillin 0%, and metronidazole 44.2% of patients, respectively. The dual

  12. Art Therapy Teaching as Performance Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint asserts that art therapy education is a form of performance art. By designing class sessions as performance artworks, art therapy educators can help their students become more fully immersed in their studies. This view also can be extended to conceptualizing each semester--and the entire art therapy curriculum--as a complex and…

  13. Art Therapy Teaching as Performance Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint asserts that art therapy education is a form of performance art. By designing class sessions as performance artworks, art therapy educators can help their students become more fully immersed in their studies. This view also can be extended to conceptualizing each semester--and the entire art therapy curriculum--as a complex and…

  14. Serum posaconazole levels among haematological cancer patients taking extended release tablets is affected by body weight and diarrhoea: single centre retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Marisa H; Perissinotti, Anthony J; Kauffman, Carol A; Couriel, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    The posaconazole extended release tablet formulation was developed to improve bioavailability relative to the oral suspension. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been used to optimise posaconazole dosing to achieve a target trough level ≥0.7 μg ml(-1). We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients with haematological malignancies who received posaconazole tablets for antifungal prophylaxis. Posaconazole serum trough levels were obtained 5 days after initiation of therapy. Mean trough level was 1.19 ± 0.63 μg ml(-1), and 71% achieved a trough level ≥0.7 μg ml(-1). Diarrhoea was associated with lower mean trough levels (0.65 ± 0.08 μg ml(-1) vs. 1.31 ± 0.13 μg ml(-1)), P = 0.002. Mean trough levels were lower in patients ≥90 kg (0.74 ± 0.09 μg ml(-1)) vs. Posaconazole delayed release tablets attain appropriate trough levels in most patients, but patients with a higher weight and those experiencing diarrhoea are more likely to have lower levels.

  15. Extended cognition in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia.

  16. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  17. EXTENDED MILD-SLOPE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虎; 丁平兴; 吕秀红

    2001-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism for surface waves and the mild-slope approximation were empolyed in handling the case of slowly varying three-dimensional currents and an uneven bottom, thus leading to an extended mild-slope equation. The bottom topography consists of two components: the slowly varying component whose horizontal length scale is longer than the surface wave length, and the fast varying component with the amplitude being smaller than that of the surface wave. The frequency of the fast varying depth component is, however, comparable to that of the surface waves. The extended mild- slope equation is more widely applicable and contains as special cases famous mild-slope equations below: the classical mild-slope equation of Berkhoff , Kirby' s mild-slope equation with current, and Dingemans' s mild-slope equation for rippled bed. The extended shallow water equations for ambient currents and rapidly varying topography are also obtained.

  18. Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco

    2015-06-01

    We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA).

  19. 5-Dimensional Extended Space Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tsipenyuk, D. Yu.; Andreev, V. A.

    2006-01-01

    We put forward an idea that physical phenomena have to be treated in 5-dimensional space where the fifth coordinate is the interval S. Thus, we considered the (1+4) extended space G(T;X,Y,Z,S). In addition to Lorentz transformations (T;X), (T;Y), (T;Z) which are in (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space, in the proposed (1+4)d extended space two other types of transformations exist in planes (T,S); (X,S), (Y,S), (Z,S) that converts massive particles into massless and vice versa. We also consider e...

  20. EXTENDED COLD STORAGE OF WINTER PEARS BY MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISES ZUCOLOTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP on the maintenance of fruit quality during the extended storage of ‘Rocha’ and ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears. Fruit were packed in linear low density polyethylene (100 mm, with 6% BIF 1500 additive placed into perforated plastic boxes and kept at 0 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for up to 180 days. MAP reduced weight loss by 14.8% for ‘Rocha’ and 11.5% for ‘Packham’s’ pears after 180 days in cold storage and retained the green color of the skin, which means that the yellowing visual perception was delayed in 60 and 90 days for ‘Rocha’ and ‘Packham’s’ pears, respectively. A strong softening was observed for ‘Packham’s’ pears after being kept for 150 days at 0° C followed by 5 days at room temperature, which did not limit the storage of both pear cultivars under modified atmosphere packaging. MAP created by linear low density polyethylene (100 mm, with 6% BIF 1500 additive extended in 30 days the cold storage for ‘Rocha’ and 60 days for ‘Packham’s’ pears.

  1. Low-level laser therapy: Case-control study in dogs with sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Perego

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a therapeutic photobiostimulation with properties in reducing swelling, inflammation, and promoting tissue healing. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate LLLT in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in five dogs. Materials and Methods: In each dog, one lesion was designated as the control (treated with a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray, and one or more other lesions were treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide-laser, daily for 5 days. Lesions were scored before treatment (D0, at the end (D4, 16 days after the last laser treatment (D20, and after 2 months (D65. Results: Comparing the treated lesion group with the control lesion group, the clinical score was similar at D0, whereas there was a statistically significant difference at D4 and D20; in the treated group over time, there was a statistically significant improvement between D0, D4, and D20. Lesion recurrence was absent in more than 50% of the treated lesions at D65. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Given the positive results of this first clinical study, it would be interesting to extend the study to confirm the validity of this type of therapy in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in the dog.

  2. Group Development: Extending Tuckman's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Mary F.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a framework for extending the Tuckman model of developmental sequence in small groups. Considers Tuckman's stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning lacking in descriptive depth and clear definition. Gathered and organized group dynamics graduate students' assessments of characteristics of stages over five-year…

  3. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  4. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  5. Offshore Extended Drillstem Testing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Hao

    1995-01-01

    @@ Bohai Corp. of CNOOC has started to study and working out the offshore extended drillstem testing system(OEDST) since 1991. Now the OEDST is worked out successfully, and approved on Feb. 15,1995. OEDST has some advantages, such as simple overall program and technological process,multiple and simple operation, easy for transporation ,and low cost with efficient result.

  6. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  7. Use of minimally invasive operation therapy with extended intramedullary nail on children with femoral fracture and deformity due to osteogenesis imperfecta%可延长髓内钉微创治疗成骨不全术后股骨再发畸形或骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房凤岭; 任秀智; 冯世庆; 李志良; 王风君; 袁桐强

    2013-01-01

    intramedullary nail.There were 13 males and 8 females,aged from 9 years and 6 months to 15 years and 7 months (average,12 years and 3 months).All children had been performed osteotomy on the shaft of femur and implanted with non-extendable nail before 2-4 years (average,3 years).All children had suffered refracture and deformity,including 9 children with femoral bending deformity and 12 with refracture.The deformity angle ranged from 10°to 30°,with an average of 15°.According to revised Sillence classifications,there were 6 cases with type Ⅲ and 14 with type Ⅳ and 1 case with type Ⅴ.Twenty-one patients were operated with extendable nail for fixing fracture and correcting deformity and incisions were 2-3 cm long and located on the great trochanter and distal osteotomy point.Results All of 21 children were followed up for 6-30 months (average,18 months).The bone healing time was 7-12 weeks (average,8.5 weeks).Patients started to walk after X-ray showing bone union.Parents of 21 children were satisfied with surgical operation effect and deformity correction.The Barthel index score improved from 72.85 (range,50-90 points) preoperatively to 91.42 (range,80-100 points) postoperatively at the latest follow-up of patients.WeeFIM index score increased from preoperative average of 55.42 points (range,40-70points) to postoperative average 79.00 points (range,70-86 points).Ten of all children with stick aid preoperative could walk independently after small incision repairing,and 6 of all children in sickbed preoperative,4 of 6 children could walk independently,2 of 6 children could walk with stick aid.Conclusion Small incision repair with extended intramedullary nail operation therapy is advantaged.It gets less bloody,less damages,less pain,less healing time and walking after removing plaster.

  8. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  9. Lyapunov modes in extended systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Liu; Radons, Günter

    2009-08-28

    Hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which have recently been observed in many extended systems with translational symmetry, such as hard sphere systems, dynamic XY models or Lennard-Jones fluids, are nowadays regarded as fundamental objects connecting nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics. We review here our recent results on Lyapunov modes in extended system. The solution to one of the puzzles, the appearance of good and 'vague' modes, is presented for the model system of coupled map lattices. The structural properties of these modes are related to the phase space geometry, especially the angles between Oseledec subspaces, and to fluctuations of local Lyapunov exponents. In this context, we report also on the possible appearance of branches splitting in the Lyapunov spectra of diatomic systems, similar to acoustic and optical branches for phonons. The final part is devoted to the hyperbolicity of partial differential equations and the effective degrees of freedom of such infinite-dimensional systems.

  10. Elderly diabetic patient with surgical site mucormycosis extending to bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul K Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is rare in clinical practice. Most infections are acquired by inhalation; other portals of entry are traumatic implantation and ingestion in immunocompromised host. Mucormycosis is life threatening infection in immunocompromised host with variable moratlity ranging from 15 -81% depending upon site of infection. General treatment principles include early diagnosis, correction of underlying immunosuppression and metabolic disturbances, adequate surgical debridement along with amphotericin therapy. We describe surgical site mucormycosis extended to involve large bowel in elderly diabetic patient.

  11. Effect of mirror therapy on upper extremity motor function in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gurbuz, Nigar; Afsar, Sevgi Ikbali; Ayaş, Sehri; Cosar, Sacide Nur Saracgil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy combined with a conventional rehabilitation program on upper extremity motor and functional recovery in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one hemiplegic patients were included. The patients were randomly assigned to a mirror (n=16) or conventional group (n=15). The patients in both groups underwent conventional therapy for 4 weeks (60–120 minutes/day, 5 days/week). The mirror group received mirror therapy,...

  12. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  13. An Extended Particle Swarm Optimizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun-jie; XIN Zhan-hong

    2005-01-01

    An Extended Particle Swarm Optimizer (EPSO) is proposed in this paper. In this new algorithm, not only the local but also the global best position will impact the particle's velocity updating process. EPSO is an integration of Local Best paradigm (LBEST) and Global Best paradigm (GBEST) and it significantly enhances the performance of the conventional particle swarm optimizers. The experiment results have proved that EPSO deserves to be investigated.

  14. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...

  15. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eivind Grip, Fjær,; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...

  16. Renormalization of Extended QCD$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Extended QCD (XQCD) proposed by Kaplan [1] is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of two-dimensional (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of large number of colors Nc, to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low energy region.

  17. Extended UML with Role Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    UML is widely accepted and applied by the international softwareindus try. UML is a powerful language for Object-oriented modeling, designing, and i m plementing software systems, but its Use-Case method for requirement analysis a n d modeling software patterns has some explicit drawbacks. For more complete UML, this paper proposes the Role Use-Case modeling and its glyphs, and provides an instance of requirement analysis using Role Use-Case method. Uses the Role Mode l to modeling software pattern at knowledge level. This paper also extends the UM L Meta Model and accentuates “RM before UML's class Modeling”.

  18. Extended suicide with a pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases.

  19. Pramipexole extended release in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hametner, Eva-Maria; Seppi, Klaus; Poewe, Werner

    2011-09-01

    Pramipexole extended release (ER) is a new once-daily formulation of pramipexole, a nonergot dopamine agonist, which is available in five dosage strengths: 0.26 (0.375) mg, 0.52 (0.75) mg, 1.05 (1.5) mg, 2.1 (3) mg and 3.15 (4.5) mg (all doses are expressed in terms of pramipexole base and the corresponding dose strengths of pramipexole salt are given in brackets). Pramipexole ER is currently approved as monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as an adjunct therapy to levodopa in advanced PD. Compared with the immediate release (IR) formulation, the ER formulation offers several advantages, including the potential for improved compliance owing to its simple once-daily dosing regimen and steadier plasma levels over 24 h. Double-blind, randomized, placebo and active comparator controlled trials in early, as well as advanced PD, established the superiority of both pramipexole ER and IR over placebo. The overnight switch from pramipexole IR three times a day to ER once-daily in early PD has been shown to be successful in more than 80% of patients. Pramipexole ER is well tolerated, with a similar adverse event profile to pramipexole IR. The aim of this article is to provide a short review of the most relevant pharmacological and clinical data on pramipexole ER.

  20. Successful thrombolysis of major pulmonary embolism 5 days after lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Jens; Licht, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive intravenous thrombolysis of pulmonary emboli after major thoracic surgery has rarely been reported and is controversial because of an assumed risk of fatal bleeding. We report a 62-year old female who underwent left upper lobectomy. Her postoperative course was complicated...... with symptomatic pulmonary embolism and on postoperative day 5 she was successfully treated with intravenous thrombolysis using alteplase (Actilyse(®)) without signs of bleeding. She was discharged from the hospital 12 days postoperatively....

  1. Extended recombinant bacterial ghost system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, W; Witte, A; Eko, F O; Kamal, M; Jechlinger, W; Brand, E; Marchart, J; Haidinger, W; Huter, V; Felnerova, D; Stralis-Alves, N; Lechleitner, S; Melzer, H; Szostak, M P; Resch, S; Mader, H; Kuen, B; Mayr, B; Mayrhofer, P; Geretschläger, R; Haslberger, A; Hensel, A

    1999-08-20

    Controlled expression of cloned PhiX174 gene E in Gram-negative bacteria results in lysis of the bacteria by formation of an E-specific transmembrane tunnel structure built through the cell envelope complex. Bacterial ghosts from a variety of bacteria are used as non-living candidate vaccines. In the recombinant ghost system, foreign proteins are attached on the inside of the inner membrane as fusions with specific anchor sequences. Ghosts have a sealed periplasmic space and the export of proteins into this space vastly extends the capacity of ghosts or recombinant ghosts to function as carriers of foreign antigens. In addition, S-layer proteins forming shell-like self assembly structures can be expressed in candidate vaccine strains prior to E-mediated lysis. Such recombinant S-layer proteins carrying foreign epitopes further extend the possibilities of ghosts as carriers of foreign epitopes. As ghosts have inherent adjuvant properties, they can be used as adjuvants in combination with subunit vaccines. Subunits or other ligands can also be coupled to matrixes like dextran which are used to fill the internal lumen of ghosts. Oral, aerogenic or parenteral immunization of experimental animals with recombinant ghosts induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses against bacterial and target components including protective mucosal immunity. The most relevant advantage of recombinant bacterial ghosts as immunogens is that no inactivation procedures that denature relevant immunogenic determinants are employed in this production. This fact explains the superior quality of ghosts when compared to other inactivated vaccines. The endotoxic component of the outer membrane does not limit the use of ghosts as vaccine candidates but triggers the release of several potent immunoregulatory cytokines. As carriers, there is no limitation in the size of foreign antigens that can be inserted in the membrane and the capacity of all spaces including the membranes, peri

  2. USE OF ALTERNATIVE EXTENDERS AND TEMPERATURES IN LONG TERM STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Raquel Santos Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate extenders is important for the success of an artificial insemination program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative extenders for swine semen at different temperatures (17 to 10 °C. The following extenders were used: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, powdered coconut water (ACP-103®, and skimmed milk powder (LPD. The 50 ejaculates were analyzed daily, in natura and after dilution, during the 5-day period of semen preservation  (D0 to D4, regarding spermatic vigor and motility. Acrosome integrity and sperm viability were evaluated on D0 and D4. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Students, Tukey and chi-square tests (p<0.05. The LPD extender at 10 °C presented higher motility and sperm vigor compared to BTS and ACP until D2, and to treatments stored at 17 °C. Acrosome vitality and integrity remained higher (p<0.001 with LPD at 10 °C on D0 and D4. LPD showed to be a good extender for the swine semen at lower temperature (10 °C. Furthermore, it provided better protection to sperm cells, by allowing greater integrity and vitality of the acrosome. Keywords: coconut water; conservation; skimmed milk; semen boar.

  3. Dicyanometallates as Model Extended Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report the structures of eight new dicyanometallate frameworks containing molecular extra-framework cations. These systems include a number of hybrid inorganic–organic analogues of conventional ceramics, such as Ruddlesden–Popper phases and perovskites. The structure types adopted are rationalized in the broader context of all known dicyanometallate framework structures. We show that the structural diversity of this family can be understood in terms of (i) the charge and coordination preferences of the particular metal cation acting as framework node, and (ii) the size, shape, and extent of incorporation of extra-framework cations. In this way, we suggest that dicyanometallates form a particularly attractive model family of extended frameworks in which to explore the interplay between molecular degrees of freedom, framework topology, and supramolecular interactions. PMID:27057759

  4. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  5. Learning Extended Finite State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.

  6. Object-Extended OLAP Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Gu, Junmin; Shoshani, Arie

    2009-01-01

    inherent in data in non-standard applications are not accommodated well by OLAP systems. In contrast, object database systems are built to handle such complexity, but do not support OLAP-type querying well. This paper presents the concepts and techniques underlying a flexible, "multi-model" federated...... system that enables OLAP users to exploit simultaneously the features of OLAP and object systems. The system allows data to be handled using the most appropriate data model and technology: OLAP systems for dimensional data and object database systems for more complex, general data. This allows data...... analysis on the OLAP data to be significantly enriched by the use of additional object data. Additionally, physical integration of the OLAP and the object data can be avoided. As a vehicle for demonstrating the capabilities of the system, a prototypical OLAP language is defined and extended to naturally...

  7. The Limits of Extended Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Nesseris, S

    2006-01-01

    We use a low redshift expansion of the cosmological equations of extended (scalar-tensor) quintessence to divide the observable Hubble history parameter space in four sectors: A forbidden sector I where the scalar field of the theory becomes imaginary (the kinetic term becomes negative), a forbidden sector II where the scalar field rolls up (instead of down) its potential, an allowed `freezing' quintessence sector III where the scalar field is currently decelerating down its potential towards freezing and an allowed `thawing' sector IV where the scalar field is currently accelerating down its potential. The dividing lines between the sectors depend sensitively on the time derivatives of the Newton's constant G over powers of the Hubble parameter. For minimally coupled quintessence which appears as a special case for a constant G our results are consistent with previous studies. Observable parameter \\chi^2 contours based on current data (SNLS dataset) are also constructed on top of the sectors, for a prior of ...

  8. Extended class of phenomenological universalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molski, Marcin

    2017-08-01

    The phenomenological universalities (PU) are extended to include quantum oscillatory phenomena, coherence and supersymmetry. It will be proved that this approach generates minimum uncertainty coherent states of time-dependent oscillators, which in the dissociation (classical) limit reduce to the functions describing growth (regression) of the systems evolving over time. The PU formalism can be applied also to construct the coherent states of space-dependent oscillators, which in the dissociation limit produce cumulative distribution functions widely used in probability theory and statistics. A combination of the PU and supersymmetry provides a convenient tool for generating analytical solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation with the drift term related to the different forms of potential energy function. The results obtained reveal existence of a new class of macroscopic quantum (or quasi-quantum) phenomena, which may play a vital role in coherent formation of the specific growth patterns in complex systems.

  9. Extended Klein edges in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kuang; Robertson, Alex W; Lee, Sungwoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Gun-Do; Warner, Jamie H

    2014-12-23

    Graphene has three experimentally confirmed periodic edge terminations, zigzag, reconstructed 5-7, and arm-chair. Theory predicts a fourth periodic edge of graphene called the extended Klein (EK) edge, which consists of a series of single C atoms protruding from a zigzag edge. Here, we confirm the existence of EK edges in both graphene nanoribbons and on the edge of bulk graphene using atomic resolution imaging by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the EK edge stems from sputtering and reconstruction of the zigzag edge. Density functional theory reveals minimal energy for EK edge reconstruction and bond distortion both in and out of plane, supporting our TEM observations. The EK edge can now be included as the fourth member of observed periodic edge structures in graphene.

  10. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  11. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be credentialed by the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Family therapy is often short term. ... challenging situations in a more effective way. References Marriage and family therapists: The friendly mental health professionals. American Association ...

  12. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of estrogen therapy relieve vaginal dryness. • Systemic estrogen protects against the bone loss that occurs early in menopause and helps prevent hip and spine fractures. • Combined estrogen and progestin therapy may reduce the risk of ...

  13. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the area is stitched shut. Another treatment, called proton-beam radiation therapy , focuses the radiation on the ... after radiation treatment ends. Sore mouth and tooth decay. If you received radiation therapy to the head ...

  14. Electroconvulsive therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007474.htm Electroconvulsive therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) uses an electric current to treat depression ...

  15. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IMRT) Brain Tumor Treatment Brain Tumors Prostate Cancer Lung Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Head and Neck Cancer Images related to Proton Therapy Videos related to Proton Therapy Sponsored by Please ...

  16. Feminist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Toni; Malmo, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Traces roots of feminist therapy and its independence from traditional and prevalent theories and therapy practices. Asserts that Freudian theory and humanistic assumptions are sexist and contribute to powerlessness of women. In contrast, feminist therapy is seen as dealing directly with client-counselor relationships, trust, advocacy, and…

  17. Technological Packages Extended To Farmers by Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... crops were the significant crop production technologies extended in the study area. ... Modern snailery was the only identified agro forestry technology extended, ...

  18. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  19. Recovery of hand function with robot-assisted therapy in acute stroke patients: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Patrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Lombardi, Valentina; Galafate, Daniele; Massimiani, Maria P; Posteraro, Federico; Damiani, Carlo; Franceschini, Marco

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, not many studies on the use of robot-assisted therapy to recover hand function in acute stroke patients have been carried out. This randomized-controlled observer trial is aimed at evaluating the effects of intensive robot-assisted hand therapy compared with intensive occupational therapy in the early recovery phases after stroke with a 3-month follow-up. Twenty acute stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled and randomized into two groups. The experimental treatment was performed using the Amadeo Robotic System. Control treatment, instead, was carried out using occupational therapy executed by a trained physiotherapist. All participants received 20 sessions of treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week). The following clinical scales, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM), Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles) (MRC), Motricity Index (MI) and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (MAS), were performed at baseline (T0), after 20 sessions (end of treatment) (T1) and at the 3-month follow-up (T2). The Barthel Index was assessed only at T0 and T1. Evidence of a significant improvement was shown by the Friedman test for the FM [experimental group (EG): P=0.0039, control group (CG): Probot-assisted treatment on hand recovery functions in individuals with acute stroke. The robotic rehabilitation treatment may contribute toward the recovery of hand motor function in acute stroke patients. The positive results obtained through the safe and reliable robotic rehabilitation treatment reinforce the recommendation to extend it to a larger clinical practice.

  20. Extending Characters on Fix Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A dynamical system is a triple $(A,G,\\alpha)$, consisting of a unital locally convex algebra $A$, a topological group $G$ and a group homomorphism $\\alpha:G\\rightarrow\\Aut(A)$, which induces a continuous action of $G$ on $A$. Further, a unital locally convex algebra $A$ is called continuous inverse algebra, or CIA for short, if its group of units $A^{\\times}$ is open in $A$ and the inversion $\\iota:A^{\\times}\\rightarrow A^{\\times},\\,\\,\\,a\\mapsto a^{-1}$ is continuous at $1_A$. For a compact manifold $M$, the Fr\\'echet algebra of smooth functions $C^{\\infty}(M)$ is the prototype of such a continuous inverse algebra. We show that if $A$ is a complete commutative CIA, $G$ a compact group and $(A,G,\\alpha)$ a dynamical system, then each character of $B:=A^G$ can be extended to a character of $A$. In particular, the natural map on the level of the corresponding spectra $\\Gamma_A\\rightarrow\\Gamma_B$, $\\chi\\mapsto\\chi_{\\mid B}$ is surjective.

  1. The motivation behind extended suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kuruc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of motivation of suicidal behaviour in cases of so-called extended suicide is of great importance from a forensic-psychological viewpoint. The initiator of such action is often a person suffering from endogenous depression. The motives behind successful suicide are generally not known. This paper aims to demonstrate the motives behind the successful suicide, less frequent in our conditions, of two family members – a father and a son. The case has been thoroughly analysed by morphological methods with the help of additional laboratory tests. At the centre was a suicide letter which was hidden in a very unusual way and which was elucidated only thanks to autopsy of both persons. The manner of realisation – hanging – was among the most frequent in the region and in the state too. The men were not under the influence of any toxic substances. The motivation behind the suicide was an escape from hard living conditions.

  2. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    CERN Document Server

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  3. Empirical therapy of bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae%产超广谱β-内酰胺酶肠杆菌科细菌血流感染的经验性治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤陈琪; 李骏强; 夏照帆; 王慧; 吕开阳; 肖仕初; 邓安梅; 黄怡

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical outcomes and costs associated with carbapenems and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs) for the empirical treatment of patients with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections (BSIs).Methods The medical records of individuals diagnosed with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae BSIs between January 2014 and June 2015 at Changhai Hospital were reviewed.Patients were divided into two groups based on the empirical therapy (carbapenems group and BLBLIs group).Propensity score matching in a 1∶1 ratio was used to match the patients from two groups.Clinical outcomes and costs were compared before and after matching.Results One hundred and fifty-eight patients were analyzed,93 in the carbapenems group and 65 in the BLBLIs group.Before matching,the two groups were significantly different in department distribution,tumor rate,deep vein catheter rate,urinary catheter rate,nasogastric tube rate,and mechanical ventilation rate (all P < 0.05),and the carbapenems group had longer total length of stay (LOS) and post-BSI LOS (26.0 vs 18.0 d,P=0.029 and 12.0 vs 10.0 d,P=0.044),higher hospital cost and daily hospital cost (84120 vs 39000 (¥),P < 0.001 and 3451 vs 2574 (¥),P =0.002).After matching,the two groups had no significant differences in covariates such as sex,age,department distribution,pathogens,comorbidities,invasive interventions,LOS before BSI,multiple admissions,surgical rate during hospitalization and delayed antimicrobial therapy (all P > 0.05).Finally,there were no differences between two groups in mortality,post-BSI LOS,total LOS,hospital cost and antimicrobial cost (all P > 0.05).Conclusion BLBLIs may provide a reasonable carbapenem-sparing option for the empirical treatment of ESBL producers.%目的 分析产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBL)肠杆菌科细菌血流感染患者经验性使用碳青霉烯类药物和酶抑制剂合

  4. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  5. Strategies in Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain cancer, with a dismal prognosis and extremely low percentage of survivors. Novel therapies are in dire need to improve the clinical management of these tumors and extend patient survival. Genetic therapies for GBM have been postulated and attempted for the past twenty years, with variable degrees of success in pre-clinical models and clinical trials. Here we review the most common approaches to treat GBM by gene therapy, including strate...

  6. Effects of Extended-Release Niacin and Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant on the Pharmacokinetics of Simvastatin in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauring, Brett; Dishy, Victor; De Kam, Pieter-Jan; Crumley, Tami; Wenning, Larissa; Liu, Fang; Sisk, Christine; Wagner, John; Lai, Eseng

    2015-01-01

    The use of multiple lipid-modifying agents with different mechanisms of action is often required to regulate lipid levels in patients with dyslipidemia. During combination therapy, alterations in the pharmacokinetics of any of the drugs used and their metabolites may occur. Three separate open-label, randomized, crossover studies evaluated the potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between extended-release niacin (with and without concomitant laropiprant) and simvastatin in healthy subjects. Study 1 used single doses of extended-release niacin and simvastatin; study 2 used multiple-dose coadministration of extended-release niacin/laropiprant and simvastatin in healthy subjects; and study 3 used single doses of both extended-release niacin and the coadministration of extended-release niacin/laropiprant and simvastatin in healthy Chinese subjects. During each treatment period, plasma samples were collected predose and at prespecified postdose time points for pharmacokinetic analyses. The safety and tolerability of simvastatin with and without coadministered extended-release niacin (or extended-release niacin/laropiprant) were assessed by clinical evaluation of adverse experiences. In 2 studies in healthy subjects, modest increases in exposure to simvastatin acid (by ∼60%) by extended-release niacin and extended-release niacin/laropiprant were observed. Based on the clinical experience with simvastatin, these effects are not believed to be clinically meaningful. In the third study on healthy Chinese subjects, no statistically meaningful increases in exposure to simvastatin by extended-release niacin and extended-release niacin/laropiprant were observed. In all populations examined in these studies, the coadministration of extended-release niacin and simvastatin was generally well tolerated.

  7. Extended-stay rounds can help move patients along.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Weekly extended stay rounds help move along patients who have issues and barriers to a timely discharge, experts say. They recommend: Hold them at the same time and place each week and schedule an hour to an hour and a half for each meeting. Include the physician advisor for case management, a financial counselor, and representatives from case management, social work, therapy, nutrition, pharmacy, wound care, and other departments providing services to patients. Talk about the barriers and issues impeding discharge and brainstorm on solutions.

  8. Evaluation of Four Commercially Available Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Phenotypic Confirmation Tests

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in members of the Enterobacteriaceae can confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, and penicillin. As such, the accurate detection of ESBL producers is essential for the appropriate selection of antibiotic therapy. Twenty previously characterized isolates and 49 clinical isolates suspected of ESBL production were tested by four ESBL phenotypic confirmatory methods for accuracy and ease of use. The four ESBL phenotypic ...

  9. Oral azithromycin in extended dosage schedule for chronic, subclinical Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease: a probable cure in sight? Results of a controlled preliminary trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaideep DograPoly Clinic, Central Government Health Scheme, Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaPurpose: Two mega trials have raised the question as to whether the hypothesis that infection plays a role in atherosclerosis is still relevant. This controlled preliminary trial investigated an extended dose of azithromycin in the treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease (CAD.Patients and methods: Forty patients with documentary evidence of CAD were screened for immunoglobulin G titers against C. pneumoniae and grouped into either the study group (patients with positive titer, n = 32 or control group (patients with negative titer, n = 8. Cases who met inclusion criteria could not have had coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention in the preceding 6 months. Informed consent was obtained from every patient. Baseline blood samples were analyzed for red blood cell indices, serum creatinine, and liver function tests, and repeated every 2 months. A primary event was defined as the first occurrence of death by any cause, recurrent myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, or hospitalization for angina. Patients in the study group received 500 mg of oral azithromycin once daily for 5 days, which was then repeated after a gap of 10 days (total of 24 courses in the 1-year trial period. The control group did not have azithromycin added to their standard CAD treatment.Results: In the study group, 30 patients completed the trial. Two patients had to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in the initial first quarter of the 1-year trial period. In the control group, one patient died during the trial, one had to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and one had percutaneous coronary intervention.Conclusion: The patients tolerated the therapy well and there was a positive correlation between azithromycin and secondary prevention of CAD.Keywords: azithromycin, Chlamydia pneumoniae

  10. Efficacy of Mirror Therapy Containing Functional Tasks in Poststroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae; Yoo, Jeehyun; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Hwang, Hye-Jung

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of mirror therapy containing functional tasks on upper extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with subacute stroke. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the mirror therapy group (30 patients) and the sham therapy group (30 patients). The mirror therapy group underwent a mirror therapy program together with conventional therapy for 20 minutes per day on 5 days per week for 4 weeks. The control group received a sham conventional therapy program under the same schedule as the mirror therapy group. The Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment (FMA), Brunnstrom motor recovery stage, and Modified Barthel Index (MBI) were evaluated 4 weeks after the treatment. The upper extremity function on the affected side and ability to perform daily life activities after the intervention were significantly improved in both groups. After 4 weeks of intervention, improvements in the FMA (p=0.027) and MBI (p=0.041) were significantly greater in the mirror therapy group than the sham therapy group. In this study, we found that the mirror therapy containing functional task was effective in terms of improving the upper extremity functions and activities of daily living in patients with subacute stroke.

  11. Two Methods for Extending Quantum Key Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Min; LIAO Chang-jun; LIU Song-hao

    2006-01-01

    Because the rates of quantum key distribution systems are too low,the interleaving technique and interpolation technique are used to extend the capacity of the quantum key warehouse to increase the quantum key rates of quantum secure communication systems. the simulation technique can extend random sequences and that their randomness are invariable. The correlative theory and technique of digital singal processing is an effective method of extending the quantum dey warehouse.

  12. Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oncol . 2004;5:497-508. Hopper C. Photodynamic therapy: a clinical reality in the treatment of cancer. Lancet Oncol . 2000;1:212-219. Huang Z. A review of progress in clinical photodynamic therapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat . 2005;4:283-293. ...

  13. Sweat Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  14. The X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.

  15. Extending models for two-dimensional constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Random fields in two dimensions may be specified on 2 times 2 elements such that the probabilities of finite configurations and the entropy may be calculated explicitly. The Pickard random field is one example where probability of a new (non-boundary) element is conditioned on three previous...... elements. To extend the concept we consider extending such a field such that a vector or block of elements is conditioned on a larger set of previous elements. Given a stationary model defined on 2 times 2 elements, iterative scaling is used to define the extended model. The extended model may be used...

  16. Lévy Bases and Extended Subordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole

    The concept of subordination of Lévy processes is reinterpreted and then extended to a definition of subordination of Lévy bases. This is extended a step further, and then applied to give an alternative way of volatility/intermittency modulation in the context of ambit fields.......The concept of subordination of Lévy processes is reinterpreted and then extended to a definition of subordination of Lévy bases. This is extended a step further, and then applied to give an alternative way of volatility/intermittency modulation in the context of ambit fields....

  17. Report on Extended Campus Library Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Sally Ann; And Others

    This report presents the results of a study of the Extended Campus Library Services program at Western Kentucky University (WKU), which was conducted by a committee appointed by the Director of University Libraries. A description of the program's goals and objectives is followed by a review of the extended campus programs in relation to similar…

  18. 38 CFR 21.74 - Extended evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.74 Extended evaluation. (a) General. An extended evaluation may be... concurrence of the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (VR&E) Officer before approving the extension of...

  19. Evaluation of Kentucky's Extended School Services Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Schumacher, Debbie; Hauser, Brenda

    The Extended School Services (ESS) program was established in 1990 as part of the Kentucky Education Reform Act. The program extends the school day, week, or year for students at risk of academic failure, providing them with additional instructional time to help them meet academic goals. An evaluation of ESS in 2001 utilized statewide surveys and…

  20. Big Gods: Extended prosociality or group binding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Luke W

    2016-01-01

    Big Gods are described as having a "prosocial" effect. However, this conflates parochialism (group cohesion) with cooperation extended to strangers or out-group members. An examination of the cited experimental studies indicates that religion is actually associated with increased within-group parochialism, rather than extended or universal prosociality, and that the same general mechanisms underlie both religious and secular effects.

  1. Teaching the Extended Modifier: A Transformational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Offers a practical model for teaching the extended modifier that is economical and linguistically sound, based on the insights and methodology of transformational generative grammar. Five transformational rules are given for generating extended modifiers from relative clauses. Examples of transformations and two class exercises in German are also…

  2. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  3. Extended BRST quantization in general coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Nersessian, A B

    2002-01-01

    We propose an extended BRST invariant Lagrangian quantization scheme of general gauge theories based on explicit realization of "modified triplectic algebra" in general coordinates. All the known Lagrangian quantization schemes based on the extended BRST symmetry are obtained by specifying the (free) parameters of that method.

  4. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  5. 42 CFR 488.310 - Extended survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extended survey. 488.310 Section 488.310 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.310 Extended survey. (a) Purpose of survey. The purpose of an...

  6. Constructing Extended Formulations from Reflection Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Kaibel, Volker

    2010-01-01

    There are many examples of optimization problems whose associated polyhedra can be described much nicer, and with way less inequalities, by projections of higher dimensional polyhedra than this would be possible in the original space. However, currently not many general tools to construct such extended formulations are available. In this paper, we develop a framework of polyhedral relations that generalizes inductive constructions of extended formulations via projections, and we particularly elaborate on the special case of reflection relations. The latter ones provide polynomial size extended formulations for several polytopes that can be constructed as convex hulls of the unions of (exponentially) many copies of an input polytope obtained via sequences of reflections at hyperplanes. We demonstrate the use of the framework by deriving small extended formulations for the G-permutahedra of all finite reflection groups G (generalizing both Goeman's extended formulation of the permutahedron of size O(n log n) an...

  7. A randomized clinical trial comparing long-term clopidogrel vs aspirin monotherapy beyond dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting coronary stent implantation: Design and rationale of the Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis-Extended Antiplatelet Monotherapy (HOST-EXAM) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesun; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Park, Kyung Woo; Shin, Eun-Seok; Lim, Sang Wook; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang-Whan; Jeon, Dong Woon; Oh, Seok-Kyu; Hur, Seung-Ho; Kim, Bum-Su; Lee, Jung-Hee; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2017-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been developed by drug-eluting stent (DES), but stent implantation has brought the issue of stent thrombosis and optimal antiplatelet therapy. Guidelines recommend at least 6- to 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor such as clopidogrel. Beyond DAPT after PCI with DES, however, there has been still a debate for antiplatelet regimen. Therefore, we report on the upcoming HOST-EXAM trial (NCT02044250), which will evaluate the efficacy and safety of aspirin and clopidogrel monotherapies beyond DAPT after DES implantation. The HOST-EXAM is a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter, comparative effectiveness trial, to compare between clopidogrel (75 mg once daily) and aspirin (100 mg once daily) as long-term antiplatelet agents. A total of 5,530 patients with no clinical events during combined antiplatelet therapy for 12±6 months after index PCI will be screened, enrolled, and randomized to either group (1:1 ratio) receiving antiplatelet monotherapy for 2 years. The primary endpoint will be the rate of clinical events defined as a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, readmission due to acute coronary syndrome, or major bleeding at 24 months after randomization. The HOST-EXAM will be the first large-scale randomized controlled study to directly compare the efficacy and safety of long-term antiplatelet monotherapy beyond DAPT after DES implantation. This study will provide clinical evidence to establish optimal regimen for long-term antiplatelet therapy after DES implantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  9. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or improve your body's ability to fight disease. Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. Researchers are still studying how and ...

  10. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TF. Charged particle radiotherapy. In: Gunderson LL, Tepper JE, eds. Gunderson and Tepper: Clinical Radiation Oncology . 4th ... March 22, 2017. Zeman EM, Schreiber EC, Tepper JE. Basics of radiation therapy. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage ...

  11. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  12. Treatment-Continuity of ADHD Compared Using Immediate-Release and Extended-Release MPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of methylphenidate (MPH therapy for ADHD in young Medicaid beneficiaries (ages 6 to 17 years treated with immediate-release (IR or extended-release (ER MPH formulations was compared in an analysis of statewide California Medicaid claims (2000-2003 conducted at Columbia University, New York; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA.

  13. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  14. Therapy of NMO spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an autoimmune demyelinating condition of the central nervous system often associated with aquaporin-4 (AQP4 autoantibodies manifesting as severe optic neuritis and long segment myelitis with tendency to relapse. Seronegative patients and who do not meet the NMO criteria are classified as having NMO Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD, but are treated identically to clinically definite NMO. Acute relapse is treated with intravenous methylprednisolone for 5 days with or without subsequent treatment with plasma exchange (PE. This must be followed by oral steroid to prevent rebound worsening and further relapse. For relapse prevention, immunosuppressive agents that have been found to be effective are azathioprine, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, and mitoxantrone; although none of which have been validated in randomized, controlled trial. Some patients do relapse with monotherapy, and switching to more effective agent or use of combination therapy is beneficial in such situation. There is no consensus about the duration of preventive therapy, but generally 2-3 years of relapse-free period is considered the minimum, taking into account the risks of long-term toxicity of these agents.

  15. The symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Marcin L.

    2016-09-01

    Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states.

  16. Extended Cognitive System and Epistemic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trybulec Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an extended cognitive system is central to contemporary studies of cognition. In the paper I analyze the place of the epistemic subject within the extended cognitive system. Is it extended as well? In answering this question I focus on the differences between the first and the second wave of arguments for the extended mind thesis. I argue that the position of Cognitive Integration represented by Richard Menary is much more intuitive and fruitful in analyses of cognition and knowledge than the early argument formulated by Andy Clark and David Chalmers. Cognitive Integration is compatible with virtue epistemology of John Greco’s agent reliabilism. The epistemic subject is constituted by its cognitive character composed of an integrated set of cognitive abilities and processes. Some of these processes are extended, they are a manipulation of external informational structures and, as such, they constitute epistemic practices. Epistemic practices are normative; to conduct them correctly the epistemic subject needs to obey epistemic norms embedded in the cultural context. The epistemic subject is not extended because of the casual coupling with external informational artifacts which extend his mind from inside the head and into the world. Rather, cognitive practices constitute the subject’s mind, they transform his cognitive abilities, and this is what makes the mind and epistemic subject “extended”.

  17. Extended Hamiltonian approach to continuous tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Gianpaolo; Leimkuhler, Benedict J

    2015-06-01

    We introduce an enhanced sampling simulation technique based on continuous tempering, i.e., on continuously varying the temperature of the system under investigation. Our approach is mathematically straightforward, being based on an extended Hamiltonian formulation in which an auxiliary degree of freedom, determining the effective temperature, is coupled to the physical system. The physical system and its temperature evolve continuously in time according to the equations of motion derived from the extended Hamiltonian. Due to the Hamiltonian structure, it is easy to show that a particular subset of the configurations of the extended system is distributed according to the canonical ensemble for the physical system at the correct physical temperature.

  18. Supervisory Control of Extended Timed Event Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-bing Zhuo; Wen-de Chen

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamic behavior of extended timed event graphs related to place delay in the dioid framework. By Cofer and Garg's supervisory control theory[3], we address control problems of extended timed event graphs. Supervisory control of extended timed event graphs (a class of discrete event dynamic systems) is studied in the dioid framework, a necessary and sufficient condition for the ideals of the set of firing time sequences of transitions to be controllable is presented. We prove all the strongly controllable subsets can form a complete lattice.

  19. Superfield Lagrangian Quantization with Extended BRST Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2001-01-01

    We consider possible superfield representations of extended BRST symmetry for general gauge theories within the principle of gauge-fixing based on a generating equation for the gauge functional. We examine admissible superfield choices for an extended antibracket and delta-operator with given algebraic properties and show that only one of these choices is compatible with the requirement of extended BRST symmetry realized in terms of supertranslations along Grassmann coordinates. We demonstrate that this realization leads to the gauge-independence of the S-matrix.

  20. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Fertility results of artificial inseminations performed with liquid boar semen stored in X-cell vs BTS extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, T; Gaustad, A H; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Hofmo, P O

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present field study was to compare the fertility results for boar semen diluted in X-cell stored up to 4-5 days before artificial insemination (AI) with semen diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) used for AI following 2-3 days of storage (where the first day being the collection day). A total number of 2601 double inseminations in Norwegian herds were included in this two-trial study. All the boars used in the study were mature cross-bred Norwegian Landrace x Duroc (LD), which were routinely used for AI in Norway. The inseminated gilts and sows were Norwegian Landrace x Yorkshire (LY). The AI doses contained 2.5 billion spermatozoa, and consisted of a mixture of semen from three, occasionally four, boars (i.e. heterospermic semen). Fertility was measured in terms of the likelihood of farrowing and subsequent litter size. The fertility of the semen in both of the extenders was satisfactory and no significant differences were found either in semen stored 4-5 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS or in semen stored 2-3 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS. The storage capability findings for the long-term extender X-cell could significantly simplify the practical issues of semen production and the distribution of AI doses containing 2.5 billion spermatozoa. However, in pig production systems where all semen is used within 2-3 days, the short-term extender BTS is as good as the more expensive extender X-cell.

  2. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  3. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  4. The extended loop representation of quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bartolo, C; Griego, J R

    1995-01-01

    A new representation of Quantum Gravity is developed. This formulation is based on an extension of the group of loops. The enlarged group, that we call the Extended Loop Group, behaves locally as an infinite dimensional Lie group. Quantum Gravity can be realized on the state space of extended loop dependent wavefunctions. The extended representation generalizes the loop representation and contains this representation as a particular case. The resulting diffeomorphism and hamiltonian constraints take a very simple form and allow to apply functional methods and simplify the loop calculus. In particular we show that the constraints are linear in the momenta. The nondegenerate solutions known in the loop representation are also solutions of the constraints in the new representation. The practical calculation advantages allows to find a new solution to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Moreover, the extended representation puts in a precise framework some of the regularization problems of the loop representation. We sh...

  5. Characterising and modelling extended conducted electromagnetic emission

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, Inus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available -1 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition Asia (ECCE Downunder), Melbourne, Australia, 3-6 June 2013 Characterising and Modelling Extended Conducted Electromagnetic Emission I Grobler1 and MN Gitau2 Department of Electrical...

  6. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  7. Duality Covariant Solutions in Extended Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, Felix J

    2016-01-01

    Double field theory and exceptional field theory are formulations of supergravity that make certain dualities manifest symmetries of the action. To achieve this, the geometry is extended by including dual coordinates corresponding to winding modes of the fundamental objects. This geometrically unifies the spacetime metric and the gauge fields (and their local symmetries) in a generalized geometry. Solutions to these extended field theories take the simple form of waves and monopoles in the extended space. From a supergravity point of view they appear as 1/2 BPS objects such as the string, the membrane and the fivebrane in ordinary spacetime. In this thesis double field theory and exceptional field theory are introduced, solutions to their equations of motion are constructed and their properties are analyzed. Further it is established how isometries in the extended space give rise to duality relations between the supergravity solutions. Extensions to these core ideas include studying Goldstone modes, probing s...

  8. Extended emission associated with young HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Kurtz, S E

    2004-01-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to make observations of a sample of eight young ultra-compact HII regions, selected on the basis that they have associated class II methanol maser emission. We have made observations sensitive to both compact and extended structures and find both to be present in most sources. The scale of the extended emission in our sample is in general less than that observed towards samples based on IRAS properties, or large single-dish flux densities. Our observations are consistent with a scenario where extended and compact radio continuum emission coexists within HII regions for a significant period of time. We suggest that these observations are consistent with a model where HII evolution takes place within hierarchically structured molecular clouds. This model is the subject of a companion paper (Shabala et al. 2005) and addresses both the association between compact and extended emission and UCHII region lifetime problem.

  9. Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Barb; Takeya, Ryan; Vitelli, Francesca; Swanson, Xin

    2017-03-14

    Gene therapy refers to a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat or prevent diseases. Although a variety of methods can be used to deliver the genetic materials into the target cells and tissues, modified viral vectors represent one of the more common delivery routes because of its transduction efficiency for therapeutic genes. Since the introduction of gene therapy concept in the 1970s, the field has advanced considerably with notable clinical successes being demonstrated in many clinical indications in which no standard treatment options are currently available. It is anticipated that the clinical success the field observed in recent years can drive requirements for more scalable, robust, cost effective, and regulatory-compliant manufacturing processes. This review provides a brief overview of the current manufacturing technologies for viral vectors production, drawing attention to the common upstream and downstream production process platform that is applicable across various classes of viral vectors and their unique manufacturing challenges as compared to other biologics. In addition, a case study of an industry-scale cGMP production of an AAV-based gene therapy product performed at 2,000 L-scale is presented. The experience and lessons learned from this largest viral gene therapy vector production run conducted to date as discussed and highlighted in this review should contribute to future development of commercial viable scalable processes for vial gene therapies.

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator and DNase during Extended Use in Complicated Pleural Space Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClune, Jason R.; Wilshire, Candice L.; Gorden, Jed A.; Louie, Brian E.; Farviar, Alexander S.; Stefanski, Michael J.; Vallieres, Eric; Aye, Ralph W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase improves outcomes in patients with complicated pleural space infections. However, little data exists for the use of combination intrapleural therapy after the initial dosing period of six doses. We sought to describe the safety profile and outcomes of intrapleural therapy beyond this standard dosing. A retrospective review of patients receiving intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase was performed at two institutions. We identified 101 patients from January 2013 to August 2015 receiving intrapleural therapy for complicated pleural space infection. The extended use of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and DNase therapy beyond six doses was utilized in 20% (20/101) of patients. The mean number of doses in those undergoing extended dosing was 9.8 (range of 7–16). Within the population studied there appears to be no statistically significant increased risk of complications, need for surgical referral, or outcome differences when comparing those receiving standard or extended dosing intrapleural therapy. Future prospective study of intrapleural therapy as an alternative option for patients who fail initial pleural drainage and are unable to tolerate/accept a surgical intervention appears a potential area of study. PMID:27445574

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator and DNase during Extended Use in Complicated Pleural Space Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. McClune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase improves outcomes in patients with complicated pleural space infections. However, little data exists for the use of combination intrapleural therapy after the initial dosing period of six doses. We sought to describe the safety profile and outcomes of intrapleural therapy beyond this standard dosing. A retrospective review of patients receiving intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase was performed at two institutions. We identified 101 patients from January 2013 to August 2015 receiving intrapleural therapy for complicated pleural space infection. The extended use of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and DNase therapy beyond six doses was utilized in 20% (20/101 of patients. The mean number of doses in those undergoing extended dosing was 9.8 (range of 7–16. Within the population studied there appears to be no statistically significant increased risk of complications, need for surgical referral, or outcome differences when comparing those receiving standard or extended dosing intrapleural therapy. Future prospective study of intrapleural therapy as an alternative option for patients who fail initial pleural drainage and are unable to tolerate/accept a surgical intervention appears a potential area of study.

  12. Extending Office 365 with Microsoft Azure

    OpenAIRE

    Piirainen, Ville

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is extending Office 365 with cloud services offered by Microsoft Azure. The purpose of this thesis is to identify and present Azure services which can be used to extend Office 365 functionality. The most essential services and tools are covered from built-in services to custom solutions. In addition to Azure services, Office 365 application programming interfaces are also covered as they can be used with several extension scenarios. Both Office 365 and Azure are r...

  13. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations and on parents and children. This paper argues that the extended family makes up a significant part of the total effect of family background on educational success. Empirical results based on the W...... on educational success originates in the immediate family, the extended family and in interactions between these two family environments....

  14. Extended Dislocations in Plastically Deformed Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the sawtooth nature of compressive loading of metallic nanoparticles is observed using a molecular dynamics simulation. The atomic structure evolution confirmed that extended dislocations are the main defects split into two asynchronous partial disloca‐ tions, along with stored and released fault energy. This is considered the essence of sawtooth loading. The size of the nanoparticles relative to the equilibrium width of the extended dislocation is discussed to explain the simulation results.

  15. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  16. Musical Manipulations and the Emotionally Extended Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Krueger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available I respond to Kersten's criticism in his article "Music and Cognitive Extension" of my approach to the musically extended emotional mind in Krueger (2014. I specify how we manipulate—and in so doing, integrate with—music when, as active listeners, we become part of a musically extended cognitive system. I also indicate how Kersten's account might be enriched by paying closer attention to the way that music functions as an environmental artifact for emotion regulation.

  17. IMM Iterated Extended Particle Filter Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Wan; Shouyong Wang; Xing Qin

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the tracking problem of radar maneuvering target in nonlinear system model and non-Gaussian noise background, this paper puts forward one interacting multiple model (IMM) iterated extended particle filter algorithm (IMM-IEHPF). The algorithm makes use of multiple modes to model the target motion form to track any maneuvering target and each mode uses iterated extended particle filter (IEHPF) to deal with the state estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian system. IEH...

  18. Current therapy for Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Obukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD is to correct dopamine deficiency in the nigrostriatal system. Levodopa preparations and dopamine receptor agonists (DRAs that are prescribed with regards to patient age and disease severity are mainly used now. Notwithstanding the fact that levodopa preparations are the gold standard of therapy, their long-term use gives rise to complications as motor fluctuations and drug-induced dyskinesias. The currently available DRAs are the drugs of choice for the therapy of early-stage PD as they are as effective as levodopa preparations. In extensive-stage PD, DRAs are used to enhance the therapy and correction of developed motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Pramipexole is one of the most commonly used representatives of non-ergoline DRAs. The paper analyzes the efficacy of the medication used as both monotherapy and part of combined therapy, its effect on tremor and depression in PD. A novel extended-release formulation of pramipexole is considered separately. Both immediate- and extended-release pramipexole formulations contain the same active ingredient and have the same dopamine-receptor interaction profile, but differ in the tablet release rate of the active ingredient. The advantages of the novel formulation are its more steady-state plasma concentration and 24-hour action, which ensures continuous dopaminergic stimulation ofpostsynaptic receptors to prevent and treat already developed motor complications. The once-daily extended-release formulation of the drug makes its treatment regimen easier and patient compliance higher.

  19. Extended Access List untuk Mengendalikan Trafik Jaringan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Antoni Musril

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Keamana jaringan komputer saat ini menjadi hal penting untuk diterapkan. Banyak organisasi yang telah menjadikan teknologi informasi sebagai bahagian penting dalam menunjang aktivitasnya. Akses pengguna yang tidak dibatasi menjadi ancaman bagi sebuah organisasi, karena banyak data dan informasi penting yang tersebar dalam perangkat jaringan komputer di organisasi tersebut dapat disusupi oleh pihak yang tidak berwenang. Salah satu usaha yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan menerapkan extended access list yang merupakan salah satu bagian dari metode access control list. Extended access list dapat menyaring lalu lintas data suatu jaringan dengan mengontrol apakah paket-paket tersebut dilewatkan atau dihentikan. Extended access list juga dapat menjamin keamanan untuk setiap komputer sehingga jalur komunikasi serta hak akses setiap komputer dapat berjalan dengan baik. Extended access list memungkinkan penyaringan berdasarkan sumber atau alamat tujuan, protokol yang dipilih, port yang digunakan, dan apakah koneksi sudah ditetapkan. Tulisan ini membahas penerapan extended access list dalam jaringan supaya dapat melakukan filter terhadap paket data yang melewati jaringan. Penerapannya menggunakan software Packet Tracer 6.1.1 untuk membuat prototipe jaringan dan mensimulasikannya. Sehingga nanti dapat diterapkan pada jaringan yang sebenarnya. List yang dibangun pada penelitian ini diterapkan untuk protokol antara lain : TCP (WWW, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, POP3, UDP (DNS, dan ICMP (Ping. Hasilnya didapatkan extended access list yang dikonfigurasi pada router dalam topologi penelitian ini mampu melakukan filter terhadap paket yang melewati jaringan. Hasil konfigurasinya sangat spesifik, sehingga penerapan hak akses permit dan deny dapat dilakukan sesuai dengan aturan dan skenario yang dirancang.

  20. Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: increase in numbers of naive CD4 cells and CD34 cells makes G-CSF a candidate for use in gene therapy or to support antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Afzelius, P; Dam-Larsen, S

    1998-01-01

    The potential of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize CD4 cells and/or CD34 cells for use in gene therapy or to support antiretroviral therapy was examined. Ten human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were treated with G-CSF (300 microg/day) for 5 days. Numbers of CD4....... Furthermore, the fraction of naive CD4 cells increased. These findings have implications for the design of immunotherapy or gene therapy protocols....

  1. [Testosterone therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, T; Hauptmann, A; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone has become well-established over the course of time. The initial substantial concerns with respect to complications and potential adverse events, particularly in older patients, were proven to be unfounded over time. Testosterone therapy has therefore gradually become a regular treatment modality in urological practice. It has also been shown to represent a valuable tool as supportive treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. A variety of testosterone preparations are available for treatment. Recent pharmaceutical developments have greatly improved the practicability and ease of administration for patients. Several guidelines have been developed that provide clearly formulated standards and instructions for indications, contraindications, application, risk factors and monitoring of testosterone therapy. Adverse events affecting the cardiovascular system and especially diseases of the prostate gland are of great importance, thus making the urologist the primary partner in the treatment of patients with testosterone deficiency.

  2. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  3. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols...... model of Art Therapy with this population. This article focuses on the psychological aspect of creativity related to mild depression with an emphasis on the interaction between the conscious and the unconscious part of the psyche....

  4. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  5. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  6. A comparison of 5 or 7 days of rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari F. Syam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim A combination of PPI and 1000 mg amoxicillin/500 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 2 weeks has been proven effective in the eradication of H. pylori. Most studies suggested that treatment for 7 and 10 days may be equally effective. Few data are available on the efficacy of 5-day triple therapy. Aim of this study was to compare 5-day and 7-day rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection.Methods We prospectively studied 60 consecutive H. pylori-infected patients who came to hospitals in six centres in Indonesia and who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. H. pylori infection was confirmed if two rapid urease tests (Pronto Dry and histology or urea breath test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labelled 5-day or 7-day course of oral amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and rabeprazole 10 mg b.i.d. (RAC. Four weeks after therapy, all patients had a repeated UBT for evaluation of the presence of H. pylori.Results Of the 60 patients (42 males and 18 females with mean age (± SD 47.63 ± 13.93 years, range 21–74 years, 25 patients (41.7% had 5-day treatment and 35 patients (58.3% had 7-day treatment. With 5-day treatment, 18 patients (72% and with 7-day treatment 32 patients (91.4% became negative for H. pylori infection. The eradication failure was found on 7 patients (28.0% in 5-day treatment and 3 patients (8.6% in 7-day treatment.Conclusions The study showed that the eradication of H. pylori infection by triple rabeprazole-based treatment in 7-day is still better than in 5-day. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:113-7Keywords: H. pylori, rabeprazole, triple therapy

  7. Modified Sequential Therapy Regimen versus Conventional Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Duodenal Ulcer Patients in China: A Multicenter Clinical Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Qun Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Antimicrobial resistance has decreased eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection worldwide. To observe the effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and the treatment of duodenal ulcer by 2 kinds of modified sequential therapy through comparing with that of 10-day standard triple therapy. Methods. A total of 210 patients who were confirmed in duodenal ulcer active or heal period by gastroscopy and H. pylori positive confirmed by rapid urease test, serum anti-H. pylori antibody (ELASE, or histological examination enrolled in the study. All the patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A (70 cases and group B (70 cases were provided 10-day modified sequential therapy; group C (70 cases was provided 10-day standard triple therapy. Patients of group A received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group B received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group C received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for standard 10-day therapy. All drugs were given twice daily. H. pylori eradication rate was checked four to eight weeks after taking the medicine by using a 13C urea breath test. In the first, second, third, seventh, twenty-first, thirty-fifth days respectively, the symptoms of patients such as epigastric gnawing, burning pain, and acidity were evaluated simultaneously. Results. Overall, 210 patients accomplished all therapy schemes, 9 case patients were excluded. The examination result indicated that the H. pylori eradication rate of each group was as follows: group A 92.5% (62/67, group B 86.8% (59/68, and group C 78.8% (52/66. The H. pylori

  8. Truth therapy/lie therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langs, R

    In this paper an attempt is made to conceptualize a basic dimension of various psychotherapeutic treatment modalities, especially psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. The central variable under consideration is the extent to which each endeavors to approach the truth within both patient and therapist as it exists dynamically in terms of their spiraling unconscious communicative interaction. That treatment modality which takes into account every possible dimension of such truths is termed truth therapy. Treatment modalities that make no attempt to arrive at these truths or that deliberately or inadvertently falsify their nature are termed lie or barrier therapies. Extensive consideration is given to truth therapy and the truth system on which it is based. The basis for the need for lie therapies is explored, and lie systems, which may arise from either patient or therapist, or both, are identified. A classification of common types of lie patients and lie therapists (and their main techniques) is offered. The implications of this delineation for our understanding of the dynamic therapies are discussed, and a number of new clinical issues arising from this perspective are addressed.

  9. Photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (λ=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (λ=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.

  10. Mindfulness-based 'third wave' cognitive and behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa Hm; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel

    2010-09-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all third wave CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different third wave CBT approaches (ACT,compassionate mind training, functional analytic psychotherapy, extended behavioural activation and meta-cognitive therapy) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all third wave CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression.

  11. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  12. Pet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  13. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is the ...

  14. Solute drag on perfect and extended dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, R. B.; Cai, W.

    2016-04-01

    The drag force exerted on a moving dislocation by a field of mobile solutes is studied in the steady state. The drag force is numerically calculated as a function of the dislocation velocity for both perfect and extended dislocations. The sensitivity of the non-dimensionalized force-velocity curve to the various controlling parameters is assessed, and an approximate analytical force-velocity expression is given. A non-dimensional parameter S characterizing the strength of the solute-dislocation interaction, the background solute fraction ?, and the dislocation character angle ?, are found to have the strongest influence on the force-velocity curve. Within the model considered here, a perfect screw dislocation experiences no solute drag, but an extended screw dislocation experiences a non-zero drag force that is about 10 to 30% of the drag on an extended edge dislocation. The solutes can change the spacing between the Shockley partials in both stationary and moving extended dislocations, even when the stacking fault energy remains unaltered. Under certain conditions, the solutes destabilize an extended dislocation by either collapsing it into a perfect dislocation or causing the partials to separate unboundedly. It is proposed that the latter instability may lead to the formation of large faulted areas and deformation twins in low stacking fault energy materials containing solutes, consistent with experimental observations of copper and stainless steel containing hydrogen.

  15. A novel correction factor based on extended volume to complement the conformity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F; Wang, Y; Wu, Y-Z

    2012-08-01

    We propose a modified conformity index (MCI), based on extended volume, that improves on existing indices by correcting for the insensitivity of previous conformity indices to reference dose shape to assess the quality of high-precision radiation therapy and present an evaluation of its application. In this paper, the MCI is similar to the conformity index suggested by Paddick (CI(Paddick)), but with a different correction factor. It is shown for three cases: with an extended target volume, with an extended reference dose volume and without an extended volume. Extended volume is generated by expanding the original volume by 0.1-1.1 cm isotropically. Focusing on the simulation model, measurements of MCI employ a sphere target and three types of reference doses: a sphere, an ellipsoid and a cube. We can constrain the potential advantage of the new index by comparing MCI with CI(Paddick). The measurements of MCI in head-neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy provide a window on its clinical practice. The results of MCI for a simulation model and clinical practice are presented and the measurements are corrected for limited spatial resolution. The three types of MCI agree with each other, and comparisons between the MCI and CI(Paddick) are also provided. The results from our analysis show that the proposed MCI can provide more objective and accurate conformity measurement for high-precision radiation therapy. In combination with a dose-volume histogram, it will be a more useful conformity index.

  16. [Ischemic cholangiopathy induced by extended burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laurence; Angot, Emilie; Goria, Odile; Koning, Edith; François, Arnaud; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Ischemic cholangiopathy is a recently described entity occurring mainly after hepatic grafts. Very few cases after intensive care unit (ICU) for extended burn injury were reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman consulting in an hepatology unit, for a jaundice appearing during a hospitalisation in an intensive care unit and increasing from her leaving from ICU, where she was treated for an extended burn injury. She had no pre-existing biological features of biliary disease. Biological tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of biliary tracts pointed out severe stenosing lesions of diffuse cholangiopathy concerning intrahepatic biliary tract, mainly peri-hilar. Biopsie from the liver confirmed the diagnosis, showing a biliary cirrhosis with bile infarcts. This case is the fourth case of ischemic cholangiopathy after extended burn injury, concerning a patient without a prior history of hepatic or biliary illness and appearing after hospitalisation in intensive care unit.

  17. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations and on parents and children. This paper argues that the extended family makes up a significant part of the total effect of family background on educational success. Empirical results based...... characteristics of grandparents and aunts and uncles have few direct effects on educational success, resources in the extended family compensate lacking resources in low-SES families, which in turn promote children’s educational success. The main conclusion is that the total effect of family background...... on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by siblings from the same immediate family, factors shared by first cousins from the same extended family account for a nontrivial part of the total variance in children’s educational success. Results also show that while socioeconomic...

  18. Rough sets: the classical and extended views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZIARKO Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The article is a comprehensive review of two major approaches to rough set theory: the classic rough setmodel introduced by Pawlak and the probabilistic approaches. The classic model is presented as a staging ground to the discussion of two varieties of the probabilistic approach, i.e. of the variable precision and Bayesian rough set models. Both of these models extend the classic model to deal with stochastic interactions while preserving the basicideas of the original rough set theory, such as set approximations, data dependencies, reducts etc. The probabilistic models are able to handle weaker data interactions than the classic model, thus extending the applicability of the rough set paradigm. The extended models are presented in considerable detail with some illustrative examples.

  19. Integration measure and extended BRST covariant quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Nersessian, A P; Geyer, Bodo; Lavrov, Petr; Nersessian, Armen

    2001-01-01

    We propose an extended BRST invariant Lagrangian quantization scheme of general gauge theories based on an explicit realization of the modified triplectic algebra that was announced in our previous investigation (hep-th/0104189). The algebra includes, besides the odd operators $V^a$ appearing in the triplectic formalism, also the odd operators $U^a$ introduced within modified triplectic quantization, both of which being anti-Hamiltonian vector fields. We show that some even supersymplectic structure defined on the space of fields and antifields provides the extended BRST path integral with a well-defined integration measure. All the known Lagrangian quantization schemes based on the extended BRST symmetry are obtained by specifying the (free) parameters of that method.

  20. The geometry of branes and extended superspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chryssomalakos, C. E-mail: chryss@lie3.ific.uv.es; Azcarraga, J.A. de E-mail: azcarrag@lie1.ific.uv.es; Izquierdo, J.M. E-mail: izquierd@fta.uva.es; Perez Bueno, J.C. E-mail: pbueno@lie.ific.uv.es

    2000-02-14

    We argue that a description of supersymmetric extended objects from a unified geometric point of view requires an enlargement of superspace. To this aim we study in a systematic way how superspace groups and algebras arise from Grassmann spinors when these are assumed to be the only primary entities. In the process, we recover generalized space-time superalgebras and extensions of supersymmetry found earlier. The enlargement of ordinary superspace with new parameters gives rise to extended superspace groups, on which manifestly supersymmetric actions may be constructed for various types of p-branes, including D-branes (given by Chevalley-Eilenberg cocycles) with their Born-Infeld fields. This results in a field/extended superspace democracy for superbranes: all brane fields appear as pull-backs from a suitable target superspace. Our approach also clarifies some facts concerning the origin of the central charges for the different p-branes.

  1. Pharmacological and clinical evidence of nevirapine immediate- and extended-release formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ena J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Javier Ena, Concepción Amador, Conxa Benito, Francisco PasquauHIV Unit, Hospital Marina Baixa, Villajoyosa, SpainAbstract: We reviewed the current information available on nevirapine immediate- and extended-release formulations and its role in single-dose and combination antiretroviral therapy. Nevirapine was approved in 1996 and was the first non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor available for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Nevirapine has demonstrated good efficacy and a well-characterized safety profile. A major drawback is the low genetic barrier, allowing the emergence of resistance in the presence of single mutations in the reverse-transcriptase gene. This shortcoming is particularly relevant when nevirapine is administered in a single dose to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection, compromising the efficacy of future non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase–inhibitor regimens. Studies published recently have probed the noninferiority of nevirapine compared to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir with both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in antiretroviral treatment–naïve patients. In 2011, a new formulation of nevirapine (nevirapine extended release that allowed once-daily dosing was approved by the Food and Drug Administration and by the European Medicines Agency. VERxVe, a study comparing nevirapine extended release with nevirapine immediate release in antiretroviral treatment–naïve patients, and TRANxITION, a study carried out in antiretroviral treatment–experienced patients who switched therapy from nevirapine immediate release to nevirapine extended release, provided data on the noninferiority of the new formulation of nevirapine compared with nevirapine immediate release in terms of efficacy and safety. Nevirapine extended release will further increase the durability and persistence of nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy, allowing once-daily dosing regimens.Keywords: nevirapine

  2. Extended Interneuronal Network of the Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely G. Szabo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Local interneurons control principal cells within individual brain areas, but anecdotal observations indicate that interneuronal axons sometimes extend beyond strict anatomical boundaries. Here, we use the case of the dentate gyrus (DG to show that boundary-crossing interneurons with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. These results reveal the existence of a sophisticated retrograde GABAergic circuit that fundamentally extends the canonical interneuronal network.

  3. The extended trace identity and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yu-Qin; Chen Deng-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The trace identity is extended to the general loop algebra.The Hamiltonian structures of the integrable systems concerning vector spectral problems and the multi-component integrable hierarchy can be worked out by Using the extended trace identity.As its application,we have obtained the Hamiltonian structures of the Yang hierarchy,the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) hierarchy,the multi-component Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (M-AKNS) hierarchy,the multi-component Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur Kaup-Newell (M-AKNS-KN) hierarchy and a new multi-component integrable hierarchy separately.

  4. Dixon's extended bodies and weak gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Ortolan, Antonello

    2009-01-01

    General relativity considers Dixon's theory as the standard theory to deal with the motion of extended bodies in a given gravitational background. We discuss here the features of the "reaction" of an extended body to the passage of a weak gravitational wave. We find that the body acquires a dipolar moment induced by its quadrupole structure. Furthermore, we derive the "world function" for the weak field limit of a gravitational wave background and use it to estimate the deviation between geodesics and the world lines of structured bodies. Measuring such deviations, due to the existence of cumulative effects, should be favorite with respect to measuring the amplitude of the gravitational wave itself.

  5. Study on an extended Boussinesq equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chun-Li; Zhang Jin E; Li Yi-Shen

    2007-01-01

    An extended Boussinesq equation that models weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive waves on a uniform layer of water is studied in this paper. The results show that the equation is not Painlevé-integrable in general. Some particular exact travelling wave solutions are obtained by using a function expansion method. An approximate solitary wave solution with physical significance is obtained by using a perturbation method. We find that the extended Boussinesq equation with a depth parameter of 1/√2 is able to match the Laitone's (1960) second order solitary wave solution of the Euler equations.

  6. Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ran [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITPC),Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,Chengdu 610054 (China); Staub, Florian [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Zhu, Bin [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-03-27

    We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural.

  7. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side

  8. Extending Symfony 2 web application framework

    CERN Document Server

    Armand, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Symfony is a high performance PHP framework for developing MVC web applications. Symfony1 allowed for ease of use but its shortcoming was the difficulty of extending it. However, this difficulty has now been eradicated by the more powerful and extensible Symfony2. Information on more advanced techniques for extending Symfony can be difficult to find, so you need one resource that contains the advanced features in a way you can understand. This tutorial offers solutions to all your Symfony extension problems. You will get to grips with all the extension points that Symfony, Twig, and Doctrine o

  9. Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenner, Hubert [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, University of Goettingen, D-37077 Gottingen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).

  10. Narrative therapy, family therapy and history

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This article was inspired by listening to the interesting plenary on the influence of narrative therapy on family therapy at the AFT annual conference in Manchester in September 2008. One of the issues raised concerned the historical connections between narrative therapy and the broader family therapy field. The contributors seemed keen to avoid a split between narrative therapy and the broader family therapy field and, instead, to find connections but this issue seemed difficult to negotiate...

  11. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  12. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  13. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...... music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive...

  14. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  15. Antiproton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Knudsen, Helge V; Bassler, Niels; Alsner, Jan; Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; DeMarco, John J; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Jäkel, Oliver; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B; Ratib, Osman; Solberg, Timothy D; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important means we have for the treatment of localised tumours. It is therefore essential to optimize the technique, and a lot of effort goes into this endeavour. Since the proposal by Wilson in 1946 [R.R. Wilson, Radiology use of fast protons, Radiology 47 (1946) 487.] that proton beams might be better than photon beams at inactivating cancer cells, hadron therapy has been developed in parallel with photon therapy and a substantial knowledge has been gained on the effects of pions, protons and heavy ions (mostly carbon ions). Here we discuss the recent measurements by the CERN ACE collaboration of the biological effects of antiprotons, and argue that these particles very likely are the optimal agents for radiotherapy.

  16. Efficacy of postexposure therapy against glanders in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, David M

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders, is a CDC Tier 1 Select Agent for which there is no preventive vaccine and antibiotic therapy is difficult. In this study, we show that a combination of vaccination using killed cellular vaccine and therapy using moxifloxacin, azithromycin, or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim can protect BALB/c mice from lethal infection even when given 5 days after infectious challenge. Vaccination only, or antibiotic therapy only, was not efficacious. Although antibiotics evaluated experimentally can protect when given before or 1 day after challenge, this time course is not realistic in the cases of natural infection or biological attack, when the patient seeks treatment after symptoms develop or after a biological attack has been confirmed and the agent has been identified. Antibiotics can be efficacious after a prolonged interval between exposure and treatment, but only if the animals were previously vaccinated.

  17. Gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005147 CNHK200-hA-a gene-viral therapeutic system and its antitumor effect on lung cancer. WANG Wei-guo(王伟国),et al. Viral & Gene Ther Center, Eastern Hepatobilli Surg Instit 2nd Milit Univ, Shanghai 200438. Chin J Oncol,2005:27(2):69-72. Objective: To develop a novel vector system, which combines the advantages of the gene therapy,

  18. Extending the Use of Saramaccan in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Naomi

    1983-01-01

    Advocates the use of the vernacular language, not only as an important vehicle for learning, but also as a means of enhancing the native speakers' feeling of self-worth. Presents several ways of extending the use of the vernacular, as well as the problems that can arise. (EKN)

  19. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes h

  20. Extending the Body for Interaction with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Müller, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how users can control remote devices with a virtual long arm, while preserving the perception that the artificial arm is actually part of their own body. Instead of using pointing, speech, or a remote control, the users’ arm is extended in augmented reality, allowing...

  1. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa extending into the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Traci R. [The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Swischuk, Leonard E. [The University of Texas Medical Branch, Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Galveston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Medical Branch, Pediatric Radiology, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2007-12-15

    We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa in an infant with extension of hypertrophied fatty tissue into the abdomen and abdominal wall. The patient not only presented with typical limb abnormalities but also an abdominal mass. We reviewed the literature on the subject, and believe that our case is rare because the hypertrophied lipomatous tissue extended into the abdomen. (orig.)

  2. Extended exergy accounting applied to biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talens Peiro, L. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q-ETSE, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Villalba Mendez, G.; Gabarrell i Durany, X. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q-ETSE, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Edifici Q, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E- 08193, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Sciubba, E. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Roma 1 ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Via Eudossiana 18, I-00184 Roma (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    When evaluating the production of renewable energies such as biofuels, it is necessary to include in the assessment the resource inputs, capital, labor investment and environmental remediation costs. Extended Exergy Accounting (EEA) is a system analysis method that calculates, on the basis of detailed mass and exergy balances, the total amount of primary exergy resources necessary to obtain a product or service. The conceptual novelty of EEA is represented by the fact that it also includes externalities (capital, labor and environmental impact) measured in homogeneous units (Joules). As an illustration of EEA, we assess and compare the production of 1 ton of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCOME) and rapeseed crops (RME). The extended exergy ''content'' of UCOME and RME are 51.90 GJ and 77.05 GJ respectively. The production of UCOME uses 25.15 GJ less resources (materials and energy) and requires lower total investments and environmental remediation costs than that of RME. On the other hand, UCOME requires 35% more workhours. In summary, the extended exergy of UCOME is about 1.5 the extended exergy content of RME. Thus, we can conclude that biodiesel production from UCO is less resource use intensive than the production from RME. (author)

  3. OBSERVABILITY OF EXTENDED TIMED EVENT GRAPH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Zhibing; CHEN Wende

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study some results of extended timed event graph (ETEG)by using graph theory's methods in the dioid framework. A necessary and sufficient condition for the observability of ETEG is obtained and ETEG's standard structure is also established.

  4. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, G. van

    1995-01-01

    Python is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes how to embed

  5. Extended PGA for Range Migration Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Otten, M.P.G.; Bree, R.J.P. van

    2006-01-01

    The Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA) algorithm is extended to work for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) spotlight images processed with range migration (ω-k) algorithms. Several pre-processing steps are proposed for aligning the range-compressed phase-history data needed for successful autofocusing of

  6. Partial results on extending the Hopf Lemma

    CERN Document Server

    Li, YanYan

    2009-01-01

    In [1], Theorem 3, the authors proved, in one dimension, a generalization of the Hopf Lemma, and the question arose if it could be extended to higher dimensions. In this paper we present two conjectures as possible extensions, and give a very partial answer. We write this paper to call attention to the problem.

  7. Schedule-extended synchronous dataflow graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damavandpeyma, M.; Stuijk, S.; Basten, T.; Geilen, M.; Corporaal, H.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous dataflow graphs (SDFGs) are used extensively to model streaming applications. An SDFG can be extended with scheduling decisions, allowing SDFG analysis to obtain properties, such as throughput or buffer sizes for the scheduled graphs. Analysis times depend strongly on the size of the

  8. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  9. Quantum field theories of extended objects

    CERN Document Server

    Friedan, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    First steps are taken in a project to construct a general class of conformal and perhaps, eventually, non-conformal quantum field theories of (n-1)-dimensional extended objects in a d=2n dimensional conformal space-time manifold M. The fields live on the spaces E of relative integral (n-1)-cycles in M -- the integral (n-1)-currents of given boundary. Each E is a complete metric space geometrically analogous to a Riemann surface $\\Sigma$. For example, if $M=S^d$, $\\Sigma = S^2$. The quantum fields on E are to be mapped to observables in a 2d CFT on $\\Sigma$. The correlation functions on E are to be given by the 2d correlation functions on $\\Sigma$. The goal is to construct a CFT of extended objects in d=2n dimensions for every 2d CFT, and eventually a non-conformal QFT of extended objects for every non-conformal 2d QFT, so that all the technology of 2d QFT can be applied to the construction and analysis of quantum field theories of extended objects. The project depends crucially on settling some mathematical q...

  10. Extending the Body for Interaction with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Müller, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how users can control remote devices with a virtual long arm, while preserving the perception that the artificial arm is actually part of their own body. Instead of using pointing, speech, or a remote control, the users’ arm is extended in augmented reality, allowing...

  11. The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...

  12. An extended scenario for the Schrodinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Capak, M; Unsal, O L; Atay, S; Gonul, B

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the elegant work introduced by Levai in Ref. [5] is extended for the solutions of the Schrodinger equation with more realistic other potentials used in different disciplines of physics. The connection between the present model and the other alternative algebraic technique in the literature is discussed

  13. Experimental limits on antigravity in extended supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The available tests of the equivalence principle constrain the mass of the Higgs-like boson appearing in extended supergravity theories. We determine the constraints imposed by the present and future high precision experiments on the antigravity fields arising from $N=2,8$ supergravity.

  14. Extended Resin Composite Restorations: Techniques and Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Hilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of the art of different restorative treatment procedures and techniques needed for placing extended posterior resin composite restorations. Clinical aspects related to the procedure are discussed and reviewed based on the current literature, such as the

  15. Integrable extended van der Waals model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Francesco; Landolfi, Giulio; Moro, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by the recent developments in the study of the thermodynamics of van der Waals fluids via the theory of nonlinear conservation laws and the description of phase transitions in terms of classical (dissipative) shock waves, we propose a novel approach to the construction of multi-parameter generalisations of the van der Waals model. The theory of integrable nonlinear conservation laws still represents the inspiring framework. Starting from a macroscopic approach, a four parameter family of integrable extended van der Waals models is indeed constructed in such a way that the equation of state is a solution to an integrable nonlinear conservation law linearisable by a Cole-Hopf transformation. This family is further specified by the request that, in regime of high temperature, far from the critical region, the extended model reproduces asymptotically the standard van der Waals equation of state. We provide a detailed comparison of our extended model with two notable empirical models such as Peng-Robinson and Soave's modification of the Redlich-Kwong equations of state. We show that our extended van der Waals equation of state is compatible with both empirical models for a suitable choice of the free parameters and can be viewed as a master interpolating equation. The present approach also suggests that further generalisations can be obtained by including the class of dispersive and viscous-dispersive nonlinear conservation laws and could lead to a new type of thermodynamic phase transitions associated to nonclassical and dispersive shock waves.

  16. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Keiji [Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Morrison, P. J. [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy.

  17. Computation of unirational fields (extended abstract)

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for computing all algebraic intermediate subfields in a separably generated unirational field extension (which in particular includes the zero characteristic case). One of the main tools is Groebner bases theory. Our algorithm also requires computing computing primitive elements and factoring over algebraic extensions. Moreover, the method can be extended to finitely generated K-algebras.

  18. Robotic extended pyelolithotomy for complete staghorn calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Rene; Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Giedelman, Camilo; de Andrade, Robert; Carmona, Oswaldo; Ramirez, Daniel; Clavijo, Rafael

    2010-08-01

    Staghorn stones represent a therapeutic challenge to urologists. We present our experience with laparoscopic extended pyelolithotomy for treatment of staghorn and complex renal calculi in highly selected cases. This approach provides the principles of open surgery with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. We describe our experience with robot-assisted extended pyelolithotomy for complex coralliform calculi. Since January 2007, robotic extended pyelolithotomy has been performed by transperitoneal approach in two patients with complete coralliform lithiasis (calculi average size 8 cm). One patient had history of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Demographic and operative data were collected. All procedures were technically successful without need for open conversion. Mean estimated blood loss was 175 ml (range 50-300 ml), and mean operative time was 150 min (range 120-150 min). A perinephric drain was employed in one patient with duration of 5 days. Postoperative imaging confirmed complete stone clearance. Robotic extended pyelolithotomy is a feasible and reproducible procedure for removal of complete and partial staghorn calculi in selected patients with complex nephrolithiasis. This approach might limit the role of open surgery for these calculi, but further publications with more cases are necessary to further define its utility.

  19. An Extended Analysis of Requirements Traceability Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dandong(蒋丹东); Zhang Shensheng; Chen Lu

    2004-01-01

    A new extended meta model of traceability is presented. Then, a formalized fine-grained model of traceability is described. Some major issues about this model, including trace units, requirements and relations within the model, are further analyzed. Finally, a case study that comes from a key project of 863 Program is given.

  20. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  1. Extending School Hours: A Capital Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John Hodge

    1995-01-01

    The Murfreesboro, Tennessee, City Schools have doubled the amount of time schools are open without raising taxes. Instead of going home to empty houses, kids participate in an extended school program offering over 100 courses in recreation, academics, arts, and life skills. Parents and organizations foot the costs; no child is excluded for…

  2. Spontaneous Breakup of Extended Monodisperse Polymer Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Yu, Kaijia

    2011-01-01

    We apply continuum mechanical based, numerical modeling to study the dynamics of extended monodisperse polymer melts during the relaxation. The computations are within the ideas of the microstructural ‘‘interchain pressure’’ theory. The computations show a delayed necking resulting in a rupture...

  3. An Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zong-Ye; YU You-Wen; WANG Ping; DAI Lian-Rong

    2003-01-01

    The chiral SU(3) quark model is extended by including the vector meson exchanges to describe the short range interactions. The phase shifts of NN scattering are studied in this model. Compared with the results of the chiral SU(3) quark model in which only the pseudo-scalar and scalar chiralfields are considered, the phase shifts of 1 So wave are obviously improved.

  4. Q-Method Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; Ainscough, Thomas; Christian, John; Spanos, Pol D.

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed that smoothly integrates non-linear estimation of the attitude quaternion using Davenport s q-method and estimation of non-attitude states through an extended Kalman filter. The new method is compared to a similar existing algorithm showing its similarities and differences. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed through numerical simulations.

  5. Simulation and analysis of shared extended mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some types of animals exploit patterns created in the environment as external mental states, thus obtaining an extension of their mind. In the case of social animals the creation and exploitation of such patterns can be shared, which supports a form of shared extended mind or collective intelligence

  6. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next gene...

  7. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations: parents and children. This study argues that the extended family contributes significantly to the total effect of family background on educational success. Analyses using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by…

  8. From ergodicity to extended phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Scott M; Sokol, Alexey A

    2012-04-16

    Structure prediction of stable and metastable phases is put on equal footing for the first time, with a solid thermodynamical background. How to estimate the lifetime of metastable phases is demonstrated by recent groundbreaking work of Jansen, Pentin, and Schön. At the heart lies the exploration of the Gibbs free-energy landscapes and the extended phase diagrams for complex systems.

  9. Prototype for Extended XDB Using Wiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook-Sung Yoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype of extended XDB. XDB is an open-source and extensible database architecture developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA to provide integration of heterogeneous and distributed information resources for scientific and engineering applications. XDB enables an unlimited number of desktops and distributed information sources to be linked seamlessly and efficiently into an information grid using Data Access and Retrieval Composition (DARC protocol whichprovides a contextual search and retrieval capability useful for lightweight web applications. This paper shows the usage of XDB on common data management in the enterprise without burdening users and application developers with unnecessary complexity and formal schemas. Supported by NASA Ames Research Center through NASA Exploration System Mission Directorate (ESMD Higher Education grant, a project team at Fairfield University extended this concept and developed an extended XDB protocol and a prototype providing text-searches for Wiki. The technical specification of the protocol was posted to Source Forge (sourceforge.net and a prototype providing text-searches for Wiki was developed. The prototype was created for 16 tags of the MediaWiki dialect. As part of future works, the prototype will be further extended to the complete Wiki markups and other dialects of Wiki.

  10. About Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if}} {{{tweet}}} About Occupational Therapy What Is Occupational Therapy? Occupational therapy practitioners ask, "What matters to you?" not, " ... about our science-driven and evidence-based profession. Occupational Therapy: Improving Function While Controlling Costs 4 4 The ...

  11. Laser therapy of muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Munqith S; Al-Salihi, Anam Rasheed; Qasim, Amenah Wala'a

    2013-05-01

    Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

  12. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  13. Oxygen Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood ox...

  14. [Gestalt therapy.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  15. Nutritional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted.

  16. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, ... grateful I chose a career as rewarding as music therapy. I love what I do each day!” Where ...

  17. Extended Network Generalized Entanglement Theory: therapeutic mechanisms, empirical predictions, and investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Michael E

    2003-12-01

    Extended Network Generalized Entanglement Theory (Entanglement Theory for short) combines two earlier theories based on complexity theory and quantum mechanics. The theory's assumptions are: the body is a complex, self-organizing system (the extended network) that self-organizes so as to achieve genetically defined patterns (where patterns include morphologic as well as lifestyle patterns). These pattern-specifying genes require feedback that is provided by generalized quantum entanglement. Additionally, generalized entanglement has evolved as a form of communication between people (and animals) and can be used in healing. Entanglement Theory suggests that several processes are involved in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Direct subtle therapy creates network change either through lifestyle management, some manual therapies, and psychologically mediated effects of therapy. Indirect subtle therapy is a process of entanglement with other people or physical entities (e.g., remedies, healing sites). Both types of subtle therapy create two kinds of information within the network--either that the network is more disregulated than it is and the network then compensates for this error, or as a guide for network change leading to healing. Most CAM therapies involve a combination of indirect and direct therapies, making empirical evaluation complex. Empirical predictions from this theory are contrasted with those from two other possible mechanisms of healing: (1) psychologic processes and (2) mechanisms involving electromagnetic influence between people (biofield/energy medicine). Topics for empirical study include a hyperfast communication system, the phenomenology of entanglement, predictors of outcome in naturally occurring clinical settings, and the importance of therapist and patient characteristics to outcome.

  18. Efficacy, dosage and duration of action of branched chain amino acid therapy for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclynn eElkind

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI results in long-lasting cognitive impairments for which there is currently no accepted treatment. A well-established mouse model of mild to moderate TBI, lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI, shows changes in network excitability in the hippocampus including a decrease in net synaptic efficacy in area CA1 and an increase in net synaptic efficacy in dentate gyrus. Previous studies identified a novel therapy consisting of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs which restored normal mouse hippocampal responses and ameliorated cognitive impairment following FPI. However, the optimal BCAA dose and length of treatment needed to improve cognitive recovery is unknown. In the current study mice underwent FPI then consumed 100 mM BCAA supplemented water ad libitum for 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 days. BCAA therapy ameliorated cognitive impairment at 5 and 10 days duration. Neither BCAA supplementation at 50 mM, nor BCAAs when dosed 5 days on then 5 days off, was sufficient to ameliorate cognitive impairment. These results suggest that brain injury causes alterations in hippocampal function which underlie and contribute to hippocampal cognitive impairment which are reversible with at least 5 days of BCAA treatment, and that sustaining this effect is dependent on continuous treatment. Our findings have profound implications for the clinical investigation of TBI therapy.

  19. Intralesional Pentamidine: A Novel Therapy for Single Lesions of Bolivian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Jaime; Paz, David; Rivero, Daniela; Soto, Paula; Quispe, Jorge; Toledo, Julia; Berman, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    A novel therapy, intralesional (IL) pentamidine, was compared to intralesional therapy with antimony (ILSb), a World Health Organization-recommended therapy, for single Bolivian Leishmania braziliensis lesions. In Study 1, 90 patients were randomized equally between three injections of ILSb over 5 days, five injections of ILSb over 11 days, and three injections of IL pentamidine (120 μg/mm(2)lesion area [ILPenta-120-3]) over 5 days. Cure rates at 6 months were 57% for ILSb-3 injections, 73% for ILSb-5 injections, and 72% for ILPenta-120-3 injections. Adverse effects were local irritation and injection-site pain-ILSb (60 patients): mild (25), moderate (4); IL pentamidine (30 patients): mild (4), moderate (3). In Study 2, 60 patients were randomized equally between five injections of ILSb and three injections of a double dose of IL pentamidine (240 μg/mm(2)[ILPenta-240-3]). In Study 2, cure rates were 67% for ILSb-5 injections and 73% for ILPenta-240-3. For three IL injections of pentamidine, efficacy was optimized at a dose of 120 μg/mm(2)lesion area. The cure rate of that regimen was similar to that for ILSb-5 injections and nonstatistically larger than that of ILSb-3 injections. IL pentamidine is an attractive alternative to ILSb on the basis of efficacy for Bolivian L. braziliensis, the threat of Sb-resistant parasites, tolerance, and patient convenience of three visits over 5 days.

  20. Symmetric cryptographic protocols for extended millionaires' problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ShunDong; WANG DaoShun; DAI YiQi

    2009-01-01

    Yao's millionaires' problem is a fundamental problem in secure multiparty computation, and its solutions have become building blocks of many secure multiparty computation solutions. Unfortunately,most protocols for millionaires' problem are constructed based on public cryptography, and thus are inefficient. Furthermore, all protocols are designed to solve the basic millionaires' problem, that is,to privately determine which of two natural numbers is greater. If the numbers are real, existing solutions do not directly work. These features limit the extensive application of the existing protocols. This study introduces and refines the first symmetric cryptographic protocol for the basic millionaires' problem, and then extends the symmetric cryptographic protocol to privately determining which of two real numbers is greater, which are called the extended millionaires' problem, and proposes corresponding Constructed based on symmetric cryptography, these protocols are very efficient.

  1. Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meehan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.

  2. Extending STL with Efficient Data Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴虹; 聂旭民

    1998-01-01

    The Standard Template Library(STL)is a C++ library that provides a set of well structured generic C++ components that work together.Based on its well-structured design,STL can be extended by adding new generic algorithms or new generic containers.In this paper,the work on extending STY by adding several efficient container classes for threaded binary search trees is discussed.It is shown that the addition of threads significantly increases the efficiency of some important access operations on the binary tree containers.In general,significant gain in efficiency can be expected in situations where the data structures ar relatively stable,that is,the data structures are looked up often but modified little.

  3. Thermodynamic Products in the Extended Phase Space

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the thermodynamic properties of spherically symmetric charged-AdS black hole, charged AdS BH surrounded by quintessence and charged AdS BH in $f(R)$ gravity in the extended phase-space. Where the cosmological constant should be treated as thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate parameter as thermodynamic volume. Then they should behave as a analog of Van der Waal like systems. In the extended phase space we have calculated the \\emph{entropy product} and \\emph{thermodynamic volume product} of all horizons. The mass(or enthalpy) independent nature of the said products signals they are "universal" quantities. Various types of pictorial diagram of the specific heat is given. The divergence of the specific heat indicates that the second order phase transition occurs under certain condition.

  4. Quantum gravity kinematics from extended TQFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    We show how extended topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) can be used to obtain a kinematical setup for quantum gravity, i.e. a kinematical Hilbert space together with a representation of the observable algebra including operators of quantum geometry. In particular, we consider the holonomy-flux algebra of (2+1)-dimensional Euclidean loop quantum gravity, and construct a new representation of this algebra that incorporates a positive cosmological constant. The vacuum state underlying our representation is defined by the Turaev-Viro TQFT. We therefore construct here a generalization, or more precisely a quantum deformation at root of unity, of the previously-introduced SU(2) BF representation. The extended Turaev-Viro TQFT provides a description of the excitations on top of the vacuum, which are essential to allow for a representation of the holonomies and fluxes. These excitations agree with the ones induced by massive and spinning particles, and therefore the framework presented here allows automatical...

  5. Beyond six parameters: extending $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Silk, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological constraints are usually derived under the assumption of a $6$ parameters $\\Lambda$-CDM theoretical framework or simple one-parameter extensions. In this paper we present, for the first time, cosmological constraints in a significantly extended scenario, varying up to $12$ cosmological parameters simultaneously, including the sum of neutrino masses, the neutrino effective number, the dark energy equation of state, the gravitational waves background and the running of the spectral index of primordial perturbations. Using the latest Planck 2015 data release (with polarization) we found no significant indication for extensions to the standard $\\Lambda$-CDM scenario, with the notable exception of the angular power spectrum lensing amplitude, $A_{\\rm lens}$ that is larger than the expected value at more than two standard deviations even when combining the Planck data with BAO and supernovae type Ia external datasets. In our extended cosmological framework, we find that a combined Planck+BAO analysis co...

  6. Extended external hemipelvectomy for sigmoid adenocarcinoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Ribas Dias dos; Schiavinatto, Luciane; Telles, Mário Luis; Moreira, Adriana Eliza Brasil; Mainardi, João Paulo Aguiar Jordão

    2010-10-01

    Surgery is the most effective way of treating a locally advanced colorectal carcinoma and an extended en bloc resection is necessary to achieve the best overall survival rate. In this rare case, a multi-visceral resection was performed along with the entire lower left limb and left iliac bone for a sigmoid carcinoma. The T4N0M0 (B3) tumor involved the left iliac vessels, left pelvic wall, small bowel and both rectus muscles, besides presenting with a skin fistula. A Hartmann colostomy was also performed. Chemotherapy was interrupted because of toxicity. The patient is free of disease after 38 months. There are very few cases that describe an extended hemipelvectomy as part of a colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  7. An extended retinotopic map of mouse cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Ng, Lydia; Williams, Derric; Valley, Matthew; Li, Yang; Garrett, Marina; Waters, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Visual perception and behavior are mediated by cortical areas that have been distinguished using architectonic and retinotopic criteria. We employed fluorescence imaging and GCaMP6 reporter mice to generate retinotopic maps, revealing additional regions of retinotopic organization that extend into barrel and retrosplenial cortices. Aligning retinotopic maps to architectonic borders, we found a mismatch in border location, indicating that architectonic borders are not aligned with the retinotopic transition at the vertical meridian. We also assessed the representation of visual space within each region, finding that four visual areas bordering V1 (LM, P, PM and RL) display complementary representations, with overlap primarily at the central hemifield. Our results extend our understanding of the organization of mouse cortex to include up to 16 distinct retinotopically organized regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18372.001 PMID:28059700

  8. Thermalization and pseudolocality in extended quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it was understood that extended concepts of locality played important roles in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by response functions. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states: clustering states connected to the infinite-temperature state by paths whose tangents are actions of pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to ...

  9. Quantum Measurement and Extended Feynman Path Integral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文伟; 白彦魁

    2012-01-01

    Quantum measurement problem has existed many years and inspired a large of literature in both physics and philosophy, but there is still no conclusion and consensus on it. We show it can be subsumed into the quantum theory if we extend the Feynman path integral by considering the relativistic effect of Feynman paths. According to this extended theory, we deduce not only the Klein-Gordon equation, but also the wave-function-collapse equation. It is shown that the stochastic and instantaneous collapse of the quantum measurement is due to the "potential noise" of the apparatus or environment and "inner correlation" of wave function respectively. Therefore, the definite-status of the macroscopic matter is due to itself and this does not disobey the quantum mechanics. This work will give a new recognition for the measurement problem.

  10. Assessing change with the extended logistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristante, Francesca; Robusto, Egidio

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to define a method for the assessment of change. A reinterpretation of the extended logistic model is proposed. The extended logistic model for the assessment of change (ELMAC) allows the definition of a time parameter which is supposed to identify whether change occurs during a period of time, given a specific event or phenomenon. The assessment of a trend of change through time, on the basis of the time parameter which is estimated at different successive occasions during a period of time, is also considered. In addition, a dispersion parameter is calculated which identifies whether change is consistent at each time point. The issue of independence is taken into account both in relation to the time parameter and the dispersion parameter. An application of the ELMAC in a learning process is presented. The interpretation of the model parameters and the model fit statistics is consistent with expectations.

  11. GQL: Extending XQuery to Query GML Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jihong; ZHU Fubao; ZHOU Jiaogen; NIU Liping

    2006-01-01

    GML is becoming the de facto standard for electronic data exchange among the applications of Web and distributed geographic information systems. However, the conventional query languages (e.g. SQL and its extended versions) are not suitable for direct querying and updating of GML documents. Even the effective approaches working well with XML could not guarantee good results when applied to GML documents. Although XQuery is a powerful standard query language for XML, it is not proposed for querying spatial features, which constitute the most important components in GML documents. We propose GQL, a query language specification to support spatial queries over GML documents by extending XQuery. The data model, algebra, and formal semantics as well as various spatial functions and operations of GQL are presented in detail.

  12. Korea Peninsula Landscape Extends from Continent End

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Korea peninsula extends southward from the eastern end of the Asian continent. It is divided just slightly north of the 38th parallel. The peninsula is roughly 1020 km(612 miles) long and 175 km(105 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Korean people are big sports fans. During the past 20 years, Korea has hosted many international sports events including the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games and the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and has achieved excellent results in various sports competitions.

  13. FRW Cosmology with the Extended Chaplygin Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pourhassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose extended Chaplygin gas equation of state for which it recovers barotropic fluid with quadratic equation of state. We use numerical method to investigate the behavior of some cosmological parameters such as scale factor, Hubble expansion parameter, energy density, and deceleration parameter. We also discuss the resulting effective equation of state parameter. Using density perturbations we investigate the stability of the theory.

  14. Condensed Extended Hyper-Wiener Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-Hua; Abraham F. Jalbout; JI Zhi

    2008-01-01

    According to the definitions of molecular connectivity and hyper-Wiener index, a novel set of hyper-Wiener indexes (Dn, mDn) were defined and named as condensed extended hyper-Wiener index, the potential usefulness of which in QSAR/QSPR is evaluated by its correlation with a number of C3-C8 alkanes as well as by a favorable comparison with models based on molecular connectivity index and overall Wiener index.

  15. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  16. Extended degree functions and monomial modules

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The arithmetic degree, the smallest extended degree, and the homological degree are invariants that have been proposed as alternatives of the degree of a module if this module is not Cohen-Macaulay. We compare these degree functions and study their behavior when passing to the generic initial or the lexicographic submodule. This leads to various bounds and to counterexamples to a conjecture of Gunston and Vasconcelos, respectively. Particular attention is given to the class of sequentially Co...

  17. Extending Science lessons with Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina; Tilling, Steve; Needham, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Open University, Field Studies Council and Association for Science Education are conducting research into the use of Google Expeditions and other virtual reality tools to a) augment and extend field work experiences; and b) as an additional tool in the classrooms along with resources such as videos, photographs. \\ud \\ud The following aspects were discussed in this workshop:\\ud \\ud Does the virtual reality technology improve student engagement, and what are the implications for teachers?\\u...

  18. From self-organized to extended criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLovecchio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We address the issue of criticality that is attracting the attention of an increasing number of neurophysiologists. Our main purpose is to establish the specific nature of some dynamical processes that although physically different, are usually termed as "critical", and we focus on those characterized by the cooperative interaction of many units. We notice that the term "criticality" has been adopted to denote both noise-induced phase transitions and Self-Organized Criticality (SOC with no clear connection with the traditional phase transitions, namely the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one state of matter to another. We notice the recent attractive proposal of extended criticality advocated by Bailly and Longo, which is realized through a wide set of critical points rather than emerging as a singularity from a unique value of the control parameter. We study a set of cooperatively firing neurons and we show that for an extended set of interaction couplings the system exhibits a form of temporal complexity similar to that emerging at criticality from ordinary phase transitions. This extended criticality regime is characterized by three main properties: i In the ideal limiting case of infinitely large time period, temporal complexity corresponds to Mittag-Leffler complexity; ii For large values of the interaction coupling the periodic nature of the process becomes predominant while maintaining to some extent, in the intermediate time asymptotic region, the signature of complexity; iii Focusing our attention on firing neuron avalanches, we find two of the popular SOC properties, namely the power indexes 2 and 1.5 respectively for time length and for the intensity of the avalanches. We derive the conclusion that SOC emerges from extended criticality, thereby explaining the experimental observation of Plenz and Beggs: avalanches occur in time with surprisingly regularity, in apparent conflict with he temporal complexity of physical

  19. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  20. Changing Requirements of Assurance and Extended Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Larsen, eds., Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History, Vol. II (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC - CLIO, 2005...Appendix A Abbreviations ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile ABMT Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty AEIO Atomic Energy Organization of Iran AKP Justice and... ABC -CLIO, 2005. Thranert, Oliver. “NATO, Missile Defence and Extended Deterrence.” Survival 51:6 (December2009-January 2010): 63–75. Wheeler

  1. The Extended Fock Basis of Clifford Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Budinich, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the Extended Fock Basis (EFB) of Clifford algebras introduced in [1]. We show that a Clifford algebra can be seen as a direct sum of multiple spinor subspaces that are characterized as being left eigenvectors of $\\Gamma$. We also show that a simple spinor, expressed in Fock basis, can have a maximum number of non zero coordinates that equals the size of the maximal totally null plane (with the notable exception of vectorial spaces with 6 dimensions).

  2. The Extended Fock Basis of Clifford Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the Extended Fock Basis (EFB) of Clifford algebras introduced in [1]. We show that a Clifford algebra can be seen as a direct sum of multiple spinor subspaces that are characterized as being left eigenvectors of \\Gamma. We also show that a simple spinor, expressed in Fock basis, can have a maximum number of non zero coordinates that equals the size of the maximal totally null plane (with the notable exception of vectorial spaces with 6 dimensions).

  3. Knowledge Management System Design using Extended Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Pooja; 10.5121/ijcnc.2011.3109

    2011-01-01

    An efficient Learning resource centre can be achieved with the help of a network of collaborating, coordinating and communicating software agents. Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting new means of analysing, designing and building complex software systems. The designing of the interacting agents is done with the help of Gaia, extended for the multiagent systems. Gaia is a methodology for agent-oriented analysis and design proposed by M. Wooldridge [9].

  4. Knowledge Management System Design Using Extended Gaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient Learning resource centre can be achieved with the help of a network of collaborating,coordinating and communicating software agents. Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting newmeans of analysing, designing and building complex software systems. The designing of the interactingagents is done with the help of Gaia, extended for the multiagent systems. Gaia is a methodology foragent-oriented analysis and design proposed by M. Wooldridge [9].

  5. An Extended Colored Zee-Babu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    We study the extended colored Zee-Babu model introducing a vector-like quark and singlet scalar. The active neutrino mass matrix and muon anomalous magnetic moment are analyzed, which can be fitted to experimental data satisfying the constraints from flavor changing neutral current. Then we discuss signature of our model via vector-like quark production. In addition, the diphoton excess can be explained with the contribution from vector-like quark

  6. Extending DUNE: The dune-xt modules

    OpenAIRE

    Leibner, Tobias; Milk, René; Schindler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We present our effort to extend and complement the core modules of the Distributed and Unified Numerics Environment DUNE (http://dune-project.org) by a well tested and structured collection of utilities and concepts. We describe key elements of our four modules dune-xt-common, dune-xt-grid, dune-xt-la and dune-xt-functions, which aim at further enabling the programming of generic algorithms within DUNE as well as adding an extra layer of usability and convenience.

  7. Rugged, Tunable Extended-Cavity Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Donald; Brinza, David; Seidel, David; Klipstein, William; Choi, Dong Ho; Le, Lam; Zhang, Guangzhi; Iniguez, Roberto; Tang, Wade

    2007-01-01

    A rugged, tunable extended-cavity diode laser (ECDL) has been developed to satisfy stringent requirements for frequency stability, notably including low sensitivity to vibration. This laser is designed specifically for use in an atomic-clock experiment to be performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Lasers of similar design would be suitable for use in terrestrial laboratories engaged in atomic-clock and atomic-physics research.

  8. The renewable tradition (extended play remix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Amerika

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a network of appropriation artists, process philosophers, performance poets, pla(ygiarists, and other remix provocateurs, this experimental artist essay investigates the act of remixologically inhabiting the body language of others and, in the process, devises an aesthetic theory that situates the contemporary artist as a "postproduction medium" whose methodologies further extend avant-garde practice into the 21st century.

  9. Mobile Agent PLM Architecture for extended enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhak Boulaalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays manufacturers are under increased pressure to have an add value for their products to struggle the low-cost production in emerging countries. Distributed control and Intelligent Product are a new and exciting opportunity to build more effective process networks for a wide range of applications in logistics and product development, Radio Frequency Identification is applied increasingly; this technology applied in conjunction with the Mobile Agent system can bring more values in managing and control the lifecycle of products by optimizing the three essential factors: cost, quality and deadline for the survival of a company in the competitive manufacturing world. In this paper we propose Mobile Agent PLM Architecture for extended enterprise, based on Mobile Agent and RFID or, more generally, Product Embedded Information Devices (PEID, for tracking and managing the information of the whole product lifecycle in the extended enterprise, and to satisfy new requirements for increased integrability, traceability, adaptability, extendibility, and closed-loop PLM. Mobile Agents are suitable for tracking information in distributing environment and the mobility aspect, at any time and any place. This paper proposes a first architecture based on these technologies.

  10. Inviscid Analysis of Extended Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Ning, Simeon Andrew; Nemec, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Flying airplanes in extended formations, with separation distances of tens of wingspans, significantly improves safety while maintaining most of the fuel savings achieved in close formations. The present study investigates the impact of roll trim and compressibility at fixed lift coefficient on the benefits of extended formation flight. An Euler solver with adjoint-based mesh refinement combined with a wake propagation model is used to analyze a two-body echelon formation at a separation distance of 30 spans. Two geometries are examined: a simple wing and a wing-body geometry. Energy savings, quantified by both formation drag fraction and span efficiency factor, are investigated at subsonic and transonic speeds for a matrix of vortex locations. The results show that at fixed lift and trimmed for roll, the optimal location of vortex impingement is about 10% inboard of the trailing airplane s wing-tip. Interestingly, early results show the variation in drag fraction reduction is small in the neighborhood of the optimal position. Over 90% of energy benefits can be obtained with a 5% variation in transverse and 10% variation in crossflow directions. Early results suggest control surface deflections required to achieve trim reduce the benefits of formation flight by 3-5% at subsonic speeds. The final paper will include transonic effects and trim on extended formation flight drag benefits.

  11. Extended-reach wells tap outlying reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazzal, G. (Eastman Teleco, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Extended-reach drilling (ERD) is being used to exploit fields and reserves that are located far from existing platforms. Effective wellbore placement from fewer platforms can reduce development costs, maximize production and increase reserve recovery. Six wells drilled offshore in the US, North Sea and Australia illustrate how to get the most economic benefit from available infrastructure. These wells are divided into three categories by depth (shallow, medium and deep). Vertical depth of these wells range from 963 to 12,791 ft TVD and displacements range from 4,871 to 23,917 ft. Important factors for successful extended-reach drilling included: careful, comprehensive pre-planning; adequate cuttings removal in all sections; hole stability in long, exposed intervals; torque and drag modeling of drilling BHAs, casing and liners; buoyancy-assisted casing techniques where appropriate; critical modifications to drilling rig and top drive, for medium and deep ERD; modified power swivels for shallow operations; drill pipe rubbers or other casing protection during extended periods of drill string rotation; heavy-wall casting across anticipated high-wear areas; survey accuracy and frequency; sound drilling practices and creativity to accomplish goals and objectives. This paper reviews the case history of these sites and records planning and design procedures.

  12. Why an extended evolutionary synthesis is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerd B

    2017-10-06

    Since the last major theoretical integration in evolutionary biology-the modern synthesis (MS) of the 1940s-the biosciences have made significant advances. The rise of molecular biology and evolutionary developmental biology, the recognition of ecological development, niche construction and multiple inheritance systems, the '-omics' revolution and the science of systems biology, among other developments, have provided a wealth of new knowledge about the factors responsible for evolutionary change. Some of these results are in agreement with the standard theory and others reveal different properties of the evolutionary process. A renewed and extended theoretical synthesis, advocated by several authors in this issue, aims to unite pertinent concepts that emerge from the novel fields with elements of the standard theory. The resulting theoretical framework differs from the latter in its core logic and predictive capacities. Whereas the MS theory and its various amendments concentrate on genetic and adaptive variation in populations, the extended framework emphasizes the role of constructive processes, ecological interactions and systems dynamics in the evolution of organismal complexity as well as its social and cultural conditions. Single-level and unilinear causation is replaced by multilevel and reciprocal causation. Among other consequences, the extended framework overcomes many of the limitations of traditional gene-centric explanation and entails a revised understanding of the role of natural selection in the evolutionary process. All these features stimulate research into new areas of evolutionary biology.

  13. Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design.

  14. Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Salopek, David S.; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The density fluctuations (both curvature and isocurvature) that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory are calculated. Curvature fluctuations arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field, in general have a nonscale-invariant spectrum, and can have an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The density perturbations that arise due to the inflation field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies.

  15. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  16. [Preliminary clinical evaluation of continuous infusion of 5-FU and low-dose Cisplatin (LFP) therapy alone and combined with radiation therapy for treatment of advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Morita, Sojiro; Ohnishi, Takenao; Tsuji, Akihito; Takamatsu, Masahiro; Horimi, Tadashi

    2002-02-01

    We evaluated the clinical effect of 5-FU and low-dose Cisplatin (LFP) therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy in patients with advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer. From March 1995 to September 2000, 11 patients with inoperable esophageal cancer, 8 patients with adjuvant chemotherapy post operation, and 14 patients with recurrent esophageal cancer were treated with LFP therapy. 5-FU (160 mg/m2/day) was continuously infused over 24 hours, and CDDP (3-7 mg/m2/day) was infused for 30 minutes. The administration schedule consisted of 5-FU for 7 consecutive days and CDDP for 5 days followed by a 2-day rest, each for four weeks. We combined radiation therapy for the patients with all lesions that could be included in the radiation field. Of 30 patients with measurable lesions the response rates of LFP therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy were 33% and 60%, respectively. Toxicity over grade 3 appeared in 3 of 15 patients with LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy. There was no significant difference between LFP therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy with regard to survival rate of inoperable and recurrent esophageal cancer. In conclusion, LFP therapy alone may be effective for esophageal cancer.

  17. Preliminary clinical evaluation of continuous infusion of 5-FU and low-dose cisplatin (LFP) therapy alone and combined with radiation therapy for treatment of advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Morita, Sojiro; Ohnishi, Takenao; Tsuji, Akihito; Takamatsu, Masahiro; Horimi, Tadashi [Kochi Municipal Central Hospital, Nankoku (Japan). Cancer Research Center

    2002-02-01

    We evaluated the clinical effect of 5-FU and low-dose Cisplatin (LFP) therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy in patients with advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer. From March 1995 to September 2000, 11 patients with inoperable esophageal cancer, 8 patients with adjuvant chemotherapy post operation, and 14 patients with recurrent esophageal cancer were treated with LFP therapy. 5-FU (160 mg/m{sup 2}/day) was continuously infused over 24 hours, and CDDP (3-7 mg/m{sup 2}/day) was infused for 30 minutes. The administration schedule consisted of 5-FU for 7 consecutive days and CDDP for 5 days followed by a 2-day rest, each for four weeks. We combined radiation therapy for the patients with all lesions that could be included in the radiation field. Of 30 patients with measurable lesions the response rates of LFP therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy were 33% and 60%, respectively. Toxicity over grade 3 appeared in 3 of 15 patients with LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy. There was no significant difference between LFP therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy with regard to survival rate of inoperable and recurrent esophageal cancer. In conclusion, LFP therapy alone may be effective for esophageal cancer. (author)

  18. The Use of Homework in Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Working with Complex Anxiety and Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Homework, or self-help, is an essential and required part of cognitive behavioral treatment. It offers several opportunities for the therapist to extend and increase therapy contact by having the patient "live" the therapy outside of the consulting room. It can also serve as a measure of the patient's motivation for therapy or for change. Homework…

  19. Laterally extended endopelvic resection (LEER)--principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckel, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Exenteration has been used for the last 6 decades, mainly to treat cancers of the lower and middle female genital tract in the irradiated pelvis. New ablative techniques based on developmentally derived surgical anatomy termed laterally extended endopelvic resection (LEER) aim to increase the curative resection rate, even of tumors extending to and fixed to the pelvic side wall. LEER is performed as a combination of at least two of the following procedures: total mesorectal excision, total mesometrial resection, and total mesovesical resection. In cases of lateral tumor fixation, the inclusion of pelvic side wall and floor muscles, such as the obturator internus muscle and pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus and coccygeus muscles, and eventually of the internal iliac vessel system assures the completeness of the multicompartmental resection. One hundred patients with locally advanced (n=25) and recurrent (n=75) gynecologic tumors have been treated with these new procedures. In 76 patients, the tumors were fixed to the pelvic side wall. Two patients with advanced age and extensive comorbidity died during the early postoperative period. Moderate and severe treatment-related morbidity was 70%, mainly due to compromised healing of irradiated tissue and the performance of complex reconstructions. At a median follow-up period of 30 months (range, 1-136 months), 5-year recurrence-free and disease-specific overall survival probabilities are 62% (95% CI, 52-72%) and 55% (95% CI, 43-67%), respectively. LEER has significant potential to salvage selected patients with locally advanced and recurrent gynecologic malignancies, including those with pelvic side wall disease, traditionally not considered for surgical therapy.

  20. Camouflage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, V L

    1995-04-01

    Camouflage therapy is a system of cosmetic techniques designed for patients to use to assist themselves in coping constructively with the psychological and physical trauma of their disfigurements. It is described as a "system" because these techniques are interrelated. A camouflage therapist may teach the patient to use one, two, or all of the techniques at the same time in order to normalize their appearance. Four basic techniques have been described in this article. They are as follows: (1) the use of opaque, waterproof cover creams to conceal scarring; (2) the application of pancake makeup for patients with oily or acne-prone skin; (3) color correctors to obliterate discoloration from postoperative trauma; and (4) recreating imperfections on the skin. For more information about the use of cosmetics to normalize the appearance of physical disfigurements, the following books are recommended.

  1. Potential role of gabapentin and extended- release gabapentin in the management of menopausal hot flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Manisha Yadav, Judith Volkar Center for Specialized Women’s Health, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Abstract: About 80% of postmenopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats – symptoms that are associated with sleep disruption and can lead to fatigue and mood changes. Moreover, hot flashes can be embarrassing for women, causing difficulties at work and in their social lives. Many therapies have been advocated for relief of vasomotor symptoms, but only hormone therapy has been US Food and Drug Administration approved. However, after the Women's Health Initiative Study suggested that there was a correlation between hormone therapy and increased risk for breast cancer and cardiovascular events, many women stopped taking hormone therapy, and many do not want to initiate it. Hormone therapy is also contraindicated in certain women, such as those with a history of hormone-stimulated cancer like breast and uterine cancer. Gabapentin (Neurontin has shown efficacy in relieving vasomotor symptoms and is used as off-label for this indication. A new extended-release formulation of gabapentin has also shown efficacy in treating hot flashes and improving sleep quality with possibly fewer side effects than regular gabapentin. Keywords: Hot flushes, vasomotor symptoms, postmenopausal, hormone-sensitive cancer, non-hormonal therapy, gastric-retentive, Breeze

  2. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed-Abolfazl Afjeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, prolonged hospital course (HC and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Materials and Methods Prospective study in VLBW neonates admitted to NICU and survived > 2 W, from July 2011 - June 2012. All relevant perinatal and postnatal data including duration of antibiotics therapy (Group I 2W and outcome up to the time of discharge or death were documented and compared. Results Out of 145 newborns included in the study, 62 were in group I, and 83 in Group II. Average duration of antibiotic therapy was 14 days (range 3 - 62 days; duration in Group I and Group II was 10 ± 2.3 vs 25.5 ± 10.5 days. Hospital stay was 22.3 ± 11.5 vs 44.3 ± 14.7 days, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed following risk factors as significant for prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy: VLBW especially stage II, 12 (8.3% newborns died. Infant mortality alone and with LOS/NEC was higher in group II as compared to group I (P < 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy caused increasing rates of LOS, NEC, HC and infant mortality.

  3. Extended quantification of the generalized recurrence plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Maik; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The generalized recurrence plot is a modern tool for quantification of complex spatial patterns. Its application spans the analysis of trabecular bone structures, Turing structures, turbulent spatial plankton patterns, and fractals. But, it is also successfully applied to the description of spatio-temporal dynamics and the detection of regime shifts, such as in the complex Ginzburg-Landau- equation. The recurrence plot based determinism is a central measure in this framework quantifying the level of regularities in temporal and spatial structures. We extend this measure for the generalized recurrence plot considering additional operations of symmetry than the simple translation. It is tested not only on two-dimensional regular patterns and noise but also on complex spatial patterns reconstructing the parameter space of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. The extended version of the determinism resulted in values which are consistent to the original recurrence plot approach. Furthermore, the proposed method allows a split of the determinism into parts which based on laminar and non-laminar regions of the two-dimensional pattern of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. A comparison of these parts with a standard method of image classification, the co-occurrence matrix approach, shows differences especially in the description of patterns associated with turbulence. In that case, it seems that the extended version of the determinism allows a distinction of phase turbulence and defect turbulence by means of their spatial patterns. This ability of the proposed method promise new insights in other systems with turbulent dynamics coming from climatology, biology, ecology, and social sciences, for example.

  4. Implementing extended observing at the JCMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Craig; Dempsey, Jessica; Campbell, Ian

    2014-08-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is the largest single dish submillimetre telescope in the world. Recently the Joint Astronomy Centre (JAC) has learned that the JCMT will no longer receive financial support from its original supporting agencies after September 2014. There is significant pressure to complete some surveys that have been in progress at the JCMT for many years now. With the goal of completing a higher percentage of these surveys it was decided to take advantage of the hours between when the telescope operator leaves the telescope and when the day crew arrives. These hours generally have reasonable seeing and low column integrated water vapor, so they are good for observing. This observing is being performed remotely, in Hilo, without staff at the telescope, by staff members who do not have telescope operation as part of their job descriptions. This paper describes the hardware changes necessary to implement remote observing at JCMT. It also describes the software needed for remote, fail safe, operation of the telescope. The protocols and rules for passing the control of the telescope between the various groups are discussed. Since these Extended Operators are not expert telescope operators, the system was simplified as much as possible, but some training was necessary and proper checklists are essential. Due to the success of the first phase of Extending Observing at the JCMT, the hours when the weather is good and no one is at the telescope, but no day crew is on the way, are also now being utilized. Extended Observing has already yielded a considerable amount of science observing time.

  5. Extended technicolor contribution to the Zbb vertex

    CERN Document Server

    Hagiwara, K; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Kitazawa, Noriaki

    1995-01-01

    We show that the flavor-diagonal gauge boson of the extended technicolor theory contributes with opposite sign to the standard model correction for the Zbb vertex. This mechanism can naturally explain the deviation of the LEP result from the standard model prediction for the partial width \\Gamma(Z \\rightarrow b{\\bar b}). A smaller value of the QCD coupling, \\alpha_s(m_Z) \\simeq 0.115, is then preferred by the \\Gamma(Z \\rightarrow \\mbox{hadron}) data, which is consistent with both the recent Lattice-QCD estimate and the Particle Data Group average.

  6. Congruence Permutable Symmetric Extended de Morgan Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie FANG

    2006-01-01

    An algebra A is said to be congruence permutable if any two congruences on it are per-mutable. This property has been investigated in several varieties of algebras, for example, de Morgan algebras, p-algebras, Kn,o-algebras. In this paper, we study the class of symmetric extended de Morgan algebras that are congruence permutable. In particular we consider the case where A is finite, and show that A is congruence permutable if and only if it is isomorphic to a direct product of finitely many simple algebras.

  7. Extendable retractable telescopic mast for deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M.; Aguirre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Extendable and Retractable Mast (ERM) which is presently developed by Dornier in the frame of an ESA-contract, will be used to deploy and retract large foldable structures. The design is based on a telescopic carbon-fiber structure with high stiffness, strength and pointing accuracy. To verify the chosen design, a breadboard model of an ERM was built and tested under thermal vacuum (TV)-conditions. It is planned as a follow-on development to manufacture and test an Engineering Model Mast. The Engineering Model will be used to establish the basis for an ERM-family covering a wide range of requirements.

  8. Extended Analysis on New Generalized Chaplygin Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; WU Ya-Bo; WANG Di; YANG Wei-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We extend the study of the new generalizeal Chaplygin gas (NGCG) based on [J.Cosmol.Astropart.Phys.0601 (2006) 003].Specifically,we not only discuss the change rates of the energy densities and the energy transfer of this model,but also perform the Om diagnostic to differentiate the ACDM model from the NGCG and the GCG models.Furthermore,in order to consider the influence of dark energy on structure formation,we also present the evolution of the growth index in this scenario with interaction.

  9. Extended HI disks in nearby spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Albert

    2017-03-01

    In this short write-up, I will concentrate on a few topics of interest. In the 1970s I found very extended HI disks in galaxies such as NGC 5055 and NGC 2841, out to 2 - 2.5 times the Holmberg radius. Since these galaxies are warped, a ``tilted ring model'' allows rotation curves to be derived, and evidence for dark matter to be found. The evaluation of the amount of dark matter is hampered by a disk-halo degeneracy, which can possibly be broken by observations of velocity dispersions in both the MgI region and the CaII region.

  10. Extended HI disks in nearby spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bosma, A

    2016-01-01

    In this short write-up, I will concentrate on a few topics of interest. In the 1970s I found very extended HI disks in galaxies such as NGC 5055 and NGC 2841, out to 2 - 2.5 times the Holmberg radius. Since these galaxies are warped, a "tilted ring model" allows rotation curves to be derived, and evidence for dark matter to be found. The evaluation of the amount of dark matter is hampered by a disk-halo degeneracy, which can possibly be broken by observations of velocity dispersions in both the MgI region and the CaII region.

  11. Self-gravitating systems in Extended Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Stabile, A

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the weak field limit, we discuss astrophysical applications of Extended Theories of Gravity where higher order curvature invariants and scalar fields are considered by generalizing the Hilbert-Einstein action linear in the Ricci curvature scalar $R$. Results are compared to General Relativity in the hypothesis that Dark Matter contributions to the dynamics can be neglected thanks to modified gravity. In particular, we consider stellar hydrostatic equilibrium, galactic rotation curves, and gravitational lensing. Finally, we discuss the weak field limit in the Jordan and Einstein frames pointing out how effective quantities, as gravitational potentials, transform from one frame to the other and the interpretation of results can completely change accordingly.

  12. Extended tree-level gauge mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, M.; Nardecchia, M.; Romanino, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Tree-level gauge mediation (TGM) is a scenario of SUSY breaking in which the tree-level exchange of heavy (possibly GUT) vector fields generates flavor-universal sfermion masses. In this work we extend this framework to the case of E(6) that is the natural extension of the minimal case studied so...... if the gauge group does not contain SU(5). If SUSY breaking is mediated purely by the U(1) generator that commutes with SO(10) we obtain universal sfermion masses and thus can derive the CMSSM boundary conditions in a novel scenario....

  13. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources.  . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013.  . ·         Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. ·         Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book.  . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain

  14. EXTENDED CASIMIR APPROACH TO CONTROLLED HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqian GUO; Daizhan CHENG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose an extended Casimir method for energy-shaping. Then it is used to solve some control problems of Hamiltonian systems. To solve the H∞ control problem, the energy function of a Hamiltonian system is shaped to such a form that could be a candidate solution of HJI inequality. Next, the energy function is shaped as a candidate of control ISS-Lyapunov function, and then the input-to-state stabilization of port-controlled Hamiltonian systems is achieved. Some easily verifiable sufficient conditions are presented.

  15. Noether symmetries in extended gravity quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the use of Noether symmetries in Minisuperspace Quantum Cosmology. In particular, we consider minisuperspace models, showing that the existence of conserved quantities gives selection rules that allow to recover classical behaviors in cosmic evolution according to the so called Hartle criterion. Such a criterion selects correlated regions in the configuration space of dynamical variables whose meaning is related to the emergence of classical observable universes. Some minisuperspace models are worked out starting from Extended Gravity, in particular coming from scalar tensor, f(R) and f(T) theories. Exact cosmological solutions are derived.

  16. Improving epidemic control strategies by extended detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Paweł; Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Majority of epidemics eradication programs work in preventive responsive way. The lack of exact information about epidemiological status of individuals makes responsive actions less efficient. Here, we demonstrate that additional tests can significantly increase the efficiency of "blind" treatment (vaccination or culling). Eradication strategy consisting of "blind" treatment in very limited local neighborhood supplemented by extra tests in a little bit larger neighborhood is able to prevent invasion of even highly infectious diseases and to achieve this at a cost lower than for the "blind" strategy. The effectiveness of the extended strategy depends on such parameters as the test efficiency and test cost.

  17. Extending maps between pre-uniform spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Adalberto García-Máynez; Rubén Mancio-Toledo

    2012-01-01

    [EN] We give sufficient conditions on a uniformly continuous map f: (X,U) → (Y, V ) between completable T1-pre-uniform spaces (X,U), (Y, V ) to have a continuous or a uniformly continuous extension f:X → Y between the corresponding completions. García-Máynez, A.; Mancio-Toledo, R. (2012). Extending maps between pre-uniform spaces. Applied General Topology. 13(1):21-25. doi:10.4995/agt.2012.1634. 21 25 13 1

  18. Extended Global Convergence Framework for Unconstrained Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)rpád B(U)RMEN; Franc BRATKOVI(C); Janez PUHAN; Iztok FAJFAR; Tadej TUMA

    2004-01-01

    An extension of the global convergence framework for unconstrained derivative-free optimization methods is presented. The extension makes it possible for the framework to include optimization methods with varying cardinality of the ordered direction set. Grid-based search methods are shown to be a special case of the more general extended global convergence framework. Furthermore,the required properties of the sequence of ordered direction sets listed in the definition of grid-based methods are re]axed and simplified by removing the requirement of structural equivalence.

  19. Assurance and US extended deterrence in NATO

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The NATO allies agreed at the Strasbourg/Kehl summit in April 2009 to prepare a new Strategic Concept for approval at their next summit. One of the issues in the Strategic Concept review will be the alliance’s nuclear deterrence posture and policy. While three members of the alliance (Britain, France and the United States) are nuclear powers, historically the greatest amount of attention has been focused on US ‘extended deterrence’—that is, the extension by Washington of an ...

  20. Resonance regions of extended Mathieu equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyonov, V. P.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    One of the mechanisms of energy transfer between degrees of freedom of dusty plasma system is based on parametric resonance. Initial stage of this process can de described by equation similar to Mathieu equation. Such equation is studied by analytical and numerical approach. The numerical solution of the extended Mathieu equation is obtained for a wide range of parameter values. Boundaries of resonance regions, growth rates of amplitudes and times of onset are obtained. The energy transfer between the degrees of freedom of dusty plasma system can occur over a wide range of frequencies.

  1. Simulating futures in extended common LISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1988-01-01

    Stack-groups comprise the mechanism underlying implementation of multiprocessing in Extended Common LISP, i.e., running multiple quasi-simultaneous processes within a single LISP address space. On the other hand, the future construct of MULTILISP, an extension of the LISP dialect scheme, deals with parallel execution. The source of concurrency that future exploits is the overlap between computation of a value and use of the value. Described is a simulation of the future construct by an interpreter utilizing stack-group extensions to common LISP.

  2. Primordial fluctuations in extended Liouville theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wynton E.

    2015-03-01

    Liouville gravity can be used to precisely model features of 3+1 dimensional cosmology in a simplified 1+1d setting. We study primordial fluctuations in a generally covariant extension of Liouville theory, in the context of single field inflation. The scale invariant spectrum of scalar curvature perturbations is exhibited, and their three-point correlation function is computed in the slow roll approximation. We recover Maldacena's consistency relation for the three-point function, which in this context depends on a global shift symmetry of extended Liouville theory.

  3. Primordial fluctuations in extended Liouville theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Wynton E

    2014-01-01

    Liouville gravity can be used to precisely model features of 3+1 dimensional cosmology in a simplified 1+1d setting. We study primordial fluctuations in a generally covariant extension of Liouville theory, in the context of single field inflation. The scale invariant spectrum of scalar curvature perturbations is exhibited, and their three-point correlation function is computed in the slow roll approximation. We recover Maldacena's consistency relation for the three-point function, which in this context depends on a global shift symmetry of extended Liouville theory.

  4. Extending supplementary feeding for children younger than 5 years with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Rural Malawian children 6 to 59 months old with MAM, defin...

  5. Predicting carriage with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria at hospital admission : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, T. N.; Leverstein-van Hall, M. A.; Cohen Stuart, J. W.; Thijsen, S. F T; Mascini, E. M.; van Hees, B. C.; Scharringa, J.; Fluit, A. C.; Bonten, M. J M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of patients colonized with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria increases, especially in long-term-care facilities (LTCFs). Identification of ESBL carriers at hospital admission is relevant for infection control measures and antibiotic therapy for nosocomial infe

  6. Optimal guidance of extended trajectory shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui; Lin Defu; Cheng Zhenxuan; Wang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    To control missile’s miss distance as well as terminal impact angle, by involving the time-to-go-nth power in the cost function, an extended optimal guidance law against a constant maneu-vering target or a stationary target is proposed using the linear quadratic optimal control theory. An extended trajectory shaping guidance (ETSG) law is then proposed under the assumption that the missile-target relative velocity is constant and the line of sight angle is small. For a lag-free ETSG system, closed-form solutions for the missile’s acceleration command are derived by the method of Schwartz inequality and linear simulations are performed to verify the closed-form results. Normalized adjoint systems for miss distance and terminal impact angle error are presented independently for stationary targets and constant maneuvering targets, respectively. Detailed discussions about the terminal misses and impact angle errors induced by terminal impact angle constraint, initial heading error, seeker zero position errors and target maneuvering, are performed.

  7. Fundamentals of Physics, Extended 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

  8. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  9. Extended arrays for nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2016-01-01

    This study implements nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) with multifrequency intermodulation and phase encoding. An imaging grid was constructed of cylindrical wells of 3.5-mm diameter and 4.2-mm height on a hexagonal two-dimensional 61-voxel pattern with 5-mm spacing. Patterns of sample wells were filled with 40-μl volumes of Fe3O4 starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm and a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The imaging hardware was configured with three excitation coils and three detection coils in anticipation that a larger imaging system will have arrays of excitation and detection coils. Hexagonal and bar patterns of mNP were successfully imaged (R2 > 0.9) at several orientations. This SMI demonstration extends our prior work to feature a larger coil array, enlarged field-of-view, effective phase encoding scheme, reduced mNP sample size, and more complex imaging patterns to test the feasibility of extending the method beyond the pilot scale. The results presented in this study show that nonlinear SMI holds promise for further development into a practical imaging system for medical applications. PMID:26124044

  10. Quasicontinuous functions, domains, and extended calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Cazacu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of domain theory is the construction of an embedding of a given structure or data type as the maximal or “ideal” elements of an enveloping domain of “approximations,” sometimes called a domain environment. Typically the goal is to provide a computational model or framework for recursive and algorithmic reasoning about the original structure. In this paper we consider the function space of (natural equivalence classes of quasicontinuous functions from a locally compact space X into L, an n-fold product of the extended reals [−1,1] (more generally, into a bicontinuous lattice. We show that the domain of all “approximate maps” that assign to each point of X an order interval of L is a domain environment for the quasicontinuous function space. We rely upon the theory of domain environments to introduce an interesting and useful function space topology on the quasicontinuous function space. We then apply this machinery to define an extended differential calculus in the quasicontinuous function space, and draw connections with viscosity solutions of Hamiltonian equations. The theory depends heavily on topological properties of quasicontinuous functions that have been recently uncovered that involve dense sets of points of continuity and sections of closed relations and USCO maps. These and other basic results about quasicontinuous functions are surveyed and presented in the early sections.

  11. Extended parental care in communal social groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Forbes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in social insect research have challenged the need for close kinship as a prerequisite for the evolution of stable group living. In a model communal bee species, Lasioglossum (Chilalictus hemichalceum, previous allozyme work indicated that groups of cooperating adult females are not relatives. Yet at any given time, not all group members perform the risky task of foraging. We previously hypothesized that tolerance for non-foragers was a component of extended parental care, previously known only for kin based social systems. DNA microsatellites were used to study colony genetic structure in order to test this hypothesis. Microsatellite polymorphism was substantial (He = 0.775. Overall intracolony relatedness, mainly of immatures, was low but significant in nine, late season nests (r = 0.136 plus or minus0.023, indicating that broods contain five to six unrelated sib ships. Detailed analyses of kinship between pairs of individuals revealed that most pairs were unrelated and most related pairs were siblings. Mothers are absent for 89-91% of the developing immature females, and 97% of developing males. Alternatively, 46% of adult females had neither sibs nor offspring in their nests. These findings indicate that the extended parental care model applies broadly to both kin based and nonkin based social systems in the Hymenoptera.

  12. Thermoplastic Polyurethanes with Isosorbide Chain Extender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javni, Ivan; Bilic, Olivera; Bilic, Nikola; Petrovic, Zoran; Eastwood, Eric; Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-12-15

    Isosorbide, a renewable diol derived from starch, was used alone or in combination with butane diol (BD) as the chain extender in two series of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) with 50 and 70% polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) soft segment concentration (SSC), respectively. In the synthesized TPUs, the hard segment composition was systematically varied in both series following BD/isosorbide molar ratios of 100 : 0; 75 : 25; 50 : 50; 25 : 75, and 0 : 100 to examine in detail the effect of chain extenders on properties of segmented polyurethane elastomers with different morphologies. We found that polyurethanes with 50% SSC were hard elastomers with Shore D hardness of around 50, which is consistent with assumed co-continuous morphology. Polymers with 70% SSC displayed lower Shore A hardness of 74–79 (Shore D around 25) as a result of globular hard domains dispersed in the soft matrix. Insertion of isosorbide increased rigidity, melting point and glass transition temperature of hard segments and tensile strength of elastomers with 50% SSC. These effects were weaker or non-existent in 70% SSC series due to the short hard segments and low content of isosorbide. We also found that the thermal stability was lowered by increasing isosorbide content in both series.

  13. Extending Conceptual Schemas with Business Process Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brambilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specification of business processes is becoming a more and more critical aspect for organizations. Such processes are specified as workflow models expressing the logical precedence among the different business activities (i.e., the units of work. Typically, workflow models are managed through specific subsystems, called workflow management systems, to ensure a consistent behavior of the applications with respect to the organization business process. However, for small organizations and/or simple business processes, the complexity and capabilities of these dedicated workflow engines may be overwhelming. In this paper, we therefore, advocate for a different and lightweight approach, consisting in the integration of the business process specification within the system conceptual schema. We show how a workflow-extended conceptual schema can be automatically obtained, which serves both to enforce the organization business process and to manage all its relevant domain data in a unified way. This extended model can be directly processed with current CASE tools, for instance, to generate an implementation of the system (including its business process in any technological platform.

  14. Differential Poisson Sigma Models with Extended Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Cesar; Torres-Gomez, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The induced two-dimensional topological N=1 supersymmetric sigma model on a differential Poisson manifold M presented in arXiv:1503.05625 is shown to be a special case of the induced Poisson sigma model on the bi-graded supermanifold T[0,1]M. The bi-degree comprises the standard N-valued target space degree, corresponding to the form degree on the worldsheet, and an additional Z-valued fermion number, corresponding to the degree in the differential graded algebra of forms on M. The N=1 supersymmetry stems from the compatibility between the (extended) differential Poisson bracket and the de Rham differential on M. The latter is mapped to a nilpotent vector field Q of bi-degree (0,1) on T*[1,0](T[0,1]M), and the covariant Hamiltonian action is Q-exact. New extended supersymmetries arise as inner derivatives along special bosonic Killing vectors on M that induce Killing supervector fields of bi-degree (0,-1) on T*[1,0](T[0,1]M).

  15. Agents in grid extended to clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.; Fidanova, S.

    2016-10-01

    The presented work is an attempt to extend considerations from the Agents in Grid (AiG) project to the Clouds. The AiG project is aimed at the development of an agent-semantic infrastructure for efficient resource management in the grid. Decision support within the AIG system helps the user, without in-depth knowledge, to choose optimal algorithm and/or resource to solve a problem from a given domain, and later to choose the best contract defining terms of collaboration with the provider of a resource used to solve the problem. Cloud computing refers to an architecture, in which groups of remote servers are networked, to allow online access to computer services or resources. The general vision is the same as in the case of computational grids, i.e., to reduce cost of computing, as well as to increase flexibility and reliability of the infrastructure. However, there are also important differences. It is relatively easy to notice that solutions considered in the context of the AiG system can be easily extended to computational clouds that evolved from computational grids. As it was shown in the case of grids, integrating software agents, semantics and cloud computing could enable highly efficient, intelligent systems, making clouds even more flexible, autonomic and usable.

  16. Charged Local Defects in Extended Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter A.

    1999-05-25

    The conventional approach to treating charged defects in extended systems in first principles calculations is via the supercell approximation using a neutralizing jellium background charge. I explicitly demonstrate shortcomings of this standard approach and discuss the consequences. Errors in the electrostatic potential surface over the volume of a supercell are shown to be comparable to a band gap energy in semiconductor materials, for cell sizes typically used in first principles simulations. I present an alternate method for eliminating the divergence of the Coulomb potential in supercell calculations of charged defects in extended systems that embodies a correct treatment of the electrostatic potential in the local viciniq of the a charged defect, via a mixed boundary condition approach. I present results of first principles calculations of charged vacancies in NaCl that illustrate the importance of polarization effects once an accurate representation of the local potential is obtained. These polarization effects, poorly captured in small supercells, also impact the energetic on the scale of typical band gap energies.

  17. Mechanics of extended masses in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Harte, Abraham I

    2011-01-01

    The "external" or "bulk" motion of extended bodies is studied in general relativity. Material objects of arbitrary shape, spin, internal composition, and velocity are allowed as long as the metric remains near a vacuum solution (with a possible cosmological constant). Under this restriction, physically reasonable linear and angular momenta are proposed that evolve as though they were the momenta of an extended test body moving in an effective vacuum metric. This result holds to all multipole orders. The portion of the physical metric that does not directly affect the motion is a slightly generalized form of the Detweiler-Whiting S-field originally introduced in the context of self-force. This serves only to (finitely) renormalize the "bare" multipole moments of the object's stress-energy tensor. The MiSaTaQu expression for the gravitational self-force is recovered as a simple application. A gravitational self-torque is obtained as well. Lastly, a certain exact result is derived that may provide a basis for un...

  18. Combined interventional therapies of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Qian; Gan-Sheng Feng; Thomas Vogl

    2003-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonmalignancies in the world, responsible for an estimated one million deaths annually. It has a poor prognosis due to its rapid infiltrating growth and complicating liver cirrhosis.Surgical resection, liver transplantation and cryosurgery are considered the best curative options, achieving a high rate of complete response, especially in patients with small HCC and good residual liver function. In nonsurgery, regional interventional therapies have led to a major breakthrough in the management of unresectable HCC, which include transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave coagulation therapy (MCT), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), etc. As a result of the technical development of locoregional approaches for HCC during the recent decades,the range of combined interventional therapies has been continuously extended. Most combined multimodal interventional therapies reveal their enormous advantages as compared with any single therapeutic regimen alone,and play more important roles in treating unresectable HCC.

  19. A Novel Biped Pattern Generator Based on Extended ZMP and Extended Cart-table Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on planning patterns for biped walking on complex terrains. Two problems are solved: ZMP (zero moment point cannot be used on uneven terrain, and the conventional cart-table model does not allow vertical CM (centre of mass motion. For the ZMP definition problem, we propose the extended ZMP (EZMP concept as an extension of ZMP to uneven terrains. It can be used to judge dynamic balance on universal terrains. We achieve a deeper insight into the connection and difference between ZMP and EZMP by adding different constraints. For the model problem, we extend the cart-table model by using a dynamic constraint instead of constant height constraint, which results in a mathematically symmetric set of three equations. In this way, the vertical motion is enabled and the resultant equations are still linear. Based on the extended ZMP concept and extended cart-table model, a biped pattern generator using triple preview controllers is constructed and implemented simultaneously to three dimensions. Using the proposed pattern generator, the Atlas robot is simulated. The simulation results show the robot can walk stably on rather complex terrains by accurately tracking extended ZMP.

  20. Adjuvant combined ozone therapy for extensive wound over tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prasham; Shyam, Ashok K; Shah, Sambhav

    2011-07-01

    Disinfectant and antibacterial properties of ozone are utilized in the treatment of nonhealing or ischemic wounds. We present here a case of 59 years old woman with compartment syndrome following surgical treatment of stress fracture of proximal tibia with extensively infected wound and exposed tibia to about 4/5 of its extent. The knee joint was also infected with active pus draining from a medial wound. At presentation the patient had already taken treatment for 15 days in the form of repeated wound debridements and parenteral antibiotics, which failed to heal the wound and she was advised amputation. Topical ozone therapy twice daily and ozone autohemotherapy once daily were given to the patient along with daily dressings and parenteral antibiotics. Within 5 days, the wound was healthy enough for spilt thickness skin graft to provide biological dressing to the exposed tibia bone. Topical ozone therapy was continued for further 5 days till the knee wound healed. On the 15(th) day, implant removal, intramedullary nailing, and latissimus dorsi pedicle flap were performed. Both the bone and the soft tissue healed without further complications and at 20 months follow-up, the patient was walking independently with minimal disability.

  1. Adjuvant combined ozone therapy for extensive wound over tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasham Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfectant and antibacterial properties of ozone are utilized in the treatment of nonhealing or ischemic wounds. We present here a case of 59 years old woman with compartment syndrome following surgical treatment of stress fracture of proximal tibia with extensively infected wound and exposed tibia to about 4/5 of its extent. The knee joint was also infected with active pus draining from a medial wound. At presentation the patient had already taken treatment for 15 days in the form of repeated wound debridements and parenteral antibiotics, which failed to heal the wound and she was advised amputation. Topical ozone therapy twice daily and ozone autohemotherapy once daily were given to the patient along with daily dressings and parenteral antibiotics. Within 5 days, the wound was healthy enough for spilt thickness skin graft to provide biological dressing to the exposed tibia bone. Topical ozone therapy was continued for further 5 days till the knee wound healed. On the 15th day, implant removal, intramedullary nailing, and latissimus dorsi pedicle flap were performed. Both the bone and the soft tissue healed without further complications and at 20 months follow-up, the patient was walking independently with minimal disability.

  2. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  3. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  4. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  5. [Physical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  6. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.

  7. Family therapy in the hospital treatment of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, P S

    1990-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitalization is sometimes necessary for seriously symptomatic or out-of-control children and adolescents. In the past, individual therapists, hospital therapists, and family therapists thought that family therapy and individual hospital treatment could not be combined effectively. Today, however, family involvement, participation, and therapy are considered essential components of short-term and extended hospital treatment for young people. The author presents Bowen family systems theory as a basis for informed family therapy in a psychiatric hospital setting. Bowen therapy with patients and close family members elicits significant information, reduces tension, expands options, and facilitates solutions for young patients and their families.

  8. Quantum gravity kinematics from extended TQFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Geiller, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we show how extended topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) can be used to obtain a kinematical setup for quantum gravity, i.e. a kinematical Hilbert space together with a representation of the observable algebra including operators of quantum geometry. In particular, we consider the holonomy-flux algebra of (2 + 1)-dimensional Euclidean loop quantum gravity, and construct a new representation of this algebra that incorporates a positive cosmological constant. The vacuum state underlying our representation is defined by the Turaev-Viro TQFT. This vacuum state can be thought of as being peaked on connections with homogeneous curvature. We therefore construct here a generalization, or more precisely a quantum deformation at root of unity, of the previously introduced SU(2) BF representation. The extended Turaev-Viro TQFT provides a description of the excitations on top of the vacuum. These curvature and torsion excitations are classified by the Drinfeld center category of the quantum deformation of SU(2), and are essential in order to allow for a representation of the holonomies and fluxes. The holonomies and fluxes are generalized to ribbon operators which create and interact with the excitations. These excitations agree with the ones induced by massive and spinning particles, and therefore the framework presented here allows automatically for a description of the coupling of such matter to (2+1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant. The new representation constructed here presents a number of advantages over the representations which exist so far. In particular, it possesses a very useful finiteness property which guarantees the discreteness of spectra for a wide class of quantum (intrinsic and extrinsic) geometrical operators. Also, the notion of basic excitations leads to a so-called fusion basis which offers exciting possibilities for the construction of states with interesting global properties, as well as states with certain

  9. Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the forward sensitivity analysis method as a means for quantification of uncertainty in system analysis. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a “black box” approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. This approach requires large number of simulation runs and therefore has high computational cost. Contrary to the “black box” method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In this approach equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivity is solved for as variables in the same simulation. This “glass box” method can generate similar sensitivity information as the above “black box” approach with couples of runs to cover a large uncertainty region. Because only small numbers of runs are required, those runs can be done with a high accuracy in space and time ensuring that the uncertainty of the physical model is being measured and not simply the numerical error caused by the coarse discretization. In the forward sensitivity method, the model is differentiated with respect to each parameter to yield an additional system of the same size as the original one, the result of which is the solution sensitivity. The sensitivity of any output variable can then be directly obtained from these sensitivities by applying the chain rule of differentiation. We extend the forward sensitivity method to include time and spatial steps as special parameters so that the numerical errors can be quantified against other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty analysis. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other

  10. Extended MRI findings of intersection syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Roger P.; Hatem, Stephen F.; Recht, Michael P. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The symptoms and physical findings of intersection syndrome have been well described in the clinical medical literature. However, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with intersection syndrome of the forearm have only recently been described in a small number of patients. We review our experience with imaging of intersection syndrome, describe previously unreported MRI findings, and emphasize modifications to MRI protocols for its evaluation. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective review of patients with MRI findings consistent with intersection syndrome of the forearm during the period from January 2004 to September 2006. Six patients were identified, three males and three females, with an average age of 39.3 years. The MRI examinations were reviewed to assess signal abnormalities within and adjacent to the first and second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC): tendinosis, peritendinous edema or fluid, muscle edema, subcutaneous edema, and juxtacortical edema. The overall longitudinal extent of signal alterations was measured as well as the distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC. Review of the MRIs showed increased intrasubstance tendon signal suggesting tendinosis in two of the six patients, peritendinous edema or fluid in all six patients, muscle edema in five of the six patients, and subcutaneous edema in three of the six patients. Juxtacortical edema was seen in one patient. Peritendinous edema or fluid extended distally beyond the radiocarpal joint in three of the six patients. The average distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC was 3.95 cm, in keeping with recently published data. Intersection syndrome is an uncommon MRI diagnosis. In addition to the previously described MRI findings of edema adjacent to the first or second DETC, possibly with proximal extension and subcutaneous edema, we have identified

  11. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  12. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Orbit Estimation Using an Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Douglas T.; Dang, Ket D.; Slojkowski, Steve; Blizzard, Mike; Jenkins, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Alternatives to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) orbit estimation procedure were studied to develop a technique that both produces more reliable results and is more amenable to automation than the prior procedure. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra mission has TDRS ephemeris prediction 3(sigma) requirements of 75 meters in position and 5.5 millimeters per second in velocity over a 1.5-day prediction span. Meeting these requirements sometimes required reruns of the prior orbit determination (OD) process, with manual editing of tracking data to get an acceptable solution. After a study of the available alternatives, the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) began using the Real-Time Orbit Determination (RTOD(Registered TradeMark)) Kalman filter program for operational support of TDRSs in February 2007. This extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used for daily support, including within hours after most thrusting, to estimate the spacecraft position, velocity, and solar radiation coefficient of reflectivity (C(sub R)). The tracking data used are from the Bilateration Ranging Transponder System (BRTS), selected TDRS System (TDRSS) User satellite tracking data, and Telemetry, Tracking, and Command (TT&C) data. Degraded filter results right after maneuvers and some momentum unloads provided incentive for a hybrid OD technique. The results of combining EKF strengths with the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) Differential Correction (DC) program batch-least-squares solutions, as recommended in a 2005 paper on the chain-bias technique, are also presented.

  13. Pediatric asthma controller therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The treatment of children with asthma has historically relied upon expert opinion using data extrapolated from adult studies. Over the past few years, landmark studies have been completed providing healthcare professionals with evidence on which a reasonable approach can be made for children suffering from this common and serious disease. Asthmatic phenotype in children, unlike adults, tends to differ according to age, which must be taken into account as well as triggers, severity, and level of control. The care of the child with asthma is complex, but accumulating data have demonstrated that we are on the right path for optimizing control while reducing the burden of side effects. The newest Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, as well as recent updates from the landmark CAMP (Childhood Asthma Management Program) study and information from the PACT (Pediatric Asthma Control Trial) and budesonide/formoterol controller and reliever studies, along with recent comparisons of higher dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and ICS/long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) combination and leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) therapies in children have clarified a few of the big questions in pediatric asthma. For children with asthma aged 5 years and older, the CAMP trial demonstrated that regular use of ICS reduces the frequency of symptoms; however, height was adversely affected and there is no evidence for altering the natural history of asthma. In patients aged 6 years and over whose asthma is uncontrolled on ICS alone, combination therapy with ICS and a LABA has been recently compared with the use of higher dose ICS and the addition of an LTRA in pediatric patients. The addition of a LABA statistically will be of most benefit; however, some children will have optimal control with doubling the baseline dose of ICS or addition of an LTRA. Use of budesonide/formoterol as a controller and reliever therapy extends the time to first exacerbation versus

  14. Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS. Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.

  15. Extended Magnetic Reconnection Across the Dayside Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, M. W.; Zhang, Q.-H.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Lockwood, M.; Pu, Z.; Hasegawa, H.; Wang, J.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Berchem, J.; Lavraund, B.; Eastwood, J.; Volwerk, M.; Shen, C.; Shi, J.-K.; Constantinescu, D.; Frey, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Sibeck, D.; Escoubet, P.; Wild, J. A.; Liu, Z.-X.

    2011-01-01

    The extent of where magnetic reconnection (MR), the dominant process responsible for energy and plasma transport into the magnetosphere, operates across Earth's dayside magnetopause has previously been only indirectly shown by observations. We report the first direct evidence of X-line structure resulting from the operation of MR at each of two widely separated locations along the tilted, subsolar line of maximum current on Earth's magnetopause, confirming the operation of MR at two or more sites across the extended region where MR is expected to occur. The evidence results from in-situ observations of the associated ion and electron plasma distributions, present within each magnetic X-line structure, taken by two spacecraft passing through the active MR regions simultaneously.

  16. Extended Lagrange interpolation in L1 spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occorsio, Donatella; Russo, Maria Grazia

    2016-10-01

    Let w (x )=e-xβxα , w ¯(x )=x w (x ) and denote by {pm(w)}m,{pn(w¯)}n the corresponding sequences of orthonormal polynomials. The zeros of the polynomial Q2 m +1=pm +1(w )pm(w ¯) are simple and are sufficiently far among them. Therefore it is possible to construct an interpolation process essentially based on the zeros of Q2m+1, which is called "Extended Lagrange Interpolation". Here we study the convergence of this interpolation process in suitable weighted L1 spaces. This study completes the results given by the authors in previous papers in weighted Lup((0 ,+∞ )) , for 1≤p≤∞. Moreover an application of the proposed interpolation process in order to construct an e cient product quadrature scheme for weakly singular integrals is given.

  17. FUZZY OPTIMIZATION USING EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.DIVYA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy Logic is based on the idea that in fuzzy sets each element in the set can assume a value from 0 to 1, not only 0 or 1, as in crisp set theory. The degree of membership function is defined as the gradation in the extent to which an element is belonging to the relevant sets. Optimizing the membership functions of a fuzzy system can be viewed as a system identification problem for nonlinear dynamic system. In this paper two input and one output fuzzy controller is designed for the dynamic process of aircraft. The addition of an EKF in the feedback loop improved the system response by blocking possible effects of measurement error based on Predictor-Corrector algorithm. An Extended Kalman Filter approach to optimize the membership functions of the inputs and outputs of the fuzzy controller. The performance of the fuzzy system before and after the optimization are compared, as well as the membership functions.

  18. Revisiting perturbations in extended quasidilaton massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the theory of extended quasidilaton massive gravity together with the presence of matter fields. After discussing the homogeneous and isotropic fully dynamical background equations, which governs the exact expansion history of the universe, we consider small cosmological perturbations around these general FLRW solutions. The stability of tensor, vector and scalar perturbations on top of these general background solutions give rise to slightly different constraints on the parameters of the theory than those obtained in the approximative assumption of the late-time asymptotic form of the expansion history, which does not correspond to our current epoch. This opens up the possibility of stable FLRW solutions to be compared with current data on cosmic expansion with the restricted parameter space based on theoretical ground.

  19. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of musicking grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of musical affordances and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances—via soliciting different forms of entrainment—enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I suggest that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  20. Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)

    1994-12-31

    The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.