Sample records for 5-1-2008 test compatibility

  1. 21 CFR 606.151 - Compatibility testing. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compatibility testing. 606.151 Section 606.151 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Compatibility testing. Standard operating procedures for compatibility testing shall include the following:...

  2. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.


    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  3. Compatibility and testing of electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, C E


    Compatibility and Testing of Electronic Components outlines the concepts of component part life according to thresholds of failure; the advantages that result from identifying such thresholds; their identification; and the various tests used in their detection. The book covers topics such as the interconnection of miniature passive components; the integrated circuit compatibility and its components; the semiconductor joining techniques; and the thin film hybrid approach in integrated circuits. Also covered are topics such as thick film resistors, conductors, and insulators; thin inlays for el

  4. Materials Compatibility in High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy


    Previous ratings of the compatibility of high test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) with materials are not adequate for current needs. The goal of this work was to develop a new scheme of evaluation of compatibility of HTP with various materials. Procedures were developed to enrich commercially available hydrogen peroxide to 90% concentration and to assay the product. Reactivity testing, accelerated aging of materials and calorimetry studies were done on HTP with representative metallic and non-metallic materials. It was found that accelerated aging followed by concentration determination using refractive index effectively discriminated between different Class 2 metallic materials. Preliminary experiments using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) suggest that a calorimetry experiment is the most sensitive means to assay the compatibility of HTP with materials.

  5. Compatibility testing of vacuum seal materials (United States)

    Foster, P. A.; Rodin, W. A.


    Small scale materials compatibility testing was conducted for three elastomers considered for use as vacuum seal materials: Adiprene MOCA-cured; Adiprene Cyanacured; and Sylgard silastic rubber. The tests were conducted using orthogonal array designed experiments for each of the elastomers placed in contact with three materials commonly used during weapon disassembly operations: Duxseal, Sylgard 186 grease, and 2-propyl alcohol. The test results indicated that only the 2-propyl alcohol had a significant effect on the elastomer hardness and physical properties. The alcohol had the largest effect on the two Adiprene materials, and the silastic rubber was the least affected.

  6. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli


    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  7. The resupply interface mechanism RMS compatibility test (United States)

    Jackson, Stewart W.; Gallo, Frank G.


    Spacecraft on-orbit servicing consists of exchanging components such as payloads, orbital replacement units (ORUs), and consumables. To accomplish the exchange of consumables, the receiving vehicle must mate to the supplier vehicle. Mating can be accomplished by a variety of docking procedures. However, these docking schemes are mission dependent and can vary from shuttle bay berthing to autonomous rendezvous and docking. Satisfying the many docking conditions will require use of an innovative docking device. The device must provide fluid, electrical, pneumatic and data transfer between vehicles. Also, the proper stiffness must be obtained and sustained between the vehicles. A device to accomplish this, the resupply interface mechanism (RIM), was developed. The RIM is a unique device because it grasps the mating vehicle, draws the two vehicles together, simultaneously mates all connectors, and rigidizes the mating devices. The NASA-Johnson Manipulator Development Facility was used to study how compatible the RIM is to on orbit docking and berthing. The facility contains a shuttle cargo bay mockup with a remote manipulator system (RMS). This RMS is used to prepare crew members for shuttle missions involving spacecraft berthing operations. The MDF proved to be an excellant system for testing the RIM/RMS compatibility. The elements examined during the RIM JSC test were: RIM gross and fine alignment; berthing method sequence; visual cuing aids; utility connections; and RIM overall performance. The results showed that the RIM is a good device for spacecraft berthing operations. Mating was accomplished during every test run and all test operators (crew members) felt that the RIM is an effective device. The purpose of the JSC RIM test and its results are discussed.

  8. 42 CFR 493.863 - Standard; Compatibility testing. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Compatibility testing. 493.863 Section 493.863 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.863 Standard; Compatibility testing. (a) Failure to attain...

  9. Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test S (United States)


    Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test Sets and Networks Integration Management Office Testing for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

  10. IVVS actuating system compatibility test to ITER gamma radiation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Collibus, M. Ferri de; Florean, M.; Monti, C.; Mugnaini, G.; Neri, C.; Pillon, M.; Pollastrone, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Baccaro, S.; Piegari, A. [ENEA CR Casaccia, 301 Via Anguillarese, 00123 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Damiani, C.; Dubus, G. [Fusion For Energy c/Josep Pla, n° 2 Torres Diagonal Litoral, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)


    Highlights: • ENEA developed and tested a prototype of a laser In Vessel Viewing and ranging System (IVVS) for ITER. • One piezo-motor prototype has been tested on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility to verify its compatibility to ITER gamma radiation conditions. • After a total dose of more than 4 MGy the piezo-motor maintained almost the same working parameters monitored before test without any evident and significant degradation of functionality. • After the full gamma irradiation test, the same piezo-motor assembly will be tested with 14 MeV neutrons irradiation using ENEA FNG facility. -- Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is a fundamental remote handling equipment, which will be used to make a survey of the status of the blanket first wall and divertor plasma facing components. A design and testing activity is ongoing, in the framework of a Fusion for Energy (F4E) grant agreement, to make the IVVS probe design compatible with ITER operating conditions and in particular, but not only, with attention to neutrons and gammas fluxes and both space constraints and interfaces. The paper describes the testing activity performed on the customized piezoelectric motors and the main components of the actuating system of the IVVS probe with reference to ITER gamma radiation conditions. In particular the test is performed on the piezoelectric motor, optical encoder and small scale optical samples .The test is carried out on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility at ITER relevant gamma fields at rate of about 2.5 kGy/h and doses of 4 MGy. The paper reports in detail the setup arrangement of the test campaign in order to verify significant working capability of the IVVS actuating components and the results are shown in terms of functional performances and parameters. The overall test campaign on IVVS actuating system will be completed on other ENEA testing facilities in order to verify compatibility to Magnetic field, neutrons and thermal

  11. Quality control for quantitative PCR based on amplification compatibility test. (United States)

    Tichopad, Ales; Bar, Tzachi; Pecen, Ladislav; Kitchen, Robert R; Kubista, Mikael; Pfaffl, Michael W


    Quantitative qPCR is a routinely used method for the accurate quantification of nucleic acids. Yet it may generate erroneous results if the amplification process is obscured by inhibition or generation of aberrant side-products such as primer dimers. Several methods have been established to control for pre-processing performance that rely on the introduction of a co-amplified reference sequence, however there is currently no method to allow for reliable control of the amplification process without directly modifying the sample mix. Herein we present a statistical approach based on multivariate analysis of the amplification response data generated in real-time. The amplification trajectory in its most resolved and dynamic phase is fitted with a suitable model. Two parameters of this model, related to amplification efficiency, are then used for calculation of the Z-score statistics. Each studied sample is compared to a predefined reference set of reactions, typically calibration reactions. A probabilistic decision for each individual Z-score is then used to identify the majority of inhibited reactions in our experiments. We compare this approach to univariate methods using only the sample specific amplification efficiency as reporter of the compatibility. We demonstrate improved identification performance using the multivariate approach compared to the univariate approach. Finally we stress that the performance of the amplification compatibility test as a quality control procedure depends on the quality of the reference set.

  12. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Guerra


    Full Text Available Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The Delayed Inverse-Depth technique is used to initialize new features in the system and defines a single hypothesis for the initial depth of features with the use of a stochastic technique of triangulation. The introduced HOHCT method is based on the evaluation of statistically compatible hypotheses and a search algorithm designed to exploit the strengths of the Delayed Inverse- Depth technique to achieve good performance results. This work presents the HOHCT with a detailed formulation of the monocular DI-D SLAM problem. The performance of the proposed HOHCT is validated with experimental results, in both indoor and outdoor environments, while its costs are compared with other popular approaches.

  13. Compatibility tests of steels in flowing liquid lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, F.; Benamati, G. E-mail:; Fazio, C.; Rusanov, A


    The behaviour of steels exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi was evaluated. The materials tested are the two austenitic steels AISI 316L and 1.4970, and the six martensitic steels Optifer IVc, T91, Batman 27, Batman 28, EP823 and EM10 which were exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi for 1000, 2000 and 3000 h and at two temperatures (573 and 743 K). The corrosion tests were conducted in the non-isothermal loop of IPPE-Obninsk under a controlled oxygen level (10{sup -6} wt%). The compatibility study showed that at a lower temperature, a very thin oxide layer (<1 {mu}m) was formed on the steels. At higher temperature, austenitic steels also exhibited a thin oxide layer sufficient to prevent their dissolution in the melt. A thicker oxide, which grew according to a parabolic law, was observed on the surface of the martensitic steels. The oxidation resistance behaviour of the martensitic steels was correlated with their alloying elements.

  14. Test plan/procedure for the checkout of the USA cable communications test configuration for the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests (United States)

    Perry, J. C.


    A series of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests were conducted in May, 1975 in the Soviet Union. The purpose of the EMC tests was to determine the effects of the operating environment of the Soviet aircraft, Soyuz, upon the electrical performance of the USA's cable communications equipment located in Soyuz. The test procedures necessary to check out the cable communications test configuration in preparation for the EMC tests are presented.

  15. Using Isothermal Microcalorimetry to Determine Compatibility of Structural Materials with High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Propellant (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy; Villegas, Yvonne; Nwosisi, Genne


    High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) propellant (greater than or equal to 70%) offers many advantages in space launch applications; however, materials used in construction of propulsion systems must be shown to be compatible with HTP. Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) was used to determine the compatibility of several metallic and non-metallic materials with 90% HTP. The results of these experiments agreed with those from immersion bath tests when the values were converted to %Active Oxygen Loss per week (%AOL/wk).

  16. Isothermal Microcalorimetric Evaluation of Compatibility of Proposed Injector Materials with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy


    High-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) is receiving renewed interest as a monopropellant and as the oxidizer for bipropellant systems. HTP is hydrogen peroxide in concentrations ranging from 70 to 98%. All surfaces wetted by HTP must be evaluated for compatibility with the fluid. In the case of tanks, lines and valves compatibility is required to preserve the HTP oxygen and energy content and to avoid overpressurization due to decomposition. With injectors and regenerative cooling passages shorter exposure time reduces these concerns. However, phase changes from fluid to gas impact heat transfer and become the dominant compatibility concern. Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) provides a convenient and reproducible means to observe the decomposition of HTP when exposed to structural materials and therefore the compatibility of those materials'. The instrument provides heat flow values in terms of watts that may be converted to a reaction rate given the heat of reaction for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. These values are then converted to percent active oxygen loss per week (%AOL/wk) to preserve an earlier convention for quantifying HTP compatibility. Additionally, qualitative designations of compatibility have been assigned to these values. This scheme consists of four classes with Class 1 being the most compatible. While historical compatibility data is available its current applicability is in question due to subtle changes in the compositions of both HTP and structural materials. Trace levels of molecules can have significant influence on compatibility. Therefore representative samples of materials must be evaluated with current HTP formulations. In this work seven materials were selected for their strength characteristics at high temperature as expected in a HTP injector. The materials were then evaluated by IMC for HTP compatibility.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging compatibility test of a cranial prosthesis with titanium screws (United States)

    Jimenez, R.; Benavides, A.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S. S.; Solis, S. E.; Uribe, E.; Rodriguez, A. O.


    The follow-up of patients with skull prosthesis is necessary to provide adequate medical care. Skull prostheses for cranioplasty have been developed at the Faculty of Odontology of Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. We built a skull prosthesis phantom and tested for compatibility with standard magnetic resonance imaging procedures. Results showed full compatibility but susceptibility artefacts occurred due to titanium used to fix the prosthesis to the skull.

  18. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager (United States)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Kross, Brain; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randy


    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5×5×4 cm 3. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5×2.5×15 mm 3) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of ˜60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to ˜85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy .

  19. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R. [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States)]. E-mail:; Majewski, Stan [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Lemieux, Susan [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States); Velan, S. Sendhil [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brain [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F. [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wojcik, Randy [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)


    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5x5x4 cm{sup 3}. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5x2.5x15 mm{sup 3}) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of {approx}60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to {approx}85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy.

  20. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Noise Background Testing for Double Chooz PMT System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepero, J. R.; Encabo Fernandez, F. J.; Pepe, I.; Verdugo, A.


    The Double Chooz PMT system is a HV/signal splitter. In this report is presented an electromagnetic compatibility and background noise testing for the Double Chooz PMT system. It was possible to proceed the EMC testing on different grounding configurations of PMT splitter due to its special PCB design, endowed of jumping points and a metal box ground electrode. (Author)

  1. Development of compatibility assessments for full-width and offset frontal impact test procedures in FIMCAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adolph, T.; Schwedhelm, H.; Lazaro, I.; Versmissen, A.C.M.; Edwards, M.; Thomson, R.; Johannsen, H.


    The goal of the project FIMCAR (Frontal Impact and Compatibility Assessment Research) was to define an integrated set of test procedures and associated metrics to assess a vehicle's frontal impact protection, which includes self-And partner-protection. For the development of the set, two different f

  2. Assessing a Couple's Relationship and Compatibility Using the MARI[R] Card Test and Mandala Drawings (United States)

    Frame, Phyllis G.


    This paper illustrates the use of the MARI[R] Card Test, a transpersonal assessment tool which includes archetypal designs and color choices, as well as the drawing of a white and black mandala, or circle picture, for assessing the compatibility of two people in a committed relationship. In an informal pilot research study, 22 couples were given…

  3. Proposal of a two-qutrit contextuality test free of the finite precision and compatibility loopholes

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, Adan


    It has been argued that any test of quantum contextuality is nullified by the fact that perfect orthogonality and perfect compatibility cannot be achieved in finite precision experiments. We introduce an experimentally testable two-qutrit violation of an inequality for noncontextual theories in which orthogonality and compatibility are guaranteed by the fact that measurements are performed on separated qutrits. The inequality is a direct translation of the basic building block of Kochen and Specker's proof of quantum contextuality for a qutrit, despite inequality's proof be completely independent of this diagram.

  4. Assessment of The Compatibility of Composite Materials With High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy; Griffin, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)


    The compatibility of composite materials with high-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) was assessed using various chemical and mechanical techniques. Methods included classical schemes combining concentration assay with accelerated aging by means of a heated water bath. Exothermic reactivity was observed using Isothermal Microcalorimetry. Mechanical Properties testing determined degradation of the composite material. Photoacoustic Infrared Spectroscopy was used to monitor chemical alteration of the resin matrix. Other materials were examined including some polymers and metals.

  5. Further Studies of Materials Compatibility in High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide (United States)

    Gostowski, R.; Owens, T.


    Assessment of the compatibility of high-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) with materials, in particular new materials such as composites, is critical to the development of new propulsion systems meeting requirements of reduced cost and environmental impact. While compatibility with HTP has been addressed previously, newer materials were not considered. The focus of this project was to develop a scheme for evaluation of HTP with all materials. In the previous summer, methods were developed for production of HTP on site, and preliminary steps were taken to evaluate materials. Methods investigated this summer have included accelerated aging by heating, coupled with assay of concentration and stabilization loss, observation of reactivity by means of Isothermal Microcalorimetry, and evaluation of changes to the materials by Short Beam Shear testing and by Photoacoustic-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Various metals, polymers, and composites were examined in this study.

  6. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew


    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  7. Compatibility tests on steels in molten lead and lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, C. E-mail:; Benamati, G.; Martini, C.; Palombarini, G


    The compatibility of steels with liquid lead and liquid lead-bismuth is a critical issue for the development of accelerator-driven system (ADS). In this work the results of a set of preliminary tests carried out in stagnant molten lead at 737 K and in lead-bismuth at 573, 673 and 749 K are summarised. The tests were conducted for 700, 1200, 1500 and 5000 h. Three steels were tested: two martensitic steels (mod. F82H and MANET II) and one austenitic steel (AISI 316L). The martensitic steels underwent oxidation phenomena at the higher testing temperature, due to oxygen dissolved in the melts. At a lower test temperature (573 K) and higher exposure time (5000 h) the oxidation rate of the martensitic steel seems to be lower and the developed oxide layer protective against liquid metal corrosion. The austenitic steel, in turn, exhibited an acceptable resistance to corrosion-oxidation under the test conditions.

  8. Compatibility tests between Jarytherm DBT synthetic oil and solid materials from wastes (United States)

    Fasquelle, Thomas; Falcoz, Quentin; Neveu, Pierre; Flamant, Gilles; Walker, Jérémie


    Direct thermocline thermal energy storage is the cheapest sensible thermal energy storage configuration. Indeed, a thermocline tank consists in one tank instead of two and reduces costs. Thermocline thermal energy storages are often filled with cheap solid materials which could react with the heat transfer fluid in the case of incompatibility. PROMES laboratory is building a pilot-scale parabolic trough solar loop including a direct thermocline thermal energy storage system. The working fluid will be a synthetic oil, the Jarytherm® DBT, and the thermal energy storage tank will be filled with stabilized solid materials elaborated from vitrified wastes. Compatibility tests have been conducted in order to check on one hand if the thermo-mechanical properties and life time of the energy storage medium are not affected by the contact with oil and, on the other hand, if the thermal oil performances are not degraded by the solid filler. These experiments consisted in putting in contact the oil and the solid materials in small tanks. In order to discriminate the solid materials tested in the shortest time, accelerating aging conditions at 330 °C for 500 hours were used. The measurements consisted in X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy for the solids, and thermo-physical and chemical properties measurements for the oil. Regarding the solid samples, their crystalline structure did not change during the test, but it is difficult to conclude about their elementary composition and they seem to absorb oil. While thermal properties still makes Jarytherm® DBT a good heat transfer fluid after the accelerated aging tests, this study results in differentiating most compatible materials. Thus according to our study, Jarytherm® DBT can be used in direct thermocline thermal energy storage applications when compatibility of the solid material has been demonstrated.

  9. Drug-excipient compatibility testing using a high-throughput approach and statistical design. (United States)

    Wyttenbach, Nicole; Birringer, Christian; Alsenz, Jochem; Kuentz, Martin


    The aim of our research was to develop a miniaturized high throughput drug-excipient compatibility test. Experiments were planned and evaluated using statistical experimental design. Binary mixtures of a drug, acetylsalicylic acid, or fluoxetine hydrochloride, and of excipients commonly used in solid dosage forms were prepared at a ratio of approximately 1:100 in 96-well microtiter plates. Samples were exposed to different temperature (40 degrees C/ 50 degrees C) and humidity (10%/75%) for different time (1 week/4 weeks), and chemical drug degradation was analyzed using a fast gradient high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Categorical statistical design was applied to identify the effects and interactions of time, temperature, humidity, and excipient on drug degradation. Acetylsalicylic acid was least stable in the presence of magnesium stearate, dibasic calcium phosphate, or sodium starch glycolate. Fluoxetine hydrochloride exhibited a marked degradation only with lactose. Factor-interaction plots revealed that the relative humidity had the strongest effect on the drug excipient blends tested. In conclusion, the developed technique enables fast drug-excipient compatibility testing and identification of interactions. Since only 0.1 mg of drug is needed per data point, fast rational preselection of the pharmaceutical additives can be performed early in solid dosage form development.

  10. Alkali metal compatibility testing of candidate heater head materials for a Stirling engine heat transport system (United States)

    Noble, Jack E.; Hickman, Gary L.; Grobstein, Toni

    The authors describe work performed as part of the 25-kWe advanced Stirling conversion system project. Liquid alkali metal compatibility is being assessed in an ongoing test program to evaluate candidate heater head materials and fabrication processes at the temperatures and operating conditions required for Stirling engines. Specific materials under evaluation are alloy 713LC, alloy 713LC coated with nickel aluminide, and Udimet 720, each in combination with Waspaloy. The tests were run at a constant 700 C. A eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium (NaK) was the working fluid. Titanium sheet in the system was shown to be an effective oxygen getter. Metallographic and microchemical examination of material surfaces, joints, and their interfaces revealed little or no corrosion after 1000 h. Tests are in progress, with up to 10,000 h exposure.

  11. Using Isothermal Microcalorimetry to Determine Compatibility of Structural Materials with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Propellant (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy; Villegas, Yvonne; Nwosisi, Genne; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)


    High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) propellant (equal to or greater than 70%) offers many advantages in space launch applications. However, materials used in construction of propulsion systems must be shown to be compatible with HTP. Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) was used to determine the compatibility of several metallic and non-metallic materials with 90% HTP. The results of these experiments agreed with those from immersion bath tests when the values were converted to % Active Oxygen Loss per week (%AOL/wk).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Havrilyuk


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper there is the comparative analysis of standards and methods of measurements of electromagnetic interference, those are caused by electrical equipment of new types of rolling stock with AC and DC-current electric traction in accordance with the normative documents are adopted in Ukraine and the EU. The development on this basis the measuring method of current interference in traction network, generated by the electrical equipment of electric rolling stock (ERS applicable to testing the new types of rolling stock for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC with different systems of railway signaling is also needed. Methodology. The testing method has been offered. It includes measurements in power circuits of rolling stock, as well as in track devices of signalization systems. Findings. Norms and methods tests of a rolling stock on electromagnetic compatibility with track circuits (TC were analyzed. It was found that a large variety of electricity supply systems, signalization and link in Europe makes it necessary to test new types of electric rolling stock for electromagnetic compatibility with pick up unit in each country separately, taking into account the features used in its systems. It is greatly increases the cost of introducing new types of rolling stock. The test method of electric rolling stock EMC with track circuits has been developed; it includes measurement in power circuits of rolling stock, as well as in track devices of signalization systems. Measurements in accordance with the proposed methodology for electric rolling stock with asynchronous traction drive when driving on sections electrified at AC and DC have been carried out. The values of the interference current in track circuit to all the frequencies of the signal current have been defined. It is shown that under some modes of the train the interference current exceed the permissible values. Originality. The method for measuring interference current generated

  13. Simulated coal-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell development program. Topical report: Cathode compatibility tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.H.


    In previous work, International Fuel Cells Corporation (EFC) found interactions between molten carbonate fuel cell cathode materials being considered as replacements for the presently used nickel oxide and matrix materials. Consequently, this work was conducted to screen additional new materials for mutual compatibility. As part of this program, experiments were performed to examine the compatibility of several candidate, alternative cathode materials with the standard lithium aluminate matrix material in the presence of electrolyte at cell potentials. Initial cathode candidates were materials lithium ferrite, yttrium iron garnet, lithium manganite and doped ceria which were developed by universities, national laboratories, or contractors to DOE, EPRI, or GRI. These investigations were conducted in laboratory scale experiments. None of the materials tested can directly replace nickel oxide or indicate greater stability of cell performance than afforded by nickel oxide. Specifically: (1) no further work on niobium doped ceria is warranted; (2) cobalt migration was found in the lithium ferrite cathode tested. This could possibly lead to shorting problems similiar to those encountered with nickel oxide; (3) Possible shorting problems may also exist with the proprietary dopant in YIG; (4) lithium ferrite and YIG cathode were not single phase materials. Assessment of the chemical stability, i.e., dopant loss, was severely impeded by dissolution of these second phases in the electrolyte; and (5) Magnesium doped lithium manganite warrants further work. Electrolytes should contain Mg ions to suppress dopant loss.

  14. Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility (EMI/EMC) Control Test and Measurement Facility: User Test Planning Guide (United States)

    Scully, Robert C.


    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the EMI/EMC Test Facility. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  15. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing for Conducted Susceptibility Along Interconnecting Signal Lines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shourbaji, A. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, T. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beets, B. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This document presents recommendations and the associated technical basis for addressing the effects of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) along interconnecting signal lines in safety-related instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in assisting the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMIIRFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research efforts have provided recommendations on (1) electromagnetic compatibility design and installation practices, (2) the endorsement of EMI/RFI and SWC test criteria and test methods, (3) the determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants, and (4) the development of recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes applicable to locations where safety-related I&C systems will be installed. The current research focuses on the susceptibility of l&C systems to conducted EMIIRFI along interconnecting signal lines. Coverage of signal line susceptibility was identified as an open issue in previous research on establishing the technical basis for EMIIRFI and SWC in safety-related I&C systems. Research results provided in this report will be used to establish the technical basis for endorsing U.S. Department of Defense and European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization test criteria and test methods that address signal-line susceptibility. In addition, recommendations on operating envelopes are presented based on available technical information.

  16. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standard test chamber upgrade requirements for spacecraft design verification tests (United States)

    Dyer, Edward F.


    In view of the serious performance deficiencies inherent in conventional modular and welded shielding EMC test enclosures, in which multipath reflections and resonant standing waves can damage flight hardware during RF susceptibility tests, NASA-Goddard has undertaken the modification of a 20 x 24 ft modular-shielded enclosure through installation of steel panels to which ferrite tiles will be mounted with epoxy. The internally reflected RF energy will thereby be absorbed, and exterior power-line noise will be reduced. Isolation of power-line filters and control of 60-Hz ground connections will also be undertaken in the course of upgrading.

  17. Cleaning and materials compatibility test results for elimination of flammable solvents in wipe applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Edwin Paul


    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents used in wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and long-term materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) and accelerated aging issues were among the experiments used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. This report presents cleaning efficacy results as determined by the contact angle Goniometer as well as materials compatibility results of various metal alloys and polymers. The results indicate that IPA (baseline cleaner) and the HFE/IPA azeotrope are roughly equivalent in their ability to remove fluorinated grease, silicone grease, and a simulated finger print contaminant from various metal alloys. All of the ASTM sandwich and immersion corrosion tests with IPA, HFE or the HFE/IPA azeotrope on metal alloys showed no signs of corrosion. Furthermore, no deleterious effects were noted for polymeric materials immersed in IPA, HFE, or the HFE/IPA azeotrope.

  18. A novel nanoscratch device compatible with commercial microscope for in situ tests of materials’ mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li


    Full Text Available For exploring the mechanical properties and behaviors of new materials, a novel in situ nanoscratch device compatible with commercial microscope has been developed. The developed device with specific dimensions of 178 mm × 165 mm × 78 mm includes the coarse positioning module, the precise feed module, the measurement module, and the control module. Integrating the servo motor, worm and gears, ball screw, flexure hinge, and piezoelectric actuator, the device can realize macroscopical coarse positioning motion and precise feed motion. A novel arrangement of load sensor and indenter with no middle chain is used to reduce the measurement error. Closed-loop control system is established to guarantee the accuracy of load and displacement control. Mechanical properties of the developed device have been proved by calibrating the load sensor, finite element analysis of flexure hinge, and verifying the output performance. The in situ nanoscratch test has been conducted on the single crystal copper. The captured images and finite element analysis prove the feasibility and accuracy of the developed device.

  19. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.


    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  20. Interpersonal Compatability: A Test of the FIRO Theory in the Counseling Relationship. (United States)

    Arndt, Gerald M.

    This study measured the interpersonal needs of the counselor and counselee using the FIRO-B Scale to determine their effect on the subject's reaction to a counseling interview. Each counselor and counselee met with a compatible and an incompatible subject within the counterbalanced research designed. The general hypothesis for the study was that…

  1. Towards a four technique GGOS site: VLBI - DORIS compatibility tests at Wettzell (United States)

    Klügel, Thomas; Didelot, Francois; Kodet, Jan; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Mähler, Swetlana; Neidhardt, Alexander; Plötz, Christian; Saunier, Jérôme; Schüler, Torben; Walter, Jean-Marc


    Within the framework of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), co-location sites are of special importance for the evaluation and mutual control of the individual geodetic space techniques. At the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell a DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacon could complete the geodetic instrumentation consisting of three Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) telescopes, two Laser Ranging (LR) systems and a number of multi- Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Integrating all fourth geodetic instrumentation into one site generates new problems with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). While the VLBI system is designed to receive very weak signals from quasars, the DORIS beacon emits strong signals in the UHF frequency band at 401.25 MHz and in the S band at 2036.25 MHz. During the observation of quasars with VLBI there is a high risk of coupling DORIS S band signals into the VLBI receiving chain generating spurious signal and, in the worst case, overloading receiving chain electronics and risking its damage. Before a DORIS beacon is operated at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, it must be ensured that it can be operated alongside the VLBI system without any risk of damage or degradation of the measurement. Field tests under different setups were performed to assess the impact of the DORIS signal on the classical geodetic VLBI 20-m and the VGOS 13-m radio telescopes. Different locations on the observatory each at a distance of more than 100 m were occupied by the DORIS antenna. It has been shown that obstacles like buildings or earth mounds attenuate the signal up to 20 dB. However the power received at the input of the Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) is still at a critical level when the radio telescope points towards the DORIS beacon. The quality of the correlated signals is not or barely affected at long baselines. At local baselines however, the DORIS emission as a common mode signal degrades

  2. Experimental Test of Compatibility-Loophole-Free Contextuality with Spatially Separated Entangled Qutrits (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Liu, Bi-Heng; Guo, Yu; Huang, Yun-Feng; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can


    The physical impact and the testability of the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem is debated because of the fact that perfect compatibility in a single quantum system cannot be achieved in practical experiments with finite precision. Here, we follow the proposal of A. Cabello and M. T. Cunha [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 190401 (2011)], and present a compatibility-loophole-free experimental violation of an inequality of noncontextual theories by two spatially separated entangled qutrits. A maximally entangled qutrit-qutrit state with a fidelity as high as 0.975 ±0.001 is prepared and distributed to separated spaces, and these two photons are then measured locally, providing the compatibility requirement. The results show that the inequality for noncontextual theory is violated by 31 standard deviations. Our experiments pave the way to close the debate about the testability of the KS theorem. In addition, the method to generate high-fidelity and high-dimension entangled states will provide significant advantages in high-dimension quantum encoding and quantum communication.

  3. Analysis and interpretation of the model of a Faraday cage for electromagnetic compatibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Munić


    Full Text Available In order to improve the work of the Laboratory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in the Technical Test Center (TTC, we investigated the influence of the Faraday cage on measurement results. The primary goal of this study is the simulation of the fields in the cage, especially around resonant frequencies, in order to be able to predict results of measurements of devices under test in the anechoic chamber or in any other environment. We developed simulation (computer models of the cage step by step, by using the Wipl-D program and by comparing the numerical results with measurements as well as by resolving difficulties due to the complex structure and imperfections of the cage. The subject of this paper is to present these simulation models and the corresponding results of the computations and measurements. Construction of the cage The cage is made of steel plates with the dimensions 1.25 m x 2.5 m. The base of the cage is a square; the footprint interior dimensions are 3.76 m x 3.76 m, and the height is 2.5 m. The cage ceiling is lowered by plasticized aluminum strips. The strips are loosely attached to the carriers which are screwed to the ceiling. The cage has four ventilation openings (two on the ceiling and two on one wall, made of honeycomb waveguide holes. In one corner of the cage, there is a single door with springs made of beryllium bronze. For frequencies of a few tens of MHz, the skin effect is fully developed in the cage walls. By measuring the input impedance of the wire line parallel to a wall of the cage, we calculated the surface losses of the cage plates. In addition, we used a magnetic probe to detect shield discontinuities. We generated a strong current at a frequency of 106 kHz outside the cage and measured the magnetic field inside the cage at the places of cage shield discontinuities. In this paper, we showed the influence of these places on the measurement results, especially on the qualitative and quantitative

  4. 水稻待测粳型亲籼系的亲籼性鉴定%Test on Indica-compatibility of Candidate Indica-compatible Japonica Lines in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [ Objective] The aim was to breed the indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJL). [ Method] The indica-compatibility of 5 candidate ICJLs were tested based on the pollen fertility and spikelet fertility of F1 hybrids with 6 indica testers,6 japonica testers and 6 and middle testers. [ Result] Candidate ICJL G2123, G2417, G2410 and G3005 were grouped into the exceptionally indica-compatible lines based on their high indica-compatibility and low japonica-compatibility. Candidate ICJL G2615 was grouped into the non-compatible lines on their low indicacompatibility and low japonica-compatibility. The testers, fertility identification standards, test methods of pollen fertility and spikelet fertility were discussed when the compatibility of CICJL was tested. The reason of the indica-compatibility in G2417 was analyzed. [ Conclusion] The selfing seed setting rate (spikelet fertihty) of G2417 was 95.1% and the crossing seed setting rate ( spikelet fertility ) of F hybrid between G2417 and indica testers was 94.9%. G2417 had high indica-compatibility and good synthesis-character.%[目的]选育粳型亲籼系.[方法]选用6个籼稻、6个粳稻和6个广亲和测验种,以F1代花粉育性和小穗育性为指标,测定了5个待测粳型亲籼系的亲籼性.[结果]待测粳型亲籼系G2123、G2417、G2410和G3005亲籼、不亲粳,为特异亲籼系;G2615不亲籼,也不亲粳,为不亲和系.同时探讨了粳型亲籼系亲籼性测定时的测验种、育性指标、花粉育性和小穗育性的测定方法,分析了G2417高亲籼性的原因.[结论]G2417自交结实率(小穗育性)95.1%,与6个籼稻测验种杂交的F1代平均结实率(小穗育性)94.9%,是个亲籼性极好、综合性状优良的亲籼系.

  5. Isothermal Calorimetric Observations of the Effect of Welding on Compatibility of Stainless Steels with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy


    High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) is receiving renewed interest as a monopropellant and as the oxidizer for bipropellant systems. HTP is hydrogen peroxide having concentrations ranging from 70 to 98%. In these applications the energy and oxygen released during decomposition of HTP is used for propulsion. In propulsion systems components must be fabricated and connected using available joining processes. Welding is a common joining method for metallic components. The goal of this study was to compare the HTP compatibility of welded vs. unwelded stainless steel.

  6. Improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source for system-level testing of remote optical sensors (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.


    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance. Keywords: Calibration, radiometry, remote sensing, source.

  7. Electrochemical, Polarization, and Crevice Corrosion Testing of Nitinol 60, A Supplement to the ECLSS Sustaining Materials Compatibility Study (United States)

    Lee, R. E.


    In earlier trials, electrochemical test results were presented for six noble metals evaluated in test solutions representative of waste liquids processed in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Subsequently, a seventh metal, Nitinol 60, was added for evaluation and subjected to the same test routines, data analysis, and theoretical methodologies. The previous six test metals included three titanium grades, (commercially pure, 6Al-4V alloy and 6Al-4V low interstitial alloy), two nickel-chromium alloys (Inconel(RegisteredTrademark) 625 and Hastelloy(RegisteredTrademark) C276), and one high-tier stainless steel (Cronidur(RegisteredTrademark) 30). The three titanium alloys gave the best results of all the metals, indicating superior corrosive nobility and galvanic protection properties. For this current effort, the results have clearly shown that Nitinol 60 is almost as noble as titanium, being very corrosion-resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals electrochemically and during long-term exposure. is also quite noble as it is very corrosion resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals from both an electrochemical perspective and long-term crevice corrosion scenario. This was clearly demonstrated utilizing the same techniques for linear, Tafel and cyclic polarization, and galvanic coupling of the metal candidate as was done for the previous study. The high nobility and low corrosion susceptibility for Nitinol 60 appear to be intermediate to the nickel/chromium alloys and the titanium metals with indications that are more reflective of the titanium metals in terms of general corrosion and pitting behavior.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mrkvička


    Full Text Available Methods for testing the Boolean model assumption from binary images are briefly reviewed. Two hundred binary images of mammary cancer tissue and 200 images of mastopathic tissue were tested individually on the Boolean model assumption. In a previous paper, it had been found that a Monte Carlo method based on the approximation of the envelopes by a multi-normal distribution with the normalized intrinsic volume densities of parallel sets as a summary statistics had the highest power for this purpose. Hence, this method was used here as its first application to real biomedical data. It was found that mastopathic tissue deviates from the Boolean model significantly more strongly than mammary cancer tissue does.

  9. Short and long-term tests of elastomers with hot hostile fluids. Environmental Compatibility Test Program final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, G.J.


    Equipment manufacturers and elastomer houses were called to find the best currently available high-temperature elastomers. Tensile specimens of 46 such compounds were immersion tested for five days in six 190C fluids of interest: isobutane, brine, ASTM No. 1 oil, ASTM No. 3 oil, Pacer DHT-185M synthetic oil, and Chevron Cylinder Grade 460X oil. The best eight were selected based upon the least change in mechanical properties. These eight were then simultaneously tested (a) by immersion in five 190C fluids for six months and (b) as 0-rings for 46 hours at 190C, 230C, and 265C (accelerated ageing) in three fluids and at a differential pressure of 21 MPa. Based upon these 0-ring tests, four compounds were selected for testing as 0-rings in three 204C fluids at 21 MPa differential pressure. The data were evaluated and conclusions were drawn. Conclusions and recommendations are provided. There was immersion testing of primarily L'Garde compounds in brine and CL3 mineral oil for 6 months at 190C. L'Garde had formulated several compounds specifically for 260C brine, and their applicability to a specific problem was assessed early in the program.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 173 - Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and... (United States)


    ... Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and Receptacles B Appendix B to Part 173 Transportation Other... Plastic Packaging and Receptacles 1. The purpose of this procedure is to determine the chemical compatibility and permeability of liquid hazardous materials packaged in plastic packaging and...

  11. 金属冠脉支架磁共振适用性检测方法%Methods of Magnetic Resonance Compatibility Testing for Metal Coronary Stents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎; 刘丽; 王硕; 尚汝瑶; 王春仁


    Objective:To establish an experimental platform for magnetic resonance compatibility for mental coronary stents and to study the magnetic resonance compatibility based on laboratory testing. Methods:The magnetic resonance compatibility testing for metal coronary stents was divided into four parts, which was conducted in the 3T magnetic resonance imaging environment, including magnetically induced displacement force test, magnetically induced torque test, heating test and image interference test. Results:For metal coronary stents with good demagnetization effect, the magnetically induced displacement force was lower than its own gravity, the magnetically induced torque was lower than its gravity-induced torque, its temperature increased in low amplitude, and the value of image distortion was small. By contrast for metal coronary stents with poor demagnetization effect, the magnetically induced displacement force was higher than its own gravity, the increase amplitude of its temperature was high, and the value of image distortion was large. Conclusion:The experimental platform can be applied to test magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents and evaluate its demagnetization effect.%目的:建立金属冠脉支架磁共振适用性实验平台,以实验室测试为基础,研究金属冠脉支架的磁共振适用性。方法:金属冠脉支架磁共振适用性试验分为四个部分,在3T磁共振环境下,分别进行磁位移力试验、磁扭矩试验、致热试验和图像干扰试验。结果:退磁效果好的金属冠脉支架,磁位移力小于其自身重力,磁扭矩小于其自身重力扭矩,温度升高值小,图像畸变值小。退磁效果不好的支架,磁位移力大于其自身重力,温度升高多,图像畸变值大。结论:实验平台可以对金属冠脉支架磁共振适用性进行检测,并对其退磁效果进行评价。

  12. Electromagnetic compatibility in the practice. Design analysis - Interpretation of the regulations - Evaluation of the test results; Elektromagnetische Vertraeglichkeit in der Praxis. Design-Analyse - Interpretation der Normen - Bewertung der Prueferergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotz, Dieter


    The author of the book under consideration gives an intuitive feeling for the electromagnetically compatible product development. The fundamentals of electromagnetic compatibility are explained simply and clearly. Clear criteria for test measurements and analyses are developed. The author also deals with the measurement and evaluation of the electromagnetic interference.

  13. U.S. Contribution 1994 Summary Report Task T12: Compatibility and irradiation testing of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. [comp.


    Vanadium alloys exhibit important advantages as a candidate structural material for fusion first wall/blanket applications. These advantages include fabricability, favorable safety and environmental features, high temperature and high wall load capability, and long lifetime under irradiation. Vanadium alloys with (3-5)% chromium and (3-5)% titanium appear to offer the best combination of properties for first wall/blanket applications. A V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is recommended as the reference composition for the ITER application. This report provides a summary of the R&D conducted during 1994 in support of the ITER Engineering Design Activity. Progress is reported for Vanadium Alloy Production, Welding, Physical Properties, Baseline Mechanical Properties, Corrosion/Compatibility, Neutron Irradiation Effects, Helium Transmutation Effects on Irradiated Alloys, and the Status of Irradiation Experiments. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports from this publication.

  14. High throughput analysis of drugs of abuse in hair by combining purposely designed sample extraction compatible with immunometric methods used for drug testing in urine. (United States)

    de la Torre, R; Civit, E; Svaizer, F; Lotti, A; Gottardi, M; Miozzo, M


    Drug testing in hair usually requires a rather complex sample treatment before drugs are amenable to analysis by either immunological and/or chromatographic coupled to mass spectrometry methods. Immunological methods applied are usually dedicated to hair analysis as analytes present in this matrix are not always the same present in urine. Comedical s.a.s. laboratories recently commercialized reagents (VMA-T) purposely designed for hair sample treatment which are compatible with current immunometric methods used for urine drug testing. This is possible as some analytes (6-MAM and cocaine) present in hair after sample treatment are converted to those detected in urine (morphine and benzoylecgonine). A correlation study for several drug classes performed in two laboratories with 32 clinical and 12 spiked drug free (controls) hair samples shows that implementation of the method on clinical chemistry analyzers is easy and that results obtained by different operators and instruments are comparable and reproducible. The main advantage of VMA-T method is the possibility to simultaneously extract from hair main drug classes, in a period of time lower than 2h and its compatibility with immunological methods applied in urine drug testing.

  15. Safety of type and screen method compared to conventional antiglobulin crossmatch procedures for compatibility testing in Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rajendra


    Full Text Available Background: Over the past 30 years, pretransfusion tests have undergone considerable modification. In 1984, AABB recommended that the full cross match could be replaced by an abbreviated cross match in patients with negative antibody screen. However, before implementation of such a policy, issue regarding safety of T & S needs to be evaluated. Objectives: The aim of pretransfusion testing (PTT is to ensure that enough red blood cells (RBCs in the selected red cell components will survive when transfused. Results and Conclusion: We have, therefore in this study; evaluated safety of T & S procedure for PTT in comparison with conventional test tube cross match. The T & S procedure gave a safety of 91.6%. Also, the usefulness of the T & S was shown through the detection of unexpected antibodies in 0.75% (15 out of 2026 of cases.

  16. Synthesis of functional materials by radiation and qualification testing of organic materials in nuclear power plant; evaluation of tissue compatibility of hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H. J.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, Z. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Yoo, K. E. [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea)


    The hydrogels, owing to their adaptive physicochemical properties to the soft connective tissue, are known to have potentials to be applied as skin prosthetics. But hydrogels currently used are prepared by chemical crosslinking procedures. A prosthetics prepared by chemical crosslinking may damage the skin due to eluted crosslinking agent and/or other chemicals involved. That is the drawback of the skin substitutes made of typical hydrogels. The use of the irradiation crosslinking technique may supercede the demerits of conventionally used hydrogels, since this crossolinking technique entirely depends on physical method. The objective of this study is to prepare a series of hydrogels prepared by irradiation crosslinking procedure and to evaluate physical and tissue compatible profiles of these. In vitro and in vivo animal tests were employed to evaluate the properties as well as the comparibility of the samples in order to figure out the possibilities of the use as skin substitutes. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  17. Automatically produced FRP beams with embedded FOS in complex geometry: process, material compatibility, micromechanical analysis, and performance tests (United States)

    Gabler, Markus; Tkachenko, Viktoriya; Küppers, Simon; Kuka, Georg G.; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Milwich, Markus; Knippers, Jan


    The main goal of the presented work was to evolve a multifunctional beam composed out of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) and an embedded optical fiber with various fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG). These beams are developed for the use as structural member for bridges or industrial applications. It is now possible to realize large scale cross sections, the embedding is part of a fully automated process and jumpers can be omitted in order to not negatively influence the laminate. The development includes the smart placement and layout of the optical fibers in the cross section, reliable strain transfer, and finally the coupling of the embedded fibers after production. Micromechanical tests and analysis were carried out to evaluate the performance of the sensor. The work was funded by the German ministry of economics and technology (funding scheme ZIM). Next to the authors of this contribution, Melanie Book with Röchling Engineering Plastics KG (Haren/Germany; Katharina Frey with SAERTEX GmbH & Co. KG (Saerbeck/Germany) were part of the research group.

  18. A Browser Compatibility Test in College and University Libraries%高校图书馆网站对浏览器兼容性测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游强华; 王萍; 黄伦东; 邓慧; 胡雅凌


    主要用Firefox、Chrome、Safari这三个主流浏览器对四川省高校图书馆网站进行兼容性测试,测试的内容主要是各高校的图书馆首页、二级页面及二级页面的子页面的排版、布局及各功能的使用情况。根据测试结果,对一些有代表性的不兼容问题进行分析,并给出了相应的解决办法。最后对高校图书馆网站的兼容性建设提出了一些建议。%This paper studied the test of browser compatibility for Sichuan College and University Libraries by using the Firefox,Chrome,Safari.The test focused on the typesetting,layout and function using in home page,secondary page and secondary page's subpage.According to the test results,some typical problems of incompatibility were analyzed,and the corresponding solutions were given.At the end,this paper put forward some improvement suggestions for website building.

  19. A Browser Compatibility Test in College and University%高校网站对浏览器兼容性测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 游强华; 李朝葵


    主要用Firefox、Chrome、Safari这3个主流浏览器对全国100所高校网站进行兼容性测试,测试的内容主要是各高校的首页、二级页面的排版、布局及各功能的使用情况。根据测试结果,对一些有代表性的不兼容问题进行分析,并给出了相应的解决办法。最后对高校网站的兼容性建设提出了一些建议。%This paper studied the test of browser compatibility for College and University by using the Firefox,Chrome and Safari.The test focused on the typesetting,layout and function using in home page and secondary page.According to the test results,some typical problems of incompatibility were analyzed,and the corresponding solutions were given.At the end,this paper put forward some improvement suggestions for website building.

  20. Weyl compatible tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Mantica, Carlo A


    The algebraic condition of Riemann compatibility for symmetric tensors generalizes the differential Codazzi condition, but preserves much of the geometric content. The compatibility condition can be extended to other curvature tensors. This paper is about Weyl compatible tensors and vectors. In particular it is shown that the existence of a Weyl compatible vector implies the Weyl tensor to be algebraically special, and it is a necessary and sufficient condition for the magnetic part to vanish. Some theorems (Derdzinski and Shen, Hall) are extended to the broader hypothesis of Weyl or Riemann compatibility. Weyl compatibility includes conditions that were investigated in the literature of general relativity (as McIntosh et al.). Hypersurfaces of pseudo Euclidean spaces provide a simple example of Weyl compatible Ricci tensor.

  1. Norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol intravenous infusion formulation optimization, stability and compatibility testing: A case study to overcome polysorbate 80 interference in chromatographic analysis. (United States)

    Abdallah, Inas A; Hammell, Dana C; Hassan, Hazem E; Stinchcomb, Audra L


    Norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol is a progestin/estrogen combination hormonal contraceptive indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women. The very poor solubility and wettability of these drugs, along with their high potency (adsorption issues), give rise to difficulties in designing intravenous (IV) formulations to assess absolute bioavailability of products containing both drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop an IV formulation, evaluate its stability under different conditions and evaluate its compatibility with IV sets for potential use in absolute bioavailability studies in humans. Also, a selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for quantification of ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin in polysorbate 80 matrix was developed and validated. Norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol IV solution was prepared using sterile water for injection with 2.5% ethanol and 2.5% polysorbate 80 as a cosolvent/surfactant system to obtain a final drug solution of 25μg ethinyl estradiol and 252μg norelgestromin from a concentrated stock drug solution. The stabilities of the concentrated stock and IV solutions were assessed after storing them in the refrigerator (3.7±0.6°C) and at room temperature (19.5±0.5°C), respectively. Additional studies were conducted to examine the stability of the IV solution using an Alarias(®) low sorbing IV administration set with and without an inline filter. The solution was allowed to drip at 1mL/min over a 60min period. Samples were obtained at the beginning, middle and end of the 60min duration. The chemical stability was evaluated for up to 10 days. Norelgestromin and ethinyl estradiol concentration, purity, and degradant levels were determined using the HPLC method. The norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol IV formulation met the chemical stability criteria when tested on day 1 through day 9 (216h). Norelgestromin concentrations assayed in stock and IV solutions were in the range of 90.0-98.5% and 90

  2. Introduction of the Instruments of Electromagnetic Compatibility Test for Medical Electrical Equipment%医用电气产品电磁兼容测试设备介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文; 缪佳


    This paper describes the standard YY 0505-2012 with its test items for medical electrical products during electromagnetic compatibility testing, and introduces the requirements of various test items and the conifguration of test equipment,etc.%本文介绍了医用电气产品电磁兼容检测时的依据标准YY 0505-2012及其所适用的测试项目,并介绍了各个检测项目中特殊设备的要求以及测试设备配置等。

  3. Approach to transfusion support in patients with positive compatibility tests and in those with autoimmune hemolytic anemia Transfusiones en pacientes con pruebas de compatibilidad positivas y en aquellos con anemia hemolítica autoinmune


    José Domingo Torres; Julián Miguel Aristizábal Aristizábal


    Positive compatibility tests in patients who need blood transfusions are common. Patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia may have warm or cool autoantibodies that react with red blood cell antigens and produce hemolytic transfusion reactions. Multitransfused patients, and those with either chronic renal disease or sickle cell disease, have alloantibodies that make blood transfusion difficult. In some series the frequency of such antibodies is as high as 32%. Detection and determination of s...

  4. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera


    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  5. [Magnetic resonance compatibility research for coronary mental stents]. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Li; Wang, Shuo; Shang, Ruyao; Wang, Chunren


    The objective of this article is to research magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents, and to evaluate the magnetic resonance compatibility based on laboratory testing results. Coronary stents magnetic resonance compatibility test includes magnetically induced displacement force test, magnetically induced torque test, radio frequency induced heating and evaluation of MR image. By magnetic displacement force and torque values, temperature, and image distortion values to determine metal coronary stent demagnetization effect. The methods can be applied to test magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents and evaluate its demagnetization effect.

  6. 一种基于K-Mean算法的移动应用兼容性测试方法%Selecting Mobile Devices for Mobile Compatibility Testing Using K-Mean Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 周文强; 李坤; 王海鹏; 成静


    随着移动应用市场的快速发展,移动应用兼容性测试问题日显突出和紧迫。本文提出了一种基于K⁃Mena算法的移动应用兼容性测试设备选择方法。该方法首先建立移动应用兼容性测试设备的特征树模型,确定各个基本特征的测试值,定义初始K值和中心点。然后给出一种基于设备特征树模型的特征距离计算方法。最后基于K⁃Mean聚类算法,对移动设备进行聚类,从各个聚类中选择适合的移动应用兼容性测试设备。通过实例进行验证分析,结果表明该方法能够帮助测试人员选择适合的测试设备,从而降低测试成本,提高测试效率和测试质量。%With the rapid development of mobile application′s market, mobile application compatibility testing has become a most prominent and urgent problem. We propose a systematic method of selecting adaptive mobile devices for mobile application compatibility testing;it is based on K⁃mean algorithm. Firstly, the compatibility feature tree model of mobile application is constructed, and every leaf node of feature tree is set some testing values by experi⁃ence. So initial value of K and cluster centers are set. Secondly, a layered and recursive algorithm is described for calculating feature distance between mobile devices. Thirdly, all mobile devices can be clustered automatically with K⁃mean algorithm, and testing devices can be selected from different clusters according to popularity market share of devices. Finally we test two selected mobile applications with proposed method, proving that the method is effec⁃tive in selecting mobile devices for compatibility testing of mobile applications.

  7. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.


    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  8. Wireless Communication Terminal Products Electromagnetic Compatible Fast Forecasting Test Method%无线通讯终端产品电磁兼容快速预测试方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓清军; 黄辉雄; 董晓波; 骆建


    为了降低电磁兼容测试的时间和经济成本,在增加少量仪器的基础上,将一套系统拆分为两套系统,实现了部分项目的并行测试;同时对耗时较长项目的测试方法进行了改进,大大减少了项目的测试时间,并对改善的测试方法的准确性进行了验证。对同类实验室或研发企业系统的改善具有很好的借鉴意义。%tn order to reduce duration and cost of electromagnetic compatibility test,based on adding some instruments,we divide the test system into two sets of system,to perform parallel test of some test items.At the same time we improve the test time of some long duration items,to greatly reduce the full test time,with verified test accuracy of the test method.The research results good effect reference to other test labs or research and development enterprise.

  9. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others


    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  10. Exploring Interpersonal Compatibility in Groups. (United States)

    Keyton, Joann

    This study investigated William Schutz's three-dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior and compatibility (FIRO) to determine its validity as a group measure of compatibility. Data were collected from 248 students enrolled in a multi-section course in small group communications at a large midwestern university. Subjects self-selected…

  11. Compatibility of conditionally specified models. (United States)

    Chen, Hua Yun


    A conditionally specified joint model is convenient to use in fields such as spatial data modeling, Gibbs sampling, and missing data imputation. One potential problem with such an approach is that the conditionally specified models may be incompatible, which can lead to serious problems in applications. We propose an odds ratio representation of a joint density to study the issue and derive conditions under which conditionally specified distributions are compatible and yield a joint distribution. Our conditions are the simplest to verify compared with those proposed in the literature. The proposal also explicitly construct joint densities that are fully compatible with the conditionally specified densities when the conditional densities are compatible, and partially compatible with the conditional densities when they are incompatible. The construction result is then applied to checking the compatibility of the conditionally specified models. Ways to modify the conditionally specified models based on the construction of the joint models are also discussed when the conditionally specified models are incompatible.

  12. Is automatic imitation a specialized form of stimulus-response compatibility? Dissociating imitative and spatial compatibilities. (United States)

    Boyer, Ty W; Longo, Matthew R; Bertenthal, Bennett I


    In recent years research on automatic imitation has received considerable attention because it represents an experimental platform for investigating a number of interrelated theories suggesting that the perception of action automatically activates corresponding motor programs. A key debate within this research centers on whether automatic imitation is any different than other long-term S-R associations, such as spatial stimulus-response compatibility. One approach to resolving this issue is to examine whether automatic imitation shows similar response characteristics as other classes of stimulus-response compatibility. This hypothesis was tested by comparing imitative and spatial compatibility effects with a two alternative forced-choice stimulus-response compatibility paradigm. The stimulus on each trial was a left or right hand with either the index or middle finger tapping down. Speeded responses were performed with the index or middle finger of the right hand in response to the identity or the left-right spatial position of the stimulus finger. Two different tasks were administered: one that involved responding to the stimulus (S-R) and one that involved responding to the opposite stimulus (OS-R; i.e., the one not presented on that trial). Based on previous research and a connectionist model, we predicted standard compatibility effects for both spatial and imitative compatibility in the S-R task, and a reverse compatibility effect for spatial compatibility, but not for imitative compatibility, in the OS-R task. The results from the mean response times, mean percentage of errors, and response time distributions all converged to support these predictions. A second noteworthy result was that the recoding of the finger identity in the OS-R task required significantly more time than the recoding of the left-right spatial position, but the encoding time for the two stimuli in the S-R task was equivalent. In sum, this evidence suggests that the processing of spatial

  13. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzika Aria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device. A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a an ERF based resistive element; b a gearbox; c two handles and d two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed

  14. Compatible quantum theory. (United States)

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C


    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call 'compatible quantum theory (CQT)', consists of a 'microscopic' part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a 'macroscopic' part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths ('c-truths'), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The completion of the theory

  15. Determining Compatibilities of Reactive Dyes in Pad Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Compatibilities of reactive dyes were conventionally shown by exhausting curves. But the change of proportion of dyes in padding dyebath was difficult for pad dyeing to be described by these curves. In this paper, a kind of simulation of pad dyeing process was used to determine dyestuff compatibility in pad dyeing for ramie and linen fabrics. Seven reactive dyes were divided into three groups and tested., The group with Cibacron Yellow C - 2R, Red C - R, and Blue C - R showed very good compatibility both for ramie and linen,and the other two groups of dyes gave out correspondingly low compatibilities in the pad dyeing tests. The results of the method for determining the compatibility of dyes displayed good consistency with the actul pad dyeing process.

  16. Ofloxacin intravenous. Compatibility with other antibacterial agents. (United States)

    Janknegt, R; Stratermans, T; Cilissen, J; Lohman, J J; Hooymans, P M


    The physical and chemical compatibility of ofloxacin (infusion solution 100 ml = 200 mg) with amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, flucloxacillin, tobramycin, gentamicin, clindamycin, vancomycin, ceftazidime and piperacillin was investigated. Upon admixture with flucloxacillin a precipitate formed between 7 and 24 hours. No other physical or chemical incompatibilities were observed with any of the other combinations. Ofloxacin may be safely combined with the tested antimicrobial drugs, except for flucloxacillin.


    The compatibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double-ring, falling-head permeameters. The Hydraulic conductiv...

  18. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.


    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  19. Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server


    This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E

  20. Spatial compatibility and affordance compatibility in patients with chronic schizophrenia. (United States)

    Kume, Yu; Sato, Fumiyasu; Hiraoka, Yuya; Suzuki, Shingo; Niyama, Yoshitsugu


    A deterioration in information-processing performance is commonly recognized in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Although the enhancement of cognitive skills in patients with schizophrenia is important, the types of external stimuli that influence performance have not received much attention. The aim of present study was to clarify the effects of spatial and affordance compatibility in patients with schizophrenia, compared with those in healthy people. The subjects (25 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls) participated in two experiment examining the effects of the spatial location of stimuli and the action-relevance of objects. The results showed that the effect of spatial compatibility was similar in both the patients and the controls, whereas the influence of action-relevant objects was not highlighted in either patients with chronic schizophrenia or healthy controls. These findings provide important evidence of a normal spatial compatibility effect in patients with chronic schizophrenia. However, further research examining the affordance compatibility effect is needed, taking into consideration the symptomatology and the severity of the social functioning level in patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Investigation of the Compatibility Between ADS Target Material With Coolant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    At present, the program of the compatibility study on ADS project of China Institute of Atomic Energy is focused on the compatibility tests for the tungsten with water and sodium. An ADS verification facility is proposed in next phase of ADS project, an existent swimming pool reactor will be repack as the subcritical reactor system, and tungsten will be used as the target. On the other hand, our CEFR is being constructed now, it may be one of the options as the subcritical reactor system of ADS, thus, it is necessary to understand the compatibility characteristics of tungsten with sodium and water.

  2. Transfusiones en pacientes con pruebas de compatibilidad positivas y en aquellos con anemia hemolítica autoinmune Approach to transfusion support in patients with positive compatibility tests and in those with autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Es frecuente la presencia de pruebas de compatibilidad positivas en pacientes que requieren soporte transfusional. Los pacientes con anemia hemolítica autoinmune presentan autoanticuerpos calientes o fríos que reaccionan contra antígenos de los eritrocitos y producen reacciones hemolíticas, que pueden ir desde leves hasta graves. Los pacientes multitransfundidos o con insuficiencia renal crónica o con anemia de células falciformes, presentan aloanticuerpos que dificultan el tratamiento con derivados de la sangre. La frecuencia de los mismos es hasta de 32% en algunas series. Dado el perfeccionamiento de las técnicas de laboratorio, en la actualidad son posibles la detección y determinación de la especificidad de los autoanticuerpos y aloanticuerpos; el enfoque integral del paciente y el conocimiento de dichas técnicas son los mejores fundamentos para un soporte transfusional seguro. Positive compatibility tests in patients who need blood transfusions are common. Patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia may have warm or cool autoantibodies that react with red blood cell antigens and produce hemolytic transfusion reactions. Multitransfused patients, and those with either chronic renal disease or sickle cell disease, have alloantibodies that make blood transfusion difficult. In some series the frequency of such antibodies is as high as 32%. Detection and determination of specificity of autoantibodies and alloantibodies are now possible because of technical developments in laboratory. An integral approach to patients and the knowledge of these procedures are the best bases to offer secure blood transfusions.

  3. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.


    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  4. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand


    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  5. Efficiency Improvement of Fully Automatic Microcolumn Glass Sphere Technology Used in Blood Group Compatibility Tests%全自动微柱玻璃珠技术提高血型相容性检测效能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋光明; 王保龙; 完晓菊; 王敏; 周建华; 廖艳秋


    microcolumn glass sphere technology were analysed, by comparing to the referenc assays. The results showed that the sensitivities of the ORTHO AutoVue Innova tests were 1: 69.8, 1:33.4, 1: 1448.1, 1:139.6 and 1:32.0 for IgM anti-C, anti-c, anti-D, anti-E and anti-e respectively; the corresponding value of saline medium tests were 1: 16.7,1: 16.6,1: 430.5,1: 34.9 and 1: 9.9. There were statistically significant differences between the groups of each tests ( t values were 14.38, 5.48, 10.25, 12.65 and 9.59 for IgM anti-C,anti-c,anti-D,anti-E and anti-e respectively ,p <0.05). For IgG anti-D,tbe sensitivities of the ORTHO AutoVue Innova test, polybrene test and antiglobulin test were 1: 980.6,1: 181.0 and 1: 304.4 respectively. There was statistically significant difference among the 3 groups( F = 51.15 ,p < 0.01 ). It is concluded the use of ORTHO AutoVue Innova system for blood group compatibility test can obtain more accurate results than tradifional tube tests, it is reliable and safe for routine tests performed in immunohaematoiogy laboratories.

  6. Strain compatibility assessment for SRB sprayable ablator MSA-1 (United States)

    Patterson, W. J.


    Tensile and compressive strain compatibility testing was performed on as-sprayed samples of the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster external ablator material, MSA-1. Strain gages on the aluminum substrate were used to monitor strain. Strain compatibility was determined as the percent strain in the substrate at first visual evidence of MSA-1 failure. The 1/8-in. MSA-1, baselined for large areas of the SRB external skin, was characterized by a strain compatibility of 1.5 to 1.8 percent, which far exceeded the yield range of the metal substrate. Thicker MSA-1 applications (1.4 to 3/8 in.) were characterized by a lower level of strain compatibility, which appeared to be a manifestation of application limitations.

  7. Physics-compatible numerical methods


    Barry, Koren; Abgrall, Remi; Pavel, Bochev; Jason, Frank; Blair, Perrot


    International audience; Physics-compatible numerical methods are methods that aim to preserve key mathematical and physical properties of continuum physics models in their finite-dimensional algebraic representations. They include methods which preserve properties such as energy, monotonicity, maximum principles, symmetries, and involutions of the continuum models. Examples are mimetic methods for spatial discretizations, variational and geometric integrators, conservative finite-volume and f...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In 1930 Szpilrajn proved that any strict partial order can be embedded in a strict linear order.This theorem was later refined by Dushnik and Miller (1941), Hansson (1968), Suzumura (1976),Donaldson and Weymark (1998), Bossert (1999). Particularly Suzumura introduced the important concept of compatible extension of a (crisp) relation. These extension theorems have an important role in welfare economics. In particular Szpilrajn theorem is the main tool for proving a known theorem of Richter that establishes the equivalence between rational and congruous consumers. In 1999 Duggan proved a general extension theorem that contains all these results. In this paper we introduce the notion of compatible extension of a fuzzy relation and we prove an extension theorem for fuzzy relations. Our result generalizes to fuzzy set theory the main part of Duggan's theorem. As applications we obtain fuzzy versions of the theorems of Szpilrajn, Hansson and Suzumura. We also prove that an asymmetric and transitive fuzzy relation has a compatible extension that is total, asymmetric and transitive.Our results can be useful in the theory of fuzzy consumers. We can prove that any rational fuzzyconsumer is congruous, extending to a fuzzy context a part of Richter's theorem. To prove that acongruous fuzzy consumer is rational remains an open problem. A proof of this result can somehowuse a fuzzy version of Szpilrajn theorem.

  9. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design for Powertrain Control Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-ming; CUI Tao; LIU Bo-lan; ZHANG Fu-jun


    In order to improve the electromaagnetic compatibility of powertrain control module (PCM),a system procedure of vehicular PCM electromagnetic alteration is presented in this paper.First of all,the box of the PCM is divided into different cabins to eliminate interferences between power supply circuit,analog circuit and digital circuit.Secondly,the working principle and electromagnetic (EM) characters of all the signals adopted by a typical PCM are analyzed.Then according to specific electromagnetic characters,different measures are adopted in corresponding signal process circuits or signal transfer cables,such as ground layout designing,power supply protecting,signal shielding and drive cable interference suppressing.Finally,further improvement may also needed regarding to practical electromagnetic compatibility test effects.The final test shows that,with all the measures mentioned above,the conducted emission of a PCM can be reduced by 20 dB;meanwhile,the radiated emission can be reduced by 30 dB comparing to the original system.

  10. Compatibility of repair mortar with migrating corrosion inhibiting admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjegovic, D.; Ukrainczyk, V. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Ukrainczyk, B. [LGM, Zagreb (Croatia); Miksic, B. [CORTEC Corp., St. Paul, MN (United States)


    One of the methods for corrosion protection of reinforced concrete is the use of migrating corrosion inhibitor as an admixture in repair mortars. The admixture must be effective for corrosion protection and compatible with polymers added to repair mortar to improve properties of fresh and hardened mortar. This paper presents experimental results on compatibility of a migrating corrosion inhibitor added to two repair mortars based on an inorganic binder modified with polymers. The influence of a migrating inhibitor on the properties of fresh and hardened mortars was tested. The effectiveness on reinforcement corrosion protection has been tested according to ASTM G 109. Test results prove that the investigated migrating inhibitor is compatible with repair mortars and that it delays corrosion of the reinforcement.

  11. [Compatibility determinations Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides two compatibility determinations; one stated that the proposed agricultural practices (row crop farming) are compatible with Refuge...

  12. 36 CFR 1193.51 - Compatibility. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility. 1193.51... BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Compatibility With Peripheral Devices and Specialized Customer Premises Equipment § 1193.51 Compatibility. When required by subpart B...

  13. Constructing Pairs of Compatible Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Kratzer


    Given a finite group X such that both the conjugacy of elements in X and the length of any conjugacy class in X can be decided/computed efficiently,the first algorithm described in this article constructs a uniquely determined sequence of representatives for all the conjugacy classes of X. In particular, based on this sequence, any two characters of different groups isomorphic to X become comparable against each other which is utilized by a second algorithm designed to construct so-called compatible characters of given finite groups G and H having isomorphic subgroups U ≤ G and V ≤ H, respectively.

  14. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A


    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  15. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl


    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  16. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases. (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S


    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  17. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation (United States)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  18. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn


    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  19. Measures and electromagnetic compatibility; Mesures en compatibilite electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, A. [Centre Technique de TDF (France); Mardiguian, M.


    Since january 1996, the electrical compatibility is becoming more and more important with the european regulation (documented by the CE label) on electromagnetic disturbances. After the definitions and the classification of electromagnetic disturbances, the electrical appliances disturbances measure (radio frequencies and low frequencies, calibrating, appropriate instrumentation, operating conditions) and the immunity testing are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Technical compatibility and safety of glass fiber in battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, R. [Schuller International, Toledo, OH (United States); Versen, R. [Schuller International, Littleton, CO (United States)


    Nonwovens comprised of glass fibers are both compatible with the relatively harsh chemical environment in lead acid batteries, and yet are safe to handle. The health and safety of glass fibers may seem confusing from a regulatory viewpoint, but are in fact highly tested and well understood scientifically to not cause respiratory disease. Nonwoven separators made from glass fibers are well situated to withstand scientific scrutiny in these times of suspicion of negative health effects ranging from second-hand smoke to tap water. This paper examines technical compatibility of the glass fibers in the battery, the health and safety aspects of glass fibers, and governmental and regulatory interpretation of studies.

  1. Role of value compatibility in IT adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunker, Deborah; Kautz, Karlheinz; Nguyen, Anne Luu Thanh


    Compatibility has been recognised as an important element in the adoption of IT innovations in organisations but as a concept it has been generally limited to technical or functional factors. Compatibility is also significant, however, with regard to value compatibility between the organisation......, and the adopted IT innovation. We propose a framework to determine value compatibility analysing the organisation's and information system's structure, practices and culture, and explore the value compatibility of an organisation with its adopted self-service computer-based information system. A case study...... was conducted to determine the congruence of an organisation's value and IT value compatibility. This study found that there was a high correspondence in the organisational structure and practice dimensions; however, there were organisational culture disparities. The cultural disparities reflected the self...

  2. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility (United States)


    ... Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility generally. Concrete ideas on how greater compatibility... and EC invite your views on how to promote greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility...

  3. Vacuum Compatible Percussive Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible percussive dynamic cone penetrometer (PDCP), for establishing soil bin characteristics, with the ultimate...

  4. A Characterization of P-Compatible Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivan Chajda; Klaus Denecke; Shelly L. Wismath


    P-Compatibility is a hereditary property of identities which generalizes the properties of normality and externality of identitiesChajda characterized the normalization of a variety by an algebraic construction called a choice algebraIn this paper, we generalize this characterization to the least P-compatible variety P(V) determined by a variety V for any partition P using P-choice algebrasWe also study the clone of (strongly) P-compatible n-ary terms of a variety V, and relate identities of this clone to (strongly) P-compatible hyperidentities of the variety V.

  5. Tone compatibility between HDR displays (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier


    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  6. How Is Rh Compatibility Diagnosed? (United States)

    ... status, your doctor may do a test called amniocentesis. For this test, your doctor inserts a hollow ... whether the baby is Rh-positive. (Rarely, an amniocentesis can expose you to Rh-positive blood). Your ...

  7. Preparation and Blood Compatibility of Oxidized-chitosan Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Dong YANG; Jiu Gao YU; Yong Guo ZHOU; Pei Guo LI


    Chitosan membrane was modified by the selective oxidization of chitosan molecules on its surface with NO2 gas. FTIR spectra indicated there were plenty of-COOH and -COO- groups on the modified membrane surface. The SEM study showed the modified membrane surface was rough rather than smooth as chitosan membrane. All antithrombosis test, hemolysis test and blood cell morphology observation with SEM revealed that modified chitosan membranes have superior blood compatibility to chitosan.

  8. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  9. 40 CFR 280.32 - Compatibility. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility. 280.32 Section 280.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL...) General Operating Requirements § 280.32 Compatibility. Owners and operators must use an UST system made...

  10. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Chugh; Sanjay Kumar


    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  11. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education? (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario


    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  12. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER, K.D.


    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process.

  13. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle


    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  14. A Safety-Critical Java Technology Compatibility Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs; Ravn, Anders P.


    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  15. A safety-critical java technology compatibility kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter


    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  16. [Survey of research on acupoints compatibility]. (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Ren


    The research papers that meet the criteria of evidence-based medicine and randomized controlled trial were retrieved in Chinese journals data bases (CNKI knowledge network) from 1992 to 2009. Twenty-five papers indicate that acupoints compatibility rules are closely related to organism regional anatomy, nerve, the blood vessel and the endocrine gland; acupoints compatibility rules produce synergism, inhibit or antagonistic effect that affect the clinical effectiveness. The acupoints compatibility rules based on experimental researches are applied to clinic practice is the key to improve the acupuncture clinical effectiveness.

  17. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)


    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  18. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated laundry System (AMCILS) is proposed that uses a two phase water / water vapor system to allow good agitation of...

  19. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military assets...

  20. The evolution of polymorphic compatibility molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de


    Several primitive colonial organisms distinguish self from nonself by means of polymorphic compatibility molecules bearing similarity to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The evolution of such polymorphisms is generally explained in terms of resistance to parasites. Ignoring parasites, I d

  1. 75 FR 54508 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Governing Hearing Aid-Compatible Mobile Handsets (United States)


    ... completed an initial round of balloting and round- robin testing, and that it expects final balloting to be... handsets, place a high enough priority on hearing aid compatibility to meet these standards for at...

  2. Compatibility Studies of Hydrogen Peroxide and a New Hypergolic Fuel Blend (United States)

    Baldridge, Jennifer; Villegas, Yvonne


    Several preliminary materials compatibility studies have been conducted to determine the practicality of a new hypergolic fuel system. Hypergolic fuel ignites spontaneously as the oxidizer decomposes and releases energy in the presence of the fuel. The bipropellant system tested consists of high-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) and a liquid fuel blend consisting of a hydrocarbon fuel, an ignition enhancer and a transition metal catalyst. In order for further testing of the new fuel blend to take place, some basic materials compatibility and HTP decomposition studies must be accomplished. The thermal decomposition rate of HTP was tested using gas evolution and isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Materials were analyzed for compatibility with hydrogen peroxide including a study of the affect welding has on stainless steel elemental composition and its relation to HTP decomposition. Compatibility studies of valve materials in the fuel blend were performed to determine the corrosion resistance of the materials.

  3. Compatibility of Au-Cu-Ni braze alloy with NH3 (United States)

    Diaz, V., Jr.


    Tests show that Gold-Copper-Nickel alloy is compatible with ammonia systems. Joining tubes by brazing has advantages such as reducing chances of excessive grain growth in base metal, saving weight, and cleanliness.

  4. Electromagnetic theory for electromagnetic compatibility engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Toh, Tze-Chuen


    Engineers and scientists who develop and install electronic devices and circuits need to have a solid understanding of electromagnetic theory and the electromagnetic behavior of devices and circuits. In particular, they must be well-versed in electromagnetic compatibility, which minimizes and controls the side effects of interconnected electric devices. Designed to entice the practical engineer to explore some worthwhile mathematical methods, and to reorient the theoretical scientist to industrial applications, Electromagnetic Theory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineers is based on the

  5. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts (United States)

    Smith, Danford


    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  6. CMOS Compatible Ultra-Compact Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.


    A planar layout for an ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically investigated. Our device utilizes potentially CMOS compatible materials and can achieve 3-dB modulation in just 65nm and insertion loss <1dB at telecommunication wavelengths.......A planar layout for an ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically investigated. Our device utilizes potentially CMOS compatible materials and can achieve 3-dB modulation in just 65nm and insertion loss

  7. Evaluating the compatibility of multi-functional and intensive urban land uses (United States)

    Taleai, M.; Sharifi, A.; Sliuzas, R.; Mesgari, M.


    This research is aimed at developing a model for assessing land use compatibility in densely built-up urban areas. In this process, a new model was developed through the combination of a suite of existing methods and tools: geographical information system, Delphi methods and spatial decision support tools: namely multi-criteria evaluation analysis, analytical hierarchy process and ordered weighted average method. The developed model has the potential to calculate land use compatibility in both horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, the compatibility between the use of each floor in a building and its neighboring land uses can be evaluated. The method was tested in a built-up urban area located in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The results show that the model is robust in clarifying different levels of physical compatibility between neighboring land uses. This paper describes the various steps and processes of developing the proposed land use compatibility evaluation model (CEM).

  8. Compatibility analysis of 3D printer resin for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa


    The salient features of microfluidics such as reduced cost, handling small sample and reagent volumes and less time required to fabricate the devices has inspired the present work. The incompatibility of three-dimensional printer resins in their native form and the method to improve their compatibility to many biological processes via surface modification are reported. The compatibility of the material to build microfluidic devices was evaluated in three different ways: (i) determining if the ultraviolet (UV) cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. testing devices for PCR compatibility; (ii) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and CRP proteins were allowed to agglutinate; and (iii) by culturing human embryonic kidney cell line cells and testing for its attachment and viability. It is shown that only a few among four in its native form could be used for fabrication of microchannels and that had the least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions and cells, whereas the others were used after treating the surface. Importance in building lab-on-chip/micrototal analysis systems and organ-on-chip devices is found.

  9. Preparation of anionic polyurethane nanoparticles and blood compatible behaviors. (United States)

    Zhu, Qinshu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Min; Mao, Chun; Huang, Xiaohua; Bao, Jianchun; Shen, Jian


    The anionic polyurethane nanoparticles (APU-NPs) were obtained by an emulsion polymerization method. It was found that the average size of the prepared APU-NPs is about 84 nm, and the APU-NPs have zeta-potential of -38.9 mV. The bulk characterization of synthesized APU-NPs was investigated by FTIR. The blood compatibility of APU-NPs was characterized by in vitro for coagulation tests, complement activation, platelet activation, cytotoxicity experiments, and hemolysis assay. The results showed that the APU-NPs synthesized in this paper are blood compatible with low level of cell cytotoxicity, and the results were significant for their potential use in vivo.

  10. Affine transformations from aerial photos to computer compatible tapes (United States)

    Peet, F. G.; Mack, A. R.; Crosson, L. S.


    During the development of a project to estimate wheat production, it became necessary to pull data, corresponding to particular fields in a test site, off an ERTS computer compatible tape. Aerial photographs and topographic maps were on hand for the test site. A method was devised, using an affine transformation, to relate the aerial photographs or topographic maps to the tapes. One can thereby access data on the tape corresponding to regions covered by only a few pixels. The theory can be used for the registration of two tapes for the same area and for the geometric correction of images.

  11. Vegetative Compatibility and Asexual Recombination in Magnaporthe grisea from Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-li; ZHANG Zheng-guang; ZHENG Xiao-bo


    Vegetative compatibility among isolates of different races in Magnaporthe grisea collectedfrom Jiangsu Province and asexual recombination among compatible isolates by anastomosis were tested.Twenty isolates involving seven races from diseased rice plants were paired on polished rice rose bengal mediumand incubated at 25℃ in darkness for 18 days. Among 173 pairings tested, solid hyphai fusion lines formed byanastomosis between 124 pairings, indicated that these isolates were vegetative compatible with each other.The result showed that most M. grisea isolates were vegetative compatible. Furthermore, 17 vegetative com-patible pairings between monoconidial isolates with MBCsIPTr marker and isolates with MBCrIPTs markerwere selected to detect the asexual recombination between the compatible isolates of different races. The asexu-al recombinants with MBCrIPTr marker were detected in single hyphal fragment progenies in thirteen of theseventeen pairings. The percentage of recombinants was about 0.6 - 11.3%. Results showed that vegetative com-patibility was prevailing among isolates of M. grisea in Jiangsu Province in vitro. These results also suggested thatasexual recombination may be an important mechanism for M. grisea to maintain genetic diversity in nature.

  12. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole


    This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence, the proc......This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence....... The feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...

  13. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.


    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  14. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván


    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can...... be improved at a very early stage of the process. It is also revealed what parameters are the most important ones when considering compatibility. It was observed that a change of capacitance in the collection grid shifts the resonance peaks. A change in WT transformer capacitances influences the admittance...

  15. Compatibility studies of metallic materials with lithium-based oxides (United States)

    Hofmann, P.; Dienst, W.


    The compatibility of Li 2O, Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2SiO 3 with the cladding materials AISI 316, 1.4914, Hastelloy X and Inconel 625 was investigated at 800-1000°C for annealing times up to 1000 h. A controlled oxygen reactivity was established by adding 1 mol% NiO per mole Li 2O to the Li-based oxides. In addition, some compatibility tests were performed at 600-900°C on Be, which is of interest as a neutron multiplier material, with Li 2SiO 3 as well as AISI 316. Li 2O accounted for the strongest cladding attack, followed by Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2SiO 3. In the absence of NiO, Li 2SiO 3 caused no chemical interactions at all. With respect to the cladding materials, there was no considerable difference in the reaction rates of AISI 316, Hastelloy X and Inconel 625. However, the steel 1.4914 was clearly more heavily attacked at and above 800°C. The compatibility of Be with Li 2SiO 3 or AISI 316 seems to be tolerable up to about 650°C. At higher temperatures a liquid Li suicide phase is formed which results in strong local attack and penetration into Li 2SiO 3.

  16. 14 CFR 150.23 - Noise compatibility programs. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise compatibility programs. 150.23... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.23 Noise compatibility programs. (a) Any airport operator who has submitted...

  17. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consumer education program on compatibility. 76... compatibility. Cable system operators shall provide a consumer education program on compatibility matters to..., cable system operators shall briefly explain, the types of channel compatibility problems that...

  18. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (G-MSO... 1, the Compatibility Chart....

  19. A Note on (In)Compatibility Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sequoiah-Grayson, Sebastian; Pelis, M; Puncochar,


    Non-symmetric incompatibility relations, or non-symmetric compatibility relations, are a standard method for introducing a split negation pair on a frame. Another standard method is to reject commutation for the frame. The first task is to examine the relationship between non-symmetric incompatibili

  20. [MRI compatibility of deep brain stimulator]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing


    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy develops rapidly in clinical application. The structures of deep brain stimulator and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment are introduced, the interactions are analyzed, and the two compatible problems of radio frequency (RF) heating and imaging artifact are summarized in this paper.

  1. Component-compatibility in historical biogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandee, M.; Roos, M.C.


    -The problems of reconstructing historical relationships for areas of endemism from distributional data for groups of taxa and the cladistic relationships among the members of those groups can be solved by applying the two principles of parsimony and mutual inclusion or exclusion (compatibility) of

  2. Compositionality and Compatibility of Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter


    goal is to add a representation and support for the functional aspects of service contracts to the existing non-functional aspects. Further, we investigate how to analyze, verify and validate service contracts laying emphasis on the compositionality and compatibility of service contracts....

  3. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.;


    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation...

  4. The Construal (In)compatibility Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Ringberg, Torsten; Mao, Huifang


    incompatible with their mental construal, while ad claims construed at a level compatible with consumers' mental construal are more effective for those who possess a less creative mindset. We document that such differences in persuasion are driven by the fact that consumers with a creative (less creative) mind...

  5. Catholic Educator Perceptions about Brain Compatible Instruction (United States)

    Koenen, Amie


    This document reports the findings of a doctoral project regarding the perceptions held by administrators and teachers of comprehensive Catholic schools in one Midwestern diocese. With the recent explosion of research in the area of the brain and brain compatible instruction it is valuable to know and understand the perceptions held by current…

  6. The mitonuclear compatibility hypothesis of sexual selection (United States)

    Hill, Geoffrey E.; Johnson, James D.


    Why females assess ornaments when choosing mates remains a central question in evolutionary biology. We hypothesize that the imperative for a choosing female to find a mate with nuclear oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes that are compatible with her mitochondrial OXPHOS genes drives the evolution of ornaments. Indicator traits are proposed to signal the efficiency of OXPHOS function thus enabling females to select mates with nuclear genes that are compatible with maternal mitochondrial genes in the formation of OXPHOS complexes. Species-typical pattern of ornamentation is proposed to serve as a marker of mitochondrial type ensuring that females assess prospective mates with a shared mitochondrial background. The mitonuclear compatibility hypothesis predicts that the production of ornaments will be closely linked to OXPHOS pathways, and that sexual selection for compatible mates will be strongest when genes for nuclear components of OXPHOS complexes are Z-linked. The implications of this hypothesis are that sexual selection may serve as a driver for the evolution of more efficient cellular respiration. PMID:23945683

  7. Damage diagnosis and compatible repair mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van


    Mortars for repair and maintenance of historic masonry have to meet specific requirements. Several authors have made contributions, however many cases of failure show that there still is quite a lack of knowledge on the compatibility of repair mortars for historic masonry. The diagnosis of the cause

  8. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compatible grouping. 3.7 Section 3.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs...

  9. Technical Basis for Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulatory Guidance Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The objective of this report is to serve as the technical basis document for the next, planned revision of this RG that highlights and provides the rationale for the recommended changes. The structure of this document follows and summarizes the several assessment activities undertaken during the course of this project to evaluate new and updated electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards, testing methods and limits, and relevant technology developments being incorporated into plant activities that may have EMI/RFI implications, as well as other specific issues, including impacts of electrostatic discharge (ESD) on safety equipment and impacts on increased usage of wireless devices in nuclear power plants.

  10. Alternative Fuels Compatibility with Army Equipment Testing - Existent Gum (United States)


    isooctane /toluene blend was proposed as a surrogate to mimic the expected low aromatic content of the 50/50 synthetic/petroleum blends. Table 3...Jet A Solvent Blends (Fuel Surrogates) CL12-3310 Fuel B 70/30 isooctane / toluene CL12-3311 Fuel D 60/40 isooctane / toluene CL12-3312 Fuel XX...90/10 isooctane / toluene proposed surrogate to mimic low aromatic content blends *JP-8 blends: ~1 mg/L Stadis 450, 15 mg/L DCI-4A, 0.15 vol

  11. JTIDS 960 to 1215 MHz Radionavigation Band Compatibility Test Results (United States)


    signal generator is used to simulate the percentage of aircraft that have just entered the beacon’s service volume and the EPSCO signal generator...measured for various PRF’s of the EPSCO signal generator. This was done with and without TDMA interference present. As the PRF of the EPSCO signal...presence of TDMA decodes. The change is due to the desensiti- zation that occurs when the decoded replies of the EPSCO , the internal generator and any TDMA

  12. The compatibility of telehealth with health-care delivery. (United States)

    Vuononvirta, Tiina; Timonen, Markku; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Timonen, Olavi; Ylitalo, Kirsti; Kanste, Outi; Taanila, Anja


    There is no clear understanding about the concept of technology adoption in the health-care environment. Compatibility is one of the factors affecting telehealth adoption. We investigated the key factors of telehealth's compatibility with health centre activities. Qualitative research was carried out in 2007-2009, with 55 interviews in seven health centres and in one special care hospital. The people interviewed were physicians, nurses and physiotherapists. After analysing the interview material, we concluded that compatibility has three aspects: individual, process and organizational compatibility. Individual compatibility was manifested in four different ways: from the viewpoints of professionals, patients, communication and cooperation. Three aspects of process compatibility were introduced: scheduling, resources and complexity of processes. Modest organizing efforts with telehealth and even a lack of interest can be expressions of organizational compatibility. Functional and user-friendly technology is a basic precondition for telehealth compatibility. With thorough organizing, most of the compatibility challenges can be solved.

  13. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida with insecticides used in the tomato crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Siqueira Sabino


    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are agents that can be used for the biological control of pests associated with insecticides in a tank mix. Compatibility studies need to be conducted to analyze which products are compatible with nematodes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the compatibility between EPNs and the insecticides that are most used on the tomato crop, and to correlate the toxicological classification of the chemical products with two species of EPNs that have the potential to control tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta. Among the products tested, Certero (triflumuron, Decis (deltamethrin, Previcur (dimethylamino-propyl, Ampligo (lambdacyhalothrin + chlorantranilprole, Premio (clorantranilprole, Engeo Pleno (thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin were compatible (IOBC class 1 with both nematode species.

  14. On the ancestral compatibility of two phylogenetic trees with nested taxa. (United States)

    Llabrés, Mercè; Rocha, Jairo; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel


    Compatibility of phylogenetic trees is the most important concept underlying widely-used methods for assessing the agreement of different phylogenetic trees with overlapping taxa and combining them into common supertrees to reveal the tree of life. The notion of ancestral compatibility of phylogenetic trees with nested taxa was recently introduced. In this paper we analyze in detail the meaning of this compatibility from the points of view of the local structure of the trees, of the existence of embeddings into a common supertree, and of the joint properties of their cluster representations. Our analysis leads to a very simple polynomial-time algorithm for testing this compatibility, which we have implemented and is freely available for download from the BioPerl collection of Perl modules for computational biology.

  15. Paleogeographical reconstructions compatible with Earth dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scalera


    Full Text Available The present research concerns the study of the possibility of an increase in the size of the Earthbecause of a still unknown process. After a previous recognition of the existence in the Pacific of shape conformities in a number of pairs of continental and oceanic boundaries (Scalera, 1991, 1993a, a search for compatibility of these results with independent data sets, paleomagnetic and geological and paleontological was undertaken. The conclusion is that the Earth's dilatation is compatible with the used data, while nothing can be affirmed with certainty about the dilatation process or its continuity or discontinuity through geological time. A tentative model of the evolution of the trench-arc-backarc systems has been provided, tuning it in agreement with a dilatational planet.

  16. Coating for components requiring hydrogen peroxide compatibility (United States)

    Yousefiani, Ali (Inventor)


    The present invention provides a heretofore-unknown use for zirconium nitride as a hydrogen peroxide compatible protective coating that was discovered to be useful to protect components that catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or corrode when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. A zirconium nitride coating of the invention may be applied to a variety of substrates (e.g., metals) using art-recognized techniques, such as plasma vapor deposition. The present invention further provides components and articles of manufacture having hydrogen peroxide compatibility, particularly components for use in aerospace and industrial manufacturing applications. The zirconium nitride barrier coating of the invention provides protection from corrosion by reaction with hydrogen peroxide, as well as prevention of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

  17. CMOS compatible nanoscale nonvolatile resistance switching memory. (United States)

    Jo, Sung Hyun; Lu, Wei


    We report studies on a nanoscale resistance switching memory structure based on planar silicon that is fully compatible with CMOS technology in terms of both materials and processing techniques employed. These two-terminal resistance switching devices show excellent scaling potential well beyond 10 Gb/cm2 and exhibit high yield (99%), fast programming speed (5 ns), high on/off ratio (10(3)), long endurance (10(6)), retention time (5 months), and multibit capability. These key performance metrics compare favorably with other emerging nonvolatile memory techniques. Furthermore, both diode-like (rectifying) and resistor-like (nonrectifying) behaviors can be obtained in the device switching characteristics in a controlled fashion. These results suggest that the CMOS compatible, nanoscale Si-based resistance switching devices may be well suited for ultrahigh-density memory applications.

  18. Making nonlocal reality compatible with relativity


    Nikolic, H.


    It is often argued that hypothetic nonlocal reality responsible for nonlocal quantum correlations between entangled particles cannot be consistent with relativity. I review the most frequent arguments of that sort, explain how they can all be circumvented, and present an explicit Bohmian model of nonlocal reality (compatible with quantum phenomena) that fully obeys the principle of relativistic covariance and does not involve a preferred Lorentz frame.

  19. Microwave spectrum compatibility in planetary research (United States)

    Siegmeth, A. J.


    The paper presents an overview of solar system exploration, basic functions of the Deep Space Network (DSN), deep space microwave links, space research compatibility problems, and DSN's interference susceptibility. To maintain the operational integrity of competing radio systems using the microwave spectrum, the technology must extend to make possible the shared use of the spectral ranges without the ill effects of interferences. Suggestions are given which are only examples of many possible techniques that can eliminate or reduce interferences.

  20. Migration and sustainability - compatible or contradictory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge


    When the migration issue is discussed in a sustainability perspective, two questions are vital: 1) What is the relationship between migration and the global population growth? 2) What is the relationship between migration and consumption growth, and how does migration influence the distribution o...... of consumption possibilities both between and within industrialized and developing countries? Based on responses to these questions, it is argued that reasonably managed migration will be compatible with sustainable development....

  1. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device


    Tzika Aria; Astrakas Loukas; Weinberg Brian; Triantafyllou Christina; Muto Andrew; Khanicheh Azadeh; Mavroidis Constantinos


    Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR) compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, mo...

  2. Compatibility between pipeline mainline and girth-weld coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.; Doiron, A.


    Coatings and cathodic protection (CP) are used to protect pipelines against external corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper discussed a research study currently being implemented to test the compatibility of girth-weld coatings with fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) mainline coatings. The study is part of a larger research project initiated to develop standards and standard tests for coating performance. The pipeline samples will be conditioned for a 6 month period and subjected to impact; flexibility; adhesion; cathodic disbondment; squeeze; ice adhesion; and peel tests. Various coating samples will be prepared removing mainline coatings in certain parts of the pipes and replacing them with girth-weld coatings. Results of the study will be used to obtain feedback from industry and stakeholders in relation to the development of standards and further studies. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 1 appendix.

  3. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas (United States)

    Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Petach, Trevor A.; Baum, Brian K.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Dionne, Jennifer A.


    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  4. Compatibility of Segments of Thermoelectric Generators (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan


    A method of calculating (usually for the purpose of maximizing) the power-conversion efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is based on equations derived from the fundamental equations of thermoelectricity. Because it is directly traceable to first principles, the method provides physical explanations in addition to predictions of phenomena involved in segmentation. In comparison with the finite-element method used heretofore to predict (without being able to explain) the behavior of a segmented thermoelectric generator, this method is much simpler to implement in practice: in particular, the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator can be estimated by evaluating equations using only hand-held calculator with this method. In addition, the method provides for determination of cascading ratios. The concept of cascading is illustrated in the figure and the definition of the cascading ratio is defined in the figure caption. An important aspect of the method is its approach to the issue of compatibility among segments, in combination with introduction of the concept of compatibility within a segment. Prior approaches involved the use of only averaged material properties. Two materials in direct contact could be examined for compatibility with each other, but there was no general framework for analysis of compatibility. The present method establishes such a framework. The mathematical derivation of the method begins with the definition of reduced efficiency of a thermoelectric generator as the ratio between (1) its thermal-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and (2) its Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency theoretically attainable, given its hot- and cold-side temperatures). The derivation involves calculation of the reduced efficiency of a model thermoelectric generator for which the hot-side temperature is only infinitesimally greater than the cold-side temperature. The derivation includes consideration of the ratio (u) between the

  5. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D. [The Trane Company, La Crosse, WI (United States)


    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours. The original refrigerants and the Alternatives tested for retrofit were as follows: Most motor materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) were compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concern was delamination and blistering of the sheet insulation containing Nomex, especially after removal of absorbed refrigerant. This was attributed to solution of the adhesive and not to the Nomex itself. Embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) found in Mylar and Melinex sheet and sleeving insulations was initially observed, but subsequent tests under dry conditions showed that embrittlement of the PET materials was caused by moisture present during the exposure. Compatibility tests of elastomers with R-245ca, retrofitted from R-11 and R-123, showed that the nitrile was compatible with both R-11 and R-245ca, but not with R-123. The neoprene was unsatisfactory because of shrinkage in the R-245ca.

  6. 75 FR 54546 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Governing Hearing Aid-Compatible Mobile Handsets (United States)


    ... test the hearing aid compatibility of voice functions that are not initially installed into the phone... modifications needed to achieve inductive coupling capability did not appear unduly costly, and increased demand..., their size, or other considerations. 20. In addition to allowing consumers to test handsets,...

  7. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweiger D


    Full Text Available Dorothea Schweiger,1 Andrea M Schoelermann,1 Alexander Filbry,1 Tina Hamann,1 Claudia Moser,2 Frank Rippke1 1Research and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany; 2Moser Medical, Clinics for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Vienna, Austria Background: Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp.Methods: The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire.Results: Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants.Conclusion: Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test

  8. Optical glass compatibility for the design of apochromatic systems


    Gruescu C.; Nicoara I.; Popov D.; Bodea R.; Hora H.


    The design of apochromatic systems is difficult because of two problems: the glass sorts compatibility and the c1/ca arbitrary input ratio. The optical glass manufacturers offer a wide range of sorts, so that the choice of triplet compatible glasses becomes itself an important separate problem. The paper provides a solution of mathematical modeling for the glass compatibility and, practically, analyses the sorts presented by Schott GmbH. The original software provided 22 compatible glass trip...

  9. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system... individual compatibility problems. (d) Cable operators shall provide such equipment at the request...

  10. 49 CFR 175.78 - Stowage compatibility of cargo. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage compatibility of cargo. 175.78 Section 175... Loading, Unloading and Handling § 175.78 Stowage compatibility of cargo. (a) For stowage on an aircraft..., Compatibility Group S, explosives are permitted to be transported aboard a passenger aircraft. Only...

  11. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise Compatibility Programs B Appendix B... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Pt. 150, App. B Appendix B to Part 150—Noise Compatibility Programs Sec. B150.1Scope and purpose. Sec. B150.3Requirement for noise map. Sec....

  13. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes? (United States)

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia


    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  14. The problem of the compatibility of bitumen sheets for the reconstruction and ehabilitation of roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plachý Jan


    Full Text Available During the renovation of flat roofs, the waterproofing layer is often repaired locally rather than completely replaced. When making such repairs, it is very important to know whether the proposed bitumen sheets are compatible in order to prevent delamination and the release of the joints. This paper deals with the determination of the resistance of bitumen sheet joints against peeling when combined with different bitumen materials. On the basis of the described test methodology it was possible to determine whether the selected bitumen materials were compatible with bitumen sheets. As part of the experiments, modified bitumen sheets with plastomers (PO, oxidized bitumen (OX, and elastomers (SBS, were tested.

  15. Compatible Relaxation and Coarsening in Algebraic Multigrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J J; Falgout, R D


    We introduce a coarsening algorithm for algebraic multigrid (AMG) based on the concept of compatible relaxation (CR). The algorithm is significantly different from standard methods, most notably because it does not rely on any notion of strength of connection. We study its behavior on a number of model problems, and evaluate the performance of an AMG algorithm that incorporates the coarsening approach. Lastly, we introduce a variant of CR that provides a sharper metric of coarse-grid quality and demonstrate its potential with two simple examples.

  16. Study of Electromagnetism Compatibility of Bleeper Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Transmitted power will decrease, cross-modulate distortion and inter-modulate distortion will be caused and antenna pattern will shift if transmitted antennas are fixed together. All these will lead to the alteration of area coverage. According to the basic theory of electromagnetism compatibility a computer model is established. We do some quantitative analysis of the problems above and give total number, arrangement mode and distance between antennas of bleeper station that operate at 150 MHz. The relation of these factors above are also given. All these are basis of the arrangement of antenna group of bleeper station.

  17. Container-content compatibility studies: a pharmaceutical team's integrated approach. (United States)

    Laschi, Alda; Sehnal, Natacha; Alarcon, Antoine; Barcelo, Beatrice; Caire-Maurisier, François; Delaire, Myriam; Feuilloley, Marc; Genot, Stéphanie; Lacaze, Catherine; Pisarik, Luc; Smati, Christophe


    Container-content compatibility studies are required as part of the submission of a new product market authorization file or for a change relating to the primary product-contact packaging. Many regulatory publications and guidances are available in the USA, Europe, and Japan. However these publications and guidances are not sufficiently precise enough to allow for consistent interpretation and implementation of the technical requirements. A working group has been formed by the French Society of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (SFSTP) in order to propose guidance for container-content interaction studies that meet both European and US requirements, and allows consistent and standardized information to be presented by the industry to the regulators. When a pharmaceutical drug product remains in prolonged contact with a material, the two critical points to consider are the drug product's quality and safety. A pharmaceutical evaluation of the container-content relationship should be done based on the knowledge of the contact material (e.g., type, physicochemical properties), its manufacturing processes (e.g., the type of sterilization that could potentially alter the interactions), and the formulation components involved in contact with this material (e.g., physicochemical properties, pharmaceutical presentation, route of administration). Quality is evaluated using the stability study performed on the product. Safety is partially evaluated with the stability study and is analyzed in conjunction with toxicity testing, specifically with cytotoxicity testing. The toxicity aspect is the key point of the container-content compatibility study and of patient safety. Migration tests are conducted when an interaction is suspected, or found based on previous results, to identify the component responsible for this interaction and to help select a new material if needed. Therefore, such tests are perhaps not the best ones to use for the purpose of safety evaluation

  18. Pathogenicity and diversity of vegetative compatibility of Fusarium verticillioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna S.


    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of 10 Fusarium verticillioides isolates, originated from grain of wheat (five isolates and maize (five isolates, were studied under greenhouse conditions. Based on different parameters of the pathogenicity estimate (a scale for % of nonemerged plants, % of survived plants, plant vigour - the growth and dry weight of roots and epicotyls and disease severity it was determined that all F. verticillioides isolates expressed a different degree of pathogenicity. According to % of nonemerged plants six three and one F. verticillioides isolates expressed low, moderate and high degree of pathogenicity, respectively. All F. verticillioides isolates reduced the plant survival rate and vigour, while the disease severity ranged from 2.0 to 3.54. Two types of nit mutants, nit1 and NitM, were obtained by the use of the method of vegetative compatibility. The frequency of nit1 mutants was greater (58.79% than the frequency of NitM mutants (5.77%. A total of 10 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. verticillioides were established in the complementation tests. These results point out to a high genetic diversity of F. verticillioides population.

  19. Effective Design of Multifunctional Peptides by Combining Compatible Functions. (United States)

    Diener, Christian; Garza Ramos Martínez, Georgina; Moreno Blas, Daniel; Castillo González, David A; Corzo, Gerardo; Castro-Obregon, Susana; Del Rio, Gabriel


    Multifunctionality is a common trait of many natural proteins and peptides, yet the rules to generate such multifunctionality remain unclear. We propose that the rules defining some protein/peptide functions are compatible. To explore this hypothesis, we trained a computational method to predict cell-penetrating peptides at the sequence level and learned that antimicrobial peptides and DNA-binding proteins are compatible with the rules of our predictor. Based on this finding, we expected that designing peptides for CPP activity may render AMP and DNA-binding activities. To test this prediction, we designed peptides that embedded two independent functional domains (nuclear localization and yeast pheromone activity), linked by optimizing their composition to fit the rules characterizing cell-penetrating peptides. These peptides presented effective cell penetration, DNA-binding, pheromone and antimicrobial activities, thus confirming the effectiveness of our computational approach to design multifunctional peptides with potential therapeutic uses. Our computational implementation is available at

  20. Integrated environmentally compatible soldering technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Frear, D.R.; Iman, R.L.; Keicher, D.M.; Lopez, E.P.; Peebles, H.C.; Sorensen, N.R.; Vianco, P.T.


    Chemical fluxes are typically used during conventional electronic soldering to enhance solder wettability. Most fluxes contain very reactive, hazardous constituents that require special storage and handling. Corrosive flux residues that remain on soldered parts can severely degrade product reliability. The residues are removed with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), or other hazardous solvents that contribute to ozone depletion, release volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere, or add to the solvent waste stream. Alternative materials and processes that offer the potential for the reduction or elimination of cleaning are being developed to address these environmental issues. Timing of the effort is critical, since the targeted chemicals will soon be heavily taxed or banned. DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (DOE/EM) has supported Sandia National Laboratories` Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID). Part of the ECM program involves the integration of several environmentally compatible soldering technologies for assembling electronics devices. Fluxless or {open_quotes}low-residue/no clean{close_quotes} soldering technologies (conventional and ablative laser processing, controlled atmospheres, ultrasonic tinning, protective coatings, and environmentally compatible fluxes) have been demonstrated at Sandia (SNL/NM), the University of California at Berkeley, and Allied Signal Aerospace-Kansas City Division (AS-KCD). The university demonstrations were directed under the guidance of Sandia staff. Results of the FY93 Soldering ID are presented in this report.

  1. Lubricants for HFC-134a Compatible Rotary Compressors (United States)

    Takaichi, Kenji; Sakai, Hisakazu

    In replacing CFC-12 with HFC-134a for refrigerator compressors, the compatibility with lubricating oil, and lubrication in general, are of major concern. HFC-134a dose not have adequate solubility with current lubricating oils because of its molecular structure. Current oils also do not provide enough lubricating action when using HFC-134a. A new oil and new materials have to be utilized in order to use HFC-134a. Developing a new lubricating oil involved numerous tests of different combinations of many polyolester synthetic oils and additives. One of the pre-evaluated methods was pursued via sealed tube tests. Lubricated parts were selected by studies involving a plane-on-roller type of wear test machine and by analyzing the traces of acid material commonly created during the lubricating action. The matrices of new lubricating oils and new lubricated materials were estimated based on durability tests conducted on compressors and refrigerators. Results showed that polyolester synthetic oils having a low total acid value and including certain quantities of additives did not break down into a tar-like substance and they did not produce composite particles in the operating compressors and refrigerators. The study also found that ceramics and anti-corrosion alloy steel possessed good adrasion-reducing qualities. Based on our evaluation, we will implement compressor reliability tests and apply HFC-134a to rotary compressors for refrigerators.

  2. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten


    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  3. Compatibility of embryonic stem cells with biomaterials. (United States)

    Handschel, Jörg; Berr, Karin; Depprich, Rita; Naujoks, Christian; Kübler, Norbert R; Meyer, Ulrich; Ommerborn, Michelle; Lammers, Lydia


    Periodontal bone defects and atrophy of the jaws in an aging population are of special concern. Tissue engineering using embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and biomaterials may offer new therapeutic options. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the compatibility of ESCs with biomaterials and the influence of biomaterials on the osteogenic gene expression profile.Therefore, ESCs are cultured with various biomaterials. The cytocompatibility of murine ESCs is measured regarding the proliferation of the cells on the materials by CyQUANT assay, the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and the influence on the gene expression by real time PCR.The results show that insoluble collagenous bone matrix, followed by beta-tricalciumphosphate, is most suitable for bone tissue engineering regarding cell proliferation, and phenotype. The gene expression analysis indicates that biomaterials do influence the gene expression of ESCs.Our results provide new insight into the cytocompatibility of ESCs on different scaffolds.

  4. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL


    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  5. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steve [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moore, D. [USCAR


    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  6. Catalytic nanoarchitectonics for environmentally compatible energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Abe


    Full Text Available Environmentally compatible energy management is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Low-temperature conversion of chemical to electrical energy is of particular importance to minimize the impact to the environment while sustaining the consumptive economy. In this review, we shed light on one of the most versatile energy-conversion technologies: heterogeneous catalysts. We establish the integrity of structural tailoring in heterogeneous catalysts at different scales in the context of an emerging paradigm in materials science: catalytic nanoarchitectonics. Fundamental backgrounds of energy-conversion catalysis are first provided together with a perspective through state-of-the-art energy-conversion catalysis including catalytic exhaust remediation, fuel-cell electrocatalysis and photosynthesis of solar fuels. Finally, the future evolution of catalytic nanoarchitectonics is overviewed: possible combinations of heterogeneous catalysts, organic molecules and even enzymes to realize reaction-selective, highly efficient and long-life energy conversion technologies which will meet the challenge we face.

  7. Ensuring Query Compatibility with Evolving XML Schemas

    CERN Document Server

    Genevès, Pierre; Quint, Vincent


    During the life cycle of an XML application, both schemas and queries may change from one version to another. Schema evolutions may affect query results and potentially the validity of produced data. Nowadays, a challenge is to assess and accommodate the impact of theses changes in rapidly evolving XML applications. This article proposes a logical framework and tool for verifying forward/backward compatibility issues involving schemas and queries. First, it allows analyzing relations between schemas. Second, it allows XML designers to identify queries that must be reformulated in order to produce the expected results across successive schema versions. Third, it allows examining more precisely the impact of schema changes over queries, therefore facilitating their reformulation.

  8. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten


    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  9. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review (United States)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried


    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  10. Bacterial Compatibility in Combined Inoculations Enhances the Growth of Potato Seedlings. (United States)

    D Santiago, Christine; Yagi, Shogo; Ijima, Motoaki; Nashimoto, Tomoya; Sawada, Maki; Ikeda, Seishi; Asano, Kenji; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Ohwada, Takuji


    The compatibility of strains is crucial for formulating bioinoculants that promote plant growth. We herein assessed the compatibility of four potential bioinoculants isolated from potato roots and tubers (Sphingomonas sp. T168, Streptomyces sp. R170, Streptomyces sp. R181, and Methylibium sp. R182) that were co-inoculated in order to improve plant growth. We screened these strains using biochemical tests, and the results obtained showed that R170 had the highest potential as a bioinoculant, as indicated by its significant ability to produce plant growth-promoting substances, its higher tolerance against NaCl (2%) and AlCl3 (0.01%), and growth in a wider range of pH values (5.0-10.0) than the other three strains. Therefore, the compatibility of R170 with other strains was tested in combined inoculations, and the results showed that the co-inoculation of R170 with T168 or R182 synergistically increased plant weight over uninoculated controls, indicating the compatibility of strains based on the increased production of plant growth promoters such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores as well as co-localization on roots. However, a parallel test using strain R181, which is the same Streptomyces genus as R170, showed incompatibility with T168 and R182, as revealed by weaker plant growth promotion and a lack of co-localization. Collectively, our results suggest that compatibility among bacterial inoculants is important for efficient plant growth promotion, and that R170 has potential as a useful bioinoculant, particularly in combined inoculations that contain compatible bacteria.

  11. Dissociating between object affordances and spatial compatibility effects using early response components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal eWilf


    Full Text Available Perception and action are tightly linked: objects may be perceived not only in terms of visual features, but also in terms of possibilities for action. Previous studies showed that when a centrally located object has a salient graspable feature (e.g., a handle, it facilitates motor responses corresponding with the feature's position. However, such so-called affordance effects have been criticized as resulting from spatial compatibility effects, due to the visual asymmetry created by the graspable feature, irrespective of any affordances. In order to dissociate between affordance and spatial compatibility effects, we asked participants to perform a simple reaction-time task to typically graspable and non-graspable objects with similar visual features (e.g., lollipop and stop sign. Responses were measured using either electromyography (EMG on proximal arm muscles during reaching-like movements, or with finger key-presses. In both EMG and button press measurements, participants responded faster when the object was either presented in the same location as the responding hand, or was affordable, resulting in significant and independent spatial compatibility and affordance effects, but no interaction. Furthermore, while the spatial compatibility effect was present from the earliest stages of movement preparation and throughout the different stages of movement execution, the affordance effect was restricted to the early stages of movement execution. Finally, we tested a small group of unilateral arm amputees using EMG, and found residual spatial compatibility but no affordance, suggesting that spatial compatibility effects do not necessarily rely on individuals’ available affordances. Our results show dissociation between affordance and spatial compatibility effects, and suggest that rather than evoking the specific motor action most suitable for interaction with the viewed object, graspable objects prompt the motor system in a general, body

  12. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants. (United States)

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H


    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants.

  13. Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Luttikholt, A.J.G.


    A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals, alo

  14. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea A; Wollenweber, Bernd; Frei, Ursula K;


    available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z) self-incompatibility system...... provided by this calculator can be used to predict compatibility of pair-crosses in plant breeding applications, to analyze segregation distortion for S and Z genes, as well as linked markers in mapping populations, hypothesis testing of the number of S and Z alleles in a pair cross, and the underlying...

  15. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and TEMPEST Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and TEMPEST testing are conducted at EPG's Blacktail Canyon Test Facility in one of its two...

  16. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa. (United States)

    Geibel, Scott


    Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming.

  17. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Wireless Sensor Network Node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>This paper is concerned with the sensor nodes’ hardware design of the wireless sensor network.We focus on the electromagnetic compatibility design of the printed circuit board.In this paper,we will give a schematic diagram first,and then,according to the layout,wiring rules and the knowledge of electromagnetic compatibility, we will present the design of the printed circuit board which has a good characteristic of electromagnetic compatibility.

  18. Polyurethane Organosilicate Nanocomposites as Blood Compatible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson H. Y. Chung


    Full Text Available Polymer clay nanocomposites (NCs show remarkable potential in the field of drug delivery due to their enhanced barrier properties. It is hypothesised that well dispersed clay particles within the polymer matrix create a tortuous pathway for diffusing therapeutic molecules, thereby resulting in more sustained release of the drug. As coatings for medical devices, these materials can simultaneously modulate drug release and improve the mechanical performance of an existing polymer system without introducing additional materials with new chemistries that can lead to regulatory concerns. In this study, polyurethane organosilicate nanocomposites (PUNCs coated onto stainless steel wires were evaluated for their feasibility as blood compatible coatings and as drug delivery systems. Heparin was selected as the model drug to examine the impact of silicate loading and modifier chain length in modulating release. Findings revealed that better dispersion was achieved from samples with lower clay loadings and longer alkyl chains. The blood compatibility of PUNCs as assessed by thrombin generation assays showed that the addition of silicate particles did not significantly decrease the thrombin generation lag time (TGT, p = 0.659 or the peak thrombin (p = 0.999 of polyurethane (PU. PUNC coatings fabricated in this research were not cytotoxic as examined by the cell growth inhibition assay and were uniformly intact, but had slightly higher growth inhibition compared to PU possibly due to the presence of organic modifiers (OM. The addition of heparin into PUNCs prolonged the TGT, indicating that heparin was still active after the coating process. Cumulative heparin release profiles showed that the majority of heparin released was from loosely attached residues on the surface of coils. The addition of heparin further prolonged the TGT as compared to coatings without added heparin, but a slight decrease in heparin activity was observed in the NCs

  19. Summary of Mercury Compatibility Issues for the Spallation Neutron Source Target Containment and Ancillary Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, SJ


    The purpose of this document is to summarize the primary results of the Hg compatibility research in support of the SNS target. In the absence of possible synergisms resulting from beam/irradiation effects, wetting of 316L/316LN stainless steel under SNS conditions by the Hg target is expected to be very limited. As a result, significant interactions such as dissolution, mass transfer, and embrittlement affecting general compatibility are not anticipated. A wide range of experiments on 316L/316LN stainless steel, including thermal convection and pumped loops, confirmed low corrosion/penetration rates in Hg up to 305 C and little or no wetting or mass transfer below about 250 C. A variety of standard mechanical tests comparing behavior of 316L in air and Hg revealed limited wetting and no degradation of mechanical properties such as reduced elongation or development of brittle fracture features. Preliminary fatigue tests indicated a negative effect (reduced cycles to failure and intergranular cracking) at very high loads for 316LN, but little or no effect at more modest loading. Annealed 316LN was found to be somewhat susceptible to cavitation-erosion damage, but significant improvement was realized with a kolsterizing surface treatment or coldworking the material. Within the scope of these test conditions, no compatibility-limited operations were identified for type 316L/316LN stainless steel (and variations thereof) as the Hg target containment material. More limited compatibility data on other materials are also reported.

  20. Compatibility of copper-electroplated cells with Metal Wrap Through module materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, I.J.; Geerligs, L.J.; Olson, C.L.; Goris, M.J.A.A. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)


    As part of the European FP7 RandD project 'Cu-PV', the compatibility of copper-electroplated metal wrapthrough (MWT) cells with conductive adhesives has been investigated. The objectives of this project include to reduce, by the use of copper plating, the amount of silver utilized in cell manufacturing, and to demonstrate the compatibility of high-power n-type back-contact module technology with copper-plated cells. The overall goal is to reduce the impact on the environment of cell and module manufacture. MWT module technology as developed by ECN uses conductive adhesive to make the interconnection between cells and a conductive backsheet foil. These adhesives have been proved to result in very reliable modules in the case of cells with fired silver metallization. To determine the compatibility of conductive adhesive with copper-plated cells, component tests were performed, followed by the manufacture of modules with copperplated cells and conductive adhesive interconnections. Climate chamber testing of these modules showed that the adhesive is compatible with the copper-plated cells. The next steps include further optimization of the plating process and additional testing at the module level.

  1. The compatibility of consumer DLP projectors with time-sequential stereoscopic 3D visualisation (United States)

    Woods, Andrew J.; Rourke, Tegan


    A range of advertised "Stereo-Ready" DLP projectors are now available in the market which allow high-quality flickerfree stereoscopic 3D visualization using the time-sequential stereoscopic display method. The ability to use a single projector for stereoscopic viewing offers a range of advantages, including extremely good stereoscopic alignment, and in some cases, portability. It has also recently become known that some consumer DLP projectors can be used for timesequential stereoscopic visualization, however it was not well understood which projectors are compatible and incompatible, what display modes (frequency and resolution) are compatible, and what stereoscopic display quality attributes are important. We conducted a study to test a wide range of projectors for stereoscopic compatibility. This paper reports on the testing of 45 consumer DLP projectors of widely different specifications (brand, resolution, brightness, etc). The projectors were tested for stereoscopic compatibility with various video formats (PAL, NTSC, 480P, 576P, and various VGA resolutions) and video input connections (composite, SVideo, component, and VGA). Fifteen projectors were found to work well at up to 85Hz stereo in VGA mode. Twenty three projectors would work at 60Hz stereo in VGA mode.

  2. Compatibility Determination [Public Use on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compatibility determinations for wildlife observation and photography, interpretation and environmental education, hunting, fishing, forest management (timber sales...

  3. Microwave/mm wave magnetics and MMIC compatibility (invited) (abstract) (United States)

    Adam, J. D.


    Ferrite devices can be loosely classified into three different categories, namely: control components using polycrystalline ferrites, tunable filters and oscillators using YIG spheres, and devices based on epitaxial YIG or ferrite films. Ferrite control components such as circulators, isolators, and switches are used in almost all microwave and millimeter wave systems. Tunable YIG sphere devices see more limited use in radar and EW systems, and microwave test equipment while epitaxial YIG devices have yet to make a significant systems impact. GaAs chips for phased array modules are under development by several companies for both radar and EW applications. The GaAs chips can contain small signal and power gain, phase shifters, filters, mixers, and switches. The modules are usually designed, however, with discrete circulators or isolators which are often significantly larger than the MMIC chips. Further reduction in module size and cost will require the design of the module without nonreciprocal components, or the development of ferrite devices which are more compatible with the size, bandwidth, and fabrication of the GaAs device. Integration of nonreciprocal ferrite components on the GaAs chip could have a large impact but presents a significant challenge both in terms of processing compatibility between the ferrite and the GaAs and in terms of cost. The impact in the areas of tunable YIG filters and oscillators and MSW devices are smaller but, fortunately, so are the difficulties. Here the YIG films or spheres, or hexagonal ferrite films can be laid on the GaAs substrate thus forming a hybrid device. Having integrated the ferrite with the GaAs it is necessary to consider the magnetic bias field requirement. Bias fields are not required in latching devices and can be minimized in other devices by use of hexagonal ferrite films with their large anisotropy fields. It may even be possible to integrate a permanent magnet film onto the GaAs chip.

  4. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field]. (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L


    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  5. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing aid-compatible... for export) or imported for use in the United States after August 16, 1989, must be hearing...

  6. 47 CFR 68.414 - Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. 68.414... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.414 Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. Enforcement of §§ 68.4 and 68.112 is hereby delegated to those...

  7. 14 CFR 36.3 - Compatibility with airworthiness requirements. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compatibility with airworthiness requirements. 36.3 Section 36.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Compatibility with airworthiness requirements. It must be shown that the aircraft meets the...

  8. 47 CFR 68.112 - Hearing aid-compatibility. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility. 68.112 Section 68.112 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED... Hearing aid-compatibility. (a) Coin telephones. All new and existing coin-operated telephones,...

  9. 36 CFR 1193.21 - Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...

  10. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  11. 46 CFR 154.552 - Cargo hose: Compatibility. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Compatibility. 154.552 Section 154.552 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.552 Cargo hose: Compatibility. Liquid and vapor cargo hoses must: (a) Not chemically...

  12. Morphology and Compatibility of Compatibilized Polyethersulfone and Polycarbonate Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-bo; JIANG Dong; WU Wei-chun; JIANG Zhen-hua


    A PES-PC(polyethersulfone-polycarbonate) multi block random copolymer was synthesized with two oligomers, polyethersulfone and polycarbonate. The effects of the copolymer, as a compatibilizer, on the morphology and compatibility of the PES-PC blends were investigated. It was found that the addition of this copolymer to the PES-PC blends could improve their compatibility.

  13. Graph Triangulations and the Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Vakati, Sudheer


    We characterize the compatibility of a collection of unrooted phylogenetic trees as a question of determining whether a graph derived from these trees --- the display graph --- has a specific kind of triangulation, which we call legal. Our result is a counterpart to the well known triangulation-based characterization of the compatibility of undirected multi-state characters.

  14. CMOS-compatible LVOF-based visible microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emadi, A.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.


    This paper reports on a CMOS-Compatible Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF) visible micro-spectrometer. The CMOS-compatible post process for fabrication of the LVOF has been used for integration of the LVOF with a CMOS chip containing a 128-element photodiode array and readout circuitry. Fabricati

  15. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs (United States)

    Kenney, Susan


    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  16. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. 76.630 Section 76.630 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or...

  17. In vitro stability and compatibility of tenecteplase in central venous access devices. (United States)

    Lentz, Yvonne K; Joyce, Michael; Lam, Xanthe


    Central venous access devices (CVADs) aid in the delivery of nutritional support, infusion therapy, and hemodialysis. Maintaining continuous flow through these devices is challenging, because they are susceptible to complications such as thrombi occlusion. Therefore, CVADs may require treatment with anticoagulant or thrombolytic agents. Using these agents as locking solutions has been widely investigated; however, few publications have described the compatibility of the therapeutic with the CVAD itself. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the in vitro stability and compatibility of a thrombolytic biologic agent, tenecteplase, with various CVAD materials. Tenecteplase was reconstituted to 1 mg/mL with either sterile water for injection or bacteriostatic water for injection (0.9% benzyl alcohol) then incubated in glass vials, polysulfone/silicone vascular access ports, and polyurethane or silicone catheters for up to 96 hours. Biochemical assays including protein monomer, protein one-chain, and in vitro bioactivity were used to assess tenecteplase's compatibility with the investigated diluents and materials every 24 hours. Antimicrobial testing was also performed for up to 28 days on bacteriostatic water for injection-reconstituted samples only. Our results showed tenecteplase to be compatible with both types of diluents (in glass vials) and catheters for up to 72 hours. Furthermore, tenecteplase was compatible with the polysulfone/silicone vascular access ports for up to 24 hours. Finally, bacteriostatic water for injection-reconstituted tenecteplase effectively met USP criteria for the inhibition of growth of micro-organisms. This study serves as an example of a best practice to evaluate the in vitro stability and compatibility of a biologic agent with CVAD materials.

  18. Impact of compatibility on the organization of mutualistic networks. (United States)

    Maeng, Seong Eun; Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Deok-Sun


    Distinct relationships such as activation, inhibition, cooperation, and competition are not established independently but in a correlated manner in complex systems. Thus the patterns of one type of interaction may reflect the impacts of other classes of interactions, but its quantitative understanding remains to be done. Referring to the plant-pollinator mutualistic networks, here we propose and investigate the structural features of a model bipartite network, in which the mutualistic relationship between two different types of nodes is established under the influence of the compatibility among the nodes of the same type. Interestingly, we find that the degree distributions obtained for extremely broad compatibility distributions are similar to those for a constant compatibility, both of which deviate from those for the Gaussian compatibility distributions. We present the analytic arguments to explain this finding. Also the dependence of the topological similarity of two nodes on their compatibility is illustrated. We discuss the application of our findings to complex systems.

  19. Characterization of an Auto-Compatible Default Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU DaoYun(许道云); DING DeCheng(丁德成); ZHANG MingYi(张明义)


    In this paper, an equivalence condition for deciding whether a default theory isan auto-compatible default one is presented. Under the condition, the existence of extension of anauto-compatible default theory is a natural result. By introducing a well-ordering over the set D ofdefault rules, the extensions of an auto-compatible default theory (D, W) can be computed directly.The condition represents clearly the characterization of an auto-compatible default theory, andsome properties about auto-compatible default theory, such as semi-monotonicity, become naturalcorollaries. Based on the characterization, the revision of default beliefs is discussed to ensure theexistence of extension of the default theory, and the method is applied to investigate stable modelsof a general logic program.

  20. Compatibility of Fluorinert, FC-72, with selected materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, James Henry; Sawyer, Patricia Sue


    Removable encapsulants have been developed as replacement materials for electronic encapsulation. They can be removed from an electronic assembly in a fairly benign manner. Encapsulants must satisfy a limited number of criteria to be useful. These include processing ease, certain mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, adhesion to common clean surfaces, good aging characteristics, and compatibility. This report discusses one aspect of the compatibility of removable blown epoxy foams with electronic components. Of interest is the compatibility of the blowing agent, Fluorinert{trademark} (FC-72) electronic fluid with electronic parts, components, and select materials. Excellent compatibility is found with most of the investigated materials. A few materials, such as Teflon{reg_sign} that are comprised of chemicals very similar to FC-72 show substantial absorption of FC-72. No compatibility issues have yet been identified even for the few materials that show substantial absorption.

  1. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang


    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  2. HTS compatible assay for antioxidative agents using primary cultured hepatocytes. (United States)

    Gaunitz, Frank; Heise, Kerstin


    We have used primary cultured rat hepatocytes to establish a system that is compatible with HTS for screening substance libraries for biologically active compounds. The hepatocytes were treated with t-BHP to induce oxidative stress, leading to the formation ROS. The involvement of ROS in oxidative stress and pathological alterations has been of major interest in recent years, and there is great demand to identify new compounds with antioxidant potential. In most HTS programs each compound is tested in duplicate, and may only be tested once. Because of this it is important to develop assays that can identify candidate compounds accurately and with high confidence. Using newly available cell-based assay systems, we have developed a system that can detect active compounds (hits) with a high degree of confidence. As an example of an agent that can be detected from a substance library, we analyzed the effect of fisetin as an antioxidative compound using this system. All measurements were performed using the newly developed and highly versatile Multilabel-Reader Mithras LB 940 (Berthold Technologies, Bad Wildbad, Germany). The data presented show that all Z' factors determined were highly reliable. Although the protocol is primarily designed to screen for substances with antioxidative potential, it can easily be adapted to screen for other biologically active substances.

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guag Joshua W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

  4. Compatibility of a Diffractive Pupil and Coronagraphic Imaging (United States)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Belikov, Rusian; Pluzhnyk, Yevgeniy; Guyon, Olivier


    Detection and characterization of exo-earths require direct-imaging techniques that can deliver contrast ratios of 10(exp 10) at 100 milliarc-seconds or smaller angular separation. At the same time, astrometric data is required to measure planet masses and can help detect planets and constrain their orbital parameters. To minimize costs, a single space mission can be designed using a high efficiency coronograph to perform direct imaging and a diffractive pupil to calibrate wide-field distortions to enable high precision astrometric measurements. This paper reports the testing of a diffractive pupil on the high-contrast test bed at the NASA Ames Research Center to assess the compatibility of using a diffractive pupil with coronographic imaging systems. No diffractive contamination was found within our detectability limit of 2x10(exp -7) contrast outside a region of 12lambda/D and 2.5x10(exp -6) within a region spanning from 2 to 12lambda/D. Morphology of the image features suggests that no contamination exists even beyond the detectability limit specified or at smaller working angles. In the case that diffractive contamination is found beyond these stated levels, active wavefront control would be able to mitigate its intensity to 10(exp -7) or better contrast.

  5. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - Mixing Procedures and Materials Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinger, Becky D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kashgarian, Michaele [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Three mixing procedures have been standardized for the IDCA proficiency test—solid-solid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid. Due to the variety of precursors used in formulating the materials for the test, these three mixing methods have been designed to address all combinations of materials. Hand mixing is recommended for quantities less than 10 grams and Jar Mill mixing is recommended for quantities over 10 grams. Consideration must also be given to the type of container used for the mixing due to the wide range of chemical reactivity of the precursors and mixtures. Eight web site sources from container and chemical manufacturers have been consulted. Compatible materials have been compiled as a resource for selecting containers made of materials stable to the mixtures. In addition, container materials used in practice by the participating laboratories are discussed. Consulting chemical compatibility tables is highly recommended for each operation by each individual engaged in testing the materials in this proficiency test.

  6. Compatibility and infectivity of a Cercospora rodmanii formulation with enhancing agents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, J.C.; Theriot, E.A.


    A formulation of the fungus Cercospora rodmanii Conway has been produced, as a biocontrol of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.). To ensure the most efficient germination of the formulation, 12 potential enhancing agents were tested for addition during the spray application. The agents were aspartic acid, glucose, glutamic acid, gum xanthan, nutrient agar, Ortho X-77 Spreader, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80, sodium alginate, Super Slupper, and yeast extract. Compatibility of test agents and combinations of test agents with two lots of the formulation was determined in the laboratory. All combinations of test agents were compatible with both lots of the C. rodmanii formulation. The C. rodmanii formulation was sprayed with test agents on waterhyacinth pseudolaminae. Damage was monitored each week for 8 weeks by assigning a disease index to each original and new pseudolaminae. No spots having characteristics suggestive of C. rodmanii infection were observed at any time during the study. Lack of infectivity could be remedied by isolating a virulent strain of C. rodmanii from the field. Agents determined to be compatible in this study could then be reexamined for enhancing infectivity on a virulent C. rodmanii formulation. 14 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Compatibility and accelerated aging study for Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2 thermally activated batteries (United States)

    Mead, J. W.; Searcy, J. Q.; Neiswander, P. N.; Poole, R. L.


    Thermally activated batteries using the lithium (silicon) iron disulfide (Li(Si)/FeS2) electrochemical system are used in weapons having a required storage life of 25 years and high reliability. A review of known data revealed no information on the compatibility of Li(Si)/FeS2 with the organic materials used in the system. The compatibility question is studied. Accelerated-aging data on pairs of materials were produced. In addition, a group of production batteries was aged and tested. Three aging temperatures were used during the one-year study. Gas analyses, electrical tests and mechanical tests were compared for control and aged samples. Two results, the depletion of oxygen and an increase in hydrogen in the compatibility and accelerated-aging samples, stimulated additional studies. No unexpected or significant changes were observed in the electrical or mechanical properties of the organic materials. Calorific output and chloride ion content of heat pellets indicated no degradation with aging. Ignition sensitivity and burn rate measurements suggested no heat pellet degradation. Oxygen content in aged lithium (silicon) anodes remained within acceptable limits. Single-cell tests and battery test results showed no degradation with aging.

  8. Inheritance of self-compatibility in almond: breeding strategies to assure self-compatibility in the progeny. (United States)

    Ortega, E; Dicenta, F


    To assure self-compatibility in the progenies, three different crosses were conducted for the first time in an almond breeding programme: self-pollination (266 descendants from 30 families), crosses between parents sharing an S-allele (108 descendants from five families) and crosses with homozygous self-compatible parents (62 descendants from five families). Depending on the cross, self-compatibility in the progenies was determined by observing pollen tube growth (by means of fluorescence microscopy), stylar S-RNases analysis or allele-specific PCR. The results obtained fit with the accepted hypothesis of inheritance of self-compatibility and the three crossing strategies used ensured 100% of self-compatible descendants. These strategies increase the efficiency of the breeding programme and avoid the laborious task of evaluating this characteristic. From the breeding point of view, self-fertilisation and crosses between relatives tend to produce inbreeding. Furthermore, these methods reduce the possibilities of choosing the parental combination. The use of homozygous self-compatible parents does not have any of these disadvantages. As far as we know, this is the first time that allele-specific PCR has been used for early selection of self-compatible seedlings. The advantages and disadvantages of the three methodologies used to determine self-compatibility are discussed.

  9. Development of Recycling Compatible Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Severtson


    The objective of this project was the design of new water-based pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) products and coatings engineered for enhanced removal during the processing of recycled fiber. Research included the formulation, characterization, and performance measurements of new screenable coatings, testing of modified paper and board substrates and the design of test methods to characterize the inhibition of adhesive and coating fragmentation and relative removal efficiencies of developed formulations. This project was operated under the requirements that included commercially viable approaches be the focus, that findings be published in the open literature and that new strategies could not require changes in the methods and equipment used to produce PSA and PS labels or in the recycling process. The industrial partners benefited through the building of expertise in their company that they would not, and likely could not, have pursued if it had not been for the partnership. Results of research on water-based PSAs clearly identifies which PSA and paper facestock properties govern the fragmentation of the adhesive and provide multiple strategies for making (pressure-sensitive) PS labels for which the PSA is removed at very high efficiencies from recycling operations. The application of these results has led to the identification of several commercial products in Franklin International’s (industrial partner) product line that are recycling compatible. Several new formulations were also designed and are currently being scaled-up. Work on recycling compatible barrier coatings for corrugated containers examined the reinforcement of coatings using a small amount of exfoliated organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). These OMMT/paraffin wax nanocomposites demonstrated significantly improved mechanical properties. Paraffin waxes containing clay were found to have significantly higher Young’s moduli and yield stress relative to the wax matrix, but the most

  10. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Research Group: research questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Román Campos


    Full Text Available This paper summarises the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department’s Electromag- netic Compatibility Research Group (EMC-UNC activities during the last 30 years. The group was involved in developing experimental tools during the early 1980s, such as constructing high-voltage apparatus, developing high-voltage practical work for students and observing electrical discharges. These tools enabled the group to spend a decade focused on resolving one of the Colombian electrical sector’s main EMC problems: distribution transformer’s failures caused by lightning. For almost a decade this investigation was focused on understanding the causes of the extremely high failure index in Colombian rural areas, especially in the Rionegro basin. The main result of this investigation was a reduction by one order of magnitude in mean 10% distribution transformer failure rate. During this research work a noticeable pattern was observed of several electrically-isolated me- tallic bodies immersed in an electric field (i.e. floating electrodes. This was led to initiating floating electrode studies and for mulating a new scientific question, “How do corona electrical discharges interact with floating electrodes?” This new research question was dealt with during the second half of the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s. This investigation was related to using electrostatically-accumulated charge on a floating electrode. This question opened up four research areas: gas discharge physics, generating fast current impulses, harvesting energy from the electric field and the possibility of high impedance current sources. This paper has summarised the most relevant work done by the EMC-UNC group on these topics. This floating electrode research work started by formulating four patents. Fresh research questions for the 2010s were related to measuring lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP, intentional electromagnetic

  11. Automatic imitation? Imitative compatibility affects responses at high perceptual load. (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline


    Imitation involves matching the visual representation of another's action onto the observer's own motor program for that action. However, there has been some debate regarding the extent to which imitation is "automatic"-that is, occurs without attention. Participants performed a perceptual load task in which images of finger movements were presented as distractors. Responses to target letter stimuli were performed via finger movements that could be imitatively compatible (requiring the same finger movement) or incompatible with the distractor movements: In this common stimulus-response compatibility manipulation, the stimulus set comprises images of the response movements, producing an imitative compatibility effect. Attention to the distractor movements was manipulated by altering perceptual load through increasing the number of nontarget letter stimuli. If imitation requires attention, then at high perceptual load, imitative compatibility should not affect response times. In contrast, imitative compatibility influenced response times at high perceptual load, demonstrating that distractor movements were processed. However, the compatibility effect was reversed, suggesting that longer response times at high perceptual load tap into an inhibitory stage of distractor movement processing. A follow-up experiment manipulating temporal delay between targets and distractor movements supported this explanation. Further experiments confirmed that nonmovement distractor stimuli in the same configuration produced standard perceptual load effects and that results were not solely due to effector compatibility. These data suggest that imitation can occur without attention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. 输血相容性检测室内质控品制备技术优化与性能评价%Performance evaluation and optimization of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 张婷; 骆群; 汪德清; 马春娅; 冯倩; 陈鑫; 关晓珍; 张晓娟; 陈麟凤; 林子林; 潘纪春


    Objective To optimize the technology for preparing internal quality control (IQG) preducts for blood transfusion compatibility testing, and detect changes in performance indicators of IQC products during storage, and determine a reasonable processing and shelf life, and evaluate the application value of prepared IQC products. Methods B/RhD- healthy blood donor samples within 10 days of collection were mixed and centrifuged and prepared as mixed packed red blood cells and mixed plasma. Mixed packed red blood cells were divided into two groups, and one group was washed twice by using the MAP BBC preservative solution (MAP group) and the other group was washed twice with normal saline (Saline group)Washed red blood cells from the two groups, MAP red blood cell preservation solution, and the mixed plasma were mixed at 1:2:3 by volume. Antibody titer of IgG anti-D reagent was deteeeted,and the highest dilution resulting in 2 + agglutination strength was determined. According to the dilution determined, IgG anti-D reagent was added to the above red cell, MAP and plasma mixture. The two groups of mixed suspension were aliquoted in capped rigid plastic tubes and stored at 4℃. All quality control samples were placed in room temperature for 1 h every day. B antigen on the red blood cells, IgM anti-A antibody, IgG anti-D antibody , Na+, K+, LDH,lactate and free hemoglobin (FHb) concentration in the supematant were detected on 0,35,42,49 days of storage. Results The reactivity of B antigen and IgG anti-D antibody in two groups did not change significantly ( P > 0. 05). There were fluctuations in activity of IgM anti-A antibody ,but the changes of agglutination intensity were in the acceptable 1 + range. K+ and lactate concentration in the IQC products of the two groups significantly increased with prolonged storage time ( P <0. 01 ) ,but there were no significant differences between two groups on 35,42 days of storage ( P > 0. 05 ). FHb concentration in the IQC

  13. The relationship between therapist-client interpersonal compatibility, sex of therapist, and therapeutic outcome. (United States)

    Malloy, T E


    Explored the relationship between therapist-client interpersonal compatibility, sex of therapist, and psychotherapeutic outcome. The research sample consisted of 48 therapist-client dyads. The therapists were all graduate students enrolled in an individual therapy practicum, while the client sample was composed of 48 undergraduate female (mean age 19.3 years). The interpersonal compatibility of the dyads was determined from the FIRO-B results for each of the members' using a modification of Schutz's (1966) original mathematical schema. Therapy outcome was determined from pretherapy and posttherapy testing with the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and Mooney Problem Check List. A 3 X 2 research design with one concomitant variable (pretest) was used and data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance procedure. Results suggested that among this sample the sex of therapist did not have a significant differential effect. There was also a consistent lack of interaction effects between dyadic compatibility and sex of therapist. However, significant differences in therapeutic outcome across the levels of compatibility were observed.

  14. Final Report: A CdZnTe detector for MRI-compatible SPECT Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Ling-Jian


    The key objective of this project is to develop the enabling technology for future MRI-compatible nuclear (e.g. SPECT) imaging system, and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous MR and SPECT imaging studies of the same object. During the past three years, we have developed (a) a MRI-compatible ultrahigh resolution gamma ray detector and associated readout electronics, (b) a theoretical approach for modeling the effect of strong magnetic field on SPECT image quality, and (c) a maximum-likelihood (ML) based reconstruction routine with correction for the MR-induced distortion. With this support, we have also constructed a four-head MR-compatible SPECT system and tested the system inside a 3-T clinical MR-scanner located on UI campus. The experimental results obtained with this system have clearly demonstrated that sub-500um spatial resolution can be achieved with a SPECT system operated inside a 3-T MRI scanner. During the past three years, we have accomplished most of the major objectives outlined in the original proposal. These research efforts have laid out a solid foundation the development of future MR-compatible SPECT systems for both pre-clinical and clinical imaging applications.

  15. The compatibility of fingerprint visualization techniques with immunolabeling. (United States)

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C G; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G


    The chemical composition of a fingermark potentially holds a wealth of information about the fingermark donor, which can be extracted by immunolabeling. Immunolabeling can be used to detect specific components in fingermarks; however, to be applicable in the forensic field, it should be compatible with commonly used fingerprint visualization techniques. In this study, the compatibility of immunolabeling with two different fingerprint visualization techniques, magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, was investigated on fingermarks deposited on glass and on nitrocellulose membranes. With dermcidin as antigen of interest, immunolabeling was performed successfully on all developed fingermarks. We can conclude that immunolabeling is compatible with magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, which can be of great forensic value.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoqing; QIU Lingshi; WANG Dongsheng; WANG Yuanshen


    A 300MHz solid NMR study on the compatibility of ACR (poly (methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylate),in the ratio of 1:1)-PVC (poly (vinyl chloride)) blends is reported. Spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2)relaxation time of ACR, PVC and their blends are recorded in the temperature range from 215K to 355K.Experimental results indicate that ACR and PVC are compatible with each other and the domain size is smaller than 25 nm, but heterogeneities of molecular dimensions still exist. Some problems of mechanism of compatibility and data analysis are also discussed.

  17. Compatibility of Soybean Protein and Poly (vinyl alcohol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈婕; 肖茹; 顾利霞


    Bicomponent fibers were wet-spun from soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol). The fiber was brittle and showed a high frequency of breakage upon drawing and the bad compatibility between soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) was thought to be the causes for the poor drawability. Our effort was then to study the soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) solution, with the aim of trying to improve the components' compatibility and to determine the proper solution condition for dissolving them.The effects of alkali, sodium sulfite and urea on the compatibility of the solution were examined.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lei; Niu Zhisheng


    A spatial compatible user grouping algorithm is proposed to reduce CoChannel Interference (CCI) in Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) multiuser Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)systems. We evaluate the interferences among users by use of distances between row spaces spanned by users' channel matrixes, then control frequency sharing according to the compatible user grouping algorithm. Results show that the row space distance algorithm outperforms others because it can fully utilize the information from users' channel matrixes, especially the matrix structure information. The results also prove that the algorithm based on channel matrix structure analysis is a better candidate for spatial compatibility approximation.

  19. New optical architecture for holographic data storage system compatible with Blu-ray Disc™ system (United States)

    Shimada, Ken-ichi; Ide, Tatsuro; Shimano, Takeshi; Anderson, Ken; Curtis, Kevin


    A new optical architecture for holographic data storage system which is compatible with a Blu-ray Disc™ (BD) system is proposed. In the architecture, both signal and reference beams pass through a single objective lens with numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 for realizing angularly multiplexed recording. The geometry of the architecture brings a high affinity with an optical architecture in the BD system because the objective lens can be placed parallel to a holographic medium. Through the comparison of experimental results with theory, the validity of the optical architecture was verified and demonstrated that the conventional objective lens motion technique in the BD system is available for angularly multiplexed recording. The test-bed composed of a blue laser system and an objective lens of the NA 0.85 was designed. The feasibility of its compatibility with BD is examined through the designed test-bed.

  20. Compatibility of verapamil hydrochloride injection in commonly used large-volume parenterals. (United States)

    Cutie, M R; Lordi, N G


    The visual and chemical compatibilities of verapamil hydrochloride injection in 10 commonly used large-volume solutions packaged in glass, polyolefin, or polyvinyl chloride containers were studied. The mixtures, each containing 40 mg/liter of verapamil hydrochloride, were stored away from light for up to 48 hours at 25 degrees C. The solutions were examined visually for haze, precipitate formation, color change, and evolution of gas immediately after mixing and at 0.25, 1, 3, 8, 24, and 48 hours. Spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography were used to test for drug decomposition or chemical incompatibilities. All test methods used showed that no significant degradation of verapamil hydrochloride had taken place in the solutions or through contact with the containers. Slightly higher spectrophotometric readings for dextrose-containing solutions, though within experimental error, could have indicated the presence of dextrose degradation products. Evidence from this study suggests that verapamil hydrocholoride is compatible with the large-volume parenterals studied.

  1. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.


    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  2. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs. (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I


    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  3. The problem of the compatibility of bitumen sheets for the reconstruction and ehabilitation of roofs


    Plachý Jan


    During the renovation of flat roofs, the waterproofing layer is often repaired locally rather than completely replaced. When making such repairs, it is very important to know whether the proposed bitumen sheets are compatible in order to prevent delamination and the release of the joints. This paper deals with the determination of the resistance of bitumen sheet joints against peeling when combined with different bitumen materials. On the basis of the described test methodology it was possibl...

  4. Electromagnetic compatibility characterization of a BAe Stirling-cycle cryocooler for space application (United States)

    Johnson, Dean L.; Ross, Ronald G., Jr.


    This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measurements of an 80-K Stirling-cycle cooler. The measurements, performed in the JPL EMC test facility, include dc magnetic field characterization, radiated magnetic and electric field emissions, and conducted emissions on the internal lines between the cooler electronics and the cooler. The measurements conform to both the MILSTD-461C specifications as well as to the specifications for the NASA Earth Observing System.

  5. [Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan]: Compatibility Determination (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document states that the actions proposed in the 2000 Florida Panther NWR Comprehensive Conservation Plan are compatible with Refuge goals.

  6. Compatibility Determination : Hunting of migratory birds and resident game (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Compatibility Determination for the Minnesota Valley NWR and WMD proposed Hunting Plan. Refuge purposes are outlined and proposed hunting activities are...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fengfei; ZHANG Xian; HU Shiru; MA Dezhu; LUO Xiaolie; XU Mao


    Blends of PVC and polyurethanes with four different soft segments of molecular weight 1000 were prepared and studied by dynamic mechanical and DSC techniques. It was found that the compatibility of PVC with segmented polyurethanes was related to the mixing of PVC molecules and the soft segments of the polyurethanes. Polyester based polyurethanes are more compatible with PVC than polyether based polyurethanes. Solution cast blends of PVC with PCL-polyurethane (1/2/1) exhibit single and narrow glass transition, while the blends with PPO-polyurethane (1/2/1) are completely incompatible. The compatibility was found to decrease with increasing hard segment content for all the polyurethanes used. The methods of blend preparation may change the compatibility of PVC/PU blends through their influence on the mixing or demixing of the hard and soft segments.

  8. Optical glass compatibility for the design of apochromatic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruescu C.


    Full Text Available The design of apochromatic systems is difficult because of two problems: the glass sorts compatibility and the c1/ca arbitrary input ratio. The optical glass manufacturers offer a wide range of sorts, so that the choice of triplet compatible glasses becomes itself an important separate problem. The paper provides a solution of mathematical modeling for the glass compatibility and, practically, analyses the sorts presented by Schott GmbH. The original software provided 22 compatible glass triplets. The authors explored the possibilities of enlarging the c1/ca ratio from the value 0.6 indicated in the literature to a range of [0.5…0.8]. Therefore, they designed and analyzed a set of 88 triplets. A correct glass choice can insure twice-larger apertures than the traditional ones for best quality apochromats (diffraction-limited.

  9. Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MM Hall


    A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing.

  10. Nonclassical Symmetries for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations via Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa F. El-Sabbagh; Ahmad T. Ali


    The determining equations for the nonclassical symmetry reductions of nonlinear partial differential equations with arbitrary order can be obtained by requiring the compatibility between the original equations and the invariant surface conditions. The (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave equation, Boussinesq equation, and the dispersive wave equations in shallow water serve as examples i11ustrating how compatibility leads quickly and easily to the determining equations for their nonclassical symmetries.

  11. Backward compatibility effects in younger and older adults. (United States)

    Hartley, Alan A; Maquestiaux, François; Festini, Sara B; Frazier, Kathryn; Krimmer, Patricia J


    In many dual-task situations, responses to the second of two tasks are slowed when the time between tasks is short. The response-selection bottleneck model of dual-task performance accounts for this phenomenon by assuming that central processing of the second task is blocked by a bottleneck until central processing of Task 1 is complete. This assumption could be called into question if it could be demonstrated that the response to Task 2 affected the central processing of Task 1, a backward response compatibility effect. Such effects are well-established in younger adults. Backward compatibility effects in older (as well as younger) adults were explored in two experiments. The first experiment found clear backward response compatibility effects for younger adults but no evidence of them for older adults. The second experiment explored backward stimulus compatibility and found similar effects in both younger and older adults. Evidence possibly consistent with some pre-bottleneck processing of Task 2 central stages also was found in the second experiment in both age groups. For younger adults, the results provide further evidence falsifying the claim of an immutable response selection bottleneck. For older adults, the evidence suggested that Task 2 affects Task 1 when there is stimulus compatibility but not when there is response compatibility.

  12. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility (United States)

    Owens, Tom


    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  13. 75 FR 70241 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends (United States)


    ... AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends AGENCY: Environmental... tank (UST) compatibility requirement as it applies to UST systems storing gasoline containing greater... underground storage tank systems greater clarity in demonstrating compatibility of their tank systems...

  14. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  15. Lithium-copper molybdate voltage compatible battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, F.; Lazzari, M.


    Li/organic-electrolyte/CuMoO4 battery systems are evaluated experimentally at 1.5-V operating voltage and energy densities (0.5 and 0.3 mA/sq cm) typical of batteries used in microelectronic devices. Electrolytes tested include LiClO4 and LiCF3SO3 in propylene carbonate and LiAsF6 in butyrolactone. The results are presented in graphs and discussed. The superiority of LiClO4 as an electrolyte salt and the feasibility of CuMoO4 as cathode are demonstrated. The energy density of the CuMoO4-cathode cell when discharged at 0.3 mA/sq cm to cutoff at 1 V is found to be 440 Wh/kg, comparable to that found in a Cu2S-cathode Li cell. 5 references.

  16. Chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto polyurethane surface for improving blood compatibility (United States)

    He, Chunli; Wang, Miao; Cai, Xianmei; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Li; Zhu, Haomiao; Shen, Jian; Yuan, Jiang


    To improve hydrophilicity and blood compatibility properties of polyurethane (PU) film, we chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the surface of polyurethane film using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effects of grafting temperature, grafting time, monomer and initiator concentrations on the grafting yields were studied. The maximum grafting yield value was obtained 0.0275 g/cm2 for HEMA. Characterization of the films was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements. ATR-FTIR data showed that HEMA was successfully grafted onto the PU films surface. Water contact angle measurement demonstrated the grafted films possessed a relatively hydrophilic surface. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was preliminarily evaluated by a platelet-rich plasma adhesion test and hemolysis test. The results of platelet adhesion experiment showed that polyurethane grafted polymerization with monomer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate had good blood compatibility featured by the low platelet adhesion. Hemolysis rate of the PU-g-PHEMA films was dramatically decreased than the ungrafted PU films. This kind of new biomaterials grafted with HEMA monomers might have a potential usage for biomedical applications.

  17. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch. (United States)

    Wokadala, Obiro Cuthbert; Emmambux, Naushad Mohammad; Ray, Suprakas Sinha


    In this study, waxy and high amylose starches were modified through butyl-etherification to facilitate compatibility with polylactide (PLA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and wettability tests showed that hydrophobic butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starches were obtained with degree of substitution values of 2.0 and 2.1, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated improved PLA/starch compatibility for both waxy and high amylose starch after butyl-etherification. The PLA/butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starch composite films had higher tensile strength and elongation at break compared to PLA/non-butyl-etherified composite films. The morphological study using SEM showed that PLA/butyl-etherified waxy starch composites had a more homogenous microstructure compared to PLA/butyl-etherified high amylose starch composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PLA/starch composite thermal stability decreased with starch butyl-etherification for both waxy and high amylose starches. This study mainly demonstrates that PLA/starch compatibility can be improved through starch butyl-etherification.

  18. The effect of SNARC compatibility on perceptual accuracy: evidence from object substitution masking. (United States)

    Huffman, Greg; Pratt, Jay


    If given a relatively small number and asked to make a speeded parity judgment using the left and right responses, people typically respond faster with their left response. Conversely, if given a relatively large number, people usually respond faster with their right response. This finding, however, has primarily been shown using speeded tasks with response time as the primary measure. Here, we report an experiment testing if this remains to be the case in a non-speeded target identification. Using an object-substitution masking paradigm with no emphasis on response speed, number magnitude compatibility with the response hand influenced the accuracy of parity judgments. Given the non-speeded nature of the task, accuracy changes indicate that compatibility affects perception, rather than just response selection. This is explained using a common coding, feature integration approach in which stimuli and responses are represented in a common code and bidirectionally influence each other.

  19. Highly enhanced compatibility of human brain vascular pericyte cells on monolayer graphene. (United States)

    Kim, Jangheon; Kim, Soohyun; Jung, Wonsuk


    We introduce a method for increasing the compatibility of human brain vascular pericyte (HBVP) cells on a glass substrate, based on wet transferred monolayer graphene without any treatment. As a novel material, graphene has key properties for incubating cells, such as chemical stability, transparency, appropriate roughness, hydrophobicity and high electrical conductivity. These outstanding properties of graphene were examined by Raman spectroscopy, water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. The performance of this graphene-based implant was investigated by a cell compatibility test, comparing the growth rate of cells on the graphene surface and that on a bare glass substrate. After an incubation period of 72 h, the number of live HBVP cells on a graphene surface with an area of 1×1 mm(2) was 1.83 times greater than that on the glass substrate.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaosan; WANG Dexi


    The compatibility of PP/N-66 blending system modified with maleated polypropylene was studied by means of SEM, DMA and other mechanical testing. It was found that when proper amount of modifier was applied, the compatibility was greatly enhanced and the impact toughness was significantly improved. An important direct evidence of the formation of the interfacial copolymer was also found. However, when excessive amount of modifier was used, the modification effect was not conspicuous. The phenomena were interpreted from a view of molecular motion that the interfacial block copolymer forced the two components to 'compatibilize' and many flexible PP molecules were set free from the restraint of the crystallites of plain PP so as to absorb much more impact energy.

  1. Reduced sexual compatibility between cultivated and wild chicory and their F1 hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Toneatto, F.


    Crops were domesticated from wild plants not too long ago and have subsequently diverged from the wild ones, especially in traits used by humans. Whether divergence between the cultigen and wild forms has also lead to reduced reproductive compatibility is unknown for many species. Chicory...... (Cichorium intybus L.) has been bred as a crop at least since Roman times. To test if this has led to a loss in reproductive compatibility with wild chicory, we planted cultivar, wild, and F1 hybrid plants into two field plots, and let them pollinate freely. On 2 days, in the beginning and middle...... of the flowering season, we counted the numbers of flowering capitula and open flowers per capitulum, which in combination with counts of viable pollen per flower were used to estimate the expected proportion of seeds fathered by cultivar, wild, and hybrid plants. Open capitula on wild and hybrid plants were...

  2. Optimizing the compatibility between rating scales and measures of productive second language competence. (United States)

    Weaver, Christopher


    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model, they successfully defined a meaningful continuum of English communicative competence. In some cases, the expectations of the Rasch model needed to be weighed against the specific assessment needs of the university entrance examination. This investigation also found that the degree of compatibility between the number of points allotted to the different rating scales and the various requirements of an introduction speech played a considerable role in determining the extent to which the different rating scales conformed to the expectations of the Rasch model. Compatibility thus becomes an important factor to consider for optimal rating scale performance.

  3. Inheritance of S(f)-RNase in Japanese apricot ( Prunus mume) and its relation to self-compatibility. (United States)

    Tao, R.; Habu, T.; Namba, A.; Yamane, H.; Fuyuhiro, F.; Iwamoto, K.; Sugiura, A.


    Self-compatible cultivars of Japanese apricot ( Prunus mume Shieb. et Zucc.), a tree species that normally shows S-RNase-based self-incompatiblity, have a horticultural advantage over self-incompatible cultivars. Inheritance of self-compatibility and a common S(f)-RNase allele that is observed in self-compatible cultivars was investigated using progenies from controlled crosses. Total DNAs were isolated from the parents and progenies of seven crosses that included at least one self-compatible cultivar as a parent. These DNAs were PCR-amplified with the Pru-C2 and PCE-R primer pair to determine S-haplotypes of the parents and progenies. A novel S-haplotype, S(8), was found. In all crosses examined, the S(f)-RNase gene was inherited from either the seed or pollen parent as a pistil S-allele in a non-functional S-haplotype. Self-compatibility of about 20 trees each from reciprocal crosses of 'Benisashi ( S(7) S(f))' and 'Shinpeidayu ( S(3) S(f))', and 26 selections from 16 different crosses was tested by pollination and pollen-tube growth studies. Cosegregation of the S(f)-RNase allele and self-compatibility was confirmed with all but selection 1K0-26 ( S(3) S(7)). Selection 1K0-26 ( S(3) S(7)) that originated from 'Benisashi ( S(7) S(f))' x 'Koshinoume ( S(3) S(f))' appeared to be self-compatible even without the S(f)-RNase allele. The possible role of pollen- S, a presumably existing pollen component of gametophytic self-incompatibility, is discussed.

  4. Entomopathogenic fungi as biological control agents of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)and compatibility with chemical insecticides (United States)

    The objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi against Plutella xylostella (L.) and the compatibility of the most virulent isolates with some of the insecticides registered for use on cabbage crops. Pathogenicity tests used isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium rileyi...

  5. Compatibility and sex in a snail-schistosome system. (United States)

    Webster, J P


    Knowledge of the genetics underlying resistance to parasitic infection has important repercussions for our understanding of infection dynamics and the mechanisms of host-parasite co-evolution. The aim here was to determine for a Biomphalaria glabrato-Schistosoma mansoni system whether (1) resistance is dominant over susceptibility, (2) it is possible to crossbreed snails to be simultaneously resistant and/or susceptible to more than one parasite strain and (3) compatibility genotype affects reproductive strategy. Using replicate snail strains artificially selected for either resistance or susceptibility to single replicate parasite strains, individual snails from each line were paired with a selected partner of matched or non-matched compatibility status and cross-breeding was identified by RAPD-PCR. The resulting compatibility phenotype of all offspring was determined. Support for all 3 hypotheses were obtained. The results are discussed in terms of their applied and theoretical implications.

  6. Compatibility of novel blends from polyolefin and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fu-sheng(杨伏生); ZHOU An-ning(周安宁)


    Melt blends of low-density polyethylene(LDPE), ethylene vinyl acetate(EVA) and coal with various compositions were prepared through reactive extrusion. The rheological behaviour was studied with respect to the effect of blend ratio, shear rate using a rheometer to gain an understanding of processing parameters controlling industrial application. Compatibility was also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The results revealed that LDPE/EVA/coal is a partly compatible system showing pseudo-plastic behaviour, increase in viscosity with increased coal content appeares evident only at low shear rate region, viscosity tends to keep consistent approximately but irrelates to coal content at higher shear rate. Blends viscosity and compatibility are attibuted to changes in LDPE crystalline structure and entanglement, together with interaction between macromolecular aliphatic chains in coal and amorphous phase in LDPE and EVA at the boundaries of phases, which comes forth during the rearrangement process of the crystalline structure.

  7. The Compatibility in Optic Fiber Smart Concrete and Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The compatibility between a fiber optical sensor and concrete structure in the optic fiber smart concrete is studied.The methods of improving the compatibility are proposed based on theory analysing, and a novel fiber optical sensor was developed. The experimental results show that the novel structure of fiber optical sensor and the scheme of the protecting layer of epoxy resin bed composite not only enable the sensor to be applied in strict environment, but also can monitor the beginning propagation and breaking of concrete cracks. The results also indicate that the sensor will maintain its properties in the case of large deformation and that it has the high compatibility with concrete structure and can meet special needs of the intelligent materials and structure.

  8. Monolithic CMOS-compatible zero-index metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Vulis, Daryl I; Reshef, Orad; Camayd-Muñoz, Philip; Yin, Mei; Kita, Shota; Lončar, Marko; Mazur, Eric


    Zero-index materials exhibit exotic optical properties that can be utilized for integrated-optics applications. However, practical implementation requires compatibility with complementary metallic-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. We demonstrate a CMOS-compatible zero-index metamaterial consisting of a square array of air holes in a 220-nm-thick silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. This design is achieved through a Dirac-cone dispersion. The metamaterial is entirely composed of silicon and offers compatibility through low-aspect-ratio structures that can be simply fabricated in a standard device layer. This platform enables mass adoption and exploration of zero-index-based photonic devices at low cost and high fidelity.

  9. Compatibility and kidney transplantation: the way to go. (United States)

    Doxiadis, Ilias I N


    Long lasting debates in the past questioned the relevance of any sort of compatibility in post mortal kidney transplantation. It is for no say that fully compatible transplants have the highest chances for a long patient and graft survival. In the present report the use of HLA-DR as a representative of the Major Histocompatibility Complex class II genes in the allocation of organs is discussed. The major arguments are the easiness to offer to patients a compatible graft in a relatively short waiting time, an increase in graft survival, the less sensitization during the transplantation period, and the lower waiting time for a retransplant. Even if the number of organ donors remains the same a lowering of the mean waiting time is expected because of the longer period of graft survival.

  10. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly MCLR program technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymurski, S.R.; Hourahan, G.C.; Godwin, D.S.


    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) manages and contracts multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each subcontractor.

  11. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle


    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  12. Compatible finite element spaces for geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Natale, Andrea


    Compatible finite elements provide a framework for preserving important structures in equations of geophysical fluid dynamics, and are becoming important in their use for building atmosphere and ocean models. We survey the application of compatible finite element spaces to geophysical fluid dynamics, including the application to the nonlinear rotating shallow water equations, and the three-dimensional compressible Euler equations. We summarise analytic results about dispersion relations and conservation properties, and present new results on approximation properties in three dimensions on the sphere, and on hydrostatic balance properties.

  13. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status? (United States)

    Rossi, John


    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  14. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation (United States)

    Xiong, Chunle; Bell, Bryn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.


    Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon) and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  15. Oxygen Compatibility of Brass-Filled PTFE Compared to Commonly Used Fluorinated Polymers for Oxygen Systems (United States)

    Herald, Stephen D.; Frisby, Paul M.; Davis, Samuel Eddie


    Safe and reliable seal materials for high-pressure oxygen systems sometimes appear to be extinct species when sought out by oxygen systems designers. Materials that seal well are easy to find, but these materials are typically incompatible with oxygen, especially in cryogenic liquid form. This incompatibility can result in seals that leak, or much worse, seals that easily ignite and burn during use. Materials that are compatible with oxygen are easy to find, such as the long list of compatible metals, but these metallic materials are limiting as seal materials. A material that seals well and is oxygen compatible has been the big game in the designer's safari. Scientists at the Materials Combustion Research Facility (MCRF), part of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are constantly searching for better materials and processes to improve the safety of oxygen systems. One focus of this effort is improving the characteristics of polymers used in the presence of an oxygen enriched environment. Very few systems can be built which contain no polymeric materials; therefore, materials which have good impact resistance, low heat of combustion, high auto-ignition temperature and that maintain good mechanical properties are essential. The scientists and engineers at the Materials Combustion Research Facility, in cooperation with seal suppliers, are currently testing a new formulation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Brass filler. This Brass-filled PTFE is showing great promise as a seal and seat material for high pressure oxygen systems. Early research has demonstrated very encouraging results, which could rank this material as one of the best fluorinated polymers ever tested. This paper will compare the data obtained for Brass-filled PTFE with other fluorinated polymers, such as TFE-Teflon (PTFE) , Kel-F 81, Viton A, Viton A-500, Fluorel , and Algoflon . A similar metal filled fluorinated polymer, Salox-M , was tested in comparison to Brass-filled PTFE to

  16. Compatibility assessment of methods used for soil hydrophobicity determination (United States)

    Papierowska, Ewa; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Kalisz, Barbara; Łachacz, Andrzej; Matysiak, Wojciech; Debaene, Guillaume


    Soil hydrophobicity is a global problem. Effect of hydrophobicity on the soil environment is very important, because it can cause irreversible changes in ecosystems, leading to their complete degradation. The choice of method used to determine soil hydrophobicity is not simple because there is no obvious criteria for their selection. The results obtained by various methods may not be coherent and may indicate different degrees of hydrophobicity within the same soil sample. The objective of the study was to assess the compatibility between methods used to determine the hydrophobicity of selected organic and mineral-organic soils. Two groups of soil materials were examined: hydrogenic (87 soil samples) and autogenic soils (19 soil samples) collected from 41 soil profiles located in north-eastern Poland. Air-dry soil samples were used. Hydrophobicity was determined using two different methods i.e. on the basis of wetting contact angle measurements between water and solid phase of soils and with water drop penetration time tests. The value of the wetting contact angle was measured using the sessile drop method with optical goniometer CAM 100 (KSV Instruments). The wetting contact angles were determined at room temperature (20° C) within 10 min after sample preparation using standard procedure. In addition, water drop penetration time was measured. In order to compare the methods used for the assessment of soil hydrophobicity, the agreement between observers model was applied. In this model five categories of soil hydrophobicity were proposed according to the class used in the soil hydrofobicity classification based on water drop penetration time test. Based on this classification the values of the weighted kappa coefficients were calculated using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, 2013, Cary NC) for evaluating relationships between between the different investigated methods. The results of agreement were presented in forms of agreement charts. Research results indicated good

  17. Research on micro-structure and hemo-compatibility of the artificial heart valve surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Xia [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu Teachers University of Technology, Changzhou 213015 (China); Shao Yunliang [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou Ming, E-mail: [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li Jian; Cai Lan [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)


    In order to seek the method to improve the hemo-compatibility of artificial mechanical heart valve, the surface of rabbit's heart valve was observed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the dual-scale structure which consists of cobblestones-like structure of 8 {mu}m in underside diameter and 3 {mu}m in height, and the fine cilia of about 150 nm in diameter, was helpful to the hemo-compatibility of the heart valve. Therefore, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface with hierarchical micro-structure was fabricated using femtosecond laser fabrication technique and soft lithography. At the same time, the tests of apparent contact angle and platelet adhesion on both smooth and textured PDMS surfaces were carried out to study their wettability and hemo-compatibility. The results demonstrated that the surface with textured structure displayed more excellent wettabililty and anti-coagulation property than that of smooth surface. The apparent contact angle of textured surface enhanced from 113.1 deg. to 163.6 deg. and the amount of adsorbed platelet on such surface was fewer, no distortion and no activation were found.

  18. Absorption, metabolism and effect of compatibility on absorption of qishenyiqi dropping pill. (United States)

    Han, Yan-Qi; Wang, Jing; Cui, Qing-Xin; Wang, Li-Qiang; Cheng, Bin-Feng; Zhao, Hong-Zhi; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-An


    Qishenyiqi dropping pill (QSYQ), is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription for treating heart diseases in China. Knowledge concerning the systemic identification of active compounds and metabolic components of QSYQ is generally lacking. Therefore, it is essential to develop a valid method for the analysis of active compounds of the combined prescription and determination of interactions among the herbs. The absorbable compounds and metabolites of QSYQ were profiled using computational chemistry prediction, an improved everted gut sac in vitro experiment, the Caco-2 cell monolayer in vitro test, a rat in vivo experiment and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrum (UPLC/DAD/Q-TOF MS). In total, 42 prototype compounds were recognized as absorbable compounds, and eight metabolites were identified by UPLC/DAD/Q-TOF MS. The absorption rates of phenolic acids and saponins were significantly improved and the absorption of isoflavone was inhibited after compatibility. The volatile oil component had an improved effect on the absorption of other compounds, while its own absorption was inhibited. In conclusion, the present study established a rapid and effective strategy for demonstrating the absorption and metabolism of QSYQ and revealing the compatible relationship among herbs. This investigation can provide a reference for the compatibility of prescriptions and the modernization of TCM.

  19. Assessing Compatibility of Direct Detection Data: Halo-Independent Global Likelihood Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, Graciela B; Witte, Samuel J


    We present two different halo-independent methods utilizing a global maximum likelihood that can assess the compatibility of dark matter direct detection data given a particular dark matter model. The global likelihood we use is comprised of at least one extended likelihood and an arbitrary number of Poisson or Gaussian likelihoods. In the first method we find the global best fit halo function and construct a two sided pointwise confidence band, which can then be compared with those derived from the extended likelihood alone to assess the joint compatibility of the data. In the second method we define a "constrained parameter goodness-of-fit" test statistic, whose $p$-value we then use to define a "plausibility region" (e.g. where $p \\geq 10\\%$). For any halo function not entirely contained within the plausibility region, the level of compatibility of the data is very low (e.g. $p < 10 \\%$). As an example we apply these methods to CDMS-II-Si and SuperCDMS data, assuming dark matter particles with elastic s...

  20. Stability, compatibility and microbiological activity studies of meropenem-clavulanate potassium. (United States)

    Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Łysakowski, Piotr; Zalewski, Przemysław; Garbacki, Piotr


    Meropenem (MEM) and clavulanate potassium have been reported to demonstrate highly effective activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There have been no reports on research into the complex of these chemotherapeutics concerning their mutually dependent stability or microbiological action on other microorganisms. Stability and compatibility studies of MEM/clavulanate potassium were conducted by using an HPLC-DAD method. The antibacterial activity of MEM/clavulanate potassium was tested in vitro against a selection of indicator bacteria strains by determining the MIC as well as analyzing the kinetics of changes in the concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes caused by the action of MEM/clavulanate potassium. The stability and compatibility of MEM/clavulanate potassium were examined in aqua pro iniectione, 0.9% NaCl and 5% glucose at room temperature and at 5 °C. The degradation rates of MEM/clavulanate potassium depended on the type of infusion solvent used. Although in aqueous solutions of MEM/clavulanate potassium neither compound showed any mutual impact on the rate of degradation, clavulanate potassium was more labile than MEM. The synergy between these two resulted in a significantly lower value of MIC as compared to the values observed for the individual activity of either compound. The infusion solvent in which compatibility is observed between the components of the mixture MEM/clavulanate potassium is aqua pro iniectione. The complex MEM/clavulanate potassium demonstrates synergic antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes.

  1. Phylogenetic distribution of compatible solute synthesis genes support a freshwater origin for cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Blank, Carrine E


    Previous work using ancestral state reconstruction of habitat salinity preference proposed that the early cyanobacteria likely lived in a freshwater environment. The aim of this study was to test that hypothesis by performing phylogenetic analyses of the genes underlying salinity preferences in the cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of compatible solute genes shows that sucrose synthesis genes were likely ancestral in the cyanobacteria, and were also likely inherited during the cyanobacterial endosymbiosis and into the photosynthetic algae and land plants. In addition, the genes for the synthesis of compatible solutes that are necessary for survival in marine and hypersaline environments (such as glucosylglycerol, glucosylglycerate, and glycine betaine) were likely acquired independently high up (i.e., more recently) in the cyanobacterial tree. Because sucrose synthesis is strongly associated with growth in a low salinity environment, this independently supports a freshwater origin for the cyanobacteria. It is also consistent with geologic evidence showing that the early oceans were much warmer and saltier than modern oceans-sucrose synthesis alone would have been insufficient for early cyanobacteria to have colonized early Precambrian oceans that had a higher ionic strength. Indeed, the acquisition of an expanded set of new compatible solute genes may have enabled the historical colonization of marine and hypersaline environments by cyanobacteria, midway through their evolutionary history.

  2. Facile surface modification of silicone rubber with zwitterionic polymers for improving blood compatibility. (United States)

    Liu, Pingsheng; Chen, Qiang; Yuan, Bo; Chen, Mengzhou; Wu, Shishan; Lin, Sicong; Shen, Jian


    A facile approach to modify silicone rubber (SR) membrane for improving the blood compatibility was investigated. The hydrophobic SR surface was firstly activated by air plasma, after which an initiator was immobilized on the activated surface for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Three zwitterionic polymers were then grafted from SR membrane via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The surface composition, wettability, and morphology of the membranes before and after modification were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static water contact angle (WCA) measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that zwitterionic polymers were successfully grafted from SR surfaces, which remarkably improved the wettability of the SR surface. The blood compatibility of the membranes was evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. As observed, all the zwitterionic polymer modified surfaces have improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and have excellent resistance to platelet adhesion, showing significantly improved blood compatibility. This work should inspire many creative uses of SR based materials for biomedical applications such as vessel, catheter, and microfluidics.

  3. Development of a fiber based Raman probe compatible with interventional magnetic resonance imaging (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C.; Praveen, Bavishna B.; Rube, Martin; Cox, Benjamin; Melzer, Andreas; Dholakia, Kishan


    Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool for discriminating between normal and abnormal tissue types. Fiber based Raman probes have demonstrated its potential for in vivo disease diagnostics. Combining Raman spectroscopy with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) opens up new avenues for MR guided minimally invasive optical biopsy. Although Raman probes are commercially available, they are not compatible with a MRI environment due to the metallic components which are used to align the micro-optic components such as filters and lenses at the probe head. Additionally they are not mechanically compatible with a typical surgical environment as factors such as sterility and length of the probe are not addressed in those designs. We have developed an MRI compatible fiber Raman probe with a disposable probe head hence maintaining sterility. The probe head was specially designed to avoid any material that would cause MR imaging artefacts. The probe head that goes into patient's body had a diameter biopsy needles and catheters. The probe has been tested in MR environment and has been proven to be capable of obtaining Raman signal while the probe is under real-time MR guidance.

  4. A Study of the Relationship of Student-Teacher Compatibility on Student Achievement in Algebra. (United States)

    Easterday, Kenneth E.; Paul, Oliver Daye


    Comparison of seven levels of student-teacher compatibility with student achievement found a positive significant relationship between total compatibility and compatibility in the personal need for inclusion with student achievement. Limited evidence was also found for a relationship between achievement and pupil-teacher compatibility in the…

  5. Exploring the contributions of premotor and parietal cortex to spatial compatibility using image-guided TMS. (United States)

    Koski, Lisa; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Iacoboni, Marco


    Functional brain imaging studies have demonstrated increased activity in dorsal premotor and posterior parietal cortex when performing spatial stimulus-response compatibility tasks (SRC). We tested the specific role of these regions in stimulus-response mapping using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to the TMS session during performance of a task in which spatial compatibility was manipulated. For each subject, the area of increased signal within the regions of interest was registered onto their own high-resolution T1-weighted anatomic scan. TMS was applied to these areas for each subject using a frameless stereotaxic system. Task accuracy and reaction time (RT) were measured during blocks of compatible or incompatible trials and during blocks of real TMS or sham stimulation. On each trial, a single TMS pulse was delivered at 50, 100, 150, or 200 ms after the onset of the stimulus in the left or right visual field. TMS over the left premotor cortex produced various facilitatory effects, depending on the timing of the stimulation. At short intervals, TMS appeared to prime the left dorsal premotor cortex to select a right-hand response more quickly, regardless of stimulus-response compatibility. The strongest effect of stimulation, however, occurred at the 200-ms interval, when TMS facilitated left-hand responses during the incompatible condition. Facilitation of attention to the contralateral visual hemifield was observed during stimulation over the parietal locations. We conclude that the left premotor cortex is one of the cortical regions responsible for overriding automatic stimulus-response associations.

  6. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts. (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah


    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  7. Firo-B Interpersonal Compatibility: A Suggested Modification. (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Copeland, Ellis P.


    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Behavior (FIRO-B) scale is a measure of inclusion, control and affection. Examination of the component algorithms which yield its global compatibility score suggest an inconsistent use of absolute values and real numbers. A modification of Schutz's original mathematical schema is presented.…

  8. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN ChaoFeng; HOU ZhenDe; ZHAO Wei


    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies, bone tissues will grow into their porous structure, which will reinforce their strength and stiffness. The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around, as if they were part of the bone. The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior, due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate. In this study, split Hopkinson pressure bar technique (SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite, bones with and bones without organic com-ponents, and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained. The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed, by comparing the difference between the Young's moduli of the three materials. As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone, it can be regarded as an inclusion composite. The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness. The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is0.8, which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  9. 36 CFR 13.118 - Cabin site compatibility. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cabin site compatibility. 13.118 Section 13.118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.118 Cabin site...

  10. Time Course Analyses Confirm Independence of Imitative and Spatial Compatibility (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia


    Imitative compatibility, or automatic imitation, has been used as a measure of imitative performance and as a behavioral index of the functioning of the human mirror system (e.g., Brass, Bekkering, Wohlschlager, & Prinz, 2000; Heyes, Bird, Johnson, & Haggard, 2005; Kilner, Paulignan, & Blakemore, 2003). However, the use of imitative…

  11. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies,bone tissues will grow into their porous structure,which will reinforce their strength and stiffness.The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around,as if they were part of the bone.The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior,due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate.In this study,split Hopkinson pressure bar technique(SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite,bones with and bones without organic com-ponents,and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained.The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed,by comparing the difference between the Young’s moduli of the three materials.As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone,it can be regarded as an inclusion composite.The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness.The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is 0.8,which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  12. Operation Compatibility: A Neglected Contribution to Dual-Task Costs (United States)

    Pannebakker, Merel M.; Band, Guido P. H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard


    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in parallel. In 2 psychological refractory period…

  13. Macromolecular unfolding properties in presence of compatible solutes

    CERN Document Server

    Smiatek, Jens; Heuer, Andreas


    We present Molecular Dynamics simulations of Chymotrypsin inhibitor II and PEO in presence of compatible solutes. Our results indicate that the the native compact state of the studied macromolecules is stabilized in presence of hydroxyectoine. We are able to explain the corresponding mechanism by a variation of the solvent properties for higher hydroxyectoine concentrations. Our results are validated by detailed free energy calculations.

  14. On a conjecture of compatibility of multi-states characters

    CERN Document Server

    Habib, Michel


    Perfect phylogeny consisting of determining the compatibility of a set of characters is known to be NP-complete. We propose in this article a conjecture on the necessary and sufficient conditions of compatibility: Given a set $\\mathcal{C}$ of $r$-states full characters, there exists a function $f(r)$ such that $\\mathcal{C}$ is compatible iff every set of $f(r)$ characters of $\\mathcal{C}$ is compatible. Some previous work showed that $f(2)=2$, $f(3)=3$ and $f(r) \\ge r-1$. Gusfield et al. 09 conjectured that $f(r) = r$ for any $r \\ge 2$. In this paper, we present an example showing that $f(4) \\ge 5$ and then a closure operation for chordal sandwich graphs. The later problem is a common approach of perfect phylogeny. This operation can be the first step to simplify the problem before solving some particular cases $f(4), f(5), ... $, and determining the function $f(r)$.

  15. Creative Commons licenses and design: are the two compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Jasserand


    This article analyses whether Creative Commons licences are applicable to and compatible with design. The first part focuses on the peculiar and complex nature of a design, which can benefit from a copyright and a design protection. This shows how it can affect the use of Creative Commons licences.

  16. Compatible solutes in lactic acid bacteria subjected to water stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.


    The goal of the research project described in this thesis was to investigate the protective effect of compatible solutes on tactic acid bacteria subjected to drying. Dried preparations of lactic acid bacteria are applied as starter cultures in feed and food industries. Dried starter cultures compare

  17. Leaders, Leadership and Democracy--Are They Compatible? (United States)

    Schostak, John


    This article is taken from a talk given by John Schostak at the Co-Operative Head Office, Manchester on 25 September 2015. Question addressed in this paper include: (1) To what extent is leadership needed for a democratic life?; (2) What form of democratic organisation, if any, is compatible with leadership?; and (3) Is democracy undermined by…

  18. Preparation and Compatibility Evaluation of Polypropylene/High Density Polyethylene Polyblends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Horng Lin


    Full Text Available This study proposes melt-blending polypropylene (PP and high density polyethylene (HDPE that have a similar melt flow index (MFI to form PP/HDPE polyblends. The influence of the content of HDPE on the properties and compatibility of polyblends is examined by using a tensile test, flexural test, Izod impact test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, polarized light microscopy (PLM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The SEM results show that PP and HDPE are incompatible polymers with PP being a continuous phase and HDPE being a dispersed phase. The FTIR results show that the combination of HDPE does not influence the chemical structure of PP, indicating that the polyblends are made of a physical blending. The DSC and XRD results show that PP and HDPE are not compatible, and the combination of HDPE is not correlated with the crystalline structure and stability of PP. The PLM results show that the combination of HDPE causes stacking and incompatibility between HDPE and PP spherulites, and PP thus has incomplete spherulite morphology and a smaller spherulite size. However, according to mechanical property test results, the combination of HDPE improves the impact strength of PP.

  19. Unimodular sequence design under frequency hopping communication compatibility requirements (United States)

    Ge, Peng; Cui, Guolong; Kong, Lingjiang; Yang, Jianyu


    The integrated design for both radar and anonymous communication has drawn more attention recently since wireless communication system appeals to enhance security and reliability. Given the frequency hopping (FH) communication system, an effective way to realize integrated design is to meet the spectrum compatibility between these two systems. The paper deals with a unimodular sequence design technique which considers optimizing both the spectrum compatibility and peak sidelobes levels (PSL) of auto-correlation function (ACF). The spectrum compatibility requirement realizes anonymous communication for the FH system and provides this system lower probability of intercept (LPI) since the spectrum of the FH system is hidden in that of the radar system. The proposed algorithm, named generalized fitting template (GFT) technique, converts the sequence optimization design problem to a iterative fitting process. In this process, the power spectrum density (PSD) and PSL behaviors of the generated sequences fit both PSD and PSL templates progressively. Two templates are established based on the spectrum compatibility requirement and the expected PSL. As noted, in order to ensure the communication security and reliability, spectrum compatibility requirement is given a higher priority to achieve in the GFT algorithm. This algorithm realizes this point by adjusting the weight adaptively between these two terms during the iteration process. The simulation results are analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER), PSD, PSL, and signal-interference rate (SIR) for both the radar and FH systems. The performance of GFT is compared with SCAN, CAN, FRE, CYC, and MAT algorithms in the above aspects, which shows its good effectiveness.

  20. Compatibility of accounting information systems (AISs with activities in production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Vali Moghaddam Zanjani


    Full Text Available The intricacies of economic activities and growing increase in competition have made commercial units with the duty of production and financial data processing, orienting themselves with production cycle. This is considered as the heart of organization such that they could be more effective in decision-making. The method adopted in this research is descriptive – survey and it attempts to attain the objectives the researchers based on four independent variables including Production design, Programming, production operations and cost accounting. To test the hypotheses, the study adopts one sample T test method and to investigate uniformity of effects of each variable, Kruscal-Wallis test is employed. The results obtained from the tests indicate that AISs are not compatible with production cycle, where, in turn, has led to rejection of modern costing systems such as activity based costing (ABC.

  1. Interhemispheric versus stimulus-response spatial compatibility effects in bimanual reaction times to lateralized visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello ePellicano


    Full Text Available In the present study, we tested right- and left-handed participants in a Poffenberger paradigm with bimanual responses and hands either in an anatomical or in a left-right inverted posture. We observed a significant positive crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD in reaction times for both manual dominance groups and both response postures. These results rule out an explanation of the CUD in terms of stimulus-response spatial compatibility and provide convincing evidence on the important role of interhemispheric callosal transfer in bimanual responding in right- as well as left-handed individuals.

  2. Cost-Effective Cementitious Material Compatible with Yucca Mountain Repository Geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, LR


    The current plans for the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository project (YMP) use steel structures to stabilize the disposal drifts and connecting tunnels that are collectively over 100 kilometers in length. The potential exist to reduce the underground construction cost by 100s of millions of dollars and improve the repository's performance. These economic and engineering goals can be achieved by using the appropriate cementitious materials to build out these tunnels. This report describes the required properties of YM compatible cements and reviews the literature that proves the efficacy of this approach. This report also describes a comprehensive program to develop and test materials for a suite of underground construction technologies.

  3. Prediction of compatibility of crude oils with condensate (C5+); Previsao de compatibilidade de petroleos e condensado (C5+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilio, Evaldo Lopez; Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos, Antonio Carlos da Silva; Rolemberg, Marlus Pinheiro [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)


    Due to the recent raise of the national natural gas demand and to the need of flowing the condensates (C5+) produced from the NGPP (Natural Gas Processing Plant) by adding them to the streams of the crude oil, there was the need to carry out the compatibility prediction of one condensate with two onshore crude oils from Espirito Santo. The model to predict the compatibility among crude oils and among crude oils and oil products is based on the use of the solubility parameter of the oils. To apply it, the solubility parameter of each crude oil or oil product is measured and the parameter of their blend is calculated. If this value is beneath the asphaltenes flocculation parameter, the blend is incompatible; if it is above, the blend is compatible. In this article, the compatibility predictions were done according to the Solubility Parameter Model to two blends: the condensate C with the crude oil X and with the crude oil Y. The model predictions are that both blends are incompatible at given proportions. To check the predictions, the same two blends were experimentally carried out. It must be emphasized that the compatibility tests were done at atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of 15 deg C. These tests consist in adding the condensate to the crude oil with a titrater and visualizing the asphaltenes precipitation at an optical microscope. The experimental results were equivalent to the values predicted by the model. It is worth mentioning that there were several practical difficulties, as the high volatility of the condensate and the fact that the temperatures to determine the parameters and to carry out the tests were very lower than the operation temperature. Therefore, a security factor was applied on the predictions (less 20%). (author)

  4. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  5. A Novel Method for Evaluating the Cardiotoxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compatibility by Using Support Vector Machine Model Combined with Metabonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Li


    Full Text Available Traditional biochemical and histopathological tests have been used to evaluate the safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM compatibility for a long time. But these methods lack high sensitivity and specificity. In the previous study, we have found ten biomarkers related to cardiotoxicity and established a support vector machine (SVM prediction model. Results showed a good sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, in this study, we used SVM model combined with metabonomics UPLC/Q-TOF-MS technology to build a rapid and sensitivity and specificity method to predict the cardiotoxicity of TCM compatibility. This study firstly applied SVM model to the prediction of cardiotoxicity in TCM compatibility containing Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and further identified whether the cardiotoxicity increased after Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata combined with other TCM. This study provides a new idea for studying the evaluation of the cardiotoxicity caused by compatibility of TCM.

  6. A review of magnetic resonance imaging compatible manipulators in surgery. (United States)

    Elhawary, H; Zivanovic, A; Davies, B; Lampérth, M


    Developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coupled with parallel progress in the field of computer-assisted surgery, mean that an ideal environment has been created for the development of MRI-compatible robotic systems and manipulators, capable of enhancing many types of surgical procedure. However, MRI does impose severe restrictions on mechatronic devices to be used in or around the scanners. In this article a review of the developments in the field of MRI-compatible surgical manipulators over the last decade is presented. The manipulators developed make use of different methods of actuation, but they can be reduced to four main groups: actuation transmitted through hydraulics, pneumatic actuators, ultrasonic motors based on the piezoceramic principle and remote manual actuation. Progress has been made concerning material selection, position sensing, and different actuation techniques, and design strategies have been implemented to overcome the multiple restrictions imposed by the MRI environment. Most systems lack the clinical validation needed to continue on to commercial products.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta Dana Duda Daianu


    Full Text Available The team leader is the author of vision, mentor, guide, motivator, source of encouragement and supportive team. The leader helps team members to focus on the big picture of the project, to give the best of them, to follow the right path and stay united. Leader qualities must necessarily include its ability to work together, to be folded on the processes that describe functional and structural developments in embedded team. The issue of the leader development includes the necessity to concurrently form the skills of tem working. The working paper underlines that these two formative desiderate are compatible, correlative and complementary. So, in the study that we undertake we proposed to determine the degree of compatibility between the two demands of education, as follows: the training of leader capable to exercise also the specific activities of teamwork

  8. Poset pinball, GKM-compatible subspaces, and Hessenberg varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Megumi


    This paper has three main goals. First, we set up a general framework to address the problem of constructing module bases for the equivariant cohomology of certain subspaces of GKM spaces. To this end we introduce the notion of a GKM-compatible subspace of an ambient GKM space. We also discuss poset-upper-triangularity, a key combinatorial notion in both GKM theory and more generally in localization theory in equivariant cohomology. With a view toward other applications, we present parts of our setup in a general algebraic and combinatorial framework. Second, motivated by our central problem of building module bases, we introduce a combinatorial game which we dub poset pinball and illustrate with several examples. Finally, as first applications, we apply the perspective of GKM-compatible subspaces and poset pinball to construct explicit and computationally convenient module bases for the $S^1$-equivariant cohomology of all Peterson varieties of classical Lie type, and subregular Springer varieties of Lie type...

  9. Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel and skeletal muscle myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Li; Sun Liang; Wang Chengyue [Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Fan Ming; Liu Shuhong, E-mail: [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing 100850 (China)


    Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel (HAH) and skeletal muscle myoblasts has been investigated for the first time in the present paper. Skeletal muscle myoblasts were separated from skeletons of rats and incubated with a HAH-containing culture medium. Cell morphology, hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of the HAH scaffold were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hoechest33258 fluorescent staining, the immunocytochemistry method and water adsorption rate measurement. It was found that at a proper concentration (around 0.5%) of hyaluronic acid, the hydrogel possessed good compatibility with skeletal muscle myoblasts. The hydrogel can create a three-dimensional structure for the growth of skeletal muscle myoblasts and benefit cell attachment to provide a novel scaffold material for the tissue engineering of skeletal muscle.

  10. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.


    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.

  11. Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility (United States)

    Gaudette, Claude


    As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

  12. Environmentally compatible next generation green energetic materials (GEMs). (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Sivabalan, R; Mukundan, T; Muthurajan, H; Sikder, A K; Gandhe, B R; Rao, A Subhananda


    This paper briefly reviews the literature work reported on the environmentally compatible green energetic materials (GEMs) for defence and space applications. Currently, great emphasis is laid in the field of high-energy materials (HEMs) to increase the environmental stewardship along with the deliverance of improved performance. This emphasis is especially strong in the areas of energetic materials, weapon development, processing, and disposal operations. Therefore, efforts are on to develop energetic materials systems under the broad concept of green energetic materials (GEMs) in different schools all over the globe. The GEMs program initiated globally by different schools addresses these challenges and establishes the framework for advances in energetic materials processing and production that promote compliance with environmental regulations. This review also briefs the principles of green chemistry pertaining to HEMs, followed by the work carried out globally on environmentally compatible green energetic materials and allied ingredients.

  13. PEG-grafted PVA Membrane and Its Blood Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Gu; YAO Qi-zhi; DONG Li-quan; MA Feng


    Preparation and blood compatibility of different shape polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)membrane were investigated.Firstly,the tabular and tubular[polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE)capillary as supporter]PVA membranes were prepared; then,methoxy polyethylene glycol(mPEG)was grafted onto the surface of the PVA membranes.The effects of the shape,structure and properties of the membrane surface on blood compatibility were studied in detail.The experiment results show that mPEG modified PVA membranes,especially mPEG modified tubular membrane,could availably repel the adhesion of the platelets.In addition,the anticoagulant mechanism of mPEG with a steric repulsion effectiveness was confirmed further via different grafting methods.

  14. Compatible plant-aphid interactions: how aphids manipulate plant responses. (United States)

    Giordanengo, Philippe; Brunissen, Laurence; Rusterucci, Christine; Vincent, Charles; van Bel, Aart; Dinant, Sylvie; Girousse, Christine; Faucher, Mireille; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis


    To access phloem sap, aphids have developed a furtive strategy, their stylets progressing towards sieve tubes mainly through the apoplasmic compartment. Aphid feeding requires that they overcome a number of plant responses, ranging from sieve tube occlusion and activation of phytohormone-signalling pathways to expression of anti-insect molecules. In addition to bypassing plant defences, aphids have been shown to affect plant primary metabolism, which could be a strategy to improve phloem sap composition in nutrients required for their growth. During compatible interactions, leading to successful feeding and reproduction, aphids cause alterations in their host plant, including morphological changes, modified resource allocation and various local as well as systemic symptoms. Repeated salivary secretions injected from the first probe in the epidermal tissue up to ingestion of sieve-tube sap may play a crucial role in the compatibility between the aphid and the plant.

  15. Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, J.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

  16. On Rate-Compatible Punctured Turbo Codes Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montorsi Guido


    Full Text Available We propose and compare some design criteria for the search of good systematic rate-compatible punctured turbo code (RCPTC families. The considerations presented by S. Benedetto et al. (1998 to find the "best" component encoders for turbo code construction are extended to find good rate-compatible puncturing patterns for a given interleaver length . This approach is shown to lead to codes that improve over previous ones, both in the maximum-likelihood sense (using transfer function bounds and in the iterative decoding sense (through simulation results. To find simulation and analytical results, the coded bits are transmitted over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel using an antipodal binary modulation. The two main applications of this technique are its use in hybrid incremental ARQ/FEC schemes and its use to achieve unequal error protection of an information sequence.

  17. Comparative Study of Cross Browser Compatibility as Design Issue in Various Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Manhas


    Full Text Available In this current era of information technology websites are very important means of communication. Lot of efforts is required by different institutions / organizations to portray complete information on beautifully designed websites. Websites act as an online agent through which a user can get his work done without physically visiting the organizations. Website design is given with a very critical look by the designer so that it can provide users with all the facilities of the concerned institutions / organizations online. To make websites behavior similar in all the different browsers employed by the different categories of the users, the responsibility of the designer and the concerned institutions / organizations increases manifold. In this research paper author developed an online tool using .NET Framework using C# to study cross browser compatibility as Design issue in various categories of the websites like Job portals, Government, educational, Commercial and Social networking. The automated tool developed by author function on the basis of the different standards prescribed in W3C guidelines document UAAG 2.0 [7] and act like a parser and renders the complete code of the website and produces result on basis of the behavior of the websites in five most popular and widely used Browsers like parameters like Internet Explorer[7,8,9], Chrome, Safari, Fire fox. Each Browser is tested on the basis of the five parameters which are included in the parser are Blinking, Active X control, Website Resolution; image Formats, HTML Tag errors. The results obtained after testing five different categories of websites shows that educational and social networking sites shows least compatibility in multiple browsers where as job portals, commercial and government websites shows 100% compliance to the website design standards recommended by W3C w.r.t browser compatibility of different websites on different browsing platform.

  18. S3c, prototipos de vivienda construidos por componentes compatibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes González, J. Miguel


    Full Text Available What is the construction by compatible components about? Which are its plants? Which results and answers does it add? Which consequences and implications does it lead to? To these other questions related with the subject, this work tries to give answer, not by definitions and generalities which would fail in the field of a theoretical disquisition but by a review of determined prototypes and projects of dwellings built during the last ten years, which will lead us, on base of its descriptions, to expose out in particular: — Methodological conditions: "open orders". — Technological conditions: "compatible compounds". — Trade conditions: "open prefabrication". — Transformation conditions: actualization?¿Qué es la construcción por componentes compatibles? ¿En qué consiste? ¿Cuáles son sus planteamientos? ¿Qué resultados y respuestas aporta? ¿Qué consecuencias e implicaciones conlleva? A estas y otras cuestiones relacionadas con el tema tratan de dar respuesta estas páginas, pero recurriendo para ello no a definiciones y generalidades que podrían sucumbir en el mundo de las disquisiciones teóricas, sino haciendo referencia a prototipos y proyectos concretos de vivienda realizados en la última década que servirán para, a partir de su descripción, exponer las particulares condiciones que de los mismos se desprenden: — Metodológicas: ''órdenes abiertos". — Tecnológicas: ''componentes compatibles". — De mercado: "prefabricación abierta". — Transformación: ¿actualización?

  19. Object affordance and spatial-compatibility effects in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Galpin, Adam; Tipper, Steven P; Dick, Jeremy P R; Poliakoff, Ellen


    Movement in Parkinson's disease (PD) is strongly influenced by sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated two features of visual stimuli known to affect response times in healthy individuals; the spatial location of an object (the spatial effect) and its action-relevance (the 'affordance' effect). Poliakoff et al. (2007) found that while PD patients show normal spatial effects, they do not show an additional affordance effect. Here we investigated whether these effects are driven by facilitation or inhibition, and whether the affordance effect emerges over a longer time-course in PD. Participants (24 PD and 24 controls) viewed either a lateralised door handle (affordance condition), a lateralised abstract stimulus (spatial condition), or a centrally presented baseline stimulus (baseline condition), and responded to a colour change in the stimulus occurring after 0 msec, 500 msec or 1000 msec. The colour change indicated whether to respond with the left or right hand, which were either spatially compatible or incompatible with the lateralised stimulus orientation in the affordance and spatial conditions. The baseline condition allowed us to assess whether compatibility effects were driven by facilitation of the compatible response or inhibition of the incompatible response. The results indicate that stimulus orientation elicited faster responses from the nearest hand. For controls, the affordance effect was stronger and driven by facilitation, whilst the spatial condition was driven by inhibition. In contrast, the affordance and spatial-compatibility effects did not differ between conditions in the PD group and both were driven by facilitation. This suggests that the PD group responded as if all stimuli were action-relevant, and may have implications for understanding the cueing of movement in PD.

  20. Miniaturised Spotter-Compatible Multicapillary Stamping Tool for Microarray Printing


    Drobyshev, Alexei L.; Verkhodanov, Nikolai N; Zasedatelev, Alexander S.


    Novel microstamping tool for microarray printing is proposed. The tool is capable to spot up to 127 droplets of different solutions in single touch. It is easily compatible with commercially available microarray spotters. The tool is based on multichannel funnel with polypropylene capillaries inserted into its channels. Superior flexibility is achieved by ability to replace any printing capillary of the tool. As a practical implementation, hydrogel-based microarrays were stamped and successfu...

  1. Miniaturised Spotter-Compatible Multicapillary Stamping Tool for Microarray Printing

    CERN Document Server

    Drobyshev, A L; Zasedatelev, A S; Drobyshev, Alexei L; Verkhodanov, Nikolai N; Zasedatelev, Alexander S


    Novel microstamping tool for microarray printing is proposed. The tool is capable to spot up to 127 droplets of different solutions in single touch. It is easily compatible with commercially available microarray spotters. The tool is based on multichannel funnel with polypropylene capillaries inserted into its channels. Superior flexibility is achieved by ability to replace any printing capillary of the tool. As a practical implementation, hydrogel-based microarrays were stamped and successfully applied to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance.

  2. A compatibility study of FEFO with various containment materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, P. [Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States)


    Compatibility between FEFO (bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal) and a number of organic and metallic materials was evaluated at 22 and 74 C for up to 8 months. The metals included common structural alloys and elemental metals that the extrudable explosive might contact in its service life. The organic materials included flexible materials for use as collapsible extrusion membranes or permeation barriers, rigid engineering resins (matrices for composite vessels), and polymer viscosity modifiers.

  3. Assessment of DUPIC fuel compatibility with CANDU-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H. B.; Roh, G. H.; Jeong, C. J.; Rhee, B. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will require a quantitative analysis later. (author).

  4. Compatibility of novel blends from polyolefin and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.; Zhou, A. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China). School of Material Science and Engineering


    Melt blends of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and coal with various compositions were prepared through reactive extrusion. The rheological behaviour was studied with respect to the effect of blend ratio, shear rate using a rheometer to gain an understanding of processing parameters controlling industrial application. Compatibility was also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that LDPE/EVA/coal is a partly compatible system showing pseudo-plastic behaviour, increase in viscosity with increased coal content appears evident only at low shear rate, viscosity tends to keep consistent approximately but varies with coal content at higher shear rate. Viscosity and compatibility of blends are attributed to changes in LDPE crystalline structure and entanglement, together with interaction between macromolecular aliphatic chains in coal and amorphous phase in LDPE and EVA at the boundaries of phases, which appears during the re-arrangement process of the crystalline structure. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Eco-Anthropic Compatibility - a Multidisciplinary Model in Urban Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a multidisciplinary model of urban development which goes beyond the notion of ecological sustainability, by building on the concept of eco-anthropic compatibility. First of all I will sketch the historical development of human aggregations and I will underline the difference between ancient and modern aggregations. On the basis of this analysis, I will take into consideration the notion of sustainability and its possible application to present conurbations. I will underline several limits of the notion of sustainable development and I will propose a multidisciplinary model grounded on a broader and new notion: the eco-anthropic compatibility. Using this notion, which includes the idea of sustainability, it is possible to handle, within the model, the human factors and human living conditions inside an urban aggregation. Finally, I will state that the actual urban model is decaying and therefore, sooner or later, we will have to face the end of urban civilization; for this reason we can start imagining new future ways for human aggregations on the planet based on the notion of eco-anthropic compatibility.

  6. A Zeroth Law Compatible Model to Kerr Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor G. Czinner


    Full Text Available We consider the thermodynamic and stability problem of Kerr black holes arising from the nonextensive/nonadditive nature of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula. Nonadditive thermodynamics is often criticized by asserting that the zeroth law cannot be compatible with nonadditive composition rules, so in this work we follow the so-called formal logarithm method to derive an additive entropy function for Kerr black holes also satisfying the zeroth law’s requirement. Starting from the most general, equilibrium compatible, nonadditive entropy composition rule of Abe, we consider the simplest non-parametric approach that is generated by the explicit nonadditive form of the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. This analysis extends our previous results on the Schwarzschild case, and shows that the zeroth law-compatible temperature function in the model is independent of the mass–energy parameter of the black hole. By applying the Poincaré turning point method, we also study the thermodynamic stability problem in the system.

  7. Blood compatibility of polyurethane surface grafted copolymerization with sulfobetaine monomer. (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Rongbing, Bian; Ling, Tong; Jian, Shen; Sicong, Lin


    Surface modification is an effective way to improve the hemocompatibility and remain bulk properties of biomaterials. Recently, polymer tailed with zwitterions was found having good blood compatibility. In this study, the grafting copolymerization of sulfobetaine onto polyurethane surface was obtained through two steps. In the first step, polyurethane film coupled with vinyl groups was obtained through the reaction between the carboxyl group of acrylic acid (AA) and the NH-urethane group of polyurethane by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC). In the second step, sulfobetaine was grafted copolymerization on the surface using AIBN as an initiator. The reaction process was monitored with ATR-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. The wettability of films was investigated by water contact angle measurement. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was evaluated by platelet adhesion in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and protein absorption in bovine fibrinogen (BFG). Low platelet adhesion was observed on the grafted films incubated in PRP for 1 and 3 h, respectively. The protein absorption was reduced on the grafted films after incubated in bovine fibrinogen for 2 h. All of these results revealed that the improved blood compatibility was obtained by grafting copolymerization with zwitterionic monomer of sulfobetaine onto polyurethane film. In addition, introducing vinyl groups onto surface through DCC and AA is a novel method to functionalize polyurethane for further modification.

  8. Fitness consequences of parental compatibility in the frog Crinia georgiana. (United States)

    Dziminski, Martin A; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W


    Theory suggests that multiple mating by females can evolve as a mechanism for acquiring compatible genes that promote offspring fitness. Genetic compatibility models predict that differences in fitness among offspring arise from interactions between male and female haplotypes. Using a cross-classified breeding design and in vitro fertilization, we raised families of maternal and paternal half-siblings of the frog Crinia georgiana, a species with a polyandrous breeding system and external fertilization. After controlling for variation in maternal provisioning, we found significant effects of interacting parental haplotypes on fertilization success, and nonadditive genetic effects on measures of offspring fitness such as embryo survival, and survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis. Additive genetic variation due to males and females was negligible, and not statistically significant for any of the fitness traits measured. Combinations of parental haplotypes that resulted in high rates of fertilization produced offspring with higher embryo survival and rapid juvenile development. We suggest that a gamete recognition mechanism for selective fertilization by compatible sperm may promote offspring fitness in this system.

  9. In vitro artefact assessment of a new MR-compatible microwave antenna and a standard MR-compatible radiofrequency ablation electrode for tumour ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Ruediger; Rempp, Hansjoerg; Eibofner, Frank; Kessler, David-Emanuel; Weiss, Jakob; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Clasen, Stephan [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Blumenstock, Gunnar [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biometry, Tuebingen (Germany); Pereira, Philippe L. [SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Department of Radiology, Minimally Invasive Therapies, and Nuclear Medicine, Heilbronn (Germany)


    To evaluate and compare artefact configuration and diameters in a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible prototype microwave (MW) applicator and a standard MR-compatible radiofrequency (RF) applicator for MR-guided tumour ablation. Both applicators were tested in a phantom study at 1.5T with three sequences: T1-weighted three-dimensional volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), T1-weighted fast low angle shot (FLASH), T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE). Applicator orientation to main magnetic field (B{sub 0}) and slice orientation were varied. Needle tip location error (TLE) was assessed, and artefact diameters were calculated. Influence of imaging parameters on artefacts was assessed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc testing. MW applicator: the shaft artefact diameter measured 2.3 +/- 0.8 mm. Tip artefact diameter and length measured 2.2 ± 0.8 mm and 2.4 ± 1.3 mm, respectively. A prominent oval artefact (diameter: 16.5 +/- 1.8 mm, length: 19.1 +/- 2.5 mm) appeared close to the tip. TLE: -.3 +/- 0.6 mm. RF applicator: shaft and tip diameter measured 8.9 +/- 4.7 mm and 9.0 +/-.0 mm, respectively. TLE: -0.1 +/- 0.8 mm. Minimal artefacts were measured with RF applicator orientation parallel to B{sub 0} (P < 0.0001), whereas no such influence was found for MW applicator. For both applicators, significantly large artefacts were measured with T1 FLASH (P = 0.03). The MW applicator's artefact is satisfactory and seems useable for MR-guided ablation procedures. (orig.)

  10. Design and Fabrication of a Monolithic Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Chip Based on CMOS Compatible Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei-Feng; ZHAO Yong; WANG Wan-Jun; SHAO Hai-Feng; YANG Jian-Yi; JIANG Xiao-Qing


    A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit chip on a silicon-on-insulator is designed and fabricated based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible technology.The chip integrates an optical Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a CMOS driving circuit with the amplification function.Test results show that the extinction ratio of the MZM is close to 20dB and the small-signal gain of the CMOS driving circuit is about 26.9dB.A 50m V 10 MHz sine wave signal is amplified by the driving circuit,and then drives the MZM successfully.%A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit chip on a silicon-on-insulator is designed and fabricated based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible technology. The chip integrates an optical Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a CMOS driving circuit with the amplification function. Test results show that the extinction ratio of the MZM is close to 20 dB and the small-signal gain of the CMOS driving circuit is about 26.9dB. A 50mV 10MHz sine wave signal is amplified by the driving circuit, and then drives the MZM successfully.

  11. A materials compatibility study in FM-1, a liquid component of a paste extrudable explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goods, S.H.; Shepodd, T.J.; Mills, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, P. [Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States). Pantex Plant


    The chemical compatibility of various metallic and organic containment materials with a constituent of a paste extrudable explosive (PEX) has been examined through a series of long-term exposures. Corrosion coupons and mechanical test specimens (polymers only) were exposed to FM-1, a principal liquid component of PEX, at 74{degree}C. RX-08-FK is the LLNL designator for this formulation. Compatibility was determined by measuring changes in weight, physical dimensions, and mechanical properties, by examining the coupons for discoloration, surface attack, and corrosion products, and by analyzing for dissolved metals in the FM-1. Of the metals and alloys examined, none of the 300 series stainless steels exhibited adequate corrosion resistance after 74 days of exposure. Copper showed evidence of severe uniform surface attack. Monel 400 also exhibited signs of chemical attack. Nickel and tantalum showed less evidence of attack, although neither, was immune to the liquid. Gold coupons developed a ``tarnish`` film. The gold along with an aluminum alloy, 6061 (in the T6 condition) performed the most satisfactorily. A wide range of polymers were tested for 61 days at 74{degree}C. The materials that exhibited the most favorable response in terms of weight change, dimensional stability, and mechanical properties were Kalrez, PTFE Teflon, and polyethylene.

  12. Improved blood compatibility of rapamycin-eluting stent by incorporating curcumin. (United States)

    Pan, C J; Tang, J J; Shao, Z Y; Wang, J; Huang, N


    This paper dealt with improving the blood compatibility of the rapamycin-eluting stent by incorporating curcumin. The rapamycin- and rapamycin/curcumin-loaded PLGA (poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)) coatings were fabricated onto the surface of the stainless steel stents using an ultrasonic atomization spray method. The structure of the coating films was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the drug-eluting stents indicated that the surface of all drug-eluting stents was very smooth and uniform, and there were not webbings and "bridges" between struts. There were not any cracks and delaminations on stent surface after expanded by the angioplasty balloon. The in vitro platelet adhesion and activation were investigated by static platelet adhesion test and GMP140 (P-selection), respectively. The clotting time was examined by activated partially prothromplastin time (APTT) test. The fibrinogen adsorption on the drug-loaded PLGA films was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All obtained data showed that incorporating curcumin in rapamycin-loaded PLGA coating can significantly decrease platelet adhesion and activation, prolong APTT clotting time as well as decrease the fibrinogen adsorption. All results indicated that incorporating curcumin in rapamycin-eluting coating obviously improve the blood compatibility of rapamycin-eluting stents. It was suggested that it may be possible to develop a drug-eluting stent which had the characteristics of not only good anti-proliferation but also improved anticoagulation.

  13. Tapachula-7, a new genetic sexing strain of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): sexual compatibility and competitiveness. (United States)

    Orozco, Dina; Meza, J Salvador; Zepeda, Silvia; Solís, Eduardo; Quintero-Fong, J Luis


    A new genetic sexing strain of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), was evaluated in tests of sexual behavior to determine its possible application using the sterile insect technique. Tests in field cages measuring time to sexual maturity, compatibility with wild flies, and competitiveness were compared between the genetic sexing strain, Tapachula-7, and the mass-reared standard bisexual strain. The results indicated that the onset of sexual maturity was similar for both laboratory strains. Males from the Tapachula-7 strain do not differ from the standard bisexual strain in compatibility and competitiveness with wild insects. The results indicate that the release of Tapachula-7 males in the field would be viable in programs that use the sterile insect technique for the control of the Mexican fruit fly.

  14. 76 FR 39095 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends (United States)


    ... aggressive toward certain materials than independent fuel constituents, with maximum polymer swelling... Engineer (P.E.) to make a compatibility determination. Although using P.E.s to determine compatibility...

  15. 76 FR 46798 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction AGENCY... compliance with the Federal compatibility requirement for UST systems storing gasoline greater than...

  16. Microstructural characterization and chemical compatibility of pulsed laser deposited yttria coatings on high density graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sure, Jagadeesh [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India); Mishra, Maneesha [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Tarini, M. [SRM University, Kattankulathur-603 203 (India); Shankar, A. Ravi; Krishna, Nanda Gopala [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India); Kuppusami, P. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Mallika, C. [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India); Mudali, U. Kamachi, E-mail: [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India)


    Yttria coatings were deposited on high density (HD) graphite substrate by pulsed laser deposition method and subsequently annealing in vacuum at 1373 K was carried out to evaluate the thermal stability of the coatings. Yttria deposited on HD graphite samples were exposed to molten LiCl–KCl salt at 873 K for 3 h to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coating for the purpose of pyrochemical reprocessing applications. The microstructure and the corrosion behavior of the yttria coating deposited on HD graphite in molten LiCl–KCl salt were evaluated by several characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction and Laser Raman patterns confirmed the presence of cubic phase of yttria in the coating. The surface morphology of yttria coating on HD graphite examined by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy revealed the agglomeration of oxide particles and formation of clusters. After annealing at 1373 K, no appreciable grain growth of yttria particles could be observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was carried out for elemental analysis before and after chemical compatibility test of the coated samples in molten LiCl–KCl salt to identify the corrosive elements present on the yttria coatings. The chemical compatibility and thermal stability of the yttria coating on HD graphite in molten LiCl–KCl salt medium have been established. - Highlights: • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was deposited on graphite by pulsed laser deposition method. • Chemical compatibility of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in LiCl–KCl salt at 873 K was studied. • Gibbs free energy change was positive for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} reaction with Cl{sub 2}, U and UCl{sub 3}. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating exhibited better corrosion performance in molten LiCl–KCl salt.

  17. Investigation of Drug-Polymer Compatibility Using Chemometric-Assisted UV-Spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Mohamed, Amir Ibrahim; Abd-Motagaly, Amr Mohamed Elsayed; Ahmed, Osama A A; Amin, Suzan; Mohamed Ali, Alaa Ibrahim


    A simple chemometric-assisted UV-spectrophotometric method was used to study the compatibility of clindamycin hydrochloride (HC1) with two commonly used natural controlled-release polymers, alginate (Ag) and chitosan (Ch). Standard mixtures containing 1:1, 1:2, and 1:0.5 w/w drug-polymer ratios were prepared and UV scanned. A calibration model was developed with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis for each polymer separately. Then, test mixtures containing 1:1 w/w drug-polymer ratios with different sets of drug concentrations were prepared. These were UV scanned initially and after three and seven days of storage at 25 °C. Using the calibration model, the drug recovery percent was estimated and a decrease in concentration of 10% or more from initial concentration was considered to indicate instability. PLS models with PC3 (for Ag) and PC2 (for Ch) showed a good correlation between actual and found values with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.00284 and 0.01228, and calibration coefficient (R²) values of 0.996 and 0.942, respectively. The average drug recovery percent after three and seven days was 98.1 ± 2.9 and 95.4 ± 4.0 (for Ag), and 97.3 ± 2.1 and 91.4 ± 3.8 (for Ch), which suggests more drug compatibility with an Ag than a Ch polymer. Conventional techniques including DSC, XRD, FTIR, and in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for (1:1) drug-polymer mixtures were also performed to confirm clindamycin compatibility with Ag and Ch polymers.

  18. Creatinine and cytokines plasma levels related to HLA compatibility in kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine V. Alves


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The success of kidney transplantation depends on prevention of organ rejection by the recipient’s immune system, which recognizes alloantigens present in transplanted tissue. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA typing is one of the tests used in pre-renal transplantation and represents one of the most important factors for a successful procedure.Objective:The present study evaluated creatinine and cytokines plasma levels in kidney transplant patients according to pre-transplant HLA typing.Methods:We assessed 40 renal transplanted patients selected in two transplant centers in Belo Horizonte (MG.Results:Patients were distributed into three groups according to HLA compatibility and, through statistical analysis, the group with more than three matches (H3 was found to have significantly lower post-transplant creatinine levels, compared to groups with three or fewer matches (H2 and H1, respectively. The median plasma levels of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin 10 (IL-10 were evaluated according to the number of matches. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly higher in groups with lower HLA compatibility. On the other hand, the regulatory cytokine IL-10 had significantly higher plasma levels in the group with greater compatibility between donor and recipient.Conclusion:These findings allow us to infer that pre-transplant HLA typing of donors and recipients can influence post-transplant renal graft function and may contribute to the development and choice of new treatment strategies.

  19. Intention to Use Smartphone Through Perceived Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harries Arizonia Ismail


    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test the influence of perceived compatibility perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use smartphone using five hypotheses. Purposive sampling was used as the technique of sample collection. There are representative samples that are 92 respondents, consists of lecturers, students, and employees from AKI University in Semarang city. The data had been analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and it was processed using AMOS program version 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence on perceived compatibility toward perceived usefulness, perceived compatibility toward perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use toward perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use toward intention to use. However, perceived usefulness toward intention to use is not significant. It can be caused that reason of owning smartphones is only a prestige and the users do not understand benefit of it’s features.Tujuan penelitian ini menguji pengaruh persepsi kesesuaian, persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kemudahan dan minat penggunaan smartphone. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 92 responden yang terdiri dari dosen, mahasiswa dan karyawan universitas AKI di kota Semarang. Data dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dan diolah dengan program AMOS versi 16.0. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan pengaruh positif dan signifikan pada persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemudahan penggunaan, persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan dan persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap minat penggunaan. Namun demikian, pengaruh persepsi kemanfaatan terhadap minat penggunaan hasil dinyatakan tidak signifikan. Hal ini dikarenakan responden hanya menggunakan smartphones untuk prestis.JEL Classification: M3, M31

  20. Compatibility of conventional agrochemicals used in rice crops with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alves da Silva


    Full Text Available The toxicological impact of chemical pesticides on fungal entomopathogens and their use in tank-mixing can be directly measured through in vitro compatibility tests. This study reports the in vitro toxicity of eight insecticides, four fungicides and five herbicides in the conidial germination, vegetative growth and conidiation of Metarhizium anisopliae (strain CG 168. A conidial suspension containing the pesticide at recommended field dosage was subjected to constant agitation in a rotary shaker for 3h to simulate a tank mixing. Then, aliquots of each suspension were used to determine conidial germination, vegetative growth and conidiation on potato dextrose agar (PDA. The fungicides difenoconazole (69 mL ha-1, propiconazole (75 mL ha-1, trifloxystrobin (313 g ha-1 and azoxystrobin (56 mL ha-1 were the most harmful products to all biological stages of M. anisopliae and they should not be applied together with this fungus in tank mixing. The insecticides exhibited the least degree of toxicity to this fungal pathogen, whereas the herbicides had the greatest impact on mycelial growth. The agrochemicals compatible with M. anisopliae were the insecticides methyl parathion (240 mL ha-1, thiamethoxam (31 g ha-1, and lambda-cyhalothrin (6.3 mL ha-1 and the herbicides glyphosate (1560 mL ha-1, bentazon (720 mL ha-1, and imazapic+ imazapyr (84 g ha-1. The compatible pesticides could be simultaneously used with this bio-control agent for integrated pest management in rice production systems.

  1. Processing and characterization of a MEDIPIX2-compatible silicon sensor with 220 {mu}m pixel size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Anna; Froejdh, Erik; Thungstroem, Goeran; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Norlin, Boerje, E-mail: [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)


    Pixellated silicon detectors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m have been fabricated at Mid-Sweden University. The purpose was to make a detector compatible with the MEDIPIX2 readout chip with pixels large enough to avoid charge sharing to do spectral imaging. Two different guard ring structures have been tested to investigate leakage current and interpixel isolation in a sensor made on high resistivity silicon.

  2. Liquid oxygen LOX compatibility evaluations of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys: Investigation of the Alcoa 2090 and MMC weldalite 049 alloys (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.


    The behavior of liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys is investigated. Alloy systems of Alcoa 2090, vintages 1 to 3, and of Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) Weldalite 049 were evaluated for their behavior related to the LOX compatibility employing liquid oxygen impact test conditions under ambient pressures and up to 1000 psi. The developments of these aluminum lithium alloys are of critical and significant interest because of their lower densities and higher specific strengths and improved mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. Of the different LOX impact tests carried out at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), it is seen that in certain test conditions at higher pressures, not all Al-Li alloys are LOX compatible. In case of any reactivity, it appears that lithium makes the material more sensitive at grain boundaries due to microstructural inhomogeneities and associated precipitate free zones (PFZ). The objectives were to identify and rationalize the microstructural mechanisms that could be relaxed to LOX compatibility behavior of the alloy system in consideration. The LOX compatibility behavior of Al-Li 2090 and Weldalite 049 is analyzed in detail using microstructural characterization techniques with light optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis, and surface studies using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), electron spectroscopy in chemical analysis (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Differences in the behavior of these aluminum lithium alloys are assessed and related to their chemistry, heat treatment conditions, and microstructural effects.

  3. Experimental Measurements and Diagnosis of Radio/Frequency Space High Power and Electromagnetic Compatibility Effects (United States)

    Boria, V. E.; Nuno, L.; Monerris, O.; Smacchia, D.; Argiles, D.; Raboso, D.


    Radio-Frequency (RF) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) effects are becoming a major issue for the aerospace industry, especially due to the ever increasing demand of more communication channels, operating at higher operational frequencies with broader bandwidths, and to stringent requirements in terms of reduced mass, volume and footprint for satellite payload components. Additionally, RF breakdown phenomena (such as Multipactor, Corona and Power Handling), as well as Passive Inter-Modulation (PIM) effects, that can imply malfunctioning of satellite communication equipment and undesired interferences, are a common concern for the satellite industry. In order to mitigate all these undesired effects, or even to prevent them, experimental testing and diagnosis techniques are widely requested. In this contribution, state-of-the-art testing facilities and diagnosis techniques for successfully coping with all these effects will be presented, including the most recent advancements and future guidelines in the area.

  4. Modelling rate distributions using character compatibility: implications for morphological evolution among fossil invertebrates. (United States)

    Wagner, Peter J


    Rate distributions are important considerations when testing hypotheses about morphological evolution or phylogeny. They also have implications about general processes underlying character evolution. Molecular systematists often assume that rates are Poisson processes with gamma distributions. However, morphological change is the product of multiple probabilistic processes and should theoretically be affected by hierarchical integration of characters. Both factors predict lognormal rate distributions. Here, a simple inverse modelling approach assesses the best single-rate, gamma and lognormal models given observed character compatibility for 115 invertebrate groups. Tests reject the single-rate model for nearly all cases. Moreover, the lognormal outperforms the gamma for character change rates and (especially) state derivation rates. The latter in particular is consistent with integration affecting morphological character evolution.

  5. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) for Integration and Use of Near Field Communication (NFC) in Aircraft (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Cemal; Kiehl, Thorsten; God, Ralf; Stadtler, Thiemo; Kebel, Robert; Bienert, Renke


    For portable electronic devices (PEDs), e.g. smartphones or tablets, near field communication (NFC) enables easy and convenient man-machine interaction by simply tapping a PED to a tangible NFC user interface. Usage of NFC technology in the air transport system is supposed to facilitate travel processes and self-services for passengers and to support digital interaction with other participating stakeholders. One of the potential obstacles to benefit from NFC technology in the aircraft cabin is the lack of an explicit qualification guideline for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing. In this paper, we propose a methodology for EMC testing and for characterizing NFC devices and their emissions according to aircraft industry standards (RTCA DO-160, DO-294, DO-307 and EUROCAE ED- 130). A potential back-door coupling scenario of radiated NFC emissions and possible effects to nearby aircraft wiring are discussed. A potential front-door- coupling effect on NAV/COM equipment is not investigated in this paper.

  6. Compatibility of the Radio Frequency Mass Gauge with Composite Tanks (United States)

    Zimmerli, Greg; Mueller, Carl


    The radio frequency mass gauge (RFMG) is a low-gravity propellant quantity gauge being developed at NASA for possible use in long-duration space missions utilizing cryogenic propellants. As part of the RFMG technology development process, we evaluated the compatibility of the RFMG with a graphite-epoxy composite material used to construct propellant tanks. The key material property that can affect compatibility with the RFMG is the electrical conductivity. Using samples of 8552IM7 graphite-epoxy composite, we characterized the resistivity and reflectivity over a range of frequencies. An RF impedance analyzer was used to characterize the out-of-plane electrical properties (along the sample thickness) in the frequency range 10 to 1800 MHZ. The resistivity value at 500 MHz was 4.8 ohm-cm. Microwave waveguide measurements of samples in the range 1.7 2.6 GHz, performed by inserting the samples into a WR-430 waveguide, showed reflectivity values above 98. Together, these results suggested that a tank constructed from graphite-epoxy composite would produce good quality electromagnetic tank modes, which is needed for the RFMG. This was verified by room-temperature measurements of the electromagnetic modes of a 2.4 m diameter tank constructed by Boeing from similar graphite-epoxy composite material. The quality factor Q of the tank electromagnetic modes, measured via RF reflection measurements from an antenna mounted in the tank, was typically in the range 400 Q 3000. The good quality modes observed in the tank indicate that the RFMG is compatible with graphite-epoxy tanks, and thus the RFMG could be used as a low-gravity propellant quantity gauge in such tanks filled with cryogenic propellants.

  7. 47 CFR 64.608 - Provision of hearing aid compatible telephones by exchange carriers. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision of hearing aid compatible telephones... Provision of hearing aid compatible telephones by exchange carriers. In the absence of alternative suppliers in an exchange area, an exchange carrier must provide a hearing aid compatible telephone, as...

  8. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  9. 46 CFR 150.160 - Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.160 Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart. The Operator of a vessel having on board a cargo carried as an exception under §...

  10. 49 CFR 350.333 - What are the guidelines for the compatibility review? (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the guidelines for the compatibility... the compatibility review? (a) The State law or regulation must apply to all segments of the motor... regulations reviewed for the CDL compliance report are excluded from the compatibility review. (c)...

  11. Central Cross-Talk in Task Switching : Evidence from Manipulating Input-Output Modality Compatibility (United States)

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring


    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and…

  12. 47 CFR 68.224 - Notice of non-hearing aid compatibility. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of non-hearing aid compatibility. 68.224 Section 68.224 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... § 68.224 Notice of non-hearing aid compatibility. Every non-hearing aid compatible telephone...

  13. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Pitman, Stan G.; Dahl, Michael E.; Henager, Charles H.


    Abstract: Hydrogen is being considered as a next-generation clean burning fuel. However, hydrogen has well known materials issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals. Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators in hydrogen fuel technology. We present studies of materials compatibility of piezoelectric films in a high pressure hydrogen environment. Absorption of high pressure hydrogen was studied with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

  14. Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Group VA-H3 (United States)

    Armanda, Carlos A.


    During the eight weeks working at NASA, I was fortunate enough to work with the Expendable Launch Vehicle's (ELV) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Team, who is responsible for the evaluation and analysis of any EMI risk an ELV mission might face. This group of people concern themselves with practically any form of electromagnetic interference that may risk the safety of a rocket, a mission, or even people. Taking this into consideration, the group investigates natural forms of interference, such as lightning, to manmade interferences, such as antennas.

  15. Satellite antenna layout and optimization in electromagnetic compatibility design (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshuo; Xie, Shuguo; Liu, Yan


    This paper firstly analyzes the main factors that impact the layout of satellite antenna. The uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) is used to establish mathematical model for calculating the coupling of satellite antenna, and set up the objective function of the placement optimization. The genetic algorithm incorporating high-frequency simulation to minimize antenna coupling by optimally positioning satellite antenna is described in detail. The results of antenna placement on a realistic satellite show that this method is effective in the optimal design of satellite antenna layout for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility.

  16. Chemical compatibility of structural materials in alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R. [Argonne National Lab., Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others


    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the chemical compatibility of structural alloys such as V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloy and Type 316 stainless steel for application in liquid alkali metals such as lithium and sodium-78 wt.% potassium (NaK) at temperatures in the range that are of interest for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); (b) evaluate the transfer of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen between structural materials and liquid metals; and (c) evaluate the effects of such transfers on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the materials for long-term service in liquid-metal-environments.

  17. Advanced Machinery Liquid Metal Wetting, Cleaning and Materials Compatibility Study (United States)


    barium doped NaK 7 8 at temperatures to lOO 0 C for 250 and 500 hours. Doping of the liquid metal created no compatibility... metal - solid metal interface specific contact resistance (ck). Two liquid metal compositions were used, NaK 7 8 and barium doped NaK 7 8 . The...three with NaK - barium as the liquid metal and eight with NaK . They were ranked in ascending value of mean interface specific contact

  18. Study on the mating compatibility of part pear varieties and wild types of Pyrus ussuriensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To understand the mating compatibility of Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.,we studied the fertility of pollen and conducted a hand-pollination trial in the field on some pear varieties and wild types.The results showed that about 53% of varieties among 32 tested genotypes were male sterile.Not only did the pollen vitalities in normal varieties show distinct differences,but pollen vitalities from flower forcing in a glasshouse were found to be lower than those from natural flowering in the field,which had no apparent effect on fruit setting of tested varieties.Most of the tested genotypes such as Nanguoli,Pingxiangli,and Hanxiangli showed selfincompatibility (SI).Honghuagaili could bear fruit after hand pollination,but there were abnormal seeds in its fruits.So we suggested it was a recessive SI that happened during embryo development.Longxiangli has the capacity of self-compatibility (SC) to some extent,its fruit setting rate of inflorescence could reach 23.3%.Manual self-pollination during bud flowering could improve the fruit setting rate of part tested genotypes with SI,but had no effect on the fruit setting rate 3 days after flowering.Mating between female parents with the variety selected from F1 generation showed that the majority of their combinations were compatible.There was one-way SC when Nanguoli was crossed with Hanhongli,while no fruits could be found after Hanhongli was crossed with Nanguoli.It may be related to the S-genotype or haplotype of Nanguoli.In addition,mating between the varieties derived from bud mutation with the female parent appeared incompatible.We concluded that P.ussuriensis similar to other grown pear systems with the characteristics of SI,the fruit setting rate of self pollination in some varieties and wild types can be improved by artificial self-pollination during bud flowering,and fruit cannot be developed through pollination between the varieties from bud mutation and the female parent.

  19. Pistil-function breakdown in a new S-allele of European pear, S21*, confers self-compatibility. (United States)

    Sanzol, Javier


    European pear exhibits RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility controlled by the polymorphic S-locus. S-allele diversity of cultivars has been extensively investigated; however, no mutant alleles conferring self-compatibility have been reported. In this study, two European pear cultivars, 'Abugo' and 'Ceremeño', were classified as self-compatible after fruit/seed setting and pollen tube growth examination. S-genotyping through S-PCR and sequencing identified a new S-RNase allele in the two cultivars, with identical deduced amino acid sequence as S(21), but differing at the nucleotide level. Test-pollinations and analysis of descendants suggested that the new allele is a self-compatible pistil-mutated variant of S(21), so it was named S(21)*. S-genotypes assigned to 'Abugo' and 'Ceremeño' were S(10)S(21)* and S(21)*S(25) respectively, of which S(25) is a new functional S-allele of European pear. Reciprocal crosses between cultivars bearing S(21) and S(21)* indicated that both alleles exhibit the same pollen function; however, cultivars bearing S(21)* had impaired pistil-S function as they failed to reject either S(21) or S (21)* pollen. RT-PCR analysis showed absence of S(21)* -RNase gene expression in styles of 'Abugo' and 'Ceremeño', suggesting a possible origin for S(21)* pistil dysfunction. Two polymorphisms found within the S-RNase genomic region (a retrotransposon insertion within the intron of S(21)* and indels at the 3'UTR) might explain the different pattern of expression between S(21) and S(21)*. Evaluation of cultivars with unknown S-genotype identified another cultivar 'Azucar Verde' bearing S(21)*, and pollen tube growth examination confirmed self-compatibility for this cultivar as well. This is the first report of a mutated S-allele conferring self-compatibility in European pear.

  20. Dimerization drives EGFR endocytosis through two sets of compatible endocytic codes. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang


    We have shown previously that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) endocytosis is controlled by EGFR dimerization. However, it is not clear how the dimerization drives receptor internalization. We propose that EGFR endocytosis is driven by dimerization, bringing two sets of endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor monomer, in close proximity. Here, we tested this hypothesis by generating specific homo- or hetero-dimers of various receptors and their mutants. We show that ErbB2 and ErbB3 homodimers are endocytosis deficient owing to the lack of endocytic codes. Interestingly, EGFR-ErbB2 or EGFR-ErbB3 heterodimers are also endocytosis deficient. Moreover, the heterodimer of EGFR and the endocytosis-deficient mutant EGFRΔ1005-1017 is also impaired in endocytosis. These results indicate that two sets of endocytic codes are required for receptor endocytosis. We found that an EGFR-PDGFRβ heterodimer is endocytosis deficient, although both EGFR and PDGFRβ homodimers are endocytosis-competent, indicating that two compatible sets of endocytic codes are required. Finally, we found that to mediate the endocytosis of the receptor dimer, the two sets of compatible endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor molecule, have to be spatially coordinated.

  1. Improved thermal cycling durability and PCR compatibility of polymer coated quantum dot (United States)

    Xun, Zhe; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Guan, Yifu


    Quantum dots have experienced rapid development in imaging, labeling and sensing in medicine and life science. To be suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, we have tested QD thermal cycling durability and compatibility, which have not been addressed in previous reports. In this study, we synthesized CdSe/ZnS QDs with a surface modification with high-MW amphiphilic copolymers and observed that Mg2+ ions in the PCR reaction could induce the QDs to precipitate and reduce their fluorescence signal significantly after thermal cycling. To overcome this problem, we used mPEG2000 to conjugate the QD surface for further protection, and found that this modification enables QDs to endure 40 thermal cycles in the presence of other components essential for PCR reactions. We have also identified that QDs have different effects on rTaq and Ex Taq polymerization systems. A high QD concentration could apparently reduce the PCR efficiency, but this inhibition was relieved significantly in the Ex PCR system as the concentration of Ex Taq polymerase was increased. Real-time PCR amplification results showed that QDs could provide a sufficiently measurable fluorescence signal without excessively inhibiting the DNA amplification. Based on this improved thermal cycling durability and compatibility with the PCR system, QDs have the potential to be developed as stable fluorescent sensors in PCR and real-time PCR amplification.

  2. Negative inbreeding effects in tree fruit breeding: self-compatibility transmission in almond. (United States)

    Alonso Segura, J M; Socias I Company, R


    Inbreeding depression has been observed in most fruit trees, negatively affecting the offspring of related parents. This problem is steadily increasing due to the repeated utilization of parents in breeding programmes. In almond, self-compatibility transmission from 'Tuono' to its offspring remains partially unexplained due to deviations from the expected genotype ratios. In order to test if these deviations could be due to inbreeding, the S-genotypes of the seedlings of four almond families, 'Tuono' (S(1)S(f )) x 'Ferragnès' (S(1)S(3)), 'Tuono' (S(1)S(f)) x 'Ferralise' (S(1)S(3)) and reciprocal crosses were studied. The S-genotype determination of each seedling by separation of stylar S-RNases and by S-allele-specific PCR amplification gave identical results. The ratio of S-genotypes of the family 'Tuono' x 'Ferralise' was the one least adjusted to the expected 1:1 ratio, because the number of self-compatible seedlings (S(f)S(3)) was less than a half the number of self-incompatible ones (S(1)S(3)). A mechanism acting against inbreeding would favour cross-breeding in the following generation to increase heterozygosity. This fact stresses the need to avoid crosses between related parents in fruit breeding programmes.

  3. Drug-Drug/Drug-Excipient Compatibility Studies on Curcumin using Non-Thermal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthi Chidambaram


    Full Text Available Purpose: Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol isolated from dried rhizome of turmeric. Clinical usefulness of curcumin in the treatment of cancer is limited due to poor aqueous solubility, hydrolytic degradation, metabolism, and poor oral bioavailability. To overcome these limitations, we proposed to fabricate curcumin-piperine, curcumin-quercetin and curcumin-silibinin loaded polymeric nanoformulation. However, unfavourable combinations of drug-drug and drug-excipient may result in interaction and rises the safety concern. Hence, the present study was aimed to assess the interaction of curcumin with excipients used in nanoformulations. Methods: Isothermal stress testing method was used to assess the compatibility of drug-drug/drug-excipient. Results: The combination of curcumin-piperine, curcumin-quercetin, curcumin-silibinin and the combination of other excipients with curcumin, piperine, quercetin and silibinin have not shown any significant physical and chemical instability. Conclusion: The study concludes that the curcumin, piperine, quercetin and silibinin is compatible with each other and with other excipients.

  4. Facile Conjugation of Heparin onto Titanium Surfaces via Dopamine Inspired Coatings for Improving Blood Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guicai; XIE Bing; PAN Changjiang; YANG Ping; DING Hongyan; HUANG Nan


    Immobilization of heparin on biomaterials surface has been proven to be an effective strategy for preventing thrombus formation. However, the procedures of most immobilization methods (physical adsorption, covalent linkage, electrostatic interaction) are complicated and time-consuming. In the present study, heparin with various concentrations immobilized on a titanium (Ti) substrate via polydopamine layer for improving blood compatibility was investigated. Water contact angle measurement showed that the immobilization of heparin resulted in an increase of the hydrophilicity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Toluidine Blue O (TBO) tests displayed that the heparin molecules were successfully immobilized on Ti surface. The evaluations of blood compatibility (hemolysis rate, APTT, platelet adhesion and activation, fibrinogen conformational change) showed that the immobilization of heparin decreased hemolysis rate, prolonged blood coagulation time, reduced platelets adhesion and activation, and induced less fibrinogen conformational change. Moreover, a significant inhibition of blood coagulation and platelet adhesion was obtained when the heparin concentration was higher than 5 mg/mL, indicating that only with a certain surface densities could heparin perform its anticoagulant properties well. The results suggest that the immobilization of heparin via polydopamine layer can confer excellent antithrombotic properties, and the heparin immobilization method via polydopamine layer provides an alternative approach for other biomolecules immobilization on biomaterials surface. Thus it is envisaged that this method will be potentially useful for the surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials.

  5. Novel electro-optical coupling technique for magnetic resonance-compatible positron emission tomography detectors. (United States)

    Olcott, Peter D; Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S


    A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible positron emission tomography (PET) detector design is being developed that uses electro-optical coupling to bring the amplitude and arrival time information of high-speed PET detector scintillation pulses out of an MRI system. The electro-optical coupling technology consists of a magnetically insensitive photodetector output signal connected to a nonmagnetic vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diode that is coupled to a multimode optical fiber. This scheme essentially acts as an optical wire with no influence on the MRI system. To test the feasibility of this approach, a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a single pixel of a solid-state photomultiplier array was placed in coincidence with a lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube with both the new nonmagnetic VCSEL coupling and the standard coaxial cable signal transmission scheme. No significant change was observed in 511 keV photopeak energy resolution and coincidence time resolution. This electro-optical coupling technology enables an MRI-compatible PET block detector to have a reduced electromagnetic footprint compared with the signal transmission schemes deployed in the current MRI/PET designs.

  6. Novel Electro-Optical Coupling Technique for Magnetic Resonance-Compatible Positron Emission Tomography Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Olcott


    Full Text Available A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-compatible positron emission tomography (PET detector design is being developed that uses electro-optical coupling to bring the amplitude and arrival time information of high-speed PET detector scintillation pulses out of an MRI system. The electro-optical coupling technology consists of a magnetically insensitive photodetector output signal connected to a nonmagnetic vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL diode that is coupled to a multimode optical fiber. This scheme essentially acts as an optical wire with no influence on the MRI system. To test the feasibility of this approach, a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a single pixel of a solid-state photomultiplier array was placed in coincidence with a lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube with both the new nonmagnetic VCSEL coupling and the standard coaxial cable signal transmission scheme. No significant change was observed in 511 keV photopeak energy resolution and coincidence time resolution. This electro-optical coupling technology enables an MRI-compatible PET block detector to have a reduced electromagnetic footprint compared with the signal transmission schemes deployed in the current MRI/PET designs.

  7. Preparation, cell compatibility and degradability of collagen-modified poly(lactic acid). (United States)

    Cui, Miaomiao; Liu, Leili; Guo, Ning; Su, Ruixia; Ma, Feng


    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was modified using collagen through a grafting method to improve its biocompatibility and degradability. The carboxylic group at the open end of PLA was transferred into the reactive acylchlorided group by a reaction with phosphorus pentachloride. Then, collagen-modified PLA (collagen-PLA) was prepared by the reaction between the reactive acylchlorided group and amino/hydroxyl groups on collagen. Subsequently, the structure of collagen-PLA was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and DSC analyses. Finally, some properties of collagen-PLA, such as hydrophilicity, cell compatibility and degradability were characterized. Results showed that collagen had been grafted onto the PLA with 5% graft ratio. Water contact angle and water absorption behavior tests indicated that the hydrophilicity of collagen-PLA was significantly higher than that of PLA. The cell compatibility of collagen-PLA with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (3T3) was also significantly better than PLA in terms of cell morphology and cell proliferation, and the degradability of PLA was also improved after introducing collagen. Results suggested that collagen-PLA was a promising candidate for biomedical applications.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yuan; You-ling Yuan; Jian Shen; Si-tong Lin; Wei Zhu; Jiang-lin Fang


    On the molecular level, it is believed that polymers containing zwitterionic structures should be compatible with blood. In this work polyurethane films were grafted with sulfobetaine by a three-step procedure. In the first step, the films'surfaces were treated with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in toluene at 50℃ in the presence of di-n-butyl tin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst. The extent of the reaction was monitored by ATR-IR spectra; a maximum number of free NCO groups was obtained after a reaction time of 90 min. In the second step, the hydroxyl groups of N,Ndimethylethylethanolamine (DMEA) were allowed to react in toluene with NCO groups bound on the surface. In the third step, sulfobetaines were formed on the surface through the ring-opening reaction between tertiary amine of DMEA and 1,3-propanesultone (PS). The surfaces of the films were characterized by ATR-IR and XPS showing that the grafted surfaces were composed of sulfobetaine. The results of the contact angle measurement show that the surface was strongly hydrophlic.The platelet adhesion test demonstrated that the films grafted with sulfobetaine have excellent blood compatibility.

  9. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic reproduction of Gavilea australis, an endangered terrestrial orchid from south Patagonia. (United States)

    Fracchia, Sebastián; Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Flachsland, Eduardo; Terada, Graciela; Sede, Silvana


    Gavilea australis is a terrestrial orchid endemic from insular south Argentina and Chile. Meeting aspects of mycorrhizal fungi identity and compatibility in this orchid species is essential for propagation and conservation purposes. These knowledge represent also a first approach to elucidate the mycorrhizal specificity of this species. In order to evaluate both the mycorrhizal compatibility and the symbiotic seed germination of G. australis, we isolated and identified its root endophytic fungal strains as well as those from two sympatric species: Gavilea lutea and Codonorchis lessonii. In addition, we tested two other strains isolated from allopatric terrestrial orchid species from central Argentina. All fungal strains formed coilings and pelotons inside protocorms and promoted, at varying degrees, seed germination, and protocorm development until seedlings had two to three leaves. These results suggest a low mycorrhizal specificity of G. australis and contribute to a better knowledge of the biology of this orchid as well as of other sympatric Patagonian orchid species, all of them currently under serious risk of extinction.

  10. Maternal effects, but no good or compatible genes for sperm competitiveness in Australian crickets. (United States)

    Dowling, Damian K; Nystrand, Magdalena; Simmons, Leigh W


    Explanations for the evolution of polyandry often center on the idea that females garner genetic benefits for their offspring by mating multiply. Furthermore, postcopulatory processes are thought to be fundamental to enabling polyandrous females to screen for genetic quality. Much attention has focused on the potential for polyandrous females to accrue such benefits via a sexy- or good-sperm mechanism, whereby additive variation exists among males in sperm competitiveness. Likewise, attention has focused on an alternative model, in which offspring quality (in this context, the sperm competitiveness of sons) hinges on an interaction between parental haplotypes (genetic compatibility). Sperm competitiveness that is contingent on parental compatibility will exhibit nonadditive genetic variation. We tested these models in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, using a design that allowed us to partition additive, nonadditive genetic, and parental variance for sperm competitiveness. We found an absence of additive and nonadditive genetic variance in this species, challenging the direct relevance of either model to the evolution of sperm competitiveness in particular, and polyandry in general. Instead, we found maternal effects that were possibly sex-linked or cytoplasmically linked. We also found effects of focal male age on sperm competitiveness, with small increments in age conferring more competitive sperm.

  11. Tri-Axial MRI Compatible Fiber-optic Force Sensor (United States)

    Tan, U-Xuan; Yang, Bo; Gullapalli, Rao; Desai, Jaydev P.


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been gaining popularity over standard imaging modalities like ultrasound and CT because of its ability to provide excellent soft-tissue contrast. However, due to the working principle of MRI, a number of conventional force sensors are not compatible. One popular solution is to develop a fiber-optic force sensor. However, the measurements along the principal axes of a number of these force sensors are highly cross-coupled. One of the objectives of this paper is to minimize this coupling effect. In addition, this paper describes the design of elastic frame structures that are obtained systematically using topology optimization techniques for maximizing sensor resolution and sensor bandwidth. Through the topology optimization approach, we ensure that the frames are linked from the input to output. The elastic frame structures are then fabricated using polymers materials, such as ABS and Delrin®, as they are ideal materials for use in MRI environment. However, the hysteresis effect seen in the displacement-load graph of plastic materials is known to affect the accuracy. Hence, this paper also proposes modeling and addressing this hysteretic effect using Prandtl-Ishlinskii play operators. Finally, experiments are conducted to evaluate the sensor’s performance, as well as its compatibility in MRI under continuous imaging. PMID:21666783

  12. Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models (United States)

    Karaca, E.; Luco, N.


    We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

  13. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  14. Compatibility Studies on Elastomers and Polymers with Ethanol Blended Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Dhaliwal


    Full Text Available This paper reports the compatibility studies of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 with four types of elastomer materials, namely, Neoprene rubber, Nitrile rubber, hydrogenated Nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR, and Polyvinyl chloride/Nitrile butadiene rubber blend (PVC/NBR, and two types of plastic materials, namely, Nylon-66 and Polyoxymethylene (Delrin. These materials have applications in automotives as engine seals, gaskets, fuel system seals and hoses, and so forth. Two types of the ethanol blended gasoline mixtures were used: (a gasoline containing 5% ethanol (E5, which is commercial form of gasoline available in India, and (b gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10. The above materials were immersed in E5 and E10 for 500 hrs at 55°C. A set of eight different properties in E5 and E10 (visual inspection, weight change, volume change, tensile strength, percent elongation, flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness were measured after completion of 500 hrs and compared with reference specimens (specimens at 55°C without fuel and specimens at ambient conditions. Variation observed in different materials with respect to the above eight properties has been used to draw inference about the compatibility of these elastomeric/polymer materials with E10 fuel vis-à-vis E5 fuels. The data presented in this study is comparative in nature between the results of E10 and E5.

  15. Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees. (United States)

    Baste, Julien; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Scornavacca, Celine


    In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species X; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree-a tree having its leaves labeled bijectively by elements of X and without degree-2 nodes-called the "species tree." One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g., DNA sequences originating from some species in X), and then constructing a single phylogenetic tree maximizing the "concordance" with the input trees. The obtained tree is our estimation of the species tree and, when the input trees are defined on overlapping-but not identical-sets of labels, is called "supertree." In this paper, we focus on two problems that are central when combining phylogenetic trees into a supertree: the compatibility and the strict compatibility problems for unrooted phylogenetic trees. These problems are strongly related, respectively, to the notions of "containing as a minor" and "containing as a topological minor" in the graph community. Both problems are known to be fixed parameter tractable in the number of input trees k, by using their expressibility in monadic second-order logic and a reduction to graphs of bounded treewidth. Motivated by the fact that the dependency on k of these algorithms is prohibitively large, we give the first explicit dynamic programming algorithms for solving these problems, both running in time [Formula: see text], where n is the total size of the input.

  16. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation. (United States)

    Voo, Teck Chuan


    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hairmansis


    Full Text Available The F1 hybrid sterility in indica/japonica crosses is the major barrier in developing hybrid rice varieties between these two diverse germplasm. The sterility problem in japonica/indica hybrids can be overcome by using wide compatibility genes. The objective of this study was to identify wide compatibility varieties (WCVs in some tropical japonica rice. Twenty five tropical japonica varieties as male parents were crossed with indica (IR64 and japonica (Akitakomachi testers as female parents. The crosses were planted following a randomized complete block design with three replications. Varieties having average spikelet fertility of more than 70% with both the indica and japonica testers were rated as WCVs. Result from this study showed that six tropical japonica varieties were classified as WCVs, i.e., Cabacu, Grogol, Kencana Bali, Klemas, Lampung Lawer, and Napa. Hybrid sterility is caused by partial sterility of male and female gametes. The WCVs from the present study can be used in hybrid rice breeding program to solve hybrid sterility in indica/japonica hybrids.

  18. Towards water compatible MIPs for sensing in aqueous media. (United States)

    Horemans, F; Weustenraed, A; Spivak, D; Cleij, T J


    When synthesizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), a few fundamental principles should be kept in mind. There is a strong correlation between porogen polarity, MIP microenvironment polarity and the imprinting effect itself. The combination of these parameters eventually determines the overall binding behavior of a MIP in a given solvent. In addition, it is shown that MIP binding is strongly influenced by the polarity of the rebinding solvent. Because the use of MIPs in biomedical environments is of considerable interest, it is important that these MIPs perform well in aqueous media. In this article, various approaches are explored towards a water compatible MIP for the target molecule l-nicotine. To this end, the imprinting effect together with the MIP matrix polarity is fine-tuned during MIP synthesis. The binding behavior of the resulting MIPs is evaluated by performing batch rebinding experiments that makes it possible to select the most suitable MIP/non-imprinted polymer couple for future application in aqueous environments. One method to achieve improved compatibility with water is referred to as porogen tuning, in which porogens of varying polarities are used. It is demonstrated that, especially when multiple porogens are mixed, this approach can lead to superior performance in aqueous environments. Another method involves the incorporation of polar or non-polar comonomers in the MIP matrix. It is shown that by carefully selecting these monomers, it is also possible to obtain MIPs, which can selectively bind their target in water.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL


    The purpose of the study described in this report is to summarize the various barriers to more widespread distribution of bio-fuels through our common carrier fuel distribution system, which includes pipelines, barges and rail, fuel tankage, and distribution terminals. Addressing these barriers is necessary to allow the more widespread utilization and distribution of bio-fuels, in support of a renewable fuels standard and possible future low-carbon fuel standards. These barriers can be classified into several categories, including operating practice, regulatory, technical, and acceptability barriers. Possible solutions to these issues are discussed; including compatibility evaluation, changes to bio-fuels, regulatory changes, and changes in the distribution system or distribution practices. No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but results are used to develop recommendations for future research and additional study as appropriate. This project addresses recognized barriers to the wider use of bio-fuels in the areas of development of codes and standards, industrial and consumer awareness, and materials compatibility issues.

  20. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.


    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  1. Compatibility studies of nevirapine in physical mixtures with excipients for oral HAART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.G.G. de; Ferraz, H.G. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Severino, P. [Department of Biotechnological Processes, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Souto, E.B., E-mail: [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Genomics and Biotechnology, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (IBB-CGB/UTAD), 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)


    Nevirapine is a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in first line regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The drug has more than one crystalline form, which may have implications for its behaviour during production and also for its in vivo performance. This study was aimed at exploring the suitability of thermoanalytical methods for the solid-state characterization of commercial crystalline forms of nevirapine. The drug powder was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, measurements of density, flowability, solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and photostability measurements. The results showed that nevirapine has high stability and is not susceptible to degradation under light exposure. The drug showed compatibility with the excipients tested (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/PVA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). Nevirapine has low solubility, an acid medium being the most appropriate medium for assessing the release of the drug from dosage forms. However, the data obtained from IDR testing indicate that dissolution is the critical factor for the bioavailability of this drug. - Graphical abstract: Bulk nevirapine powder analysed by scanning electron microscopy and the drug solubility profile in various buffer solutions. The pH values of the media in which the tests were conducted are also presented. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine shows more than one crystalline form, that influence its in vivo and in vitro behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSC and TGA were used for solid-state characterization of crystalline forms of nevirapine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine is compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, PVP/PVA copolymers and HPMC. Black

  2. Evaluation of Pb-17Li compatibility of ODS Fe-12Cr-5Al alloys (United States)

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.


    The Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL: eutectic Pb-17Li and He) blanket concept requires improved Pb-17Li compatibility with ferritic steels in order to demonstrate acceptable performance in fusion reactors. As an initial step, static Pb-17at.%Li (Pb-17Li) capsule experiments were conducted on new oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys ((1) Y2O3 (125Y), (2) Y2O3 + ZrO2 (125YZ), (3) Y2O3 + HfO2 (125YH), and (4) Y2O3 + TiO2 (125YT)) produced at ORNL via mechanical alloying (MA). Tests were conducted in static Pb-17Li for 1000 h at 700 °C. Alloys showed promising compatibility with Pb-17Li with small mass change after testing for 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT, while the 125Y alloy experienced the highest mass loss associated with some oxide spallation and subsequent alloy dissolution. X-ray diffraction methods identified the surface reaction product as LiAlO2 on all four alloys. A small decrease (∼1 at.%) in Al content beneath the oxide scale was observed in all four ODS alloys, which extended 60 μm beneath the oxide/metal interface. This indicates improvements in alloy dissolution by decreasing the amount of Al loss from the alloy. Scales formed on 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT were examined via scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and revealed incorporation of Zr-, Hf-, and Ti-rich precipitates within the LiAlO2 product, respectively. This indicates an inward scale growth mechanism. Future work in flowing Pb-17Li is needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a test blanket module.

  3. Vehicle compatibility in car-to-car collisions : literature review in the framework of the European research project "Improvement of crash compatibility between cars", Workpackage 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der


    In this report, a literature review is given on the subject of crash compatibility and incompatibility between cars. The study is based on scientific publications on this subject published over the last 15 years. The compatibility problem is described from three points of view: statistical, mechanic

  4. Vegetative Compatibility Groups in Cercospora kikuchii, the Causal Agent of Cercospora Leaf Blight and Purple Seed Stain in Soybean. (United States)

    Cai, G; Schneider, R W


    ABSTRACT Nitrogen nonutilizing (Nit) mutants were used to assess vegetative compatibility of 58 isolates of Cercospora kikuchii, 55 of which were isolated from soybean plants in Louisiana. Two isolates were vegetatively self-incompatible. Of 56 self-compatible isolates, 16 were assigned to six multimember vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), 01 to 06, with 2 or 3 isolates in each VCG. The other 40 isolates each belonged to a distinct VCG. All six multimember VCGs contained isolates from different soy bean cultivars, and three included isolates from different locations. Only one of six multimember VCGs included isolates both from soybean leaves and seed, while the other five included isolates from only leaves or seed. The likelihood of tissue specificity or preference was discussed. All isolates and tested Nit mutants produced cercosporin on potato dextrose agar under light. Significantly different amounts of cercosporin were produced among wild-type isolates, and two Nit mutants produced significantly more cercosporin than their wild-type counterparts. All isolates produced typical Cercospora leaf blight symptoms on soybean plants in greenhouse pathogenicity tests.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of the biostability and cell compatibility of novel conjugates of nucleobase, peptidic epitope, and saccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yuan


    Full Text Available This article reports the synthesis of a new class of conjugates containing a nucleobase, a peptidic epitope, and a saccharide and the evalution of their gelation, biostability, and cell compatibility. We demonstrate a facile synthetic process, based on solid-phase peptide synthesis of nucleopeptides, to connect a saccharide with the nucleopeptides for producing the target conjugates. All the conjugates themselves (1–8 display excellent solubility in water without forming hydrogels. However, a mixture of 5 and 8 self-assembles to form nanofibers and results in a supramolecular hydrogel. The proteolytic stabilities of the conjugates depend on the functional peptidic epitopes. We found that TTPV is proteolytic resistant and LGFNI is susceptible to proteolysis. In addition, all the conjugates are compatible to the mammalian cells tested.

  6. The electric energy meter electromagnetic compatibility design%电能表电磁兼容设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    简要介绍电能表电磁干扰。为减少静电放电对电能表的危害,提出电能表防静电措施,对某型号的电能表进行电磁干扰测试,并阐述电能表电磁兼容设计,提高电能表的电磁兼容性。%This paper focuses on the electric energy meter electromagnetic interference are briefly introduced, in order to reduce the electrostatic discharge damage to electric energy meter, and puts forward some electric energy meter anti-static measures. And on a certain model of electric energy meter conducted electromagnetic interference test, and the electric energy meter, electromagnetic compatibility design are illustrated, so as to improve the electromagnetic compatibility of electric energy meter.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Najafi Mogaddam; A. Entezami


    A new phosphorylcholine, (6-hydroxy)hexyl-2-(trimethylammonio)ethyl phosphate (HTEP), was synthesized and characterized. Segmented polyurethane (SPU) containing phosphorylcholine structure was synthesized based on diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), soft segment polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG) and HTEP, with 1,4-butanediol (BD)as a chain extender. The existence of phosphorylcholine structure on the surface of SPU was revealed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements. The blood compatibilities of the polymers were evaluated by hemolytic testing and a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) adhesion experiment, which was viewed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with polyurethane as a reference. The novel segmented polyurethane containing phosphorylcholine structure showed improved blood compatibility.

  8. Fasciola hepatica in Cuba: compatibility of different isolates with two intermediate snail hosts, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella. (United States)

    Vázquez, A A; Sánchez, J; Pointier, J-P; Théron, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S


    In Cuba, only two lymnaeid snails, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella, with different ecology and distribution patterns, are intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica. The compatibility of these two species as hosts was analysed through their rates of infection, the production of rediae and survivorship when exposed to F. hepatica miracidia. Ten populations of G. cubensis, eight of P. columella collected from various habitats and six isolates of F. hepatica sampled in slaughterhouses from different localities were tested. Our results clearly demonstrate that G. cubensis is a more compatible host for F. hepatica in Cuba when compared with P. columella. However, the role that P. columella may have in fascioliasis transmission under certain conditions should not be disregarded. Variation in infectivity among isolates of F. hepatica were also observed and may explain why some regions in Cuba are more commonly subjected to fascioliasis outbreaks.

  9. Grafting of carboxybetaine brush onto cellulose membranes via surface-initiated ARGET-ATRP for improving blood compatibility. (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Yuan, Jiang; Huang, Xiaobo; Cai, Xianmei; Li, Li; Shen, Jian


    Grafting-from has proven to be a very effective way to create high grafting densities and well-controlled polymer chains on different kinds of surfaces. In this work, we aim to graft zwitterionic brush from cellulose membrane (CM) via ARGET-ATRP (Activator Regenerated by Electron Transfer ATRP) method indirectly for blood compatibility improvement. Characterization of the CM substrates before and after modification was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The results demonstrated zwitterionic brushes were successfully grafted on the CM surfaces, and the content of the grafted layer increased gradually with the polymerization time. The platelet adhesion, hemolytic test and plasma protein adsorption results indicated the cellulose membrane had significantly excellent blood compatibility featured on lower platelet adhesion and protein adsorption without causing hemolysis. The functionalized cellulose substrate could have a great potential usage for biomedical applications.

  10. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara


    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  11. The MSP 2001 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) (United States)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M. G.; Frant, M. A.; Grannan, S. M.; Fuerstenau, D.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marshall, J.


    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, MECA's goal is to evaluate potential geochemical and environmental hazards that may confront future Martian explorers, and to guide HEDS scientists in the development of high fidelity Mars soil simulants. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatics of the soil and its environment, and arrays of material patches to study the abrasive and adhesive properties of soil grains. The instrument will acquire soil samples with a robotic arm equipped with a camera. MECA will examine surface and subsurface soil and dust in order to characterize particle size, shape, hardness, and also physical characteristics that may provide clues to mineralogy. MECA will characterize soil/water mixtures with respect to pH, redox potential, total dissolved ions, and trace toxins. MECA will determine the nature of electrostatic charging associated with excavation of soil, and the influence of ionizing radiation on material properties. It will also observe natural dust accumulation on engineering materials. To accomplish these objectives, MECA is allocated a mass of 10 kg within an enclosure of 35 x 25 x 15 cm. The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) consists of four identical cells that will accept samples from surface and subsurface regions accessible to the Lander's robotic arm, mix them with water, and perform extensive analysis of the solution. Ion-selective electrodes and related sensors will evaluate total dissolved solids, redox potential, pH, and the concentration of many soluble ions and gases in wet Martian soil. These electrodes can detect potentially dangerous heavy-metal ions, emitted pathogenic gases, and the soil

  12. The MSP 2001 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) (United States)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M. G.; Frant, M. A.; Grannan, S. M.; Fuerstenau, D.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marshall, J.


    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, MECA's goal is to evaluate potential geochemical and environmental hazards that may confront future Martian explorers, and to guide HEDS scientists in the development of high fidelity Mars soil simulants. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatics of the soil and its environment, and arrays of material patches to study the abrasive and adhesive properties of soil grains. The instrument will acquire soil samples with a robotic arm equipped with a camera. MECA will examine surface and subsurface soil and dust in order to characterize particle size, shape, hardness, and also physical characteristics that may provide clues to mineralogy. MECA will characterize soil/water mixtures with respect to pH, redox potential, total dissolved ions, and trace toxins. MECA will determine the nature of electrostatic charging associated with excavation of soil, and the influence of ionizing radiation on material properties. It will also observe natural dust accumulation on engineering materials. To accomplish these objectives, MECA is allocated a mass of 10 kg within an enclosure of 35 x 25 x 15 cm. The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) consists of four identical cells that will accept samples from surface and subsurface regions accessible to the Lander's robotic arm, mix them with water, and perform extensive analysis of the solution. Ion-selective electrodes and related sensors will evaluate total dissolved solids, redox potential, pH, and the concentration of many soluble ions and gases in wet Martian soil. These electrodes can detect potentially dangerous heavy-metal ions, emitted pathogenic gases, and the soil

  13. Spectral_Engineering_with_CMOS_compatible_SOI_Photonic_Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Barea, Luis A M; de Rezende, Guilherme F M; Frateschi, Newton C


    Photonic systems based on microring resonators have a fundamental constrain given by the strict relationship among free spectral range (FSR), total quality factor (QT) and resonator size, intrinsically making filter spacing, photonic lifetime and footprint interdependent. Here we break this paradigm employing CMOS compatible Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) photonic molecules based on coupled multiple ring resonators. The resonance wavelengths and their respective linewidths are controlled by the hybridization of the quasi-orthogonal photonic states. We demonstrate photonic molecules with doublet and triplet resonances with spectral spliting only achievable with single rings orders of magnitude larger in foot print. Besides, these splitting are potentially controllable based on the coupling (bonds) between resonators. Finally, the spatial distribution of the hybrid states allows up to sevenfold QT enhancement.

  14. Energetics and Compatibility of Plasticizers in Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rm. Muthiah


    Full Text Available In this paper a comparative analysis on the energetics of ester type plasticizers such as dioctyl adipate (DOA, dioctyl phthalate (DOP,dibutyl sebacate (DBS, isodecyl pelargonate (IDP, trioctylphosphate (TOF, diethyl phthalate (DEP, tricresyl phosphate (TCPand dibutyl phthalate (DBP and hydrocarbon type plasticizers such as polybutene (PB, spindle oil, naphthenic oil, polymer extender oil(PEO and poly isobutylene (PIB and the impact of some of the plasticizers on the work ability, pot life and mechanical properties of propellants based on two selected polymeric binders namely polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile (PBAN ter polymer andhydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB have been reported. The compatibility of all the plasticizers on HTPB binder was also studied at different concentration levels and temperatures using Brookfield viscometer and reported. The mechanism of plasticization is also reviewed.

  15. Cellular compatibility of improved scaffold material with deproteinized heterogeneous bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; PEI Fu-xing; ZHOU Zong-ke; LI Qi-hong


    Objective:To study cellular compatibility of improved scaffold material with deproteinized heterogeneous bone and provide experimental basis on choosing the scaffold material in bone tissue engineering.Methods: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) were co-cultured with heterogeneous deproteinized bone in vitro. The contrast phase microscope, scanning electron microscope, MTT assay, flow cytometry were performed and the BGP content and ALP activities were detected in order to observe the cell growth, adhesion in the material, cell cycle and cell viability.Results: The scaffold material of deproteinized heterogeneous bone had no inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation, differentiation and secretion function of BMSCs.Conclusions: The established heterogeneous deproteinized bone has good biocompatibility with BMSCs and is a potentially ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Ischemic preconditioning in immature hearts: mechanism and compatibility with cardioplegia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 闵苏; 龙村; 叶铁虎


    Objective To investigate (1) whether ischemic preconditioning (IPC) could protect immature rabbit hearts against ischemia-reperfusion injury and (2) the role of KATP channel in the mechanism of myocardial protection. Since cardioplegia is a t raditional and effective cardioprotective measure in clinic, our study is also d esigned to probe the compatibility between IPC and cardioplegia.Results The recovery of CF, HR, LVDP and ±dp/dtmax in preconditioned hearts was b est am ong the four groups. The incidence of arrhythmia was low and less CK-MB leaked out in the IPC group. Myocardial ATP content was better preserved by IPC. Pre treatment with glibenclamide completely abolished the myocardial protection prov ided by IPC, but did not affect ischemia-reperfusion injury.Conclusions While applying cardioplegia, IPC provides significant cardioprotective effects. Activation of KATP channels is involved in the mechanism of IPC-produced cardioprotection.

  17. New CMOS Compatible Platforms for Integrated Nonlinear Optical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, D J


    Nonlinear photonic chips have succeeded in generating and processing signals all-optically with performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. This paper reviews some of the recent achievements in CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, focusing on amorphous silicon and Hydex glass, highlighting their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement.

  18. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control (United States)

    Morello, S. A.


    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  19. Compatibility of detached divertor operation with robust edge pedestal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A.W., E-mail: [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)


    The compatibility of detached radiative divertor operation with a robust H-mode pedestal is examined in DIII-D. A density scan produced low temperature plasmas at the divertor target, T{sub e} ⩽ 2 eV, with high radiation leading to a factor of ⩾4 drop in peak divertor heat flux. The cold radiative plasma was confined to the divertor and did not extend across the separatrix in X-point region. A robust H-mode pedestal was maintained with a small degradation in pedestal pressure at the highest densities. The response of the pedestal pressure to increasing density is reproduced by the EPED pedestal model. However, agreement of the EPED model with experiment at high density requires an assumption of reduced diamagnetic stabilization of edge Peeling–Ballooning modes.

  20. Heparin coatings for improving blood compatibility of medical devices. (United States)

    Biran, Roy; Pond, Daniel


    Blood contact with biomaterials triggers activation of multiple reactive mechanisms that can impair the performance of implantable medical devices and potentially cause serious adverse clinical events. This includes thrombosis and thromboembolic complications due to activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade, activation of the complement system, and inflammation. Numerous surface coatings have been developed to improve blood compatibility of biomaterials. For more than thirty years, the anticoagulant drug heparin has been employed as a covalently immobilized surface coating on a variety of medical devices. This review describes the fundamental principles of non-eluting heparin coatings, mechanisms of action, and clinical applications with focus on those technologies which have been commercialized. Because of its extensive publication history, there is emphasis on the CARMEDA(®) BioActive Surface (CBAS(®) Heparin Surface), a widely used commercialized technology for the covalent bonding of heparin.

  1. Environmental compatibility of CRYOPLANE the cryogenic-fuel aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, H.G. [Daimler Benz Aerospace Airbus, Hamburg (Germany)


    `CRYOPLANE` is the project name for an aircraft powered by cryogenic fuel, either liquid natural gas (LNG, mainly consisting of methane) or liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}). Emission of CO{sub 2}, unburnt hydrocarbons, soot and sulfur will be completely avoided by hydrogen combustion: LH{sub 2} is an extremely pure liquid. Emission of water as a primary combustion product is increased by a factor of 2.6. Exhaust gases behind hydrogen engines contain more water than behind kerosene engines, and hence can form contrails under a wider range of atmospheric conditions. Liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft promise big advantages relative to kerosene aircraft in terms of environmental compatibility. (R.P.)

  2. Microfluidics and multielectrode array-compatible organotypic slice culture method. (United States)

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Sabolek, Helen; Levine, John B; Staley, Kevin J; Yarmush, Martin L


    Organotypic brain slice cultures are used for a variety of molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging studies. However, the existing culture methods are difficult or expensive to apply in studies requiring long-term recordings with multielectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel method to maintain organotypic cultures of rodent hippocampus for several weeks on standard MEAs in an unmodified tissue culture incubator is described. Polydimethylsiloxane (Sylgard) mini-wells were used to stabilize organotypic cultures on glass and MEA surfaces. Hippocampus slices were successfully maintained within PDMS mini-wells for multiple weeks, with preserved pyramidal layer organization, connectivity, and activity. MEAs were used to record the development of spontaneous activity in an organotypic cultures for 4 weeks. This method is compatible with integration of microchannels into the culture substrate. Microchannels were incorporated into the mini-wells and applied to the guidance of axons originating within the slice, paving the way for studies of axonal sprouting using organotypic slices.

  3. Platforms for integrated nonlinear optics compatible with silicon integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, David J


    Nonlinear photonic chips are capable of generating and processing signals all-optically with performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. We review recent progress in CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, focusing on Hydex glass and silicon nitride and briefly discuss the promising new platform of amorphous silicon. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation, ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement. We highlight their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications.

  4. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); O' Sullivan, G. (Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))


    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  5. Rate Compatible Protocol for Information Reconciliation: An application to QKD

    CERN Document Server

    Elkouss, David; Lancho, Daniel; Martin, Vicente


    Information Reconciliation is a mechanism that allows to weed out the discrepancies between two correlated variables. It is an essential component in every key agreement protocol where the key has to be transmitted through a noisy channel. The typical case is in the satellite scenario described by Maurer in the early 90's. Recently the need has arisen in relation with Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocols, where it is very important not to reveal unnecessary information in order to maximize the shared key length. In this paper we present an information reconciliation protocol based on a rate compatible construction of Low Density Parity Check codes. Our protocol improves the efficiency of the reconciliation for the whole range of error rates in the discrete variable QKD context. Its adaptability together with its low interactivity makes it specially well suited for QKD reconciliation.

  6. Biomedical Nanoparticles: Overview of Their Surface Immune-Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Gamucci


    Full Text Available Diagnostic- and therapeutic release-aimed nanoparticles require the highest degree of biocompatibility. Some physical and chemical characteristics of such nanomaterials are often at odds with this requirement. For instance, metals with specific features used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging need particular coatings to improve their blood solubility and increase their biocompatibility. Other examples come from the development of nanocarriers exploiting the different characteristics of two or more materials, i.e., the ability to encapsulate a certain drug by one core-material and the targeting capability of a different coating surface. Furthermore, all these “human-non-self” modifications necessitate proofs of compatibility with the immune system to avoid inflammatory reactions and resultant adverse effects for the patient. In the present review we discuss the molecular interactions and responses of the immune system to the principal nanoparticle surface modifications used in nanomedicine.

  7. A negative compatibility effect in priming of emotional faces. (United States)

    Bennett, Jennifer D; Lleras, Alejandro; Oriet, Chris; Enns, James T


    The negative compatibility effect (NCE) is the surprising result that low-visibility prime arrows facilitate responses to opposite-direction target arrows. Here we compare the priming obtained with simple arrows to the priming of emotions when categorizing human faces, which represents a more naturalistic set of stimuli and for which there are no preexisting response biases. When inverted faces with neutral expressions were presented alongside emotional prime and target faces, only strong positive priming occurred. However, when the neutral faces were made to resemble the target faces in geometry (upright orientation), time (flashing briefly), and space (appearing in the same location), positive priming gradually weakened and became negative priming. Implications for theories of the NCE are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus


    storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal...... leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after...

  9. CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Stevan S; Shang, Kuanping; Guan, Binbin; Cheung, Stanley T S; Liao, Ling; Basak, Juthika; Liu, Hai-Feng; Yoo, S J B


    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of athermal nano-photonic silicon ring modulators. The athermalization method employs compensation of the silicon core thermo-optic contribution with that from the amorphous titanium dioxide (a-TiO(2)) overcladding with a negative thermo-optic coefficient. We developed a new CMOS-compatible fabrication process involving low temperature RF magnetron sputtering of high-density and low-loss a-TiO(2) that can withstand subsequent elevated-temperature CMOS processes. Silicon ring resonators with 275 nm wide rib waveguide clad with a-TiO(2) showed near complete athermalization and moderate optical losses. Small-signal testing of the micro-resonator modulators showed high extinction ratio and gigahertz bandwidth.

  10. Stimulus-response compatibility with body parts: a study with hands. (United States)

    Lameira, Allan Pablo; Pereira, Antônio; Fraga-Filho, Roberto Sena; Gawryszewski, Luiz G


    Stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effects are classified depending on the way that the elements of the stimulus and response sets interact, influencing both the speed and accuracy of the motor response. This is particularly important for social stimuli, such as hands. However, the stimuli used in most SRC studies are often simple or abstract figures. Our main goal in the present work was to investigate how task ensembles containing body parts (hands) as stimuli fit into Kornblum's taxonomy expressed in the dimensional overlap model. Specifically, we test whether hand stimuli elicit Simon or spatial Stroop effects in a SRC task. We set up two experiments using either hands or arrows as stimuli. Our results demonstrate that hands elicit a Simon effect in a SRC task. However, different from arrows, which constitute Type 8 Kornblum's ensembles, hands do not elicit a spatial Stroop effect and form Type 3 ensembles.

  11. Comparison of thermal compatibility between atomized and comminuted U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo-Seog; Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kuk, II-Hyun [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Thermal compatibility of atomized U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuels were evaluated up to 2600 hours in the temperature range from 250 to 500{degrees}C, and compared with that of comminuted U{sub 3}Si. Atomized U{sub 3}Si showed better performance in terms of volume expansion of fuel meats. The reaction zone of U{sub 3}Si and Al occurred along the grain boundaries and deformation bands in U{sub 3}Si particles. Pores around fuel particles appeared at high temperature or after long-term annealing tests to remain diffusion paths over the trench of the pores. The constraint effects of cladding on fuel rod suppressed the fuel meat, and reduced the volume expansion.

  12. Generation of ELGA-compatible radiology reports from the Vienna Hospital Association's EHR system. (United States)

    Haider, Jasmin; Hölzl, Konrad; Toth, Herlinde; Duftschmid, Georg


    In the course of setting up the upcoming Austrian national shared EHR system ELGA, adaptors will have to be implemented for the local EHR systems of all participating healthcare providers. These adaptors must be able to transform EHR data from the internal format of the particular local EHR system to the specified format of the ELGA document types and vice versa. In the course of an ongoing diploma thesis we are currently developing a transformation application that shall allow the generation of ELGA-compatible radiology reports from the local EHR system of the Vienna Hospital Association. Up to now a first prototype has been developed that was tested with six radiology reports. It generates technically valid ELGA radiology reports apart from two errors yielded by the ELGA online validator that rather seem to be bugs of the validator. A medical validation of the reports remains to be done.

  13. Effect of electromagnetic compatibility requirements on improvement of electrical plant control systems. [ENEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiminio, M.; Bodini, G.A.; Gargiuli, R.; Natale, A.; Neri, M.; Pellegrini, G. (ENEL, Milan (Italy))


    The paper gives a survey of the experience gained in the last twenty years inside the technical departments of ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board). Reference is given to the evolution of equipment and immunity requirements based on the electromagnetic environment. The paper deals with improvements to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements, related to the most advanced knowledge of electromagnetic environments and to the evolution of equipment performances with reference to reliable operation. A synthesis of results, obtained by equipment laboratory tests activities, compared with the results of operation in the field is given, together with a survey of problems encountered for the identification of the most suitable solutions for installation aspects, as well as for equipment and systems.

  14. Surface engineering of polycaprolactone by biomacromolecules and their blood compatibility. (United States)

    Khandwekar, Anand P; Patil, Deepak P; Shouche, Yogesh; Doble, Mukesh


    Improving blood compatibility of biodegradable polymers is an area of intensive research in blood contacting devices. In this study, curdlan sulphate and heparin-modified poly (caprolactone) (PCL) hybrids were developed by physically entrapping these molecules on the PCL surface. This modification technique was performed by reversible gelation of the PCL surface region following exposure to a solvent and nonsolvent mixture. The presence of these biomacromolecules on the PCL surface was verified by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDAX) analysis, while wettability of the films was investigated by dynamic contact angle measurements. The blood compatibilities of the surface-modified films were examined using in vitro platelet and leukocyte adhesion and thrombus formation. Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were used to assess the cell adhesion and inflammatory response to the modified surface by quantifying mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines namely TNF-α and IL-1β using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A lower platelet and leukocyte adhesion and activation was observed on the modified films incubated with whole human blood for 2 h. The thrombus formation on the PCL was significantly decreased upon immobilization of both curdlan sulphate (39%, *pcompatibility was obtained by surface entrapment of both curdlan sulphate (CURS) and heparin (HEP) onto PCL films. Both PCL-CURS and PCL-HEP films reduced RAW 264.7 macrophage cell adhesion (*pcompatibility and reduced inflammatory host response for its future blood contacting applications.

  15. LED lamps in shipboard lighting systems: Aspects of electromagnetic compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beley V. F.


    Full Text Available Trends in the development of different types of light sources and their energy characteristics have been described in the paper. Analysis of regulatory documents has been given. The results of experimental studies of a number of modern LED lamps have been described. Investigation has been made for a number of LED lamps produced by Philips, Xavax and Melitec. The experimental data have been obtained with the complex of devices: the dual-channel oscilloscope (GDS-71042, the power quality analyzer (Fluke-434 and the multi-function device EcoLight-01 (light-, pulse- and luminance meter. It has been shown that operation of LED lamps is characterized by emission of higher current harmonics and reactive power consumption, which depends on the type and design of the lamp driver. It has been found that the value of luminance created by LED lamps in case of acceptable (for ships prolonged deviation of voltage (–10 % is reduced by 3 %; in case of permissible short-term voltage deviation (–20 % luminance is reduced by 7 %. For incandescent lamps this indicator is characterized by a decrease in luminance by 40 % and 60 %, respectively. Despite the low sensitivity to voltage changes (in comparison with other types of lamps, the operation of LED lamps is also associated with the appearance of flicker. Absence of limitations for fluctuations of the light flux in shipboard lighting systems and imperfection of methods for determining the flicker make it difficult to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lamps. Therefore due to reliability, environmental friendliness, energy efficiency and lumen maintenance LED lamps have prospects for introduction into shipboard lighting systems. However, to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lighting systems it is necessary to conduct a detailed study of energy characteristics of LED lamps and to develop appropriate regulatory requirements and technical solutions.

  16. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.


    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, {Delta}T, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to {approx}550{degrees}C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to {approx}650{degrees}C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above {approx}600{degrees}C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150{degrees}C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material.

  17. Immunological compatibility between the chacma baboon and man. (United States)

    Stark, J H; Smit, J A; Neethling, F A; Nortman, P J; Myburgh, J A


    Predictions of an increasing shortage of donor organs for the future has led to a resurgence of interest in xenotransplantation. We have methodically assessed the immunological compatibility of humans against the chacma baboon with a view to narrowing the gap of concordance by careful immunological screening. The necessity of major blood group compatibility in xenotransplantation is now established. While no group O universal donor exists in the baboon, groups A (45%), B (15%), and AB (40%) are well represented. Baboon histocompatibility antigens could not be precisely defined using human antisera. This does not necessarily imply lack of homology between the species, as we have shown specific crossreactivity of numerous antihuman monoclonal antibodies with baboon leukocytes. Normal humans do not exhibit preformed agglutinins to erythrocytes of the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus orientalis)) but cytotoxic antibodies are occasionally found. Sera from allosensitized patients may contain crossreacting hemagglutinins, leukoagglutinins and complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies. Binding of human immunoglobulin-G and -M to baboon targets was demonstrated by flow cytometry. Negative crossmatch combinations for antibodies of the IgG subclass were easily found, but IgM antibodies from allosensitized patients were polyspecific in their action. In vitro assessment of lymphocyte mediated cytotoxicity showed that preformed cellular immunity between the species was rare. The response of human lymphocytes to xenoantigen stimulation in mixed lymphocyte cultures showed a normal distribution, permitting the selection of low-responding combinations. Screening for viruses, especially HTLV-1 and Coxsackie-BL34, is important. These findings demonstrate a closer degree of concordance than has previously been suspected.

  18. Comparison of US. Military and International Electromagnetic Compatibility Guidance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Antonescu, C. E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Washington, DC (United States)


    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to assist in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research has provided recommendations on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design and installation practices, endorsement of EMII/RFI immunity and SWC test criteria and test methods, and determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants. These recommendations have been incorporated into the technical basis for guidance in addressing EMI/RFI and power surges in safety-related instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants. The recommendations by the ORNL staff on test criteria, test methods, and operating envelopes were significantly influenced by the military standards issued by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). That is the case because until recently there were no comprehensive commercial standards that covered EMI/RFI immunity. The present research involves reviewing and assessing the commercial standards issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and endorsed by the European Union in the last few years. This document reports the results of a study performed by the ORNL staff comparing Regulatory Guide 1.180, the U.S. military standards, and international EMC guidance.

  19. Compatibility between pipeline anti-corrosion coating and thermal insulator in the presence of cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.; Doiron, A.


    Standard tests were conducted to evaluate and qualify materials used for the development of oil and gas pipeline insulators operating at elevated temperatures. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a modified cathodic disbondment methodology for evaluating the compatibility between anti-corrosion coatings and insulators in the presence of cathodic protection (CP). The surface of the coated panels were maintained at an external surface temperature of a pipeline operating at an internal temperature of 150 degrees C. The panels were also isolated from each other as well as from the heated pipes to ensure that the cathodic disbondment tests could be conducted simultaneously. Chemical and electrochemical changes were monitored using pH, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Samples with anti-corrosion coatings and insulators of varying thickness were tested with and without an outer polyethylene jacket. Results of the tests will be presented to industry stakeholders in order to obtain further feedback. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 appendices.

  20. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL


    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  1. Is compatible the idea of incommensurability with that of scientific progress? Some reasons in support of its compatibility [Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Jaramillo Uribe


    Full Text Available The problem of incommensurability and, particulary, the one of the scientific progress, is associated two names: Kuhn and Feyerabend, whose proposals caused than many put in doubt the apparent evidence of the call scientific progress, relativizing its validity to each school or paradigm. In this writing we will show that this type of epistemic relativism —just as convergentist theory of the truth— they lack of philosophical validity and historical and how the idea of scientific progress is compatible with the thesis of the incommensurability beyond the ontosemantics difficulties that it implies. This suppose to leave the the call statement view of the scientific theories and adopt a non-statement view where the intertheoretical relation of approach allows to subsink different non trivial incommensurability and to validate in them the notion oaf scientific progress.

  2. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1993--30 June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin, D.S.; Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.


    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The DCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR program the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each researcher.

  3. Current front stiffness of European vehicles with regard to compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.; Beer, E. de


    EuroNCAP tests are carried out since 1997. The test procedure in general is comparable to the EC Directive 96/79 with a test speed of 64 km/h. This increased test speed implies a higher frontal stiffness for new vehicle designs in order to achieve a high ranking. This frontal stiffness is one of the

  4. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction. (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco


    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  5. [Influence of jinlingzi powder with different compatibility on activity of cytochrome P1 A2 from rat liver microsomes]. (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Wang, Lan; Wang, Yanli; Liang, Rixin; Yang, Weipeng; Wang, Wei; Hu, Nan; Yin, Xiaojie; Weng, Xiaogang; Wang, Yiwei; Yang, Qing


    To illustrate the compability rule of Jinlingizi powder, by investigating the effects of Jinlingzi Powder with different compatibility on the enzymatic activity of cytochrome P1 A2 (CYP1A2) from rat liver microsome. The different compability of Jinlingizi powder is designed, based on the orthogonal array L9 (3(4)). In vitro test, rat liver microsomes incubation system is applied to detect the 50% inhibitory concentraton of Jinlingzi powder with different compatibility to cytochrome P1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. In vivo experiments, rats is treated orally with the different compability of Jinlingizi powder for 5 days, then be injected with probe drug phenacetin. The biosample from liver tissue is obtained by microdialysis probe, then analysisd by HPLC. The concentration-time data are modulated by software WinNonlin. IC50 data show no significant inhibitory activty to cytochrome P1 A2. Acetaminophen and phenacetin PK parameters indicate that the different compability of Jinlingizi powder can modulate the CYP 1A2 mediated metabolism, which is associate with the compatibility of Jinlingzi powder.

  6. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-incompatibility (SI is a biological mechanism to avoid inbreeding in allogamous plants. In grasses, this mechanism is controlled by a two-locus system (S-Z. Calculation of male and female gamete frequencies is complex for tetraploid species. We are not aware of any software available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z self-incompatibility system. The program predicts pollen genotypes and frequencies based on defined meiotic parameters for allo- or autotetraploid species with a gametophytic S-Z SI system. These predictions can be used to obtain expected values for for diploid and for (allo- or autotetraploidy SI grasses. Conclusion The information provided by this calculator can be used to predict compatibility of pair-crosses in plant breeding applications, to analyze segregation distortion for S and Z genes, as well as linked markers in mapping populations, hypothesis testing of the number of S and Z alleles in a pair cross, and the underlying genetic model.

  7. Deposition of boron doped DLC films on TiNb and characterization of their mechanical properties and blood compatibility (United States)

    Liza, Shahira; Hieda, Junko; Akasaka, Hiroki; Ohtake, Naoto; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Nagai, Akiko; Hanawa, Takao


    Abstract Diamond-like carbon (DLC) material is used in blood contacting devices as the surface coating material because of the antithrombogenicity behavior which helps to inhibit platelet adhesion and activation. In this study, DLC films were doped with boron during pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to improve the blood compatibility. The ratio of boron to carbon (B/C) was varied from 0 to 0.4 in the film by adjusting the flow rate of trimethylboron and acetylene. Tribological tests indicated that boron doping with a low B/C ratio of 0.03 is beneficial for reducing friction (μ = 0.1), lowering hardness and slightly increasing wear rate compared to undoped DLC films. The B/C ratio in the film of 0.03 and 0.4 exhibited highly hydrophilic surface owing to their high wettability and high surface energy. An in vitro platelet adhesion experiment was conducted to compare the blood compatibility of TiNb substrates before and after coating with undoped and boron doped DLC. Films with highly hydrophilic surface enhanced the blood compatibility of TiNb, and the best results were obtained for DLC with the B/C ratio of 0.03. Boron doped DLC films are promising surface coatings for blood contacting devices. PMID:28179961

  8. Compatibility Decisions, Endogenous Installed Home Bases and the Third-Market Competition


    Walz, Uwe; Woeckener, Bernd


    This Paper analyses the compatibility decisions of two regional monopolistic suppliers of a network-effect good who first build up installed bases in their respective home region and then compete in a third market. We show that with weak network effects, installed home bases always are higher under compatibility and suppliers always opt for compatibility. With strong network effects, home markets are covered, and given a sufficiently high home-market size advantage both the favoured supplier ...

  9. Report of Iridium/{sup 238}PuO{sub 2} Compatibility Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.H.


    This study indicates that the chemical purity of the fuel used presently to fabricate fueled clad vent sets will not present any special problems to the performance of the fueled clad vent sets as intended. However, cation impurities in the fuel can have a deleterious effect on the iridium cladding and vents and should be minimized as much as practical.

  10. Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) – Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) - Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides...

  11. Design of an MRI-compatible robotic stereotactic device for minimally invasive interventions in the breast. (United States)

    Larson, Blake T; Erdman, Arthur G; Tsekos, Nikolaos V; Yacoub, Essa; Tsekos, Panagiotis V; Koutlas, Ioannis G


    The objective of this work was to develop a robotic device to perform biopsy and therapeutic interventions in the breast with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The device was designed to allow for (i) stabilization of the breast by compression, (ii) definition of the interventional probe trajectory by setting the height and pitch of a probe insertion apparatus, and (iii) positioning of an interventional probe by setting the depth of insertion. The apparatus is fitted with five computer-controlled degrees of freedom for delivering an interventional procedure. The entire device is constructed of MR compatible materials, i.e. nonmagnetic and non-conductive, to eliminate artifacts and distortion of the MR images. The apparatus is remotely controlled by means of ultrasonic motors and a graphical user interface, providing real-time MR-guided planning and monitoring of the operation. Joint motion measurements found probe placement in less than 50 s and sub-millimeter repeatability of the probe tip for same-direction point-to-point movements. However, backlash in the rotation joint may incur probe tip positional errors of up to 5 mm at a distance of 40 mm from the rotation axis, which may occur for women with large breasts. The imprecision caused by this backlash becomes negligible as the probe tip nears the rotation axis. Real-time MR-guidance will allow the physician to correct this error Compatibility of the device within the MR environment was successfully tested on a 4 Tesla MR human scanner

  12. Development of a CMOS-compatible PCR chip: comparison of design and system strategies (United States)

    Erill, Ivan; Campoy, Susana; Rus, José; Fonseca, Luis; Ivorra, Antoni; Navarro, Zenón; Plaza, José A.; Aguiló, Jordi; Barbé, Jordi


    In the last decade research in chips for DNA amplification through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been relatively abundant, but has taken very diverse approaches, leaving little common ground for a straightforward comparison of results. Here we report the development of a line of PCR chips that is fully compatible with complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology and its revealing use as a general platform to test and compare a wide range of experimental parameters involved in PCR-chip design and operation. Peltier-heated and polysilicon thin-film driven PCR chips have been produced and directly compared in terms of efficiency, speed and power consumption, showing that thin-film systems run faster and more efficiently than Peltier-based ones, but yield inferior PCR products. Serpentine-like chamber designs have also been compared with standard rectangular designs and with the here reported rhomboidal chamber shape, showing that serpentine-like chambers do not have detrimental effects in PCR efficiency when using non-flow-through schemes, and that chamber design has a strong impact on sample insertion/extraction yields. With an accurate temperature control (±0.2 °C) we have optimized reaction kinetics to yield sound PCR amplifications of 25 µl mixtures in 20 min and with 24.4 s cycle times, confirming that a titrated amount of bovine albumin serum (BSA, 2.5 µg µl-1) is essential to counteract polymerase adsorption at chip walls. The reported use of a CMOS-compatible technological process paves the way for an easy adaption to foundry requirements and for a scalable integration of electro-optic detection and control circuitry.

  13. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  14. Compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride with six cephalosporins during simulated y-site administration. (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Kambara, M; Mizuno, M; Okuda, J; Gill, M A; Nishida, M


    The purpose of this project was to determine the visual compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in admixtures during simulated Y-site administration with six individual cephalosporins: ceftizoxime sodium, cefuzonam sodium, cefoperazone sodium, cefmenoxime hydrochloride, moxalactam disodium and flomoxef sodium. Dilutions of ranitidine hydrochloride 1 mg (as the free base)/mL were prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Two milliliters of the ranitidine solution (1mg/mL) was mixed with 2mL of each cephalosporin (20 mg/ml) in 10 mL glass test tubes. Concentrations of each drug were determined by stability-indicationg high-performance liquid chromatographic assay methods following zero, one, two, and four hours after mixing. All six cephalosporins retained greater than 95% of their original concentrations for four hours in the admixture with ranitidine. Ranitidine retained greater than 95% of its original concentration for four hours in the admixture with four of the tested cephalosporins and apporximately 90% with moxalactam and flomoxef. Solutions containing ranitidine may be coadministered with solutions either ceftizoxime, cefuzonam, cefoperazone or cefmenoxime via Y-injection site over four hours. While the ranitidine concentration may be reduced to near 90% after four hours with moxalactam and flomoxef, the tested antibiotics were not affected in the presence of ranitidine over four hours.

  15. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, immune compatibility and antibacterial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Składanowski, M; Golinska, P; Rudnicka, K; Dahm, H; Rai, M


    The study was focused on assessment of antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and immune compatibility of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Streptomyces sp. NH28 strain. Nanoparticles were biosynthesized and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis system and zeta potential. Antibacterial activity was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; minimal inhibitory concentration was recorded. Cytotoxicity was estimated using L929 mouse fibroblasts via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test. Biocompatibility of AgNPs was performed using THP1-XBlue™ cells. Biogenic AgNPs presented high antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration of AgNPs against bacterial cells was found to be in range of 1.25-10 μg/mL. Silver nanoparticles did not show any harmful interaction to mouse fibroblast cell line, and no activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) cells was observed at concentration below 10 µg/mL. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was established at 64.5 μg/mL. Biological synthesis of silver can be used as an effective system for formation of metal nanoparticles. Biosynthesized AgNPs can be used as an antibacterial agent, which can be safe for eukaryotic cells.

  16. CMOS Compatible 3-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor using Hall Effect Sensing (United States)

    Locke, Joshua R.

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and test a CMOS compatible 3-axis Hall effect sensor capable of detecting the earth's magnetic field, with strength's of ˜50 muT. Preliminary testing of N-well Van Der Pauw structures using strong neodymium magnets showed proof of concept for hall voltage sensing, however, poor geometry of the structures led to a high offset voltage. A 1-axis Hall effect sensor was designed, fabricated and tested with a sensitivity of 1.12x10-3 mV/Gauss using the RIT metal gate PMOS process. Poor geometry and insufficient design produced an offset voltage of 0.1238 volts in the 1-axis design; prevented sensing of the earth's magnetic field. The new design features improved geometry for sensing application, improved sensitivity and use the RIT sub-CMOS process. The completed 2-axis device showed an average sensitivity to large magnetic fields of 0.0258 muV/Gauss at 10 mA supply current.

  17. Infection capacities in the orange-pathogen relationship: compatible (Penicillium digitatum) and incompatible (Penicillium expansum) interactions. (United States)

    Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Jauset, A M; Teixidó, N


    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are the most devastating pathogens of citrus and pome fruits, respectively. Whereas P. digitatum is a very specific pathogen that only infects Citrus fruits, P. expansum has a broader host range but has not been reported to be infectious in Citrus. To determine the responses of fruits and the infection capacities of both moulds, two varieties of oranges at different maturity stages, different inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were studied. In compatible interactions, no significant differences in rot dynamics among harvests were found with a 10(7) conidia mL(-1) inoculum concentration at both temperatures tested (20 °C and 4 °C). However, at other inoculum concentrations, significant differences in rot dynamics were found, especially in immature fruits. Incompatible interactions showed that P. expansum could infect oranges at commercial maturity in both tested varieties. Decay incidence and severity were higher at 4 °C than at 20 °C. In addition to infection capacity studies, histochemical tests were performed to detect wound-healing compounds for both pathogens. A positive reaction for lignin was detected for both pathogens in immature oranges over a short period (48 h). In all cases, no reactions were found in control samples. Our results indicate that pathogen concentration, host maturity and storage temperature can play important roles in the defence mechanisms of fruit. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first work that demonstrates that P. expansum can infect oranges under favourable conditions.

  18. A magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible remote catheter navigation system. (United States)

    Tavallaei, Mohammad Ali; Thakur, Yogesh; Haider, Syed; Drangova, Maria


    A remote catheter navigation system compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed to facilitate MRI-guided catheterization procedures. The interventionalist's conventional motions (axial motion and rotation) on an input catheter - acting as the master - are measured by a pair of optical encoders, and a custom embedded system relays the motions to a pair of ultrasonic motors. The ultrasonic motors drive the patient catheter (slave) within the MRI scanner, replicating the motion of the input catheter. The performance of the remote catheter navigation system was evaluated in terms of accuracy and delay of motion replication outside and within the bore of the magnet. While inside the scanner bore, motion accuracy was characterized during the acquisition of frequently used imaging sequences, including real-time gradient echo. The effect of the catheter navigation system on image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was also evaluated. The results show that the master-slave system has a maximum time delay of 41 ± 21 ms in replicating motion; an absolute value error of 2 ± 2° was measured for radial catheter motion replication over 360° and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm in axial catheter motion replication over 100 mm of travel. The worst-case SNR drop was observed to be 2.5%.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian CHEN; Nan ZHANG; Shuo HUANG


    This paper studies a service firm whose business time can be divided into several periods,each providing different value to customers.Heterogeneous service is a major reason resulting in imbalances between supply and demand.Since customers differ in their degree of impatience,firms Can use differential pricing mechanisms to optimize their objectives and match supply with demand in each period,by inducing customers to choose different periods.We study two types of firms,an internal firm,the objective of which is to maximize the system's(including the firm and all the customers)total net value,and a commercial firm,which aims to optimize its own profit.Though impatience factors are customers'private information,for each type of firm,we derive the optimal incentive compatible pricing policy,under which all the coming customers will follow the firm's assignment,that is,patient customers will buy the service in high-value periods,but their waiting time will be longer,while impatient customers will enter into the low-value periods,but they will be compensated by shorter waiting times.Furthermore,in the internal firm,we also prove that this mechanism enables the decentralization of decisions,while maintaining centralized system-wide optimality.Numerical analysis shows that when there is sufficient capacity,the internal firm does not always need to set lower prices than the commercial firm in every period.

  20. Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    There are 177 waste storage tanks containing over 210,000 m{sup 3} (55 million gal) of mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The River Protection Project (RPP) has adopted the data quality objective (DQO) process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (EPA 1994a) and implemented by RPP internal procedure (Banning 1999a) to identify the information and data needed to address safety issues. This DQO document is based on several documents that provide the technical basis for inputs and decision/action levels used to develop the decision rules that evaluate the transfer of wastes. A number of these documents are presently in the process of being revised. This document will need to be revised if there are changes to the technical criteria in these supporting documents. This DQO process supports various documents, such as sampling and analysis plans and double-shell tank (DST) waste analysis plans. This document identifies the type, quality, and quantity of data needed to determine whether transfer of supernatant can be performed safely. The requirements in this document are designed to prevent the mixing of incompatible waste as defined in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040. Waste transfers which meet the requirements contained in this document and the Double-Shell Tank Waste Analysis Plan (Mulkey 1998) are considered to be compatible, and prevent the mixing of incompatible waste.

  1. DNA Compatible Multistep Synthesis and Applications to DNA Encoded Libraries. (United States)

    Satz, Alexander Lee; Cai, Jianping; Chen, Yi; Goodnow, Robert; Gruber, Felix; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Petersen, Ann; Naderi-Oboodi, Goli; Orzechowski, Lucja; Strebel, Quentin


    Complex mixtures of DNA encoded small molecules may be readily interrogated via high-throughput sequencing. These DNA encoded libraries (DELs) are commonly used to discover molecules that interact with pharmaceutically relevant proteins. The chemical diversity displayed by the library is key to successful discovery of potent, novel, and drug-like chemical matter. The small molecule moieties of DELs are generally synthesized though a multistep process, and each chemical step is accomplished while it is simultaneously attached to an encoding DNA oligomer. Hence, library chemical diversity is often limited to DNA compatible synthetic reactions. Herein, protocols for 24 reactions are provided that have been optimized for high-throughput production of DELs. These protocols detail the multistep synthesis of benzimidazoles, imidazolidinones, quinazolinones, isoindolinones, thiazoles, and imidazopyridines. Additionally, protocols are provided for a diverse range of useful chemical reactions including BOC deprotection (under pH neutral conditions), carbamylation, and Sonogashira coupling. Last, step-by-step protocols for synthesizing functionalized DELs from trichloronitropyrimidine and trichloropyrimidine scaffolds are detailed.

  2. Shuttle Communications and Tracking, Avionics, and Electromagnetic Compatibility (United States)

    deSilva, K.; Hwu, Shian; Kindt, Kaylene; Kroll, Quin; Nuss, Ray; Romero, Denise; Schuler, Diana; Sham, Catherine; Scully, Robert


    By definition, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the capability of components, sub-systems, and systems, to operate in their intended electromagnetic environment, within an established margin of safety, and at design levels of performance. Practice of the discipline itself incorporates knowledge of various aspects of applied physics, materials science, and engineering across the board, and includes control and mitigation of undesirable electromagnetic interaction between intentional and unintentional emitters and receivers of radio frequency energy, both within and external to the vehicle; identification and control of the hazards of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and fuels and propellants; and vehicle and system protection from the direct and indirect effects of lightning and various other forms of electrostatic discharge (ESD) threats, such as triboelectrification and plasma charging. EMC is extremely complex and far-reaching, affecting in some degree every aspect of the vehicle s design and operation. The most successful efforts incorporate EMC design features and techniques throughout design and fabrication of the vehicle s structure and components, as well as appropriate operational considerations with regard to electromagnetic threats in the operational environment, from the beginning of the design effort to the end of the life cycle of the manufactured product. This approach yields the highest design performance with the lowest cost and schedule impact.

  3. About the Compatibility of DORIS and VLBI Observations (United States)

    Il'in, Gennady; Smolentsev, Sergey; Sergeev, Roman


    We investigated the compatibility of the DORIS and VLBI observations at Badary Observatory. The DORIS beacon stands at 100-m distance from the main radio telescope dish and transmits signals on two frequencies: 2036.25 MHz and 401.25 MHz. The latter frequency is modulated to send messages containing an ID number, timing information, data from the meteorological sensors, and engineering data (e.g., power). Both frequencies affect the S/X band radio telescope receivers. The parameters of the DORIS signals were measured at the outputs of the S/X band intermediate frequency amplifier. It was found that: (1) The level of RFI, produced by the DORIS beacon, practically corresponds to the level of the system (antenna plus receiver) noise signal and does not overload the S/X band receivers. (2) The DORIS 401.25 MHz signal is out of the frequency bands recorded during standard VLBI sessions. As a result, RFI from DORIS does not affect VLBI observations. This conclusion was confirmed after data correlations of actual VLBI observations that were conducted with the DORIS beacon turned on/off.

  4. Texture synthesis via the matching compatibility between patches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG WenCheng; LIU FeiTong; HUANG PeiJie; WU EnHua


    A new patch-based texture synthesis method is presented in this paper.By the method,a set of patches that can be matched with a sampled patch for growing textures effectively,called the matching compatibility between patches,is generated first for each patch,and the set is further optimized by culling the patches that may cause synthesis conflicts.In this way,similarity measurement calculation for selecting suitable patches in texture synthesis can be greatly saved,and synthesis conflicts between neighbouring patches are substantially reduced.Furthermore,retrace computation is Integrated in the synthesis process to improve the texture quality.As a result,the new method can produce high quality textures as texture optimization,the best method to date for producing good textures,and run in a time complexity linear to the size of the output texture.Experimental results show that the new method can interactively generate a large texture in 1024 × 1024 pixels,which is very difficult to achieve by existing methods.

  5. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement. (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  6. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)


    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.

  7. Biosphere Compatibility as a Principle of Sustainable Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Zinaida


    Full Text Available The article covers safety and environmental issues, as well as the sustainable interaction between man and nature in the context of present-day cities. An important task, according to the authors, is the study of scientific approaches and practical achievements in this field, and then the detection of the most urgent critical issues. The coauthors provide an overview of numerous research projects on the treatment of nature, the anthropogenic load, the biosphere as a geological body, the noosphere, and ratios characterizing the condition of the biosphere. The coauthors believe that ecological management, aimed to reverse the treatment of nature, must be integrative. New legislation, effective control of its execution, new disciplines to be introduced at the level of secondary, vocational, and higher education, development of ecological schools of thought and advanced green standards and materials applicable to any construction operations may comprise an effective solution. The authors offer their vision of the challenges and outline the primary steps, including immediate implementation of urban planning solutions to be developed in accordance with the biosphere compatibility principles, with calculations of humanitarian balances of the bio-technosphere. The coauthors also consider the innovative approaches to the use of eco-friendly materials in construction projects.

  8. Electromagnetic compatibility. General presentation; Comptabilite electromagnetique. Presentation generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champiot, G.G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    The electromagnetic environment has become an important parameter to take into account in any industrial project involving electronic systems. Four factors can conjugate to increase the problems of electromagnetic disturbances: the instrumentation and control systems which use very low voltage electronic components, the development of fast high-power electronic switching systems (thyristors etc..), the more and more frequent association of disturbing apparatuses and sensible equipments in the same integrated devices, and the sensitiveness of data processing systems. This introductory paper aims at building a general philosophy for the mastery of these phenomena: 1 - the aim of electromagnetic compatibility: notion, analysis, reduction of the problem to essentials; 2 - sources of electromagnetic disturbances: lightning, aurora borealis, disturbances due to intentional emissions (radiofrequency radiation, conduction), disturbances due to non-intentional emissions (thermal noise, switching of inductive currents, arc welding, start-up of vehicles with internal combustion engines, power lines, driving systems, fluorescent lamps, voltage drops and short cuts, harmonics, voltage transients), electrostatic discharges, nuclear electromagnetic pulses. (J.S.)

  9. Studies on wide compatibility in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vaithiyalingan and N. Nadarajan


    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to screen different rice sub-species for wide compatibility (WC and to evaluateF2 populations of selected crosses to study the genetics of WC. Among the three criteria followed for screening of WCVsviz., pollen fertility per cent of hybrids, spikelet fertility per cent of hybrids and the spikelet fertility per cent of hybrids aswell as tester parents, the third criteria appeared to be effective. Based on spikelet fertility per cent of hybrids as well astester parents, seven out of 15 lines viz., Dular and ASD 16 (indicas; WCR 6, IR 65600-32-4-6-1, IR 65601-120-3-5, IR66158-38-3-2-1 and IR 67323-46-2-1 (tropical japonica were adjudged as WCVs. The F2 segregation in seven crosses forspikelet fertility and semi-sterility were in agreement with trigenic complementary ratio (45:19. Hence, it was concludedthat the genetic basis of inter sub-specific sterility of cultivated rice is complex.

  10. Endothelial cell compatibility of trovafloxacin and levofloxacin for intravenous use. (United States)

    Armbruster, C; Robibaro, B; Griesmacher, A; Vorbach, H


    Levofloxacin and trovafloxacin have excellent activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms resistant to the established agents. One local side-effect closely related to the use of parenteral fluoroquinolones is phlebitis. To evaluate the effect of trovafloxacin and levofloxacin on endothelial cell viability, intracellular levels of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) and guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Trovafloxacin at concentrations of 2 and 1 mg/mL reduced the intracellular ATP content from 12.5 +/- 1.7 to 1.9 +/- 0.3 nmol/10(6) cells and 9.3 +/- 0.8 nmol/10(6) cells, respectively, within 60 min. In addition, ADP, GTP and GDP levels were extensively depleted. Levofloxacin at concentrations of 5 and 2.5 mg/mL led to a significant ATP decline from 12.5 +/- 1.7 to 2.3 +/- 0.2 nmol/10(6) cells and 10.3 +/- 0.9 nmol/10(6) cells, respectively, within 60 min. These data indicate that infusions of high doses of trovafloxacin or levofloxacin are not compatible with maintenance of endothelial cell function. Commercial preparations have to be diluted and should be administered into large veins.

  11. Wire-Compatible Unordered Delivery in TCP and TLS

    CERN Document Server

    Iyengar, Janardhan; Amin, Syed Obaid; Nowlan, Michael F; Tiwari, Nabin


    The performance of many common Internet applications can benefit from out-of-order delivery, a feature all IETF transports since TCP have included. Yet latency-sensitive applications still frequently build on in-order TCP despite its performance drawbacks, for reasons such as network compatibility and TCP's cultural inertia. We introduce uTCP, an API extension that adds out-of-order delivery support without changing TCP's wire protocol, by delivering received TCP segments to the application immediately on arrival along with sequence number metadata. To obtain robust out-of-order delivery across middleboxes that may re-segment TCP flows, the application employs a "record-marking" content encoding such as COBS, allowing the receiver to extract records from a byte stream with arbitrary holes. TLS can also serve as such an encoding, enabling applications to obtain out-of-order delivery in a stream indistinguishable in the network from conventional TLS over TCP. With uTCP, for example, voice/videoconferencing appl...

  12. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part 3) - radiation physics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown


    As a part of the compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors, the radiation physics calculations have been performed for the CANDU primary shielding system, thermal shield, radiation damage, transportation cask and storage. At first, the primary shield system was assessed for the DUPIC fuel core, which has shown that the dose rates and heat deposition rates through the primary shield of the DUPIC fuel core are not much different from those of natural uranium core because the power levels on the core periphery are similar for both cores. Secondly, the radiation effects on the critical components and the themal shields were assessed when the DUPIC fuel is loaded in CANDU reactors. Compared with the displacement per atom (DPA) of the critical component for natural uranium core, that for the DUPIC fuel core was increased by -30% for the innermost groove and the weld points and by -10% for the corner of the calandria subshells and annular plates in the calandria, respectivdely. Finally, the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel handling was performed, which has shown that all handling and inspection of the DUPIC fuel bundles be done remotely and behind a shielding wall. For the transportation of the DUPIC fuel, the preliminary study has shown that there shold be no technical problem th design a transportation cask for the fresh and spent DUPIC fuel bundles. For the storage of the fresh and spent DUPIC fuels, there is no the criticality safety problem unless the fuel bundle geometry is destroyed.

  13. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL


    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  14. A rocket-based combined-cycle engine prototype demonstrating comprehensive component compatibility and effective mode transition (United States)

    Shi, Lei; He, Guoqiang; Liu, Peijin; Qin, Fei; Wei, Xianggeng; Liu, Jie; Wu, Lele


    A rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine was designed to demonstrate its broad applicability in the ejector and ramjet modes within the flight range from Mach 0 to Mach 4.5. To validate the design, a prototype was fabricated and tested as a freejet engine operating at flight Mach 3 using hydrocarbon fuel. The proposed design was a single module, heat sink steel alloy model with an interior fuel supply and active control system and a fully integrated flowpath that was comprehensively instrumented with pressure sensors. The mass capture and back pressure resistance of the inlet were numerically investigated and experimentally calibrated. The combustion process and rocket operation during mode transition were investigated by direct-connect tests. Finally, the comprehensive component compatibility and multimodal operational capability of the RBCC engine prototype was validated through freejet tests. This paper describes the design of the RBCC engine prototype, reviews the testing procedures, and discusses the experimental results of these efforts in detail.

  15. High Test Peroxide High Sealing Conical Seal Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Test Peroxide (HTP) Highly Compatible High Sealing Conical Seals are necessary for ground test operations and space based applications. Current conical seals...

  16. In vitro Cyto and Blood Compatibility of Titanium Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared by Hybrid Sputtering Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnasamy NAVANEETHA PANDIYARAJ; Jan HEEG; Andreas LAMPKA; Fabian JUNGE; Torsten BARFELS; Marion WIENECKE; Young Ha RHEE; Hyoung Woo KIM


    In recent years, diamond-like carbon films (DLC) have been given more attention in research in the biomedical industry due to their potential application as surface coating on biomedical materials such as metals and polymer substrates. There are many ways to prepare metal containing DLC films deposited on polymeric film substrates, such as coatings from car- bonaceous precursors and some means that incorporate other elements. In this study, we in- vestigated both the surface and biocompatible properties of titanium containing DLC (Ti-DLC) films. The Ti-DLC films were prepared on the surface of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film as a function of the deposition power level using reactive sputtering technique. The films' hydrophilicity was studied by contact angle and surface energy tests. Their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their elemental chemical composition was analyzed using energy dispersive X-spectra (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Their blood and cell compatibility was studied by in vitro tests, including tests on platelet adhesion, thrombus formation, whole blood clotting time and osteoblast cell compatibility. Significant changes in the morphological and chemical composition of the Ti-DLC films were observed and found to be a function of the deposition level. These morphological and chemical changes reduced the interfacial tension between Ti-DLC and blood proteins as well as resisted the adhesion and activation of platelets on the surface of the Ti-DLC films. The cell compatibility results exhibited significant growth of osteoblast cells on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC film compared with that of DLC film surface.

  17. An Improved Approach for Analyzing the Oxygen Compatibility of Solvents and other Oxygen-Flammable Materials for Use in Oxygen Systems (United States)

    Harper, Susan A.; Juarez, Alfredo; Peralta, Stephen F.; Stoltzfus, Joel; Arpin, Christina Pina; Beeson, Harold D.


    Solvents used to clean oxygen system components must be assessed for oxygen compatibility, as incompatible residue or fluid inadvertently left behind within an oxygen system can pose a flammability risk. The most recent approach focused on solvent ignition susceptibility to assess the flammability risk associated with these materials. Previous evaluations included Ambient Pressure Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Mechanical Impact Testing (ASTM G86) and Autogenous Ignition Temperature (AIT) Testing (ASTM G72). The goal in this approach was to identify a solvent material that was not flammable in oxygen. As environmental policies restrict the available options of acceptable solvents, it has proven difficult to identify one that is not flammable in oxygen. A more rigorous oxygen compatibility approach is needed in an effort to select a new solvent for NASA applications. NASA White Sands Test Facility proposed an approach that acknowledges oxygen flammability, yet selects solvent materials based on their relative oxygen compatibility ranking, similar to that described in ASTM G63-99. Solvents are selected based on their ranking with respect to minimal ignition susceptibility, damage and propagation potential, as well as their relative ranking when compared with other solvent materials that are successfully used in oxygen systems. Test methods used in this approach included ASTM G86 (Ambient Pressure LOX Mechanical Impact Testing and Pressurized Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) Mechanical Impact Testing), ASTM G72 (AIT Testing), and ASTM D240 (Heat of Combustion (HOC) Testing). Only four solvents were tested through the full battery of tests for evaluation of oxygen compatibility: AK-225G as a baseline comparison, Solstice PF, L-14780, and Vertrel MCA. Baseline solvent AK-225G exhibited the lowest HOC and highest AIT of solvents tested. Nonetheless, Solstice PF, L-14780, and Vertrel MCA HOCs all fell well within the range of properties that are associated with proven oxygen system materials

  18. Pentecostals and politics in Argentina: A question of compatibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Geir Aasmundsen


    Full Text Available Coincidiendo con el proceso de democratización en Argentina a principios de la década de los ochenta, el Pentecostalismo obtuvo un crecimiento sustancial. En un nuevo panorama religioso el movimiento pentecostal-evangélico comenzó a reclamar libertad e igualdad religiosas y se acercó a la esfera política por diversos medios. Sin embargo, cómo deberían acercarse a la política no ha sido evidente. Desde hace medio siglo, lo político había sido percibido como el ámbito de los problemas ‘terrenales’, de la corrupción y de los compromisos. Hasta ese momento, los pocos pentecostales habían optado por y/o sido relegados a la marginalización con respecto a una sociedad dominada religiosamente por la Iglesia Católica. Con la apertura de los nuevos espacios democráticos, un número de adeptos considerablemente mayor y la Iglesia Católica estando a la defensiva, los pentecostales hallaron tanto oportunidades como incentivos para introducirse en la vida política. En este artículo se propone ilustrar cómo los proyectos políticos pentecostales necesitan ser compatibles con el proyecto religioso. En este sentido, los pentecostales deben legitimar y autorizar lo político en lo religioso a fin de obtener apoyo y votos en la comunidad pentecostal. En la actualidad, muchos pentecostales encuentran su espacio dentro de la actividad política a través de un compromiso social basado en ciertos valores ‘interiores’ y ‘exteriores’. Los valores ‘interiores’ se refieren a su percepción de un 'habitus 'Pentecostal: honestidad, sinceridad y confianza. Los valores ‘exteriores’ están relacionados a su concepción del orden natural de Dios: pro-vida, anti-homosexualidad, pro-familia. English: Coinciding with the processes of democratization in Argentina from the early 1980s, Pentecostalism experienced a substantial growth. From a new religious landscape the Pentecostal-Evangelical movement started making claims for religious


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Aini Md Ralib


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Continuous advancement in wireless technology and silicon microfabrication has fueled exciting growth in wireless products. The bulky size of discrete vibrating mechanical devices such as quartz crystals and surface acoustic wave resonators impedes the ultimate miniaturization of single-chip transceivers. Fabrication of acoustic wave resonators on silicon allows complete integration of a resonator with its accompanying circuitry.  Integration leads to enhanced performance, better functionality with reduced cost at large volume production. This paper compiles the state-of-the-art technology of silicon compatible acoustic resonators, which can be integrated with interface circuitry. Typical acoustic wave resonators are surface acoustic wave (SAW and bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators.  Performance of the resonator is measured in terms of quality factor, resonance frequency and insertion loss. Selection of appropriate piezoelectric material is significant to ensure sufficient electromechanical coupling coefficient is produced to reduce the insertion loss. The insulating passive SiO2 layer acts as a low loss material and aims to increase the quality factor and temperature stability of the design. The integration technique also is influenced by the fabrication process and packaging.  Packageless structure using AlN as the additional isolation layer is proposed to protect the SAW device from the environment for high reliability. Advancement in miniaturization technology of silicon compatible acoustic wave resonators to realize a single chip transceiver system is still needed. ABSTRAK: Kemajuan yang berterusan dalam teknologi tanpa wayar dan silikon telah menguatkan pertumbuhan yang menarik dalam produk tanpa wayar. Saiz yang besar bagi peralatan mekanikal bergetar seperti kristal kuarza menghalang pengecilan untuk merealisasikan peranti cip. Silikon serasi  gelombang akustik resonator mempunyai potensi yang besar untuk menggantikan unsur

  20. 76 FR 77747 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Governing Hearing Aid-Compatible Mobile Handsets (United States)


    ... is considered hearing aid- compatible for inductive coupling if it meets a rating of at least T3. The... (inductive coupling) to gauge the hearing aid compatibility of handsets. Specifically, the SFNPRM seeks.... 5. Steps Proposed To Minimize Significant Economic Impact on Small Entities, and...

  1. Clotting Phenomena at the Blood-Polymer Interface and Development of Blood Compatible Polymeric Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantjes, Adriaan


    In the past two decades many attempts have been made to relate surface and interfacial parameters with the blood compatibility of polymeric surfaces. It is however doubtful if by a single parameter the behaviour of blood on a surface can be predicted. Two major aspects of blood compatibility - the p

  2. When Compatibility Interferes with Group Effectiveness: Facilitation of Learning in Small Groups. (United States)

    Shaw, Marvin, E.; Webb, Jeaninne N.


    Examined whether compatible groups facilitate learning more than incompatible groups. Used peer groups to facilitate learning in college courses. Computed compatibility scores for pairs and four-person groups working together. Used examinations to measure peer group procedure effectiveness. Results did not indicate a positive relationship between…

  3. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives. (United States)


    ..., consists of the division number followed by the compatibility group letter. Compatibility group letters are..., cap-type, are included, even though they do not contain primary explosives. B 1.1B1.2B 1.4B...

  4. 75 FR 63764 - Hearing Aid Compatibility Proceeding; Request That Comments Address Effects of New Legislation (United States)


    ... to the rules governing hearing aid compatibility of mobile handsets. 75 FR 54546 (Sept. 8, 2010... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 20 Hearing Aid Compatibility Proceeding; Request That Comments Address Effects of New..., the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau requests that the comments in the pending Hearing...

  5. Study on the Compatibility of SMA and Composite Materials by Holographic Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhimin


    With the help of holographic interferometry a study is conducted on the compatibility of SMA (shape memory alloy) and epoxy resin composite material. The paper gives experiment results and analysis which show that after coupling SMA with the composite material, the flexural rigidity of composite material is somewhat reinforced. Under certain conditions, SMA and the epoxy resin composite material are compatible.

  6. 75 FR 78799 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice, Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort Worth, TX (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice, Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort... Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility program submitted by the city of Fort Worth, Texas under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act,...

  7. 75 FR 48411 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort Worth, TX (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort... Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed noise compatibility program that was submitted for... Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 CFR Part 150 by the city of...

  8. From Sunshine to Double Arrows: An Evaluation Window Account of Negative Compatibility Effects (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Dittrich, Kerstin


    In category priming, target stimuli are to be sorted into 2 categories. Prime stimuli preceding targets typically facilitate processing of targets when primes and targets are members of the same category, relative to the case in which both stem from different categories, a positive compatibility effect (PCE). But negative compatibility effects…

  9. Weapon and Sighting System Compatibility Assessment for Prototype Maxillofacial Protection Devices (United States)


    14 6.7 FIREBALL : M4 Weapon Compatibility ......................................................................15 6.8 FIREBALL : M240B...System Compatibility – Stryker Combat Vehicle...........................................19 7.1.1 CVCH, FIREBALL Helmet Bracket, No Maxillofacial... FIREBALL Helmet Bracket With Maxillofacial Protection (figure 32

  10. 36 CFR 1193.39 - Prohibited reduction of accessibility, usability, and compatibility. (United States)


    ... accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.39 Section 1193.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.39 Prohibited reduction of accessibility, usability, and... accessibility, usability, or compatibility of telecommunications equipment or customer premises equipment....

  11. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a...

  12. 47 CFR 68.110 - Compatibility of the public switched telephone network and terminal equipment. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions on Use of Terminal Equipment § 68.110 Compatibility of the public switched telephone network and... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility of the public switched...

  13. 47 CFR 20.19 - Hearing aid-compatible mobile handsets. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible mobile handsets. 20.19... COMMERCIAL MOBILE RADIO SERVICES § 20.19 Hearing aid-compatible mobile handsets. (a) Scope of section... and Technology, Federal Communications Commission, 445 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20554. (5)...

  14. Critical inquiry and knowledge translation: exploring compatibilities and tensions. (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Lynam, M Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather


    Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of

  15. [Sexual compatibility between two types of Hylocerus (Cactaceae)]. (United States)

    Castillo, Roberta; Livera, Manuel; Brechú, Alicia E; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith


    There are two types of pitahaya that are cultivated in Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. They differ mainly in the skin color of the fruit, one of them has a red skin (Uqroo1), while the other has a light yellow skin (Uqroo2) both belong to Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britt. & Rose. The yellow skin pitahaya is the sweetest. The studies were conducted using the methods of self pollination and cross pollination, with direct crosses and reciprocal pollination in order to evaluate the effect related to the quantity of fruits that accomplish their growing process. Some characteristic parameters of fruits, thus obtained, were used to detect the possible xenic effect. The control samples were collected from naturally pollinated flowers. The experimental design used was completely random and the experiment was repeated fifteen times. The results revealed that the Uqroo1 turned out to be self-compatible, and their fruits reached one hundred percent of development. On the other hand, Uqroo2 was self-incompatible, that is, it did not accept self pollen. The control samples of both types reached the same weight, and the fruits of the Uqroo2 produced by cross pollination had the same or more weight than the control samples. Several parameters were positively correlated. The coefficient between the number of seeds and the fruit weight was r = 0.84. The highest correlation that was found (r = 0.97) in the fruit weight and the pulp weight within both types. The fruits obtained by cross-pollination maintained the characteristic of the female progenitor. It is suggest intercalate the yellow pitahaya plants with another types or species of pitahaya, other than the Uqroo1.

  16. Réactions aux interfaces de bicristaux compatibles et incompatibles (United States)

    Taisne, A.; Décamps, B.; Priester, L.


    La rupture intergranulaire peut apparaître suite à la non accommodation des contraintes au voisinage de l'interface. La transmission du glissement au travers d'une interface est un des modes de relaxation possible qui dépend des paramètres suivants : facteurs géométriques (caractéristiques de l'interface et systèmes de glissement activés), constantes élastiques de chacune des phases. Dans cette étude, la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET) est utilisée pour analyser les configurations de dislocations résultant d'une déformation par fatigue de bicristaux d'acier austénoferritique de désorientations contrôlées. Deux types de bicristaux sont étudiés, compatible et incompatible plastiquement. Pour chacun d'eux, la déformation est initiée soit dans la phase ferritique α soit dans la phase austénitique γ selon la localisation d'une entaille préalable à l'essai mécanique. Les résultats permettent de remonter aux mécanismes élémentaires qui régissent le transfert “direct” ou “indirect” des dislocations à travers l'interface. Une corrélation avec le comportement des bicristaux à l'échelle macroscopique est également tentée.

  17. A High Resolution Monolithic Crystal, DOI, MR Compatible, PET Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S Miyaoka


    The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) positioning capability that will achieve state of the art spatial resolution and sensitivity performance for small animal PET imaging. When arranged in a ring or box detector geometry, the proposed detector module will support <1 mm3 image resolution and >15% absolute detection efficiency. The detector will also be compatible with operation in a MR scanner to support simultaneous multi-modality imaging. The detector design will utilize a thick, monolithic crystal scintillator readout by a two-dimensional array of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices using a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design. Our hypothesis is that our single-ended readout SES design will provide an effective DOI positioning performance equivalent to more expensive dual-ended readout techniques and at a significantly lower cost. Our monolithic crystal design will also lead to a significantly lower cost system. It is our goal to design a detector with state of the art performance but at a price point that is affordable so the technology can be disseminated to many laboratories. A second hypothesis is that using SiPM arrays, the detector will be able to operate in a MR scanner without any degradation in performance to support simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Having a co-registered MR image will assist in radiotracer localization and may also be used for partial volume corrections to improve radiotracer uptake quantitation. The far reaching goal of this research is to develop technology for medical research that will lead to improvements in human health care.

  18. Sealed tube comparisons of the compatibility of desiccants with refrigerants and lubricants. Final report, August 1993--January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.E.


    Continuing environmental concerns mandate replacement of CFC`s with alternate refrigeration fluids. Until now, relatively little testing had been reported in the literature for compatibility of desiccants in these new working fluids. Using bench scale test methods generally accepted throughout the industry today, this work provides data necessary to assess the compatibility of virtually all of the currently used desiccant types - both bead and molded core, with thirteen refrigerant/lubricant combinations. The desiccants have been tested by exposure to refrigerant and lubricant in sealed, glass tubes in accordance with ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 97-1989. After aging, the liquid phase was evaluated for acid anion formation, change in color, and presence of halide ions, the gas phase was analyzed for refrigerant decomposition by gas chromatography, and the desiccants were evaluated for changes in crush strength and for retention of acids and halide ions. Metal catalysts, also present in the sealed tubes, were visually examined for corrosion, copper plating, and appearance changes.

  19. Vacuum compatible large uniform-radiance source for ground calibration of satellite cameras inside a thermal vacuum environment (United States)

    Arecchi, Angelo V.; Pal, Samir; Jablonski, Joseph W.; Gervais, Marc; Gugliotta, Mark; Seth, Harish; Bhardwaj, Arun; Sahoo, Hari Sankar


    A vacuum compatible integrating sphere was built to operate inside a thermal vacuum chamber. This paper presents the design and test results for a 1.65 meter diameter vacuum compatible integrating sphere with a 1.0 meter diameter exit port and approximately 10kW of internal tungsten lamps. Liquid nitrogen is used as cooling medium to remove the heat generated by these lamps. There are no moving parts inside the vacuum chamber. The radiance is monitored with two filter-wheel detectors, one TE-cooled silicon and one TE-cooled germanium, as well as a TE-cooled silicon array spectrometer. All three detectors are located outside the thermal vacuum chamber and view the sphere radiance through fiber optic cables. The system was tested inside a thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center before commissioning in the 5.5 meter thermal vacuum chamber at Space Applications Centre in Ahmedabad, India. Results of tests of radiance uniformity, radiance levels, and radiance stability are presented. Comparisons of the filter radiometers with the array spectrometer are also presented.

  20. Transport of heavy metals and chemical compatibility of hydraulic conductivity of a compacted sand-bentonite mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthanit Charoenthaisong


    Full Text Available Clayey soils are usually used as barrier material in landfill liners because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high sorption capacity. Bentonite, which consists mainly of montmorillonite, has a high cation exchange capacity resulting in a high retention capacity of heavy metals. Sand is a permeable material but its hydraulic conductivity decreases significantly when mixed with bentonite. However, using a sand-bentonite mixture as landfill liners is questionable, because the hydraulic conductivity of the sand-bentonite mixture may increase when permeated with heavy metal solutions, which are normally found in landfill leachates. In this paper, transport of heavy metals through a compacted sand-bentonite mixture and its chemical compatibility were studied through the batch adsorption test, the column test, and the hydraulic conductivity test.Experimental results indicate that the sorption capacity of the bentonite, ranked in descending order, was Cr3+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of the sand-bentonite mixture were in the order of 10-5 cm2/s and the retardation factors were 130, 115, 111, and 90 for Pb2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity of thesand-bentonite mixture was only compatible with a chromium solution having a concentration not greater than 0.001 M.

  1. Observation on the compatible stability of injected cefoxitin sodium and dexamethasone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qing Xie


    Objective:To observe the compatible stability of cefoxitin sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Methods:The cefoxitin sodium was compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection at 25℃. HPLC was used to determine the change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h. The appearance of pharmaceutical liquids was observed, and the change of PH value was detected.Results:No obvious change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h, and no change of PH value, appearance, and characteristics were observed. The insoluble particles conformed to the specifications.Conclusions:Cefoxitin sodium can be compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection within 6 h.

  2. Comparison of point-of-care-compatible lysis methods for bacteria and viruses. (United States)

    Heiniger, Erin K; Buser, Joshua R; Mireles, Lillian; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ladd, Paula D; Lutz, Barry R; Yager, Paul


    Nucleic acid sample preparation has been an especially challenging barrier to point-of-care nucleic acid amplification tests in low-resource settings. Here we provide a head-to-head comparison of methods for lysis of, and nucleic acid release from, several pathogenic bacteria and viruses-methods that are adaptable to point-of-care usage in low-resource settings. Digestion with achromopeptidase, a mixture of proteases and peptidoglycan-specific hydrolases, followed by thermal deactivation in a boiling water bath, effectively released amplifiable nucleic acid from Staphylococcus aureus, Bordetella pertussis, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. Achromopeptidase was functional after dehydration and reconstitution, even after eleven months of dry storage without refrigeration. Mechanical lysis methods proved to be effective against a hard-to-lyse Mycobacterium species, and a miniature bead-mill, the AudioLyse, is shown to be capable of releasing amplifiable DNA and RNA from this species. We conclude that point-of-care-compatible sample preparation methods for nucleic acid tests need not introduce amplification inhibitors, and can provide amplification-ready lysates from a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens.

  3. Compatibility approach for the improvement of oxide thermoelectric converters for industrial heat recovery applications (United States)

    Saucke, Gesine; Populoh, Sascha; Thiel, Philipp; Xie, Wenjie; Funahashi, Ryoji; Weidenkaff, Anke


    New ceramic Ca3Co3.9O9+δ /CaMn0.97W0.03O3-δ thermoelectric generators with different cross section areas A p and A n of the p- and the n-type leg are fabricated, characterized, and tested at high temperatures in long-term tests. The variation of the measured power output and the efficiency with changing A p / A n ratio is discussed and compared with calculations based on the measured material properties. The highest conversion efficiencies are reached for ratios close to the one predicted by the compatibility approach, whereas an improper choice of A p / A n leads to a strong reduction of the efficiency. A volume power density of 1.4 W/cm3 and an efficiency of 1.08% are found for the most promising generator (temperature difference Δ T = 734 K and A p / A n = 1.12). The results reveal the major importance of the A p / A n ratio for the conversion efficiency and subsequently cost and weight reduction issues, both crucial for a large scale application of thermoelectric converters. Additionally, the oxide generators proved to be very reliable, as after more than 110 h of high temperature energy conversion, no degradation is observable.

  4. A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics (United States)

    Galland, Christophe; Novack, Ari; Liu, Yang; Ding, Ran; Gould, Michael; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Li, Qi; Yang, Yisu; Ma, Yangjin; Zhang, Yi; Padmaraju, Kishore; Bergmen, Keren; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Hochberg, Michael


    We have developed a CMOS-compatible Silicon-on-Insulator photonic platform featuring active components such as pi- n and photoconductive (MIM) Ge-on-Si detectors, p-i-n ring and Mach-Zehnder modulators, and traveling-wave modulators based on a p-n junction driven by an RF transmission line. We have characterized the yield and uniformity of the performance through automated cross-wafer testing, demonstrating that our process is reliable and scalable. The entire platform is capable of more than 40 GB/s data rate. Fabricated at the IME/A-STAR foundry in Singapore, it is available to the worldwide community through OpSIS, a successful multi-project wafer service based at the University of Delaware. After exposing the design, fabrication and performance of the most advanced platform components, we present our newest results obtained after the first public run. These include low loss passives (Y-junctions: 0.28 dB; waveguide crossings: 0.18 dB and cross-talk -41+/-2 dB; non-uniform grating couplers: 3.2+/-0.2 dB). All these components were tested across full 8" wafers and exhibited remarkable uniformity. The active devices were improved from the previous design kit to exhibit 3dB bandwidths ranging from 30 GHz (modulators) to 58 GHz (detectors). We also present new packaging services available to OpSIS users: vertical fiber coupling and edge coupling.

  5. Modern wireless telecommunication technologies and their electromagnetic compatibility with life-supporting equipment. (United States)

    Wallin, Mats K E B; Marve, Therese; Hakansson, Peter K


    Hospitals rely on pagers and ordinary telephones to reach staff members in emergency situations. New telecommunication technologies such as General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), the third generation mobile phone system Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) might be able to replace hospital pagers if they are electromagnetically compatible with medical devices. In this study, we sought to determine if GPRS, UMTS (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access-Frequency Division Duplex [WCDMA FDD]), and WLAN (IEEE 802.11b) transmitted signals interfere with life-supporting equipment in the intensive care and operating room environment. According to United States standard, ANSI C63.18-1997, laboratory tests were performed on 76 medical devices. In addition, clinical tests during 11 operations and 100 h of intensive care were performed. UMTS and WLAN signals caused little interference. Devices using these technologies can be used safely in critical care areas and during operations, but direct contact between medical devices and wireless communication devices ought to be avoided. In the case of GPRS, at a distance of 50 cm, it caused an older infusion pump to alarm and stop infusing; the pump had to be reset. Also, 10 cases of interference with device displays occurred. GPRS can be used safely at a distance of 1 m. Terminals/cellular phones using these technologies should be allowed without restriction in public areas because the risk of interference is minimal.

  6. Compatibility of Fuels and Radicals Found in Plasma Jets for Improved Premixed Combustion (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yohji; Shimotani, Kouhei; Shuzenji, Kiyotaka; Kakami, Akira; Tachibana, Takeshi

    We examined the compatibility of radicals contained in plasma jets to fuels through ignition and combustion tests for dimethyl ether (DME)/air and methane (CH4)/air mixtures with oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) as the plasma torch feedstocks. The experiment showed that the DME/air mixture was ignited/combusted with less plasma jet (P.J.) power than the CH4/air mixture and that the O2 P.J. is more effective than the N2 P.J., with a more distinct difference in effectiveness for the CH4/air mixture in contrast to the DME/air mixture. Plasma jets with fewer feedstock flow rates were more effective, presumably due to the greater amount of radical production under the conditions tested. Numerical estimation on the amount of radicals and ignition delay time demonstrates that the superiority of the O2 P.J. is not necessarily only due to the effectiveness of the O radicals, but also due to the fact they were produced easier and with less power, and that the effect and behavior according to amount is different for fuels. This is most likely because they depend on the reaction mechanism of each mixture, all of which match well with the experimental results.

  7. Compatible blends of thermoplastic starch and hydrolyzed ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. (United States)

    Da Róz, A L; Ferreira, A M; Yamaji, F M; Carvalho, A J F


    Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) with 19% of vinyl acetate and its derivatives modified by hydrolysis of 50 and 100% of the initial vinyl acetate groups were used to produce blends with thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with 30 wt% glycerol. The blends were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, water absorption, stress-strain mechanical tests, dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. In contrast to the blends with unmodified EVA, those made with hydrolyzed EVA were compatible, as demonstrated by the brittle fracture surface analysis and the results of thermal and mechanical tests. The mechanical characteristics and water absorption of the TPS were improved even with a small addition (2.5 wt%) of hydrolyzed EVA. The glass transition temperature rose with the degree of hydrolysis of EVA by 40 and 50°, for the EVA with 50 and 100% hydrolysis, respectively. The addition of hydrolyzed EVA proved to be an interesting approach to improving TPS properties, even when very small quantities were used, such as 2.5 wt%.

  8. Potential of Entomopathogenic Fungi as Biological Control Agents of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Compatibility With Chemical Insecticides. (United States)

    Duarte, R T; Gonçalves, K C; Espinosa, D J L; Moreira, L F; De Bortoli, S A; Humber, R A; Polanczyk, R A


    The objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi against Plutella xylostella (L.) and the compatibility of the most virulent isolates with some of the insecticides registered for use on cabbage crops. Pathogenicity tests used isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium rileyi, Isaria fumosorosea, Isaria sinclairii, and Lecanicillium muscarium standardized at a concentration of 10(7) conidia/ml. Cabbage leaf discs were immersed in these suspensions, and after evaporation of the excess water, were placed 10 second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, totaling 10 leaf discs per treatment. Mortality was assessed 7 d after treatment, and the isolates that caused mortality>80% were used to estimate LC50 and LT50. The compatibilities of the most virulent isolates and the insecticides were tested from the mixture of these into the culture medium, and after solidifying, the medium was inoculated with an aliquot of the isolated suspension. The following parameters were evaluated: growth of the colony, number and viability of conidia after 7 d. The isolated IBCB01, IBCB18, IBCB66, and IBCB87 of B. bassiana, LCMAP101 of M. rileyi, and ARSEF7973 of I. sinclairii caused mortality between 80 and 100%, with LC50 and LT50 between 2.504 to 6.775×10(4) conidia/ml and 52.22 to 112.13 h, respectively. The active ingredients thiamethoxam and azadirachtin were compatible with the entomopathogenic fungi. The results suggest that the use of these isolates is an important alternative in the pesticidal management of P. xylostella, with the possible exception of the associated use of chemical controls using the active ingredients thiamethoxam or azadirachtin.

  9. Effects of micro-magnetic field at the surface of 316L and NiTi alloy on blood compatibility. (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Nong; Fei, Huang Xia


    We have established the micro-magnetic field on the surfaces of 316L stainless steel and NiTi alloy through the magnetization process of sol-gel prepared TiO(2) thin film with the powder of SrFe(12)O(19). The nano-sized with brown color of SrFe(12)O(19) powder was verified by transmission electron microscope. By using X-ray diffraction, surface roughometer, and corrosion experimental test, the deposited thin film can decrease the etching of body fluid as well as prevent the hazardous Ni ions released from the metal. Moreover, with evaluation of dynamic cruor time test and blood platelets adhesion test, we found the micro-magnetic field of the thin film can improve the blood compatibility.

  10. Semantic Web Compatible Names and Descriptions for Organisms (United States)

    Wang, H.; Wilson, N.; McGuinness, D. L.


    Modern scientific names are critical for understanding the biological literature and provide a valuable way to understand evolutionary relationships. To validly publish a name, a description is required to separate the described group of organisms from those described by other names at the same level of the taxonomic hierarchy. The frequent revision of descriptions due to new evolutionary evidence has lead to situations where a single given scientific name may over time have multiple descriptions associated with it and a given published description may apply to multiple scientific names. Because of these many-to-many relationships between scientific names and descriptions, the usage of scientific names as a proxy for descriptions is inevitably ambiguous. Another issue lies in the fact that the precise application of scientific names often requires careful microscopic work, or increasingly, genetic sequencing, as scientific names are focused on the evolutionary relatedness between and within named groups such as species, genera, families, etc. This is problematic to many audiences, especially field biologists, who often do not have access to the instruments and tools required to make identifications on a microscopic or genetic basis. To better connect scientific names to descriptions and find a more convenient way to support computer assisted identification, we proposed the Semantic Vernacular System, a novel naming system that creates named, machine-interpretable descriptions for groups of organisms, and is compatible with the Semantic Web. Unlike the evolutionary relationship based scientific naming system, it emphasizes the observable features of organisms. By independently naming the descriptions composed of sets of observational features, as well as maintaining connections to scientific names, it preserves the observational data used to identify organisms. The system is designed to support a peer-review mechanism for creating new names, and uses a controlled

  11. Test Plan for Tank 241-AZ-101 Solubility Screening Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PERSON, J.C.


    Tank 241-AZ-101 (101-AZ) has been identified as one of the early tanks to be retrieved for waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste from other tanks may require dilution. This test is to determine the effects of dilution on the mass of solids and their composition, which can be compared with tanks where dilution is required. This test plan gives test instructions, example data sheets, a waste compatibility review, and a waste stream fact sheet.

  12. Dissociating compatibility effects and distractor costs in the additional singleton paradigm. (United States)

    Folk, Charles L


    The interpretation of identity compatibility effects associated with irrelevant items outside the nominal focus of attention has fueled much of the debate over early versus late selection and perceptual load theory. However, compatibility effects have also played a role in the debate over the extent to which the involuntary allocation of spatial attention (i.e., attentional capture) is completely stimulus-driven or whether it is contingent on top-down control settings. For example, in the context of the additional singleton paradigm, irrelevant color singletons have been found to produce not only an overall cost in search performance but also significant compatibility effects. This combination of search costs and compatibility effects has been taken as evidence that spatial attention is indeed allocated in a bottom-up fashion to the salient but irrelevant singletons. However, it is possible that compatibility effects in the additional singleton paradigm reflect parallel processing of identity associated with low perceptual load rather than an involuntary shift of spatial attention. In the present experiments, manipulations of load were incorporated into the traditional additional singleton paradigm. Under low-load conditions, both search costs and compatibility effects were obtained, replicating previous studies. Under high-load conditions, search costs were still present, but compatibility effects were eliminated. This dissociation suggests that the costs associated with irrelevant singletons may reflect filtering processes rather than the allocation of spatial attention.

  13. Application testing with Capybara

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Matthew


    Start performing integration testing with Capybara immediately. This book will get you up and running quickly and assumes no knowledge or experience of the technology.This book is for developers and testers who have had some exposure to Ruby but who want to know how to test their applications using Capybara and its compatible drivers, such as Selenium-Webdriver and Rack-Test. The examples are deliberately kept simple and example HTML mark-up is always included so that you can copy the examples to practice and experiment on your own machine.

  14. 金属冠脉支架磁共振适用性研究%Magnetic Resonance Compatibility Research for Coronary Mental Stents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎; 刘丽; 王硕; 尚汝瑶; 王春仁


    The objective of this article is to research magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents, and to evaluate the magnetic resonance compatibility based on laboratory testing results. Coronary stents magnetic resonance compatibility test includes magnetical y induced displacement force test, magnetical y induced torque test, radio frequency induced heating and evaluation of MR image. By magnetic displacement force and torque values, temperature, and image distortion values to determine metal coronary stent demagnetization effect. The methods can be applied to test magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents and evaluate its demagnetization effect.%该文为研究金属冠脉支架磁共振适用性,以实验室测试为基础研究金属冠脉支架的磁共振适用性。金属冠脉支架磁共振适用性试验分为磁位移力试验、磁扭矩试验、致热试验和图像干扰试验四项。通过磁位移力值、磁扭矩值,温度升高值和图像畸变值来判断金属冠脉支架的退磁效果。因此利用该研究可以对金属冠脉支架磁共振适用性进行检测,并对其退磁效果进行评价。

  15. Dissociating affordance and spatial compatibility effects using a pantomimed reaching action. (United States)

    Couth, Samuel; Gowen, Emma; Poliakoff, Ellen


    Previous research has demonstrated faster reaction times in response to appropriately oriented action-inducing stimuli (affordance effect, e.g. Tucker and Ellis in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 24:830-846, 1998). However, it has been argued that faster responses may be due to a spatial compatibility effect. In the current investigation, we aimed to dissociate the affordance and spatial compatibility effects. Moreover, we explored these effects beyond button-press responses by measuring detailed kinematics of the arms and hands during a naturalistic reach response. Participants were presented with images of a door handle (affording) or an abstract (non-affording) stimulus and made a pantomimed reach response with either hand depending on a colour change of the stimulus (i.e. Blue = left, Green = right). Stimuli could be aligned as spatially compatible or incompatible with the responding hand. The colour change occurred after a delay of 0, 500 or 1,000 ms. Only spatially compatible affordance stimuli facilitated reach onset compared to other stimuli and compatibility combinations, replicating previous reaction time studies. Therefore, in the absence of graspable stimuli, spatial compatibility alone was not sufficient to facilitate reach onset. There was also a larger outwards deviation of reach trajectory for spatially incompatible abstract stimuli compared to spatially compatible abstract stimuli, which waned with stimulus onset delay. However, no such affect was observed for the affording stimuli. Accordingly, later kinematics of the reaching action was influenced by the spatial compatibility of the stimulus alone. Overall, the dissociation of affordance and spatial compatibility effects suggests that these effects are driven by visuomotor priming and the inhibition of the incompatible spatial location, respectively.

  16. Evaluation of a magnetic resonance-compatible dentoalveolar tactile stimulus device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereiter David A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few methods exist to study central nervous system processes following dentoalveolar tactile stimulation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, likely due to inherent technical difficulties. Our primary goal was to develop and perform feasibility testing of a novel device capable of delivering valid and reliable dentoalveolar stimuli at dental chair-side and during MRI. Details of a device designed to deliver dentoalveolar dynamic pressure stimuli are described. Device testing took place in three settings: a laboratory testing to assess range of stimulus force intensities, b dental chair-side to assess reliability, validity and discriminant ability in force-pain relationship; and c MRI to evaluate magnetic compatibility and ability to evoke brain activation in painfree subjects similar to those described in the literature. Results A novel device capable of delivering valid and reliable dentoalveolar somatosensory stimulation was developed (ICC = 0.89, 0.78-1 [95% CI]. Psychophysical data analysis showed high discriminant ability in differentiating painfree controls from cases with chronic dentoalveolar pain related to deafferenting dental procedures (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 86.7%, area under ROC curve = 0.99. FMRI results of dentoalveolar dynamic pressure pain in painfree subjects revealed activation of brain areas typically associated with acute pain processing including thalamus, primary/secondary somatosensory, insular and prefrontal cortex. Conclusions A novel psychophysical method to deliver dynamic dentoalveolar pressure stimulation was developed and validated, allowing non-invasive MRI-based exploration of central nervous system function in response to intraoral somatosensation. Background The organization of the trigeminal system is unique as it provides somatosensory innervation to the face, masticatory and oral structures, the majority of the intracranial contents 1 and to specialized structures

  17. In vivo and in vitro characterization of poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) copolymer stent coatings for biostability, vascular compatibility and mechanical integrity. (United States)

    Strickler, Fred; Richard, Robert; McFadden, Sharon; Lindquist, Jeff; Schwarz, Marlene C; Faust, Rudolf; Wilson, Gregory J; Boden, Mark


    The TAXUS Express 2 Paclitaxel Eluting Coronary Stent System employs a coating consisting of the thermoplastic elastomer, poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene; SIBS), selected for its drug-eluting characteristics, vascular compatibility, mechanical properties, and biostability. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of different SIBS (17-51 mole % styrene) compositions on mechanical properties, chemical stability, and vascular compatibility. Mechanical property (stress-strain measurements) and stability studies were conducted on polymer films with five different styrene contents (17, 24, 32, 39, and 51 mole %). The ultimate tensile strength did not change significantly with composition, but the elongation at break decreased with increased styrene content. A pulsatile fatigue test further confirmed the mechanical stability of SIBS up to 39 mole % styrene. The vascular compatibility of five different SIBS compositions was assessed using SIBS-only coated stents, in the coronary and carotid arteries in a porcine model study. The stability of the vessel wall, rate/degree of endothelialization, inflammation, and thrombus at timepoints from 30 to 180 days were evaluated. The results confirm vascular compatibility over the range of 17-51 mole % styrene.

  18. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-SY-102 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.


    Three grab samples (2SY-96-1, 2SY-96-2, and 2SY-96-3) were taken from Riser 1A of Tank 241-SY 102 on January 14, 1997, and received by 222-S Laboratory on January 14, 1997. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farm Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results. Acetone analysis was not performed in accordance with Cancellation of Acetone Analysis for Tank 241-SY-102 Grab Samples.

  19. Solutions of Maximal Compatible Granules and Approximations in Rough Set Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wu,


    Full Text Available Abstract—This paper emphasizes studying on a new method to rough set theory by obtaining granules with maximal compatible classes as primitive ones in which any two objects are mutually compatible, proposes the upper and lower approximation computations to extend rough set models for further building multi-granulation rough set theory in incomplete information systems, discusses the properties and relationships of granules and approximations, designs algorithms to solve maximal compatible classes, the lower and upper approximations. It verifies the correctness of algorithms by an example.

  20. Next Generation, Si-Compatible Materials and Devices in the Si-Ge-Sn System (United States)


    performed extensive growth studies aimed to create entire new families of Ge1-x-ySixSny materials on industrially compatible group IV platforms ( Si , Ge and...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0044 Next generation, Si -compatible materials and devices in the Si -Ge-Sn system John Kouvetakis ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Final...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next generation, Si -compatible materials and devices in the Si -Ge-Sn system 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0208 5b. GRANT