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Sample records for 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas

  1. Absorption of 5-aminosalicylic acid from colon and rectum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bondesen, S; Schou, J B; Pedersen, V.; Rafiolsadat, Z; Hansen, S H; Hvidberg, E F

    1988-01-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of absorption of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) from the colon, a neutral solution was instilled into the right part of the colon and the rectum, respectively, in six volunteers. A laxative (bisacodyl) and liquid meals were given prior to each instillation. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the two parts of the large bowel, but the absorption was considerably restricted compared with previous results obtained from the jejunum. The r...

  2. NEW METABOLITES OF THE DRUG 5-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID .2. N-FORMYL-5-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjornelund, J.; Hansen, S. H.; Cornett, Claus

    1991-01-01

    -formamidosalicylic acid) using H-1- and C-13-n.m.r. spectrometry and mass spectroscopy and the structure was confirmed by chemical synthesis. 3. N-Formyl-5-ASA is stable in human plasma and in potassium phosphate buffers between pH 3.0 and 9.0. It is hydrolysed below pH 3.0. 4. N-Formyl-5-ASA was readily formed...... in rat liver homogenate when 5-ASA and N-formyl-L-kynurenine were added. Thus N-formyl-5-ASA might be formed by the actions of formamidase in vivo. 5. N-Formyl-5-ASA has been found in human plasma from healthy volunteers dosed i.v. with 5-ASA (250 mg). N-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5-ASA, N-acetyl-5-ASA and N...

  3. Duration of treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The development of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy as a life long treatment for ulcerative colitis is reviewed from its origins in the 1940s to the present day. The drug was designed to treat rheumatoid arthritis, but was found helpful in the management of nine patients with ulcerative colitis. This discovery preceded the emergence of the clinical trial as a tool for assessing a new drug's efficacy; as a result it lacked scientific rigour and was selective in its presentation of results. Nevertheless it identified the future cornerstone of therapy in ulcerative colitis. In 1962, the first double blind controlled trial of sulphasalazine was conducted on 40 patients. Outcomemeasures were subjective and included symptoms and an assessment of the rectal mucosa. In 1973, the first two papers on the role of sulphasalazine in maintenance of remission were published. Both used placebo controls and had a stratified design. Outcomes were measuredusing "an intention to treat" approach. The British study of 64 patients used both subjective and objective criteria to assess outcomes. Patients on placebo had a relapse rate four times patients on active treatment and this founded the basis for a life long approach to therapy with 5-ASA compounds in ulcerative colitis. However, in 1985,a small "on demand" study of 32 patients suggested this approach might be as effective as continuous treatment.Some support for this view came from an Italian study which showed no benefit to continued treatment for those in remission for two years or more. The central problem these studies identify is that of adherence to treatment in the long-term. Few studies have considered patients' attitudes to continuous therapy and it is an area that needs further investigation.

  4. 5-Aminosalicylic acid dependency in Crohn's disease: A Danish Crohn Colitis Database study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duricova, D.; Pedersen, N.; Elkjaer, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims The role of 5 aminosalicylic acid (5 ASA) in Crohns disease is unclear The outcome of the first course of 5 ASA monotherapy with emphasis on 5 ASA dependency was retrospectively assessed in consecutive cohort of 537 Crohn s disease patients diagnosed 1953-2007 Methods Following...

  5. Identification of major degradation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid formed in aqueous solutions and in pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Cornett, Claus; Olsen, C. E.;

    1992-01-01

    The formation of four major degradation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in buffered solutions at pH 7.0 was demonstrated by gradient HPLC analysis. The isolation and structural elucidation of the resulting degradation products showed that the degradation of 5-ASA led to the formation...

  6. Allopurinol and 5-aminosalicylic acid influence thiopurine-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Broekman, Mark M. T. J.; Roelofs, Hennie M. J.; Wong, Dennis R.; Kerstholt, Mariska; Leijten, Alex; Hoentjen, Frank; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Geert J A Wanten; de Jong, Dirk J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The use of thiopurines is frequently accompanied by hepatotoxicity. Studies on hepatocyte cultures showed a time- and dose-dependent increase of thiopurine toxicity. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and allopurinol can influence thiopurine metabolism; however, it is unknown whether this affects in vitro cytotoxicity. Methods Human hepatoma cells (Huh7, HepG2 and HepaRG) were incubated with increasing concentrations of thiopurines, 5-ASA or allopurinol. Water-soluble tetrazolium salt...

  7. 5-Aminosalicylic acid protection against oxidative damage to synaptosomal membranes by alkoxyl radicals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J; Lauderback, C; Butterfield, D A

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of 5-aminosalicylic acid in vitro were evaluated in a synaptosomal membrane system prepared from gerbil cortical synaptosomes using EPR spin labeling and spectroscopic techniques. MAL-6 (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-maleimidopiperidin-1-oxyl) and 5-NS (5-nitroxide stearate) spin labels were used to assess changes in protein oxidation and membrane lipid fluidity, respectively. Synaptosomal membranes were subjected to oxidative stress by incubation with 1 mM azo-bis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) or 1 mM 2,2'-azobis(amidino propane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) at 37 degrees C for 30 minutes. The EPR analyses of the samples showed significant oxidation of synaptosomal proteins and a decrease in membrane fluidity. 5-Aminosalicylic acid also was evaluated by means of FRAP (the ferric reducing ability of plasma) test as a potential antioxidant. 5-Aminosalicylic acid also showed protection against the oxidation in gerbil cortical synaptosomes system caused by AIBN and AAPH. These results are consistent with the notion of antioxidant protection against free radical induced oxidative stress in synaptosomal membrane system by this agent.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of magnetic microspheres of mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) for colon drug delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satinder Kakar; Deepa Batra; Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study magnetic microspheres of mesalamine(5-aminosalicylic acid) for colon drug delivery.Methods:Magnetic microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique for use in the application of magnetic carrier technology.An attempt was made to target mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) to its site of action i.e. to colon.EudragitS-100, ethylcellulose and chitosan were used in three different drug: polymer ratios i.e.1:1,1:2 and1:3.The microspheres were characterized in terms of particle size, percentage yield, drug content, encapsulation efficiency,in vitro release pattern andex vivo study.The microspheres were uniform in size and shape.Thein vitrorelease profile was studied in pH7.4 phosphate buffer medium usingUSP dissolution apparatus.Results:Chitosan microspheres were found to be better retained in terms of percentage release of the drug.Thus chitosan microspheres could be better retained at their target site.Conclustion:Flow characteristics are also better in case of chitosan magnetic microspheres. Thus reticuloendothelial clearance can be minimized and site specificity can be increased.

  9. Synthesis and structural elucidation of glutathione and N-aceyl-cysteine conjugates of 5-aminosalicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Cornett, Claus; Olsen, C. E.;

    1993-01-01

    The ability of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to be oxidized to a quinone monoimine compound capable of conjugating with nucleophilic compounds such as N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) has been investigated in vitro. Three isomeric conjugates of 5-ASA and NAC as well as three isomeric...... conjugates of 5-ASA and GSH were found to be formed. 5-ASA was initially oxidized by PbO2 in a solution of TRIS-HCl buffer pH 9.3 followed by the in situ addition of N-acetyl-cysteine or glutathione to the oxidized 5-ASA at pH 7.5. The resulting conjugates were N-acetylated at the aromatic amino group in...

  10. Mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid for colon targeted drug delivery: Synthesis, kinetic studies and pharmacological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal Deepika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid with histidine, was synthesized by coupling L-histidine with salicylic acid, for targeted drug delivery to the inflamed gut tissue, in inflammatory bowel disease. In vitro kinetic studies in HCl buffer (pH 1.2 showed negligible release of 5-aminosalicylic acid, whereas in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, only 14% release was observed over a period of 6h. In rat fecal matter, the release of 5-aminosalicylic acid was almost complete (85.6%, with a half life of 163 min, following zero order kinetics. The azo conjugate was evaluated for its ulcerogenic potential by Rainsford′s cold stress method. Therapeutic efficacy of the carrier system and the mitigating effect of the azo conjugate were evaluated in trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid- induced experimental colitis model. The synthesized prodrug was found to be equally effective in mitigating the colitis in rats, as that of sulfasalazine, without the ulcerogenicity of 5-aminosalicylic acid, and adverse effects of sulfasalazine.

  11. 5-Aminosalicylic acid attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation and oxidative stress in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K Rama Satyanarayana; Kumar, M N Sathish; Gupta, Saurabh; Naga, Srinivas T; Shankar, Jaya K; Murthy, Vishakantha; Madhunapanthula, Subba Rao V; Mulukutla, Shashank; Ambhore, Nilesh S; Tummala, Shashank; Vishnuvarthan, V J; Azam, Afzal; Elango, Kannan

    2014-12-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate the magnitude of allergic reactions during asthma. Tumor necrosis factor--alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) play a crucial role in aggravating the inflammatory conditions during allergic asthma. In addition, oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma by altering the physiological condition resulting in the development of status asthmaticus. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids are being widely used for treating allergic asthma. In the present study 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a salicylic acid derivative, was evaluated, in vivo for its potential to suppress TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 using ovalbumin (OVA) induced allergic asthma in Balb/C mice. Oral administration of 65, 130 and 195 mg/kg 5-ASA significantly reduced the OVA induced total and differential leucocyte count, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-13, nitrite, nitrate, MDA, MPO and TPL levels in the lung lavage samples. Collectively, these findings suggest that 5-ASA is a potent immunomodulator and suppresses key Th2 cytokines production and oxidative stress in OVA-induced asthma.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-5-aminosalicylic acid (14C-5-ASA) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. As part of a preclinical metabolism profile with 5-ASA, we evaluated the tissue level and distribution of 14C-5-ASA in rats. Biodistribution of 14C-radioactivity was determined in the major organs of rats after a single oral dose (34 mg/kg; 15 uci/rat). Data from tissue area under the curve (AUC 0-72) indicated that the highest amounts of radioactivity were retained in cecum (481.1 hr.ug.equ/gm), colon-rectum (178.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), ileum (166.7 hr.ug.equ/gm), jejunum (65.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), followed by kidneys (58.0 hr.ug.equ/gm) and liver (14.8 hr.ug.equ/gm). The radioactivity retained in tissues at 72 hours postdose was wither nondetectable or less than 0.1 ppm. The radioactivity concentration in blood was highest at 0.5 hr (tmax) postdose and the terminal half-life (t1/2) of 14C-radioactivity (5-ASA + metabolite) was 2.7 hours. 14C-5-ASA is absorbed and distributed in the body. The greatest amount of 14C-radioactivity was found in the stomach and GI tract. 14C-5-ASA was eliminated completely (44.9% in the urine, 51.7% in the feces) 72 hours after administration without significant tissue retention

  13. 5-aminosalicylic acid in combination with nimesulide inhibits proliferation of colon carcinoma cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ming Fang; Qiao Mei; Jian-Ming Xu; Wei-Juan Ma

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in combination with nimesulide on the proliferation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells and its potential mechanisms.METHODS: Inhibitory effects of drugs (5-ASA,nimesulide and their combination) on HT-29 colon carcinoma cells were investigated by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cellular apoptosis and proliferation were detected by TUNEL assay and immunocytochemical staining, respectively.RESULTS: Pretreatment with 5-ASA or nimesulide at the concentration of 10-1000 μmol/L inhibited proliferation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro (t = 5.122, P < 0.05; t = 3.086, P <0.05, respectively). The inhibition rate of HT-29 colon carcinoma cell proliferation was also increased when pretreated with 5-ASA (100 μmol/L) or nimesulide (100μmol/L) for 12-96 h, which showed an obvious timeeffect relationship (t = 6.149, P < 0.05; t = 4.159, P< 0.05, respectively). At the concentration of 10-500μmol/L, the apoptotic rate of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells significantly increased (t = 18.156, P < 0.001; t =19.983, P < 0.001, respectively), while expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was remarkably decreased (t = 6.828, P < 0.05; t = 14.024, P < 0.05,respectively). 5-ASA in combination with nimesulide suppressed the proliferation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells more than either of these agents in a dosedependent and time-dependent manner (t = 5.448, P <0.05; t = 4.428, P < 0.05, respectively).CONCLUSION: 5-ASA and nimesulide may inhibit the proliferation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells and coadministration of these agents may have additional chemopreventive potential.

  14. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100...... g/day) and placebo. Treatment was started 2 days before initiation of carrageenan administration. The drugs were administered through a chronic gastric fistula. At the end of the study concentrations of 5-ASA and acetylated 5-ASA (Ac-5-ASA) in cecal contents and in plasma were determined...... difference between the human ulcerative colitis and the carrageenan model may account for the lack of prophylactic effect of the slow-release 5-ASA in this experiment....

  15. Effect of 70-nm silica particles on the toxicity of acetaminophen, tetracycline, trazodone, and 5-aminosalicylic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Kondoh, M; Watari, A; Hasezaki, T; Isoda, K; Tsutsumi, Y; Yagi, K

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to nano-sized particles is increasing because they are used in a wide variety of industrial products, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Some animal studies indicate that such nanomaterials may have some toxicity, but their synergistic actions on the adverse effects of drugs are not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether 70-nm silica particles (nSP70), which are widely used in cosmetics and drug delivery, affect the toxicity of a drug for inflammatory bowel disease (5-aminosalicylic acid), an antibiotic drug (tetracycline), an antidepressant drug (trazodone), and an antipyretic drug (acetaminophen) in mice. Co-administration of nSP70 with trazodone did not increase a biochemical marker of liver injury. In contrast, co-administration increased the hepatotoxicity of the other drugs. Co-administration of nSP70 and tetracycline was lethal. These findings indicate that evaluation of synergistic adverse effects is important for the application of nano-sized materials.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Flavonoids on the Efflux of -Acetyl 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Intracellularly Formed in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshimura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -acetyl 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AcASA that was intracellularly formed from 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA at 200 M was discharged 5.3, 7.1, and 8.1-fold higher into the apical site than into the basolateral site during 1, 2, and 4-hour incubations, respectively, in Caco-2 cells grown in Transwells. The addition of flavonols (100 M such as fisetin and quercetin with 5-ASA remarkably decreased the apically directed efflux of 5-AcASA. When 5-ASA (200 M was added to Caco-2 cells grown in tissue culture dishes, the formation of 5-AcASA decreased, and, in addition, the formed 5-AcASA was found to be accumulated within the cells in the presence of such flavonols. Thus, the decrease in 5-AcASA efflux by such flavonols was attributed not only to the inhibition of -acetyl-conjugation of 5-ASA but to the predominant cellular accumulation of 5-AcASA. Various flavonoids also had both of the effects with potencies that depend on their specific structures. The essential structure of flavonoids was an absence of a hydroxyl substitution at the C5 position on the A-ring of flavone structure for the inhibitory effect on the -acetyl-conjugation of 5-ASA, and a presence of hydroxyl substitutions at the C3 or C4 position on the B-ring of flavone structure for the promoting effect on the cellular accumulation of 5-AcASA. Both the decrease in 5-AcASA apical efflux and the increase in 5-AcASA cellular accumulation were also caused by MK571 and indomethacin, inhibitors of MRPs, but not by quinidine, cyclosporin A, P-glycoprotein inhibitors, and mitoxantrone, a BCRP substrate. These results suggest that certain flavonoids suppress the apical efflux of 5-AcASA possibly by inhibiting MRPs pumps located on apical membranes in Caco-2 cells.

  17. Mucoadhesive microparticulates based on polysaccharide for target dual drug delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid and curcumin to inflamed colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haogang; Lü, Shaoyu; Gao, Chunmei; Bai, Xiao; Qin, Hongyan; Wei, Yuhui; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Mingzhu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, thiolated chitosan/alginate composite microparticulates (CMPs) coated by Eudragit S-100 were developed for colon-specific delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and curcumin (CUR), and the use of it as a multi drug delivery system for the treatment of colitis. The physicochemical properties of the CMPs were evaluated. In vitro release was performed in gradually pH-changing medium simulating the conditions of different parts of GIT, and the results showed that the Eudragit S-100 coating has a pH-sensitive release property, which can avoid drug being released at a pH lower than 7. An everted sac method was used to evaluate the mucoadhesion of CMPs. Ex vivo mucoadhesive tests showed CMPs have excellent mucosa adhesion for the colonic mucosa of rats. In vivo treatment effect of enteric microparticulates systems was evaluated in colitis rats. The results showed superior therapeutic efficiency of this drug delivery system for the colitis rats induced by TNBS. Therefore, the enteric microparticulates systems combined the properties of pH dependent delivery, mucoadhesive, and control release, and could be an available tool for the treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27239905

  18. Toxicity of 50-nm polystyrene particles co-administered to mice with acetaminophen, 5-aminosalicylic acid or tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, K; Nozawa, T; Tezuka, M; Ishida, I

    2014-09-01

    We investigated whether nano-sized polystyrene particles affect drug-induced toxicity. The particles, which are widely used industrially, had diameters of 50 (NPP50), 200 (NPP200) or 1000 (NPP1000) nm. The toxic chemicals tested were acetaminophen (APAP), 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), tetracycline (TC), and sodium valproate (VPA). All treatments in the absence of the nanoparticles were non-lethal and did not result in severe toxicity. However, when mice were injected with APAP, 5-ASA or TC together with polystyrene particles, synergistic, enhanced toxicity was observed in mice injected with NPP50. These synergic effects were not observed in mice co-injected with NPP200 or NPP1000. On the other hand, co-administration of VPA and NPP50, NPP200 or NPP1000 did not elevate toxicity. The results show that NPP50 differs in hepatotoxicity depending on the drug co-administered. These findings suggest that further evaluation of the interactions between polystyrene nanoparticles and drugs is a critical prerequisite to the pharmaceutical application of nanotechnology.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid linked to 2-phenylbenzoxazole-2-yl-5-acetic acid in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilani JA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jamal A Jilani,1 Maha Shomaf,2 Karem H Alzoubi3 1Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Department of Pathology, Jordan University, Amman, Jordan; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Abstract: In this study, the syntheses of 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid, (an analogue of a known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID] and 5-[4-(benzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acidphenylazo]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (a novel mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA] are reported. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using infrared (IR, hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, and mass spectrometry (MS spectroscopy. Incubation of the azo compound with rat cecal contents demonstrated the susceptibility of the prepared azo prodrug to bacterial azoreductase enzyme. The azo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were evaluated for inflammatory bowel diseases, in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNB-induced colitis in rats. The synthesized diazo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were found to be as effective as 5-aminosalicylic acid for ulcerative colitis. The results of this work suggest that the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid may represent a new lead for treatment of ulcerative colitis. Keywords: benzoxazole acetic acid, azo prodrug, colon drug delivery

  20. Controlled Release of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid (5-ASA from New Biodegradable Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Segmented polyurethanes containing azo aromatic groups in the main chain were synthesized by reaction of 3,3'-azobis(6-hydroxybenzoic acid (ABHB, 5-[4-(hydroxyphenylazo] salicylic acid (HPAS, and 5-[1-hydroxynaphthylazo] salicylic acid (HNAS with hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI. All synthesized monomers and polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR spectra, TGA and DSC analysis. All the synthesized azo polymers showed good thermal stability and the onset decomposition temperature of all these polymers was found to be above 195 ºC under nitrogen atmosphere.The release of 5-ASA under physiological conditions (pH = 7.8 and pH = 1.5 was investigated at body temperature (37 ºC. The release rate of 5-ASA increased with increasing pH (i.e., 7.8 > 1.5.

  1. A dynamic model of once-daily 5-aminosalicylic acid predicts clinical efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak; Parakkal; Eli; D; Ehrenpreis; Matthew; P; Thorpe; Karson; S; Putt; Bruce; Hannon

    2010-01-01

    New once daily mesalamine formulations may improve adherence to medication usage.Response to Asacol and other forms of 5-aminosalicyclic acid(5-ASA)is better correlated with tissue concentrations and best predicted by concentrations of the drug within the lumen of the colon.Our group used computer simulation to predict colonic 5-ASA levels after Asacol administration.In our study,the model simulated Asacol distribution in the healthy colon,and during quiescent and active ulcerative colitis.An Asacol dosage ...

  2. 5-aminosalicylic acid is an attractive candidate agent for chemoprevention of colon cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Cheng; Pierre Desreumaux

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is classically subdivided into ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with IBD have increased risk for colorectal cancer. Because the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma has not been entirely defined yet and there is no ideal treatment for colon cancer, cancer prevention has become increasingly important in patients with IBD. The two adopted methods to prevent the development of colon cancer in clinical practice include the prophylactic colectomy and colonoscopic surveillance.But patients and physicians seldom accept colectomy as a routine preventive method and most patients do not undergo appropriate colonoscopic surveillance. Chemoprevention refers to the use of natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or to delay the process of carcinogenesis.Chemoprevention is a particularly useful method in the management of patients at high risk for the development of specific cancers based on inborn genetic susceptibility, the presence of cancer-associated disease, or other known risk factors. Prevention of colorectal cancer by administration of chemopreventive agents is one of the most promising options for IBD patients who are at increased risks of the disease. The chemopreventive efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against intestinal tumors has been well established. But with reports that NSAIDs aggravated the symptoms of colitis, their sustained use for the purpose of cancer chemoprevention has been relatively contraindicated in IBD patients. Another hopeful candidate chemoprevention drug for IBD patients is 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is well tolerated by most patients and has limited systemic adverse effects, and no gastrointestinal toxicity. 5-ASA lacks the well-known side effects of longterm NSAIDs use. Retrospective correlative studies have suggested that the long-term use of 5-ASA in IBD patients may significantly reduce the risk of development of colorectal cancer

  3. Time-and pH-dependent colon-specific drug delivery for orally administered diclofenac sodium and 5-aminosalicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Cheng; Feng An; Mei-Juan Zou; Jin Sun; Xiu-Hua Hao; Yun-Xia He

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate Time- and pH-dependent colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) for orally administered diclofenac sodium (DS) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), respectively.METHODS: DS tablets and 5-ASA pellets were coated by ethylcellulose (EC) and methacrylic acid copolymers (Eudragit[] L100 and S100), respectively. The in vitro release behavior of the DS coated tablets and 5-ASA coated pellets were examined, and then in vivo absorption kinetics of DS coated tablets in dogs were further studied.RESULTS: Release profile of time-dependent DS coated tablets was not influenced by pH of the dissolution medium,but the lag time of DS release was primarily controlled by the thickness of the coating layer. The thicker the coating layer, the longer the lag time of DS release is. On the contrary, in view of the pH-dependent 5-ASA coated pellets,5-ASA release was significantly governed by pH. Moreover,the 5-ASA release features from the coated pellets depended upon both the combination ratio of the Eudragit[] L100 and S100 pH-sensitive copolymers in the coating formulation and the thickness of the coating layer. The absorption kinetic studies of the DS coated tablets in dogs demonstrated that in vivo lag time of absorption was in a good agreement with in vitro lag time of release.CONCLUSION: Two types of CDDS, prepared herein by means of the regular coating technique, are able to achieve site-specific drug delivery targeting at colon following oral administration, and provide a promising strategy to control drug release targeting the desired lower gastrointestinal region.

  4. Synthesis of Chromium (Ⅲ) 5-aminosalicylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; HAO Er-jun; JIANG Yu-qin

    2004-01-01

    As we all known that diabetes is a chronic disease with major health consequences.Research has revealed that the occurrence of diabetes have great thing to do with the chromium deficient. Almost 40 years after the first report of glucose tolerance factor(GTF) [1], no conclusive evidence for an isolable ,biologically active form of chromium exited. Three materials have been proposed to be the biologically active form of chromium: "glucose tolerance factor", chromium Picolinate and low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LWMCr) [2] . So there is potential for the design of new chromium drugs .5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is identified as an active component in the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis . The therapeutic action of 5-ASA is believed to be coupled to its ability to act as a free radical scavenger [3-4],acting locally on the inflamed colonic mucosa [5-7]. However, the clinical use of 5-ASA is limited, since orally administered 5-ASA is rapidly and completely absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal tract and therefore the local therapeutic effects of 5-ASA in the colon is hardly expected.In this paper, we report the synthesis of chromium(Ⅲ)5-aminosalicylate from 5-ASA and CrCl3. 6H2O.The synthesis route is as follow:The complex has been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, X-ray powder diffractionand TG-DTA . They indicate that the structure is tris(5-ASA) Chromium . Experiments show that thecomplex has a good activity for supplement tiny dietary chromium, lowering blood glucose levels,lowering serum lipid levels and in creasing lean body mass .

  5. Use of new once-daily 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: Is there anything new under the sun?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Laszlo Lakatos

    2009-01-01

    5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) agents remain the mainstay treatment in ulcerative colitis (UC). A number of oral 5-ASA agents are commercially available, including azobond pro-drugs, as well as delayed- and controlledrelease forms of mesalazine. However, poor adherence due to frequent daily dosing and a large number of tablets has been shown to be an important barrier to successful management of patients with UC. Recently, new, once-daily formulations of mesalazine, including the unique multi-matrix delivery system and mesalazine granules, were proven to be efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in mild-to-moderate UC, with a good safety profile comparable to that of other oral mesalazine formulations. In addition, they offer the advantage of a low pill burden and might contribute to increased long-term compliance and treatment success in clinical practice. This editorial summarizes the available literature on the short- and medium-term efficacy and safety of the new once-daily mesalazine formulations.

  6. Pharmacokinetics in Wistar Rats of 5-[(4-Carboxybutanoyl)Amino]-2-Hydroxybenzoic Acid: A Novel Synthetic Derivative of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid (5-ASA) with Possible Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Basurto, José; Rosales Hernández, Martha Cecilia; Padilla Martínez, Itzia Irene; Mendieta-Wejebe, Jessica Elena

    2016-01-01

    5-[(4-carboxybutanoyl)amino]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (C2) is a novel synthetic derivative of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is currently being evaluated ex vivo as an anti-inflammatory agent and has shown satisfactory results. This study aimed to obtain the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of C2 in Wistar Rats. Additionally, an HPLC method was developed and validated to quantify C2 in rat plasma. The pharmacokinetic profiles of intragastric, intravenous and intraperitoneal administration routes at singles doses of 100, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively, were studied in Wistar rats. The elimination half-life of intravenously administered C2 was approximately 33 min. The maximum plasma level of C2 was reached approximately 24 min after intragastric administration, with a Cmax value of 2.5 g/mL and an AUCtot value of 157 μg min-1/mL; the oral bioavailability was approximately 13%. Following a single intragastric or oral dose (100 mg/kg), C2 was distributed and detected in all examined tissues (including the brain and colon). The results showed that C2 accumulates over time. The plasma protein binding results indicated that the unbound fraction of C2 at concentrations of 1 to 20 μg/mL ranged from 89.8% to 92.5%, meaning that this fraction of C2 is available to cross tissues. Finally, the blood-plasma partitioning (BP ratio) of C2 in rat plasma was 0.71 and 0.6 at concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/mL, respectively, which indicates that C2 is free in the plasmatic phase and not inside blood cells. The results of this study suggest that a fraction of the administered C2 dose is absorbed in the stomach, and the fraction that is not absorbed reaches the small intestine and colon. This distribution constitutes the main advantage of C2 compared with 5-ASA for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). PMID:27454774

  7. Colon-specific drug delivery systems based on cyclodextrin prodrugs: In vivo evaluation of 5-aminosalicylic acid from its cyclodextrin conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Juan Zou; Gang Cheng; Hirokazu Okamoto; Xiu-Hua Hao; Feng An; Fu-De Cui; Kazumi Danjo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the release of cyclodextrin-5-amino salicylic acid (CyD-5-ASA) in cecum and colon.METHODS: An anti-inflammatory drug 5-ASA was conjugated onto the hydroxyl groups of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CyDs) through an ester linkage, and the in vivo drug release behavior of these prodrugs in rat' s gastrointestinal tract after the oral administration was investigated.RESULTS: The 5-ASA concentration in the rat's stomach and small intestine after the oral administration of CyD5-ASA conjugate was much lower than that after the oral administration of 5-ASA alone. The lower concentration was attributable to the passage of the conjugate throughthe stomach and small intestine without significant degradation or absorption, followed by the degradation of the conjugate site-specific in the cecum and colon. The oral administration of CyD-5-ASA resulted in lower plasma and urine concentration of 5-ASA than that of 5-ASA alone.CONCLUSION: CyD-5-ASA conjugates may be used as prodrugs for colon-specific drug delivery system.

  8. Possible interactions between dietary fibres and 5-aminosalicylic acid [corrected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Camilla; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge;

    2010-01-01

    fibres is related to disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with 5-ASA. METHODS: In vitro: 15 g of Ispaghula Husk, wheat bran, citrus-pectin, or wheat flour were incubated in a 37°C buffered solutions of 5-ASA (1 g/l) for 3 hours at pH 6 and 7. The concentrations of 5-ASA were...... determined before and after the incubation using HPLC. In vivo: patients with UC were interviewed two to three times during 6 months. The fibre consumption was estimated and related to the disease activity (CAI, CRP, Faecal-calprotectin) and quality of life (IBDQ). RESULTS: In vitro: 5-ASA was bound...... to Ispaghula Husk (5.3-10.0 mg/g) and wheat bran (4.6-5.5 mg/g), and to a minor degree to citrus-pectin. No differences were found in relation to pH. In vivo: 29 patients completed the scheduled interviews. No significant changes in fibre consumption were observed over time; however, patients consuming a diet...

  9. 5-Aminosalicylates reduce the risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis: an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the chemopreventive effect of 5-aminosalicylates on patients with ulcerative colitis has been extensively studied, the results remain controversial. This updated review included more recent studies and evaluated the effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylates use on colorectal neoplasia prevention in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Up to July 2013, we searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SinoMed of China for all relevant observational studies (case-control and cohort about the effect of 5-aminosalicylates on the risk of colorectal neoplasia among patients with ulcerative colitis. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs were extracted from each study. A random-effects model was used to generate pooled ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed. RESULTS: Seventeen studies containing 1,508 cases of colorectal neoplasia and a total of 20,193 subjects published from 1994 to 2012 were analyzed. 5-aminosalicylates use was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis (OR 0.63; 95%CI 0.48-0.84. Pooled OR of a higher average daily dose of 5-aminosalicylates (sulfasalazine ≥ 2.0 g/d, mesalamine ≥ 1.2 g/d was 0.51 [0.35-0.75]. Pooled OR of 5-aminosalicylates use in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis was 1.00 [0.53-1.89]. CONCLUSION: Our pooled results indicated that 5-aminosalicylates use was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis, especially in the cases with a higher average daily dose of 5-aminosalicylates use. However, the chemopreventive benefit of 5-aminosalicylates use in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis was limited.

  10. Common misconceptions about 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier P Gisbert; María Chaparro; Fernando Gomollón

    2011-01-01

    Misconceptions are common in the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this paper, we state the most commonly found misconceptions in clinical practice and deal with the use of 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines, to review the related scientific evidence, and make appropriate recommendations. Prevention of errors needs knowledge to avoid making such errors through ignorance. However, the amount of knowledge is increasing so quickly that one new danger is an overabundance of information. IBD is a model of a very complex disease and our goal with this review is to summarize the key evidence for the most common daily clinical problems. With regard to the use of 5-aminosalicylates, the best practice may to be consider abandoning the use of these drugs in patients with small bowel Crohn' s disease. The combined approach with oral plus topical 5-aminosalicylates should be the first-line therapy in patients with active ulcerative colitis; once-daily treatment should be offered as a first choice regimen due to its better compliance and higher efficacy. With regard to thiopurines, they seem to be as effective in ulcerative colitis as in Crohn' s disease. Underdosing of thiopurines is a form of undertreatment. Thiopurines should probably be continued indefinitely because their withdrawal is associated with a high risk of relapse. Mercaptopurine is a safe alternative in patients with digestive intolerance or hepatotoxicity due to azathioprine. Finally, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) screening cannot substitute for regular monitoring because the majority of cases of myelotoxicity are not TPMT-related.

  11. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, University of Brussels (Belgium); Peny, M.O. [Department of Pathology, University of Brussels (Belgium); Gossum, A. van [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.) With 6 figs., 20 refs.

  12. Clinical Features and HLA Association of 5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA)-induced Nephrotoxicity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heap, Graham A.; So, Kenji; Weedon, Mike; Edney, Naomi; Bewshea, Claire; Singh, Abhey; Annese, Vito; Beckly, John; Buurman, Dorien; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Cole, Andrew T.; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Creed, Tom; Cummings, Fraser; de Boer, Nanne K.; D'Inca, Renata; D'Souza, Richard; Daneshmend, Tawfique K.; Delaney, Michael; Dhar, Anjan; Direkze, Natalie; Dunckley, Paul; Gaya, Daniel R.; Gearry, Richard; Gore, Steve; Halfvarson, Jonas; Hart, Ailsa; Hawkey, Chris J.; Hoentjen, Frank; Iqbal, Tariq; Irving, Peter; Lal, Simon; Lawrence, Ian; Lees, Charlie W.; Lewis, Steve; Lockett, Melanie; Mann, Stephen; Mansfield, John; Mowat, Craig; Mulgrew, Chris J.; Müller, Frank; Murray, Charles; Oram, Richard; Orchard, Tim; Parkes, Miles; Phillips, Rosemary; Pollok, Richard; Radford-Smith, Graham; Sebastian, Shaji; Sen, Sandip; Shirazi, Tarek; Silverberg, Mark; Solomon, Laurie; Sturniolo, Giacomo C.; Thomas, Mark; Tremelling, Mark; Tsianos, Epameinondas V.; Watts, David; Weaver, Sean; Weersma, Rinse K.; Wesley, Emma; Holden, Arthur; Ahmad, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Nephrotoxicity is a rare idiosyncratic reaction to 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) therapies. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features of this complication and identify clinically useful genetic markers so that these drugs can be avoided or so that monitoring can

  13. Severe chest pain in a pediatric ulcerative colitis patient after 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Severe reactions to mesalamine products are rarely seen in pediatric patients. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who had a severe cardiac reaction to a mesalamine product Asacol. Past medical history is significant for ulcerative colitis (UC) diagnosed at 9 years of age. Colo- noscopy one week prior to admission revealed pancoli- tis. He was treated with Asacol 800 mg three times per day and prednisone 20 mg/d. He was subsequently ad- mitted to the hospital for an exacerbation of his UC and started on intravenous solumedrol. He had improvement of his abdominal pain and diarrhea. The patient com- plained of new onset of chest pain upon initiating Asacol therapy. Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed non-specific ST-T wave changes with T-wave inversion in the lateral leads. Echocardiogram (ECHO) revealed low-normal to mildly depressed left ventricular systolic function. The left main coronary artery and left anterior descending artery were mildly prominent measuring 5 mm and 4.7 mm, respectively. His chest pain completely resolved within 24-36 h of discontinuing Asacol. A repeat echo- cardiogram performed two days later revealed normal left ventricular function with normal coronary arteries (< 3.5 mm). Onset of chest pain after Asacol and im- mediate improvement of chest pain, as well as improve- ment of echocardiogram and ECG findings after discon- tinuing Asacol suggests that our patient suffered from a rare drug-hypersensitivity reaction to Asacol.

  14. Determination of grass enema Verbena gallic acid in by HPLC%HPLC法测定地锦草灌肠液中没食子酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘永红; 周顺

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立地锦草灌肠液中没食子酸的含量测定.方法:采用HPLC法,色谱柱为BDS Hypersil C18(250 mm×4.6mm,5μm);流动相为甲醇-0.05%磷酸溶液(10∶90);流速为0.8 mL·min-1;检测波长为266 nm;柱温为室温,进样量为10 μL.结果:没食子酸在0.07116-0.49812 μg范围内呈良好的线形关系(r=0.9998),平均回收率为100.7%,RSD%为1.1%(n=6).结论:该方法简便,准确,重现性好,可用于地锦草灌肠液的质量控制.%Objective: To establish a creeper grass enema Determination of gallic acid. Methods: HPLC,column was BDS Hypersil C18(25 mmx4.6 mm,5 μm), mobile phase of methanol-0.05% phosphoric acid water(10∶90), flow rate of 0.8 mL-min-1,the detection wavelength was 266 nm, column temperature was room temperature, the injection volume was 10 μL.Results:Gallic acid in the range of 0.07116-0.49812 μg showed a good linear relationship (r=0.9998),the average recovery was100.7%,RSD% was 1.1% (n=6).Conclusion: The method is simple, accurate, reproducible, and can be used for Euphorbia humifusa enema quality control.

  15. Real-time in vitro dissolution of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single ethyl cellulose coated extrudates studied by UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Larsen, Crilles Casper;

    2013-01-01

    extrudates were film coated with ethyl cellulose in a typical lab system coater equipped with one Wurster partition. Dissolution testing was performed first in a conventional paddle dissolution apparatus and second, in a flow through geometry equipped with a UV imaging system. Selected film coated extrudates...

  16. Identification of oxidation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid in faeces and the study of their formation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Cornett, Claus; Olsen, C. E.;

    1993-01-01

    products of 5-ASA using H-1-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Reactions carried out in vitro between 5-ASA and oxidants suggested to be present in the inflamed bowel verified that the hypochlorite-mediated oxidation of 5-ASA as well as the haemoglobin-catalysed H2O2-dependent oxidation of 5-ASA...

  17. Development of a Web-based concept for patients with ulcerative colitis and 5-aminosalicylic acid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Margarita; Burisch, Johan; Avnstrøm, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    of life (QoL). Lack of easy access to inflammatory bowel disease clinics and patient education, their understanding of the importance of early treatment at relapse, poor compliance and self-adherence can be partly solved by a newly developed Web-based concept. AIMS: To describe the development...... and validation of the Web-based 'Constant-Care' concept. METHODS: A Web-based treatment program (www.constant-care.dk) and a Patient Educational Centre for UC patients were developed. The feasibility and acceptance of the concept was validated before (group A) and 6 months after (group B) the start...

  18. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium into a bedpan or nearby toilet. A health care professional may give you an enema to flush out the rest of the barium. An x-ray technician and a radiologist perform a lower gastrointestinal (GI) series at a ...

  19. Contrast enema diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, S.C.S.; Smith, W.L.; Franken, E.A. Jr.; Sato, Y.; Sullivan, J.H.; McGee, J.A. (Iowa Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IO (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    Contrast enema was performed in a select group of 126 neonates with ambiguous diagnosis of necrotizing enterolcolitis (NEC). Enema findings were compared with that on plain abdominal radiographs (AXR) and the clinical outcome. Thirty-one of the 34 patients with a discharge diagnosis of NEC were interpreted to have a positive contrast enema, and 91 of the 92 patients without a discharge diagnosis of NEC were interpreted to have a negative contrast enema. The AXR was interpreted as positive in 57 patients and as negative or indeterminate in 69. Not a single case of perforation was produced. Judicious use of contrast enema can improve specificity of diagnosis in cases with discordant clinical and plain radiographic findings. (orig.).

  20. HPLC法测定复方苦参败酱草保留灌肠剂中齐墩果酸含量%Determination of OIeanic Acid in Compound Sophora Herba Patriniae Re-tention Enema by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 路伟; 巫小娟; 蔡柳清; 曾繁涛; 卓丽婷; 颜晗

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立复方苦参败酱草保留灌肠剂中齐墩果酸的含量测定方法。方法采用高效液相色谱法,色谱柱为 phenomenex lune (4.6×250mm,5μm),流动相为乙睛-水(90∶10),流速为1.0mL・ min -1,检测波长为210nm,柱温25℃。结果齐墩果酸的检测线性范围为20~400μg・ mL -1,r=0.9998,RSD为0.46%(n=5),平均回收率为100.34%。结论本法简便、准确、灵敏度高、重复性好,可作为复方苦参败酱草保留灌肠剂中齐墩果酸的含量测定方法。%ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To establish a method for the determination of Oleanic Acid in compound sophora Herba Patrinia Retention enema.METHODS HPLC was used with phenomenex lune (4.6 ×250mm,5μm) col-umn,the mobile phase was acetonitrile-water(90∶10).The flow rate was 1.0mL・ min-1.The detection wavelength was 210 nm and column temperature was 25℃.RESULTS The range of inear detection of Oleanic acid was 20~400 gmL-1(r=0.9995).The average recovery was 99.6%,RSD 0.43%(n=6).CONCLUSION The method is simple ,accurate ,highly sensitive and well represented .It can be used for routine quality control of compound Sophora Herba Patriniae Retention enema.

  1. Retrograde spreading of hydrocortisone enema in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, M.; Digenis, G.A.; Foster, T.S.; Antonow, D.R.

    1986-02-01

    A hydrocortisone suspension enema was radiolabeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)technetium sulfur colloid and administered to four normal subjects and eight patients with varying degrees of inflammatory bowel disease. The extent of enema spreading was monitored using external scintigraphy for a period of up to 4 hr after administration. Pretreatment of normal subjects with an evacuation enema resulted in spreading of the radiolabeled enema throughout the entire colon. In seven of the eight patients studied, the enema migrated a distance equal to or greater than the extent of disease involvement. An in vivo stability study with an indium-111-labeled enema, using the perturbed angular correlation technique, revealed that the enema retains its stability for up to 90 min after administration. These results indicate that the use of hydrocortisone enemas may not be restricted to distal bowel disease, but may also be effective in inflammatory bowel diseases involving proximal regions of the colon.

  2. Comparison of prophylactic and therapeutic use of short‐chain fatty acid enemas in diversion colitis: a study in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ariano Jose Freitas de Oliveira; Francisco Edilson Leite Pinto Júnior; Maria Célia Carvalho Formiga; Syomara Pereira da Costa Melo; Jose Brandao-Neto; Ana Maria de Oliveira Ramos

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of short‐chain fatty‐acids on atrophy and inflammation of excluded colonic segments before and after the development of diversion colitis. INTRODUCTION: Diversion colitis is a chronic inflammatory process affecting the dysfunctional colon, possibly evolving with mucous and blood discharge. The most favored hypotheses to explain its development is short‐chain fatty‐acid deficiency in the colon lumen. METHODS: Wistar rats were submitted to colostomy with distal c...

  3. Comparison of prophylactic and therapeutic use of short-chain fatty acid enemas in diversion colitis: a study in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariano Jose Freitas de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of short-chain fatty-acids on atrophy and inflammation of excluded colonic segments before and after the development of diversion colitis. INTRODUCTION: Diversion colitis is a chronic inflammatory process affecting the dysfunctional colon, possibly evolving with mucous and blood discharge. The most favored hypotheses to explain its development is short-chain fatty-acid deficiency in the colon lumen. METHODS: Wistar rats were submitted to colostomy with distal colon exclusion. Two control groups (A1 and B1 received rectally administered physiological saline, whereas two experimental groups (A2 and B2 received rectally administered short-chain fatty-acids. The A groups were prophylactically treated (5th to 40th days postoperatively, whereas the B groups were therapeutically treated (after post-operative day 40. The mucosal thickness of the excluded colon was measured histologically. The inflammatory reaction of the mucosal lamina propria and the lymphoid tissue response were quantified through established scores. RESULTS: There was a significant thickness recovery of the colonic mucosa in group B2 animals (p = 0.0001, which also exhibited a significant reduction in the number of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells in the lamina propria (p = 0.0126 and in the intestinal lumen (p = 0.0256. Group A2 showed no mucosal thickness recovery and significant increases in the numbers of lymphocytes (p = 0.0006 and eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells in the lamina propria of the mucosa (p = 0.0022. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic use of short-chain fatty-acids significantly reduced eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cell numbers in the intestinal wall and in the colonic lumen; it also reversed the atrophy of the colonic mucosa. Prophylactic use did not impede the development of mucosal atrophy.

  4. Multidetector computerized tomography enema versus magnetic resonance enema in the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaldi, Ennio, E-mail: ennio.biscaldi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Galliera Hospital, via Mura delle Capuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Ferrero, Simone, E-mail: simone.ferrero@unige.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto, E-mail: ulrm@libero.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Remorgida, Valentino, E-mail: vremorgida@yahoo.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Venturini, Pier Luigi, E-mail: venturini@unige.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Rollandi, Gian Andrea, E-mail: rollandi@galliera.it [Department of Radiology, Galliera Hospital, via Mura delle Capuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of multidetector computerized tomography enema (MDCT-e) and magnetic resonance enema (MRI-e) in determining the presence of sigmoid and rectal endometriotic nodules. Materials and methods: 260 women (32.6 ± 4.3 years) with symptoms suggestive of rectosigmoid endometriosis underwent MDCT-e and MRI-e prior to laparoscopy. After retrograde colonic distention and injection of intravenous contrast medium, patients were scanned on a 64-row MDCT scanner. MRI-e was performed on a 1.5 T magnet using an 8 channels phased array coil; intestinal distention was achieved by introducing in the rectum 250–300 ml of ultrasonographic gel diluted with saline solution. Radiological findings were compared with surgical and histological results. Results: 176 women had rectosigmoid endometriosis at surgery. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of MDCT-e (98.5%) and MRI-e (96.9%) in the diagnosis of sigmoid and rectal endometriosis (p = 0.248). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of MDCT-e and MRI-e were respectively 98.3%, 98.8%, 99.4%, 96.5%, 81.59, 0.02 and 97.2%, 96.4%, 98.3%, 94.1%, 26.89, 0.03. Conclusions: Both MDCT-e and MRI-e are accurate in the diagnosis of rectal and sigmoid endometriosis.

  5. Multidetector computerized tomography enema versus magnetic resonance enema in the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of multidetector computerized tomography enema (MDCT-e) and magnetic resonance enema (MRI-e) in determining the presence of sigmoid and rectal endometriotic nodules. Materials and methods: 260 women (32.6 ± 4.3 years) with symptoms suggestive of rectosigmoid endometriosis underwent MDCT-e and MRI-e prior to laparoscopy. After retrograde colonic distention and injection of intravenous contrast medium, patients were scanned on a 64-row MDCT scanner. MRI-e was performed on a 1.5 T magnet using an 8 channels phased array coil; intestinal distention was achieved by introducing in the rectum 250–300 ml of ultrasonographic gel diluted with saline solution. Radiological findings were compared with surgical and histological results. Results: 176 women had rectosigmoid endometriosis at surgery. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of MDCT-e (98.5%) and MRI-e (96.9%) in the diagnosis of sigmoid and rectal endometriosis (p = 0.248). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of MDCT-e and MRI-e were respectively 98.3%, 98.8%, 99.4%, 96.5%, 81.59, 0.02 and 97.2%, 96.4%, 98.3%, 94.1%, 26.89, 0.03. Conclusions: Both MDCT-e and MRI-e are accurate in the diagnosis of rectal and sigmoid endometriosis

  6. Barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hee Jung [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    We wanted to evaluate the barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants. Retrospective evaluation of the plain abdominal radiography and barium enema findings was performed in fifteen young infants suffering with milk allergy. The presence of gaseous distension, rectal gas, paralytic ileus and mechanical obstruction was evaluated on the plain radiography. The presence of spasm, a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index and mucosal irregularity was analyzed on the barium enema; the presence of barium retention was also evaluated on 24-hour-delayed plain radiography. Paralytic ileus was the most common finding on the plain radiography (93%). On the barium enema, continuous spasm of the colon, ranging from the rectum to the descending colon, was revealed in ten infants (67%). A transitional zone was observed in one infant and a reversed rectosigmoid index was revealed in four. Mucosal irregularity was observed in two infants. Barium retention was demonstrated in 11 of fifteen cases: throughout the entire colon (n = 3), from the rectum to the descending colon (n = 7), and up to the transverse colon (n = 1). The most common barium enema finding of milk allergy in infants was spasm of the distal colon. The other findings were a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index, mucosal irregularity and barium retention.

  7. The diagnostic value of barium enema in acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute appendicitis is the most common acute surgical condition of the abdomen. When the clinical presentation is atypical, barium enema has proven to be safe and useful in confirming the diagnosis and reducing the negative surgical exploration. However, the performance of barium enema in acute appendicitis has known contraindication primarily because of fear of leakage by perforation of the inflamed appendix. This study using barium enema as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation was performed to further support the previously noted efficacy and safety of this procedure. The results were as followings: 1. In case of acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation, the use of barium enema as a diagnostic aid increased the accuracy of diagnosis and decreased the negative surgical exploration. In women between 11 to 50 years old age, especially, it played important role differentiating appendicitis from nonsurgical acute abdomen. 2. The results of the study were 92.31% in sensitivity, 7.69% in false positive, 6.9% in false negative, and 10.26% in negative appendectomy. 3. None of case of leakage of barium by perforation of the inflamed appendix was noted, therefore, barium enema was thought to be safe as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis. 4. A simple partial or non filling of appendix without other associated positive finding could not exclude appendicitis, therefore, close clinical observation was necessary. 5. The positive findings of barium enema and their sensitivity were as followings: 1. Non filling of appendix: 90% 2. Partial filling of appendix: 91.7% 3. Displacement or a local impression on terminal ileum: 100%

  8. Therapeutic enema for pediatric ileocolic intussusception: using a balloon catheter improves efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Bradford W; Hagedorn, Jeffrey E; Guikema, Jeffrey S; Barnes, Courtney L

    2013-10-01

    A therapeutic enema for pediatric intussusception may benefit by using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. We compared the efficacy of rectal catheters without and with an inflated balloon for air and liquid enemas. We retrospectively reviewed PACS images and hospital records of children who had a therapeutic enema for intussusception at our institution between January 2006 and May 2011. Sixty-two enemas in 60 children were included. Physician assistants with training in pediatric fluoroscopy and pediatric radiologists were more likely to use air enema (37/41 or 90 %), and general radiologists were more likely to use liquid enema (18/21 or 86 %). However, the reduction rate for air enema overall was only slightly higher than for liquid enema using an inflated balloon catheter (36/40 or 90 % versus 14/17 or 82 %) (P=0.653). For air enema, mean procedure time for successful reductions was shorter with an inflated balloon catheter than with a plastic catheter (7.6 versus 28.2 min) (Pinflated balloon catheter than without inflation (14/17 or 82 % versus 1/5 or 20 %; P=0.021), but the procedure time was not shortened. No procedural complications were directly attributed to using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. Using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon appears to safely shorten the procedure time of a successful air enema and improve the reduction rate of liquid enema. PMID:23748969

  9. Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour – The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145

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    Bernal María

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial. Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogotá, Colombia that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998 and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogotá during follow up; gestational age ≥ 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ≤7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66, and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without

  10. Ultrasound-guided water enema for reduction of childhood intussusception

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    Marinković Smiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intussusception is a common abdominal emergency in infants and children. Ultrasonography and barium enema are very useful in diagnosis and treatment of this condition. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of ultrasound-guided saline enema for intussusception and to determine if some factors may improve the outcome of this technique. Material and methods. Intussusception was diagnosed in 63 patients at the Clinic of Pediatric Surgery in Novi Sad. The study period was divided into two 2-year phases: phase I, from 2001 through 2002, and phase II, from 2003 through 2004. During phase I, besides barium enema and fluoroscopy, we started using ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided hydrostatic saline enema in the diagnosis and reduction of intussusception. In phase II, this method of reduction was routinely used in all cases. Our technique of ultrasonic reduction was similar to the conventional hydrostatic barium reduction, except the reservoir was higher than that of barium, analgosedation ot patients was performed and in case of difficult and prolonged reduction, gentle manual pressure to the abdomen at right lower quadrant was used. Results. In phase I the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting intussusception was 53.8% , and 100% in phase II. The success rate of ultrasound-guided saline enema was 55.5% in phase I, and 83.8% in phase II. Only 6 patients (16.2% underwent operative manual reduction of intussusception in phase II. There were no cases with bowel gangrene or perforations in both groups. Conclusions. Ultrasonography is a useful screening tool in the diagnosis of intussusception. The main advantage of hydrostatic reduction with ultrasound guidance is avoidance of ionizing radiation. The success rate of this method of reduction may be increased with an integrated team approach to the management and with modifications of the technique.

  11. Coffee enema for preparation for small bowel video capsule endoscopy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-07-01

    Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE.

  12. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

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    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  13. Rectosigmoid endometriosis: Comparison between CT water enema and video laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of water enema computed tomography (CT) for predicting the location of endometriosis in patients with contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), focusing on rectosigmoid lesions and having laparoscopic and histological data as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Thirty-three women (mean age 33.4 ± 3.1 years) suspected of having deep pelvic endometriosis underwent 64-row CT and video laparoscopy within 4 weeks. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical data evaluated the CT images obtained after colonic retrograde distension using water as the contrast medium, and a comparison with laparoscopic and histological findings was performed. CT sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The radiation dose to patients was estimated. Cohen's weighted kappa (κ) test was used to evaluate the interobserver agreement. Results: In 23 out of 33 patients (69%) intestinal implants were found at surgery and pathological examinations. CT confirmed the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis in 20 out of 23 implants. Three nodules located on the proximal sigmoid colon (two serosal lesions and one infiltrating the muscularis layer) with a diameter of less than 1 cm were not diagnosed. CT sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy values were 87, 100, 100, 77, and 91%, respectively. The mean effective dose estimate was 6.30 ± 1.7 mSv. Almost perfect agreement between the two readers was found (k = 0.84). Conclusion: Water enema CT can play a role in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis and represents another accurate potential tool for video laparoscopic approaches, especially in patients for whom MRI is contraindicated

  14. Sonography-guided gastrografin enema for meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Rhan Ellen Ai; Pi, Soo Young; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of sonography-guided Gastrografin enema for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Fifteen premature newborns underwent 23 sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas on the 8th day of life on average (range: 3 days-21 days). The gestational age and birth weight (mean{+-}standard deviation) of the patients were 29{+-}2 weeks and 999{+-}148 g, respectively. The diagnosis of meconium plug syndrome was based on relevant clinical and radiological findings. Diluted Gastrografin (1:3, 17-45 ml) was administered through a rectal tube under the guidance of sonography until it reached to the cecum. Thereafter, immediate post-procedure and delayed portable abdominal radiographs were taken. All the procedures were done within the NICU. We reviewed the dates of meconium evacuation and the first feeding after the last enema from the clinical data. Radiologically, the timing of the radiographic improvement after the last enema was checked. In cases of distended distal ileum with meconium on preenema sonography, follow-up sonography was performed to determine the interval change after gastrografin enema. None of the sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas performed within the NICU caused procedure-related complications. Meconium was evacuated within one day in all patients. In 14 patients, on average, feeding was started on the 7th day and radiographic improvement was observed on the 3rd day. Four of the five patients showing a distended distal ileum with meconium revealed a decrease in ileal distension on follow-up sonography. On the other hand, the other patient, who did not show such a decrease on follow-up sonography, was found to have ileal stenosis during subsequent surgery. Sonography-guided Gastrografin enema is a safe and effective bedside procedure, when performed in the NICU for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome.

  15. Sonography-guided gastrografin enema for meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of sonography-guided Gastrografin enema for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Fifteen premature newborns underwent 23 sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas on the 8th day of life on average (range: 3 days-21 days). The gestational age and birth weight (mean±standard deviation) of the patients were 29±2 weeks and 999±148 g, respectively. The diagnosis of meconium plug syndrome was based on relevant clinical and radiological findings. Diluted Gastrografin (1:3, 17-45 ml) was administered through a rectal tube under the guidance of sonography until it reached to the cecum. Thereafter, immediate post-procedure and delayed portable abdominal radiographs were taken. All the procedures were done within the NICU. We reviewed the dates of meconium evacuation and the first feeding after the last enema from the clinical data. Radiologically, the timing of the radiographic improvement after the last enema was checked. In cases of distended distal ileum with meconium on preenema sonography, follow-up sonography was performed to determine the interval change after gastrografin enema. None of the sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas performed within the NICU caused procedure-related complications. Meconium was evacuated within one day in all patients. In 14 patients, on average, feeding was started on the 7th day and radiographic improvement was observed on the 3rd day. Four of the five patients showing a distended distal ileum with meconium revealed a decrease in ileal distension on follow-up sonography. On the other hand, the other patient, who did not show such a decrease on follow-up sonography, was found to have ileal stenosis during subsequent surgery. Sonography-guided Gastrografin enema is a safe and effective bedside procedure, when performed in the NICU for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome

  16. Colonic diverticulosis: evaluation with double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the pattern of colonic diverticulosis according to age and sex, and recent trend. The authors retrospectively reviewed 120 cases of colonic diverticulosis in 1,020 patients who had undergone a double contrast barium enema examination between January 1st, 1993, and December 31st, 1995, and analyzed the frequency, size, multiplicity and anatomical site, according to age and sex. Diverticulum size was classified into one of three groups : less than 5mm, 5-10mm, over 10mm in diameter. The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 120 cases among 1,020 patients(11.8%) with an incidence 5.3 times higher in males than in females. Peak incidence was in the fifth decade, with 19 cases (15.8%) among males, and after the sixth decade, with four cases(3.3%) among females. Mean age was 57.7 years. Diverticulum size of 5-10mm in diameter was predominant (2% of cases); average diameter was 5-6mm. The incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 5.1 times more frequent in the right colon (101 cases) than in the left (20 cases). The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis has continually increased; in addition it has also recently increased slightly in left-sided colon. This is thought to be due to various factors, both congenital and acquired, including longer life with good health care, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, stress and the tendency of eating patterns to more closely resemble those of the west

  17. Colonic diverticulosis: evaluation with double contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jae Kook; Lee, Jong Koo; Yun, Eun Joo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the pattern of colonic diverticulosis according to age and sex, and recent trend. The authors retrospectively reviewed 120 cases of colonic diverticulosis in 1,020 patients who had undergone a double contrast barium enema examination between January 1st, 1993, and December 31st, 1995, and analyzed the frequency, size, multiplicity and anatomical site, according to age and sex. Diverticulum size was classified into one of three groups : less than 5mm, 5-10mm, over 10mm in diameter. The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 120 cases among 1,020 patients(11.8%) with an incidence 5.3 times higher in males than in females. Peak incidence was in the fifth decade, with 19 cases (15.8%) among males, and after the sixth decade, with four cases(3.3%) among females. Mean age was 57.7 years. Diverticulum size of 5-10mm in diameter was predominant (2% of cases); average diameter was 5-6mm. The incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 5.1 times more frequent in the right colon (101 cases) than in the left (20 cases). The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis has continually increased; in addition it has also recently increased slightly in left-sided colon. This is thought to be due to various factors, both congenital and acquired, including longer life with good health care, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, stress and the tendency of eating patterns to more closely resemble those of the west.

  18. Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Galia Niv,1 Tamar Grinberg,2 Ram Dickman,3 Nir Wasserberg,4 Yaron Niv1,3 1Risk Management and Quality Assurance, 2Emergency Department, 3Department of Gastroenterology, 4Department of Surgery B, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Objectives: Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy. Methods: We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase. Results: There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate. There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001. Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4% versus 0 (P = 0.0001 and 8 (3.9% versus 2 (0.7% (P = 0.0001, for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively. Conclusion: Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema, and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed. Keywords

  19. Air enema used in the evaluation of acute colitis. A comparison between instant radiography and endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate air enema as a method of assessing acute colitis. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with symptoms of acute colitis underwent plain abdominal radiography, air enema, and colonoscopy within 48 h. The films were evaluated by 3 observers with different levels of experience, both independently and together, and the results were then compared to the findings at endoscopy. Results: Air enema visualized a greater part of the colon than plain abdominal radiography. When air enema was compared to endoscopy as the reference, it showed good correlation, with a positive predictive value of 92% (sensitivity 62%, specificity 85%). Evaluation of the rectum was less accurate, a finding that emphasized the importance of rigid sigmoidoscopy. Conclusion: Air enema is a useful diagnostic method in acute colitis, it is easily performed and tolerated well with no observed complications. It is also easy to interpret, as shown by a high level of agreement (κ=0.67) among the 3 independent observers with very different levels of experience. (orig.)

  20. Use of the barium enema in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uken, P.; Smith, W.; Franken, E.A.; Frey, E.; Sato, Y.; Ellerbroek, C.

    1988-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in infants. The diagnosis relies heavily upon radiographic and clinical features. Failure to accurately diagnose NEC is associated with a risk of complications and death, however overdiagnosis also causes both morbidity and mortality as well as excessive medical costs. This report documents the use of barium enema to evaluate suspected clinical or radiographic NEC in 31 premature infants with ambiguous clinical and radiographic signs. The enema was normal in 26 infants and no treatment for NEC was given. Only one of these infants developed signs of NEC subsequent to the examination. Five infants had radiographic evidence of colitis including small ulcerations, spasm, intramural extravasation of barium and mucosal irregularity. Two of the five positive cases are pathologically documented. The barium enema can represent a significant improvement in the specificity of the diagnosis of NEC. Its greatest value is in the exclusion of NEC in ambiguous cases.

  1. Therapeutic barium enema for bleeding colonic diverticula:Four case series and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ichi Iwamoto; Yuji Mizokami; Koichi Shimokobe; Takeshi Matsuoka; Yasushi Matsuzaki

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of diverticular diseases of the colon, including severe and persistent bleeding in Eastern countries, has increased in the last decades. The bleeding from colonic diverticula is the most common cause of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Herein, we report four cases of severe and persistent bleeding of colonic diverticular disease that could be treated with a high concentration barium enema. These four cases showed a similar pattern of bleeding whose source could not be identified. Colonoscopy revealed fresh blood in the entire colon and many diverticula were noted throughout the colon. No active bleeding source was identified, but large adherent clots in some diverticula were noted. After endoscopic and angiographic therapies failed, therapeutic barium enema stopped the severe bleeding. These patients remained free of re-bleeding in the follow-up period (range 17-35 mo) after the therapy. We report the four case series of therapeutic barium enema and reviewed the literature pertinent to this procedure.

  2. Development of in situ gelling and bio adhesive 5-Fluorouracil enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil's concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal

  3. Development of in situ gelling and bio adhesive 5-Fluorouracil enema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances, the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil's concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0 for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more

  4. Clinical Study on Treatment of Hyperuricaemia by Retention Enema of Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Allopurinol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 马丽; 阿克拜尔·乌普

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of retention enema of Chinese herbal medicine combined with allopurinol in treating hyperuricaemia(HUE).Methods:Seventy-eight patients with HUE were assigned to two groups,the 40 patients in the treated group were treated with retention enema of Chinese herbal medicine combined with oral intake of allopurinol,and the 38 patients in the control group were treated with allopurinol alone. The therapeutic course for all was 6 weeks.The clinical efficacy,changes of symptoms,blood...

  5. A comparison of radiographer and radiologist reports on radiographer conducted barium enemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare radiographer and radiologist reports on radiographer conducted barium enemas. Method: Two specially trained, experienced radiographers performed barium enemas and prepared provisional reports without consulting radiologists. Later, formal radiologist reports were issued. The reports of each were compared and correlated with clinical findings derived from case note review. Results:Seven hundred and eighty eight patients had barium enemas. Males numbered 295 (37.5%) and females 493 (62.5%). Patients ages ranged from 17 to 95 years (mean 62). The radiologist reported 244 as normal, 432 as diverticular change, 70 with polyps (31 of which had co-existent diverticular disease), 31 with carcinomas and 12 with colitis (three of which had co-existent diverticular disease). Taking the radiologist reports as gold-standard radiographer reports were concordant in 753 (95.5%). There were 35 (4.5%) discordant radiographer reports of these 19 were false-positive diagnoses of polyps and six false positive diagnoses of diverticular change. There were seven false-negative diagnoses of polyps (only one of these was found to have a polyp at follow-up endoscopy). There was one false-negative diagnosis of colitis and two false-negative reports of diverticular change. On follow up there were no false negative diagnoses of carcinoma by either radiographer or radiologist. There was one concordant false-positive diagnosis of carcinoma. Conclusion:Radiographers with specialized training can report barium enemas to a high standard

  6. Venous barium embolization, a rare, potentially fatal complication of barium enema: 2 case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous embolization of barium has been recognized for 4 decades as one of the most dreaded complications of barium enema. Fortunately, the condition is extremely rare. In this report, the radiographic findings in 2 cases of venous embolization (one involving the portal vein and one systematic) are described, and ways to decrease the risk of this complication are discussed. (author)

  7. Enema use among men who have sex with men: a behavioral epidemiologic study with implications for HIV/STI prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Syed W; Rosser, B R Simon

    2014-05-01

    Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N = 4,992) recruited from 16 U.S. cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52 %) participants reported having douched at least once and 35 % reported douching within the last 3 months. While most (88 %) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28 % douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65 %) used water to douche, 24 % added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30 % reported using commercially available products. Being a man of color, HIV-positive, diagnosed with an STI, identifying as "versatile" in sex, and having more than two unprotected sex partners were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex are recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

  8. Intra-individual comparison of patient acceptability of multidetector-row CT colonography and double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIMS: To compare the subjective acceptability of CT colonography in comparison with barium enema in older symptomatic patients, and to ascertain preferences for future colonic investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 78 persons aged 60 years or over with symptoms suggestive of colorectal neoplasia, who underwent CT colonography followed the same day by barium enema. A 25-point questionnaire was administered after each procedure and an additional follow-up questionnaire a week later. Responses were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs testing, Mann-Whitney test statistics and binomial exact testing. RESULTS: Participants suffered less physical discomfort during CT colonography (p=0.03) and overall satisfaction was greater compared with barium enema (p=0.03). On follow-up, respondents reported significantly better tolerance of CT colonography (p=0.002), and were less prepared to undergo barium enema again (p<0.001). Of 52 subjects expressing an opinion, all preferred CT to barium enema. CONCLUSION: Patient satisfaction was higher with CT colonography than barium enema. CT colonography caused significantly less physical discomfort and was overwhelmingly preferred by patients

  9. Barium enema carried out by digital luminescent radiography (DLR) and conventional screen-film system combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    120 double-contrast barium enemas were obtained by both digital luminescent radiography (DLR) and conventional screen-film systems, the digital exposure dose being 50% of the conventional one. In DLR two differently post processed images were obtained from one X-ray exposure: a display with low spatial frequency enhancement was processed to look like a conventional radiograph and was complemented by a display with high spatial frequency enhancement. Analysing the results statistically DLR proved to be diagnostically equivalent to conventional radiography despite the reduction in exposure dose and a slightly diminished image quality. High spatial frequency enhancement did not provide further diagnostic information and is therefore superfluous in barium enemas. (orig.)

  10. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Oscar M.; Daneman, Alan; Miller, Stephen F. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

  11. A Simple Method for Enema Administration in One-Day-Old Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Marietto-Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe a simple technique for enema administration in one-day-old broiler chicks. For this purpose we used 455 unsexed health birds divided into four groups submitted to three different experimental protocols: in the first one, we measured the total length of the large intestine in order to establish a secure distance for probe introduction; in the second, we evaluated maximum compliance of large intestine and diffusion range; finally, based on results obtained we tested the hypothesis in 400 birds in order to standardize the method. Enema solutions applied in an intrarectal manner with a stainless steel gavage BD-10 probe into one-day-old broiler chicks at 0.2 mL at a distance of 1.5 cm proved to be a reliable method.

  12. Effects of budesonide and probiotics enemas on the systemic inflammatory response of rats with experimental colitis Efeito de enemas contendo budesonida e probióticos na resposta inflamatória sistêmica de ratos com colite experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardem Machado de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enemas containing probiotics and budesonide on the systemic inflammatory response in experimental colitis. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats with experimental colitis induced by 10% acetic acid enema were randomized to five groups (10 rats each according to the treatment: group 1 - saline solution, group 2 - budesonide (0.75 mg/kg/day, group 3 - probiotics (1mg/day, group 4 - probiotics plus budesonide, and group 5 - control, with not-treated rats. The following variables were studied: body weight, serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein and interleucine-6 (IL-6. RESULTS: All animals lost weight between the beginning and the end of the experiment (280+ 16 mg versus 249+21 mg, p0.05. Only probiotic rats presented a significant decrease of IL-6 than controls (0,30±0,08 mg/dL vs. 0,19±0,03 mg/dL; pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da administração retal de probióticos e budesonida na resposta inflamatória de ratos com colite experimental. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta ratos Wistar com colite experimental induzida pelo acido acético à 10% foram randomizados em 5 grupos (n=10 por grupo para diferentes tratamentos: grupo 1 - solução fisiológica; grupo 2 budesonida (0,75mg/kg/dia; grupo 3 - probióticos (1 g/dia; grupo 4 - probióticos associados a budesonida; e finalmente grupo 5 - controle, composto por ratos sem tratamento. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: peso corporal, dosagens séricas de albumina, proteína C reativa (PCR e interleucina-6 (IL-6. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais perderam peso entre o inicio e o fim do experimento (280±16 vs 249±21g; p0.05. As comparações entre o grupo controle (0,30±0,08 mg/dL e outros mostraram que houve uma queda significante nos níveis de IL-6 apenas no grupo probiótico (0,19±0,03 mg/dL; p<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: Probióticos são efetivos na diminuição do estado inflamatório mediado pela IL-6 na colite experimental.

  13. Effects of budesonide and probiotics enemas on the colonic mucosa of rats with experimental colitis Efeito de enemas contendo budesonida e probióticos na mucosa colonica de ratos com colite experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardem Machado de Souza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of enemas containing probiotics and budesonide on the colonic mucosa in experimental colitis. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats with experimental colitis induced by 10% acetic acid enema were randomized to five groups (10 rats each according to the treatment: group 1 - saline solution, group 2 - budesonide (0.75 mg/kg/day, group 3 - probiotics (1mg/day, group 4 - probiotics plus budesonide, and group 5 - control, with not-treated rats. The following variables were studied: body weight, macroscopic and microscopic score of the colonic mucosa, and DNA content of the mucosa. RESULTS: All animals lost weight between the beginning and the end of the experiment (280+ 16 mg versus 249+21 mg, pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da administração retal de probióticos e budesonida na mucosa colônica de ratos com colite experimental. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta ratos Wistar com colite experimental induzida pelo ácido acético à 10% foram randomizados em 5 grupos (n=10 por grupo para diferentes tratamentos: grupo 1 - solução fisiológica; grupo 2 - budesonida (0,75mg/kg/dia; grupo 3 - probióticos (1 g/dia; grupo 4 - probióticos associados a budesonida; e finalmente grupo 5 - controle, composto por ratos sem tratamento. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: peso corporal, aspecto macroscópico e microscópico da mucosa e conteúdo de DNA da mucosa colônica. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais perderam peso entre o início e o fim do experimento (280±16 vs 249±21g; p<0.001. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos em relação a macroscopia e histologia. O grupo budesonida + probiótico apresentou conteúdo de DNA maior que o grupo controle (1,24±0,15 versus 0,92±0,30 g/100g de tecido; p=0,01. CONCLUSÃO: A associação de budesonida com probióticos acelera o trofismo mucoso na colite experimental.

  14. Colorectal neoplasm: Magnetic resonance colonography with fat enema-initial clinical experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess Magnetic resonance colonography with fat enema as a method for detection of colorectal neoplasm. METHODS: Consecutive twenty-two patients underwent MR colonography with fat enema before colonoscopy. T1-weighted three-dimensional fast spoiled gradientecho with inversion recovery sequence was acquired with the patient in the supine position before and 75 s after Gadopentetate Dimelumine administration. Where by, pre and post MR coronal images were obtained with a single breath hold for about 20 s to cover the entire colon. The quality of MR colonographs and patients' tolerance to fat contrast medium was investigated. Colorectal neoplasms identified by MR colonography were compared with those identified on colonoscopy and sensitivity of detecting the lesions was calculated accordingly. RESULTS: MR colonography with fat enema was well tolerated without sedation and analgesia. 120 out of 132 (90.9%) colonic segments were well distended and only 1 (0.8%) colonic segment was poor distension. After contrast enhancement scan, mean contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) value between the normal colonic wall and lumen was 18.5 ± 2.9 while mean CNR value between colorectal neoplasm and lumen was 20.2 ± 3.1. By Magnetic resonance colonography, 26 of 35 neoplasms (sensitivity 74.3%) were detected. However, sensitivity of MRC was 95.5% (21 of 22) for neoplasm larger than 10 mm and 55.6% (5 of 9) for 5-10 mm neoplasm. CONCLUSION: MR colonography with fat enema and T1-weighted three-dimensional fast spoiled gradientecho with inversion recovery sequence is feasible in detecting colorectal neoplasm larger than 10 mm.

  15. ACUTE PHOSPHATE NEPHROPATHY DUE TO USE OF PHOSPHOROUS ENEMA: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jamshid, Hamdard; Rumeyza, Kazancıoğlu; Işın, Kılıçaslan; YASEMINÖZLÜK; Murat, Alay; Ruhper, Çekin; Reha, Erkoç; Gauhar, Rakhymzhan

    2014-01-01

    The number of colonoscopies is rising worldwide due to national screening programs. In the USA, for example, approximately 14.2 million colonoscopies are performed every year. Adequate cleansing of the bowel before colonoscopy is important in order to obtaingood results, and many preparations are used as purgatives. One such kind of purgative is an enema containing sodium phosphate.Sodium phosphate containing purgatives are widely used Bezmialem Vakif University Faculty of Medicine, Departmen...

  16. Use of butyrate or glutamine in enema solution reduces inflammation and fibrosis in experimental diversion colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Goulart Pacheco; Christiano Costa Esposito; Lucas CM Müller; Morgana TL Castelo-Branco; Leonardo Pereira Quintella; Vera Lucia A Chagas; Heitor Siffert P de Souza

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether butyrate or glutamine enemas could diminish inflammation in experimental diversion colitis.METHODS:Wistar specific pathogen-free rats were submitted to a Hartmann's end colostomy and treated with enemas containing glutamine,butyrate,or saline.Enemas were administered twice a week in the excluded segment of the colon from 4 to 12 wk after the surgical procedure.Follow-up colonoscopy was performed every 4 wk for 12 wk.The effect of treatment was evaluated using video-endoscopic and histologic scores and measuring interleukin-1β,tumor necrosis factor-alpha,and transforming growth factor beta production in organ cultures by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Colonoscopies of the diverted segment showed mucosa with hyperemia,increased number of vessels,bleeding and mucus discharge.Treatment with either glutamine or butyrate induced significant reductions in both colonoscopic (P < 0.02) and histological scores (P < 0.01) and restored the densities of collagen fibers in tissue (P =0.015; P =0.001),the number of goblet cells (P =0.021; P =0.029),and the rate of apoptosis within the epithelium (P =0.043; P =0.011) to normal values.The high levels of cytokines in colon explants from rats with diversion colitis significantly decreased to normal values after treatment with butyrate or glutamine.CONCLUSION:The improvement of experimental diversion colitis following glutamine or butyrate enemas highlights the importance of specific luminal nutrients in the homeostasis of the colonic mucosa and supports their utilization for the treatment of human diversion colitis.

  17. Radiographer and radiologist perception error in reporting double contrast barium enemas: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The practice of radiographers performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE) is now widespread and in many centres the radiographer's opinion is, at least, contributing to a dual reporting system [Bewell J, Chapman AH. Radiographer performed barium enemas - results of a survey to assess progress. Radiography 1996;2:199-205; Leslie A, Virjee JP. Detection of colorectal carcinoma on double contrast barium enema when double reporting is routinely performed: an audit of current practice. Clin Radiol 2001;57:184-7; Culpan DG, Mitchell AJ, Hughes S, Nutman M, Chapman AH. Double contrast barium enema sensitivity: a comparison of studies by radiographers and radiologists. Clin Radiol 2002;57:604-7]. To ensure this change in practice does not lead to an increase in reporting errors, this study aimed to compare the perception abilities of radiographers with those of radiologists. Methods: Three gastro-intestinal (GI) radiographers and three consultant radiologists independently reported on a selection of 50 DCBE examinations, including the level of certainty in their comments for each examination. A blinded comparison of the results with an independent 'standard report' was recorded. Results: The results demonstrate there was no significant difference in perception error for any of the levels of certainty, for single reporting, for double reading by a radiographer/radiologist or by two radiologists. Conclusions: The study shows that radiographers can perceive abnormalities on DCBE at similar sensitivities and specificities as radiologists. While the participants in the study may be typical of a district general hospital, the nature of the study gives it limited external validity. As a pilot, the results demonstrate that, with slight modification, the methodology could be used for a larger study

  18. The efficacy of intraoperative methylene blue enemas to assess the integrity of a colonic anastomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kozol Robert A; McGeehin William; Smith Stanton; Giles David

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Intraoperative testing of colonic anastomoses is routine in assuring anastamotic integrity. We sought to determine the efficacy of the methylene blue enema (MBE) as an intraoperative test for anastomotic leaks. Methods This study is a retrospective review of consecutive colonic operations performed from January 2001 to December 2004 in a community hospital setting by a general surgical group that uses the MBE exclusively. All operations featuring a colonic anastomosis and ...

  19. Randomized clinical trial on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema: impact on radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the willingness of radiologists to change their practice when the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema are presented. Materials and Methods: During the years 1994 and 1995 two postal questionnaires were sent to 481 practicing radiologists who were all members of the Netherlands Society of Radiology. In the first questionnaire the respondents were asked to give the characteristics of their practices in performing daily barium enema. The data from this questionnaire was used as a reference. The second questionnaire was sent to the respondents together with an abstract on the randomized clinical trial supporting the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema. We also indicated a preference for Buscopan over Glucagon as the antispasmodic drug. The willingness to change prescription habits was measured by comparing the data of the two questionnaires. Results: Of 481 practicing radiologists, 312 responded to the first questionnaire and gave information of their prescription habits (response rate 64%). These 312 responders were sent an abstract of the RCT and were asked to fill out a second questionnaire to determine their willingness to change their practice. Two hundred and sixty-seven radiologists responded (response rate 86%). A significant number of 119 (51%) were willing to increase the use of antispasmodic drugs. A significant number of 128 (55%) chose to increase the use of Buscopan, while a significant number of 81 (32%) were willing to decrease the use of Glucagon. Conclusion: Direct exposure to the results of an RCT recommending the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema, especially Buscopan, is likely to increase its use by practicing radiologists

  20. A case of cap polyposis remission by betamethasone enema after antibiotics therapy including Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Sato, Masashi; Akutsu, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Sato, Taiki; Mizokami, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital due to frequent bloody mucus diarrhea. She was diagnosed with cap polyposis based on typical endoscopic and histological findings. Colonoscopy revealed multiple, reddish, mucus-capped polypoid lesions from the rectum to the sigmoid colon. A pathological examination revealed that the polyps were covered by erosive and inflamed granulation tissue with decreased crypt cells. Laboratory data indicated positive values for Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody and hypoproteinemia. Metronidazole, H. pylori eradication, and levofloxacin therapies were not effective; however, the subsequent administration of betamethasone enema dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and endoscopic findings. The hypoproteinemia was normalized after the therapy. The dose of the betamethasone enema was tapered gradually, and no recurrence was observed 6 months after discontinuation of the treatment. This case suggests that betamethasone enema may be considered as the second treatment choice for cap polyposis patients after H. pylori eradication, metronidazole or levofloxacin therapy. PMID:24949613

  1. Preliminary study on MR colonography with air enema in detection of colorectal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-yue; LIU Li; YAN Fu-hua; SHEN Ji-zhang; YAO Li-qing; ZHOU Kang-rong

    2010-01-01

    Background The few studies on MR colonography with air enema involved feasibility of bowel distention and imaging quality and lacked detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms with the three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography with air enema.Methods A total of 30 patients scheduled for optical colonoscopy due to rectal bleeding, positive fecal occult blood test results or altered bowel habits were recruited and successfully underwent entire colorectal examinations with three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography and subsequent optical colonoscopy on the same day. Detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms with MR colonography was statistically analyzed on a per-neoplasm size basis by using findings from optical colonoscopy and histopathological examinations as the reference standards.Results Seventy-six neoplasms were detected with optical colonoscopy, consisting of 1 mm-5 mm (n=11), 6 mm-9 mm (n=29) and >10 mm (n=36) in diameter. Detection sensitivities of 1 mm-5 mm, 6 mm-9 mm, ≥10 mm and >6 mm colorectal neoplasms with MR colonography were 9.1%, 75.9%, 100% and 89.2%, respectively; overall detection sensitivity for all sizes colorectal neoplasms was 77.6%.Conclusions Detection sensitivity of three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography with air enema is low for 1 mm-5 mm colorectal neoplasms, but the detection sensitivity is 89.2% for ≥6 mm neoplasms, and all ≥10 mm neoplasms could be detected.

  2. Early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-11-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious.

  3. Complications of barium enema examinations: a survey of UK Consultant Radiologists 1992 to 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeborough, A; Sheridan, M B; Chapman, A H

    1997-02-01

    Questionnaires were sent to all Consultant Radiologists in the UK regarding complications from barium enema examinations. The 756 respondents performed a total of 738,216 examinations over the three year period 1992 to 1994. Seventy-seven Consultants (10.2%) reported a total of 82 complications including 13 deaths: an overall mortality rate of 1 in 56,786. Only three of 30 (10%) cases of bowel perforation died, as compared with nine out of 16 (56%) cases of cardiac arrhythmia. The only remaining death was a consequence of vaginal intubation. Details of all the reported complications are recorded. This was an entirely retrospective study. PMID:9043049

  4. Limitations of combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema in patients with rectal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-seven outpatients with non-massive rectal bleeding or asymptomatic positive fecal occult blood were evaluated with 35 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema (DBCE) and colonoscopy. 82% had hemorrhoids and 35% harbored colorectal neoplasia. The combination of flexible sigmoidoscopy and DCBE missed none of 7 malignant lesions. However, 35% of benign polyps ≥ 1 cm and 60.5% of those < 1 cm were not detected by this combination. The presence of hemorrhoids should not prevent a search for colon neoplasia and colonoscopy is the preferred method. (orig.)

  5. Optimal diagnosis of anastomotic colorectal leak by combination of conventional colonic enema and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danse, E; Goncette, L; Kartheuser, A

    2007-01-01

    Post-operative complications of colorectal surgery occur not uncommonly. They have to be detected as early as possible, in order to reduce their morbidity and mortality rates. The most frequent early complications are abscesses, mechanical obstruction, and anastomotic leak. Imaging studies are required in order to assess such complications. We present a case for which radiological procedures were contributive for an optimal diagnosis of anastomotic leak following colo-rectal anastomosis. We emphasize the role of conventional radiology (contrast enema) combined with CT in the post-operative detection of an anastomotic intestinal leak. PMID:18376770

  6. 甘氨酸及5-氨基水杨酸改性淀粉对Cd(Ⅱ)的吸附性能研究%ADSORPTION OF Cd(Ⅱ) BY GLYCINE-AND 5-AMINOSALICYLIC ACIDS-MODIFIED STARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玮; 吕彤; 崔莉; 杜晓; 王君

    2016-01-01

    以淀粉(Starch)为基体,接枝甲基丙烯酸缩水甘油酯(GMA)后得到starch-g-GMA,再分别将甘氨酸(Gly)或5-氨基水杨酸(ASA)修饰在starch-g-GMA上,形成2种对Cd(Ⅱ)具有优良吸附效果的新型改性淀粉螯合剂starch-g-GMA-Gly和starch-g-GMA-ASA.借助红外光谱、扫描电镜、元素分析仪等表征了改性淀粉螯合剂的结构,通过原子吸收光谱仪测试了改性淀粉螯合剂对Cd(Ⅱ)的静态吸附性能.结果表明,上述改性淀粉螯合剂对Cd(Ⅱ)的吸附过程均符合准二级动力学方程,且吸附等温线用Freundlich模型拟合效果优于Langmuir模型.starch-g-GMA-Gly和starch-g-GMA-ASA对Cd(Ⅱ)的平衡吸附量均较大,分别达到130mg/g和149mg/g.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean; Nisanuch Tosri; Noppamas Rojanasthien; Somdet Srichairatanakool; Chaichan Sangdee

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500 mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180 mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receiv...

  8. Comparative electrochemical degradation of salicylic and aminosalicylic acids: Influence of functional groups on decay kinetics and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenza, Xavier; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2016-07-01

    Solutions of 100 mL with 1.20 mM of salicylic acid (SA), 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) have been comparatively degraded by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Trials were carried out with a stirred tank reactor with a BDD anode and an air-diffusion cathode for continuous H2O2 production. A marked influence of the functional groups of the drugs was observed in their decay kinetics, increasing in the order SA 98% mineralization for all the drugs at 100 mA cm(-2). Oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as final short-linear aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-exclusion HPLC, allowing the fast photolysis of their Fe(III) complexes by UVA light to justify the high power of PEF. PMID:27045634

  9. Effect of glucagon on the diagnostic accuracy of double-contrast barium enema examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, R F; Vandeman, F; Wall, S D

    1984-01-01

    The effect of glucagon-induced hypotonicity on the diagnostic accuracy of double-contrast barium enema examinations was determined in 133 consecutive patients in a double-blind crossover study. All patients underwent colonoscopy and served as their own controls by undergoing a double-contrast study after intravenous injection of 1 mg of glucagon and another after intravenous injection of 1 ml of saline placebo, in randomized order. The frequencies of good/excellent hypotonicity and quality of examinations after first doses of glucagon (55.3% and 80.8%) were not significantly different from the frequencies of good/excellent results after first doses of saline (51.3% and 86.5%). The sensitivity was 72.6% after glucagon and 64.5% after placebo; the specificity was 88.7% after glucagon and 77.9% after placebo; and the respective accuracies were 81.2% and 71.9%. These percentages should be used only to compare results with and without glucagon and, by study design, do not represent results of a complete double-contrast study. The variation among these percentages was not statistically significant, but diverticulitis was more accurately diagnosed after glucagon. It was concluded that glucagon does not significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the double-contrast barium enema examination and should be used only in selected instances. PMID:6606942

  10. Clinical and Experimental Study on Treatment of Infantile Autumn Diarrhea by Retention Enema with Qilian Liquid (

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    :Objective:To find out the effective treatment for infantile autumn diarrhea(IAD).Methods:Retention enema with Qilian Liquid(QLL) was applied to 106 patients of IAD with positive antigen of rotavirus in stool,and the result in the treated group was compared with that in the control group(82 patients) in aspects of clinical effect, negative conversion rate of rotavirus in stool and change of serum immunoglobulin. Animal experimental study was also conducted.Results:The disappearance time of principal symptoms, negative conversion rate of rotavirus in stool and serum levels of IgA and IgG in the treated group were significantly better than those in the control group (P<0.01, P< 0.05). Experimental study showed that QLL not only has the anti-viral effects to stop diarrhea, but also has effects in enhancing immune function and protecting intestinal mucous membrane. Conclusion:Retention enema with QLL is an effective therapy for the treatment of IAD.

  11. Role of water-soluble enema before takedown of diverting ileostomy for low pelvic anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Benjamin J; King, Justin B; Kumar, Ravin R

    2009-10-01

    The integrity of a low pelvic anastomosis is often studied radiographically before takedown of a diverting ileostomy. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of routine water-soluble enema studies (WSE) in our patient population with low pelvic anastomosis. We retrospectively reviewed the operative database for a county teaching hospital from 1998 to 2008. All patients with low pelvic anastomosis (ultralow colorectal, coloanal, and ileoanal pouch anastomosis) with diverting ileostomy who underwent subsequent takedown were identified. Fifty patients met inclusion criteria. Thirty-eight patients were evaluated by WSE and 12 were not. Twenty-five patients (66%) were noted to have normal WSE studies before ostomy takedown. Thirteen patients (26%) were noted to have abnormalities on WSE. Two stenoses were clinically significant. Water-soluble enema study was 100 per cent sensitive and 69 per cent specific for detecting significant pathology. Digital rectal examination (DRE), colonoscopy, and flexible sigmoidoscopy were also 100 per cent sensitive in detecting substantial pathology. Routine use of WSE failed to demonstrate a significant impact on patients with low pelvic anastomosis undergoing ileostomy takedown. Routine DRE and rigid proctoscopy can be used to evaluate low pelvic anastomosis. WSE can be used selectively on patients with abnormal findings. PMID:19886140

  12. Development of White Jade Mushroom Enema%白玉菇灌肠的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩倩; 贾艳林

    2011-01-01

    With white jade mushroom and pork as raw material,soy protein and starch as accessories,by single factor experiments and orthogonal test to research the best formula for white jade mushrooms enema,the effect of fat thin ratio,white jade mushrooms,soybean protein,the adding amount of starch on the quality of white jade mushroom enema were mainly researched.The results showed that fat thin ratio of 2:8 was the best ratio of products,the optimum adding amount of white jade mushroom was 20%,the optimum adding amount of Soybean protein was 8%,and the optimum adding amount of starch was 8%.%以白玉菇和猪肉为原料,以大豆蛋白和淀粉为辅料,通过单因素试验和正交试验对白玉菇灌肠最佳配方进行研究,主要研究了肥瘦比、白玉菇、大豆蛋白、淀粉添加量对白玉菇灌肠品质的影响。其产品的最佳配比,肥瘦比为2:8,白玉菇的用量为20%,大豆蛋白的用量为8%,淀粉的用量为12%。

  13. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters

  14. Comparison of Golytely lavage with standard diet/cathartic preparation for double-contrast barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, C M; Rugh, K S; DiPalma, J A; Brady, C E; Pierson, W P

    1984-06-01

    In a two-part study, two groups of 100 outpatients each were randomly assigned a colon preparation. In part 1, a standard 1-day diet/cathartic combination was compared with Golytely. In part 2, diet/cathartics was compared with Golytely plus Dulcolax (bisacodyl). The standard preparation provided good or excellent feces removal in 81 (80%) of 101 subjects. Golytely alone was successful in only 21 (53%) of 40 patients, but Golytely followed by Dulcolax achieved good or excellent feces removal in 31 (82%) of 38. Degraded mucosal coating with Golytely alone, due to excessive fluid retention, was also corrected by the addition of Dulcolax. Golytely alone is not an adequate method of colon cleansing for double-contrast barium enema, but Golytely plus Dulcolax is as effective as the standard preparation. PMID:6609598

  15. Choice of double contrast barium enema (DCBE) method based on patient exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbidity of colon cancer continues to increase, taking second and third places in malignant tumors. The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) increases exponentially with age; those over 50 years of age represent 37% of general population, yet account for 95% of the cases, and more than 96% of the deaths from colon malignancies For a long time radiologic examinations were considered as a main pre-operative diagnostic method for cancer of the colon. The sensitivity of the barium enema with regard to diagnosis of the carcinoma and polyps ranges from 92-98.5%. Sigmoidoscopy for detection and removal of polyps has been shown to decrease the incidence of subsequent CRC's by 70-80% in distal colon. However, the sigmoid colon is often difficult to examine because of associated diverticular disease, and about 15% of tumors in the sigmoid colon are overlooked. Authors)

  16. Treatment of 15 Cases of Chronic Pelvic Inflammation by Acupuncture plus Herbal Enema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jian

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen cases of chronic pelvic inflammation were treated by needling Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zhongji (CV 3), Shidao (ST 28), Diji (SP 8), Zusanli (ST 36), Shenshu (BL 23), Dachangshu (BL 25) and Ciliao(BL 32) in combination with herbal enema effective to clear heat and relieve toxin, activate blood and resolve stagnant blood.After 2-course treatment, 13 cases were cured and 2 cases were improved.%针刺关元,气海,三阴交,中极,水道,地机,足三里,肾俞,大肠俞和次髎穴,同时用清热解毒和活血化瘀中药进行保留灌肠,治疗了15例慢性盆腔炎患者,经过2个疗程治疗,13例痊愈,2例有效.

  17. Effects of Chinese herbal enema therapy combined basic treatment on BUN,SCr,UA,and IS in chronic renal failure patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹川

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the clearance role and safety of Chinese herbal enema therapy (CHET) in clearing enterogenic uremic toxins in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients,thus providing evidence for further optimizing the comprehensive treatment. Methods Using nonrandomized concurrent control

  18. Design of a multicentre randomized trial to evaluate CT colonography versus colonoscopy or barium enema for diagnosis of colonic cancer in older symptomatic patients: The SIGGAR study

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards Rob; Wooldrage Katherine; Rogers Pauline; Morton Dion; Wardle Jane; Lilford Richard J; Halligan Steve; Kanani Reshma; Shah Urvi; Atkin Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims The standard whole-colon tests used to investigate patients with symptoms of colorectal cancer are barium enema and colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is the reference test but is technically difficult, resource intensive, and associated with adverse events, especially in the elderly. Barium enema is safer but has reduced sensitivity for cancer. CT colonography ("virtual colonoscopy") is a newer alternative that may combine high sensitivity for cancer with safety and patien...

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of the double-contrast enema for colonic polyps in patients with or without diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosi, C; Ballardini, G; Pisani, P; Bellomi, M; Cozzi, G; Vidale, M; Spinelli, P; Severini, A

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of the double-contrast enema for the diagnosis of polypoid lesions in the presence or absence of diverticula was evaluated by retrospectively reviewing the medical records of 202 patients subjected to examination and endoscopy. Analysis of the data on 215 polypoid lesions showed that (a) the diagnostic accuracy of the examination is not affected significantly by the presence of diverticula; (b) the sensitivity of the examination is highly dependent on the size of the polyps (smaller or larger than 0.5 cm) but not on the form (sessile or pedunculated); and (c) the positive predictive value is higher in patients without diverticula. The double-contrast enema was confirmed to be a valid method for the diagnosis of polypoid lesions.

  20. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F. [University Hospital, Goettingen (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Pradier, Olivier [University Hospital, Brest (France). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  1. Serum Fatty Acids Are Correlated with Inflammatory Cytokines in Ulcerative Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Wiese

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is associated with increased dietary intake of fat and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Modification of fat metabolism may alter inflammation and disease severity. Our aim was to assess differences in dietary and serum fatty acid levels between control and UC subjects and associations with disease activity and inflammatory cytokines.Dietary histories, serum, and colonic tissue samples were prospectively collected from 137 UC subjects and 38 controls. Both histologic injury and the Mayo Disease Activity Index were assessed. Serum and tissue cytokines were measured by Luminex assay. Serum fatty acids were obtained by gas chromatography.UC subjects had increased total fat and oleic acid (OA intake, but decreased arachidonic acid (AA intake vs controls. In serum, there was less percent saturated fatty acid (SFA and AA, with higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, linoleic acid, OA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA in UC. Tissue cytokine levels were directly correlated with SFA and inversely correlated with PUFA, EPA, and DPA in UC subjects, but not controls. 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy blunted these associations.In summary, we found differences in serum fatty acids in UC subjects that correlated with pro-inflammatory tissue cytokines. We propose that fatty acids may affect cytokine production and thus be immunomodulatory in UC.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare Earth Solid Complexes with Sodium 5-Aminosalicylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiuying; Li Shujing; Lei Xuefeng; Ma Junxian

    2005-01-01

    Ten new rare earth solid complexes were synthesized by the reaction of sodium 5-aminosalicyliate with rare earth chloride. The structure character, physical and chemical properties of these complexes were studied by IR, UV, 1H NMR spectra, TG-DTA, fluorescence, elemental analyses, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility. The ten rare earth complexes exist in dimeric form probably and the coordination number is seven. The antibacterial activity of the ligand and six complexes was also tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, and the effect of Yb complex at 20 mg·ml-1 against Staphylococcus aureus is most significant.

  3. Antineoplastic Effects of 5-Aminosalicylates and Potential Cancer Preventive Role in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Early studies from tertiary referral centers in the United States and Europe showed that patients with long-standing and extensive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of colon cancer. It was subsequently appreciated that the degree of risk depended on the population being studied and on both genetic and environmental factors (eg diet, drugs and prior surgical treatment). Indeed, over the past decade or so, the effects of chronically administered medications, including 5-am...

  4. Indications for 5-aminosalicylate in inflammatory bowel disease: IS the body of evidence complete?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ad A van Bodegraven; Chris JJ Mulder

    2006-01-01

    Mesalazine is a safe drug, although adverse events may be seen in a minority of patients. This applies also to pregnant women and children. The role of mesalazine in combination therapy to improve efficacy and concomitant drug pharmacolinetics, or in chemoprevention againstinflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related colonic carcinoma has not yet been completely elucidated.Therapeutic success of mesalazine may be optimized by a combination of high dose and low frequency of dosage to improve compliance. Therefore, due to its superior safety profile and pharmacokinetic characteristics,mesalazine is preferable to sulphasalazine. This paper reviews the literature concerning mechanisms of action,indications and off-label use, pharmacokinetic properties and formulations, therapeutic efficacy, compliance, paediatric indications, chemoprevention, and safety issues and adverse event profile of mesalazine treatment versus sulphasalazine. It also highlights these controversies in order to clarify the potential benefits of mesalazines in IBD therapy and evidence for its use.

  5. Curative Effect observation on 52 Cases of Infantile Viral Enteritis by Using Herbal Enema and Acupuncture%中药灌肠并针灸佐治小儿病毒性肠炎60例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic efficacy of using herbal enema and acupuncture to treat the infantile virus enteritis.Methods: 110 cases of infantile virus enteritis were divided randomly into two groups, The control group (n=50) to correct water electrolyte and acid-base balance disturbance, but no using antibiotics; the treatment group (n=60)was treated combined herbal enema and acupuncture.Results: The efficacy rate of the treatment group (96.7% ) was significantly higher than that (68.0% ) in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Herbal enema and acupuncture is more efficient than the control group to treat the infantile virus enteritis, and can reduce side effect of hormones, simple operation and easy to use.%目的:观察中药灌肠并针灸对小儿病毒性肠炎的疗效.方法:临床上将110例病儿随机分为治疗组和对照组,对照组不用抗生素,纠正水电解质及酸碱平衡紊乱,并常规口服思密迭1/2包~1包;治疗组:在对照组相同治疗的基础上加用中药30ml~50ml灌肠2次/d,针灸1次/d,观察患儿治疗后症状缓解情况.结果:治疗后,治疗组总有效率96.7%,对照组总有效率68.0%,疗效明显优于对照组,且减少了不良反应.结论:中药灌肠并针灸治疗小儿病毒性肠炎操作简单,使用方便,不良反应少的优点,可明显提高治愈率.

  6. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, Luigia; Spisni, Enzo; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Ricci, Chiara; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Valerii, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120 mg kg((-1)) body weight, starting 6 days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg((-1)) dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis.

  7. Dietary geraniol by oral or enema administration strongly reduces dysbiosis and systemic inflammation in dextran sulphate sodium-treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigia eDe Fazio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (Trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH, is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120mg kg(-1 body weight, starting six days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg(-1 dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis.

  8. Clinical and Experimental Study on Treatment of Infantile Autumn Diarrhea by Retention Enema with Qilian Liquid (芪连液)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To find out the effective treatment for infantile autumn diarrhea(IAD).Methods:Retention enema with Qilian Liquid(QLL) was applied to 106 patients of IAD with positive antigen of rotavirus in stool,and the result in the treated group was compared with that in the control group(82 patients) in aspects of clinical effect, negative conversion rate of rotavirus in stool and change of serum immunoglobulin. Animal experimental study was also conducted.Results:The disappearance time of principal symptoms, negative conversion rate of rotavirus in stool and serum levels of IgA and IgG in the treated group were significantly better than those in the control group (P<0.01, P< 0.05). Experimental study showed that QLL not only has the anti-viral effects to stop diarrhea, but also has effects in enhancing immune function and protecting intestinal mucous membrane. Conclusion:Retention enema with QLL is an effective therapy for the treatment of IAD.

  9. Inflammatory diseases of the large intestine. Colon contrast enema and CT; Entzuendliche Dickdarmerkrankungen. Kolonkontrasteinlauf und CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antes, G. [Klinikum Kempten-Oberallgaeu GmbH, Kempten (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologie

    1998-01-01

    Among the many inflammatory diseases of the colon, Crohn`s disease and ulcerative colitis occur most frequently. For primary evaluation, endoscopy has widely replaced the barium enema (BE) as diagnostic method. BE, however can provide important additional informations in the differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory colonic diseases. Purpose of this article is the demonstration of typical, but also of atypical radiological changes in different stages of Crohn`s disease and ulcerative colitis, as well as calling attention to the importance of CT. A BE demands a refined examination technique using double contrast. All CT-examinations have to be scrutinized for changes of the bowel and mesentery. A dedicated spiral-CT examination might be indicated in a known disease in order to obtain special information. The advantage of a BE over endoscopy is a clear and reproducible demonstration of the patterns of distribution and character of the disease as well as the detection of fistulae. The classification into one or the other disease entity can be better accomplished. CT is superior in detecting bowel wall thickening, extraintestinal disease and complications. In diagnostic imaging of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, endoscopy and radiologic techniques are used complementarily. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter den vielen entzuendlichen Dickdarmerkrankungen sind Morbus Crohn und Colitis ulcerosa bei weitem am haeufigsten. Die Endoskopie hat den Kolonkontrasteinlauf (KE) in der Primaerdiagnostik weitgehend abgeloest. Dennoch kann der KE bei der Differentialdiagnose entzuendlicher Dickdarmerkankungen wichtige Zusatzinformationen liefern. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Demonstration der typischen, aber auch atypischen roentgenologischen Veraenderungen in den verschiedenen Stadien bei Morbus Crohn und Colitis ulcerosa sowie der Hinweis auf die Bedeutung der CT. Der KE erfordert eine ausgefeilte Untersuchungstechnik im Doppelkontrast. Bei allen CT-Untersuchungen muessen der Darm und

  10. ANTI INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF BASTI THERAPY (MEDICATED ENEMA IN THE PATIENTS OF PSORIASIS (EK KUSTHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ek kustha is a type of kshudra kustha described in different Ayurvedic classics. It is a vata-kaphaj disorder. The clinical symptom of Ek kustha described in Ayurveda resembles with the clinical symptom of Psoriasis. The clinical feature of Ek kustha described by Kashyap represents remission, relapse and seasonal variation, which are present in Psoriasis. Psoriasis like other skin disorders is challenge to the medical sciences. In modern medicine there is no definite treatment for this disease. The medicines, which are available to treat the disease, are not very effective and cannot be used for long-term management because of their local and systemic side effect as well as toxicity. Medicines, which are used in Ayurveda, are safe and being practiced since thousands of year. A large number of drugs and measures are described in Ayurveda for the treatment of Kustha. This study was designed to access the anti-inflammatory activity of Basti Therapy (Medicated Enema in the treatment of Ek kustha (psoriasis. The study was randomized open phase clinical trial. Basti planned for the therapy was Yoga-basti Karma in which Anuvasana basti was given using Mahanarayan tail while Niruh basti was given using Dashmula quath in accordance with Aharya Charak as mentioned in Siddhi Sthana 1/25. Keeping this view in mind we have started basti therapy in the patients of osteoarthritis and found encouraging results. The patients of age group 18 to 60 were selected on the basis of Ayurvedic signs and symptoms of Ek kustha. Observations were recorded for sharply defined erythemo-squamous lesions varying in size; presence of erythema, scaling and induration in the lesions; surface consists of non-coherent scales; positive Auspitz sign – (Bleeding occurs after scratching of scales; positive onion peeling sign/candle grease sign (after scratching the scales fall like peels of onion. The laboratory values of TLC, DLC, ESR and CRP were also recorded before and after the

  11. Clinical Study on Chinese Herbal Enema in Adjuvant Treatment of Uremia%中药灌肠辅助治疗尿毒症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丽萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of Chinese herbal enema with hemodialysis in adjuvant treatment of uremia.Method: Patients (76 cases) with uraemia in telophase were randomly divided into two groups: Chinese herbal enema with hemodialysis group (n=38), and conventional hemodialysis group (n=38). Chinese herbal enema with hemodialysis group reduced hemodialysis times and prolonged hemodialysis interval for 4 weeks to observe the changes of every clinical parameters.Result: There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Chinese herbal enema with hemodialysis group was better than conventional hemodialysis group in protecting residual renal function (P0.05);辅助治疗组较透析对照组透析时间间隔明显延长,治疗后对残余肾功能保护作用明显优于对照组,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:中药灌肠辅助治疗配合血液透析在不影响透析效果的前提下,较单纯的血液透析明显改善了患者生活质量,显著延长透析时间间隔,并可以适度延缓残余肾功能恶化的进展。

  12. Proposta de classificação do megacólon chagásico através de enema opaco A classification for chagasic megacolon through contrast enema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação de exames radiográficos de portadores de megacólon chagásico, estabelecendo parâmetros que possibilitem uma classificação prática da evolução da doença. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 76 enemas opacos de pacientes com megacólon chagásico e 59 de pacientes normais de acordo com a sorologia. Nestas radiografias foi medido o diâmetro transverso do sigmóide à altura de uma linha imaginária que passa pelas espinhas ilíacas ântero-superiores. Estas medidas foram submetidas à análise de distribuição de freqüência, a partir da qual se construíram tabelas e se estabeleceu uma classificação de 1 a 3. RESULTADOS: Cinquenta e dois pacientes, todos normais, apresentaram diâmetros transversos de sigmóide entre 2 e 5 cm; 29 entre 5 e 9 cm (22 chagásicos e sete normais; 38, todos chagásicos, entre 9 e 13 cm e 16, todos também chagásicos, acima de 13 cm CONCLUSÕES: Propomos uma divisão do megacólon chagásico em Graus, com as seguintes características: no Grau 1, o eixo transversal mede entre 5 cm e 9 cm (inclusive; no Grau 2, o eixo transversal mede entre 9 cm e 13 cm (inclusive e no Grau 3, agruparam-se todos os eixos transversais com medidas superiores a 13 cm.BACKGROUND: Trypanosomiasis Americana is a South America endemic disease. Megacolon is one of its consequences that has not been classified as megaesophagus is. Our objective was to evaluate the results of contrast enemas of patients with Chagas' megacolon, in order to establish a practical radiologic classification of the disease's stage. METHODS: The authors evaluated 76 contrast enemas of patients with Chagas' megacolon and 59 enemas of normal patients. In those x-rays were measured the transversal diameters of sigmoid by the level of an imaginary line that passes between iliacs crests. The distribution of these measurements was analyzed establishing a classification into three grades (1 to 3. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients, without megacolon, had

  13. Colon imaging in radiology departments in 2008: goodbye to the routine double contrast barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Giles

    2008-10-01

    fluoroscopy budgets as barium enemas are discontinued. Some larger hospitals may reserve a scanner purely for alimentary tract work- perhaps CTC and CT enterography. The essential administrative breakthrough will be to establish either a technical fee for CTC or an appropriate increase in the hospital global budget to allow high-volume CTC to flourish Nationally standards and guidelines will be needed, and if we are to play a major role in screening, where high standards have to be evaluated and maintained, we may need nationally organized individual audit feedback, much as we have with breast screening. Should the known data sets have a role in training for radiologists embarking on screening or in demonstrating continued competence? It is an exciting time once again for radiologists interested in colonic disease. We now know that CTC can be done very well. The challenges are going to be achieving consistency and deciding which of the 6 areas of opportunity described above are our priorities.

  14. Audit in action: significant reduction of double-contrast barium enema screening time with no loss of examination quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The double-contrast barium enema is an examination of high patient exposure. As part of a departmental audit, the authors' fluoroscopic screening times were recorded. A study was undertaken to see if a determined effort could reduce screening time without having a detrimental effect on the quality of examination. Methods of screening time reduction were identified and implemented by two radiologists. Before the study average screening time for radiologists A and B was 2.6 min and 3.2 min, respectively (over 56 examinations). After changes, the average screening time for both was 0.9 min (over 50 examinations). This is a statistically significant reduction (p<0.01). Examinations were assessed independently by a gastroradiologist. No difference in quality of the examinations was identified. (author)

  15. The use of carbon dioxide as an insufflation agent in barium enema--does it have a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, N K; Lloyd, M; Regan, F

    1993-03-01

    A double blind prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of using carbon dioxide in double contrast barium enema (DCBE). 142 consecutive patients referred for DCBE were randomly allocated to receive either air or carbon dioxide (CO2) as the insufflation agent. The use of CO2 reduced the incidence of immediate and delayed severe pain from 31% to 12.5% and from 12.9% to 4.2% respectively. There was a statistically significant higher incidence of delayed severe pain in the younger age group as found in previous studies. Post-evacuation films showed that there was less residual gas after CO2. The quality of the DCBE was unchanged. We urge the more widespread use of CO2 as insufflation agent in DCBE. PMID:8472110

  16. Review article: current therapeutic options for radiation proctopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J J; Park, W; Ehrenpreis, E D

    2001-09-01

    Radiation proctopathy is a common unfortunate complication following radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies. Symptoms of chronic radiation proctopathy include haematochezia, urgency, constipation, tenesmus, diarrhoea and rectal pain. Currently, a wide variety of pharmacological options, endoscopic cautery techniques and surgical procedures have been proposed for the treatment of chronic radiation proctopathy. Although these have been proposed primarily as treatment for rectal bleeding, the control of other symptoms has been noted with some of these agents. Pharmacological options include 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations, coticosteroid enemas, sucralfate (oral, enemas), formalin, short chain fatty acid enemas, oestrogen/progesterone, hyperbaric oxygen, antioxidants, sodium pentosan polysulphate and misoprostol rectal suppositories. Of these, sucralfate and formalin therapy appear to be effective for bleeding control. Misoprostol rectal suppositories and oral sucralfate may be useful in the prevention of acute and chronic symptoms of radiation proctopathy. Endoscopic cautery techniques have included the use of Nd:YAG laser and argon laser for coagulation of bleeding neovascular telangiectasias. Argon plasma coagulation offers a safe non-contact method of delivering haemostasis which has proven to be particularly useful in targeting difficult to reach lesions tangentially. Surgery is generally reserved for severe refractory cases involving ongoing haemorrhage, obstruction, stricture formation, fistulas and perforation. Given that formal randomized placebo-controlled studies are lacking for most treatments, the management of these patients is often challenging and unclear. Hence, there is a need for more research and education on radiation proctopathy. PMID:11552895

  17. Effect of rectal enemas on rectal dosimetric parameters during high-dose-rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A prospective trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Sevillano, Marimar; Berenguer, Roberto; Aguayo, Manuel; Villas, Maria Victoria [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA), Department of Radiation Oncology, Albacete (Spain); Gascon, Marina; Arenas, Meritxell [Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Reus (Spain); Rovirosa, Angeles; Camacho-Lopez, Cristina [University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Gynecological Cancer Unit, Radiation Oncology Department, ICMHO, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). This prospective trial included 59 patients. Two rectal cleansing enemas were self-administered before the second fraction, and fraction 1 was considered the basal status. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) values were generated for the rectum and correlated with rectal volume variation. Statistical analyses used paired and unpaired t-tests. Despite a significant 15 % reduction in mean rectal volume (44.07 vs. 52.15 cc, p = 0.0018), 35.6 % of patients had larger rectums after rectal enemas. No significant rectal enema-related DVH differences were observed compared to the basal data. Although not statistically significant, rectal cleansing-associated increases in mean rectal DVH values were observed: D{sub 0.1} {sub cc}: 6.6 vs. 7.21 Gy; D{sub 1} {sub cc}: 5.35 vs. 5.52 Gy; D{sub 2} {sub cc}: 4.67 vs. 4.72 Gy, before and after rectal cleaning, respectively (where D{sub x} {sub cc} is the dose to the most exposed x cm {sup 3}). No differences were observed in DVH parameters according to rectal volume increase or decrease after the enema. Patients whose rectal volume increased also had significantly larger DVH parameters, except for D{sub 5} {sub %}, D{sub 25} {sub %}, and D{sub 50} {sub %}. In contrast, in patients whose rectal volume decreased, significance was only seen for D{sub 25} {sub %} and D{sub 50} {sub %} (D{sub x} {sub %} dose covering x % of the volume). In the latter patients, nonsignificant reductions in D{sub 2} {sub cc}, D{sub 5} {sub cc} and V{sub 5} {sub Gy} (volume receiving at least 5 Gy) were observed. The current rectal enemas protocol was ineffective in significantly modifying rectal DVH parameters for HDR-VCB. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung der Auswirkungen von rektalen Dosen waehrend postoperativer High-Dose-Rate-(HDR-)Brachytherapie an der Scheidenmanschette (''vaginal cuff brachytherapy'', VCB). An

  18. A Phase II dose ranging, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of alicaforsen enema in subjects with acute exacerbation of mild to moderate left-sided ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.H. van Deventer; M.K. Wedel; B.F. Baker; S. Xia; E. Chuang; P.B. Miner

    2006-01-01

    Alicaforsen is an antisense oligonucleotide designed to inhibit expression of human intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated activity of alicaforsen enema in ulcerative colitis and pouchitis. To determine the minimally effective dosing regimen of alicaforsen ene

  19. Traditional Chinese medicine enema and probiotics in the treatment of ulcerative colitis%中药灌肠联合微生态制剂治疗溃疡性结肠炎临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛畅; 邝靖

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨中药灌肠、氨基水杨酸制剂及微生态制剂治疗溃疡性结肠炎的临床疗效.方法 选取经内镜检查确诊为溃疡性结肠炎患者168例为研究对象,采用随机数字表法分为对照组84例和观察组84例,对照组采用柳氮磺吡啶(SASP)治疗,剂量为1.0g,4次/d,疗程28 d.观察组在口服SASP治疗基础上联用微生态制剂常美安及中药灌肠,美常安胶囊2粒(500 mg)/次,3次/d,餐后口服;中药灌肠采用白芷、白扁豆、苦参、蝉蜕、防风煎煮过滤后每晚睡前保留灌肠.比较两组临床疗效.结果 治疗后,观察组的Sutherland指数显著低于对照组[(1.82±1.65)比(5.51±1.59)],两组差异有统计学意义(t=10.436,P<0.05).观察组临床总有效率、镜下总有效率、组织学总有效率分别为88.1%、81.0%、76.2%,对照组分别为66.7%、57.1%、50.0%,两组差异均有统计学意义(x2=4.353、4.512、5.113,均P<0.05).结论 中药灌肠、氨基水杨酸制剂及微生态制剂治疗溃疡性结肠炎具有良好的疗效,可显著缓解患者临床症状,改善肠道病变程度.%Objective To explore the clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema,amino salicylic acid preparation and probiotics in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.Methods 168 patients were selected as the research objects which were confirmed by endoscopic examination and the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis patients,randomly divided into the control group of 84 cases and observation group of 84 cases.The control group was given with sulfasalazine(SASP) treatment,a dose of 1g,4 times/d,period of treatment was 28d.In the observation group,oral SASP treatment combined with microecological preparation often meian and traditional Chinese medicine enema,Chang An capsule,2 capsules (500mg)/time,3 times/d,postprandial oral; Herbal Enema with angelica,white lentils,flavescent sophora root,cicada,windproof suffering after filtering,every night before bed

  20. 中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎90例临床观察%The clinical observation of 90 children with tonsillitis treated by traditional Chinese medi-cine enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李民

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析和探讨中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的临床效果.方法:选取我院2012-01/2014-01收治的150例小儿化脓性扁桃体炎患者,通过随机数字表法分为对照组( n=60)和观察组( n=90).观察组患儿给予中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗,对照组患儿给予阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗,对两组患儿临床治疗效果进行分析.结果:观察组患儿临床治疗有效率较对照组更高( P<0.05).结论:在小儿化脓性扁桃体炎治疗中,中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗能改善临床症状,提高治疗效果,不良反应少,疗效安全可靠,可推广应用.%AIM: To analyze and explore the clinical effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium tablets in the treatment of pediatric septic tonsillitis. METHODS: A total of 150 children with purulent tonsillitis patients in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were selected as research object, and were divided into control group ( n= 60 ) and observation group ( n = 90 ) according to a random number table method. The observation group were treated with TCM enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanic potassium tablets, and the control group received amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. The clinical therapeutic effect of two groups of children were analyzed. RESULTS: The clinical effective rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). CONCLU⁃SION:In the treatment of children with purulent tonsillitis, the TCM enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanic potassium tablets could relieve the clinical symptoms, and improve the therapeutic effect, with less adverse reaction and safe and reliable curative effect. It is worthy of promoting and applying.

  1. Comparison between CT Colonography and Double-Contrast Barium Enema for Colonic Evaluation in Patients with Renal Insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Young; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Ah Young; Park, Su Ki; Han, Duck Jong; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To compare the CT colonography (CTC) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) for colonic evaluation in patients with renal insufficiency. Two sequential groups of consecutive patients with renal insufficiency who had a similar risk for colorectal cancer, were examined by DCBE (n = 182; mean {+-} SD in age, 51 {+-} 6.4 years) and CTC (n = 176; 50 {+-} 6.7 years), respectively. CTC was performed after colon cleansing with 250-mL magnesium citrate (n = 87) or 4-L polyethylene glycol (n = 89) and fecal tagging. DCBE was performed after preparation with 250-mL magnesium citrate. Patients with colonic polyps/masses of {>=} 6 mm were subsequently recommended to undergo a colonoscopy. Diagnostic yield and positive predictive value (PPV) for colonic polyps/masses, examination quality, and examination-related serum electrolyte change were retrospectively compared between the two groups. Both the CTC and DCBE were positive for colonic polyps/masses in 28 (16%) of 176 and 11 (6%) of 182 patients, respectively (p = 0.004). Among patients with positive findings, 17 CTC and six DCBE patients subsequently underwent a colonoscopy and yielded a PPV of 88% (15 of 17 patients) and 50% (3 of 6 patients), respectively (p = 0.089). Thirteen patients with adenomatous lesions were detected in the CTC group (adenocarcinoma [n = 1], advanced adenoma [n = 6], and non-advanced adenoma [n = 6]), as compared with two patients (each with adenocarcinoma and advanced adenoma) in the DCBE group (p = 0.003). Six (3%) of 176 CTC and 16 (9%) of 182 DCBE examinations deemed to be inadequate (p 0.046). Electrolyte changes were similar in the two groups. In patients with renal insufficiency, CTC has a higher diagnostic yield and a marginally higher PPV for detecting colorectal neoplasia, despite a similar diagnostic yield for adenocarcinoma, and a lower rate of inadequate examinations as compared with DCBE.

  2. Value of 24-hour Delayed Film of Barium Enema for Evaluation of Colon Transit Function in Young Children with Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Hyeong Su; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A colon transit time test using radio-opaque markers (CTTRM) is considered the gold standard for evaluating colon transit function. A 24-hour delayed film of barium enema (BE) has been used as a supplementary method in structural evaluations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a 24-hour delayed BE film for assessing colon transit function in young children with constipation. Methods In total, 93 children with constipation who performed both single-contrast BE and CTTRM were enrolled in this study. Of these, the data from 70 children were analyzed (males 33, females 37; mean age [range], 5.63 ± 2.94 [2–14] years). The basic principle of the study is “velocity = distance/time”. Time values were identified in both studies, and the colon length and distance of barium movement were measured on the 24-hour delayed BE film. Thus, colon transit velocity values could be calculated using both methods. The correlation between colon transit velocity using a 24-hour delayed BE film versus CTTRM was analyzed statistically. Results Median value (interquartile range) of colon transit velocity using CTTRM was 1.57 (1.07–2.89) cm/hr, and that using BE of that was 1.58 (0.94–2.07) cm/hr. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.438 (P children younger than 4 years (r = 0.537, P = 0.032). Conclusions Although the correlation between BE and CTTRM was not very strong, the 24-hour delayed BE film could provide broad information about colon transit function in young children, especially those under 4 years who usually cannot undergo CTTRM. PMID:26979249

  3. Use of the contrast-enhanced CT enema in the management of penetrating trauma to the flank and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T; Sclafani, S J; Goldstein, A; Scalea, T; Panetta, T; Shaftan, G

    1986-07-01

    There have been few innovations in the management of penetrating trauma of the flank and back since that reported by Peck and Berne in 1981. During 1984-1985 our Trauma Service treated 119 patients with injuries in these areas. In 56 patients management was based on the results of the contrast-enhanced CT enema (CECTE), a computerized tomographic technique designed to delineate all of the retroperitoneal viscera by simultaneously opacifying the small bowel, duodenum, colon, GU tract, and major vessels. Specific radiographic findings were present on 44 scans. Twelve scans were negative. Six scans were considered indications for angiography because of the proximity of the identified missile wounds or their hematomas to major vascular structures. One of these arteriograms revealed a renal artery pseudoaneurysm which would otherwise have remained undiagnosed. In 30 cases the penetrating wounds were well delineated by CECTE, and their nature and location were considered appropriate for nonoperative management. None required subsequent exploration. In eight cases CECTE demonstrated that the wounds were located so as to place specific viscera at risk for significant injury, but no definite injury was identified. Five of these patients were successfully managed by further evaluation and close observation, two were explored, and one signed out of the hospital. No scan demonstrated extravasation from a hollow viscus. Overall, 52 of our 56 patients (92%) were successfully managed nonoperatively on the basis of the interpretation of their CECTE findings. CECTE can be useful in the management of stable patients with penetrating trauma to the back and flank by identifying the nature and location of the resulting retroperitoneal injuries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Crohn's disease recurrence in patients with ileocolic anastomosis: Value of computed tomography enterography with water enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: the main objective of the present work was to determine the diagnostic value of CT-enterography with water enema (CTe-WE) in the assessment of the ileocolic anastomosis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The prevalence of synchronous inflammatory lesions (SILs) involving gastrointestinal segments distinct from the anastomosis was also determined. Further, the association between the type of ileocolic anastomosis and the behavior (i.e. inflammatory, stricturing, penetrating) of CD recurrence was evaluated. Methods: 51 patients were retrospectively included (26 [51%] male and 25 [49%] female; mean age: 52.88 years ± 13.35). Ileocolic anastomoses were: 18 (35.3%) stapled side-to-side, 17 (33.3%) end-to-side, and 16 (31.4%) end-to-end. CTe-WEs were reviewed in consensus by two gastrointestinal radiologists. Endoscopy and medical records were used as reference standards. Results: CTe-WE yielded 95.35% sensitivity (CI 95%: 84.19–99.43%), 75.00% specificity (CI 95%: 34.91–96.81%), and 92.15% diagnostic accuracy (CI 95%: 81.31–98.02%). Anastomotic recurrence was found in 41/51 (80.4%) patients, including 30/41 (73.2%) cases of isolated anastomotic recurrence, and 11/41 (26.8%) cases of anastomotic recurrence with a SIL. A significant lower prevalence of stricturing recurrence was observed in patients with stapled side-to-side anastomoses (p = 0.033). Conclusions: CTe-WE provides a good distension of both sides of ileocolic anastomoses allowing the detection of SILs

  5. 直肠癌术后放射性肠炎的灌肠护理%Colorectal cancer postoperative radiation enteritis of enema nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To prevent and reduce the occurrence of rectovaginal fistula with Traditional Chinese and western pharmaceutical enema treatment of rectal cancer postoperative radiation enteritis .Methods:Twenty patients with colorectal cancer after radiotherapy and radioactive enteritis patients using metronidazole 100 ml to yunnan baiyao 1.0,dexamethasone 10 mg mixed into irrigation intestinal juice retention enema,1 times/day,treatment 2 weeks,and at the same time protect liver inflammation infusion drug therapy .Results:No recto-vaginal fistula happen ,radioactive enteritis patients and patients recovered after all .Conclusion:Metronidazole yunnan baiyao enema treat-ment of radioactive enteritis ,patients tolerance and medical from sex might be good ,easy to use safety ,the effect of obvious ,no bad reaction takes place .%目的:中西药灌肠治疗直肠癌术后放射性肠炎,预防和减少直肠阴道瘘的发生。方法:对20例直肠癌术后放疗并发放射性肠炎的病人采用甲硝唑100ml中加入云南白药1.0,地塞米松10mg混合成灌肠液保留灌肠,1次/d,疗程2周,同时输注消炎保肝药物治疗。结果:无直肠阴道瘘发生,放射性肠炎患者20例全部治愈出院。结论:甲硝唑云南白药灌肠治疗放射性肠炎,患者耐受性和医从性较好,使用方便安全,效果明显,无不良反应发生。

  6. Colon-specific prodrugs of 4-aminosalicylic acid for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaneshwar, Suneela S

    2014-04-01

    Despite the advent of biological products, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibodies (infliximab and adalimumab), for treatment of moderate to severe cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), most patients depend upon aminosalicylates as the conventional treatment option. In recent years, the increased knowledge of complex pathophysiological processes underlying IBD has resulted in development of a number of newer pharmaceutical agents like low-molecular-weight heparin, omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics and innovative formulations such as high-dose, once-daily multi-matrix mesalamine, which are designed to minimize the inflammatory process through inhibition of different targets. Optimization of delivery of existing drugs to the colon using the prodrug approach is another attractive alternative that has been utilized and commercialized for 5-aminosalicylic acid (ASA) in the form of sulfasalazine, balsalazide, olsalazine and ipsalazine, but rarely for its positional isomer 4-ASA - a well-established antitubercular drug that is twice as potent as 5-ASA against IBD, and more specifically, ulcerative colitis. The present review focuses on the complete profile of 4-ASA and its advantages over 5-ASA and colon-targeting prodrugs reported so far for the management of IBD. The review also emphasizes the need for reappraisal of this promising but unexplored entity as a potential treatment option for IBD. PMID:24707139

  7. Design of a multicentre randomized trial to evaluate CT colonography versus colonoscopy or barium enema for diagnosis of colonic cancer in older symptomatic patients: The SIGGAR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Rob

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims The standard whole-colon tests used to investigate patients with symptoms of colorectal cancer are barium enema and colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is the reference test but is technically difficult, resource intensive, and associated with adverse events, especially in the elderly. Barium enema is safer but has reduced sensitivity for cancer. CT colonography ("virtual colonoscopy" is a newer alternative that may combine high sensitivity for cancer with safety and patient acceptability. The SIGGAR trial aims to determine the diagnostic efficacy, acceptability, and economic costs associated with this new technology. Methods The SIGGAR trial is a multi-centre randomised comparison of CT colonography versus standard investigation (barium enema or colonoscopy, the latter determined by individual clinician preference. Diagnostic efficacy for colorectal cancer and colonic polyps measuring 1 cm or larger will be determined, as will the physical and psychological morbidity associated with each diagnostic test, the latter via questionnaires developed from qualitative interviews. The economic costs of making or excluding a diagnosis will be determined for each diagnostic test and information from the trial and other data from the literature will be used to populate models framed to summarise the health effects and costs of alternative approaches to detection of significant colonic neoplasia in patients of different ages, prior risks and preferences. This analysis will focus particularly on the frequency, clinical relevance, costs, and psychological and physical morbidity associated with detection of extracolonic lesions by CT colonography. Results Recruitment commenced in March 2004 and at the time of writing (July 2007 5025 patients have been randomised. A lower than expected prevalence of end-points in the barium enema sub-trial has caused an increase in sample size. In addition to the study protocol, we describe our approach to

  8. Polysorbate 80 and low-osmolality water-soluble contrast medium enema in diagnosis and treatment of faecal obstruction in malignant phaeochromocytoma. Report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, J.F.

    Stercoral obstruction in a young woman with disseminated phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed and treated successfully using an enema of isosmolar iohexol (Omnipaque) and 1% polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) without complication. Surgical intervention was thus avoided. A low osmolality water-soluble contrast medium (iohexol 150 mg I/ml) with a wetting agent (1% Tween 80) was used because a barium suspension would have inspissated, exacerbating the constipation and a hyperosmolar contrast medium might have precipitated a hypertensive crisis and destablished her critical salt and water balance.

  9. Arachidonic acid metabolism in TNS-induced chronic and immunologic enteritis in rats, and the effect of 5-ASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Zijlstra

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the rat distal intestine was induced by intradermal sensitization and subsequent multiple intrajejunal challenge with the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS via an implanted catheter. The time course of the inflammatory reaction was followed by determination of the enteritis score and measurement of in vitro eicosanoid formation of homogenates of the gut after 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days of local daily challenge with 0.08% TNBS. There was a small initial increase of eicosanoid formation, reached at days 1 and 2, followed by a significant increase in metabolism of arachidonic acid on day 21. Although at day 1 a four-fold increase in inflammation score was reached, no further significant changes were observed during the following 3 weeks. The greatest increase in metabolite formation was observed in prostanoids TxB2, PGE2. and PGD2 and the 5-lipoxygenase product LTC4, whereas minor changes were found for LTB4 and other lipoxygenase products such as 12- and 15-HETE. The formation of these metabolites was already inhibited by low-dose 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, given orally twice daily during the 3 weeks challenge period, while the enteritis score was affected dosedependently.

  10. Optimization of Nutitional Enemas with Wheat Germ using Orthogonal Experiment%麦仁营养灌肠的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓平; 付进华; 黄现青; 赵改名; 柳艳霞; 梁红伟

    2011-01-01

    为研究麦仁营养灌肠的制备工艺和配方,采用传统配料和现代工艺,经腌制、斩拌和烘烤研制麦仁营养灌肠.以麦仁、大豆组织蛋白,改性玉米淀粉作为基料,设计正交试验,研究不同添加量对麦仁营养灌肠感官评定和质构特性的影响.试验结果表明:麦仁添加量对灌肠感官和成型质量影响最大,而玉米改性淀粉对其影响最小;大豆组织蛋白对复合灌肠感官特性和组织质量起关键作用;最佳配比为麦仁5%、大豆组织蛋白6%、玉米改性淀粉8%,产品因麦仁的添加达到去腥除腻,适当增加灌肠的硬度、胶着性和咀嚼性,产品的风味独特、组织结构和质地良好.%Wheat germ was used as raw materials, enemas with wheat germ was produced by combination of traditional ingredients and modem technology. The wheat germ, soybean tissue protein, com starch modified were selected as a single-factor, designing a orthogonal experiment to study the effects of different concentrations on sensory assessment and texture characteristics. The results showed the effect of wheat germ concentration was the biggest, but the influence of com starch modified was minimum; and soybean tissue protein played a critical role on sensory characteristica and texture quality. The optimum ratio was wheat germl 5%, soybean tissue protein 6%, corn starch modified 8%.

  11. 经内镜下结肠造口灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎11例的护理%Nursing for 11 ulcerative colitis patients with endoscopic colostomy enema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬梅; 周岩岩; 沈蒙蒙; 诸葛海鸿

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察新型灌肠方法对溃疡性结肠炎的治疗效果并总结相关护理经验.方法 经肠造口处的造口管直接滴入灌肠液,利用肠道的顺行灌肠,并对调节灌肠液滴入的温度及速度进行控制,观察治疗效果.结果 本组11例中,痊愈4例,好转7例,有效率达100%.结论 使用新型的灌肠方法,延长了药物与肠黏膜的接触时间,使药物充分吸收,保证了灌肠效果,提高了患者的舒适度.%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of new retention enema on the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis and summarize the related nursing experience. Methods Enema liquid was dripped into the intestines through intestinal stoma, and temperature and speed of enema liquid were controlled and regulated according to the conditions of intestines. Therapeutic effect was observed. Results Among the 11 patients, 4 paitents were cured and 7 patients were improved, the total effective rate was 100% . Conclusion Application of new retention enema can extend the contact time between drug and the intestinal mucosa, which promote the absorption of drugs and ensure the effect of enema. As a result, it can improve the comfortable degree of patients as well.

  12. Salicylic acid derivatives as potential anti asthmatic agents using disease responsive drug delivery system for prophylactic therapy of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Kalidhindi Rama Satyanarayana; Ambhore, Nilesh S; Mulukutla, Shashank; Gupta, Saurabh; Murthy, Vishakantha; Kumar, M N Kiran; Madhunapantula, Subba Rao V; Kuppuswamy, Gowthamarajan; Elango, Kannan

    2016-02-01

    Asthma is a multi-factorial and complicated lung disorder of the immune system which has expanded to a wider ambit unveiling its etiology to be omnipresent at both ends of the spectrum involving basic pharmacology and in-depth immunology. As asthma occurs through triggered activation of various immune cells due to different stimuli, it poses a great challenge to uncover specific targets for therapeutic interventions. Recent pharmacotherapeutic approaches for asthma have been focused on molecular targeting of transcription factors and their signaling pathways; mainly nucleus factor kappa B (NFκB) and its associated pathways which orchestrate the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, GM-CSF), chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1a, eotaxin), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and inflammatory enzymes (cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS). 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sodium salicylate are known to suppress NFκB activation by inhibiting inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKκB). In order to target the transcription factor, a suitable carrier system for delivering the drug to the intracellular space is essential. 5-ASA and sodium salicylate loaded liposomes incorporated into PEG-4-acrylate and CCRGGC microgels (a polymer formed by crosslinking of trypsin sensitive peptide and PEG-4-acrylate) could probably suit the needs for developing a disease responsive drug delivery system which will serve as a prophylactic therapy for asthmatic patients. PMID:26643666

  13. Curative efficacy comparison of colon hydrotherapy and traditional enema in functional constipation patients and its nursing%功能性便秘结肠水疗与传统灌肠治疗疗效比较及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阿红; 史红霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析结肠水疗与传统吊袋灌肠治疗功能性便秘(FC)的效果和疗效持续时间№总结护理体会。方法将65例 FC 患者随机分为结肠水疗组(34例)和传统灌肠组(31例),前组应用 GCJ-K 型电脑灌肠机进行水疗,后组使用传统灌肠袋行大量不保留灌肠,并分别辅以相应的护理;观察2组患者便秘改善情况,并运用便秘患者生活质量问卷(PAC-QOL)积分比较,评价治疗效果和疗效持续时间。结果结肠水疗组有效率91.2%,传统灌肠组有效率61.3%,2者差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),观察期间便秘改善的持续时间,结肠水疗组明显长于传统灌肠组(P <0.05),且前者的生活满意度明显高于后者。结论结肠水疗能促进结肠蠕动,调X肠道菌群失调,持久地改善便秘,是一种纯物理自然疗法。%Objective To analyze the effect and duration of colon hydrotherapy and the traditional enema in functional constipation (FC)patients and to summarize the nursing experi-ence.Methods A total of 65 FC patients were randomly divided into colon hydrotherapy group with 34 cases and traditional enema group with 31 cases.The hydrotherapy group received hy-drotherapy with GCJ-K type computer enema machine while the traditional enema group received a great deal no-retention enema with tradition enema bag.The two groups received corresponding nursing respectively.The constipation improvement of the two groups was observed and the PAC-QOL was applied to evaluate the treatment effect and duration of efficacy.Results The effec-tive rate was 91.2% in the colon hydrotherapy group and 61.3% in the traditional enema group, the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).The duration of constipation improvement in the colon hydrotherapy group was obviously longer than that in the traditional enema group (P <0.05).Besides,the life satisfaction in the colon hydrotherapy group

  14. Analysis of 1 Cases of Intestinal Perforation Caused by Large Number of Non Retention Enema%大量不保留灌肠致肠穿孔1例教训分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月芹

    2015-01-01

    A large number of not retention enema is a common clinical nursing technical operation, but if the improper operation, especial y the elderly, patients with history of history of disease, intestinal surgery, can appear serious complications, enema to bowel perforation is a rare complication of clinical.%大量不保留灌肠是临床上常用的一项护理操作技术,但若操作不当,尤其是年老体弱,既往疾病史、肠道手术史的患者,就会出现严重并发症,灌肠致肠穿孔是临床上较少见的并发症之一。

  15. The change of radiation doses to the patient when switching from conventional technique to digital technique without films in barium enema and IVU examinations. Final report SSI research project P933

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöholm, B

    2003-01-01

    X-ray examinations of the colon (barium enema) and the kidneys (IVU) are combined with rather high radiation doses to the patients when using analogue technique with film-screen systems. It is therefore of great interest to see if the change from analogue to digital technique involves a reduction of doses. Barium enema and IVU examinations were monitored with DAP-meters before and after the X-ray department changed to digital techniques. For IVU also the change from storage phosphor plates to a Direct Digital detector is included. The study comprises between 53 and 87 patients for each modality of the two examinations. A considerable dose reduction was observed. In barium enema the overview images with large field sizes were omitted when using digital technique. On the other hand the number of spot images was increased from 6 to 22. The fluoroscopy time was increased from 4 minutes to 6 minutes. The DAP value was reduced from 54,3 Gy cm sup 2 to 21,9 Gy cm sup 2. For IVU a dose reduction from 44,5 Gy cm sup 2...

  16. Utilization of aminoaromatic acids by a methanogenic enrichment culture and by a novel Citrobacter freundii strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelieva, O.; Kotova, I.; Roelofsen, W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Netrusov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Following incubation of mesophilic methanogenic floccular sludge from a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor used to treat cattle manure wastewater, a stable 5-aminosalicylate-degrading enrichment culture was obtained. Subsequently, a Citrobacter freundii strain, WA1, was isolated from the

  17. Analysis the effect of lactulose different reteution enema method with hepatic encephalophathy in liven cirrhosis%乳果糖不同保留灌肠方法对治疗肝性脑病的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋蓉; 陈志琼

    2008-01-01

    Objective Analysisthe effect of lactulose different retention enema method with hepatic encephalophathy in liver cirrhosis.Methods 68 different case of liver cirrhosis patients with hepatic encephanlophthy were randomly divided into group A(n=32)and group B(n=36).A group were used lectulose by ordinary retention enema method,two times/day for five days.B group were used lactulose by infusion retention enema methods,two times/day for a week blood ammouia was test,the clinic effect of hepatic encophalopatay was observed.Results The time in intestinal tract in group B was longer,the consciousness of patents was better,the descend degree of blood ammonia was lower than those in group A.Conclusion The method of using lactalose infusion retention enema hepatic encephalopathy in live cirrhosis was better than the method of ordinary retention enema.%目的 探讨乳果糖保留灌肠方法对肝性脑病患者的临床疗效.方法 将68例肝硬化肝性脑病患者随机分为A、B两组,A组采用普通保留灌肠法,B组采用输注保留灌肠法,接受乳果糖保留灌肠后,均先左侧卧位,再抬高臀部右侧卧位,连续5 d,治疗1 w,观察临床疗效.结果 输注法保留灌肠药液在肠道内保留时间较普通法长,且患者意识好转及血氨水平下降程度均优于普通保留灌肠法.结论 采用乳果糖输注保留灌肠治疗肝性脑病疗效好.

  18. 氯硝安定肌注与灌肠治疗小儿惊厥的价值%Clinical value of Clonazepam intramuscular injection and enema for infantile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华苏米; 丁振尧; 余宇龙; 卢立党; 郭爱红; 潘知焕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨氯硝安定肌注与灌肠在治疗小儿惊厥中的实用价值。方法收集2012年9月至2013年8月在苍南县人民医院就诊的惊厥患儿120例,随机分为氯硝安定肌注组、苯巴比妥钠肌注组、氯硝安定灌肠组和水合氯醛灌肠组,观察比较各组的疗效及不良反应发生情况。结果氯硝安定肌注组总有效率(90.00%)高于苯巴比妥钠肌注组(63.33%),差异具有统计学意义(χ2=4.565,P<0.05);氯硝安定灌肠组总有效率(90.00%)高于水合氯醛灌肠组(60.00%)(χ2=5.689,P<0.05);氯硝安定肌注组与灌肠组24 h内均未见惊厥复发,苯巴比妥钠组8例复发,水合氯醛组10例复发;4组用药后均无呼吸抑制、循环障碍等不良反应发生。结论氯硝安定肌注、灌肠能有效及时控制惊厥,临床推广应用价值显著。%Objective To investigate the clinical value of Clonazepam intramuscular injection and enema for infantile convulsion .Methods From September 2012 to August 2013, 120 cases of convulsion visiting the People ’ s Hospital of Cangnan County were collected and randomly divided into 4 groups, Clonazepam intramuscular injection group , Phenobarbital intramuscular injection group , Clonazepam enema group, and 10%chloral hydrate enema group .The curative effect and adverse reactions of each group were observed .Results The total effective rate of Clonazepam intramuscular injection group (90.00%) was significantly higher than that of Phenobarbital intramuscular injection group (63.33%) (χ2 =4.565,P<0.05).The total effective rate of Clonazepam enema group (90.00%) was significantly higher than that of chloral hydrate enema group (60.00%) (χ2 =5.689,P<0.05).No seizure relapsed in Clonazepam intramuscular injection group and Clonazepam enema group within 24h, but there were 8 cases and 10 cases in Phenobarbital intramuscular injection group and chloral hydrate

  19. The value of colonoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examinations in the evaluation of patients with subacute and chronic lower intestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred thirty six consecutive patients were examined with histories of guaiac positive stool examinations, bright red blood per rectum, or hematochezia to determine the value of the double-contrast barium-enema (DC-BE) examination and colonoscopy/proctoscopy in establishing bleeding sites. If examination findings were analyzed in conjunction with findings of visual examination of the anal area, the difference in the respective sensitivities of the two examinations was not statistically significant. If findings at the visual inspection were excluded, the DC-BE examination missed 45 of 155 proved bleeding sites (sensitivity, 71%) and 13 of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions 70%), while colonoscopy missed 13 of 155 bleeding sites (sensitivity, 92%) and seven of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions, 90%). The sensitivity of both methods was similar if all rectal and anal lesions were excluded. We conclude that colonoscopy is superior to the DC-BE examination in the detection of bleeding sites but similar in results to the DC-BE examination if lesions in the anal canal and rectum are excluded. The routine use of the DC-BE examination in patients with superficial lesions in the anal canal should be discouraged unless the patient has persistent bleeding or is 50 years old or older

  20. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE. (orig.)

  1. {{text{C}}_{α }} - {text{C}} Bond Cleavage of the Peptide Backbone in MALDI In-Source Decay Using Salicylic Acid Derivative Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Daiki; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2011-07-01

    The use of 5-formylsalicylic acid (5-FSA) and 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA) as novel matrices for in-source decay (ISD) of peptides in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is described. The use of 5-FSA and 5-NSA generated a- and x-series ions accompanied by oxidized peptides [M - 2 H + H]+. The preferential formation of a- and x-series ions was found to be dependent on the hydrogen-accepting ability of matrix. The hydrogen-accepting ability estimated from the ratio of signal intensity of oxidized product [M - 2 H + H]+ to that of non-oxidized protonated molecule [M + H]+ of peptide was of the order 5-NSA > 5-FSA > 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) ≒ 2,5-dihydroxyl benzoic acid (2,5-DHB) ≒ 0. The results suggest that the hydrogen transfer reaction from peptide to 5-FSA and 5-NSA occurs during the MALDI-ISD processes. The hydrogen abstraction from peptides results in the formation of oxidized peptides containing a radical site on the amide nitrogen with subsequent radical-induced cleavage at the {{{C}}_{α }} - {{C}} bond, leading to the formation of a- and x-series ions. The most significant feature of MALDI-ISD with 5-FSA and 5-NSA is the specific cleavage of the {{{C}}_{α }} - {{C}} bond of the peptide backbone without degradation of side-chain and post-translational modifications (PTM). The matrix provides a useful complementary method to conventional MALDI-ISD for amino acid sequencing and site localization of PTMs in peptides.

  2. 多种辅助方法在小儿肠套叠空气灌肠复位中的联合应用%Combined application of several ways in children' s air enema reduction of intussusceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙中洋; 徐金标

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨多种辅助方法在小儿肠套叠空气灌肠复位中联合应用的方法和临床效果,以期提高小儿肠套叠空气灌肠整复率. 方法 选取2013年5月至2014年5月期间,盐城市妇幼保健院诊治的286例肠套叠患儿行空气灌肠复位的临床影像资料进行回顾性分析. 结果 286例患儿中,空气灌肠整复成功279例,成功率约为97.6%. 其中首次单纯空气灌肠复位成功110例;首次整复失败者经间歇性注气加压法结合手法辅助按摩再次空气灌肠复位成功161例;第2次空气灌肠失败者,给予654-2、镇静及肾上腺糖皮质激素药物后,行第3次空气灌肠复位,成功8例. 7例整复失败,行手术治疗. 结论 多种辅助方法在小儿肠套叠空气灌肠复位过程中的联合应用,大大提高了小儿肠套叠整复成功率,减少了肠穿孔等严重并发症的危险,并且避免了患儿手术的风险,减轻了患儿家属精神上的痛苦和家庭的经济负担.%Objective To investigate the combined application and clinical effect of several auxiliary methods on children air enema reduction of intussusceptions in order to improve air enema reduction rate of intussusceptions.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical imaging data of 286 children undergoing air reduction of intussusception in Yancheng Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital from May 2013 to May 2014.Results Among 286 cases with air enema reduction, 279 cases were successful and the success rate was about 97.6%.There were 110 cases obtaining successful results at the first reduction, and intermittent pressured gas injection combined with massage and second air enema reduction was successful in 161 cases who were failed at the first reduction.For the cases with failure at the second reduction, the third air enema reduction was given after giving 654-2, sedation and glucocorticoid drug, and 8 cases succeeded.The last 7 failed cases underwent surgery.Conclusion The

  3. Is carbon dioxide as an insufflation agent for double contrast barium enema still worthwhile after a same-day flexible sigmoidoscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asao, Takayuki; Fujita, Kin-ichi; Nakamura, Jun-ichi; Morinaga, Nobuhiro; Shoji, Hisanori; Ide, Munenori; Hirayama, Isao; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2002-06-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) with CO{sub 2} as a distending gas after a screening flexible sigmoidoscopy for reducing abdominal distension after an examination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 165 DCBEs for patients with positive faecal occult blood tests were randomly allocated to a CO{sub 2} group (n = 83) and a control group (n = 82) using air. Abdominal radiograph were taken before the DCBE, immediately following it, and 30 minutes later to determine residual bowel gas. The degree of abdominal discomfort was recorded using a scoring system. RESULTS: The patients in the CO{sub 2} group had significantly smaller amounts of residual gas 30 minutes after the DCBE than did the control group, both in the colon (P < 0.02) and in the small intestine (P < 0.001). There was significantly less abdominal distension after the DCBE in the CO{sub 2} group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). The abdominal discomfort score at 30 minutes after CO{sub 2} correlated with the residual gas in the small intestine(r = 0.390,P = 0.003) but not in the colon(r = 0.155, P 0.15). The quality of the images and the number of polyps detected did not differ between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that using CO{sub 2} when administering a DCBE after a screening sigmoidoscopy was useful for relieving abdominal discomfort following the examination; furthermore, it did not impair the diagnostic ability of the DCBE. Asao, T. (2002)

  4. A clinical study on treating exogenous fever in children by enema%自拟灌肠协定方治疗小儿外感发热的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周进

    2014-01-01

    To observe clinical effects of enema on exogenous fever in children. Methods:140 patients were randomly divided into two groups, the control group was received conventional western medicine, and the observation group was given enema. Results: The total efficacy in observation group was 92.9%, significantly higher than that in the control, with a statistically significant difference between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Enema for exogenous fever in children with confirmed efficacy, shorter course, quicker results, and no side effects, no pain in children, easy to operate, is worthy of clinical application.%目的:观察并探讨小儿外感发热病例接受灌肠协定方治疗的临床效果。方法:取本院收治的140例外感发热患儿为本次研究对象,随机将其均分为参照组与观察组各70例,参照组患儿接受常规西药治疗方案,观察组患儿则接受灌肠协定方灌肠治疗。观察两组治疗效果并作对比。结果:观察组治疗总有效率为92.9%,明显高于参照组,组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:灌肠协定方用于小儿外感发热治疗具有确切疗效,疗程较短、见效较快、且无毒副作用、患儿无痛苦,易于操作,应在临床上予以推广使用。

  5. 钡灌肠在小儿肠梗阻诊断中的应用%The Use of Barium Enema in the Diagnosis of Bowel Obstruction among Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万通; 关立夫

    1988-01-01

    本文报道经钡灌肠检查的89例肠梗阻病例.该检查有助于区别机械性与麻痹性肠梗阻及完全性与不完全性肠梗阻,有时还可发现造成肠梗阻的原发病变,对配合临床确定手术指征,选择合适治疗方案起重要作用.提出了钡灌肠X线特点、检查方法、适应证和禁忌证等.%Eighty-nine children with bowel obstruction were diagnosed with the help of barium enema and their diagnoses were confirmed by operation. The major findings are as follows: the high contrast barium-filled colon can be readily recognized among intestinal loops of different contrasty in the abdomen on the film. It is easy to make a differential diagnosi between a complete mechanical obstruction and a paralytic ileus. With the former, the contrast between a smaller gas-free colon and the gas-distended bigger small intestine with fluid-levels will be seen on the film;while with the latter, a gas-disteuded colon with barium-levels should be present on the film:Among the small intestines, the prestence of "coffee bean sign", "concentric loop" shadow, long air-fluid-level in a hypotonic loop, and the presence of peritoneal fluid should call attention to the possible strangulation of the intestine. Some of the primary causes of intestinal obstruction can also be shown on the film by using barium enema, such as the specific "cupping" shadow in intussusception, widening of interloop opacity in necrotic enteritis, microcolon in intestinal atresia of newborn, and spastic colon segment in Hirschsprung's disease. Methods, indications and contraindications of the use of barium enema are discussed in detail in the text.

  6. Effect of nurse -patient communication in nursing skill with the clean enema%护患沟通在清洁灌肠操作中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 梁霞; 吴霞; 吴丽英

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨护患沟通在清洁灌肠操作中的应用效果.方法 分别运用护患沟通的人性化护理和单纯性护理行清洁灌肠操作,观察两种操作方法患者的舒适度、焦虑的发生率、患者对疾病知识的了解程度及满意度等情况.结果 运用护患沟通的人性化护理组优于单纯性护理组,两者比较(P<0.01),差异有统计学意义.结论 运用护患沟通的人性化护理实施清洁灌肠操作可减轻患者因灌肠而造成的痛苦,使患者的焦虑心理减轻,提高了患者的满意度及对疾病知识的了解程度.%Objective To investigate the effect of nurse -patient communication in nursing skill with the clean enema. Methods Patients with the clean enema were divided into nurse -patient communication group and simple nursing group. Several items of patients such as the comfortable degree, the incidence of anxiety and comprehension and satisfaction with the disease knowledge were observed respectively in the two groups. Results The effect of nurse -patient communication group wee better than that of simple nursing group (P <0. 01) . Pa-tients were more satisfactory with nursing staffs'operation than before obviously. Conclusions The nurse -patient communication humane care skill can relieve the suffering caused by clean enema, reduce anxiety and enhance patient satisfaction and the knowledge of disease.

  7. Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Efficacy 60 Cases Retain the Anal Sinusitis Enema%针刺联合中药保留灌肠治疗60例肛窦炎临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金荣; 黄卫平; 肖秋平; 李庚; 王小林

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察针刺联合中药保留灌肠治疗肛窦炎临床疗效观察。方法120例肛窦炎患者,随机分为观察组与对照组,每组60例。观察组予针刺长强穴、承山穴及次髎穴,并联合清窦方保留灌肠;对照组予甲硝唑溶液灌肠,并予复方角菜酸酯栓纳肛治疗;治疗2个疗程(14 d)后进行疗效评价。结果观察组总有效率93.3%,对照组总有效率80%;两组总有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针刺长强、承山、次髎三穴联合清窦方保留灌肠治疗肛窦炎,疗效显著,值得临床推广。%Objective Acupuncture combined with TCM clinical efficacy anal sinusitis retention enema.Methods 120 cases of anal sinusitis were randomly divided into observation group and control group 60 cases. Acupuncture group were observed long strong point, bearing mountain cave and Ciliao points, and joint clear sinus square retention enema; the control group were given metronidazole enema, and to compound Carraghenates plug anus treatment; treatment 2 courses efficacy evaluation (14 d) after.Results The total effective rate was 93.3% in the control group, the total efficiency of 80%; total effective two groups, the difference was statisticaly significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture long strong, Cheng-shan, Ciliao United three points clear sinus reserves enema anal sinusitis, a significant effect.

  8. 儿童急性肠套叠空气灌肠治疗及X线分析%Analyses of air enema and radiographic film for acute intussusception in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭万亮; 周珉; 汪健; 盛茂

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the different success rates of air enema in intussusception cases at different ages and evaluate the value of plain film in assessing the pathogenetic condition of intussusception and intussusception with vascular compromise in children. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the success rates of air enema in 1119 pediatric cases of intussusception at different ages. The radiographic findings of 190 cases were analyzed. Air enema reduction failed in 95 cases. And 95 control cases were randomly selected for reduction by air enema. Their operative and pathological data were analyzed and compared with the findings of plain film. Intestinal obstruction with vascular compromise was analyzed by a comparison of plain film and pathology. The plain films of patients were analyzed by two experienced radiologist independently. Whenever there was dissension, they discussed and reached an agreement. Results In all cases of intussusception, the successful reduction rate was 91.5%. The cases within l-year-old were 627 cases, air enema success rate was 87.1% and the success rate of air enema was 97.2% in beyond 1-year-old group. There was significant difference between two groups (x2 = 36. 01, P <0. 01). In 95 cases of failed air enema reduction, 14 cases were ileoileal, 10 ileocaecal and 25 ileocolic.And 44 cases were ileoilealcolic and 2 ileocoliccolic. Eleven cases had intestinal necrosis. Four cases had small bowel duplication cyst and 3 with Meckel's diverticulum. Intestinal obstruction with vascular compromise in plain film had a high concordance with pathology (kappa = 0. 7128). The pathology type was somewhat correlated with the finding of plain film (P < 0. 01). As assessed by plain film, there were intussusceptions with vascular compromise (n = 30) with a coffee-bean sign or banana sign, a paucity of bowel gas (n = 36), quadrant gas (n = 51) and mass or crescent (n = 73). Through an analysis between plain film signs and the onset of

  9. Effects of Different Depth of Cannula in Drug Enema on Radiation Proctitis%不同插管深度对药物灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇雅静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze and explore the actually clinical effect of different depth of cannula in drug enema on radiation proctitis. Methods 40 cases with radiation proctitis admitted in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2013 were selected as the subjects and equally divided into the observation group and the control group with 20 cases in each according to age, course of disease and other indexes. In clinical treatment, the control group was given routine method of drug enema, the catheter was in-serted 15~20 cm, and the observation group was given the drug enema by the method of reducing the depth of the inserted catheter, and the patients took semipronation and semi Fowler's position alternately for retaining the liquid drug. Two groups of patients had to retain the drug over 2h after the drug enema, and the effect was observed. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 90.0%, higher than 65.0%of the control group, the difference in the total effective rate was statistically sig-nificant (P<0.05). Conclusion Drug enema given to radiation proctitis patients by reducing the length of intubation, and retaining the liquid drug by semipronation and semi Fowler's position alternately, the treatment effect will be better, and the drug can be re-tained longer in the lesions of patients. This treatment is worth popularizing widely.%目的:分析探讨不同的插管深度对药物灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎临床治疗效果的实际影响。方法选取该院2013年1-6月所收治的40例放射性直肠炎患者为研究对象,并按照年龄﹑病程等指标将其平均分为观察组和对照组,每组20例患者。其中在临床治疗中,对照组采取采取常规的方法对患者进行灌肠,并插入导管为15~20 cm;观察组则采取减少插管深度的方法,并让患者采取半俯卧位以及半坐卧位交替的姿势,就患者这两种姿势保留药液进行灌肠治疗。两组患者

  10. Systematic evaluation on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine retention enema for patients with factitial proctitis%中药保留灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎疗效的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨曼; 安颂歌; 张磊; 王国豪; 孟繁洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To systematically evaluate the curative effect of retention enema of Chinese traditional medicine for patients with factitial proctitis.Methods:Randomized controlled trial about traditional Chinese medicine retention enema in the treatment of radiation proctitis were searched in the Cochrane Library, PubMed,EMBASE,EBSCO,ISI,CNKI,VIP,Wanfang Data and CBM databases.The retrieval time was from inception to May 2014,and literature screening,data extraction,quality evaluation and cross check were conduc-ted by two researchers independently in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion standard,and then Meta a-nalysis was carried out by using RevMan5.3 software.Results:A total of 14 randomized controlled trials(RCT) were included,and Meta analysis included 10 RCTs totally 702 patients.Meta analysis showed that the total effi-ciency of traditional Chinese medicine retention enema was higher for patients with radiation proctitis compared with that in control group,RR=4.83,95%CI(2.98,7.84),P<0.000 01;four study results showed that tradi-tional Chinese medicine retention enema improving the clinical symptoms was better than that in control group. Conclusion:Implementation traditional Chinese medicine of retention enema intervention in patients with radia-tion proctitis could improve the total efficiency of the treatment and relieve the clinical symptoms.%[目的]系统评价中药保留灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎的疗效。[方法]计算机检索 The Cochrane Library,PubMed,EMbase,EBSCO, ISI,CNKI,VIP,WanFang Data和CBM数据库中关于中药保留灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎的随机对照试验,检索时限均从建库至2014年5月,由两名研究者按照纳入排除标准独立进行文献筛选、资料提取、质量评价并交叉核对后,采用RevMan5.3软件进行Meta分析。[结果]共纳入14个随机对照试验(RCT),进行Meta分析的有10项RCT,共702例病人。Meta分析显示,与对照组相比,中药保留灌肠治疗放射性直

  11. Clinical of nursing study into enema glycerini defecate before whole gut lavage%全肠道灌洗前先用开塞露通便的临床护理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新英; 吴莲香; 吴有秀; 郭玉兰; 张鸿兰; 陈燕; 张凤英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of enema glycerini defecate before whole gut lavage. Methods 200 patients with colon cancer or rectal cancer treated with whole gut lavage in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were selected.They were randomly divided into observation group (n=100) and control group (n=100).The observation group was given enema glycerini defecate before oral complex polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder.The control group was given castor oil and complex polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder.The adverse effects rate,1 h after drinking rate, still need enema rate,the first defecation time and intestinal cleaning effect were observed and compared between two groups. Results he adverse effects rate,1 h after drinking rate,still need enema rate in observation group was significant lower than those of control group,the first defecation time was significant shorter than that of control group(P0.05). Conclusion Enema glycerini defecate before whole is good safety,less adverse reaction,and better reached satisfactory bowel preparation.It is worth of clinical application.%目的:探讨全肠道灌洗前先用开塞露通便的临床应用效果。方法选取2013年1月~2014年12月我院结、直肠癌行全肠道灌洗的200例患者,将其随机分为观察组和对照组,每组100例。观察组在口服复方聚乙二醇电解质散前先用开塞露通便,对照组采用口服蓖麻油+复方聚乙二醇电解质散。观察并比较两组患者的不良反应发生率、1h喝完率、仍需灌肠率、首次排便时间以及肠道清洁效果。结果观察组的不良反应率、1h喝完率及仍需灌肠率显著低于对照组,首次排便时间显著短于对照组(P0.05)。结论全肠道灌洗前先用开塞露通便,安全性好,不良反应少,较好地达到了满意的肠道准备,值得临床推广应用。

  12. Clinical Research of Traditional Chinese Medicine Enema Treatment for Purging Type Irritable Bowel Syndrome%中药灌肠治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔敏; 闫风

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨中药灌肠治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征的疗效.方法:选取79例腹泻型肠易激综合征患者,随机分为治疗组39例和对照组40例,治疗组选用中药灌肠(方药组成:白术20 g,厚朴6 g,乌梅12 g,石榴皮15 g,乌贼骨15 g,炒白芍12 g)治疗,对照组用以西药治疗.结果:治疗组腹泻有效率为92.3%,对照组有效率为72.5%;治疗组腹痛有效率为87.2%,对照组腹痛有效率为75.0%,两组有效率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:中药灌肠治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征疗效显著.%Objective:To explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema treatment for purging type irritable bowel syndrome. Methods:79 patients with purging type irritable bowel syndrome were randomly divided into the treatment group(n =39) and control group(n =40). The treatment group was given traditional Chinese medicine enema (basic formula:baizhu 20 g,houpu 6 g,wumei 12 g,shiliupi 15 g,wuzeigu 15 g,chaobaishao 12 g). The control group was given western medicine treatment. Results:The effective rate of diarrhea was 92.3% in the treatment group and 72.5% in the control group. The effective rate of stomachache was 87.2% in the treatment group and 75.0% in the control group. Compared the effective power,the differences was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion; Traditional Chinese medicine enema treatment for purging type irritable bowel syndrome has affirmative curative effect.

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine enema in the treatment of children cold fever in 52 cases%中药灌肠治疗小儿感冒发热52例临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐青青; 沈湘妹

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察自拟中药灌肠治疗小儿感冒发热的临床疗效。方法:收治感冒发热患儿102例,随机分为治疗组52例和对照组50例,均在一般常规治疗上,治疗组用自拟中药灌肠退热,对照组用布洛芬悬混液退热,观察两组患儿的体温下降情况及住院天数。结果:治疗组的患儿退热时间显著早于对照组(P<0.05),住院天数显著少于对照组(P<0.05),治疗组总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:中药灌肠是治疗小儿感冒发热的有效方法。%Objective:To observe the clinical curative effect of self-made traditional Chinese medicine enema in the treatment of children cold fever.Methods:102 children patients with cold fever were selected.They were randomly divided into the treatment group with 52 cases and the control group with 50 cases.In the general routine treatment,the treatment group was given self-made traditional Chinese medicine enema for defervescence.The control group was given ibuprofen suspension liquid for defervescence. The temperature decrease situations and hospitalization days of two groups were observed.Results:The defervescence time of the treatment group was significantly earlier than that of the control group(P<0.05);the hospitalization day was significantly less than that of the control group(P<0.05).The total effective rate of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion:Traditional Chinese medicine enema is a effective method for the treatment of children cold fever.

  14. Clinical Observation on Rhubarb Decoction Retention Enema in Treatment of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy%大黄煎剂保留灌肠治疗轻微肝性脑病临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春; 姚凡; 谢武; 何燕; 韦玉仙; 付蕾

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察大黄煎剂保留灌肠对轻微肝性脑病患者内毒素、血氨及数字连接试验(NCT)、肝功能的影响.方法:共选取80例乙肝肝硬化并发轻微肝性脑病患者,随机分为空白对照组(A组)、中药组(B组)、乳果糖组(C组)、安慰剂组(D组),每组各20例,4组均采用基础治疗,B、C、D组在基础治疗的基础上分别加用大黄煎剂(大黄、乌梅)、乳果糖、安慰剂保留灌肠.结果:中药组在降低内毒素、血氨、NCT及改善肝功能方面均优于其他3组(P<0.01).结论:大黄煎剂保留灌肠治疗轻微肝性脑病安全、有效.%Objective; To observe the retention enema with Rhubarb decoction in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis endotoxin, blood ammonia and number connection test ( NCT) ,and liver function. Methods-.A total of 80 cases of liver cirrhosis complicated with minimal hepatic encephalopathy were randomly divided into control group (group A) , Chinese medicine group( group B) ,lactulose group( group C) ,the placebo group( D group) ,20 cases in each group. The 4 groups were given the basic treatment, besides, B, C and D groups were treated with retention enema by Rhubarb decoction, lactulose, placebo respectively. Results;Traditional Chinese medicine group was better than the other three groups in the reduction of endotoxin, blood ammonia, NCT and improvement of hepatic function ( P < 0. 01). Conclusion; Rhubarb decoction retention enema in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is safe and effective.

  15. 茵栀黄口服液灌肠预防早产儿喂养不耐受临床观察%Clinical observation on enema with Yinzhihuang oral liquid to prevent feeding intolerance of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬梅; 应海燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察茵栀黄口服液灌肠预防早产儿喂养不耐受的临床效果.方法 将98例早产儿随机分为干预组和对照组,每组49例,对照组仅给予早期干预治疗,干预组在早期干预的同时给予茵栀黄口服液灌肠;比较两组治疗后胎便排净、腹胀消失、呕吐缓解、恢复至出生体重、达到全肠道喂养的时间.结果 干预组在首次排胎便、胎便排净、腹胀消失、呕吐缓解、恢复至出生体重及达到全胃肠喂养的时间明显短,与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(t值分别为1.443、2.568、1.512、2.791、2.011、4.189,均P<0.05).结论 茵栀黄口服液灌肠治疗早产儿喂养不耐受效果显著,可减少早产儿喂养不耐受的发生.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of enema with Yinzhihuang oral liquid to prevent feeding intolerance of premature infants. Methods A total of 98 preterm infants were randomly divided into intervention group and control group with 49 cases in each group. Control group was given early intervention treatment only , while intervention group was given enema treatment with Yinzhihuang oral liquid based on early intervention. The time of complete exhaust of meconium , disappearing of distention , relieving of vomiting , coming to birth weight and getting full enteral feeding were compared between two groups . Results The time of first exhaust of meconium , complete exhaust of meconium , disappearing of distention , relieving of vomiting , coming to birth weight and getting full enteral feeding was obviously shortened in intervention group , and the differences were significant when compared to control group (t value was 1.443, 2.568, 1.512, 2.791, 2. 011 and 4. 189, respectively, all P < 0. 05). Conclusion The effect of enema with Yinzhihuang oral liquid on feeding intolerance of premature infants is significant , and the incidence of feeding intolerance of premature infants can be reduced .

  16. 甘油灌肠剂灌肠在妇科腹部手术前肠道准备中的临床应用%Glycerine enema sausage befor gynecology department abdomen surgery in intestinal tract preparation clinical practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 杨颖; 黄瑜; 黄亚雪

    2015-01-01

    Objective The discussion of glycerine enema sausage uses in the clinical practice value which before the gy‐necology department abdomen surgery the intestinal tract prepares .Methods October ,2013- - June ,2014 ,210 example gynecology department abdomen surgery patient stochastically divides into the control group of 105 examples and the experi‐mental group of 105 examples ,The experimental group gives the glycerine enema sausage ,The control group gives the tra‐ditional soapy water sausage ,After two kind of sausage method sausage time ,the sausage number of times ,pour into the liquid volume ,the intestinal tract cleanliness ,patient's comfort level ,the complications ,the technique aspects and so on anus exhaust time carry on the observation contrast .Results Experimental group's effect surpasses the control group obvi‐ously ,Two groups of comparisons have the remarkable statistics significance (P<0 .05) .Conclusion When the glycerine enema sausage operate easily ,the patient comfort level is high ,the complication are few ,and merit quickly ,In the intestinal tract preparation has the important clinical practice value before the gynecology department abdomen surgery .%目的:探讨甘油灌肠剂灌肠用于妇科腹部手术前肠道准备的临床应用价值。方法将我科2013年10月~2014年6月210例妇科腹部手术患者,随机分为对照组和实验组,各105例。实验组予甘油灌肠剂灌肠。对照组予传统肥皂水灌肠。并对两组灌肠时间、灌肠次数、灌入液量、肠道清洁度、患者舒适度、术后肛门排气时间进行比较。结果两组灌肠时间、灌肠次数、灌入液量、肠道清洁度、患者舒适度及术后肛门排气时间比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论甘油灌肠剂灌肠具有操作简便、节时,患者舒适度高,并发症少,术后恢复快等优点,在妇科腹部手术前肠道准备中具有重要的临床应用价值。

  17. Safety Analysis of Vinegar Enema in Hepatic Encephalopathy Complicated with Metabolic Acidosis%食醋灌肠在肝性脑病合并代谢性酸中毒中的安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓广; 郑佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析食醋灌肠在肝性脑病合并代谢性酸中毒中的安全性。方法选取我院收治的48例肝性脑病合并代谢性酸中毒患者作为研究对象,随机分为两组,各24例。对照组采用乳果糖治疗,观察组采用食醋灌肠进行治疗。对比观察两组患者治疗效果及不良反应发生情况。结果观察组总有效率为91.67%,明显优于对照组70.83%,差异显著(P<0.05);对照组不良反应发生率为25.0%,观察组未见不良反应,组间比较差异显著(P<0.05)。结论对肝性脑病合并代谢性酸中毒患者实施食醋灌肠的方法进行治疗,临床效果显著,且不良反应发生率低,安全有效,值得推广运用。%Objective To analyze the safety of vinegar enema in hepatic encephalopathy complicated with metabolic acidosis. Methods 48 cases of patients with hepatic encephalopathy and metabolic acidosis were randomly divided into two groups, each of 24 cases. The control group was given lactulose treatment, the observation group was treated with vinegar enema treatment. The treatment effect and adverse reaction of the two groups were compared and observed.ResultsThe total effective rate of the observation group was 91.67%, which was significantly better than that of the control group (70.83%), and the difference was signiifcant (P<0.05); The adverse reaction rate of control group was 25.0%, no adverse reaction was observed in the observation group, and the difference was signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion In patients with hepatic encephalopathy complicated with metabolic acidosis implementation vinegar enema method of treatment, significant clinical effect and adverse reactions occurred rate is low, and is safe and effective, worthy of popularization and application.

  18. The Clinical Curative Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Enema Combined with Compound Carraghenates Suppositories Treating Proctitis%中药灌肠联合复方角菜酸酯栓治疗直肠炎的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵益增; 魏艳芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨中药灌肠联合复方角菜酸酯栓治疗直肠炎的临床疗效。方法选取2010年7月至2014年3月我院收治的直肠炎患者182例,随机分为试验组和对照组,各91例。对照组患者单纯使用复方角菜酸酯栓外用治疗,试验组患者给予中药灌肠联合复方角菜酸酯栓治疗,比较两组患者治疗3个疗程后的临床效果。结果试验组患者的治疗总有效率为92.3%,明显高于对照组的74.7%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论中药灌肠联合复方角菜酸酯栓对直肠炎进行治疗,疗效确切,且安全有效、疗效持久、复发率低。%Objective To explore the clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema combined with Titanoreine suppository in the treatment of proctitis.Methods 182 patients in our hospital in 2010 July to select proctitis to 2014 March were cases were randomly divided into experimental group and control group,each of 91 cases.Control group patients were treated with compound titanore topical treatment,the test group were treated with carraghenates suppository in the treatment of Chinese medicine enema combined with compound,compared two groups of patients with clinical treatment effect after 3 courses of treatment.Results Treatment of patients in experi- mental group the total effective rate was 92.3%,significantly higher than 74.7% in the control group,the difference has statistical significance(P<0.05).Conclusion Traditional Chinese medicine enema on proctitis treated,combined with compound titanore curative effect,safe and effective,lasting effect,low recurrence rate.

  19. Reduction in oxidative stress levels in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream after the application of enemas containing aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract Redução dos níveis de estresse oxidativo na mucosa cólica sem trânsito intestinal após aplicação de enemas contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lorenzetti da Cunha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the antioxidant effects of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis, comparing segments with and without fecal stream and correlating the segments with the duration of intervention. METHODS: Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to a diversion of the fecal stream in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosal fistula. The rats were distributed randomly into two experimental groups of 13 animals each based on the time of sacrifice after surgical procedure (two or four weeks. Each group was then divided into two experimental subgroups that received either second daily enemas containing 0.9% saline solution or aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis at 0.2g/100g. Colitis was diagnosed by histopathological analysis and the detection of oxidative tissue damage by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the tissue levels of malondialdehyde between colon segments with and without fecal stream in each experimental group, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the variance between the levels of oxidative stress according the duration of the irrigation; both tests determined significance at 5% (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos antioxidantes de clisteres contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis comparando segmentos com e sem trânsito fecal e correlacionando com o tempo de intervenção. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo pela confecção de colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Foram divididos de forma randomizada em dois grupos experimentais de 13 animais, de acordo com o sacrifício ser realizado após duas ou quatro semanas do procedimento cirúrgico. Cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos experimentais segundo a aplicação diária ter sido realizada com enemas diários contendo solução fisiológica a 0,9% ou extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis na concentra

  20. Minimal preparation computed tomography instead of barium enema/colonoscopy for suspected colon cancer in frail elderly patients: an outcome analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .43], negative predictive value 0.97 [0.96], positive likelihood ratio result 1.6 [5.63], negative likelihood ratio result 0.27 [0.29], kappa 0.31 [0.43]. Tumour prevalence was 12%. A graph of conditional probabilities was generated and analysed. A variety of unsuspected pathology was also found in this series of patients. CONCLUSIONS: MPCT should be double-reported, at least initially. 'Possible' lesions should be ignored. Analysis of the graph of conditional probability applied to a group of frail, elderly patients with a high mortality from all causes (33% in our study) suggests: (1) if MPCT suggests definite or probable carcinoma, regardless of the pre-test probability, the post-test probability is high enough to warrant further action, (2) frail, elderly patients with a low pre-test probability for CRC and a negative MPCT should not have further investigation, (3) frail, elderly patients with a higher pre-test probability of CRC (such as those presenting with rectal bleeding) and a negative MPCT should have either double contrast barium enema (DCBE) or colonoscopy as further investigations or be followed clinically for 3-6 months. MPCT was acceptable to patients and clinicians and may reveal significant extra-colonic pathology

  1. Minimal preparation computed tomography instead of barium enema/colonoscopy for suspected colon cancer in frail elderly patients: an outcome analysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kealey, S.M.; Dodd, J.D.; MacEneaney, P.M.; Gibney, R.G.; Malone, D.E. E-mail: d.malone@st-vincents.ie

    2004-01-01

    .18 [0.43], negative predictive value 0.97 [0.96], positive likelihood ratio result 1.6 [5.63], negative likelihood ratio result 0.27 [0.29], kappa 0.31 [0.43]. Tumour prevalence was 12%. A graph of conditional probabilities was generated and analysed. A variety of unsuspected pathology was also found in this series of patients. CONCLUSIONS: MPCT should be double-reported, at least initially. 'Possible' lesions should be ignored. Analysis of the graph of conditional probability applied to a group of frail, elderly patients with a high mortality from all causes (33% in our study) suggests: (1) if MPCT suggests definite or probable carcinoma, regardless of the pre-test probability, the post-test probability is high enough to warrant further action, (2) frail, elderly patients with a low pre-test probability for CRC and a negative MPCT should not have further investigation, (3) frail, elderly patients with a higher pre-test probability of CRC (such as those presenting with rectal bleeding) and a negative MPCT should have either double contrast barium enema (DCBE) or colonoscopy as further investigations or be followed clinically for 3-6 months. MPCT was acceptable to patients and clinicians and may reveal significant extra-colonic pathology.

  2. Validation and optimization of experimental colitis induction in rats using 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motavallian-Naeini, A; Andalib, S; Rabbani, M; Mahzouni, P; Afsharipour, M; Minaiyan, M

    2012-07-01

    Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is one of the most common methods for studying inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. Several factors may, however, affect its reproducibility, rate of animal mortality, and macroscopic and histopathological outcomes. Our aim was to validate the main contributing factors to this method and compare the effects of different reference drugs upon remission of resultant colon injuries. TNBS was dissolved in 0.25 ml of ethanol (50% v/v) and instilled (25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) intracolonically to the male Wistar rats. After determination of optimum dose of TNBS in male rats and assessment of this dose in female rats, they were treated with reference drugs including dexamethasone [1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 2 mg/kg, orally (p.o.)], Asacol (mesalazine, 100 mg/kg, p.o.; 150 mg/kg, enema) and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.; 20 mg/kg, enema) which started 2 h after colitis induction and continued daily for 6 consecutive days. Thereafter, macroscopic and microscopic parameters and clinical features were assessed and compared in different groups. We found that the optimum dose of TNBS for the reproducibility of colonic damage with the least mortality rate was 50 mg/kg. Amongst studied reference drugs, hydrocortisone acetate (i.p.), dexamethasone (i.p. and p.o.) and Asacol (p.o.) significantly diminished the severity of macroscopic and microscopic injuries and could be considered effective for experimental colitis studies in rats . Our findings suggest that optimization of TNBS dose is essential for induction of colitis under the laboratory conditions; and gender exerts no impact upon macroscopic and histological characteristics of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Furthermore, the enema forms of hydrocortisone and Asacol are not appropriate reference drugs. PMID:23181094

  3. Healing acceleration of acetic acid-induced colitis by marigold (Calendula officinalis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Tanideh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20% were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA level and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats.

  4. Prevention of mannitol renal damage by enema of Tongfu Xiezhou Fang in 22 cases%通腑泻浊方灌肠预防甘露醇肾损害22例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈可为; 白慧梅; 郭家奎; 张津玮

    2012-01-01

    Object To investigate the effect of enema of Tongfu Xiezhou Fang in prevention of mannitol renal damage during treatment in the patients with severe cerebral infarction without reducing the dose of mannital in order to keep the curative effect. Methods The patients (n =48) with severe cerebral infarction (Glasgow Coma Score≤8) were randomly divided into treatment group ( n = 22) and control group ( n = 26). Mannitol was used conventionally as main dehydrating agent, and treatment group was given retention enema of Tongfu Xiezhou Fang for 30 minutes (once a day) at the same time of applying mannitol, and control group was not given enema. The levels of serum cystatin C and serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and 24-hour urine output were detected in two groups before treatment and on the 5 th day of treatment. Results There were 2 cases with mannitol renal damage in treatment group (9.1%). There was one dead case due to cerebral edema and 10 cases with mannitol renal damage in control group (38. 5% ). The difference between two groups had statistical significance after statistical comparison ( P <0.05). The comparison in indexes of kidney function showed that the results were better in treatment group than those in control group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The retention enema of Tongfu Xiezhou Fang has reliable curative effect of preventing mannitol renal damage in the patients with severe cerebral infarction.%目的 探讨治疗重症脑梗死患者在不减低甘露醇剂量以保持疗效的前提下,利用通腑泻浊方灌肠预防甘露醇肾损害的疗效.方法 将48例重症脑梗死患者(格拉斯哥昏迷评分≤8分)随机分为治疗组22例和对照组26例,常规应用甘露醇作为主要脱水剂,治疗组在应用甘露醇的同时加以中药保留灌肠30 min,1日1次;对照组用甘露醇时不予以灌肠.监测2组患者治疗前、治疗第5天血清胱抑素C、血肌酐、尿素氮、24 h尿量等.结果 治

  5. 远端型溃疡性结肠炎临床特点及复方血竭灌肠疗效分析%Clinical characteristics of distal ulcerative colitis and therapeutic effect of compound dracorhodin enema on it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月凡; 李楠; 张林; 翟俊山; 吴凯; 王艳梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics of distal ulcerative colitis(DUC) and assess the therapeutic effect of compound dracorhodin enema on it. Methods Clinical characteristics of DUC, ulcerative pancolitis(PUC) and Crohn's disease(CD) were analyzed by comparing their clinical, endoscopic and pathological findings. One hundred and twenty-eight DUC patients were divided into experimental group and control group. Patients in experimental group were treated with oral mesalazine and compound dracorhodin enema while those in control group were given 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Therapeutic effects of the two treatment modalities on DUC were compared. Results The clinical manifestations of DUC included diarrhea, rectal tenesmus, mucous bloody stool and its main pathological manifestation was crypt abscess, which were similar to those of UPC(P>0.05) but significantly different from those of CD(P0.05). However, the effect of compound dracorhodin enema was obviously better on mucous bloody stool and its side effects were less in experimental group than in control group(P>0.05). Conclusion DUC is characterized by certain typical clinical symptoms due to its occurring site. Compound dracorhodin enema is a safe and effective procedure for it and worthy of application in clinical practice.%目的 探讨远端型溃疡性结肠炎(DUC)的临床特点,评估复方血竭灌肠治疗效果.方法 通过对比远端型溃疡性结肠炎、全结肠型溃疡性结肠炎及克罗恩病(CD)的临床、内镜及病理表现分析远端型溃疡性结肠炎的临床特点.128例远端型溃疡性结肠炎患者随机分为两组,在口服美沙拉嗪基础上,试验组采用复方血竭制剂灌肠治疗,对照组采用0.9%氯化钠注射液灌肠治疗探讨治疗效果.结果 远端型溃疡性结肠炎主要以腹泻、里急后重、黏液血便为临床表现,病理主要表现为隐窝脓肿,与全结肠型溃疡性结肠炎比较无统计学差异(P>0.05),与克

  6. National audit of the sensitivity of double-contrast barium enema for colorectal carcinoma, using control charts - For the Royal College of Radiologists Clinical Radiology Audit Sub-Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To audit the sensitivity of double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) for colorectal carcinoma, as currently practised in UK departments of radiology. METHODS: As part of its programme of national audits, the Royal College of Radiologists Clinical Radiology Audit Sub-Committee undertook a retrospective audit of the sensitivity of DCBE for colorectal carcinoma during 2002. The following targets were set: demonstration of a lesion >=95%; correct identification as a carcinoma >=90%.RESULTS: Across the UK, 131 departments took part in the audit, involving 5454 examinations. The mean demonstration rate was 92.9% and the diagnosis rate was 85.9%, slightly below the targets set. The equivocal rate (lesion demonstrated, but not defined as malignant) was 6.9%, the perception failure rate was 2.8% and the technical failure rate was 4.4%. Control-chart methodology was used to analyze the data and to identify any departments whose performance was consistent with special-cause variation.CONCLUSION: When compared with the diagnosis rate (84.6%) and demonstration rate (92.7%) reported in the Wessex Audit 1995, [Thomas RD, Fairhurst JJ, Frost RA. Wessex regional audit: barium enema in colo-rectal carcinoma. Clin Radiol 1995;50:647-50.] a similar level of performance was observed in the NHS today, implying that the basic process for undertaking and reporting DCBE has remained relatively unchanged over the last few years. Improvement in the future will require fundamental changes to the process of reporting DCBE, in order to minimize the perception failure rate and accurately to describe lesions, so reducing the equivocal rate. Control-chart methodology has a useful role in identifying strategies to deliver continual improvement

  7. A Meta-analysis on the curative effects of Chinese herbal retention enema on radiation enteritis%中药保留灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎疗效的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文爽; 安颂歌; 熊壮; 池海勇; 刘铁军

    2015-01-01

    目的:应用Meta分析方法评价中药保留灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎的疗效。方法计算机检索The Cochrane Library、PubMed、EMbase、EBSCO、ISI、CNKI、VIP、WanFang Data和CBM数据库中关于中药保留灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎的随机对照试验,并追溯纳入文献的参考文献,检索时限均从建库至2014年5月。由2名研究者按照纳入排除标准独立进行文献筛选、资料提取、质量评价并交叉核对后,采用RevMan5.3软件进行Meta分析。结果纳入25个随机对照试验,其中进行Meta分析的有21个共1575例患者。 Meta分析显示,干预14 d后[RR=1.25,95%CI(1.10,1.42),P=0.0006]、20 d后[RR=1.19,95%CI(1.08,1.32),P=0.0007]、28 d后[RR=1.37,95%CI(1.21,1.54),P<0.00001]、30 d后[RR=1.63,95%CI (1.32,2.01),P<0.00001]中药保留灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎的总有效率高于对照组;干预10 d后[RR=1.23,95%CI=(0.93,1.63),P=0.15]、60 d后[RR=1.22,95%CI(0.94,1.56),P=0.13]中药保留灌肠治疗放射性直肠炎的总有效率与对照组相比差异无统计学意义。结论对放射性直肠炎患者实施中药保留灌肠干预2周以上能提高治疗的总有效率,减轻临床症状。但仍需要大样本、高质量的临床试验做进一步研究,观察长期效果。%Objective It is to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal retention enema on radiation enteritis using Meta-anal-ysis method.Methods The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, EBSCO, ISI, CNKI, VIP, WanFang Data and CBM data-bases were searched to collect the randomized controlled trials ( RCTs) from the inception to May, 2014 about Chinese herbal retention enema on radiation enteritis, and the references of the included literature were also retrieved.Two reviewers inde-pendently screened the literatures according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria

  8. Análise histológica da cicatrização da anastomose colônica, em ratos, sob ação de enema de Aroeira-do-sertão (Myracrodruon urundeuva fr. all. a 10% Histologic analysis of colonic anastomotic healing, in rats, under the action of 10% Aroeira-do-sertão (Myracrodruon urundeuva fr. all. enema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annya Costa Araújo de Macedo Goes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, do ponto de vista histológico, a ação do extrato aquoso da aroeira-do-sertão na cicatrização da anastomose colônica, em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 48 ratos da linhagem Wistar, machos, com peso médio de 320g, distribuídos em dois grupos, com 24 animais, cada. Todos os animais foram submetidos à secção transversa completa do cólon descendente, seguida de anastomose colônica. Os ratos do grupo A receberam diariamente no pós-operatório enemas de veículo à base de carboximetilcelulose (CMC. Os animais do grupo B receberam no pós-operatório enemas de extrato aquoso de aroeira-do-sertão a 10% em veículo à base de CMC, até a data da eutanásia. Nas datas 3, 7, 14 e 21 do experimento, seis ratos de cada grupo foram submetidos à remoção de segmento colônico, incluindo a anastomose, destinado à apreciação histológica e análise qualitativa da resposta celular inflamatória e cicatricial. RESULTADOS: A análise morfológica revela diferença significante entre os grupos, no dia 7 (ñ PURPOSE: Evaluate, from a histologic view point, the action of the aqueous extract of aroeira-do-sertão on the healing of colonic anastomosis, in Wistar rats. METHODS: There were used 48 Wistar rats, males, with average weight of 320g, distributed in two groups, with 24 animals, each. All animals were subjected to a complete transverse section of the descending colon, followed by colonic anastomosis. The rats on group A received daily post-operative enemas of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC based vehicle. The animals on group B received post-operative enemas of 10% aqueous extract of aroeira-do-sertão in CMC based vehicle, until the date of euthanasia. On days 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the experiment, six rats in each group were subjected to removal of a colonic segment, including the anastomosis, destined to histological evaluation and qualitative analysis of inflammatory and healing cell response. RESULTS: The

  9. The effect of postoperative enema of Ringer's solution in patients suffering proximal jejunal stoma%高位小肠造瘘术后林格液肠内灌注的作用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈淳; 郑珊; 肖现民

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of postoperative enema of Ringer's solution in distal end of stoma in the recovery of patients suffering proximal ieiunal stoma.Methods From 2005 January to 2007 August,clinical data of 13 patients suffering proximal jejunal stomas with the distance from Treitz ligament less than 60cm in this hospital were retrospectively analyzed.All patients were divided into two groups:patients in Group A(n=7)got rio enema of RingeYs solution in distal end of stoma post operation while patients in Group B(n=6)accepted enema of RingeYs solution.All patients underwent the procedures of stoma closure 28 to 35 days after proximal iejunal stoma.Period of total TPN,period of replacement of TPN by TEN,weight growth of patients between tWO operations,and the patients' prognosis were compared between two groups.Results Average TPN period in two groups was(25.4±2.5)d and(18.9±7.2)d respectively,with no significant difference.Total enteral nutrition period in two groups was(31.6±5.3)d and(22.4±4.5)d respectively(P<0.05).Bodyweight of patients in group A decreased by 0.1 16 kg versus that of patients in Group B increased by 0.287 kg(P<0.05).In group A,3 patients survived and 4 died;while in Group B,5 patients survived and 1 died.Conclusions Patients suffering proximal iejunal stomas who accepted assistant postoperarive Ringer's solution enema have better prognosis than those who only accepted TPN and TEN.Respectively,enema of Ringer's solution decreases period of TPN and period of replacement of TPN by TEN.Meanwhile,it can significantly increase postoperative weight growth of patients.%目的 分析造瘘远端肠道内灌注林格液对高位小肠造瘘患儿术后恢复的作用.方法 2005年1月至2007年8月收治小肠造瘘距Treize韧带距离≤60 cm的13例患儿,分二组:A组7例,无造瘘远端肠道内灌注;B组6例,造瘘远端或肛门内给予林格液灌注治疗.13例患儿在造瘘术后的28~35 dN均接受小肠造瘘关闭

  10. Inflammatory cells′ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Sanei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1, ex vivo (group 3, and enema after immune suppression (group 5. Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H 2 O 2 , we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful.

  11. Observation on curative effect of Chinese medicine hot package combining with retention enema for ulcerative col itis patients%中药热奄包配合中药保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪芬; 屈伟荣

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective:To observe the effect of Chinese medicine hot package combining with retention enema for ulcerative colitis patients.Methods:A to-tal of 62 UC patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group,3 1 cases in each,patients in control group received Chinese medicine re-tention enema treatment and patients in observation group were given Chinese medicine hot package combining with retention enema treatment,lasting for 2 1 days.Then the curative effect was compared between both groups.Results:the total effective rate was respective 93.55% in treatment group and 61.29% in control group.There was statistically significant difference(P<0.05).Conclu-sion:The clinical effect of Chinese medicine hot package combining with reten-tion enema is obvious for ulcerative colitis patients.%[目的]观察中药热奄包配合保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎(UC)病人的效果。[方法]将62例溃疡性结肠炎病人随机分为观察组和对照组各31例,对照组采用中药保留灌肠治疗,观察组加用中药热奄包治疗,连续治疗21 d,比较两组病人的疗效。[结果]观察组与对照组总有效率分别为93.55%和61.29%,经比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。[结论]中药热奄包配合保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎疗效明显。

  12. 肝性脑病食醋灌肠导致肠黏膜屏障损伤及改进方法*%Damage of Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Caused by Vinegar Enema and Improvement for Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤; 徐旭娟; 沈美云

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨肝性脑病食醋保留灌肠对肠黏膜屏障的损伤,并比较传统高渗食醋灌肠液与改进的等渗食醋灌肠液对兔肠黏膜屏障的损伤程度。方法选用成年家兔16只,随机分为2组,高渗组灌肠液为生理盐水和白醋混合成的高渗溶液;等渗组灌肠液为双蒸水和白醋混合的同等pH值和体积分数的等渗溶液。在相同灌肠条件下,使用不同渗透压食醋灌肠液给动物保留灌肠。通过肠黏膜病理切片,光镜下观察肠黏膜结构改变,电镜下观察细胞结构及紧密连接情况,比较2组肠黏膜屏障损伤程度。结果光镜下可见等渗组直肠部位与远端结肠肠黏膜损伤程度较高渗组轻。电镜下,等渗组细胞形态正常,微绒毛排列整齐,细胞连接紧密;高渗组微绒毛减少或消失,细胞连接增宽或开放,细胞核固缩,并可见凋亡、坏死细胞。结论等渗性食醋灌肠液对肠黏膜屏障损伤较传统高渗性食醋灌肠液轻。临床上肝性脑病患者可选用等渗性食醋灌肠液以减少渗透压对肠黏膜屏障的损伤。%Objective To explore the damage of intestinal mucosal barrier caused by vinegar retention enema, and compare the degree of injury in intestinal mucosal barrier between isotonic vinegar and traditional hypertonic vinegar treat-ment. Methods Sixteen adult rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The solution of vinegar mixed with normal so-dium was given to hypertonic group. Isotonic group was administered with isosmotic solution made of vinegar and double dis-tilled water, with the same volume fraction and pH as hypertonic group. Then two different osmosis solutions were given as enema solution to rabbits under the same condition. Finally, damages of intestinal mucosa were observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM) in two groups. Results It was observed that injuries of rectum and distal part of colon were

  13. The mechanism of action of rhubarb Chinese medicine enema treatment of chronic renal failure%大黄中药灌肠治疗慢性肾功能衰竭的作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective Explore the rhubarb the clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema treatment of chronic renal failure.Methods Kidney disease in a hospital treated 92 cases of chronic renal failure patients as the research object, with the method of grouping study, its according to different treatment can be divided into control group and observation group, control group for clinical routine treatment, observation group based on the given rhubarb is given priority to the traditional Chinese medicine enema treatment, two groups of patients were 4 weeks treatment, compared two groups of patients at the end of the treatment of therapeutic effect.Results Treatment the total effective rate was 95.7%, the observation group was obviously higher than that of control group 75.1%(P<0.05); Group of clinical symptoms was observed is better than that of control group(P<0.05); Urea nitrogen, creatinine, two groups of patients was improved, the but the observation group after treatment to improve the situation of urea nitrogen, creatinine, was better than control group, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Rhubarb Chinese medicine enema in the treatment of chronic renal failure clinical curative effect significantly, mainly by improving blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine is to protect the patient's kidney function, can improve the patient's quality of life and prolong the survival period.%目的 探讨大黄中药灌肠治疗慢性肾功能衰竭的临床疗效.方法 以某院肾病科收治的92例慢性肾功能衰竭患者为研究对象,采用分组研究的方式,将其根据治疗方式不同分为对照组与观察组,对照组给予临床常规治疗,观察组在此基础上给予大黄为主的中药灌肠治疗,两组患者均治疗4周,在治疗结束后对比分析两组患者的治疗效果.结果 观察组治疗总有效率为95.7%,明显高于对照组的75.1%(P<0.05);观察组临床症状

  14. 大黄水灌肠对急性胰腺炎患者肠道功能恢复的影响%Effect of rhubarb water enema on the recovery of bowel function in patients with acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章昱; 刘朝晖; 俞晶; 陈素钻

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨大黄水灌肠对急性胰腺炎患者早期肠道功能恢复的影响。方法收集汕头大学医学院第一附属医院住院治疗的急性胰腺炎患者118例,随机分为两组,对照组给予常规胰腺炎治疗,治疗组在常规治疗的基础上加用大黄水灌肠,对比两组患者腹部胀痛持续时间及首次排便时间,比较两组APACHE II评分、中转手术率、病死率、住院天数及住院费用。结果治疗组与对照组腹部胀痛持续时间分别为(4.0±1.5)d、(6.0±1.8)d,首次排便时间分别为(7.0±2.1)d、(10.0±2.6)d,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05);治疗后治疗组 A-PACHEⅡ积分、中转手术率、病死率、住院天数及住院费用均明显低于对照组(P﹤0.05)。结论大黄水灌肠可以明显缩短患者因肠道功能衰竭引起的腹部胀痛及首次排便时间,改善各项临床指标,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To study the effect of rhubarb water enema on the early recovery of bowel function in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods One hundred and eighteen patients with acute pancreatitis in the first affiliated hospital of Shantou university medical college were randomly divided into two groups,the patients in control group received conventional pancreatitis treatment,and the patients in treatment group were added with rhubarb water enema based on the conventional treatment. The duration of abdominal pain and the first defecation time were compared between the two groups,and APACHE Ⅱscore,operation rate,mortality,hospital stay and hospital costs were also compared between the two groups. Results The duration of abdominal pain was( 4. 0 ± 1. 5 )d in the treatment group and (6. 0 ± 1. 8 )d in the control group,the first defecation time was( 7. 0 ± 2. 1 )d in the treatment group and(10. 0 ± 2. 6)d in the control group,there were significant differences(P﹤0. 05);The A-PACHE

  15. 彩色多普勒超声在小儿肠套叠 选择复位方式中的价值%The instructive value of color Doppler ultrasonography in air enema reduction of the child intussusception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠; 李振敏; 戚胜杰; 刘绍敏; 王惠; 陶玲; 孙秋平; 刘艾蓓

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of choosing the way of reduction according to the hemodynamics of the intussusceptive places examined by color Doppler flowing imaging(CDFI).Methods Seventy-six cases of intussusception had the examination of CDFI. The hemodynamic changes of the invaginative intestine and the mesenteric arteries and veins were observed and air enema reduction was done in all patients.Results Air enema reduction was perfomed successfully on 61 cases, and 15 failure cases underwent operative reduction. The resistance index (RI) was significantly different between two groups. The velocity of vein flow and the mean velocity of arterial peak in the failure group were higher than those in the success group. One case of the failure group had no flow imaging in invaginative part of ascending colon.Conclusions Color Doppler ultrasonography is a simple and useful method in monitoring the hemodynamic changes of the children intussusception and correctly chooseing the way of reduction.Operative reduction should be performed quickly when heavily swelling intestinal wall, significantly high RI, especially no flow imaging are demonstrated in color Doppler ultrasonography.%目的探讨小儿肠套叠套入部血管血流动力学变化,以选择其复位方式。方法 76名肠套叠患儿均行彩色多普勒血流显像,观察套叠肠管及肠系膜动静脉的血流动力学变化,然后进行空气灌肠复位。结果空气灌肠复位成功61例,失败15例,后者行手术复位治疗。两组的动脉阻力指数差异有显著性意义。失败组的静脉流速和动脉峰速较复位成功组偏高,其中失败组1例患儿升结肠套入部无血流显示。结论根据彩色多普勒超声对小儿肠套叠的血流动力学检测,可以正确选择复位方式。肠壁严重水肿、阻力指数显著升高、无血流显示等情况禁忌空气灌肠,应尽快手术复位。

  16. The Clinical Study of Enema Treatment Via Colostomy for Complicated Intestinal Obstruction after Abdominoperineal Resection for Rectal Cancer%经腹会阴直肠癌术后肠梗阻行结肠造口灌肠治疗的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福全; 赵雪峰; 张克忠

    2014-01-01

    评价吸痰管灌肠治疗经腹会阴直肠癌术后肠梗阻的可行性与临床疗效。一次性吸痰管经结肠造口灌肠或肛管经结肠造口灌肠治疗38例经腹会阴直肠癌术后肠梗阻。结果20例吸痰管灌肠治疗组均安全放置或减压,其操作成功率为100%(20/20)。吸痰管灌肠治疗组大部分患者腹痛、腹胀明显缓解,并腹围、X线肠管最大直径、C T肠管最长液平明显小于灌肠前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。吸痰管灌肠治疗组明显优于肛管灌肠组。一次性吸痰管经结肠造口灌肠治疗经腹会阴直肠癌术后肠梗阻的操作技术是安全的、可行的,并吸痰管经结肠造口灌肠是治疗经腹会阴直肠癌术后肠梗阻的有效方法。%To explore the feasibility and clinical efficacy of mucous extractor enema treatment per stoma of colon after abdominoperineal resection (APR) for rectal cancer .Thirty-eight cases with complicated intestinal obstruction after APR for rectal cancer were treated by mucous extractor or conventional enemator . Twenty cases mucous extractor enema treatment group were all treated by security insertion or decompression ,and total technical success rate was 100% (20/20) .Abdominal pain and distention of most cases were relieved ,and abdominal circumferences ,intestinal maximum diameter ,and intestinal maximum gas-fluid level were statistically significantly reduced after mucous extractor enema with conventional enemator group (P<0 .05) .Mucous extractor enema treatment group is markedly superior to conventional enemator treatment group .Mucous extractor enema treatment per stoma of colon after APR for rectal cancer is technically safe and feasible compared with control group .Inserted mucous extractor per stoma of colon can enhance the therapeutic effects in the after APR for rectal cancer .

  17. 1.4%Sodium Bicarbonate Retention Enema on Scavenging Channel Bezoars in Contrast to Digest%1.4%的碳酸氢钠保留灌肠清除小儿下消化道粪石对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢立新

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the 1.4% sodium bicarbonate retention enema on road bezoar clear under the ef ect of digestion in children. Methods 70 patients in our department from 2012 January to selection method in 2013 December during hospitalization as evaluation object, Were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, two groups were given conventional anti infection,Spectrum ir adiation for two times a day to promote intestinal peristalsis, The experimental group adopted the first 1.4%sodium bicarbonate retention enema for half an hour after reflux enema once a day, The control group adopted reflux enema once a day, to compare the treatment ef ect of the two groups. Results The experimental group remove bezoar is bet er than the control group, The experimental group of independent defecation time earlier than the control group ( <0.5). Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate retention enema for half an hour after reflux enema than simple reflux enema can accelerate the bezoar ileus bezoar discharge, Reduce the bezoar ileus complications, reduce the conservative treatment is invalid for the incidence of operation, Shorten the hospitalization time, improve the cure rate of bezoar ileus.%目的探讨1.4%的碳酸氢钠保留灌肠对清除小儿下消化道粪石的效果。方法选取我科2012年1月~2013年12月期间住院的70例患儿作为评估对象,随机分为实验组及对照组,两组均给予常规抗感染,频谱仪照射2次/d促进肠蠕动,实验组采取先1.4%的碳酸氢钠保留灌肠30min后再回流灌肠1次/d,对照组采取回流灌肠1次/d,对两组的治疗效果进行对比分析。结果实验组清除粪石的效果优于对照组,实验组自主排便的时间早于对照组﹙<0.5﹚。结论碳酸氢钠保留灌肠30min后再回流灌肠比单纯回流灌肠更能加快粪石性肠梗阻的粪石排出,降低粪石性肠梗阻的并发症的发生,减少因保守治疗无效需做手术的发病率,缩短住院时间,提

  18. The efficacy evaluation of enema therapy and biofeedback training for constipation%生物反馈训练和灌肠治疗便秘的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青眉; 张爱群; 林婕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of biofeedback training and enema therapy for constipation.Methods All 140 cases of constipation patients were divided randomly into the control group and experimental group with 70 cases in each group.In control group,enema therapy was used for constipation and in the experimental group biofeedback training method was used.The clinical symptoms and psychological assessment were applied to evaluate the efficacy of two methods for constipation patients.Results After treatment,the improvement of clinical symptoms in patients with constipation was 22.9% (16/70)and the total effective rate was 70.0% (49/ 70) in the control group.The total effectiveness of biofeedback training in the experimental group was more than in the control group.The phenomena of depression and anxiety of patients in the experimental group were lower than in the control group.Conclusion Biofeedback training can improve the clinical symptoms of functional constipation patients and the mental health.%目的 比较生物反馈训练与灌肠治疗便秘的疗效.方法 将140例接受便秘治疗的患者完全随机分为灌肠组(70例)和生物反馈组(70例).灌肠组采用灌肠法治疗,生物反馈组采用生物反馈训练治疗法治疗.通过比较患者临床症状和心理评估来评定2种方法对便秘患者的疗效.结果 治疗后,灌肠组患者的临床症状显效率为22.9%(16/70),有效率为47.1%(33/70),总有效率为70.0%(49/70);生物反馈组显效率为37.1% (26/70),有效率为52.9%(37/70),总有效率为90.0% (63/70);生物反馈组的总有效率明显高于灌肠组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).生物反馈组患者治疗后的焦虑自评量表和抑郁自评量表分值均较灌肠组治疗后分值低,差异有统计学意义[焦虑自评量表评分:(33±7)分比(40±8)分,抑郁自评量表评分:(45±8)分比(53±9)分,均P<0.01].结论 生物反馈训练在改善功能性便秘患者的临床症状方

  19. 中西药灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎的对比研究%The comparison of enema treatment of ulcerative colitis between traditional chinese medicine and western medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗葵良; 黄生林; 蓝珍; 苏兰菊; 蒋义生; 蓝艳春

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated that the efficacy of a chinese herb decoction (containing Natural indigo, Frankincense, Myrrh, Chinese Nut-gall and Honeysuckle Flower) on the treatment of ulcerative colitis by retention-enama. 124 patients with light and middle grade of ulcerative colitis were randomly divided into the therapeutic group (traditional chinese medicine group, TCM group) and the control group (western medicine group, WM group). In addition to routine treatment, patients in the TCM group received the treatment of Chinese herb decoction of 200ml plus Dexamethasone (DXM) injection fluid 5mg by retention-enema, once every night for 14 days, and those in the WM group were given the treatment of Gentamicin 16,000U, DXM injection fluid 5mg, Smecta powder 6g and normal saline 100ml by retention enama, once every night for 14 days. Results showed that total effective rates were 91.93% and 72.58% in TCM group and WM group, respectively, and there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.01). This study indicates that the chinese herb enema on the treatment of ulcerative colitis has those advantages of abundant sources of medicine, low price, simplicity, accurate therapeutic efficacy, less side effects and low recurrences, etc.%为观察中药青黛、乳香、没药、五倍子、银花煎水灌肠治疗溃疡性肠炎的疗效,将124例临床分型为轻、中度的溃疡性结肠炎病人随机分为治疗组(中药组)与对照组(西药组),在对症支持治疗的基础上,治疗组用中药水剂200ml,地塞米松注射液5mg,保留灌肠,每晚1次,连用14天。对照组用庆大霉素注射液16万U,地塞米松注射液5mg,思密达粉剂6g,生理盐水100ml,保留灌肠,每晚1次,连用14天。结果治疗组总有效率91.93%,对照组为72.58%,差异有高度显著性(P<0.01)。认为中药灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎,具有药源广泛,价格便宜,方法简单,疗效确切,副作用少,复发率低等优点。

  20. A Efficacy Observation on Aluminum Phosphate Gel in Enema Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis%磷酸铝凝胶保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富翠芹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To boserve the efficacy of Aluminum Phosphate Gel in enema treatment of ulcerative colitis. Mehtod 70 cases of ulcerative colitis from our hospital were randomly divided into two groups to Clinical prospective study, 35 patients treated with aluminum phosphate Gel, Kangfuxin solution, mesalazine slow release tablets;the control group,35 patients were treated by Kangfuxin solution, mesalazine slow release tablets. Result The aluminum phosphate gel for ulcerative cilitis compared with the control group have a better effect, as a worthy treatment.%  目的探讨磷酸铝凝胶保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎的疗效。方法选择我院2011年5月至2012年5月收治的70例溃疡性结肠炎患者,随机分为实验组(n=35)与对照组(n=35)。实验组用磷酸铝凝胶、康复新液配制的灌肠液保留灌肠并口服美沙拉嗪肠溶片,对照组用康复新液灌肠并口服美沙拉嗪肠溶片。结果磷酸铝凝胶灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎效果优于对照组。磷酸铝凝胶治疗溃疡性结肠炎有效。

  1. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method; Preparazione intestinale per clisma del colon mediante fosfo-soda fleet: studio comparativo con il sistema tradizionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P. [Rome Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy). Ist. di radiologia

    1999-05-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters. [Italian] Lo studio si propone di valutare la possibilita' di ottimizzare una tecnica di preparazione intestinale estremamente tollerabile e versatile che permetta di ottenere l'adeguata liberazione del lume del contenuto con conseguente miglioramento del risultato diagnostico e riduzione del rischio del prolungamento della durata dell'ospedalizzazione dei pazienti non idoneamente preparati. Sono stati valuati 40 pazienti, 20 maschi e 20 femmine, afferenti alla struttura dell'Istituto di radiologia dell'Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore-Unita' apparato gastrointestinale, per essere sottoposti a clisma del colon con doppio mdc. Tutti i dati sono stati valutati statisticamente mediante test di Wilcoxon. La preparazione intestinale effettuata somministrando fosfo-soda fleet si e' dimostrata superiore rispetto a quella tradizionale per la variabile tollerabilita', fornendo contemporaneamente dati sovrapponibili a quelli del sistema tradizionale, soddisfacenti in assoluto, riguardo agli altri parametri esaminati.

  2. 化瘀通阳灌肠方对溃疡性结肠炎患者高凝状态的影响%Effects of Huayu Tongyang Enema Recipe on hypercoagulation in ulcerative colitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施丽婕; 杨强; 垢敬; 陈大权; 王静; 周正华

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨化瘀通阳灌肠方改善高凝状态对溃疡性结肠炎肠黏膜修复的影响.方法:采用随机、对照、单盲将60例溃疡性结肠炎患者分为治疗组(化瘀通阳方+强的松龙)灌肠+柳氮磺吡啶( SASP)口服;对照组(0.9%氯化钠溶液+强的松龙)灌肠+SASP口服,疗程均为1个月.检测治疗前后外周血血小板计数(PLT)、血小板平均体积( MPV)、血小板最大聚集率(PAGMax)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)、D-二聚体(D-D)、C-反应蛋白(CRP)、血清白蛋白(ALB).结果:治疗组治疗后PLT、PAGMax及D-D均较治疗前下降(P<0.05,P<0.01);MPV治疗后较治疗前升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗组治疗后较治疗前FIB下降,但差异无统计学意义.治疗组CRP与PAGM.和D-D均显著下降,但无明显相关性.治疗后治疗组白蛋白均数高于对照组(P<0.05).治疗组中医证候积分的改善明显优于对照组(P<0.01).结论:化瘀通阳灌肠方与对照组相比可改善溃疡性结肠炎肠屏障高凝状态,但其血液高凝状态与活动性不存在明显相关性.%Objective: The study discusses the influence on repair of intestinal barrier by improving the hypercoagulation of ulcerative colitis by Huayu Tongyang Enema Recipe. Methods: Study utilized randomized, single-blind, contrastived research method. 60 cases were divided into treatment group and control group respectively. The treatment group received the therapy of clysis with the Huayu Tongyang Enema Recipe 150mL and prednisolone 125mg, along with SASP per os, while the control group received clysis of normal saline (NS) 150mL and prednisolone 125mg, with SASP per os. The course of treatment lasted for a month. Results: Comparing the two groups before and after treatment on PLT, MPV, PAGMax FIB and D-D, we found that PLT, PAGMax and D-D down regulated after treatment of treatment group (P<0.05, P<0.01); while regulated MPV increased after treatment, with the two sets of data statistically

  3. Preliminary Study on in Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Chronic Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Enema on 7 Kinds of Pathogenic Bacteria%慢性盆腔炎灌肠液对7种致病菌体外抗菌作用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛阳; 陈龙浩; 王晖; 欧小龙; 翁燕君; 谢新民

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察慢性盆腔炎灌肠液的体外抗菌作用。方法用平皿二倍稀释法测定慢性盆腔炎灌肠液对大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、化脓性链球菌、凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、伤寒沙门杆菌、福氏志贺杆菌7种细菌的最小抑菌浓度( MIC)及最低杀菌浓度( MBC)。结果慢性盆腔炎灌肠液对大肠埃希菌、金黄色葡萄球菌有较明显的抑菌活性,对化脓性链球菌、伤寒沙门杆菌、福氏志贺杆菌有一定的抑菌活性,对铜绿假单胞菌、凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌的体外抑菌活性不明显。结论慢性盆腔炎灌肠液具有一定的体外抑菌活性,现时的药物浓度为最适合的药物浓度。%Objective To observe the in vitro antibacterial effect of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease enema. Methods The minimal inhibitory concentration( MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration( MBC) of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease enema on 7 kinds of bacteria Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus pyogenes,coagulase negative staphylococ-ci,typhoid Salmonella and Shigella flexneri bacilli were detected by using the two - fold agar dilution method. Results Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease enema had obvious antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus,certain antibacterial ac-tivity against Streptococcus pyogenes,typhoid Salmonella and Shigella flexneri bacilli and unobvious antibacterial activity against Pseu-domonas aeruginosa and coagulase negative staphylococci. Conclusion Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease enema has certain antibacte-rial activity in vitro,the current drug concentration is the most suitable drug concentration.

  4. 结肠水疗配合小承气汤加减灌肠治疗各类不完全性肠梗阻疗效观察%Curative effect observation of colon hydrotherapy combined with Xiao Cheng Qi decoction adjusted enema in the treatment of various types of incomplete intestinal obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘战河; 潘大军; 李晓静; 刘爱萍; 许丽霞; 吴玉叶; 张红蕾

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨用结肠水疗配合小承气汤加减灌肠治疗各类不完全性肠梗阻的效果。方法:对34例不完全性肠梗阻患者用结肠水疗配合小承气汤加减灌肠治疗;同时用肥皂水灌肠作为对照组。结果:治疗组治愈24例,好转8例,无效2例,好转率94.1%,治愈率70.6%,明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:用结肠水疗配合小承气汤加减灌肠治疗各类不完全性肠梗阻效果满意,使用简便,无不良反应,适宜基层使用。%Objective:To explore the effect of colon hydrotherapy combined with Xiao Cheng Qi decoction adjusted enema in the treatment of various types of incomplete intestinal obstruction.Methods:34 patients were treated with colon hydrotherapy combined with Xiao Cheng Qi decoction adjusted enema.The patients were treated with soapsuds enema as the control group.Results:24 cases were cured in the treatment group;8 cases were improved;2 cases were ineffective;the improvement rate was 94.1%;the cure rate was 70.6%.It was significantly better than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Colon hydrotherapy combined with Xiao Cheng Qi decoction adjusted enema in the treatment of various types of incomplete intestinal obstruction has satisfactory effect,convenient use,no adverse reaction.It is suitable for the grass-roots level.

  5. Fluorescent carbon dot–molecular salt hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Cayuela, Angelina; Kennedy, Stuart R.; Soriano, Laura; Jones, Christopher D.; Valcárcel, M.; Steed, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of functionalised carbon nanodots within a novel low molecular weight salt hydrogel derived from 5-aminosalicylic acid is reported. The carbon dots result in markedly enhanced gelation properties, while inclusion within the hydrophobic gel results in a dramatic fluorescence enhancement for the carbon nanomaterials. The resulting hybrid CD gels exhibit a useful sensor response for heavy metal ions, particularly Pb2+.

  6. Endoscopic and non-endoscopic approaches for the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Joseph Paul; Wong, Andrew Thomas; Schwartz, David; Martinez, Manuel; Aytaman, Ayse; Schreiber, David

    2016-08-21

    Pelvic radiation is a commonly utilized treatment for malignancy of the genitourinary and lower gastrointestinal tract. Radiation proctitis and the resultant clinical picture varies from asymptomatic to potentially life threatening. Similarly, treatment options also vary greatly, from medical therapy to surgical intervention. Commonly utilized medical therapy includes sucralfate enemas, antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives, probiotics, antioxidants, short-chain fatty acids, formalin instillation and fractionated hyperbaric oxygen. More invasive treatments include endoscopic-based, focally ablative interventions such as dilation, heater and bipolar cautery, neodymium/yttrium aluminum garnet argon laser, radiofrequency ablation or argon plasma coagulation. Despite its relatively common frequency, there is a dearth of existing literature reporting head-to-head comparisons of the various treatment options via a randomized controlled approach. The purpose of our review was to present the reader a consolidation of the existing evidence-based literature with the goal of highlighting the comparative effectiveness and risks of the various treatment approaches. Finally, we outline a pragmatic approach to the treatment of radiation proctitis. In light of the lack of randomized data, our goal is to pursue as least invasive an approach as possible, with escalation of care tailored to the severity of the patient's symptoms. For those cases that are clinically asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic, observation or medical management can be considered. Once a patient fails such management or symptoms become more severe, invasive procedures such as endoscopically based focal ablation or surgical intervention can be considered. Although not all recommendations are supported by level I evidence, reported case series and single-institutional studies in the literature suggest that successful treatment with cessation of symptoms can be obtained in the majority of cases. PMID

  7. Avaliação dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica após aplicação de enemas com peróxido de hidrogênio: estudo experimental em ratos Evaluation of lipid peroxidation levels on mucosa colonic cells afther application of hydrogen peroxide in enemas: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Helena Sousa Marques

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de clisteres contendo peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 determina o aparecimento de quadros graves de colite, algumas vezes de evolução fatal. É possível que a colite induzida por H2O2 possa ocorrer pela quebra da barreira funcional do epitélio cólico por estresse oxidativo. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica após instilação de H2O2 no reto excluso de trânsito fecal. Método: Vinte seis ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos a colostomia proximal terminal no cólon descendente e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram randomizados em dois grupos segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado duas ou quatro semanas após a derivação intestinal. Cada grupo experimental foi dividido e dois subgrupos segundo aplicação de clisteres, em dias alternados, contendo solução fisiológica a 0,9% ou H2O2 a 3%. O diagnóstico de colite foi estabelecido por estudo histopatológico e os níveis de dano oxidativo tecidual pela dosagem de malondialdeído por espectrofotometria. Os resultados foram analisados com os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, estabelecendo-se nível de significância de 5% (pThe use of rectal enemas with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 determines the onset of severe colitis, sometimes with fatal evolution. It is possible that H2O2-induced colitis can occur by damage to the functional epithelial barrier of the colon by oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of present study was evaluate the levels of lipid peroxidation in cells of the colonic mucosa after instillation of H2O2 into the rectum excluded from fecal transit. Method: Twenty six male Wistar rats were undergone to proximal terminal colostomy in the descending colon and distal mucous fistula. The animals were randomized in two experimental groups according to the sacrifice was made two or four weeks after diversion of the fecal stream. Each experimental group was divided into two subgroups second application of

  8. Rectal administration of d-alpha tocopherol for active ulcerative colitis: A preliminary report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Amir Mirbagheri; Behtash Ghazi Nezami; Solmaz Assa; Mannan Hajimahmoodi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-neutrophil recruitment effects of rectal d-alpha (d-α) tocopherol administration on mild and moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: Fifteen patients with mild and moderately active ulcerative colitis were enrolled in an open-label study of d-α tocopherol enema (8000 U/d) for 12 wk. All patients were receiving concomitant therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives (5-ASA) and/or immunomodulator medications. Endoscopic evaluation was performed at baseline and after 4th and 12th weeks. Disease activity was measured with the Mayo disease activity index (DAI) and remission was defined as DAI of≤2 with no blood in stool. Clinical response was defined as a DAI reduction of≥2.RESULTS: At the end of 12th week, the average DAI score significantly decreased compared to the beginning of the study (2.3±0.37 vs 8±0.48, P < 0.0001). One patient was withdrawn after 3 wk for being unavailable to follow-up. On the 4th week of therapy, 12 patients showed clinical response, 3 of whom (21.4%) achieving remission. After 12 wk, all 14 patients responded clinically to the therapy and remission was induced in 9 of them (64%). No patient reported adverse events or was hospitalized due to worsened disease activity.CONCLUSION: This preliminary report suggests that rectal d-α tocopherol may represent a novel therapy for mild and moderately active UC. The observed results might be due to the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of vitamin E.

  9. Overview of 5-ASA in Therapy of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CN Williams

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two forms of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA drug delivery. First, a pro-drug form in which 5-ASA, the active principal, is attached to a c.arrier molecule and released in the intestine by bacterial cleavage. An example of this is sulfasalazine, originally developed in the 1940s and found to be effective, cheap, but limited by side effects due to the sulfapyridine component. The second drug delivery system depends on an enteric coating for delayed pH-dependent release or for a timed-released mechanism. 5-ASA inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, modulates leukocyte function and inhibits soluble mediator release, and is an effective scavenger action of free oxygen radicals, the relative importance of which is unknown. The multiplicity of action is probably its strength because drugs that have only one of these actions are relatively ineffective in inflammatory bowel disease. 5-ASA compounds are effective in treating mild to moderate acute ulcerative colitis and in maintaining remission, and are equivalent to sulfasalazine in this regard. 5-ASA used topically in enema or suppository form is highly efficient in both acute disease and in maintaining remission. 5-ASA is also effective in active Crohn’s disease, but not as effective as in maintenance therapy compared with ulcerative colitis. The pro-drugs tend to have more side effects. Slow release compounds are well tolerated with few side effects, allowing increases to effective dosage. In patients intolerant of sulfasalazine, switching to a 5-ASA preparation usually results in tolerance and therapeutic benefit, with an occasional allergic reaction to the 5-ASA molecule limiting its use.

  10. Drug therapy for ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Tai Xu; Shu-Yong Meng; Bo-Rong Pan

    2004-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the large intestine occurred usually in the rectum and lower part of the colon as well as the entire colon. Drug therapy is not the only choice for UC treatment and medical management should be as a comprehensive whole.Azulfidine, Asacol, Pentasa, Dipentum, and Rowasa all contain 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is the topical anti-inflammatory ingredient. Pentasa is more commonly used in treating Crohn's ileitis because Pentasa capsules release more 5-ASA into the small intestine than Asacol tablets. Pentasa can also be used for treating mild to moderate UC. Rowasa enemas are safe and effective in treating ulcerative proctitis and proctosigmoiditis. The sulfafree 5-ASA agents (Asacol, Pentasa, Dipentum and Rowasa) have fewer side effects than sulfa-containing Azulfidine. In UC patients with moderate to severe disease and in patients who failed to respond to 5-ASA compounds,systemic (oral) corticosteroids should be used. Systemic corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone, cortisone, etc.)are potent and fast-acting drugs for treating UC, Crohn's ileitis and ileocolitis. Systemic corticosteroids are not effective in maintaining remission in patients with UC.Serious side effects can result from prolonged corticosteroid treatment. To minimize side effects, corticosteroids should be gradually reduced as soon as the disease remission is achieved. In patients with corticosteroid-dependent or unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment, surgery or immunomodulator is considered. Immunomodulators used for treating severe UC include azathioprine/6-MP,methotrexate, and cyclosporine. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine is safe and effective in maintaining remission in patients with UC.

  11. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, Angelo, E-mail: maggio.angelo@gmail.com [Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Magli, Alessandro [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Programme, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio [Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Valvo, Francesca [Division of Radiation Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Fellin, Giovanni [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [University of Turin, Department of Oncology, Torino (Italy); Munoz, Fernando [Radiotherapy Unit, AO Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco [Ospedale S. Anna, Como (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Programme, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Division of Radiation Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy

  12. 小儿水合氯醛保留灌肠在MRI检查中应用的护理体会%Nursing Experience of the Application of Retention Enema with Hydrate in MRI in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯育玲

    2016-01-01

    临床上因疾病需要进行MRI等相关检查时,小儿因年龄、自制力差等特点不能配合。水合氯醛是一种具有刺鼻的辛辣气味,味微苦的无色透明结晶固体,具有催眠作用强的效果,可以用于治疗失眠和入睡困难者。在麻醉前、手术前、CT及磁共振检查和睡眠脑电图检查前用水合氯醛,可起到镇静和解除焦虑的作用,使相应的处理过程比较安全和平稳。因此,在临床上广泛应用水合氯醛对小儿患者进行保留灌肠以起催眠作用,达到检查目的。但有少数患儿不能达到催眠效果,影响了疾病的诊断及治疗。%Due to the need to carry out MRI and other related examinations,the children's age,self-control and other characteristics can not match. Hydrate hydrate is a kind of colorless and transparent crystalline solid with a pungent odor,which has a strong hypnotic effect,and can be used to treat insomnia and sleep difficulties.Before anesthesia,before surgery,CT and magnetic resonance imaging and sleep EEG examination before the use of hydrate hydrate,can play the role of sedation and anxiety,so that the corresponding treatment process is relatively safe and stable.Therefore,it is widely used in the clinical application of the hydration of hydrate to the children in the retention enema to play a hypnotic effect,to achieve the purpose of examination.But there are a few children can not achieve the hypnotic effect,the impact of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  13. Clinical Observation of 35 Cases of Chronic Severe Hepatitis Treated with Traditional Chinese Medicine Enema and Ann Palace Bezoar Bolus%中药灌肠配合安宫牛黄丸治疗慢性重型肝炎35例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌

    2015-01-01

    目的:总结中药灌肠配合安宫牛黄丸治疗慢性重型肝炎的临床疗效。分析中药灌肠配合安宫牛黄丸治疗慢性重型肝炎的特色优势。方法:回顾性分析35例慢性重型肝炎的临床资料。结果:中药灌肠配合安宫牛黄丸治疗组35例中好转治愈22例(62.8%),死亡加未愈13例(37.2%);西药组33例中好转治愈15(45.5%),死亡加未愈18例(54.5%)。结论:中药灌肠配合安宫牛黄丸治疗慢性重型肝炎在提高临床疗效,减少内毒素血症,减少并发症,降低病死率等方面有特色优势。%Objective:To summarize the clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema and Ann palace bezoar bolus on treatment of chronic severe hepatitis and analyze the special advantage of the method. Methods: The clinical data of 35 cases of chronic severe hepatitis was retrospectively analyzed.Results:In the 35 cases treated with traditional Chinese medicine enema and Ann palace bezoar bolus of the treatment group,22 (62.8%) cases were cured or become better,and 13 (37.2%) cases died or were not cured;in the 33 cases treated western medicine,15 (45.5%) were cured or become better, and 18 (54.5%) cases died or were not cured. Conclusion: In improving clinical curative effect, reducing endotoxemia,complications and fatality rate,traditional Chinese medicine enema and Ann palace bezoar bolus had special advantages.

  14. Clinical effect of colon hydrotherapy combin Dexamethasone and shuang huang lian injection retenion enema to treat ulcerative colitis%大肠水疗联合地塞米松及双黄连粉针剂保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧军; 田相

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价大肠水疗后地塞米松和双黄连粉针剂保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎多人临床疗效.方法 选取溃疡性结肠炎160例,随即分成两组,其中对照组80例,采用口服硫氮黄氨嘧啶(SASP);治疗组80例,大肠水疗的基础上,配合地塞米松和双黄连粉针剂保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎.结果 治疗组80例.显效64例,有效14例,无效2例,总有效率97.5%;对照组80例,显效52例,有效10例,无效18例,总有效率77.5%.结论 大肠水疗后,地塞米松和双黄连粉针剂保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎临床疗效肯定,值得推广.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of using Dexamethasone and Shuanghuanglian injection retention enema after colon hydrotherapy. Methods 160 patients with ularative colitis were randomly divided divided into two groups, of which 80 cases of the control group, using cral administration of ammonia nitrogen and sulfur yellow-pyrimidine(SASP); treament group 80 cases, colon hydrotherapy, based on the pairs with dexamethasone and Coptis reteation enema for ulcerative colitis. Results The treatment group 80 cases. 64 cases markedly efffective in 14 cases,2 cases,the tatal effective rate 97.5%; control group,80 cases,effective in 52cases, effective rate 77.5%. Conclusion Colon hydrotherapy, the effects of dexamethasome and shuanghuanglian retention enema for ulcerative colitis clinical certainly northy of promotion.

  15. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bowel of feces. The procedure allows the emptying of the bowel by using fluid (similar to ... treatment of fecal incontinence in adults: use of gastric tube for catheterizable access to the descending colon. ...

  16. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  17. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  18. Understanding of chemoprophylaxis and concordance in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam; Low; Melanie; Love; Robert; Walt; Katherine; Kane; Bertus; Eksteen; Jason; Goh

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To assess patients' understanding for the reasons for taking 5-aminosalicylic acid or ursodeoxycholic acid as chemoprophylaxis against colorectal carcinoma associated with in? ammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A questionnaire-based study using a 5 point opinion scale was performed. One hundred and ninety-two patients with colitis only and 74 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and IBD were invited to take part. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 58%. Sixtyfour percent of patients claimed f...

  19. System Evaluation and Meta-analysis on Retention-Enema of Dragon's Blood in Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis based on Randomized Controlled Trial%血竭保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎的随机对照试验的系统评价和Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛丽敏; 李楠; 王雪明

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of retention-enema of dragon's blood in treatment of ulcerative colitis ( UC) applying the method of Meta-analysis. Method: A comprehensive data were colledted on dragon's blood or compound dragon's blood preparations treating ulcerative colitis. All literature were assessed via. The Cochrane collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias and application of quality and GRADE system evidence were used for level classification and RevMan5. 1. 7. 0 software was used to evaluate the results of the total effect of Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis. Funnel-plot analysis was used to identify the publication bias. Result: Six reports were identified in this Meta-analysis. GRADE system for low level recommended classification, recommend intensity as the weak recommended in methodology. Meta-analysis results showed that retention-enema of dragon's blood versus sulfasalazine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: RR=1. 13, 95%CI= [1.03, 1.24], 2=2.67, P < 0. 05. The results of Meta analysis showed that treatment group is better than control group and differences were significant. Sensitivity analysis showed that the evaluation result was stable and funnel figure graphics was symmetric. Literature had better security. Conclusion: Retention-enema of dragon's blood in treament of ulcerative colitis has certain therapeutic effect.%目的:运用Meta分析,系统评价血竭保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎的临床疗效.方法:全面收集国内期刊公开发表的血竭或复方血竭制剂保留灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎的临床试验资料,采用Cochrane手册偏倚风险评估表对文献进行评价,并应用GRADE系统对证据质量和等级推荐来分级,利用RevMan5.1.7.0软件对多个研究结果的总体效应进行Meta分析,并进行敏感性分析.结果:6篇文献符合纳入标准,共501例病例,GRADE系统的推荐分级为低等级,推荐强度为弱推荐.Meta分析结果显示:各独立试验间

  20. 中药保留灌肠预防宫颈癌患者放射性直肠损伤的效果%Effects of Retention Enema with Chinese Herbs on Prevention of Radioactive Rectum Damage in Cervical Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许燕; 张兰凤; 鞠小梅; 陈曾燕; 张曦霞; 叶赟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To verify the effect of retention enema with Chinese herbs on prevention of cervical cancer-related radioactive rectum damage. Methods From November 2009 to June 2011, 100 cervical cancer patients treated with radiation therapy were randomized into experimental group (n= 50) and control group(n=50). All the patients were treated with radio-therapy and the conventional care. Following after-loading therapy, patients in the experimental group were also treated with self-made retention enema of Chinese herbs(80~100 ml,once per day for continuous 3 days)until all the after-loading therapy finished. We compared the rectum reactions of after-loading therapy for five times three days later, 3 and 6 months after radiotherapy. Results Following after-loading therapy for five times three days later, the incidence rate of grade 1 and grade 2 rectum reactions in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group(P<0. 05) ;besides,the incidence rate and the extent of rectal damage in the experimental group were also significantly lower than those in the control group 3 months and 6 months after treatment (P<0. 05). Conclusion The application of retention enema with Chinese herbs can reduce the radioactive rectum reactions in cervical cancer patients during radiotherapy.%目的 探讨中药保留灌肠预防宫颈癌患者放射治疗所致放射性直肠损伤的效果.方法 按随机数字表法将2009年11月至2011年6月在南通市肿瘤医院行放射治疗的100例宫颈癌患者分为对照组及中药预防组各50 例,对照组采用放射治疗常规护理,中药预防组除常规护理外,在后装放射治疗后用自制中药80~100 ml行保留灌肠,1次/d,连续3 d,直至后装治疗结束.观察后装放射治疗5次3 d内、治疗结束后3个月、6个月两组患者发生放射性直肠损伤的情况.结果 中药预防组后装放射治疗5次3 d内1、2级直肠损伤发生率均低于对照组(均P<0.05

  1. 加味红藤败酱汤并中药灌肠治疗盆腔炎性疾病后遗症的临床观察%Clinical Research on Sequelae of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Treated with Modified Hongteng Baijiang Decoction and Herbal Enema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋悦; 赵秋生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy on sequelae of pelvic inflammatory disease trealed with modified hongleng baijiang decoclion and herbal enema. Methods 100 oulpalienls and inpa-Lients were randomized inlo a Chinese medicine Irealmenl group and a weslern medicine conlrol group. 51 cases in trealmenl group were trealed wilh inlernal application of modified hongleng baijiang decoclion and herbal enema. 7 - day Irealmenl made 1 session. 49 cases in conlrol group were trealed wilh inlravenous infusion of ceflriaxone sodium and linidazole,7 - day trealmenl made 1 session. Afler 3 sessions of trealmenl,the clinical efficacy was observed and compared belween two groups. Results The total effective rale was 100% in Chinese medicine trealmenl group and was 75. 51% in weslern medicine conlrol group,presenling slalisli-cal significant difference in comparison(P <0. 01) . 50 cases in trealmenl group were cured and no case was of recurrence in 6 month follow-up visit. Conclusion Modified hongleng baijiang decoclion combined wilh herbal enema achieves significant efficacy on sequelae of pelvic inflammatory disease, withoul obvious toxic-side reaction involved. Hence,this therapy deserves to be promoled in clinical practice.%目的 观察加味红藤败酱汤并中药灌肠治疗盆腔炎性疾病后遗症的临床疗效.方法 采用随机的原则将100例门诊及住院患者随机分为中药治疗组和西药对照组.治疗组51例,用加味红藤败酱汤内服并中药灌肠治疗盆腔炎性疾病后遗症,7 d为1个疗程;对照组49例,用头孢曲松钠、替硝唑静脉输液治疗,7 d为1个疗程.两组均治疗3个疗程后,对两组临床疗效进行比较,观察两组的临床疗效.结果 中药治疗组总有效率为100%,西药对照组总有效率为75.51%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗组50例痊愈患者随访6个月未见复发.结论 加味红藤败酱汤并中药灌肠治疗盆腔炎性疾病后遗症疗效显著,无明

  2. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  3. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  4. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi;

    2011-01-01

    E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) t......) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine.......E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA...

  5. Study for the effect of rats acute radiation rectal injury prevention by low temperature drug enema%低温药物灌肠对大鼠急性放射性直肠损伤的防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱云芳; 叶赟; 张曦霞; 张兰凤; 朱顺新; 邓锦玲; 张建兵; 刘继斌; 蔡晶

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of yunnan baiyao powder combined with low temperature retention enema on acute radiation rectal injury of rats. Method Based on the previous research, 30 rats model of acute radiation rectal injury were established and randomly divided into three groups, Observation group, Yunnan baiyao powder combined with low temperature group (referred as cold medicine group) and Yunnan baiyao powder group (referred as medicine group), 10 rats in each group, and 10 normal rats were set as control group. Before the X-rays irradiation use a deep venous catheter containing the refrigerant no inserted into the anus, and then exposure about 4 cm in the cold medicine group, both the cold medicine group and the medicine group use Yunnan baiyao powder enema 2 mL per time 1/d. Observation group and control group were treated by 0. 9% sodium chloride injection. General signs rectal histopathology and serum I L-6, I L-8 were observed in each group after 8 d,14 days of enema. Result The general signs of cold medicine group and medicine group were significantly different (P<0. 05) compared with observation group at 1 to 7 days. Cold medicine group were significantly different P<0. 05) compared with observation group at 8-14 d. Serum I L-6,8 were significant different (P<0. 05) compared with observation group and medicine group, and the rectal pathology were also significantly improved than the two groups. Conclusion Yunnan baiyao powder combined with bow temperature retention enema was effective to treat rat radiation rectal injury. It can significantly improve the effect of the rectal mucosal edema and ulceration.%目的 探讨低温加复方云南白药灌肠对大鼠急性放射性直肠炎的防治效果.方法 根据作者对前期大鼠急性放射性直肠炎保留灌肠模型筛选结果,制作大鼠急性放射性直肠炎模型30只,随机分对照组、低温加复方云南白药灌肠组(低温药物组)、复方云南白药灌肠组(药物组)各10只,并

  6. Will novel oral formulations change the management of inflammatory bowel disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Ainsworth, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with sulphasalazine/5-aminosalicylic acid, glucocorticoids and immunomodulators (i.e., thiopurines and methotrexate) was nearly two decades ago extended with intravenously or subcutaneously administered biologics (i......334, and amiselimod), as well as anti-sense therapy (mongersen) targeting SMAD7, drugs which directly target intracellular pathways of relevance for intestinal inflammation. EXPERT OPINION: A new avenue using easily administered oral therapies for the management of IBD is being introduced. While...

  7. Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated E. coli with Ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the Streptomycin-Treated Mouse Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Munk Petersen; Susanne Schjørring; Sarah Choi Gerstrøm; Karen Angeliki Krogfelt

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intest...

  8. Immunomodulators and Immunosuppressants for Japanese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Bamba; Tomoyuki Tsujikawa; Masaya Sasaki; Yoshihide Fujiyama; Akira Andoh

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by a long-standing chronic course with remissions and exacerbations. Previously, patients do not respond to 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds and corticosteroids are considered for colectomies, however, in recent years, alternative treatments emerged for steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent UC. In this review article, we focus on immunomodulators (such as azathioprine [AZA] and 6-mercaptopurine [6-MP]) and immunosuppressants (such as cyclosporine A [C...

  9. Microspheres for drug-delivery to the colon

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Peter James

    1992-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is concerned with the design and evaluation of microsphere-based systems for drug delivery into the colon. In initial experiments, techniques were devised for the preparation of microspheres from two sustained-release acrylic polymers, Eudragits RL and RS, using emulsification-solvent evaporation techniques. For Eudragit RS microspheres containing the drug 5-aminosalicylic acid, the rate of drug release could be controlled by the type and concentration of...

  10. Validation of HPLC, DPPH• and nitrosation methods for mesalamine determination in pharmaceutical dosage forms Validação dos métodos de CLAE, DPPH• e nitrosação para determinação de mesalazina em formas farmacêuticas

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Aparecida Rafael; José Roberto Jabor; Rúbia Casagrande; Sandra Regina Georgetti; Maria de Fátima Borin; Maria José Vieira Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) is used because of its local effects in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, the aims of this work were to compare and validate three analytical methods for the quality control of commercial coated tablets containing 5-ASA: high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) and nitrosation. The parameters linearity, precision and accuracy were studied in this work. HPLC with ultraviole...

  11. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  12. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  13. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  14. [Gastric Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  15. Stearic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  16. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  17. Efficacy and efficiency of small bowel double contrast enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedl, W.; Possel, H.M.; Prull, A.; Wunderlich, L.

    1986-02-01

    The double contrast examination is the most effective morphological screening method for the evaluation of the whole small intestine. Its sensitivity is 85%, its specifity 96.7%. In specific clinical problems the number of pathological roentgen rises: from 34,4% when all indications are taken into consideration to 58% in indications specific to the small intestine such as Morbus Crohn or the malabsorption syndrome. Search for tumors and the double contrast of the small intestine in unclear gastro-intestinal bleeding are unproductive. The weak point of this screening method is the lower part of the small intestine. Therefore, the selective peroral or retrograde analysis of the terminal ileum supplement the contrast method. A precondition for good results is an adequate technical standard. Besides the clinical results some technical results are therefore discussed such as contrast medium quantities, examination and X-ray time, radiation exposure and influences on the image quality. (orig.).

  18. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  19. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT REFERENCE DRUGS ON TRINITROBENZENESULFONIC ACID-INDUCED ULCERATIVE COLITIS IN THE RAT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.Venkatesan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis were chronic inflammatory disorders of the bowel categorized as inflammatory bowel diseases. Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS-induced colitis was one of the most common methods for studying inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. Several factors may, however, affect its reproducibility, rate of animal mortality, and macroscopic and histopathological outcomes.The current study was undertaken with the objective to validate the main contributing factors to this method and compare the effects of different reference drugs upon better amelioration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS induced colitis. With the above objectives, ulcerative colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of TNBS in male Wistar rats at a dose rate of 20 mg in 0.5 mL of ethanol per animal for all groups except the negative control group, which received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Different reference drugs like dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p. and 2 mg/kg, orally (p.o., hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.; 20 mg/kg, enema and sulfasalazine 500mg/kg ,p.o.were administered daily once from Day 3 to 9 except the negative and positive controls which received normal saline at the rate of 10 mL/kg body weight. All the animals were sacrificed on Day 10; the colons were excised and the colon morphology and net weight of the colon segment were graded and measured, respectively. The intestinal damage had improved significantly in the experiment groups that received different reference drugs which is comparable with sulfasalazine treated group. The experimental observations, gross pathology of intestinal lesions and statistical analysis reveals no significant difference among the different reference drugs treated groups.

  20. Effect of Matricaria aurea (Loefl. Shultz-Bip. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Acetic Acid-Induced Acute Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    Full Text Available Objective(s Matricaria aurea is found abundant in Iran and has large similarities in constituents especially essential oils, flavones and flavonoides as well as traditional uses to the main species; Matricaria recutita L. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and spasmolytic properties of the main species suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases so the present study was carried out.Materials and MethodsHydroalcoholic extract of plant with doses of 200, 400, 800 mg/kg were administered orally (p.o. for 5 days and rectally (i.r. (400 and 800 mg/kg at 15 and 2 hr before ulcer induction. To induce colitis, 2 ml of acetic acid 4% was instilled intra-colonically to separate groups of male Wistar rats (n= 6. Normal saline (2 ml, prednisolone (4 mg/kg and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg enema were administered to control and reference groups respectively. The tissue injures were assessed macroscopically and histopathologically. ResultsGreater doses of extract (400 and 800 mg/kg reduced colon weight/length ratio (P< 0.01 and the highest test dose (800 mg/kg p.o. or i.r. was effective to decrease tissue damage parameters including ulcer severity, area and index (P< 0.01 as well as inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage and total colitis index (P< 0.01 significantly. ConclusionIt is concluded that Matricaria aurea extract was effective to protect against acute colitis in acetic acid model and this effect was more significant with the greater doses administered orally or rectally. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the mechanisms that are involved and the responsible active constituents.

  1. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  2. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  3. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    was studied at the electron microscopic level using the membrane-impermeable marker Ruthenium Red (RR). Like FM dye, RR was taken up into TWEEs and multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However, OA induced the formation of a large number of lamellar bodies (LBs), a type of lysosome-related organelles. LBs...... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  4. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  5. Retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  6. Mesalamine hypersensitivity and Kounis syndrome in a pediatric ulcerative colitis patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalamine) rarely induces hyper-sensitivity reactions. If chest pain associated with atypical electrocardiographic changes are seen during its adminis-tration, one should always bear in mind type I variant of Kounis syndrome. This variant includes patients, of any age, with normal coronary arteries, without predisposing factors for coronary artery disease, in whom the acute release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells can induce either sudden coronary artery narrowing, without increase of cardiac enzymes and troponins, or coronary artery spasm that progresses to acute myocardial infarc-tion, with elevated cardiac enzymes and troponins.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanoscale magnetic drug-inorganic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui; ZHANG Hui; David G. Evans; DUAN Xue

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis by direct coprecipitation and characterization of captopril (Cpl) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) intercalated ZnAl layered double hydroxides coated on MgFe2O4 magnetic core particles are reported. Powder XRD analysis shows the well-defined crystallite structure of the composites. TEM and XPS results reveal that a core-shell structure involving a drug-LDHs layer coated on MgFe2O4 particles is formed through Zn-O-Mg and/or Al-O-Mg linkages. VSM measurements demonstrate that the novel magnetic drug-inorganic composites possess considerable magnetization.

  8. Healing Effect of PistaciaAtlantica Fruit Oil Extract in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Tanideh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the anti-oxidant properties of Pistaciaatlanticaand lack of data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, this study aims at investigating the effect of the Pistaciaatlantica fruit extract in treating experimentally induced colitis in a rat model. Methods:Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 220±20 g were used. All rats fasted 24 hours before the experimental procedure. The rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 10 induced colitis with 2ml acetic acid (3%. Group 1 (Asacol, group 2 (base gel and group 7 (without treatment were assigned as control groups. Group 3 (300 mg/ml and group 4 (600 mg/ml received Pistaciaatlantica fruit orally. Group 5 (10% gel and group 6 (20% gel received Pistaciaatlantica in the form of gel as enema. Macroscopic, histopathological examination and MDA measurement were carried out. Results:All groups revealed significant macroscopic healing in comparison with group 7 (P<0.001. Regarding microscopic findings in the treatment groups compared with group 7, the latter group differed significantly with groups 1, 2, 4 and 6 (P<0.001. There was a significant statistical difference in MDA scores of the seven treatment groups (F(5,54=76.61, P<0.001. Post-hoc comparisons indicated that the mean±SD score of Asacol treated group (1.57±0.045 was not significantly different from groups 4 (1.62±0.024 and 6 (1.58±0.028. Conclusion: Our study showed that a high dose of Pistaciaatlantica fruit oil extract, administered orally and rectally can improve colitis physiologically and pathologically in a rat model, and may be efficient for ulcerative colitis.

  9. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  10. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  11. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  12. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  13. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  14. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  15. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  16. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic...: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil... residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid on food...

  17. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  18. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  19. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie;

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form fr...

  20. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Minaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Baneh tree or Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica is an endemic plant of Iran which belongs to Anacardiaceae family. It has various traditional uses including astringent and anti-diarrheal as well as improving some of the symptoms of gastrointestinal upsets. In this study we decided to investigate the effects of various fractions of baneh gum with different doses in an animal model of ulcerative colitis as one of the important chronic inflammatory bowel diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Methods: The volatile oil and aqueous baneh gum suspensions were prepared and the constituents of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC/MS. They were used to treat colitis induced by acetic acid 4% in rats. Three doses of gum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered both orally (p.o. and intra-rectally (i.r. while volatile oil was administered p.o. with doses 100, 200 and 400 µl/kg for four constitutive days. Anti-inflammatory effects of the test compounds were compared with oral prednisolone and hydrocortisone enema. Wet colon weight/ length ratio and tissue damage scores and area as well as indices of colitis and tissue myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated for each specimen. Results: Alpha-pinene was the main constituent of baneh volatile oil (41.23%. We observed therapeutic effects in applied doses of oral gum as well as volatile oil to reduce all indices of colitis and myeloperoxidase activity. Unlike the oral form of gum, its rectal administration was not significantly effective to improve colitis. Conclusion: This research has proved the anti-inflammatory potential of oral gum of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica and its volatile oil in an experimentally induced colitis.

  2. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Acidizing carbonate reservoirs with chlorocarboxylic acid salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-10-31

    A carbonate reservoir is acidized slowly by injecting an aqueous solution of a chlorocarboxylic acid salt so that the rate of the acidization is limited to the rate at which an acid is formed by the hydrolyzing of the chlorocarboxylate ions. The rate at which a chlorocarboxylic acid salt hydrolyzes to form an acid provides the desired rate of acid-release. A more complete acid-base reaction by chloroacetic acid, as compared to formic, acetic, and proprionic, is due to its being a much stronger acid. The pKa of chloroacetic acid is 2.86, whereas that of formic acid is 3.75, and that of acetic acid is 4.75. The pKa of a solution of a weak acid is the pH exhibited when the concentration of undissociated acid equals the concentration of the acid anion. 14 claims.

  4. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  5. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  6. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of 5-ASA suppositories in active distal proctitis and measurement of extent of spread using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled 5-ASA suppositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with active distal proctitis received either 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) acid or identical placebo suppositories, 500 mg t.i.d. for 6 weeks. Activity at 3 and 6 wks was assessed using a Disease Activity Index (DAI), derived from four categories: number of daily evacuations more than usual, evacuations containing blood, sigmoidoscopy appearance, and physician's overall assessment. Each category was graded 0-3. There was thus 0-12 points scored ranging from complete remission to severe disease. A minimum score of 3 from two categories was necessary for study entry. Of 27 patients randomized, 14 received active medication and 13 placebo. Of the 14 patients, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8, 11 were in complete remission at 6 wks (78.6%). Whereas, there was no significant change in the placebo group, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8. An additional 6 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 6 healthy volunteers were given /sup 99m/Tc-labelled 5-aminosalicylic acid suppositories. The extent of spread was limited to the rectum, and the suppositories were retained for 3 hours. There was no absorbed radioactivity. 5-ASA suppositories are safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment for active distal proctitis

  7. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  8. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  9. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  10. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid Neurolipidomics

    OpenAIRE

    Niemoller, Tiffany D.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2009-01-01

    Mediator lipidomics is a field of study concerned with the characterization, structural elucidation and bioactivity of lipid derivatives generated by enzymatic activity. Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects for vision, brain function, cardiovascular function, and immune-inflammatory responses. Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], the most abundant essential omega-3 fatty acid in the human body, is selectively enriched and avidly retained in the central nervous system as an acyl chain...

  12. The acid rain primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  13. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  14. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides ( ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  18. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  2. Uric acid - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  4. Carbolic acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to. If the person swallowed the carbolic acid, give them water or milk right away, if a provider tells ... well someone does depends on how much carbolic acid they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better ...

  5. Neurotoxicity of Folic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam van JGC; Jansen EHJM; A Opperhuizen; TOX

    2004-01-01

    The present review summarises the neurotoxicological effects of folic acid. Some studies in animals have shown that folic acid is neurotoxic and epileptogenic when applied directly to the brain. One poorly controlled and not further reproduced study from 1970 reported neurotoxic symptoms like malais

  6. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  7. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  8. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  9. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  10. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    , chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids......Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  11. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  12. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  13. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... green leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Folic Acid Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  14. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of ... in black currant seed, borage seed, and evening primrose oils. Omega-6 fatty acids are used for ...

  15. Acid rain: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  16. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  17. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your provider for more information. ... acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The ... acid levels: A high carbohydrate diet Estrogen therapy Vitamin D

  18. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  19. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  20. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pores and by decreasing production of keratin, a natural substance that can lead to the development of ... acid controls acne and rosacea but does not cure these conditions. It may take 4 weeks or ...

  1. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  2. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  3. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  4. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  5. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  6. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  7. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  8. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON ACID-SENSITIVE UV CURING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-dao Chen; Bing Wu; Xiao-yin Hong

    1999-01-01

    By using diphenyliodonium salts with different counterions as photo acid generators (PAGs), the effect of acidity on ring-opening polymerization of epoxy monomers and polycondensation of polyol with hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was studied. The result shows that the rate of ring-opening polymerization is evidently dependent on the acidity of the acid and strong photo-generated acid is required.However, there is a leveling effect in the polycondensation system; if the photo-generated acid is stronger than protonated HMMM, the acidity does not obviously affect the polycondensation rate.

  9. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF3(CH3COOH)2. The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF3COOH and CH3COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation

  10. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao,Kenzabroh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by cysteine, cystine and tryptophan was noted, although their absorption maxima differed from that of sialic acids. The interference by these amino acids was eliminated with the use of a small column of cation-exchange resin. The acidic ninhydrin method provides a simple and rapid method for the determination of free sialic acids in biological materials.

  11. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  12. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  13. Amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, J W; West, K A; Dodson, W S; Hulmes, J D

    2001-05-01

    Amino acid analysis (AAA) is one of the best methods to quantify peptides and proteins. Two general approaches to quantitative AAA exist, namely, classical postcolumn derivatization following ion-exchange chromatography and precolumn derivatization followed by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). Excellent instrumentation and several specific methodologies are available for both approaches, and both have advantages and disadvantages. This unit focuses on picomole-level AAA of peptides and proteins using the most popular precolumn-derivatization method, namely, phenylthiocarbamyl amino acid analysis (PTC-AAA). It is directed primarily toward those interested in establishing the technology with a modest budget. PTC derivatization and analysis conditions are described, and support and alternate protocols describe additional techniques necessary or useful for most any AAA method--e.g., sample preparation, hydrolysis, instrument calibration, data interpretation, and analysis of difficult or unusual residues such as cysteine, tryptophan, phosphoamino acids, and hydroxyproline. PMID:18429107

  14. Biodegradation of cyanuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldick, J

    1974-12-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO(2) and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand.

  15. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  16. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  17. [Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Shimizu, S

    1999-10-01

    Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called niacin. They are the antipellagra vitamin essential to many animals for growth and health. In human being, niacin is believed necessary together with other vitamins for the prevention and cure of pellagra. Niacin is widely distributed in nature; appreciable amounts are found in liver, fish, yeast and cereal grains. Nicotinamide is a precursor of the coenzyme NAD and NADP. Some of the most understood metabolic processes that involve niacin are glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and respiration. Niacin is also related to the following diseases: Hartnup disease; blue diaper syndrome; tryptophanuria; hydroxykynureninuria; xanthurenic aciduria; Huntington's disease. PMID:10540864

  18. Whither Acid Rain?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and s...

  19. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan;

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  20. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  1. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Calder Philip C

    2004-01-01

    The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites) and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and ...

  3. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  4. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  5. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  6. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  7. The Acid Rain Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  8. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  9. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  10. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  11. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  12. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  13. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela;

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  14. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells that produce substances needed to fight infection)] or by cancer that began in another part of the body but has spread to the bones. Zoledronic acid (Zometa) is not cancer chemotherapy, and it will not slow or stop the ...

  15. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  16. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  17. Potentiometric determination of peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Malchik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Was proposed two potentiometric methods for determining peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis of sulfuric acid (potentiometric titration method and direct potentiometry, based on its interaction with a known excess of a solution Fe2+.

  18. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  19. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  20. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Rui-Dong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acids (AKBA, a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health.

  1. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  2. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  3. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  4. Efeitos da injeção de solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico em mucosa colorretal de coelhos, com vistas a aplicação no preparo pré-operatório do cólon Local effects of rectal washout with acetylsalicylic acid solution on the colonic mucosa of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Salomão Ioriatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A recidiva local no câncer colorretal tem como principal causa o implante de células tumorais nas anastomoses. 11-15 Dessa maneira, lavagem química do lúmen intestinal é preconizada para evitar tanto o implante quanto à recidiva local. 11-28 Em estudos prévios constatamos que a solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico tem efeitos citolíticos e anti-tumorais in-vitro.31 OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a toxicidade da solução de aspirina na mucosa colônica de coelhos com o objetivo de usá-la no preparo intestinal de portadores de câncer colorretal. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 coelhos. Um clampe vascular foi colocado acima do cólon sigmóide. Os animais foram submetidos a um enema com 50 ml da solução de aspirina ou soro fisiológico de acordo com o grupo. Os animais foram sacrificados ao término do procedimento ou tardiamente de acordo com o grupo. RESULTADOS: A solução de aspirina não altera a mucosa colônica de coelhos. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico no preparo intestinal de portadores de câncer colorretal é clinicamente possível.BACKGROUND: The implantation of viable exfoliated intraluminal tumour cells is the major cause of local recurrence in colorectal cancer. 11-28 Therefore, the bowel lumen wash with a tumoricidal agent has been recommended. 11-28 In previous study we observe that acetylsalicylic acid solution cause neoplastic cell death in vitro.31 PURPOSE: Assess the local effect of acetylsalicylic acid solution on the colonic mucosa of rabbits, in order to use this agent in the bowel lumen wash. METHODS: 20 rabbits were used. A vascular clamp was placed on the distal colon, followed by the instillation per rectum of 50 ml of acetylsalicylic acid solution or saline solution, according to the group. The euthanasia was performed immediately or later according to the group. RESULTS: The acetylsalicylic acid solution doesn't cause any injury on the

  5. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  6. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  7. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  8. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  9. Self-neutralizing well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1974-07-30

    A process for acidizing a subterranean region by contacting it with an acidic solution is improved by dissolving in the solution a pH-increasing reactant that subsequently adjusts the pH of the solution to a selected relatively neutral value. Urea is an example of the acid neutralizer. (10 claims)

  10. Acid Rain Limits Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Will Knight; 张林玲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acid rain restricts global warming by reducing methane① emissions from natural wetland areas, suggests a global climate study. Acid rain is the result of industrial pollution,which causes rainwater to carry small quantities of acidic compoumds② such as sulphuric and nitric acid③. Contaminated rainwater can upset rivers and lakes, killing fish and other organisms and also damage plants, trees and buildings.

  11. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    -negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  12. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  13. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  14. Ionic liquid supported acid-catalysed esterification of lauric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic Liquid (IL) based on 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonyl)imide (BMI.NTf2) under acidic condition was used as catalyst for the esterification reaction of fatty acid. Various acids namely sulphuric acid, perchloric acid, p-toulene sulphonic acid and various chloride salts such as zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) immobilized in ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 gave acidic ILs. These acidic ILs were tested as catalysts for esterification reactions. Esterification of alcohol (methanol) with fatty acid (lauric acid) using ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 combined with H2SO4 (BMI.NTf2(H2SO4)) gave high activity (>85 %) and selectivity (100 %) observed over a period of 2 hours reaction with reaction temperature 70 degree Celsius. The ester became easily separated due to IL forming biphasic with product after the reaction where ester accumulated as the upper phase and IL with water produced after reaction at lower phase. Catalytic activities comparison also be studied between acidic ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 with acidic ionic liquid ChCl.2ZnCl2 and conventional acid catalyst. These ILs were characterised by using FTIR, NMR and TGA. Results from FTIR were showed no significant difference between ILs with ILs in acidic condition. The TGA curve show BMI.NTf2 thermals decomposition is ≥400 degree Celsius but when BMI.NTf2 combination with H2SO4, TGA curve show weight loss increase and becomes unstable. The advantages of ILs as catalyst are clean process and green chemistry due to its behaviour such as non-volatile, no loss of solvent through evaporation and reduced environmentally impact. This ILs-catalyst system can be recycle for further reaction. (author)

  15. Microbial transformations of isocupressic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S J; Rosazza, J P

    1998-07-01

    Microbial transformations of the labdane-diterpene isocupressic acid (1) with different microorganisms yielded several oxygenated metabolites that were isolated and characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674) catalyzed the cleavage of the 13,14-double bond to yield a new nor-labdane metabolite, 2. Cunninghamella elegans (-) (NRRL 1393) gave 7beta-hydroxyisocupressic acid (3) and labda-7,13(E)-diene-6beta,15, 17-triol-19-oic acid (4), and Mucor mucedo (ATCC 20094) gave 2alpha-hydroxyisocupressic acid (5) and labda-8(17),14-diene-2alpha, 13-diol-19-oic acid (6).

  16. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and so available for eicosanoid production. Thus, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids act as arachidonic acid antagonists. Components of both natural and acquired immunity, including the production of key inflammatory cytokines, can be affected by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although some of the effects of n-3 fatty acids may be brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, it is possible that these fatty acids might elicit some of their effects by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms. Such n-3 fatty acid-induced effects may be of use as a therapy for acute and chronic inflammation, and for disorders that involve an inappropriately-activated immune response.

  18. Mycophenolic Acid in Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

    2000-01-01

    We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) μg/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

  19. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  20. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  1. Therapeutic High-Density Barium Enema in a Case of Presumed Diverticular Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonthalee Pausawasdi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding do not have an identifiable source of bleeding at colonoscopy. A significant percentage of these patients will have recurrent bleeding. In many patients, the presence of multiple diverticula leads to a diagnosis of presumed diverticular bleeding. Current treatment options include therapeutic endoscopy, angiography, or surgical resection, all of which depend on the identification of the diverticular source of bleeding. This report describes a case of recurrent bleeding in an elderly patient with diverticula but no identifiable source treated successfully with barium impaction therapy. This therapeutic modality does not depend on the identification of the bleeding diverticular lesion and was well tolerated by our 86-year-old patient.

  2. Butyrate enemas do not affect human colonic MUC2 and TFF3 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, H.M.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Renes, I.B.; Vanhoutvin, S.A.L.W.; Kodde, A.; Troost, F.J.; Venema, K.; Brummer, R.-J.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The colonic mucus layer plays an important role in the protection of the intestinal epithelium and mainly consists of mucin glycoproteins (primarily MUC2 in the colon) trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and secretory IgA. Butyrate is a major end product of fermentation of dietary fibres and is as

  3. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    OpenAIRE

    B. Syama Sundar; P.S.Radhakrishna murti

    2014-01-01

    Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation wi...

  4. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-05-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1 - 3 × 10-4 Torr H2O and 1 - 2.5 × 10-6 Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  5. Caro's acid - its introduction to uranium acid leaching in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After extensive testing and plant trials to establish the benefits of Caro's acid (H2SO5) as an alternative oxidant, Queensland Mines Limited decided to replace pyrolusite with Caro's acid in its acid leach uranium treatment plant at Nabarlek. The decision was based on the reagent savings and environmental gains associated with the removal of manganese from the process liquors, as well as the labour savings and improved oxidation reduction potential control possible in leaching using the Caro's acid system. Some changes in operating parameters were necessary with the introduction of Caro's acid to the treatment plant. Operating results have confirmed the relationship between oxidant demand and uranium content of ore established during the trials. Acid savings have been as predicted from the plant trials. The major saving has been of hydrated lime required for tailings neutralisation

  6. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  7. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.;

    2002-01-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  8. Therapeutic targeting of bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering more bile acids to the colon to relieve constipation. The final objective addresses novel concepts and therapeutic opportunities such as the interaction of bile acids and the microbiome to control colonic infections, as in Clostridium difficile-associated colitis, and bile acid targeting of the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 with consequent effects on energy expenditure, fat metabolism, and glycemic control. PMID:26138466

  9. Synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Geng; Qiu Xiao Li; Ya Jie Jiang; Wei Wang

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts was investigated.The results showed that the catalytic activity and selectivity of zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(6)(pore diameter 6 nm)is better than that of commonly used hypophosphorous acid,zirconium sulfate supported on MCM-41 and zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(9)(pore diameter 9 nm).

  10. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng Xia; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Gianfranco Alpini; Gene LeSage

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2)is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3,an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, OstαOstβ. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliaryplexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile.This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines.Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signalregulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals.Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion,proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals,and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte secretion

  11. Effect of Cyperus Rotundus on Cytokine Gene Expression in Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Sarika; Joshi, Chaitanya; Gandhi, Tejal

    2016-01-01

    Background: The protective effect of the chloroform extract of Cyperus rotundus (CHCR) is attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Cytokines, important regulators of inflammation and repair, play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Targeting these cytokines can effectively ameliorate the symptoms of IBD. The aim of the present study was to unravel the molecular mechanism through cytokine regulation in rats in experimental IBD. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 5 groups (n=6). Group I served as the normal control. Group II served as the vehicle control and received 50% ethanol intracolonically on day 11 of the study. Group III served as the model control. Group IV and Group V were given standard drug 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) and CHCR (800 mg/kg), respectively, for 18 days once a day orally. Colitis was induced with dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (180 mg/kg in 50% ethanol) intracolonically in groups III–V on day 11 of the study. On day 18, the rats were euthanized and colon tissues were removed for IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-gamma gene expression studies using quantitative RT-PCR. Results: The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-gamma were upregulated in the model control rats. Pretreatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) and CHCR (800 mg/kg) significantly decreased the fold of the expression of the above cytokines. Conclusion: CHCR acts as a molecular brake and downregulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes; this is beneficial for reducing the severity of the experimental IBD. Thus, Cyperus rotundus is a safe, economical, and effective alternative for the treatment of patients with IBD. PMID:27582588

  12. Molecular Simulation of Naphthenic Acid Removal on Acidic Catalyst Ⅱ. Experimental results of catalytic decarboxylation over acidic catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqin; Tian Songbai; Hou Shuandi; Longjun; Wang Xieqing

    2008-01-01

    The energy barriers of thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids and catalytic decarboxylation reactions of Br(o)nsted acid and Lewis acid were analyzed using molecular simulation technology.Compared with thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids, the decarboxylation reactions by acid catalysts were easier to occur. The decarboxylaton effect by Lewis acid was better than Br(o)nsted acid. The mechanisms of catalytic decarboxylation over acid catalyst were also verified by experiments on a fixed bed and a fluidized bed, the experimental results showed that the rate of acid removal could reach up to 97% over the acidic catalyst at a temperature above 400℃.

  13. Kojic acid in organic synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    ZIRAK, MARYAM; Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    The reactions of kojic acid in organic synthesis are reviewed. The aim of this review is to cover the literature up to the end of 2014, showing the distribution of publications involving kojic acid chemistry in the synthesis of various pyrone containing compounds, pyridine and pyridone heterocycles, and also other organic compounds. First, introductory text about the preparation, biological, and industrial applications, and the chemical properties of kojic acid is given. Then its uses in orga...

  14. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-im...

  15. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation fo...

  16. Mesalazine preparations for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: Are all created equal?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei; Ye; Daniel; R; van; Langenberg

    2015-01-01

    Oral mesalazine(also known as mesalamine) is a 5-aminosalicylic acid compound used in the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, with high rates of efficacy in induction and maintenance of remission.The therapeutic effect of mesalazine occurs topically at the site of diseased colonic mucosa. A myriad of oral mesalazine preparations have been formulated with various drug delivery methods to minimize systemic absorption and maximise drug availability at the inflamed colonic epithelium. It remains unclear whether different oral mesalazine formulations are bioequivalent. This review aims to evaluate the differences between mesalazine formulations based on the currently available literature and explore factors which may influence the selection of one agent above another.

  17. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD......) patients. The magnitude of the risk was found to differ, even in population-based studies. Recent figures suggest that the risk of colon cancer for people with IBD increases by 0.5-1.0% yearly, 8-10 years after diagnosis. The magnitude of CRC risk increases with early age at IBD diagnosis, longer duration...... explanations have to be investigated. One possible cancer-protective factor could be treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations (5-ASAs). Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel is extremely rare, compared with adenocarcinoma of the large bowel. Although only few small bowel cancers have been reported...

  18. 5-ASA Suppositories in Hemorrhoidal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gionchetti

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with active hemorrhoidal disease were entered into this double-blind trial, 20 of whom were randomized to treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA (500 mg suppositories. Clinical and sigmoidoscopic assessment was carried out before the start of the trial and after two weeks of treatment. At the end of the study, 5-ASA suppositories showed results superior to those of placebo for all parameters evaluated (P<0.01. There were no adverse events reported related to the use of suppositories. 5-ASA suppositories are a valid therapeutic approach for hemorrhoidal disease as it reduces the intensity of all symptoms and significantly decreases congestion of the hemorrhoidal plexus.

  19. Relapsing tubulointerstitial nephritis in an adolescent with inflammatory bowel disease without aminosalicylate exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahrani Muhammad, H S

    2012-01-31

    A 14-year-old boy presented with ongoing constipation as a manifestation of newly diagnosed Crohn\\'s disease (CD) and a concomitant decline in renal function with biopsy-proven interstitial nephritis. Initiation of steroid therapy and mesalazine was associated with an improvement in symptoms and renal function. We describe a rare case of a 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)-naive patient who developed interstitial nephritis in association with CD with no evidence of other primary glomerulopathy. A unique feature of the case being a profound systemic inflammatory response at the time of diagnosis and a relapse in nephritis 2 months after cessation of mesalazine in the absence of any macroscopic colitis.

  20. Infliximab to treat severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dídia Bisamra Cury; Marcelo de Souza Cury; Geraldo Vinicius Hemerly Elias; Sender Jankiel Mizsputen

    2009-01-01

    A 48-year-old female with severe ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy was referred to our facility for management. The patient showed extensive ulcerative colitis since the age of 20 years and had failed therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid agents and azathioprine. The disease remained active despite treatment with steroids and cyclosporine. The clinical and endoscopic parameters were consistent with severe disease. Infectious precipitants were ruled out. Given the severity of the disease and in order to avoid a colectomy, we started the patient on infliximab therapy. A dramatic clinical and endoscopic response was observed and she remained in remission at the end of a 1-year follow-up period. We discuss findings in the literature regarding the use of infliximab therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis who have failed steroids and cyclosporine.

  1. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  2. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  3. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  4. Molecular structural studies of lichen substances II: atranorin, gyrophoric acid, fumarprotocetraric acid, rhizocarpic acid, calycin, pulvinic dilactone and usnic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Newton, Emma M.; Wynn-Williams, David D.

    2003-06-01

    The FT-Raman and infrared vibrational spectra of some important lichen compounds from two metabolic pathways are characterised. Key biomolecular marker bands have been suggested for the spectroscopic identification of atranorin, gyrophoric acid, fumarprotocetraric acid rhizocarpic acid, calycin, pulvinic dilactone and usnic acid. A spectroscopic protocol has been defined for the detection of these molecules in organisms subjected to environmental stresses such as UV-radiation exposure, desiccation and low temperatures. Use of the protocol will be made for the assessment of survival strategies used by stress-tolerant lichens in Antarctic cold deserts.

  5. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of nat...

  6. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  7. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  8. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  9. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scalabrin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m−3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m−3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45–60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m−3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  10. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  11. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, Hyung-Sool [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wang, Ai-Jie, E-mail: waj0578@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alizarin Yellow R as the mode of azo dyes was efficiently converted to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPD and 5-ASA were further oxidized in a bio-contact oxidation reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of UBER for azo dye removal was discussed. - Abstract: Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8 {+-} 1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1}) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1} (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.

  12. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor was developed. ► Alizarin Yellow R as the mode of azo dyes was efficiently converted to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). ► PPD and 5-ASA were further oxidized in a bio-contact oxidation reactor. ► The mechanism of UBER for azo dye removal was discussed. - Abstract: Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8 ± 1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 g m−3 d−1) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 g m−3 d−1 (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.

  13. Origin of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  14. Altered colonic mucosal Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA derived lipid mediators in ulcerative colitis: new insight into relationship with disease activity and pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Masoodi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a relapsing inflammatory disorder of unconfirmed aetiology, variable severity and clinical course, characterised by progressive histological inflammation and with elevation of eicosanoids which have a known pathophysiological role in inflammation. Therapeutic interventions targetting eicosanoids (5-aminosalicylates (ASA are effective first line and adjunctive treatments in mild-moderate UC for achieving and sustaining clinical remission. However, the variable clinical response to 5-ASA and frequent deterioration in response to cyclo-oxygenase (COX inhibitors, has prompted an in depth simultaneous evaluation of multiple lipid mediators (including eicosanoids within the inflammatory milieu in UC. We hypothesised that severity of inflammation is associated with alteration of lipid mediators, in relapsing UC. DESIGN: Study was case-control design. Mucosal lipid mediators were determined by LC-MS/MS lipidomics analysis on mucosal biopsies taken from patients attending outpatients with relapsing UC. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to investigate the association of mucosal lipid mediators, with the disease state and severity graded histologically. RESULTS: Levels of PGE2, PGD2, TXB2, 5-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE and 15-HETE are significantly elevated in inflamed mucosa and correlate with severity of inflammation, determined using validated histological scoring systems. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach of capturing inflammatory mediator signature at different stages of UC by combining comprehensive lipidomics analysis and computational modelling could be used to classify and predict mild-moderate inflammation; however, predictive index is diminished in severe inflammation. This new technical approach could be developed to tailor drug treatments to patients with active UC, based on the mucosal lipid mediator profile.

  15. Folic Acid: Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid fortification in the United States Recently, the American Journal of Preventive Medicine published a new study looking at the costs ... acid fortification and spina bifida in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. January 2016 [epub ahead of print]. Related Links ...

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega- ... fish including tuna, salmon, and mackerel. Other important omega 3 fatty acids are found in dark green leafy vegetables, flaxseed ...

  17. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  18. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  19. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  20. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  1. Cocrystals of fenamic acids with nicotinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Fábián, László; Hamill, Noel; Eccles, Kevin S; Moynihan, Humphrey A; Maguire, Anita R.; McCausland, Linda; Lawrence, Simon E.

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation between nicotinamide and five fenamic acid derivative drugs (flufenamic acid, niflumic tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid and meclofenamic acid) was investigated using solution-based and solid-state preparation methods. It was anticipated that the well-known acid-aromatic nitrogen heterosynthon would provide a sufficient driving force for cocrystallization. The experiments yielded cocrystals with four of the five acids. Although the structures of these molecules are similar, ...

  2. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Syama Sundar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation with Mn (VII in case of DL-Mandelic acid. The following order of reactivity is observed: DL-Mandelic acid > Phenyl acetic acid. The high reactivity of DL-Mandelic acid over phenyl acetic acid may be due to different mechanisms operating with the two substrates and benzaldehyde is the final product in both the cases.

  3. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  4. Microfluidics in amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumera, Martin

    2007-07-01

    Microfluidic devices have been widely used to derivatize, separate, and detect amino acids employing many different strategies. Virtually zero-dead volume interconnections and fast mass transfer in small volume microchannels enable dramatic increases in on-chip derivatization reaction speed, while only minute amounts of sample and reagent are needed. Due to short channel path, fast subsecond separations can be carried out. With sophisticated miniaturized detectors, the whole analytical process can be integrated on one platform. This article reviews developments of lab-on-chip technology in amino acid analysis, it shows important design features such as sample preconcentration, precolumn and postcolumn amino acid derivatization, and unlabeled and labeled amino acid detection with focus on advanced designs. The review also describes important biomedical and space exploration applications of amino acid analysis on microfluidic devices. PMID:17542043

  5. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  6. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid.

  7. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid. PMID:27422507

  8. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  9. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KANAZAWA, Akio; TESHIMA, Shin-ichi; TOKIWA, Shigeru; IMATANAKA, Nobuya; カナザワ, アキオ; テシマ, シンイチ; トキワ, シゲル; イマタナカ, ノブヤ; 金沢, 昭夫; 手島, 新一; 常盤, 繁; 今田中, 伸哉

    1984-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) methylesters (ME) were preparedfrom a squid-liver oil and their hypocholesterolemic activities examined with rats. The supplementof 0.3% EPA-ME to the diet containing 1.0% cholesterol and 4.0% butter as lipids reduced a serum-cholesterollevel markedly, whereas DHA-ME gave almost no effect on the serum-cholesterol level.Both EPA-ME and DHA-ME reduced the liver-cholesterol level as effectively as linoleic acid did.The supplement of smal...

  10. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  11. The Property and Application of Arachidonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相勤; 姚建铭; 袁成凌; 王纪; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most important PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in human body. A high-yield arachidonic acid-producing strain (mortierella alpina) was selected by ion implantation (the relative content of arachidonic acid is 70.2% among all fatty acids). This paper mainly introduced the structure, distribution, source, physiologic healthcare function and application of AA.

  12. Cycloadditions for Studying Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kath-Schorr, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Cycloaddition reactions for site-specific or global modification of nucleic acids have enabled the preparation of a plethora of previously inaccessible DNA and RNA constructs for structural and functional studies on naturally occurring nucleic acids, the assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures, therapeutic applications, and recently, the development of novel aptamers. In this chapter, recent progress in nucleic acid functionalization via a range of different cycloaddition (click) chemistries is presented. At first, cycloaddition/click chemistries already used for modifying nucleic acids are summarized, ranging from the well-established copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction to copper free methods, such as the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, tetrazole-based photoclick chemistry and the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction between strained alkenes and tetrazine derivatives. The subsequent sections contain selected applications of nucleic acid functionalization via click chemistry; in particular, site-specific enzymatic labeling in vitro, either via DNA and RNA recognizing enzymes or by introducing unnatural base pairs modified for click reactions. Further sections report recent progress in metabolic labeling and fluorescent detection of DNA and RNA synthesis in vivo, click nucleic acid ligation, click chemistry in nanostructure assembly and click-SELEX as a novel method for the selection of aptamers. PMID:27572987

  13. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PROTOCATECHUIC ACID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Rashid, Rehana; Fatima, Nighat; Mahmood, Sadaf; Mir, Sadullah; Khan, Sara; Jabeen, Nyla; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a simple phenolic acid. It is found in a large variety of edible plants and possesses various pharmacological activities. This article aims to review the modern trends in phytochemical isolation and extraction of PCA from plants and other natural resources. Moreover, this article also encompasses pharmacological and biological activities of PCA. It is well known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemia, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-ageing, anti-athro- genic, anti-tumoral, anti-asthma, antiulcer, antispasmodic and neurological properties. PMID:26647619

  14. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  15. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  16. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEENA GARG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LAB are used as starter culture, consortium members and bioprotective agents in food industry that improve food quality, safety and shelf life. A variety of probiotic LAB species are available including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. esselnsis, B. lactis, B. infantis that are currently recommended for development of functional food products with health-promoting capacities.

  17. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  18. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Max

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  19. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is widely found in both plants and animals including meat, vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, eggs, and ... vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), ...

  20. Low acid producing solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  1. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  2. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  3. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  4. Aqueous Photochemistry of Glyoxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Alexis J; Xia, Sha-Sha; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2016-06-01

    Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging of photoproducts is studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies to reveal that the optical properties are altered by the glyoxal produced. The optical properties display periodicity in the time domain of the UV-visible spectrum of chromophores with absorption enhancement (thermochromism) or loss (photobleaching) during nighttime and daytime cycles, respectively. During irradiation, excited state glyoxylic acid can undergo α-cleavage or participate in hydrogen abstractions. The use of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis shows that glyoxal is an important intermediate produced during direct photolysis. Glyoxal quickly reaches a quasi-steady state as confirmed by UHPLC-MS analysis of its corresponding (E) and (Z) 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The homolytic cleavage of glyoxylic acid is proposed as a fundamental step for the production of glyoxal. Both carbon oxides, CO2(g) and CO(g) evolving to the gas-phase, are quantified by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally, formic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid photoproducts are identified by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity and electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) detection and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on all experimental observations. PMID:27192089

  5. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B;

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  6. SATURATED PICRIC ACID PREVENTS AUTOPHAGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rahimi-Movaghar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

  7. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  8. An Efficient Procedure for Esterification of Aryloxyacetic Acid and Arylthioacetic Acid Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Hong-Ya; LI,Ji-Tai; LI,Hui-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Aryloxyacetate and arylthioacetate are wildly used in herbicides, plant regulator and insecticides. Recently, Wille et al. have reported that methyl aryloxyacetate is an efficient agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.[1] The most popular synthesis is by heating sodium phenoxide (mercaptide) with ethyl chloroacetate in DMF,[2] or by the esterification of acid with alcohol using concentrated H2SO4 as catalyst.[3] In this paper, synthesis of aryloxyacetate and aryl thioacetate from aryloxyacetic acid and arylthioacetic acid respectively in ether catalyzed by silica sulfuric acid in 83%~94% yields is described. The catalyst is reused for 3 times without significant loss of activity (Entry 4). Compared with common procedures, the present procedure possesses the advantages of the operational simplicity, short reaction time,less-corrosion, high yield and reusable catalyst.

  9. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids. [Hydroxy acids: acetylsalicylic, gallic, lactic, salicyclic, orotic,. gamma. -hydroxybutyric acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen' eva, T.I. (Gor' kovskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-03-01

    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, ..gamma..-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp/sub 2/, VOCOR or CpV (OCOR)/sub 2/ type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented.

  10. Fluorotelomer acids are more toxic than perfluorinated acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michelle M MacDonald; Dinglasan-Panlilio, Mary Joyce A; Mabury, Scott A; Solomon, Keith R; Sibley, Paul K

    2007-10-15

    Saturated and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids have been identified as intermediates in the degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols to perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Although surface waters are the likely environmental sink for telomer acids, no fate or toxicity data exist for this matrix. We assessed the acute toxicity of the 4:2, 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 saturated (FTCA) and unsaturated (FTUCA) fluorotelomer carboxylic acids to Daphnia magna, Chironomus tentans, and Lemna gibba. In general, toxicity increased with increasing fluorocarbon (FC) chain length, particularly for telomer acids of > or =8 FCs. In addition, the FTCAs were generally more toxic than the corresponding FTUCAs. Acute EC50s ranged from 0.025 mg/L (0.04 micromol/L) for D. magna (10:2 FTCA, immobility) to 63 mg/L (167 micromol/L) for C. tentans (6:2 FTCA, growth). While chain-length trends observed in the current study agree with those previously reported for PFCAs, the toxicity thresholds generated here are up to 10,000 times smaller. Our data provide the first evidence that PFCA precursors are more toxic than the PFCAs themselves. PMID:17993163

  11. Nucleic Acid Backbone Structure Variations: Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic analogues and mimics of the natural genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are potential gene therapeutic (antisense or antigene) drugs. One of these mimics, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), are chemically closer to peptides and proteins than to DNA, but nonetheless have retained many...... of the structural properties of DNA. These molecules have found applications as probes in genetic diagnostics and are also being developed into antisense (RNA (ribonucleic acid) interference) gene therapeutic drugs, targeting selected genes through sequence-specific recognition of (messenger or micro......)RNA and in the future also antigene applications targeting the double-stranded DNA of the genes themselves leading to gene silencing or guiding specific gene repair. Finally, the special chemical and structural properties of PNA suggest that these or similar molecules might have played a role in the prebiotic origin...

  12. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  13. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible...... boronate internucleosidic linkages. The DNA- or RNA-templated system comprises a 5′-ended boronic acid probe connecting a 3′-ended ribonucleosidic oligonucleotide partner. To explore the dominant factors that control the reversible linkage, we synthesized a series of 3′-end modified ribonucleotidic strands...

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10-Hydroxy-12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Jun; Matsumura, Kenji; Kishino, Shigenobu; Omura, Yoriko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2001-01-01

    Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or trans-9, cis-11-octadecadienoic acid and trans-9, trans-11-octadecadie...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... salt from cane sugar or molasses. It may be synthesized by sulfuric acid dehydration of citric acid.... 102-103, test for citric acid, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a... carbonizable substances. Passes the test for citric acid of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 4th ed. (1996), pp....

  16. How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms which enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments such as acidic foods and the acidity in the gastrointestinal tract. These mechanisms include the acid tolerance response, a two-component regula...

  17. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Kos; Jelena Ramljak; Ante Ivanković; Miljenko Konjačić; Nikolina Kelava

    2010-01-01

    Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein). Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P

  18. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  19. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. PMID:26298813

  20. Toxicologic Study of Monochloroacetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bo; Zhan Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Monochloroacetic Acid (MCA) is a chlorinated analog of acetic acids. MCA and its sodium salt (SMCA) are widely used as a chemical intermediate (primarily in the manufacture of chlorophenoxy herbicides,carboxymethylcelluose, glycine and indigoid dyes).Moreover, MCA has been found as a common by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. Chloroacetates are ubiquitous in the environment, and MCA is the most abundant among chloroacetates. A background level of 0.1 - 1μg/L is expected to occur in precipitation[1]. Total world wide annual production of MCA reported was about 400 000 tons[2]. Many studies have showed that MCA not only caused acute or chronic damage to the skin , liver, kidney, heart, brain and other organs, but also caused acute death systemically under high concentration[2,3]. So this article will discuss the toxic effect of Monochloroacetic Acid in Toxicology.

  1. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  2. Fauna of an acid stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, M.E.

    1922-01-01

    The hydrogen-ion concentration of the water of the big muddy river was found to vary between pH 5.8 and pH 6.8 to 7.2, the higher acidity occurring during the winter. The bottom fauna was characterized by the abundance of clams and shrimp, and by the absence of branchiate snails and ephemerid nymphs. Fish fry and fingerlings were found in large numbers during the summer in weakly acid water, pH 6.8. Observations on our acid streams, continued over a considerable period of time, would tell us much concerning the adaptability of various species to different hydrogen-ion concentrations and are greatly needed in the interpretation of experimental data.

  3. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed E. A. Shayoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  4. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: khalid.alfarouk@act.sd [Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E. A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-01-20

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  5. Influence of acidified acidity to uranium bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the acidified acidity and the acid consumption and uranium leaching rate in the process of uranium bioleaching is investigated. Results indicate that higher uranium leaching rate is obtained when the relatively high acidity was applied at beginning. For different minerals, although the original acidity should be different, lower original acidity was not better for shortening leaching period and improving uranium leaching rate. It confirms 30-40 g/L sulfuric acid as the original acidity was more suitable and more than 30 g/ L should be applied if the mineral particle sizes were larger. (authors)

  6. Solubilities of Isophthalic Acid in Acetic Acid + Water Solvent Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Youwei; HUO Lei; LI Xi

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities of isophthalic acid (1) in binary acetic acid (2) + water (3) solvent mixtures were determined in a pressurized vessel.The temperature range was from 373.2 to 473.2K and the range of the mole fraction of acetic acid in the solvent mixtures was from x2 =0 to 1.A new method to measure the solubility was developed,which solved the problem of sampling at high temperature.The experimental results indicated that within the temperature range studied,the solubilities of isophthalic acid in all mixtures showed an increasing trend with increasing temperature.The experimental solubilities were correlated by the Buchowski equation,and the calculate results showed good agreement with the experimental solubilities.Furthermore,the mixed solvent systems were found to exhibit a maximum solubility effect on the solubility,which may be attributed to the intermolecular association between the solute and the solvent mixture.The maximum solubility effect was well modeled by the modified Wilson equation.

  7. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  8. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø;

    2011-01-01

    Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing......-specifically, for instance with vastly different affinities to zymogen and active enzyme forms. Furthermore, aptamers can be selected to inhibit the enzyme activity of the target proteases, but also to inhibit functionally important exosite interactions, for instance cofactor binding. Several protease-inhibiting aptamers...... strategies and of new principles for regulating the activity of the inhibitory action of aptamers of general interest to researchers working with nucleic acid aptamers...

  9. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  10. 21 CFR 184.1033 - Citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Citric acid. 184.1033 Section 184.1033 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1033 Citric acid. (a) Citric acid (C6H8O7, CAS Reg. No. 77-92-9) is the... mole of water per mole of citric acid. Citric acid may be produced by recovery from sources such...

  11. General consideration on sialic acid chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids, also known as neuraminic acids, are a family of negatively charged α-keto acids with a nine-carbon backbone. These unique sugars have been found at the termini of many glycan chains of vertebrate cell surface, which play pivotal roles in mediating or modulating a variety of physiological and pathological processes. This brief review covers general approaches for synthesizing sialic acid containing structures. Recently developed synthetic methods along with structural diversities and biological functions of sialic acid are discussed.

  12. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  13. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  14. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Ristić, Gordana; Tepsić, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  15. Hydroxylated analogues of 5-aminovaleric acid as 4-aminobutyric acidB receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, U; Hedegaard, A; Herdeis, C;

    1992-01-01

    The (R) and (S) forms of 5-amino-2-hydroxyvaleric acid (2-OH-DAVA) and 5-amino-4-hydroxyvaleric acid (4-OH-DAVA) were designed as structural hybrids of the 4-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist (R)-(-)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [(R)-(-)-3-OH-GABA] and the GABAB antagonist 5-aminovaleric acid...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... coco acid triamine condensate, poly-car-box-ylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-446) is subject to...

  17. Peptide Nucleic Acids Complexes of Two Peptide Nucleic Acid Strands and One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids and analogues of peptide nucleic acids are used to form duplex, triplex, and other structures with nucleic acids and to modify nucleic acids. The peptide nucleic acids and analogues thereof also are used to modulate protein activity through, for example, transcription arrest...

  18. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid orally administered suppresses P-selectin expression on mouse platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid are a naturally occurring phenolic acid and its ester found in human diets. In this paper, potential effects of caffeic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid found in coffee and other plant sources on platelet activation were studied via investigating P-selectin expre...

  19. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  20. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  1. 2-(3-Hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Zhi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent 2-(3-hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid molecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent molecules is 58.12 (4°. The crystal packing is stablized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  2. Getting folic acid nutrition right

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two articles in this issue of the journal provide some definitive answers to questions relating to folic acid exposure and folate nutritional status of the US population in the post-fortification era, and, by implication, pose other questions. Most convincingly, these reports, which are based la...

  3. Adipic Acid: Vigorous Import Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Adipic acid is mainly used to manufacture nylon 6,6, plasticizers, grease, polyurethane etc. There are three major commercial production processes: cyclohexane process, cyclohexanol process, butadiene carbonylation process, and the air oxidation of cyclohexane process constitute 93% of the total.

  4. Boric Acid in Kjeldahl Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    The use of boric acid in the Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen is a variant of the original method widely applied in many laboratories all over the world. Its use is recommended by control organizations such as ISO, IDF, and EPA because it yields reliable and accurate results. However, the chemical principles the method is based on are not…

  5. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  6. Engineering robust lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been industrially exploited as starter cultures in the fermentation of foods and feeds for their spoilage-preventing and flavor-enhancing characteristics. More recently, the health-promoting effects of LAB on the consumer have been widely acknowledged,

  7. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    2006-01-01

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic encepha

  8. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys. This project is a direct follow-on to United Space Alliance (USA) work at KSC to optimize the parameters for the use of citric acid and verify effectiveness. This project will build off of the USA study to further evaluate citric acids effectiveness and suitability for corrosion protection of a number of stainless steels alloys used by NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  9. Benzylidene Acetal Protecting Group as Carboxylic Acid Surrogate: Synthesis of Functionalized Uronic Acids and Sugar Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amit; Senthilkumar, Soundararasu; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2016-01-18

    Direct oxidation of the 4,6-O-benzylidene acetal protecting group to C-6 carboxylic acid has been developed that provides an easy access to a wide range of biologically important and synthetically challenging uronic acid and sugar amino acid derivatives in good yields. The RuCl3 -NaIO4 -mediated oxidative cleavage method eliminates protection and deprotection steps and the reaction takes place under mild conditions. The dual role of the benzylidene acetal, as a protecting group and source of carboxylic acid, was exploited in the efficient synthesis of six-carbon sialic acid analogues and disaccharides bearing uronic acids, including glycosaminoglycan analogues. PMID:26572799

  10. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  11. Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L; Willis, A L; Nguyen, N; Conner, D; Zahedi, S; Fulks, J

    1989-01-01

    Studies in man and laboratory animals suggest that omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid constituents of fish oils have antiatherosclerotic properties. We have studied the effects of several such polyunsaturated fatty acids for ability to modify the in vitro release of mitogens from human platelets. Such mitogens may produce the fibro-proliferative component of atherosclerotic plaques. Both 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3), major constituents of fish oils, inhibited adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation of platelets and the accompanying release of mitogens. These effects are dose dependent. Linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3), the biosynthetic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid, also inhibited platelet aggregation and mitogen release. Eicosapentaenoic acid also inhibited mitogen release from human monocyte-derived macrophages, which, in vivo, are an additional source of mitogens during atherogenesis. Potent inhibition of human platelet aggregation and mitogen release was also seen with dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid 20:3 omega 6), whose levels are reportedly elevated in Eskimos subsisting on marine diets. We conclude that diets that elevate plasma and/or tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid precursor gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega 6) may exert antiatherosclerotic effects by inhibiting the release of mitogens from platelets and other cells.

  12. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  13. Chemical peeling - Glycolic acid versus trichloroacetic acid in melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma continues to be a therapeutic challenge. 100 patients of melasma not responding to conventional depigmenting agents were divided into 2 groups, one treated with 55 - 75% glycolic acid (68 patients and the other with 10-15% trichloroacetic acid (32 patients. Applications were made after every 15 days and response assessed clinically along with relapse or hyperpigmentation after 3 month follow up period. More than 75% improvement was seen in 30%, and 50-75% improvement in 24% patients. Response with TCA was more rapid as compared to GA. Chronic pigmentation responded more favourably to TCA. Relapse and hyperpigmentation was more-25% in TCA as compared to 5.9% GA. Sun exposure was the most important precipitating factor followed by pregnancy and drugs.

  14. Quinone-amino acid conjugates targeting Leishmania amino acid transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Federica; Goldman-Pinkovich, Adele; Lizzi, Federica; Belluti, Federica; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7) to import these nutrients. Probes 1-15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. The toxicity of the synthesized conjugates against Leishmania extracellular (promastigotes) and intracellular (amastigotes) forms was investigated, as well their inhibition of the relevant amino acid transporters. We observed that some conjugates indeed displayed toxicity against the parasites; in particular, 7 was identified as the most potent derivative (at concentrations of 1 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL residual cell viability was reduced to 15% and 48% in promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively). Notably, 6, while retaining the cytotoxic activity of quinone II, displayed no toxicity against mammalian THP1 cells. Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that the toxic conjugates might be translocated by the transporters into the cells. The non-toxic probes that inhibited transport competed with the natural substrates for binding to the transporters without being translocated. Thus, it is likely that 6, by exploiting amino acid transporters, can selectively deliver its toxic effects to Leishmania cells. This work provides the first evidence that amino acid transporters of the human pathogen Leishmania might be modulated by small molecules, and warrants their further investigation from drug discovery and chemical biology perspectives. PMID:25254495

  15. Quinone-Amino Acid Conjugates Targeting Leishmania Amino Acid Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Prati; Adele Goldman-Pinkovich; Federica Lizzi; Federica Belluti; Roni Koren; Dan Zilberstein; Maria Laura Bolognesi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7) to import these nutrients. Probes 1-15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. The toxi...

  16. Quinone-amino acid conjugates targeting Leishmania amino acid transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Prati

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7 to import these nutrients. Probes 1-15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine by means of an amide linkage. The toxicity of the synthesized conjugates against Leishmania extracellular (promastigotes and intracellular (amastigotes forms was investigated, as well their inhibition of the relevant amino acid transporters. We observed that some conjugates indeed displayed toxicity against the parasites; in particular, 7 was identified as the most potent derivative (at concentrations of 1 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL residual cell viability was reduced to 15% and 48% in promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively. Notably, 6, while retaining the cytotoxic activity of quinone II, displayed no toxicity against mammalian THP1 cells. Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that the toxic conjugates might be translocated by the transporters into the cells. The non-toxic probes that inhibited transport competed with the natural substrates for binding to the transporters without being translocated. Thus, it is likely that 6, by exploiting amino acid transporters, can selectively deliver its toxic effects to Leishmania cells. This work provides the first evidence that amino acid transporters of the human pathogen Leishmania might be modulated by small molecules, and warrants their further investigation from drug discovery and chemical biology perspectives.

  17. Bioisosteric modifications of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Peters, Dan;

    2004-01-01

    2-Arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) have recently been presented as the first series of selective noncompetitive GluR5 antagonists. In this paper we have modified the acidic moiety of the AUBAs by introducing different acidic and neutral groups, and similarly, we have replaced the urea linker...... of the AUBAs with other structurally related linkers. Replacing the acid with neutral substituents led to inactive compounds in all instances, showing that an acidic moiety is necessary for activity. Replacing the carboxylic moiety in 2a with a sulfonic acid (5c) or a tetrazole ring (5d) improved the potency...

  18. Endocrine and paracrine role of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verena Keitel; Ralf Kubitz; Dieter H(a)ussinger

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids are not only important for the absorption of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins but are signalling molecules with diverse endocrine and paracrine functions.Bile acids regulate bile acid,lipid and glucose metabolism and modulate temperature and energy homeostasis.Furthermore,bile acids can not only promote cell proliferation and liver regeneration but can also induce programmed cell death.Bile acid functions are mediated through different pathways which comprise the activation of nuclear hormone receptors,of intracellular kinases and of the plasma membranebound,G-protein coupled bile acid receptor TGR5/Gpbar-1.

  19. Oxidation-reduction reactions of simple hydroxamic acids and plutonium(IV) ions in nitric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Carrott, M. J.; Fox, O. D.; LeGurun, G.; Jones, C J; Mason, C; Taylor, Robin; Andrieux, Fabrice; Boxall, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Simple hydroxamic acids such as formo- and aceto-hydroxamic acids have been proposed as suitable reagents for the separation of either Pu and/or Np from U in modified or single cycle Purex based solvent extraction processes designed to meet the emerging requirements of advanced fuel cycles. The stability of these hydroxamic acids is dominated by their decomposition through acid hydrolysis. Kinetic studies of the acid hydrolysis of formo- and acetohydroxamic acids are reported in the absence a...

  20. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smędra-Kaźmirska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  1. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, A; Kędzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  2. Spontaneous curvature of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Edgar E; Chupin, Vladimir; Fuller, Nola L; Kozlov, Michael M; de Kruijff, Ben; Burger, Koert N J; Rand, Peter R

    2005-02-15

    The formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), diacylglycerol, or phosphatidylcholine plays a key role in the regulation of intracellular membrane fission events, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been resolved. A likely possibility is that PA affects local membrane curvature facilitating membrane bending and fission. To examine this possibility, we determined the spontaneous radius of curvature (R(0p)) of PA and LPA, carrying oleoyl fatty acids, using well-established X-ray diffraction methods. We found that, under physiological conditions of pH and salt concentration (pH 7.0, 150 mM NaCl), the R(0p) values of PA and LPA were -46 A and +20 A, respectively. Thus PA has considerable negative spontaneous curvature while LPA has the most positive spontaneous curvature of any membrane lipid measured to date. The further addition of Ca(2+) did not significantly affect lipid spontaneous curvature; however, omitting NaCl from the hydration buffer greatly reduced the spontaneous curvature of PA, turning it into a cylindrically shaped lipid molecule (R(0p) of -1.3 x 10(2) A). Our quantitative data on the spontaneous radius of curvature of PA and LPA at a physiological pH and salt concentration will be instrumental in developing future models of biomembrane fission. PMID:15697235

  3. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Man Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  4. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  5. Linoleic acid: between doubts and certainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque, Benjamin; Catheline, Daniel; Rioux, Vincent; Legrand, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Linoleic acid is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in human nutrition and represents about 14 g per day in the US diet. Following the discovery of its essential functions in animals and humans in the early 1920's, studies are currently questioning the real requirement of linoleic acid. It seems now overestimated and creates controversy: how much linoleic acid should be consumed in a healthy diet? Beyond the necessity to redefine the dietary requirement of linoleic acid, many questions concerning the consequences of its excessive consumption on human health arise. Linoleic acid is a direct precursor of the bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. It is also a precursor of arachidonic acid, which produces pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and endocannabinoids. A majority of the studies on linoleic acid and its derivatives show a direct/indirect link with inflammation and metabolic diseases. Many authors claim that a high linoleic acid intake may promote inflammation in humans. This review tries to (i) highlight the importance of reconsidering the actual requirement of linoleic acid (ii) point out the lack of knowledge between dietary levels of linoleic acid and the molecular mechanisms explaining its physiological roles (iii) demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further human studies on the single variable linoleic acid.

  6. Thermochemistry of aqueous pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Elsa M. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTBarreiro, Rua Americo da Silva Marinho, 2839-001 Lavradio (Portugal); Rego, Talita S. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Minas da Piedade, Manuel E., E-mail: memp@fc.ul.p [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We determined the {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} of solid nicotinic acid (NA) in water by solution calorimetry. {yields} We determined {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m} of an aqueous nicotinic acid solution by flow calorimetry. {yields} We determined (aq, {infinity}) for the 3 NA species involved in acid/base equilibria. {yields} We determined the enthalpy of formation of NA(aq) under saturation conditions.. - Abstract: The molar enthalpy of solution of solid nicotinic acid (NA) at T = 298.15 K, to give an aqueous solution of molality m = 3.748 . 10{sup -3} mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}, was determined as {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} = (19,927 {+-} 48) J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, by solution calorimetry. Enthalpies of dilution, {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m}, of 0.1005 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} aqueous nicotinic acid to yield final solutions with molality in the approximate range (0.03 to 0.09) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} were also measured by flow calorimetry. Combining the two sets of data and the results of pH measurements, with values of proton dissociation enthalpies and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NA, cr) selected from the literature, it was possible to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three nicotinic acid species involved in protonation/deprotonation equilibria, at infinite dilution: {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COOH.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (328.2 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (325.0 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NC{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (313.7 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Finally, the enthalpy of solution of nicotinic acid at T = 298.15 K, under saturation conditions (m = 0.138 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}), and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the corresponding solution could also be obtained as {Delta

  7. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  8. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  9. [Inherited amino acid transport disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y; Tada, K

    1992-07-01

    Disorders due to inherited amino acids transport defect are reviewed. The disorders were categorized into three types of transport defects, namely, brush-border membrane of epithelial cells of small intestine and kidney tubules (Hartnup disease, blue diaper syndrome, cystinuria, iminoglycinuria and lysine malabsorption syndrome), basolateral membrane (lysinuric protein intolerance) and membrane of intracellular organelles (cystinosis and hyperornitinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome). Pathogenesis, clinical feature, laboratory findings, diagnosis, genetics and treatment of these disorders are described, briefly. There is not much data for the transport systems themselves, so that further investigation in molecular and gene levels for transport systems is necessary to clarify the characteristics of the transport and heterogeneity of phenotypes in inherited amino acids transport disorders. PMID:1404888

  10. Nucleic acid based logical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2014-05-12

    Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.

  11. Europium complexes with trifluoroacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis conditions and spectra-luminescent properties of different-ligand europium complexes of the composition Eu (TFA)2x2D, where TFA = anion of trifluoroacetic acid, D = 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2-dipyridyl, triphenylphosphinoxide, hexamethyl-phosphotriamide, were studied. The compounds prepared have been characterized by the methods of elementary chemical analysis, IR and luminescence spectroscopy. It is shown that in the complex compounds two methods of coordination of the acid residue functional groups are realized, i.e. monodentate and bridge functions. The compounds were tested for resistance to UV light effect and to heating in the air. Complex with 2,2-dipyridyl proved the most thermally stable complex in the series studied, its decomposition temperature being 240 deg C

  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid and superoxide anion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Predrag Ljubuncic; Omar Abu-Salach; Arieh Bomzon

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to scavenge superoxide anion (O2-).METHODS: We assessed the ability of UDCA to scavenge (O2-) generated by xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) in a cell-free system and its effect on the rate of O2--induced ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in hepatic post-mitochondrial supernatants.RESULTS: UDCA at a concentration as high as 1 mmol/Ldid not impair the ability of the X-XO system to generate O2-, but could scavenge O2- at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mmol/L, and decrease the rate of AA oxidation at a concentration of 100 μmol/L.CONCLUSION: UDCA can scavenge O2-, an action that may be beneficial to patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

  13. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations. PMID:25764181

  14. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Andreasen, P A

    2011-01-01

    Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing small molecule protease inhibitors of sufficient specificity has proved a daunting task. Aptamers seem to represent a promising alternative. In our review, we concentrate on biochemical mechanisms of...

  15. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  16. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with 14CO2. None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating 14CO2 into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria

  17. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  18. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  19. Nature in the Classroom: Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Charles

    1982-01-01

    As a lesson topic, acid rain is defined, its chemistry given, and its development since the 1950s described. The worldwide effects of acid rain are discussed along with the available technology for controlling the problem. (CM)

  20. How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more Seniors' Oral Health How to Keep Your Teeth for a Lifetime Tooth loss is simply the ... your desktop! more... How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth Article Chapters How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth ...

  1. Acid rain information book. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation are reviewed through an extensive literature search. Major aspects of the acid rain phenomena are discussed, areas of uncertainty identified, and current research summarized

  2. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear.......Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear....

  3. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  4. Role of succinic acid in chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1982-01-01

    Succinic acid is converted into other carboxylic acids by ionizing radiation. The results obtained have been correlated with the ready formation of this compound in prebiotic experiments. Its role in biological systems may be related to its prebiotic occurrence.

  5. RETINOIC ACID ALTERS EPITHELIAL DIFFERENTIATION DURING PALATOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinoids are teratogenic in humans and animals, producing a syndrome of craniofacial malformations which includes cleft palate. his study investigates the mechanism through which retinoic acid induces cleft palate. urine palatogenesis after exposure to retinoic acid in utero is ...

  6. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.

    1979-02-20

    A subterranean formation is acidized with an acid-in-oil emulsion consisting of an aqueous acidizing solution, an oil, an alkyl C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary fatty amine, and at least one diethanolamide of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ fatty acid. The present invention is an improved acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method such as an emulsion, the emulsion being of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction. The diethanolamine is a nonionic surfactant which causes the emulsion to break as the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially depleted, i.e., spent, on the formation. 41 claims.

  7. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  8. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  9. The Use of Acid-Aluminium Tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculant for Soybean Grown on Acid Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELIA REZTY FITRIANI SITUMORANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Land with low pH soil spread widely in Indonesia can be used for soybean (Glycine max cultivation, although the production is low. The use of acid tolerant soybean and acid-Al tolerant nitrogen-fixing bacteria was an alternative way to increase soybean productivity on acid soils. This research was conducted to study the influence of acid-Al tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum on growth of Slamet cultivar soybean planted on acid soils in greenhouse. Three strains of acid-Al tolerant B. japonicum, i.e. BJ 11 (19, BJ 11 (5, and BJ 11 (wt, were used in this experiment. The result showed that inoculation of all acid-Al tolerant B. japonicum strains could increase plant height, shoot and root weight, number of flowers, pods, seeds, seeds dry weight, and shoot and seed nitrogen content.

  10. Analysis of the apple fruit acid/low-acid trait by SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxin YAO; Heng ZHAI; Lingling ZHAO; Kai YI; Zhi LIU; Ye SONG

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to find out the genetic character-istics of malic acid in the course of apple genomic research and breeding. In this study, the SSR marker linked to the acid/low-acid trait in apple fruit was identified from 140 SSR primer pairs, using 91 F1 population hybrids from the intra-specific cross between apple cultivar 'Dongguang' and 'Fuji' as the experimental materials. Of 140 SSR primer pairs, only primer SDY085 produced a polymorphic band linked to acid trait, and the linkage distance was 8.89 cM. Also, the titrated acid and malic acid in different developmental stages were determined. The SSR marker analysis, coupled with the change of the total acid and malic acid contents, revealed that the acid/low-acid trait was governed by a major gene and acid trait was completely dominant.

  11. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  12. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kunikazu Moribe; Waree Limwikrant; Kenjirou Higashi; Keiji Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  14. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  15. Complicated Composting: Persistent Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews pyridine carboxylic acid herbicide impacts on compost. Pyridine carboxylic acid herbicides are not completely broken down during grass growth, harvest and drying of hay, in the digestive tract of livestock, or during composting. These herbicides are a popular choice for broadleaf weed control because of this persistence: they remain effective for months or years. Pyridine carboxylic acids are also more effective than the common herbicide 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and ...

  16. Direct Channeling of Retinoic Acid between Cellular Retinoic Acid-Binding Protein II and Retinoic Acid Receptor Sensitizes Mammary Carcinoma Cells to Retinoic Acid-Induced Growth Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Budhu, Anuradha S.; Noy, Noa

    2002-01-01

    Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABP-II) is an intracellular lipid-binding protein that associates with retinoic acid with a subnanomolar affinity. We previously showed that CRABP-II enhances the transcriptional activity of the nuclear receptor with which it shares a common ligand, namely, the retinoic acid receptor (RAR), and we suggested that it may act by delivering retinoic acid to this receptor. Here, the mechanisms underlying the effects of CRABP-II on the transcriptional ac...

  17. Microbial production of natural poly amino acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of poly amino acids, poly-γ-glutamic acid, poly(ε-L-lysine) and multi-L-arginyl-poly (L-aspartic acid) can be synthesized by enzymatic process independently from ribosomal protein biosynthesis pathways in microorganism. These biosynthesized polymers have attracted more and more attentions because of their unique properties and various applications. In this review, the current knowledge on the biosynthesis, biodegradations and applications of these three poly amino acids are summarized.

  18. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  19. Acrylic Acid and Esters Will Be Oversupply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drastic capacity growth The production capacity of acrylic acid in China has grown drastically in recent years. With the completion of the 80 thousand t/a acrylic acid and 130 thous and t/a acrylic ester project in Shenyang Paraffin Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., (CCR2006,No. 31) the capacity of acrylic acid in China has reached 882 thousand t/a.

  20. Treating burns caused by hydrofluoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is an ingredient of many common household and industrial solutions. Even seemingly minor burns caused by this acid can have catastrophic effects if they are treated inappropriately or late. This article describes the signs and symptoms, the pathophysiology and the emergency management of hydrofluoric acid burns.