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Sample records for 4th generation light

  1. The 4th Generation Light Source at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Albert Grippo; Christopher Gould; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Steven Moore; George Neil; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Shukui Zhang; Gwyn Williams

    2007-04-25

    A number of "Grand Challenges" in Science have recently been identified in reports from The National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Many of these require a new generation of linac-based light source to study dynamical and non-linear phenomena in nanoscale samples. In this paper we present a summary of the properties of such light sources, comparing them with existing sources, and then describing in more detail a specific source at Jefferson Lab. Importantly, the JLab light source has developed some novel technology which is a critical enabler for other new light sources.

  2. JLab CW Cryomodules for 4th Generation Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmer, Robert; Bundy, Richard; Cheng, Guangfeng; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clemens, William; Daly, Edward; Henry, James; Hicks, William; Kneisel, Peter; Manning, Stephen; Manus, Robert; Marhauser, Frank; Preble, Joseph; Reece, Charles; Smith, Karl; Stirbet, Mircea; Turlington, Larry; Wang, Haipeng; Wilson, Katherine

    2008-01-23

    Fourth generation light sources hold the prospect of unprecedented brightness and optical beam quality for a wide range of scientific applications. Many of the proposed new facilities will rely on large superconducting radio frequency (SRF) based linacs to provide high energy, low emittance CW electron beams. For high average power applications there is a growing acceptance of energy recovery linac (ERL) technology as the way to support large recirculating currents with modest RF power requirements. CW SRF and high current ERLs are two core competencies at Jefferson Lab. JLab has designed and built a number of CW cryomodules of several different types starting with the original CEBAF design, with variations for higher current in the two generations of JLab’s free-electron laser (FEL), through two intermediate prototypes to the final high-performance module for the 12 GeV upgrade. Each of these represent fully engineered and tested configurations with a variety of specifications that could be considered for possible use in fourth generation light sources. Furthermore JLab has been actively pursuing advanced concepts for highcurrent high-efficiency cryomodules for next generation ERL based FEL’s. These existing and proposed designs span the range from about 1mA single-pass to over 100 mA energy recovered current capability. Specialized configurations also exist for high-current non-energy recovered sections such as the injector region where very high RF power is required. We discuss the performance parameters of these existing and proposed designs and their suitability to different classes of fourth generation light sources.

  3. RF Sources for 3rd & 4th Generation Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Lenci, Stephan; Bohlen, Heinz Peter; Mizuhara, Albert; Wright, Edward L

    2004-01-01

    The growing number of third and fourth generation light sources has resulted in an increase of the available rf sources to power them. Single beam klystrons are the traditional power source, but the development of IOT’s and multiple-beam klystrons (MBK’s) in L-Band have increased the options for these machines. The Eimac division of CPI has recently built and tested a prototype L-Band IOT, which delivered 30 kW CW at 1.3 GHz. Future work includes the building of an IOT at 1.5 GHz. Meanwhile the MPP division of CPI is currently testing the prototype 10 MW peak, 1.3 GHz MBK for the TESLA x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). Test results for these new products as well as information on all CPI products at 500 MHz, 1.3 GHz, and 1.5 GHz will be presented.

  4. A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G.; Levy, M. C.; Wadud, M. A.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Bingham, R.

    2016-04-01

    Using the post-Newtonian formalism of gravity, we attempt to calculate the x-ray Thomson scattering cross section of electrons that are accelerated in the field of a high intensity optical laser. We show that our results are consistent with previous calculations, suggesting that the combination of high power laser and 4th generation light sources may become a powerful platform to test models exploring high order corrections to the Newtonian gravity.

  5. Injector Beam Dynamics for a High-Repetition Rate 4th-Generation Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, C. F.; Corlett, J.; Emma, P.; Filippetto, D.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.

    2013-05-20

    We report on the beam dynamics studies and optimization methods for a high repetition rate (1 MHz) photoinjector based on a VHF normal conducting electron source. The simultaneous goals of beamcompression and reservation of 6-dimensional beam brightness have to be achieved in the injector, in order to accommodate a linac driven FEL light source. For this, a parallel, multiobjective optimization algorithm is used. We discuss the relative merits of different injector design points, as well as the constraints imposed on the beam dynamics by technical considerations such as the high repetition rate.

  6. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  7. Toward 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, district heating (DH) has a key role in the national strategic energy planning. However, tighter legislation on new and future buildings requires much less heating demand which subsequently causes relative high network heat loss. This will make current DH system uneconomical...... comparing with other local heat generation units. The design and operation of DH systems therefore needs to be re-examined, part of the solution being low operational temperature. The 3-years IEA DHC Annex X project ‘Towards 4th Generation District Heating: Experience and Potential of Low......-Temperature District Heating (LTDH)’ aims to document experiences gained in mature DH countries with low temperature systems serving highly energyefficient new buildings and existing buildings. The potential to supply DHW at temperature close to 50oC without the risk of Legionella was investigated. Information...

  8. CeLAND: search for a 4th light neutrino state with a 3 PBq 144Ce-144Pr electron antineutrino generator in KamLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Gando, A; Hayashida, S; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Ishidoshiro, K; Ishikawa, H; Koga, M; Matsuda, R; Matsuda, S; Mitsui, T; Motoki, D; Nakamura, K; Oki, Y; Otani, M; Shimizu, I; Shirai, J; Suekane, F; Suzuki, A; Takemoto, Y; Tamae, K; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Xu, B D; Yamada, S; Yamauchi, Y; Yoshida, H; Cribier, M; Durero, M; Fischer, V; Gaffiot, J; Jonqueres, N; Kouchner, A; Lasserre, T; Leterme, D; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Mention, G; Rampal, G; Scola, L; Veyssiere, Ch; Vivier, M; Yala, P; Berger, B E; Kozlov, A; Banks, T; Dwyer, D; Fujikawa, B K; Han, K; Kolomensky, Yu G; Mei, Y; O'Donnell, T; Decowski, P; Markoff, D M; Yoshida, S; Kornoukhov, V N; Gelis, T V M; Tikhomirov, G V; Learned, J G; Maricic, J; Matsuno, S; Milincic, R; Karwowski, H J; Efremenko, Y; Detwiler, A; Enomoto, S

    2013-01-01

    The reactor neutrino and gallium anomalies can be tested with a 3-4 PBq (75-100 kCi scale) 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino beta-source deployed at the center or next to a large low-background liquid scintillator detector. The antineutrino generator will be produced by the Russian reprocessing plant PA Mayak as early as 2014, transported to Japan, and deployed in the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) as early as 2015. KamLAND's 13 m diameter target volume provides a suitable environment to measure the energy and position dependence of the detected neutrino flux. A characteristic oscillation pattern would be visible for a baseline of about 10 m or less, providing a very clean signal of neutrino disappearance into a yet-unknown, sterile neutrino state. This will provide a comprehensive test of the electron dissaperance neutrino anomalies and could lead to the discovery of a 4th neutrino state for Delta_m^2 > 0.1 eV^2 and sin^2(2theta) > 0.05.

  9. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  10. Trialling a 4th Generation Approach to the First Year Experience: The CommUniTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharn Donnison

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, we developed a new approach to supporting first year students’ transition into higher education building on the work of Kift, Nelson, and Clarke (2010 whose 3rd Generation Approach is one of transition pedagogy foregrounded by a whole-of-institution transformation. Our 4th Generation Approach focuses on students’ social capital and extends the remit beyond the institution. Our approach recognises students’ social capital as an unexplored resource to be drawn upon to inform the membership of a Community of Practice (CoP. The CoP members collaboratively develop strategies to support the development of students’ important cultural capital, which we consider essential for successful transition. In 2015, we trialled the 4th Generation Approach with a Queensland regional university satellite campus. This paper reports on the implementation of the CoP as one element of the 4th Generation Approach and the important refinements required for future success.

  11. Book of abstracts: International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the first International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating at Aalborg University, Copenhagen Campus on 25-26 August 2015. The conference is organised by the 4DH Strategic Research Centre in collaboration with Aalborg......-temperature district heating, the Strategic Research Centre for 4th Generation District Heating Technologies and Systems enhances the understanding of supply system design, infrastructure and heat savings. In future energy systems, combinations of low-temperature district heating resources and heat savings represent...... a promising alternative to individual heating solutions and passive or energy+ buildings. This change in the heating system also requires institutional and organisational changes that address the implementation of new technologies and enable new markets that can provide feasible solutions to society. We hope...

  12. iPad 4th generation and iPad mini portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Everything you need to know about the newest iPads from Apple! If you have finally decided to get in the iPad game, then don't forget to pick up the iPad's must-have accessory: your own copy of iPad 4th Generation & iPad mini Portable Genius! This hip little guide is packed with easy-to-understand tips, tricks, and advice to help you get the most out of your iPad with beautiful Retina display or the new iPad mini. You'll learn how to maximize features of the iPad, such as the Retina display, multitouch screen, FaceTime HD camera, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi +4G capability, eReader functionality, an

  13. Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Oleg; Berman, Lonny; Chu, Yong S.; Fluerasu, Andrei; Hulbert, Steve; Idir, Mourad; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Shapiro, David; Shen, Qun; Baltser, Jana

    2011-09-01

    Partially-coherent wavefront propagation calculations have proven to be feasible and very beneficial in the design of beamlines for 3rd and 4th generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources. These types of calculations use the framework of classical electrodynamics for the description, on the same accuracy level, of the emission by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic fields of accelerators, and the propagation of the emitted radiation wavefronts through beamline optical elements. This enables accurate prediction of performance characteristics for beamlines exploiting high SR brightness and/or high spectral flux. Detailed analysis of radiation degree of coherence, offered by the partially-coherent wavefront propagation method, is of paramount importance for modern storage-ring based SR sources, which, thanks to extremely small sub-nanometer-level electron beam emittances, produce substantial portions of coherent flux in X-ray spectral range. We describe the general approach to partially-coherent SR wavefront propagation simulations and present examples of such simulations performed using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) code for the parameters of hard X-ray undulator based beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These examples illustrate general characteristics of partially-coherent undulator radiation beams in low-emittance SR sources, and demonstrate advantages of applying high-accuracy physical-optics simulations to the optimization and performance prediction of X-ray optical beamlines in these new sources.

  14. Rare decays of the Z and the standard model, 4th generation, and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Several issues in rare decays of the Z are addressed. The rate for flavor-changing Z decay grows as the fourth power of the fermion masses internal to the quantum loop, and so offers a window to the existence of ultraheavy (m > M{sub W}) fermions. In the standard model, with three generations, BR(Z {yields} bs) < 10{sup -7} and BR(Z{yields}tc)<10{sup -13}. With four generations, BR(Z {yields} bb{sub 4}) may be as large as 10{sup -5} if m{sub b4} < M{sub Z}; and similarly for BR(Z {yields} N{sub 4}v), where N{sub 4} is the possibly heavy fourth generation neutrino. In supersymmetric and other two Higgs doublet models, BR(Z {yields} tc) may be as large as 5 {times} 10{sup -6} in the three generation scheme. With minimal supersymmetry, the reaction Z {yields} H{gamma} is guaranteed to go, with a parameter-dependent branching ratio of 10{sup -6 {plus minus} 3}. With mirror fermions or exotic E{sub 6} fermions, the branching ratios for Z {yields} ct (70 GeV), Z {yields} {mu}{tau}, and Z {yields} bb{sub 4} (70 GeV) are typically 10{sup -4}, 10{sup -4}, and 10{sup -3} respectively, clearly measurable at LEP. Depending on unknown quark masses, the Z may mix with vector (b{sub 4}{bar b}{sub 4}) and the W may mix with vector (t{bar b}) or (t{bar s}). CP violating asymmetries in flavor-changing Z decay are immeasurably small in the standard model, but may be large in supersymmetric and other nonstandard models. 28 refs.

  15. LTE Advanced: Necessities and Technological Challenges for 4th Generation Mobile Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ali Shaikh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The higher peak data rates for portable users are in demand. Audio/Video streaming, online conferences and community media services are fetching the requirement of life. In order to accomplish the absolute amount of data need of users, vigorous and well-organized wireless technology is needed. The solution for future mobile wireless networks which is based on Rel-10 is LTE-Advanced. It is the promising technology for upcoming wireless broadband network based on Rel-8 of Long term Evolution (LTE. This research paper provides a higher level overview of LTE-Advanced, which includes carrier aggregation for well-organized spectrum use, MIMO techniques for numerous signal transmissions and receptions, relaying and heterogeneous consumption strategy. LTE-Advanced scheme will be the Next Generation wireless technology for years to come.

  16. The Impact of a 4th Generation on Mixing and CP Violation in the Charm System

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Feldmann, Thorsten; Heidsieck, Tillmann; Promberger, Christoph; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We study D0-D0 mixing in the presence of a fourth generation of quarks. In particular, we calculate the size of the allowed CP violation which is found at the observable level well beyond anything possible with CKM dynamics. We calculate the semileptonic asymmetry a_SL and the mixing induced CP asymmetry eta_fS_f which are correlated with each other. We also investigate the correlation of eta_fS_f with a number of prominent observables in other mesonic systems like epsilon'/epsilon, Br(K_L -> pi0 nu nu), Br(K+ -> pi+ nu nu), Br(B_s ->mu+ mu-), Br(B_d -> mu+ mu-) and finally S_psi phi in the B_s system. We identify a clear pattern of flavour and CP violation predicted by the SM4 model: While simultaneous large 4G effects in the K and D systems are possible, accompanying large NP effects in the B_d system are disfavoured. However this behaviour is not as pronounced as found for the LHT and RSc models. In contrast to this, sizeable CP violating effects in the B_s system are possible unless extreme effects in eta...

  17. Heavy Bino Dark Matter and Collider Signals in the MSSM with Vector-like 4th-Generation Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad; Iwamoto, Sho; Lillard, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    MSSM4G models, in which the minimal supersymmetric standard model is extended to include vector-like copies of standard model particles, are promising possibilities for weak-scale supersymmetry. In particular, two models, called QUE and QDEE, realize the major virtues of supersymmetry (naturalness consistent with the 125 GeV Higgs boson, gauge coupling unification, and thermal relic neutralino dark matter) without the need for fine-tuned relations between particle masses. We determine the implications of these models for dark matter and collider searches. The QUE and QDEE models revive the possibility of heavy Bino dark matter with mass in the range 300-700 GeV, which is not usually considered. Dark matter direct detection cross sections are typically below current limits, but are naturally expected above the neutrino floor and may be seen at next-generation experiments. Indirect detection prospects are bright at the Cherenkov Telescope Array, provided the 4th-generation leptons have mass above 350 GeV or dec...

  18. Polymerization of liquid propylene with a 4th generation Ziegler-Natta catalyst-influence of temperature, hydrogen and monomer concentration and prepolymerization method on polymerization kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pater, Jochem T.M.; Weickert, Günter; Swaaij, van Wim P.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a batch-wise operated autoclave reactor, liquid propylene was polymerized using a 4th generation, TiCl4/MgCl2/phthalate ester-AlEt3-R2Si(OMe)2, Ziegler-Natta catalyst system. By using a calorimetric principle it was possible to measure full reaction rate versus time curves for obtaining data on p

  19. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%.

  20. Gamma Irradiation of 4th Instar Larva of Angoumois Grain Moth and Effects on Parent and Their Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Boshra, Salwa A. [سلوى عزمي بشرى

    2006-01-01

    Late fourth stage larvae of Angomous grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) were gamma irradiated with doses 0 ( control), 25, 50 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy. The moths originated from larvae irradiated with 150 Gy became sterile. Irradiation of males as larvae with substerilizing doses of 25 and 50 Gy induced inherited F| sterility which reduced the population. F| progeny exhibited more sterility than their parent generation. Also F| males inherited more sterility than F| females. Adult fert...

  1. Fifth generation light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-12-01

    Coherent light sources are one of the most fundamental research tools in biology, technology and in other areas. Synchrotron light source consists of a few basic parts: energy source - which is an electron beam accelerator, energy converter between electron and photon beams - which is an undulator, and photon user experimental lines. Each of these parts is separately a complex system, which is currently a subject to fast technological development. Future light sources of the fifth generation are based on completely new solutions of these fundamental parts, in comparison with the sources of the previous generations. Energy source is a new generation laser - plasma accelerator with electrical field in the area of multiple GV/m. A miniature undulator is tested in the MEMS technology from new materials. Classical light beam lines, vacuum, and difficult for management and beam distribution, change their meaning in the case of availability of miniature undulators positioned immediately at or even inside the experimental stations. After an introduction concerning the light sources of the previous generations, the article shows current research efforts on the mentioned key components of the fifth generation light sources. In some cases this is a continuation and modernization of the previous technologies, in the majority it is a brave endeavour to apply completely new technologies, like laser - plasma acceleration.

  2. Light Beam Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a set of controllable light beams by provision of a system for synthesizing a set of light beams, comprising a spatially modulated light source for generation of electromagnetic radiation with a set of replicas of a predetermined......(x-xs, y-ys), a Fourier transforming lens for Fourier transforming the electromagnetic radiation, a first spatial light modulator for phase shifting the Fourier transformed electromagnetic radiation with the phase -F(u, v) of S*, S* is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transformed symbol s, a Fourier...... transforming lens for Inverse Fourier transforming the spatially modulated radiation, whereby a set of light beams are formed propagating through the inverse Fourier plane (x', y') at desired positions (x's, y's), and a controller for controlling the position of a replica of the symbol, s, for movement...

  3. 3rd and 4th Generation ECRIS:Some Possible Scenarios%第三代和第四代ECR离子源:未来展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Gammino

    2007-01-01

    Since the end of '70s the Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources(ECRIS)allowed to increase both the energy and intensity of the beams available from different types of accelerators;perspectives for the ruture are still optimistic.It is commonly agreed that only some ECRIS parameters have been fully exploited,whether some others are still not efficiently used,or not understood.The developments in the last 20 years have followed the so called Standard Model and the availability of higher frequency generators and higher field magnets have permitted relevant increase;the use of Nb3Sn may extend the range.The availability of new schemes of microwave coupling to plasma is promising,and the focusing of the electromagnetic wave towards the chamber axis may improve the density of warm electron population.The paper will also describe some critical point of the 3rd generation ECRIS(including technological troubles and limits)and the scenario for future 4th generation ECRIS,operating at f=56-75GHz,to be built in 2010s.

  4. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

  5. 第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂在血液筛查中的应用%Application of 4th generation reagents for the detection of HIV antigen and antibody in blood screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈尚良; 郑欣; 曾月婷; 廖扬勋; 梁洁贞; 余文潮; 李结敏; 梁丽婷; 梁剑锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂在血液筛查中的应用价值。方法对第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂进行灵敏度和重复性实验;分别采用第三代HIV抗体检测试剂和第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂对血液样本进行初复检,对第三代试剂检测阴性第四代试剂检测阳性的样本采用HIV核酸检测方法进行确认。结果第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂最低抗原检出浓度为1.25 U/mL,孔间精密度为3.2%;2009年10月~2011年3月,共筛查样本23480例,其中13例第三代试剂结果阴性而第四代试剂结果阳性,经HIV核酸检测的方法进行确认,全部结果均为阴性。结论在血液筛查中引入第四代HIV检测试剂的试剂功效尚待进一步验证,在已经广泛开展HIV抗体检测的基础上,引入第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂还是引入核酸检测具有更好的成本效益比,是一个值得待探讨的课题。%Objective To study the application of 4th-generation HIV reagents for detecting HIV antigens and antibodies in blood screening. Methods The sensitivity and repeatability experiments were tested respectively. All samples were detected by 3th-generation HIV reagents for only detecting HIV antibody and 4th-generation HIV reagents for detecting HIV antigens and antibodies, respectively, and the samples which were positive in 4th-generation HIV reagents detecting but negative in 3th-generation HIV reagents were confirmed by HIV nucleic acid detections. Results The minimum detectable concentration of HIV antigen was 1.25 U/mL and the precision was 3.2%for 4th-generation HIV reagent. In tolal 23 480 samples had been screened from October 2009 to March 2011, 13 samples were positive in 4th-generation HIV reagent detecting but negative in HIV 3th-generation HIV reagent, all of them were confired negative by HIV nucleic acid detection. Conclusion The efficacy of HIV detection attribute to applying 4th-generation HIV reagent

  6. The 4th concept detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John Hauptman

    2007-12-01

    The 4th concept detector consists of four detector subsystems, a small-pixel vertex detector, a high-resolution TPC, a new multiple-readout fiber calorimeter and a new dual-solenoid iron-free muon system. We discuss the design of a comprehensive facility that measures and identifies all partons of the standard model, including hadronic → and → decays, with high precision and high e±ciency. We emphasis here the calorimeter and muon systems.

  7. 4th Machining Innovations Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the research results presented at the 4th Machining Innovations Conference, Hannover, September 2013. The topic of the conference are new production technologies in aerospace industry and the focus is on energy efficient machine tools as well as sustainable process planning. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  8. 4th International Cryocoolers Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, George; Knox, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Cryocoolers 4 proceedings archives the contributions of leading international experts at the 4th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Easton, Maryland on September 25-26, 1986. About 170 people attended the conference representing 11 countries, 14 universities, 21 government laboratories and 60 industrial companies. Thirty-one papers were presented describing advancements and applications of cryocoolers in the temperature range below 80K. This year's conference was sponsored by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center of Annapolis, Maryland, and the conference proceedings reproduced here was published by them.

  9. 四代核电NC-DCS产品解决方案简介%Brief Product Solution of 4th Generation of Nuclear NC-DCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高景斌

    2014-01-01

    经历了福岛事件,核电的安全性更加被重视,四代核电因更安全性和经济性更加受到重视,是未来核电的发展方向。本文描述了具有我国自主知识产权的四代核电核心控制系统NC-DCS的产品解决方案,包括了解决方案的系统架构、网络、功能分配、主控制室设计、安全性冗余设计、通讯设计、校时设计等部分的内容。%After Fukushima, nuclear safety has been attached more attentions. Due to the more attentions on safety and economy, the four generation of nuclear power is the direction of development of nuclear power in the future. This paper describes the product solutions of NC-DCS with independent intellectual property rights of China's nuclear power core control system, including system architecture, solution of the network, function distribution, main control room design, safety redundancy design, communication design, time correction design and other parts design.

  10. 30 years of squeezed light generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Gehring, Tobias; Marquardt, Christoph;

    2016-01-01

    Squeezed light generation has come of age. Significant advances on squeezed light generation have been made over the last 30 years—from the initial, conceptual experiment in 1985 till today’s top-tuned, application-oriented setups. Here we review the main experimental platforms for generating qua...

  11. Radio lighting based on dynamic chaos generators

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Alexander; Gerasimov, Mark; Itskov, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    A problem of lighting objects and surfaces with artificial sources of noncoherent microwave radiation with the aim to observe them using radiometric equipment is considered. Transmitters based on dynamic chaos generators are used as sources of noncoherent wideband microwave radiation. An experimental sample of such a device, i.e., a radio lighting lamp based on a chaos microgenerator and its performance are presented.

  12. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  13. Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Trapani, P D; Piskarskas, A; Jedrkiewicz, O; Trull, J; Conti, C; Trillo, S

    2003-01-01

    We observe the formation of an intense optical wavepacket fully localized in all dimensions, i.e. both longitudinally (in time) and in the transverse plane, with an extension of a few tens of fsec and microns, respectively. Our measurements show that the self-trapped wave is a X-shaped light bullet spontaneously generated from a standard laser wavepacket via the nonlinear material response (i.e., second-harmonic generation), which extend the soliton concept to a new realm, where the main hump coexists with conical tails which reflect the symmetry of linear dispersion relationship.

  14. 4th Conference on Microactuators and Micromechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard; Jensen, Brian; Lovasz, Erwin-Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book brings together investigations which combine theoretical and experimental results related to such systems as capsule micromechanisms, active micro catheters, nanotube vascular stents, mechanisms for micromilling, different compliant mechanisms including grippers and compliant systems with actuators and sensors, microrobots based on vibrations, tactile sensors, tooth brackets, compliant valves, and space reflectors. This volume contains twenty-two contributions from researchers from ten countries, represented at the 4th Conference on Microactuators and Micromechanisms, which was held in 2016 in Ilmenau, Germany. The aim of the conference was to provide a special opportunity for a know-how exchange and collaboration in various disciplines concerning systems pertaining to micro-technology. This Conference was organized under the patronage of IFToMM (International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science). .

  15. 4th World Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasov, Ali; Yager, Ronald; Shahbazova, Shahnaz; Reformat, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on advanced theories and cutting-edge applications in the field of soft computing. The individual chapters, written by leading researchers, are based on contributions presented during the 4th World Conference on Soft Computing, held May 25-27, 2014, in Berkeley. The book covers a wealth of key topics in soft computing, focusing on both fundamental aspects and applications. The former include fuzzy mathematics, type-2 fuzzy sets, evolutionary-based optimization, aggregation and neural networks, while the latter include soft computing in data analysis, image processing, decision-making, classification, series prediction, economics, control, and modeling. By providing readers with a timely, authoritative view on the field, and by discussing thought-provoking developments and challenges, the book will foster new research directions in the diverse areas of soft computing. .

  16. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major......The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current...... evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration...

  17. 4th international interdisciplinary chaos symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Santo; Caglar, Suleyman; Ozer, Mehmet; Chaos and complex systems

    2013-01-01

    Complexity Science and Chaos Theory are fascinating areas of scientific research with wide-ranging applications.  The interdisciplinary nature and ubiquity of complexity and chaos are features that provides scientists with a motivation to pursue general theoretical tools and frameworks. Complex systems give rise to emergent behaviors, which in turn produce novel and interesting phenomena in science, engineering, as well as in the socio-economic sciences. The aim of all Symposia on Chaos and Complex Systems (CCS) is to bring together scientists, engineers, economists and social scientists, and to discuss the latest insights and results obtained in the area of corresponding nonlinear-system complex (chaotic) behavior. Especially for the “4th International Interdisciplinary Chaos Symposium on Chaos and Complex Systems,” which took place April 29th to May 2nd, 2012 in Antalya, Turkey, the scope of the symposium had been further enlarged so as to encompass the presentation of work from circuits to econophysic...

  18. 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This books contains the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions, that was held in Sinaia, Romania from June 20 -23, 2012. Power Transmissions is a very complex and multi-disciplinary scientific field of Mechanical Engineering that covers the different types of transmissions (mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic) as well as all the machine elements involved, such as gears, bearings, shafts, couplings and a lot more. It concerns not only their basic theory but also their design, analysis, testing, application and maintenance. The requirements set to modern power transmissions are really tough to meet: They need to be more efficient, stronger, smaller, noiseless, easier to produce and to cost less. There is a strong demand to become easier in operation and maintenance, or even automatic and in maintenance-free. Last but not least, they should be easily recycled and respect the environment. Joint efforts of specialists from both academia and industry can significantly contribute to fulf...

  19. Characterization of Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli obtained from Danish pigs, pig farmers and their families from farms with high or no consumption of 3rd or 4th generation cephalosporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette M.; Larsen, Jesper; Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare and characterize extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli from pigsties, pig farmers and their families on farms with previous high or no use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Methods: Twenty farms with no third- or fourth-generation ceph...

  20. 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karray, Fakhri; Jo, Jun; Sincak, Peter; Myung, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of robot intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Bucheon, Korea, December 14 - 16, 2015. For better readability, this edition has the total of 49 article...

  1. Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating and cooling are here to stay, but the district heating technology has to change. It has to adjust to the requirements of a future smart energy development. Therefore, research is essential, but not only research in university laboratories. Demonstration projects and innovation...

  2. Venezuela as an Exporter of 4th Generation Warfare Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    e.g., Colombia and Peru, to date); and, • Diplomatic war/media war/conventional war (e.g., Algeria, 1954-62). 13 Any one of the above...financial war, trade war, psychological war, network ( virus ) war, cyber war, chemical-biological-radiological war, etc. Professional soldiers no...support to the insurgent and drug trafficking Revo- lutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), Ira- 23 nian surrogate and terrorist Hezbollah

  3. Generating artificial light curves: Revisited and updated

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanoulopoulos, D; Papadakis, I E

    2013-01-01

    The production of artificial light curves with known statistical and variability properties is of great importance in astrophysics. Consolidating the confidence levels during cross-correlation studies, understanding the artefacts induced by sampling irregularities, establishing detection limits for future observatories are just some of the applications of simulated data sets. Currently, the widely used methodology of amplitude and phase randomisation is able to produce artificial light curves which have a given underlying power spectral density (PSD) but which are strictly Gaussian distributed. This restriction is a significant limitation, since the majority of the light curves e.g. active galactic nuclei, X-ray binaries, gamma-ray bursts show strong deviations from Gaussianity exhibiting `burst-like' events in their light curves yielding long-tailed probability distribution functions (PDFs). In this study we propose a simple method which is able to precisely reproduce light curves which match both the PSD an...

  4. Circuit Simulation of Light Ⅱ-A Pulsed Power Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Light Ⅱ-A pulsed power generator could be divided into the following parts, a Marx generator consisting of 12 spark gap switches and 24 low inductance capacitors (Maxwell Corporation products)

  5. Refurbishment Status of Light Ⅱ-A Pulsed Power Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Light Ⅱ-A pulsed power generator, formerly used to pump KrF laser, was updated around the year 2000 from the original Light Ⅱ, a pulsed power generator built in 1980s at CIAE. This machine was

  6. Two-mirrored galvanometer laser light sheet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, B. D.; Franke, J. M.; Jones, S. B.; Rhodes, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    Light sheets generated with either laser or noncoherent sources have found widespread application to flow visualization. Previous light sheet generating systems were usually dedicated to a specific viewing geometry. The technique with the most flexibility is the galvanometer mirror based laser light sheet system. A two-mirrored system was designed and developed to provide flexibility and adaptability to a wide range of applications. The design includes the capability to control the size and location of the laser light sheet in real time, to generate horizontal or vertical sheets, to sweep the sheet repeatedly through a volume, to generate multiple sheets with controllable separation and to rotate single or multiple laser light sheets. The system is capable of producing up to 12 sheets of laser light at an angular divergence of + or - 20 degrees. Maximum scan rate of any one line is 500 Hertz. This system has proven to be uniquely versatile and a patent has been applied for.

  7. Iranian Light Source Facility, A third generation light source laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rahighi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF project is the first large scale accelerator facility which is currently under planning in Iran. On the basis of the present design, circumference of the 3 GeV storage ring is 528 m. Beam current and natural beam emittance are 400 mA and 0.477 nm.rad, respectively. Some prototype accelerator components such as high power solid state radio frequency amplifiers, low level RF system, thermionic RF gun, H-type dipole and quadruple magnets, magnetic measurement laboratory and highly stable magnet power supplies have been constructed at ILSF R&D laboratory

  8. The 4th international colloquium on process simulation. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    The papers collected in this volume were presented at the 4th Colloquium on Process Simulation held at Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, June 11-13, 1997. In the more developed industrial nations, the processes for producing chemicals, energy, and materials encounter environmental concern and laws which challenge engineers to develop the processes towards more efficient, economical and safe operation. This necessitates more thorough understanding of the processes and phenomena involved. Formerly, the development of the processes was largely based on trial and error, whereas today, the development of computer performance together with the diversification of modelling software enables simulation of the processes. The increased capacity and possibilities for modelling the processes brought by the improved hardware and software, have generated a strong demand for more accurate mathematical descriptions of the processes. Especially, the coupling of computational fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics, combustion, and thermodynamics is of current interest in process oriented technology. This colloquium attempts to give examples of modelling efforts in operation in different universities, research institutes and companies. Furthermore, the aim of this colloquium is to offer an annual opportunity to the researchers to come together and discuss their common problems and the state of their investigations

  9. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  10. White light generation using 280 nm light emitting diode pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatalov, M.; Wu, S.; Adivarahan, V.; Sun, W.H.; Chitnis, A.; Yang, J.; Asif Khan, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 301 Main St., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Bilenko, Yu.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronics Technology, Inc., 1195 Atlas Rd., Columbia, SC 29209 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    High power 250-280 nm deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diode (LED) structures were grown by migration-enhanced metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MEMOCVD) approach allowing for very high material quality for high aluminum composition Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers (x up to 70%). Standard square geometry devices with CW power up to 0.5 mW at 80 mA and pulse power more than 3 mW at 200 mA were fabricated. These high power UV LEDs were mounted into TO type package with phosphor-coated windows. This approach yielded cold white (x=0.26, y=0.26) LED with corrected colour temperature of about 15000 K and averaged color rendering index as high as 90. Due to using of deep UV LED as a pump source excellent stability of CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinate and average colour rendering is achieved. The power conversion efficiency of about 20 % and luminous efficacy of about 210 lm/W was also measured. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Twin-Mirrored-Galvanometer Laser-Light-Sheet Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple, rotating laser-light sheets generated to illuminate flows in wind tunnels. Designed and developed to provide flexibility and adaptability to wide range of applications. Design includes capability to control size and location of laser-light sheet in real time, to generate horizontal or vertical sheets, to sweep sheet repeatedly through volume, to generate multiple sheets with controllable separation, and to rotate single or multiple laser-light sheets. Includes electronic equipment and laser mounted on adjustable-height platform. Twin-mirrored galvanometer unit supported by tripod to reduce vibration. Other possible applications include use in construction industry to align beams of building. Artistic or display applications also possible.

  12. A twin-mirrored galvanometer laser light sheet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1988-01-01

    A galvanometer mirror-based laser light sheet system has been developed for use in the Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel at NASA Langley. This system generates and positions single or multiple light sheets over aeronautical research models being tested in the low speed tunnel. This report describes a twin mirrored galvanometer laser light sheet generator and shows typical light sheet arrangements in use. With this system, illumination of smoke entrained in the flow over a delta wing model reveals the vortical flow produced by the separation of the flow at the leading edge of the model. The light sheet system has proven to be very adaptable and easy to use in sizing and positioning light sheets in wind tunnel applications.

  13. Electrical generation of stationary light in random scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, S. M.; Armstrong, G. L.; Chan, H.-Y.; Mattson, E.; Mock, A.; Li, B.; Potts, J. R.; Cui, M.; Rand, S. C.; Oliveira, S. L.; Marchal, J.; Hinklin, T.; Laine, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years there has been great interest in controlling the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. In gases and crystals, coherent techniques have been applied to alter the speed of light without changing the physical or chemical structure of the medium. Also, light transmitted by highly disordered solids has exhibited signatures of Anderson localization, indicating the existence of a regime of ``stopped'' light that is mediated by random elastic scattering. However, to date, light has not been generated in a random medium as a pointlike excitation that is fixed in space from the outset. Here we report experimental evidence for the electrical generation and confinement of light within nanosized volumes of a random dielectric scattering medium in which a population inversion has been established, and discuss the properties of these novel light sources.

  14. Successful 4th kidney transplantation: a case report from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbala, Mohammad Hossein; Ghadian, Alireza; Einollahi, Behzad; Azarabadi, Mehdi

    2013-05-21

    Kidney transplantation is generally considered the best option for most patients with end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy, even for patients with graft failure. Here, we describe a case of a 49-year-old man who received his 1st kidney transplant the United Kingdom from his brother when he was 18 years old in. Thirty-one year after the first transplant, he underwent successful 4th living-unrelated kidney transplantation with no serious complications at our transplant center. He continued to have excellent allograft function and his latest serum creatinine 33 months after his 4th transplant was 1.2 mg/dL. To our knowledge, this is the first case of 4th kidney transplantation from Iran.

  15. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace".

  16. FOTON Motor Crowns 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan

    2005-01-01

      In order to provide more opportuni ties for the high-developing Chinese auto industry including autos and motos to do export, and to enlarge the international influence of Chinese cars,the 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition will be held in Syria. The exhibition has been held for three times.……

  17. FOTON Motor Crowns 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ In order to provide more opportuni ties for the high-developing Chinese auto industry including autos and motos to do export, and to enlarge the international influence of Chinese cars,the 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition will be held in Syria. The exhibition has been held for three times.

  18. Improving 4th Grade Primary School Students' Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Aydin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out action research to investigate reading comprehension skills when using the SQ3R reading comprehension strategy. To that end, this strategy was used for improving the reading comprehension skills of 7 primary school 4th grade students who had problems with these skills. An action plan was prepared for 3hours a…

  19. Successful the 4th Global Foundry Sourcing Conference 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 4th Global Foundry Sourcing Conference (FSC) 2009 was held at Rainbow Hotel Shanghai from April 16 to 17,2009. The FSC Conference was organized by China Foundry Suppliers Union and Suppliers China Information Consultation Co. Ltd. (SC),and co-sponsored by National Technical Committee 54 on Foundry of Standardization Administration of China.

  20. The POLIS interferometer for ponderomotive squeezed light generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloni, Enrico; Conte, Andrea; De Laurentis, Martina; Naticchioni, Luca; Puppo, Paola; Ricci, Fulvio

    2016-07-01

    POLIS (POnderomotive LIght Squeezer) is a suspended interferometer, presently under construction, devoted to the generation of ponderomotive squeezed light and to the study of the interaction of non classical quantum states of light and macroscopic objects. The interferometer is a Michelson whose half-meter long arms are constituted by high-finesse cavities, suspended to a seismic isolation chain similar to the Virgo SuperAttenuator. The mass of the suspended cavity mirrors are chosen to be tens of grams: this value is sufficiently high to permit the use of the well-tested Virgo suspension techniques but also sufficiently small to generate the coupling among the two phase quadratures with a limited amount of light in the cavity, of the order of few tens of kW. In this short paper the main features of the interferometer are shown, together with the expected sensitivity and squeezing factor.

  1. The POLIS interferometer for ponderomotive squeezed light generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloni, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Conte, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); De Laurentis, Martina, E-mail: martina.delaurentis@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Naticchioni, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); Puppo, Paola [INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); Ricci, Fulvio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    POLIS (POnderomotive LIght Squeezer) is a suspended interferometer, presently under construction, devoted to the generation of ponderomotive squeezed light and to the study of the interaction of non classical quantum states of light and macroscopic objects. The interferometer is a Michelson whose half-meter long arms are constituted by high-finesse cavities, suspended to a seismic isolation chain similar to the Virgo SuperAttenuator. The mass of the suspended cavity mirrors are chosen to be tens of grams: this value is sufficiently high to permit the use of the well-tested Virgo suspension techniques but also sufficiently small to generate the coupling among the two phase quadratures with a limited amount of light in the cavity, of the order of few tens of kW. In this short paper the main features of the interferometer are shown, together with the expected sensitivity and squeezing factor.

  2. Search for 4th family quarks with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcan, V E; Ünel, G

    2007-01-01

    The pair production of heavy fourth-generation quarks, which are predicted under the hypothesis of flavor democracy, is studied using tree-level Monte Carlo generators and fast detector simulation. Two heavy-quark mass values, 500 and 750$\\gev$, are considered with the assumption that the fourth family mixes primarily with the two light families. It is shown that a clear signature will be observed in the data collected by the ATLAS detector, after the first year of low-luminosity running at the Large Hadron Collider.

  3. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    The AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on the 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. Thus starting on the 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  4. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. So starting on 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  5. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  6. ACSPRI 2014 4th International Social Science Methodology Conference Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    and to present best practice standards and innovation within a range of disciplines. A member of the Technology Forecasting and Futures (TFF...interest to the Technology Forecasting and Futures (TFF) Group of JOAD presented at the ACSPRI 4th International Social Science Methodology conference...the dynamics of manual vs automated data analysis. Research findings related to these themes are contextualised for the TFF S&T forecasting

  7. 4TH Marine Division Operation Plan Number 49-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-12-26

    The SFCP irill then designate the letter to be keyed by beacon during tuning. (c) If other means of Corn fail, spots may be transmitted by manually ...provisions of Staff Officer’s Field Manual for Amphibious Operations. 2. The Division Shore Party will be comprised of units or elements thereof as...Annex "Ain to Division administrativo Order Nio, 43-44, (Reviej)) . (4) Repai~, section to provide 2d, 3d and 4th echelon mainteniaince for Engineer

  8. 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, which provides a venue to disseminate the latest developments and to discuss the interactions and links between these multidisciplinary fields. Spanning topics ranging from Communications, Signal Processing and Systems, this book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, researchers and engineers from academia and industry as well as government employees (such as NSF, DOD, DOE, etc).

  9. 4th ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book is a compilation of selected papers from the 4th ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS (EIWAC2015). The work focuses on novel techniques for aviation infrastructure in air traffic management (ATM) and communications, navigation, surveillance, and informatics (CNSI) domains. The contents make valuable contributions to academic researchers, engineers in the industry, and regulators of aviation authorities. As well, readers will encounter new ideas for realizing a more efficient and safer aviation system. .

  10. Summary of the 4th workshop on the reduced-moderation water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, Toru; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Iwamura, Takamichi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors (RMWRs) has been performed in JAERI for the development of future innovative reactors. The workshop on the RMWRs has been held every year since fiscal 1997 aimed at information exchange between JAERI and other organizations such as universities, laboratories, utilities and vendors. The 4th workshop was held on March 2, 2001 under the joint auspices of JAERI and North Kanto branch of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The workshop began with three lectures on recent research activities in JAERI entitled 'Recent Situation of Research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor', 'Analysis on Electricity Generation Costs of Reduced Moderation Water Reactors' and 'Reprocessing Technology for Spent Mixed-Oxides Fuel from LWR'. Then five lectures followed: 'Micro Reactor Physics of MOX Fueled LWR' which shows the recent results of reactor physics, Fast Reactor Cooled by Supercritical Light Water' which is another type of reduced-moderation reactor, 'Phase 1 of Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System' mainly conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), 'Integral Type Small PWR with Stand-alone Safety' which is intended to suit for the future consumers' needs, and Utilization of Plutonium in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors' which dictates benefits of plutonium utilization with RMWRs. This report includes the original papers presented at the workshop and summaries of the questions and answers for each lecture, as well as presentation handouts, program and participant list as appendixes. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Real-time Image Generation for Compressive Light Field Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, G.; Lanman, D.; Hirsch, M.; Raskar, R.

    2013-02-01

    With the invention of integral imaging and parallax barriers in the beginning of the 20th century, glasses-free 3D displays have become feasible. Only today—more than a century later—glasses-free 3D displays are finally emerging in the consumer market. The technologies being employed in current-generation devices, however, are fundamentally the same as what was invented 100 years ago. With rapid advances in optical fabrication, digital processing power, and computational perception, a new generation of display technology is emerging: compressive displays exploring the co-design of optical elements and computational processing while taking particular characteristics of the human visual system into account. In this paper, we discuss real-time implementation strategies for emerging compressive light field displays. We consider displays composed of multiple stacked layers of light-attenuating or polarization-rotating layers, such as LCDs. The involved image generation requires iterative tomographic image synthesis. We demonstrate that, for the case of light field display, computed tomographic light field synthesis maps well to operations included in the standard graphics pipeline, facilitating efficient GPU-based implementations with real-time framerates.

  12. Generating polarization controllable FELs at Dalian coherent light source

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, T; Wang, D; Zhao, Z T; Zhang, W Q; Wu, G R; Dai, D X; Yang, X M

    2013-01-01

    The property of the FEL polarization is of great importance to the user community. FEL pulses with ultra-high intensity and flexible polarization control ability will absolutely open up new scientific realms. In this paper, several polarization control approaches are presented to investigate the great potential on Dalian coherent light source, which is a government-approved novel FEL user facility with the capability of wavelength continuously tunable in the EUV regime of 50-150 nm. The numerical simulations show that both circularly polarized FELs with highly modulating frequency and 100 microjoule level pulse energy could be generated at Dalian coherent light source.

  13. Report of the 4th European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Susana S; Distel, Martin; Linker, Claudia; Fior, Rita; Monteiro, Rui; Bianco, Isaac H; Portugues, Ruben; Strähle, Uwe; Saúde, Leonor

    2016-12-01

    The European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting (EZPM) is an ideal forum for group leaders using this fantastic animal model not only to discuss science but also to strengthen their interactions, to push forward technological advances, and to define guidelines for the use of this fish in research. The city of Lisbon (Portugal) was voted by the European group leaders to be the setting for the 4th EZPM, and the organizing committee, composed by Leonor Saúde (iMM Lisboa, PT), Susana Lopes (CEDOC, PT), Michael Orger (Champalimaud Foundation, PT), Rui Oliveira (ISPA, PT), and António Jacinto (CEDOC, PT), was very enthusiastic to organize a productive event. The 4th EZPM took place from March 15 to 19 at Pavilhão do Conhecimento, a Science Museum and Educational Center winner of The Great Prize FAD of Arquitecture 1999 and The Society for Environmental Graphic Design Award 2011. Over 5 days, 135 group leaders (89 men and 46 women) coming from 19 different European countries and also from the United States, Turkey, Israel, Chile, and Singapore presented and discussed their recent research achievements. In addition to the scientific oral and poster presentations, the group leaders gathered in very lively community sessions on morphants versus mutants (chaired by Didier Stainier, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, DE), funding issues (chaired by Uwe Strahle, KIT-ITG, DE), and gender equality (chaired by Corinne Houart, KCL, United Kingdom). One of the highlights of the 4th EZPM was the guided visit to Oceanário de Lisboa, an international award-winning place that celebrates life with a stunning display of living aquatic creatures.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF 4TH GRADE GEOGRAPHY TEXT BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA CHIRCEV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study presents the analysis results of five 4th grade Geography text books. We realised the analysis taking into account the following: the quality of scientific content, the didactic processing of scientific content, the quality of editing, and that of figures. Results showed that those text books, despite observing the current school curriculum, had the following deficiencies: insufficient didactic processing of contents, lack of relevant figures and of correlating maps with the written text, poor graphic quality and contents errors, the last one being a very serious problem. Solving those problems could be done through close collaborations between authors, reviewers, and the editing houses.

  15. Muon identification and pion rejection in the 4th concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John Haupton

    2007-12-01

    We describe a completely new way to reconstruct and identify muons with high efficiency and very high pion rejection in the 4th concept detector. The dual-solenoid magnetic field allows the reconstruction and precision momentum measurement of muons down to a few GeV (just the energy loss in the 10-int calorimeter and the coil) and the dual-readout calorimeter provides a new, unique and powerful separation of muons from pions. We use test beam data for the calorimeter and calculations for the magnetic fields

  16. 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya

    2015-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  17. 4th International conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 4th International conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, March 1-2, 2011, Macau, Chin.   This Volume is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of knowledge discovery and data mining and learning to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 108 high-quality papers are included in the volume.

  18. Report from the 4th Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Becla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic and industrial users are increasingly facing the challenge of petabytes of data, but managing and analyzing such large data sets still remains a daunting task. The 4th Extremely Large Databases workshop was organized to examine the needs of communities under-represented at the past workshops facing these issues. Approaches to big data statistical analytics as well as emerging opportunities related to emerging hardware technologies were also debated. Writable extreme scale databases and the science benchmark were discussed. This paper is the final report of the discussions and activities at this workshop.

  19. Simplified Generation of High-Angular-Momentum Light Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Grudinin, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    A simplified method of generating a beam of light having a relatively high value of angular momentum (see figure) involves the use of a compact apparatus consisting mainly of a laser, a whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) resonator, and optical fibers. The method also can be used to generate a Bessel beam. ( Bessel beam denotes a member of a class of non-diffracting beams, so named because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have high values of angular momentum.) High-angular-momentum light beams are used in some applications in biology and nanotechnology, wherein they are known for their ability to apply torque to make microscopic objects rotate. High-angular-momentum light beams could also be used to increase bandwidths of fiber-optic communication systems. The present simplified method of generating a high-angular-momentum light beam was conceived as an alternative to prior such methods, which are complicated and require optical setups that include, variously, holograms, modulating Fabry-Perot cavities, or special microstructures. The present simplified method exploits a combination of the complex structure of the electromagnetic field inside a WGM resonator, total internal reflection in the WGM resonator, and the electromagnetic modes supported by an optical fiber. The optical fiber used to extract light from the WGM resonator is made of fused quartz. The output end of this fiber is polished flat and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The input end of this fiber is cut on a slant and placed very close to the WGM resonator at an appropriate position and orientation. To excite the resonant whispering- gallery modes, light is introduced into the WGM resonator via another optical fiber that is part of a pigtailed fiber-optic coupler. Light extracted from the WGM resonator is transformed into a high-angular- momentum beam inside the extraction optical fiber and this beam is emitted from the

  20. Dynamic light scattering on bioconjugated laser generated gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Zimbone

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated to DNA are widely used for biomedical targeting and sensing applications. DNA functionalization is easily reached on laser generated gold nanoparticles because of their unique surface chemistry, not reproducible by other methods. In this context, we present an extensive investigation concerning the attachment of DNA to the surface of laser generated nanoparticles using Dynamic Light Scattering and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The DNA conjugation is highlighted by the increase of the hydrodynamic radius and by the UV-Vis spectra behavior. Our investigation indicates that Dynamic Light Scattering is a suitable analytical tool to evidence, directly and qualitatively, the binding between a DNA molecule and a gold nanoparticle, therefore it is ideal to monitor changes in the conjugation process when experimental conditions are varied.

  1. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  2. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  3. Coding Theory and Applications : 4th International Castle Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Malonek, Paula; Vettori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The topics covered in this book, written by researchers at the forefront of their field, represent some of the most relevant research areas in modern coding theory: codes and combinatorial structures, algebraic geometric codes, group codes, quantum codes, convolutional codes, network coding and cryptography. The book includes a survey paper on the interconnections of coding theory with constrained systems, written by an invited speaker, as well as 37 cutting-edge research communications presented at the 4th International Castle Meeting on Coding Theory and Applications (4ICMCTA), held at the Castle of Palmela in September 2014. The event’s scientific program consisted of four invited talks and 39 regular talks by authors from 24 different countries. This conference provided an ideal opportunity for communicating new results, exchanging ideas, strengthening international cooperation, and introducing young researchers into the coding theory community.

  4. 4th International Conference on Applied Computing and Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 4th International Conference on Applied Computing and Information Technology (ACIT 2016) which was held on December 12–14, 2016 in Las Vegas, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. The aim of this conference was also to bring out the research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the best papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference. The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the Program Committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review. Th...

  5. 4th International Conference on Research into Design

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Raghu V; ICoRD'13 : global product development

    2013-01-01

    This book showcases over 100 cutting-edge research papers from the 4th International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD’13) – the largest in India in this area – written by eminent researchers from over 20 countries, on the design process, methods and tools, for supporting global product development (GPD). The special features of the book are the variety of insights into the GPD process, and the host of methods and tools at the cutting edge of all major areas of design research for its support. The main benefit of this book for researchers in engineering design and GPD are access to the latest quality research in this area; for practitioners and educators, it is exposure to an empirically validated suite of methods and tools that can be taught and practiced.

  6. A real CDIO mechanical engineering project in 4th semester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Aage Birkkjær

    In the past 6 years at the mechanical engineering study at the Engineering College of Aarhus we have been practicing project work on 4th Semester in the design of energy technology systems. In my presentation, I will give a description of the project, and the thoughts behind; pedagogic......-6 students, and will partly support the general theory being taught in the courses, but will also provide students with skills in teamwork, project work and system building. The pedagogical considerations behind the development of the project are quite simply that students learn best through active work...... the components as parts of a complex system. The semester project design is developed on basis of these considerations. The semester consists of 4 theory courses in: thermodynamics, control- and simulation of dynamic systems, electronics and hydraulic systems. The project work is performed in groups of 4...

  7. 4th Workshop on Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Palade, Vasile; Prentzas, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This volume includes extended and revised versions of the papers presented at the 4th Workshop on “Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications” (CIMA 2014) which was intended to become a forum for exchanging experience and ideas among researchers and practitioners dealing with combinations of different intelligent methods in Artificial Intelligence. The aim is to create integrated or hybrid methods that benefit from each of their components. Some of the existing presented efforts combine soft computing methods (fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms). Another stream of efforts integrates case-based reasoning or machine learning with soft-computing methods. Some of the combinations have been more widely explored, like neuro-symbolic methods, neuro-fuzzy methods and methods combining rule-based and case-based reasoning. CIMA 2014 was held in conjunction with the 26th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI 2014). .

  8. 4th International Conference on Frontiers in Global Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2004-01-01

    Global Optimization has emerged as one of the most exciting new areas of mathematical programming. Global optimization has received a wide attraction from many fields in the past few years, due to the success of new algorithms for addressing previously intractable problems from diverse areas such as computational chemistry and biology, biomedicine, structural optimization, computer sciences, operations research, economics, and engineering design and control. This book contains refereed invited papers submitted at the 4th international confer­ ence on Frontiers in Global Optimization held at Santorini, Greece during June 8-12, 2003. Santorini is one of the few sites of Greece, with wild beauty created by the explosion of a volcano which is in the middle of the gulf of the island. The mystic landscape with its numerous mult-extrema, was an inspiring location particularly for researchers working on global optimization. The three previous conferences on "Recent Advances in Global Opti­ mization", "State-of-the-...

  9. 2015 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2015, 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging, which was held on October 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, China. The conference was jointly organized by the China Academy of Printing Technology, Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, and Hangzhou Dianzi University. With 3 keynote talks and 200 presented papers on graphic communications, packaging technologies and materials, the conference attracted more than 400 scientists.  These proceedings cover the recent research outcomes on color science and technology, image-processing technology, digital-media technology, printing-engineering technology, packaging-engineering technology etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, materials science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  10. 4th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pannek, Jürgen; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume brings together research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics, held in Bremen, Germany in February 2014. The conference focused on the identification, analysis and description of the dynamics of logistics processes and networks. Topics covered range from the modeling and planning of processes, to innovative methods like autonomous control and knowledge management, to the latest technologies provided by radio frequency identification, mobile communication, and networking. The growing dynamic poses wholly new challenges: logistics processes and networks must be(come) able to rapidly and flexibly adapt to constantly changing conditions. The book primarily addresses the needs of researchers and practitioners from the field of logistics, but will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  11. 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sillitti, Alberto; Succi, Giancarlo; Messina, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents high-quality original contributions on new software engineering models, approaches, methods, and tools and their evaluation in the context of defence and security applications. In addition, important business and economic aspects are discussed, with a particular focus on cost/benefit analysis, new business models, organizational evolution, and business intelligence systems. The contents are based on presentations delivered at SEDA 2015, the 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, which was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2015. This conference series represents a targeted response to the growing need for research that reports and debates the practical implications of software engineering within the defence environment and also for software performance evaluation in real settings through controlled experiments as well as case and field studies. The book will appeal to all with an interest in modeling, managing, and implementing defence-related software devel...

  12. 4th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Networks

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to examine innovation in the fields of computer engineering and networking. The book covers important emerging topics in computer engineering and networking, and it will help researchers and engineers improve their knowledge of state-of-art in related areas. The book presents papers from the 4th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Networks (CENet2014) held July 19-20, 2014 in Shanghai, China.  ·       Covers emerging topics for computer engineering and networking ·       Discusses how to improve productivity by using the latest advanced technologies ·       Examines innovation in the fields of computer engineering and networking  

  13. 4th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wellnitz, Jörg; Leary, Martin; Koopmans, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    The book on Sustainable Automotive Technologies aims to draw special attention to the research and practice focused on new technologies and approaches capable of meeting the challenges to sustainable mobility. In particular, the book features incremental and radical technical advancements that are able to meet social, economic and environmental targets in both local and global contexts. These include original solutions to the problems of pollution and congestion, vehicle and public safety, sustainable vehicle design and manufacture, new structures and materials, new power-train technologies and vehicle concepts. In addition to vehicle technologies, the book is also concerned with the broader systemic issues such as sustainable supply chain systems, integrated logistics and telematics, and end-of-life vehicle management. It captures selected peer reviewed papers accepted for presentation at the 4th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies, ICSAT2012, held at the RMIT, Melbourne, Australi...

  14. Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams

    CERN Document Server

    Brogioli, D; Croccolo, F; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F

    2011-01-01

    When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called "skewed coherence beam", i.e., a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. When applied to quite turbid samples, the technique has the remarkable advantage of suppressing the multiple scattering contribution of the scattering signal. The phenomenon presented here represents a very effective method for measuring the coherence skewness of either a continuous wave or a pulsed beam. Another field of applicat...

  15. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  16. Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Chen, Changchen; Rodenburg, Brandon; Malik, Mehul; Boyd, Robert W

    2013-12-16

    We report a technique for encoding both amplitude and phase variations onto a laser beam using a single digital micro-mirror device (DMD). Using this technique, we generate Laguerre-Gaussian and vortex orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes, along with modes in a set that is mutually unbiased with respect to the OAM basis. Additionally, we have demonstrated rapid switching among the generated modes at a speed of 4 kHz, which is much faster than the speed regularly achieved by phase-only spatial light modulators (SLMs). The dynamic control of both phase and amplitude of a laser beam is an enabling technology for classical communication and quantum key distribution (QKD) systems that employ spatial mode encoding.

  17. Review and Evaluation on The Results of Quality Assurance Test for The 4th Generation CyberKnife in Two Years%G4射波刀两年质量保证检测结果的回顾与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧军; 李玉; 张素静; 杨晓; 张军华

    2013-01-01

    目的:对G4射波刀两年的重要QA检测结果进行回顾和统计,评价射波刀的各项性能.方法:2011年1月~2013年1月,射波刀正常运行443天,设备保养24天,故障57天.对两年内射波刀的剂量率、剂量输出一致性、自动质量保证、TPR20/10、平坦度、对称性、半影、剂量输出精确性、端到端(E2E)测试、影像中心检查等检测结果进行回顾.结果:剂量率725 MU/min~810 MU/min;剂量输出一致性检查有31次(7.0%)超过2%,需要校准;TPR20/10值:0.663~0.678;AQA检测有13次(9.2%)总偏差大于0.8mm,其中1次(0.7%)检测出设备存在故障;平坦度:6.24%~8.78%;对称性:0.22%~0.38%;射野半影:3.20mm~3.51mm;剂量输出验证:2.34%~4.55%;15次E2E检测中有1次超过规定值;影像中心偏差均在1mm以内.结论:G4射波刀的剂量率、TPR2000、平坦度、对称性、半影、剂量输出精确性、影像中心一致性均很稳定,测量结果均在规定范围之内.剂量输出一致性发生偏差的概率为7.0%.AQA和E2E检测结果都超过规定值,需要查找造成射波刀精度下降的原因.%Abjeetive:Review the important quality assurance testing results of the 4th generation CyberKnife in these two years,gather related statistics and evaluate the various function of CyerKnife.Methods:Between January 2011 and January 2013,the CyberKnife operated normally for 443 days,stayed out of service 24 days for corrective maintenance and 57 days for breakdown.We reviewed the testing results of CyberKnife during these two years,including the items of dose rate,consistency of dose delivery,automatic quality assurance,TPR20/10,flatness,symmetry,penumbra,accuracy of dose delivery,E2E test,and the test of image center.Results:The dose rate was 725 MU/min~810 MU/min; the test on consistency of dose delivery had results surpassing 2% for 31 times (7.0%),which requires calibration; the value of TPR20/10 were between 0.663~0

  18. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shu; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Sato, Tsugio; Lu, Li; Xue, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011) was held in Sendai, Japan, on 2-6 August 2011. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) consists of partial manuscripts which were presented at ISFM2011. Advanced materials have experienced a dramatic increase in demand for research, development and applications. The aim of the International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM) was to provide an overview of the present status with historical background and to foresee future trends in the field of functional materials. The 4th symposium, ISFM 2011, covered a wide variety of topics within state-of-the-art advanced materials science and technology, and focused especially on four major categories including: Environmental Materials, Electronic Materials, Energy Materials and Biomedical Materials. As you know, a massive earthquake and the Tsunami that followed occurred near the Tohoku region on 11 March 2011. After the earthquake, although there were many difficulties in continuing to organize the symposium, we received warm encouragement from many researchers and societies, especially from the members of the International Advisory Committee and Organizing Committee, so that ISFM2011 could be held on schedule. We are honored that ISFM2011 was the first formal international academic conference held in the Tohoku area of Japan after the 11 March earthquake. About 140 participants from 14 countries took part in the ISFM2011 symposium, which included five plenary talks by world-leading scientists, 32 invited talks, and many oral and poster presentations. We are delighted to see that many researchers are interested in the synthesis and the properties as well as the applications of functional materials. Many fruitful and exciting research achievements were presented in the symposium. We believe that this symposium provided a good chance for scientists to communicate and exchange opinions with each other. We would also like to

  19. Pulsed squeezed-light generation in a waveguide with second-subharmonic generation and periodic corrugation

    CERN Document Server

    Perina, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Quantum pulsed second-subharmonic generation in a planar waveguide with a small periodic corrugation at the surface is studied. Back-scattering of the interacting fields on the corrugation enhances the nonlinear interaction giving larger values of squeezing. The problem of back-scattering is treated by perturbation theory, using the Fourier transform for non-dispersion propagation, and by numerical approach in the general case. Optimum spectral modes for squeezed-light generation are found using the Bloch-Messiah reduction. Improvement in squeezing and increase of numbers of generated photons are quantified for the corrugation resonating with the fundamental and second-subharmonic field. Splitting of the generated pulse by the corrugation is predicted.

  20. 4th French-German Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Zowe, Jochem; Hiriart-Urruty, Jean-Baptiste; Lemarechal, Claude

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of 23 papers presented at the 4th French-German Conference on Optimization, hold at Irsee, April 21 - 26, 1986. The conference was aUended by ninety scientists: about one third from France, from Germany and from third countries each. They all contributed to a highly interesting and stimulating meeting. The scientifique program consisted of four survey lectures of a more tutorical character and of 61 contributed papers covering almost all areas of optimization. In addition two informal evening sessions and a plenary discussion on further developments of optimization theory were organized. One of the main aims of the organizers was to indicate and to stress the increasing importance of optimization methods for almost all areas of science and for a fast growing number of industry branches. We hope that the conference approached this goal in a certain degree and managed to continue fruitful discussions between -theory­ and -applications-. Equally important to the official contri...

  1. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt.

  2. 4th post-Newtonian effective one-body dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The conservative dynamics of gravitationally interacting two-point-mass systems has been recently determined at the 4th post-Newtonian (4PN) approximation [T. Damour, P. Jaranowski, and G. Sch\\"afer, Phys. Rev. D 89, 064058 (2014)], and found to be nonlocal-in-time. We show how to transcribe this dynamics within the effective one-body (EOB) formalism. To achieve this EOB transcription, we develop a new strategy involving the (infinite-)order-reduction of a nonlocal dynamics to an ordinary action-angle Hamiltonian. Our final, equivalent EOB dynamics comprises two (local) radial potentials, $A(r)$ and $\\bar{D}(r)$, and a non-geodesic mass-shell contribution $Q(r,p_r)$ given by an infinite series of even powers of the radial momentum $p_r$. Using an effective action technique, we complete our 4PN-level results by deriving two different, higher-order conservative contributions linked to tail-transported hereditary effects: the 5PN-level EOB logarithmic terms, as well as the 5.5PN-level, half-integral terms. We co...

  3. 4th annual Safety Day: full of colour!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    On Thursday 10 April, more than 240 people took part in the 4th annual Safety Day, organised on the occasion of the World Day for Safety and Health at Work. The HSE Unit, in partnership with the Fire Brigade (GS/FB) and the TE and BE Departments, organised various stands and activities connected with this year’s theme, chosen by the International Labour Organization: "Safety and health in the use of chemicals at work”.   The stands, set up at lunchtime in all three of CERN’s restaurants as well as in the entrance hall of Building 500, were designed to: Remind visitors of the need to use personal protective equipment appropriate to the chemicals they are using; Make visitors aware of the potential environmental impact of using chemicals; Encourage visitors to always read the labels and safety data sheets of dangerous chemicals and everyday domestic products; Inform visitors that a safety training course called “Chemical Risk Awareness&r...

  4. Systematic Investigation of Gettering Effects on 4th Row Element Impurities in Si by Dopant Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sueoka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The gettering of 4th row element impurities (K, Ca, 3d transition metals, and Zn in Si crystals by dopant atoms was systematically investigated by first-principles calculation through evaluation of the diffusion barrier and the binding energy. The dopant atoms considered include p-type dopants (B, n-type dopants (P, As, Sb, or light elements (C, O. It was found that (1 the diffusion barrier of impurity atoms decreases with an increase in their atomic number up to Ni, (2 B atom becomes an efficient gettering center for metals except for Ni, (3 most of the metals except for Fe and Co cannot be gettered by n-type dopants, and (4 C and O atoms alone do not become efficient gettering centers for the metals used in actual LSI processes. The vacancy and n-type dopant complexes (P, As, Sb can be efficient gettering centers for Cu in n/n+ epitaxial wafers.

  5. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.

    2014-04-15

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3){sub F} symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3){sub F} is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3){sub F} breaking.

  6. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brümmer, Felix [SISSA/ISAS,Via Bonomea 265, Trieste I-34136 (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); CERN Theory Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-10

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3){sub F} symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3){sub F} is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3){sub F} breaking.

  7. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  8. Light absorption properties of laboratory generated tar ball particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoffer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tar balls (TBs are a specific particle type which is abundant in the global troposphere, in particular in biomass smoke plumes. These particles belong to the family of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC which can absorb light in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Albeit TBs are typically present as individual particles in biomass smoke plumes, their absorption properties have been only indirectly inferred from field observations or calculations based on their electron energy-loss spectra. This is because in biomass smoke TBs coexist with various other particle types (e.g. organic particles with inorganic inclusions and soot, the latter is emitted mainly during flaming conditions from which they cannot be physically separated; thus, a direct experimental determination of their absorption properties is not feasible. Very recently we have demonstrated that TBs can be generated in the laboratory from droplets of wood tar that resemble atmospheric TBs in all of their observed properties. As a follow-up study we have installed on-line instruments to our laboratory set-up generating pure TB particles to measure the absorption and scattering, as well as size distribution of the particles. In addition, samples were collected for transmission electron microscopy (TEM and total carbon (TC analysis. The effects of experimental parameters were also studied. The mass absorption coefficients of the laboratory generated TBs were found to be in the range of 0.8–3.0 m2 g−1 at 550 nm, with absorption Ångström exponents (AAE between 2.7 and 3.4 (average 2.9 in the wavelength range 467–652 nm. The refractive index of TBs as derived from Mie calculations was about 1.84–0.21i at 550 nm. In the brown carbon continuum these values fall closer to those of soot than to other light-absorbing species such as humic-like substances (HULIS. Considering the abundance of TBs in biomass smoke and the global magnitude of biomass burning emissions, these findings may

  9. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  10. Interviews with Michael Baxandall, February 3rd and 4th, 1994, Berkeley, CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Langdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The following interviews with Michael Baxandall were conducted in Berkeley on February 3rd and 4th of 1994. The content of these interviews include general responses about developments in art history in the years between 1960 and 1985, a period of dramatic modifications in the discipline. Among the issues are the rise of the social history of art and the sources from anthropology that informed Baxandall’s concept of the ‘Period Eye’. Baxandall talks about his own work, his personal intellectual history, and the scholars of past and current generations who influenced him. Other topics include Baxandall’s professional trajectory, the Warburg Library, and aspects of cultural history having to do with Renaissance Humanism. These interviews first appeared as an appendix to the PhD dissertation by Allan Langdale, Art History and Intellectual History: Michael Baxandall’s Work between 1963 and 1985, U. C. Santa Barbara, 1995.

  11. Summary of the 4th Workshop on Metallization for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaucarne, G. [Dow Corning, Parc Industriel, Zone C, Rue Jules Bordet, 7180 Seneffe (Belgium); Schubert, G. [Sunways AG, Macairestrasse 3 - 5, D - 78467 Konstanz (Germany); Hoornstra, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, POBox 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    The 4th Metallization Workshop held in May 2013 in Constance, Germany, enabled experts in metallization for crystalline silicon solar cells to obtain a clear view on the status of the technology, as well as to exchange and generate new ideas and insights. From the contributions on the workshop, it was clear that the traditional metallization technique of screenprinting Ag paste has been improved in a dramatic way over the last two years, accelerating the decrease of Ag consumption per cell while improving solar cell efficiency. This was achieved through enhanced understanding of screenprinted contacts, improving Ag pastes and evolutionary modifications to the screenprinting technique. Alternatives to screenprinting, including electroplating of Ni and Cu contacts, also continue to progress, though not quite at the same impressive rate of improvement as Ag printing.

  12. Generating Coherent Phonons and Spin Excitations with Ultrafast Light Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    Recent work on the generation of coherent low-lying excitations by ultrafast laser pulses will be reviewed, emphasizing the microscopic mechanisms of light-matter interaction. The topics covered include long-lived phonons in ZnO [C. Aku-Leh, J. Zhao, R. Merlin, J. Men'endez and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev.B 71, 205211 (2005)], squeezed magnons [J. Zhao, A. V. Bragas, D. J. Lockwood and R. Merlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107203 (2004)], spin- and charge-density fluctuations [J. M. Bao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 236601 (2004)] and cyclotron resonance [J. K. Wahlstrand, D. M. Wang, P. Jacobs, J. M. Bao, R. Merlin, K. W. West and L. N. Pfeiffer, AIP Conference Proceedings 772 (2005), p. 1313] in GaAs quantum wells. In addition, unpublished results on surface -avoiding phonons in GaAs-AlAs superlattices [M. Trigo et al., unpublished] and magnons in ferromagnetic Ga1-xMnxAs [D. M. Wang et al., unpublished] will be discussed. It will also be shown that frequencies can be measured using pump-probe techniques with a precision comparable to that of Brillouin scattering. It is now widely accepted that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is (often but not always) the mechanism responsible for the coherent coupling. Results will be presented showing that SRS is described by two separate tensors, one of which accounts for the excitation-induced modulation of the susceptibility, and the other one for the dependence of the amplitude of the oscillation on the light intensity [T. E. Stevens, J. Kuhl and R. Merlin, Phys. Rev. B 65, 144304 (2002)]. These tensors have the same real component, associated with impulsive coherent generation, but different imaginary parts. If the imaginary term dominates, that is, for strongly absorbing substances, the mechanism for two-band processes becomes displacive in nature, as in the DECP (displacive excitation of coherent phonons) model. It will be argued that DECP is not a separate mechanism, but a particular case of SRS. In the final part of the talk, an

  13. 4th international renewable energy storage conference (IRES 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 4th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference of The European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) and The World Council for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 24th and 25 November, 2009, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The World Wind Energy Association (A. Kane); (2) The contribution of wind power to the energy supply of tomorrow (H. Albers); (3) Intelligent energy systems for the integration of renewable energies (A.-C. Agricola); (4) 100% Renewable energies: From fossil baseload plants to renewable plants for basic supply (M. Willenbacher); (5) High-performance Li-ion technology for stationary and mobile applications (A. Gutsch); (6) Energy storage in geological underground - Competition of use at storage formations (L. Dietrich); (7) E-mobility concepts for model region ''Rhein-Ruhr'' in North Rhine Westphalia (G.-U. Funk); (8) Photovoltaic energy storage for a better energy management in residential buildings (S. Pincemin); (9) Self-consuming photovoltaic energy in Germany - Impact on energy flows, business cases, and the distribution grid (M. Braun); (10) Local energy systems -optimized for local consumption of self-produced electricity (B. Wille-Haussmann); (11) Assessing the economics of distributed storage systems at the end consumer level (K.-H. Ahlert); (12) A new transportation system for heat on a wide temperature range (S. Gschwander); (13) Latent heat storage media for cooling applications (C. Doetsch); (14) Numerical and experimental analysis of latent heat storage systems for mobile application (F. Roesler); (15) CO{sub 2}-free heat supply from waste heat (H.-W. Etzkorn); (16) Stationary Li-Ion-technology applications for dispatchable power (C. Kolligs); (17) Redox-flow batteries - Electric storage systems for renewable energy (T. Smolinka); (18) Energy storage by means of flywheels (H. Kielsein); (19

  14. Conversation with Clifford Geertz, 4th May 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Geertz, Clifford

    2004-01-01

    Although filmed, the low light makes this work better as a sound file, lasting about one hour. Filmed by Alan Macfarlane. An informal evening conversation between members of the Department of Social Anthropology in Cambridge and Clifford Geertz about his life and work.

  15. Next Generation Luminaires: Recognizing Innovative, Energy-Efficient Commercial Lighting Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    Fact sheet that describes the Next Generation Luminaires SSL lighting design competition, which recognizes excellence in technical innovation and design of high-quality, energy-efficient commercial lighting, both indoor and outdoor.

  16. Physics Computing '92: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Robert A.; Nadrchal, Jaroslav

    1993-04-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * INVITED PAPERS * Ab Initio Theoretical Approaches to the Structural, Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Small Clusters and Fullerenes: The State of the Art * Neural Multigrid Methods for Gauge Theories and Other Disordered Systems * Multicanonical Monte Carlo Simulations * On the Use of the Symbolic Language Maple in Physics and Chemistry: Several Examples * Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Catalysis and Population Models * Computer Algebra, Symmetry Analysis and Integrability of Nonlinear Evolution Equations * The Path-Integral Quantum Simulation of Hydrogen in Metals * Digital Optical Computing: A New Approach of Systolic Arrays Based on Coherence Modulation of Light and Integrated Optics Technology * Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Granular Materials * Numerical Implementation of a K.A.M. Algorithm * Quasi-Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random Numbers and Quasi-Error Estimates * What Can We Learn from QMC Simulations * Physics of Fluctuating Membranes * Plato, Apollonius, and Klein: Playing with Spheres * Steady States in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems * CONVODE: A REDUCE Package for Differential Equations * Chaos in Coupled Rotators * Symplectic Numerical Methods for Hamiltonian Problems * Computer Simulations of Surfactant Self Assembly * High-dimensional and Very Large Cellular Automata for Immunological Shape Space * A Review of the Lattice Boltzmann Method * Electronic Structure of Solids in the Self-interaction Corrected Local-spin-density Approximation * Dedicated Computers for Lattice Gauge Theory Simulations * Physics Education: A Survey of Problems and Possible Solutions * Parallel Computing and Electronic-Structure Theory * High Precision Simulation Techniques for Lattice Field Theory * CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Case Study of Microscale Hydrodynamics Using Molecular Dynamics and Lattice Gas Methods * Computer Modelling of the Structural and Electronic Properties of the Supported Metal Catalysis

  17. 77 FR 35619 - Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque... vessels from a portion of Presque Isle Bay during the Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks display. This... temporary safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of spectators and vessels during the Old Fashion...

  18. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Berkeley Pier, Berkeley, CA in support of the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks...

  19. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  20. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  1. The 1992 4th NASA SERC Symposium on VLSI Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.

    1992-01-01

    Papers from the fourth annual NASA Symposium on VLSI Design, co-sponsored by the IEEE, are presented. Each year this symposium is organized by the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at the University of Idaho and is held in conjunction with a quarterly meeting of the NASA Data System Technology Working Group (DSTWG). One task of the DSTWG is to develop new electronic technologies that will meet next generation electronic data system needs. The symposium provides insights into developments in VLSI and digital systems which can be used to increase data systems performance. The NASA SERC is proud to offer, at its fourth symposium on VLSI design, presentations by an outstanding set of individuals from national laboratories, the electronics industry, and universities. These speakers share insights into next generation advances that will serve as a basis for future VLSI design.

  2. The May 4th Movement and The Generation 98’ during the Period of Social Transformation--Comparison between Literary Reform of China and Spain in Early 20th Century%社会转型时期的“五四运动”和“九八年代”--20世纪初中国和西班牙文学改革比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓为

    2015-01-01

    20世纪初社会转型时期,中国和西班牙的有识之士受到西方发达国家科学和民主的启发,发起了思想和社会政治变革运动,企图拯救日益衰落的国家。文学革命是这些运动的重要内容。中国的“五四运动”文学改革和西班牙“九八年代”文学改良,除了对文学形式、风格、语言、文学观等进行改革外,其思想性与当时的思想和社会政治变革息息相关。它们主张和提倡的“西化”和“欧化”,至今依然影响着中国和西班牙社会,其意义大大超越了文学本身及其时代范畴,具有广泛的社会性以及跨时代意义。%During the social transformation at the beginning of 20th Century, the Chinese and Spanish intellectuals, illu-minated by the science and democracy of the Western developed countries,initiated thinking and social transformation move-ments to save try to the dediing countries. The literary revolution is the important part of those movements. The literary reform of The May 4th Movement of China and the literary improvement of The Generation 98’ of Spain, in addition to the reforms realized in the literary forms, styles, languages and concepts, are closely linked with the thinking, social and political reforms at that moment. The Westernization and the Europeanization that they propose and promote, still exercise an influence over the two societies and their significance transcend greatly the literature itself and their epochs and have derived extensive social and over epoch significance.

  3. Generation of isolated asymmetric umbilics in light's polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Galvez, Enrique J; Kumar, Vijay; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2014-01-01

    Polarization-singularity C-points, a form of line singularities, are the vectorial counterparts of the optical vortices of spatial modes and fundamental optical features of polarization-spatial modes. Their generation in tailored beams has been limited to lemon and star C-points that contain symmetric dislocations in state-of-polarization patterns. In this article we present the theory and laboratory measurements of two complementary methods to generate isolated asymmetric C-points in tailored beams, of which symmetric lemons and stars are limiting cases; and we report on the generation of monstars, an asymmetric C-point with characteristics of both lemons and stars.

  4. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-03-01

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  5. Superconducting light generator for large offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, S.; Arlaban, T.; Manzanas, R.; Tropeano, M.; Funke, R.; Kováč, P.; Yang, Y.; Neumann, H.; Mondesert, B.

    2014-05-01

    Offshore wind market demands higher power rate and reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational cost. These requests are difficult to overcome with conventional generator technologies due to a significant weight and cost increase with the scaling up. Thus superconducting materials appears as a prominent solution for wind generators, based on their capacity to held high current densities with very small losses, which permits to efficiently replace copper conductors mainly in the rotor field coils. However the state-of-the-art superconducting generator concepts still seem to be expensive and technically challenging for the marine environment. This paper describes a 10 MW class novel direct drive superconducting generator, based on MgB2 wires and a modular cryogen free cooling system, which has been specifically designed for the offshore wind industry needs.

  6. Squeezed light from second-harmonic generation: experiment versus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, T C; Taubman, M S; White, A G; McClelland, D E; Bachor, H A

    1995-06-01

    We report excellent quantitative agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental observation of squeezing from a singly resonant second-harmonic-generating crystal. Limitations in the noise suppression imposed by the pump laser are explicitly modeled and confirmed by our measurements.

  7. Using Nonuniform Fiber to Generate Slow Light via SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The data pulse delay based on slow light induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS in a nonuniform dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF is demonstrated experimentally, and the distortions of data pulses at different beat frequencies are studied. We found that a delay exceeding a pulse width can be achieved at particular beat frequency, and the DDF has larger delay versus gain slope coefficient with much better output pulse quality than single-mode fiber.

  8. Illuminating Solar Decathlon Homes: Exploring Next Generation Lighting Technology - Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-05-22

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the US Department of Energy Building Technologies Program, Solid-State Lighting Program. The report will be provided to teams of university students who are building houses for the 2009 Solar Decathlon, a home design competition sponsored in part by DOE, to encourage teams to build totally solar powered homes. One aspect of the competition is lighting. This report provides the teams with information about LED lighting that can help them determine how they incorporate LED lighting into their homes. The report provides an overview of LED technology, a status of where LED technology is today, questions and answers about lighting quality, efficiency, lifetime etc.; numerous examples of LED products; and several weblinks for further research.

  9. 3D computer generated medical holograms using spatial light modulators

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Sheet; Mai El Sayed; Mai Maged; Mona Ismail; Mariam Ali; Nahed Hussien Solouma; Tarek Abdel-Mottleb

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to electronically generate the diffraction patterns of medical images and then trying to optically reconstruct the corresponding holographs to be displayed in space. This method is proposed in a trial to find a smart alternative of the expensive and perishable recording plates.

  10. Single 100-terawatt attosecond X-ray light pulse generation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X R; Zhang, Y X; Lu, H Y; Zhang, H; Dromey, B; Zhu, S P; Zhou, C T; Zepf, M; He, X T

    2016-01-01

    The birth of attosecond light sources is expected to inspire a breakthrough in ultrafast optics, which may extend human real-time measurement and control techniques into atomic-scale electronic dynamics. For applications, it is essential to obtain a single attosecond pulse of high intensity, large photon energy and short duration. Here we show that single 100-terawatt attosecond X-ray light pulse with intensity ${1\\times10^{21}}\\textrm{W}/\\textrm{cm}^{{ 2}}$ and duration ${7.9} \\textrm{as}$ can be produced by intense laser irradiation on a capacitor-nanofoil target composed of two separate nanofoils. In the interaction, a strong electrostatic potential develops between two nanofoils, which drags electrons out of the second foil and piles them up in vacuum, forming an ultradense relativistic electron nanobunch. This nanobunch exists in only half a laser cycle and smears out in others, resulting in coherent synchrotron emission of a single pulse. Such an unprecedentedly giant attosecond X-ray pulse may bring us...

  11. High-power green light generation by second harmonic generation of single-frequency tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Sumpf, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    laser emits in excess of 9 W single-frequency output power with a good beam quality. The output from the tapered diode laser is frequency doubled using periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3. We investigate the modulation potential of the green light and improve the modulation depth from 1:4 to 1:50.......We demonstrate the generation of high power (>1.5W) and single-frequency green light by single-pass second harmonic generation of a high power tapered diode laser. The tapered diode laser consists of a DBR grating for wavelength selectivity, a ridge section and a tapered section. The DBR tapered...

  12. Generation of Laser Light via Ultrasonic Four-wave Mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Fa; WU Fugen; HE Minggao

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the interaction between phonons in ionic crystals with anharmonic lattice vibration, we present a laser model on acoustic nondegenerate four-wave mixing. Two beams of highfrequency ultrasound, incident on the acoustic cavity fulfilled with the medium of ionic crystal, play the role of pumping and one of the two side-band modes of the pumping frequency as an acoustic signal mode has a strong interaction with the optical cavity mode, the coupling-out of which wiIl be the light (far-infrared) output of a laser. The problem is treated with quantum-mechanics. The theory shows that there is the threshold phenomenon as usual lasers and a so called "phase-matching" condition is derived, which should be satisfied for stability of the system.

  13. Support for the 4th Pan-American Congress on Plants and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpita, Nicholas C. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Intellectual Merit: Following the success of the first three Pan-American Congresses on Plants and BioEnergy held biennially, the 4th congress will be held at the University of Guelph, Canada June 4-7, 2014. We aim to continue a tradition of showcasing major advances in energy crop improvement yet keep in perspective the realities of the economic drivers and pressures that govern the translation of scientific success into a commercial success. The congress is endorsed by the American Society of Plant Biologists and the Canadian Society of Plant Biologists. The program will cover a range of disciplines, including algal and plant systems for bioenergy, plant genetics and genomics, gene discovery for improvement of bioenergy production and quality, regulatory mechanisms of synthesis and degradation, strategies for 3rd generation biofuel production and the promise of synthetic biology in production of biofuels and bio-based products, cropping systems and productivity for biomass production, and mitigation of environmental impacts of bioenergy production. Broader Impacts: We are requesting support to generate stipends for domestic and permanent-resident students, post-doctorals, and pre-tenured faculty members to attend and benefit from the outstanding program. The stipends will be limited to registration and on-site lodging costs, with partial support for travel in instances of great need. So that as great a number can benefit as possible, airfare costs will be provided for only applicants with great need. ASPB has endorsed this meeting and will assist in advertising and promoting the meeting. ASPB has a long-standing commitment to increase participation and advance the careers in plant biology of women, minorities and underrepresented scientists, and they will assist us in identifying worthy candidates.

  14. Optical Pumping Experiments on Next Generation Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S J; Fournier, K B; Scott, H; Chung, H K; Lee, R W

    2004-07-29

    Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at the redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities for optical lasers end for plasmas with n{sub e}>10{sup 22}cm{sup -3} as light propagation is severely altered by the plasma. The construction of the Tesla Test Facility(TTF) at DESY(Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron), a short pulse tunable free electron laser in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regime (VUV FEL), based on the SASE(self amplified spontaneous emission) process, will provide a major advance in the capability for dense plasma-related research. This source will provide 10{sup 13} photons in a 200 fs duration pulse that is tunable from {approx} 6nm to 100nm. Since an VUV FEL will not have the limitation associated with optical lasers the entire field of high density plasmas kinetics in laser produced plasma will then be available to study with tunable source. Thus, one will be able to use this and other FEL x-ray sources to pump individual transitions creating enhanced population in the excited states that can easily be monitored. We show two case studies illuminating different aspects of plasma spectroscopy.

  15. Fundamental Scaling of Microplasmas and Tunable UV Light Generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sillerud, Colin Halliday [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkins, Matthew M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yee, Benjamin Tong [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moorman, Matthew W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schwindt, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, John Moses [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pfeifer, Nathaniel Bryant [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The temporal evolution of spectral lines from microplasma devices (MD) was studied, including impurity transitions. Long-wavelength emission diminishes more rapidly than deep UV with decreasing pulse width and RF operation. Thus, switching from DC to short pulsed or RF operation, UV emissions can be suppressed, allowing for real-time tuning of the ionization energy of a microplasma photo-ionization source, which is useful for chemical and atomic physics. Scaling allows MD to operate near atmospheric pressure where excimer states are efficiently created and emit down to 65 nm; laser emissions fall off below 200 nm, making MD light sources attractive for deep UV use. A first fully-kinetic three-dimensional model was developed that explicitly calculates electron-energy distribution function. This, and non-continuum effects, were studied with the model and how they are impacted by geometry and transient or DC operation. Finally, a global non-dimensional model was developed to help explain general trends MD physics.

  16. Singly-resonant sum frequency generation of visible light in a semiconductor disk laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Schlosser, P.J.; Hastie, J.E.;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a generic approach for visible light generation is presented. It is based on sum frequency generation between a semiconductor disk laser and a solid-state laser, where the frequency mixing is achieved within the cavity of the semiconductor disk laser using a singlepass of the solid-...... spectrum, by appropriate choice of semiconductor material and single-pass laser wavelength.......In this paper a generic approach for visible light generation is presented. It is based on sum frequency generation between a semiconductor disk laser and a solid-state laser, where the frequency mixing is achieved within the cavity of the semiconductor disk laser using a singlepass of the solid......-state laser light. This exploits the good beam quality and high intra-cavity power present in the semiconductor disk laser to achieve high conversion efficiency. Combining sum frequency mixing and semiconductor disk lasers in this manner allows in principle for generation of any wavelength within the visible...

  17. Comparison of the bonding strengths of second- and third-generation light-emitting diode light-curing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Min; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective With the introduction of third-generation light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in dental practice, it is necessary to compare their bracket-bonding effects, safety, and efficacy with those of the second-generation units. Methods In this study, 80 extracted human premolars were randomly divided into eight groups of 10 samples each. Metal or polycrystalline ceramic brackets were bonded on the teeth using second- or third-generation LED light-curing units (LCUs), according to the manufacturers’ instructions. The shear bond strengths were measured using the universal testing machine, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was scored by assessing the residual resin on the surfaces of debonded teeth using a scanning electron microscope. In addition, curing times were also measured. Results The shear bond strengths in all experimental groups were higher than the acceptable clinical shear bond strengths, regardless of the curing unit used. In both LED LCU groups, all ceramic bracket groups showed significantly higher shear bond strengths than did the metal bracket groups except the plasma emulation group which showed no significant difference. When comparing units within the same bracket type, no differences in shear bond strength were observed between the second- and third-generation unit groups. Additionally, no significant differences were observed among the groups for the ARI. Conclusions The bracket-bonding effects and ARIs of second- and third-generation LED LCUs showed few differences, and most were without statistical significance; however, the curing time was shorter for the second-generation unit. PMID:27896210

  18. Choice of insulation standard for pipe networks in 4th generation district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mohammadi, Soma

    2016-01-01

    and smart gas grids. Improving DH pipes by improving the insulation standard results in decreasing the heat and temperature losses from the pipe networks. When reducing heat losses from DH pipes, there is a trade-off between the increasing cost of pipe insulation and the associated savings in the heat...... by implementing different pipe insulation standards. In the second step, the specific grid losses found in the first step are analysed in an integrated energy systems model where all main energy sectors and their interrelations are included. The outcome of the study can provide decision support when planning...... investments in DH systems today and in the future. The results from the case of Denmark shows that pipes with higher insulation standard (series 3) is generally preferable, but the highest insulation standard available today (series 4) might be preferable in the future if fuel prices or increase or investment...

  19. Learning Strategies Which 4th. Grade Primary School Students Using In Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram TAY

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to find out the learning strategies of 4th grade primary school students in social sciences studies. The data of the research collected by “learning strategies public survey” which was developed by the researcher and it was implied in face to face way. While analyzing the data in this research, Mean and Standard Deviation were used. The findings of the research could be summarized as follows: 4th grade primary school students, in social sciences studies, have always used strategies of mental rehearsal, close and open rehearsal, elaboration, retrieval and motivation. Meanwhile, those students have rarely used attention strategies, chunking strategies and organizing strategies. On the other hand, 4th grade students have never used mnemonic strategies and meta-cognitive strategies.

  20. Generation and storage of double slow light pulses in a solid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yun-Fei; Wang Hai-Hua; Wang Rong; Zhang Xiao-Jun; Kang Zhi-Hui; Wu Jin-Hui; Zhang Han-Zhuang; Gao Jin-Yue

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study the generation and storage of double slow light pulses in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal.Under electromagnetically induced transparency,a single signal pulse is stored in the spin coherence of the crystal. By simultaneously switching on two control fields to recall the stored information,the spin coherence is converted into two slow light pulses with distinct frequencies.Furthermore,the storage and controlled retrieval of double slow light pulses are obtained by manipulating the control fields.This study of double slow light pulses may have practical applications in information processing and all-optical networks.

  1. Generation of pulsed light in the visible spectral region based on non-linear cavity dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sandra; Andersen, Martin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    We propose a novel generic approach for generation of pulsed light in the visible spectrum based on sum-frequency generation between the high circulating intra-cavity power of a high finesse CW laser and a single-passed pulsed laser. For demonstration, we used a CW 1342 nm laser mixed with a pass...

  2. Seismically induced liquefaction structures in La Magdalena archaeological site, the 4th century AD Roman Complutum (Madrid, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.; Silva, P. G.; Perucha, M. A.; Giner-Robles, J. L.; Heras, C.; Bastida, A. B.; Carrasco, P.; Roquero, E.; Lario, J.; Bardaji, T.; Pérez-López, R.; Elez, J.

    2016-10-01

    The ancient Roman city of Complutum (Alcalá de Henares, Madrid), founded in the 1st century AD, was one of the most important cities of Hispania. The old Roman city was destroyed, abruptly abandoned, relocated close by and rebuilt during the late 4th century AD. Destruction of the city and its relocation has not yet been explained by archaeologists. In this paper, with our multidisciplinary approach, we identify and characterize earthquake archaeological effects (EAEs) affecting the archaeological site, the La Magdalena, an agricultural holding 4 km from the core of Complutum. The most important EAEs in the site are liquefactions (sand dikes and explosive sand-gravel craters) affecting Roman structures, such as water tanks (cisterns), houses and graves. Ground liquefaction generated significant ground cracks, explosive craters and folds in foundations of buildings. Several other Roman sites throughout the valley were also abandoned abruptly during the 4th century AD, in some cases with EAEs of similar origin. This suggests the occurrence of a 5.0-6.6 Mw seismic event in the zone, in accordance with the minimum empirical limit of seismically-induced liquefaction and the maximum surface rupture length of the Henares fault.

  3. Effect of loss on slow-light-enhanced second-harmonic generation in periodic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saravi, Sina; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Setzpfandt, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the dependence of second-harmonic generation efficiency on the group index in periodic optical waveguides with loss. We investigate different possible scenarios of using slow light to enhance the efficiency of this process and show that in some cases there exists a maxima......We theoretically analyze the dependence of second-harmonic generation efficiency on the group index in periodic optical waveguides with loss. We investigate different possible scenarios of using slow light to enhance the efficiency of this process and show that in some cases there exists...... of second-harmonic generation in periodic nanobeam waveguides with loss. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  4. Time use of Hellene 3rd and 4th graders during a school day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleioras, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the time diaries of 164 Hellene 3rd and 4th graders interviewed in their homes in March 2007, individual differences in time-use patterns were investigated. The participants rested for 9 hours 10 minutes, and spent 57.0%, 21.7%, and 5.0% of their waking time on school-related activit

  5. Improving the Attitudes of 4th Graders toward Older People through a Multidimensional Intergenerational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynott, Patricia P.; Merola, Pamela R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an intergenerational program on children's attitudes toward older people. Four 4th grade classes, one each during the years 2002 through 2005, participated in the study. The elders and school children engaged in meaningful activities over a 5 month period, including the performance of a play…

  6. Polarimetric Microwave Emission from Snow Surface: 4th Strokes Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of ice on the polarimetric 4th Stokes component observations is investigated using WindSat data over Antarctica. The difference in the magnitude of the signal observed during (July 2003) and summer (February 2004) months is investigated using a second harmonic sine function of the azimuth...

  7. 4th openlab Board of Sponsors Meeting takes place at CERN on July 6, 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The 4th openlab Board of Sponsors Meeting is taking place at CERN, room 513, 1-024, the 6th July 2005. The meeting will open with an Executive Session in the presence of Dr. Robert Aymar, Director General of CERN

  8. Nanocrystal-based hybrid white light generation with tunable colour parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, S.; Demir, H. V.

    2007-09-01

    We present the hybridization of CdSe/ZnS core shell nanocrystals (NCs) on InGaN/GaN based blue/near-UV LEDs to generate light widely tunable across the visible spectral range and especially within the white region of the CIE (1931) chromaticity diagram. We report on the design, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid NC-LEDs. In 26 NC-LED samples, we experimentally show the effect of the NC concentration and NC film thickness on tuning the colour properties of the generated light (tristimulus coordinates, colour rendering index and correlated temperature) and further compare layer by layer assembly and blending of NCs for integration in LEDs. With greatly tunable colour properties, these hybrid white light sources hold promise for future lighting and display applications.

  9. Ultraviolet Light Generation in Gas-Filled Kagome Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sílvia M. G.; Facão, Margarida; Ferreira, Mário F. S.

    2015-03-01

    Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers were found to be ideal for the occurrence of ultrafast non-linear optics. This article reports the optimal conditions for the generation of ultraviolet light using a gas filled kagome hollow-core-photonic crystal fiber. It is shown that by changing the pressure of the gas and the input pulse characteristics, the efficiency of conversion and quality of ultraviolet light can be improved, as well as tuning its central frequency. Results suggest that a highly coherent and tunable ultraviolet light source can be constructed, which can find numerous applications.

  10. Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability : Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The changing manufacturing environment requires more responsive and adaptable manufacturing systems. The theme of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2011) is “Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability”. Leading edge research and best implementation practices and experiences, which address these important issues and challenges, are presented. The proceedings include advances in manufacturing systems design, planning, evaluation, control and evolving paradigms such as mass customization, personalization, changeability, re-configurability and flexibility. New and important concepts such as the dynamic product families and platforms, co-evolution of products and systems, and methods for enhancing manufacturing systems’ economic sustainability and prolonging their life to produce more than one product generation are treated. Enablers of change in manufacturing systems, production volume and capability scalability and man...

  11. Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya; 10.1364/OE.21.008596

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

  12. Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Takesue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

  13. Green bright squeezed light from a cw periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben

    2002-01-01

    We present the experimental observation of bright amplitude squeezed light from a singly resonant second harmonic generator (SHG) based on a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal. Contrary to conventional SHG, the interacting waves in this device couple efficiently using qu...

  14. Ultraviolet Light Generation and Transport in the Final Optics Assembly of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hackel, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Feit, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parham, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kozlowski, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitman, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-12

    The design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) includes a Final Optics Assembly (FOA) subsystem for ultraviolet (UV) light generation and transport for each of the 192 beamlines. Analytical and experimental work has been done to help understand and predict the performance of FOA.

  15. Efficient generation of 509 nm light by sum-frequency mixing between two tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh;

    2015-01-01

    a 1063 nm tapered diode laser, inside a periodically poled MgO doped lithium niobate crystal. This corresponds to an optical to optical conversion ef fi ciency of 12.1%. As an example of potential applica- tions, the generated nearly diffraction-limited green light is used for pumping a Ti:sapphire laser...

  16. Early-time photodynamics of ruthenium-based photocatalysts for light-induced hydrogen generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to provide a fundamental understanding of the early-time photodynamics of a series of Ru/M (M = Pd or Pt) bimetallic photocatalysts for light-induced hydrogen generation. This class of complexes adopts a general structure involving a Ru(II) center coordinated to two peripheral ligan

  17. Light Scalars and the Generation of Density Perturbations During Preheating or Inflaton Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, L; Grässer, M L; Wise, M B; Ackerman, Lotty; Bauer, Christian W.; Graesser, Michael L.; Wise, Mark B.

    2005-01-01

    Reheating after inflation can occur through inflaton decay or efficient parametric resonant production of particles from the oscillation of the inflaton. If the particles produced interact with scalars that were light during inflation, then significant super-horizon density perturbations are generated during this era. These perturbations can be highly non-Gaussian.

  18. A Rotating-Frame Perspective on High-Harmonic Generation of Circularly Polarized Light

    CERN Document Server

    Reich, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    We employ a rotating frame of reference to elucidate high-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light by bicircular driving fields. In particular, we show how the experimentally observed circular components of the high-harmonic spectrum can be directly related to the corresponding quantities in the rotating frame. Supported by numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, we deduce an optimal strategy for maximizing the cutoff in the high-harmonic plateau while keeping the two circular components of the emitted light spectrally distinct. Moreover, we show how the rotating-frame picture can be more generally employed for elliptical drivers. Finally, we point out how circular and elliptical driving fields show a near-duality to static electric and static magnetic fields in a rotating-frame description. This demonstrates how high-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light under static electromagnetic fields can be emulated in practice even at static field strengths beyond cur...

  19. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-03-17

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report.

  20. Summary of the 4th Annual Scientific Session of Cardiology in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伊丽

    2002-01-01

    @@ The 4th Annual Scientific Session of South China was held from April 5 ~ 8, 2002 in Guangzhou. More than one thousand cardiologists came from Guangzhou,Guangxi, Hunan and Hainan Province participated in the meeting and 143 abstracts were presented. A distinguished faculty from the United States, Canada,Germany, Britain, Honkong, Beijing and Shanghai were invited to join this conference and gave a series of special lectures about the newest advances in cardiology.

  1. Grow Together under the Sunshine——The 4th Summer Camp for AIDS Orphaned Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING LILI

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 4th summer camp for AIDS-orphaned children was held in Beijing from August 2-8,2007.Co-sponsored by the China Youth Concern Commission and China Foundation for the Prevention and Control of STDs (sexually transmitted disease) and AIDS,the event was attended by 80 AIDS-orphaned children aged 8-16 from 18 counties and cities of 8 provinces of Shanxi,Yunnan,Henan,Jilin,Liaoning,Guizhou,Sichuan and Anhui.

  2. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  3. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report.

  4. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Emília Sousa; Maria João Araújo; Maria Luísa do Vale; Paula B. Andrade; Paula Branco; Paula Gomes; Rui Moreira; Melo, Teresa M.V.D. Pinho e; Victor de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report.

  5. Announcement of the Excellent Diecastings Evaluation Activity at the 4th China International Diecasting Congress & Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In order to better promote the diecasting industry in our country, to boost the application of new diecasting technology and techniques, to improve the competitive power of the diecasting enterprises in our country, to enlarge the international markets, and to more quickly improve quality of diecastings, the activities of evaluating high quality diecastings were organized by Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES) during the 4th China International Diecasting Congress & Exhibition.

  6. Risk factors for 3rd and 4th degree perineal tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandar, O; Shet, D

    2009-02-01

    We reviewed 3,038 deliveries at our hospital, over a period of 2 years (2005 and 2006) to identify risk factors for 3rd and 4th degree perineal tear. We used the hospital database and labour ward registry book and reviewed patients' record notes. After excluding elective and emergency caesarean sections, 2,278 women had delivered vaginally, from which 36 patients had 3rd/4th degree perineal tears as defined by the RCOG Green top guidelines No 29 (2007). A total of 2,242 women who delivered vaginally without 3rd/4th degree perineal tears were used as controls in this study. The rate of 3rd/4th degree perineal tear was 1.18% for all deliveries and 1.58% for vaginal deliveries. Occiptoposterior position during delivery (OR: 69.8), primigravida (OR: 5.8), and high birth weight (OR: 1.19) are risk factors for anal sphincter tear. However, induction of labour (OR: 0.71), use of medio-lateral episiotomy (OR: 0.35), epidural analgesia (OR: 0.88) and instrumental delivery of occipitoanterior position (OR: 0.77) reduced the risk of severe perineal tear. Primipara and occipitoposterior position (OP) during delivery are the only statistically significant risks for the occurrence of severe perineal damage. High birth weight is a risk factor but it is not statistically significant. Instrumental delivery of OP position is a highly statistically significant risk factor. On the other hand, induction of labour (IOL), epidural analgesia and instrumental delivery for occipitoanterior position are protective factors against anal sphincter injury, although they did not reach statistical significance.

  7. The October 4th, 1983 — Magnitude 4 earthquake in Phlegraean Fields: Macroseismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branno, A.; Esposito, E. G. I.; Luongo, G.; Marturano, A.; Porfido, S.; Rinaldis, V.

    1984-06-01

    On Oct. 4th, 1983 the area of Phlegraean Fields, near Naples (Southern Italy) was shaked by an earthquake of magnitude ( M L) 4.0 that caused some damage in the town of Pozzuoli and its surroundings. This seismic event was the largest one recorded during the recent (1982 84) inflation episode occurred in the Phlegraean volcanic area, and a detailed macroseismic reconstruction of the event was carried out. Failing macroseismic data on other earthquakes occurred in Phlegraean Fields, the attenuation law of the intensity as a function of the distance as obtained for the Oct. 4th earthquake was compared with those obtained for other volcanic areas in central Italy — i.e., Tolfa, Monte Amiata — in order to check the reliability of the results obtained for Phlegraean Fields. The Blake's model of the earthquake of Oct. 4th, 1983 does not agree with the experimental data because isoseismals contain areas larger than those shown by the model. This result has been interpreted as an effect of energy focusing due to a reflecting layer 6 8 km deep.

  8. Trapping of light in solitonic cavities and its role in the supercontinuum generation

    CERN Document Server

    Driben, R; Efimov, A; Malomed, B A

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the fission of higher-order N-solitons with a subsequent ejection of fundamental quasi-solitons creates solitonic cavities, formed by a pair of solitons with dispersive light trapped between them. As a result of multiple reflections of the trapped light from the bounding solitons which act as mirrors, they bend their trajectories and collide. In the spectral-domain, the two solitons receive blue and red wavelength shifts, respectively. The spectrum of the bouncing trapped light alters as well. This phenomenon strongly affect spectral characteristics of the generated supercontinuum. Studies of the system's parameters, which are responsible for the creation of the cavities, reveal possibilities of predicting and controlling soliton-soliton collisions induced by multiple reflections of the trapped light.

  9. Pulsed high harmonic generation of light due to pumped Bloch oscillations in noninteracting metals

    CERN Document Server

    Freericks, J K; Kemper, A F; Devereaux, T P; 10.1088/0031-8949/2012/T151/014062

    2012-01-01

    We derive a simple theory for high-order harmonic generation due to pumping a noninteracting metal with a large amplitude oscillating electric field. The model assumes that the radiated light field arises from the acceleration of electrons due to the time-varying current generated by the pump, and also assumes that the system has a constant density of photoexcited carriers, hence it ignores the dipole excitation between bands (which would create carriers in semiconductors). We examine the circumstances under which odd harmonic frequencies would be expected to dominate the spectrum of radiated light, and we also apply the model to real materials like ZnO, for which high-order harmonic generation has already been demonstrated in experiments.

  10. Attaining 186-nm light generation in cooled beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, H; Kuwano, Y

    1999-09-01

    The transparency range of beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) was expanded by means of cooling, and the resulting absorption coefficient at 193.4 nm was reduced to 0.29cm(-1) at 91 K from 1.39cm(-1) at 295 K. Further, generation of light at 186.0 nm (the measurement limit in air) by type I sum-frequency generation (SFG) based on fundamental (744-nm) and third-harmonic (248-nm) light from a Ti:sapphire laser was confirmed for cooled BBO. Calculations based on observed data for SFG wavelengths and phase-matching angles indicate a potential for cooled BBO to generate wavelengths as low as 181.7 nm.

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Entropy Generation in Light Heating of Nanoscaled Silicon and Germanium Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Nájera-Carpio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the irreversible processes in light heating of Silicon (Si and Germanium (Ge thin films are examined. Each film is exposed to light irradiation with radiative and convective boundary conditions. Heat, electron and hole transport and generation-recombination processes of electron-hole pairs are studied in terms of a phenomenological model obtained from basic principles of irreversible thermodynamics. We present an analysis of the contributions to the entropy production in the stationary state due to the dissipative effects associated with electron and hole transport, generation-recombination of electron-hole pairs as well as heat transport. The most significant contribution to the entropy production comes from the interaction of light with the medium in both Si and Ge. This interaction includes two processes, namely, the generation of electron-hole pairs and the transferring of energy from the absorbed light to the lattice. In Si the following contribution in magnitude comes from the heat transport. In Ge all the remaining contributions to entropy production have nearly the same order of magnitude. The results are compared and explained addressing the differences in the magnitude of the thermodynamic forces, Onsager’s coefficients and transport properties of Si and Ge.

  12. Enhanced third harmonic generation using the surface states of light in periodic photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gorelik, Vladimir S.; Katyba, Gleb M.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-10-01

    Third harmonic generation enhancement in periodic photonic structures was experimentally observed and theoretically interpreted. Nonlinear optical effects in opal globular photonic crystals (PC) have been studied under the femtosecond laser pumping. Strong dependence of the third harmonic generation efficiency on the ratio between the central pumping wavelength and the spectral location of the PC band gaps was found. Numerical simulations based on the finite difference time-domain technique for the solution of the Maxwell's equations were applied for investigations of the observed phenomenon origin. The simulation results have shown that the origin of the efficient nonlinear conversion is related with the surface state of electromagnetic field in PC. Interacting with the PC surface the light wavefront distorts coherently, and the effect of structure light focusing appears. Coherent wavefront distortion leads to the strong optical field localization, hence the light intensity within the certain PC regions increases. In case of the band gap pumping dramatic light redistribution appears; very sharp peaks of light intensity emerge in the region of the quartz globules, which leads to the high-efficient PC pumping.

  13. Contact grating device with Fabry-Perot resonator for effective terahertz light generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Masaaki; Nagashima, Keisuke; Yoshida, Fumiko; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Momoko

    2014-09-15

    A novel design for a contact grating device with an incorporated Fabry-Perot resonator is proposed for high-power terahertz (THz) light generation. We deposited a multilayer consisting of Ta(2)O(5) and Al(2)O(3) on a magnesium-doped stoichiometric LiNbO(3) substrate and fabricated grating grooves on the outermost layer. The multilayer was designed such that conditions for a Fabry-Perot resonator were satisfied for light diffracted by the grating. Consequently, the fraction of light transmitted into the LiNbO(3) substrate, i.e., the diffraction efficiency, was enhanced by the resonator. The diffraction efficiency of the fabricated device was 71%, which is close to the calculated value of 78% from the optimized design. THz light generation was also demonstrated with the contact grating device. The THz output of 0.41 μJ was obtained using near-infrared pump light of 2.7 mJ.

  14. Precalculation method using spherical basic object light for computer-generated hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyachi, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Precalculation methods for computer-generated holograms provide fast calculation by transforming precalculated object light in accordance with the subject shape in the spatial domain. In this paper, a novel method is proposed that uses precalculated object light recorded on a spherical surface, which makes the data size half that of the conventional method. Moreover, representations of the transforms by homogeneous coordinates on the spherical surface are discussed. These representations allow common operations of transforms and solve the calculation complexity that conventional precalculation methods have. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed by optical image-reconstruction experiments successfully.

  15. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Morton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex three-dimensional (3-D structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART model to simulate leaf absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (lAPAR for an Amazon forest. The 3-D model scene was developed from airborne lidar data, and local measurements of leaf reflectance, aerosols, and PAR were used to model lAPAR under direct and diffuse illumination conditions. Simulated lAPAR under clear sky and cloudy conditions was corrected for light saturation effects to estimate light utilization, the fraction of lAPAR available for photosynthesis. Although the fraction of incoming PAR absorbed by leaves was consistent throughout the year (0.80–0.82, light utilization varied seasonally (0.67–0.74, with minimum values during the Amazon dry season. Shadowing and light saturation effects moderated potential gains in forest productivity from increasing PAR during dry season months when the diffuse fraction from clouds and aerosols was low. Comparisons between DART and other models highlighted the role of 3-D forest structure to account for seasonal changes in light utilization. Our findings highlight how directional illumination and forest 3-D structure combine to influence diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization, independent of further changes in leaf area, leaf age, or environmental controls on canopy photosynthesis. Changing illumination geometry constitutes an alternative biophysical explanation for observed seasonality in Amazon forest productivity without changes in canopy phenology.

  16. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Rubio, Jérémy; Cook, Bruce D.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Longo, Marcos; Choi, Hyeungu; Hunter, Maria; Keller, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model to simulate leaf absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (lAPAR) for an Amazon forest. The 3-D model scene was developed from airborne lidar data, and local measurements of leaf reflectance, aerosols, and PAR were used to model lAPAR under direct and diffuse illumination conditions. Simulated lAPAR under clear-sky and cloudy conditions was corrected for light saturation effects to estimate light utilization, the fraction of lAPAR available for photosynthesis. Although the fraction of incoming PAR absorbed by leaves was consistent throughout the year (0.80-0.82), light utilization varied seasonally (0.67-0.74), with minimum values during the Amazon dry season. Shadowing and light saturation effects moderated potential gains in forest productivity from increasing PAR during dry-season months when the diffuse fraction from clouds and aerosols was low. Comparisons between DART and other models highlighted the role of 3-D forest structure to account for seasonal changes in light utilization. Our findings highlight how directional illumination and forest 3-D structure combine to influence diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization, independent of further changes in leaf area, leaf age, or environmental controls on canopy photosynthesis. Changing illumination geometry constitutes an alternative biophysical explanation for observed seasonality in Amazon forest productivity without changes in canopy phenology.

  17. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  18. Inverse Doppler shift and control field as coherence generators for the stability in superluminal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Fazal; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Khan, Salman

    2015-05-01

    A gain-based four-level atomic medium for the stability in superluminal light propagation using control field and inverse Doppler shift as coherence generators is studied. In regimes of weak and strong control field, a broadband and multiple controllable transparency windows are, respectively, identified with significantly enhanced group indices. The observed Doppler effect for the class of high atomic velocity of the medium is counterintuitive in comparison to the effect of the class of low atomic velocity. The intensity of each of the two pump fields is kept less than the optimum limit reported in [M. D. Stenner and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063801 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.063801] for stability in the superluminal light pulse. Consequently, superluminal stable domains with the generated coherence are explored.

  19. Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, C; Monat, Christelle; Clark, Alex S; Grillet, Christian; Marshall, Graham D; Steel, M J; Li, Juntao; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F; Rarity, John G; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2011-09-01

    We report the generation of correlated photon pairs in the telecom C-band at room temperature from a dispersion-engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. The spontaneous four-wave mixing process producing the photon pairs is enhanced by slow-light propagation enabling an active device length of less than 100 μm. With a coincidence to accidental ratio of 12.8 at a pair generation rate of 0.006 per pulse, this ultracompact photon pair source paves the way toward scalable quantum information processing realized on-chip.

  20. Slow-light Enhanced Correlated Photon-Pair Generation in Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, C; Clark, Alex S; Grillet, Christian; Marshall, Graham D; Steel, M J; Li, Juntao; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F; Rarity, John G; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2011-01-01

    We report the generation of correlated photon pairs in the telecom C-band, at room temperature, from a dispersion-engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. The spontaneous four-wave mixing process producing the photon pairs is enhanced by slow-light propagation enabling an active device length of less than 100 {\\mu}m. With a coincidence to accidental ratio of 12.8, at a pair generation rate of 0.006 per pulse, this ultra-compact photon pair source is immediately applicable towards scalable quantum information processing realized on-chip.

  1. Discontinuous space variant sub-wavelength structures for generating radially polarized light in visible region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadyani, Z.; Dmitriev, S.; Lindlein, N.; Leuchs, G.; Rusina, O.; Harder, I.

    2011-08-01

    A discontinuous space variant sub-wavelength dielectric grating is designed and fabricated for generating radially polarized light in visible region (l = 632.8 nm). The design is based on sub-wavelength silicon nitride structures introducing a retardation of p/2 by form birefringence, with space variant orientation of the optical axis. The pattern is divided into concentric ring segments with constant structural parameters, therefore reducing electron-beam writing time significantly. The design avoids the technological challenges encountered in the generation of a continuous space variant grating while maintaining good quality of the resulting polarization mode.

  2. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  3. Deterministic generation of non-classical states of light using photon blockade

    CERN Document Server

    Faraon, Andrei; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    The generation of non-classical states of light via photon blockade with time-modulated input is analyzed. We show that improved single photon statistics can be obtained by adequately choosing the parameters of the driving laser pulses. An alternative method, where the system is driven via a continuous wave laser and the frequency of the dipole is controlled (e.g. electrically) at very fast timescales is presented.

  4. Bronze Tiger Sculptures Exhibition at the 4th China Beijing International Cultural & Creative Industry Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sponsored and organised by the Chinese Ministry of Culture, the Chinese State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, the Chinese General Administration of Press and Publication and the Government of Beijing, the 4th China Beijing International Cultural & Creative Industry Expo (ICCIE) was successfully held in Beijing on November 26-29,2009. The Expo took China International Exhibition Centre as a main exhibition area with additional 9 sub-exhibition areas in the districts and counties of Beijing (total exhibition area 65,000 m2).

  5. Proceedings of the 4th Australian experimental high energy physics meeting and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 4th Annual Meeting of the Australian High Energy Physics Consortium was held at ANSTO on the 11th and 12th of December, with a workshop on software development and applications held at the University f Sydney on the 13th. A wide range of talks on the progress of NOMAD and ATLAS experiments and related research were presented, plus talks on heavy ion physics which is also carried out in collaboration with CERN. Extended abstracts of the presentations are included in this volume.

  6. Participants at the 4th Controlling Conference of International Public Organisations

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    The 4th Controlling Conference of International Public Organisations is part of a cycle of yearly conferences which were held the previous years in Frankfurt, Munich, Luxemburg, and which will take place this year on 31 May and 1 June at CERN. The aim of these conferences is to offer a forum for Directors of Administration, Deputy CFOs, Secretary-Generals, Heads of Budget of International Organisations, to exchange experiences on selected themes related to performance management. This year’s theme is “The Reduction of Overheads in International Public Organisations”.

  7. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  8. Production of 4th range iceberg lettuce enriched with calcium. Evaluation of some quality parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Gras Romero, María Luisa; Vidal Brotons, Daniel José; Vásquez-Forttes, Fresia Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    [EN] This project is part of a study on the process of production of 4th range Iceberg lettuce leaves enriched with Ca using the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique. The objectives of this work were (i) to verify if it is possible that a 250 g portion of impregnated lettuce leaves provides the same quantity of Ca (300 mg) as a 250 mL glass of milk, and (ii) to analyze the effects of VI on some quality parameters of the lettuce leaves: water activity, humidity, soluble solids content, real and ...

  9. The 4th Report of the Working Group on ECG diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Estes, Harvey E; Schocken, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    The 4th Report provides a brief review of publications focused on the electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy published during the period of 2010 to 2016 by the members of the Working Group on ECG diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. The Working Group recommended...... that ECG research and clinical attention be redirected from the estimation of LVM to the identification of electrical remodeling, to better understanding the sequence of events connecting electrical remodeling to outcomes. The need for a re-definition of terms and for a new paradigm is also stressed....

  10. A new approach to sum frequency generation of single-frequency blue light in a coupled ring cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic approach for the generation of tunable single-frequency light and demonstrate generation of more than 300 mW tunable light around 460 nm. One tapered diode laser is operated in a coupled ring cavity containing the nonlinear crystal and another tapered diode laser is sent...

  11. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  12. Oxygen suppresses light-driven anodic current generation by a mixed phototrophic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darus, Libertus; Ledezma, Pablo; Keller, Jürg; Freguia, Stefano

    2014-12-02

    This paper describes the detrimental effect of photosynthetically evolved oxygen on anodic current generation in the presence of riboflavin upon illumination of a mixed phototrophic culture enriched from a freshwater pond at +0.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode. In the presence of riboflavin, the phototrophic biomass in the anodic compartment produced an electrical current in response to light/dark cycles (12 h/12 h) over 12 months of operation, generating a maximum current density of 17.5 mA x m(-2) during the dark phase, whereas a much lower current of approximately 2 mA x m(-2) was generated during illumination. We found that the low current generation under light exposure was caused by high rates of reoxidation of reduced riboflavin by oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Quantification of biomass by fluorescence in situ hybridization images suggested that green algae were predominant in both the anode-based biofilm (55.1%) and the anolyte suspension (87.9%) with the remaining biovolume accounted for by bacteria. Genus-level sequencing analysis revealed that bacteria were dominated by cyanobacterium Leptolyngbia (∼35%), while the prevailing algae were Dictyosphaerium, Coelastrum, and Auxenochlorella. This study offers a key comprehension of mediator sensitivity to reoxidation by dissolved oxygen for improvement of microbial solar cell performance.

  13. Characterization of material ablation driven by laser generated intense extreme ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Nozomi, E-mail: tanaka-n@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Masuda, Masaya; Deguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Masakatsu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sunahara, Atsushi [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    We present a comparative study on the hydrodynamic behaviour of plasmas generated by material ablation by the irradiation of nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV or XUV) or infrared laser pulses on solid samples. It was clarified that the difference in the photon energy deposition and following material heating mechanism between these two lights result in the difference in the plasma parameters and plasma expansion characteristics. Silicon plate was ablated by either focused intense EUV pulse (λ = 9–25 nm, 10 ns) or laser pulse (λ = 1064 nm, 10 ns), both with an intensity of ∼10{sup 9 }W/cm{sup 2}. Both the angular distributions and energy spectra of the expanding ions revealed that the photoionized plasma generated by the EUV light differs significantly from that produced by the laser. The laser-generated plasma undergoes spherical expansion, whereas the EUV-generated plasma undergoes planar expansion in a comparatively narrow angular range. It is presumed that the EUV radiation is transmitted through the expanding plasma and directly photoionizes the samples in the solid phase, consequently forming a high-density and high-pressure plasma. Due to a steep pressure gradient along the direction of the target normal, the EUV plasma expands straightforward resulting in the narrower angular distribution observed.

  14. Optimization of computer-generated holograms for dynamic optical manipulation with uniform structured light spots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Bu; Guanghui Yuan; Yuyang Sun; Siwei Zhu; Xiaocong Yuan

    2011-01-01

    An optimized iterative technique combining the merits of conventional Gerchber-Saxton (G-S) and adaptive-additive (A-A) algorithms to design multilevel computer-generated holograms for the creation of a desirable structured intensity pattern for multiple optical manipulation is theoretically adopted. Optical trap arrays are demonstrated with the help of liquid crystal spatial light modulator and a microscopic optical tweezer system. Additionally, continuous locked-in transport and deflection of microparticles with the generated optical lattice is proven experimentally. The proposed method possesses apparent high efficiency, high uniformity, and dynamic and reconfigurable advantages.%@@ An optimized iterative technique combining the merits of conventional Gerchber-Saxton (G-S) and adaptive-additive (A-A) algorithms to design multilevel computer-generated holograms for the creation of a desirable structured intensity pattern for multiple optical manipulation is theoretically adopted.Optical trap arrays are demonstrated with the help of liquid crystal spatial light modulator and a microscopic optical tweezer system.Additionally, continuous locked-in transport and deflection of microparticles with the generated optical lattice is proven experimentally.The proposed method possesses apparent high efficiency, high uniformity, and dynamic and reconfigurable advantages.

  15. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  16. Spiritual health scale 2011: Defining and measuring 4 th dimension of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Dhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4 th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW, realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4 th Dimension of health from a common worldly person′s perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011 containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability.

  17. 4th International Symposium on Autophagy: exploiting the frontiers of autophagy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Deretic, Vojo; Neufeld, Thomas; Levine, Beth; Cuervo, Ana Maria

    2007-01-01

    The 4th International Symposium on Autophagy was held in Mishima, a small town between Tokyo and Kyoto, October 1-5, 2006 (http://isa4th.umin.jp/). The meeting was organized by the group of Eiki Kominami. Approximately 150 participants took part in this well-organized meeting in the spacious and comfortable Toray Conference Hall (Fig. 1). The social program offered opportunities for informal discussions, Japanese culture (from karaoke singing to traditional drumming; Fig. 2), history and nature (a visit to a steaming volcano; Fig. 3), as well as delicious Japanese food. The scientific program started with two plenary lectures on Sunday evening. Daniel Klionsky gave an overview of Atg9 cycling in yeast and Shigekazu Nagata talked about apoptosis and engulfment of dead cells by macrophages. The meeting consisted of five oral sessions and two poster sessions covering a wide range of autophagy-related topics. Exciting unpublished results were presented in all sessions, showing how quickly autophagy research is progressing. Two themes were discussed in many sessions during the symposium: the role of autophagy in the degradation of aggregate-prone proteins and protein aggregates, and the possible role of p62 in autophagy.

  18. Fast and Analytical EAP Approximation from a 4th-Order Tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurobrata Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI was developed to model complex apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC using higher-order tensors (HOTs and to overcome the inherent single-peak shortcoming of DTI. However, the geometry of a complex ADC profile does not correspond to the underlying structure of fibers. This tissue geometry can be inferred from the shape of the ensemble average propagator (EAP. Though interesting methods for estimating a positive ADC using 4th-order diffusion tensors were developed, GDTI in general was overtaken by other approaches, for example, the orientation distribution function (ODF, since it is considerably difficult to recuperate the EAP from a HOT model of the ADC in GDTI. In this paper, we present a novel closed-form approximation of the EAP using Hermite polynomials from a modified HOT model of the original GDTI-ADC. Since the solution is analytical, it is fast, differentiable, and the approximation converges well to the true EAP. This method also makes the effort of computing a positive ADC worthwhile, since now both the ADC and the EAP can be used and have closed forms. We demonstrate our approach with 4th-order tensors on synthetic data and in vivo human data.

  19. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods. We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using

  20. Generation of Vector Partially Coherent Optical Sources Using Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Milo W.; Bose-Pillai, Santasri; Voelz, David G.; Xiao, Xifeng

    2016-12-01

    A simple and flexible optical system for generating electromagnetic or vector partially coherent sources or beams is presented. The alternative design controls field amplitude (beam shape), coherence, and polarization using only spatial light modulators. This improvement makes the apparatus simpler to construct and significantly increases the flexibility of vector partially coherent source generators by allowing many different types of sources to be produced without changing the physical setup. The system's layout and theoretical foundations are thoroughly discussed. The utility and flexibility of the proposed system are demonstrated by producing a vector Schell-model and non-Schell-model source. The experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions to validate the design. Lastly, design aspects, which must be considered when building a vector partially coherent source generator for a specific application, are discussed.

  1. Generating the Nighttime Light of the Human Settlements by Identifying Periodic Components from DMSP/OLS Satellite Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letu, Husi; Hara, Masanao; Tana, Gegen; Bao, Yuhai; Nishio, Fumihiko

    2015-09-01

    Nighttime lights of the human settlements (hereafter, "stable lights") are seen as a valuable proxy of social economic activity and greenhouse gas emissions at the subnational level. In this study, we propose an improved method to generate the stable lights from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) daily nighttime light data for 1999. The study area includes Japan, China, India, and other 10 countries in East Asia. A noise reduction filter (NRF) was employed to generate a stable light from DMSP/OLS time-series daily nighttime light data. It was found that noise from amplitude of the 1-year periodic component is included in the stable light. To remove the amplitude of the 1-year periodic component noise included in the stable light, the NRF method was improved to extract the periodic component. Then, new stable light was generated by removing the amplitude of the 1-year periodic component using the improved NRF method. The resulting stable light was evaluated by comparing it with the conventional nighttime stable light provided by the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration/National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA/NGDC). It is indicated that DNs of the NOAA stable light image are lower than those of the new stable light image. This might be attributable to the influence of attenuation effects from thin warm water clouds. However, due to overglow effect of the thin cloud, light area in new stable light is larger than NOAA stable light. Furthermore, the cumulative digital numbers (CDNs) and number of light area pixels (NLAP) of the generated stable light and NOAA/NGDC stable light were applied to estimate socioeconomic variables of population, electric power consumption, gross domestic product, and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption. It is shown that the correlations of the population and CO2FF with new stable light data are higher than those in NOAA stable light data; correlations of the EPC and GDP with NOAA

  2. Efficient photochemical generation of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides with ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Rider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical sources of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs are utilized in many atmospheric measurement techniques for calibration or to deliver an internal standard. Conventionally, such sources rely on phosphor-coated low-pressure mercury (Hg lamps to generate the UV light necessary to photo-dissociate a dialkyl ketone (usually acetone in the presence of a calibrated amount of nitric oxide (NO and oxygen (O2. In this manuscript, a photochemical PAN source in which the Hg lamp has been replaced by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs is described. The output of the UV-LED source was analyzed by gas chromatography (PAN-GC and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS. Using acetone, diethyl ketone (DIEK, diisopropyl ketone (DIPK, or di-n-propyl ketone (DNPK, respectively, the source produces peroxyacetic (PAN, peroxypropionic (PPN, peroxyisobutanoic (PiBN, or peroxy-n-butanoic nitric anhydride (PnBN from NO in high yield (> 90%. Box model simulations with a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM were carried out to rationalize products yields and to identify side products. The use of UV-LED arrays offers many advantages over conventional Hg lamp setups, including greater light output over a narrower wavelength range, lower power consumption, and minimal generation of heat.

  3. Generating Picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Beam Manipulation in Synchrotron Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Weiming; Harkay, Katherine C; Sajaev, Vadim; Yang Bing Xin

    2005-01-01

    The length of x-ray pulses generated by storage ring light sources is usually tens of picoseconds. For example, the value is 40 ps rms at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Methods of x-ray pulse compression are of great interest at the APS. One possible method, per Zholents et al., is to tilt the electron bunch with deflecting rf cavities.* Alternately, we found that the electron bunch can develop a tilt after application of a vertical kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. After slicing, the x-ray pulse length is determined by the tilt angle and the vertical beam size. In principal, sub-picosecond pulses can be obtained at APS. To date we have observed 6 ps rms visible light pulses with a streak camera. Efforts are underway to attempt further compression of the x-ray pulse and to increase the brilliance. This method can be easily applied to any storage ring light sources to generate x-ray pulses up to two orders of magnitude shorter than the electron bunch length. In this paper, we will present the th...

  4. Linac-augmented light sources an incremental concept for enhancing the capabilities of existing 3rd-generation storage rings.

    CERN Document Server

    Lewellen, J W

    2003-01-01

    Planned and proposed 4th-generation x-ray sources, such as energy-recovery linacs (ERLs) and single-pass x-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs) offer a number of potential advantages, including small source size, higher peak brightness, ultrashort pulses, and potentially temporally and transversely coherent pulses. While offering unique capabilities, such facilities will also offer several important limitations, including limited numbers of user beamlines (for FELs) and a pulse-repetition rate that may be too high for many dynamics experiments (ERLs). In addition, there are many technical challenges associated with both types of facilities. A third type of facility, exemplified by the Short Pulse Photon Source (SPPS) at SLAC [1], would support neither a large number of users simultaneously nor generate coherent pulses, but would generate very intense, short x-ray pulses. Such a facility could serve as the starting point for either an ERL or an X-FEL, or a combined, hybrid machine. For the foreseeable future, how...

  5. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap... Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of... conference information, visit the Trauma Spectrum Conference Web site at...

  6. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  7. The 4th Annual"A Legend of the Future China's Leading Enterprises of Tomorrow Award"was Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Standard Chartered Bank(China)Limited("Standard Chartered China")announced the launch of the 4th"A Legend of the Future-China's Leading Enterprises of Tomorrow Award"("SME Awards")on June 10,2009,in Beijing.Against the backdrop of the global financial tsunami,the 4th SME Award aims to help Small and Medium Enterprises(SMEs)ride out the financial storm and thrive despite the adverse economic environment.

  8. [Giant cell tumor of the 4th metacarpal bone of the left hand. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, E J; Pinto, J A; Potenza, L; Michelena, A; Perez Signini, F; Fuenmayor, A

    1983-01-01

    He is a 46 year old patient that consults on a tumor that deforms the back of his left hand. The X-ray examination shows a bone osteolytic tumor with complete dis appearance of the 4th metacarpal. Surgical removal of the tumor was practiced with immediate reconstruction of the 4th metacarpal by an oseo-iliac graft. Anatomopathological examination. It is an ovoid tumor 6.5 long and irregular surface.

  9. Electricity generation in space from light-reflecting blades to drive a generator. Stromerzeugung im Weltall mittels lichtreflektierender Fluegel als Antriebskraft fuer Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.

    1979-08-30

    The invention refers to electricity generation in space by means of light reflecting blades to drive a generator. A piece of equipment which starts to rotate in space will continue to rotate indefinitely because of weightlessness. Only the friction forces require energy to overcome them. This requires a minimum amount of energy, which is easily provided by the idea of the invention, using light reflecting blades and the energy radiated by the sun. The invention is characterised by the fact that light-reflecting blades, as known from physics, are fixed to the rotor shaft to drive the generator. This type of electricity generation from light-reflecting blades can also be used on earth, but is more difficult here because of gravity. All the energy problems of satellites are solved by electricity generation in space by means of light-reflecting blades to drive generators, according to the invention. Further, the generated energy can be transmitted to the earth by radio, and can help to cover the energy needs of the earth.

  10. 1:1 Ground-track resonance in a uniformly rotating 4th degree and order gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinglang; Noomen, Ron; Hou, Xiyun; Visser, Pieter; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Using a gravitational field truncated at the 4th degree and order, the 1:1 ground-track resonance is studied. To address the main properties of this resonance, a 1-degree of freedom (1-DOF) system is firstly studied. Equilibrium points (EPs), stability and resonance width are obtained. Different from previous studies, the inclusion of non-spherical terms higher than degree and order 2 introduces new phenomena. For a further study about this resonance, a 2-DOF model which includes a main resonance term (the 1-DOF system) and a perturbing resonance term is studied. With the aid of Poincaré sections, the generation of chaos in the phase space is studied in detail by addressing the overlap process of these two resonances with arbitrary combinations of eccentricity ( e) and inclination ( i). Retrograde orbits, near circular orbits and near polar orbits are found to have better stability against the perturbation of the second resonance. The situations of complete chaos are estimated in the e-i plane. By applying the maximum Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent (LCE), chaos is characterized quantitatively and similar conclusions can be achieved. This study is applied to three asteroids 1996 HW1, Vesta and Betulia, but the conclusions are not restricted to them.

  11. Generation of intense circularly polarized attosecond light bursts from relativistic laser plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Guangjin; Yu, M Y; Shen, Baifei; Veisz, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the polarization of attosecond light bursts generated by nanobunches of electrons from relativistic few-cycle laser pulse interaction with the surface of overdense plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the polarization state of the generated attosecond burst depends on the incident-pulse polarization, duration, carrier envelope phase, as well as the plasma scale length. Through laser and plasma parameter control, without compromise of generation efficiency, a linearly polarized laser pulse with azimuth $\\theta^i=10^\\circ$ can generate an elliptically polarized attosecond burst with azimuth $|\\theta^r_{\\rm atto}|\\approx61^\\circ$ and ellipticity $\\sigma^r_{\\rm atto}\\approx0.27$; while an elliptically polarized laser pulse with $\\sigma^i\\approx0.36$ can generate an almost circularly polarized attosecond burst with $\\sigma^r_{\\rm atto}\\approx0.95$. The results propose a new way to a table-top circularly polarized XUV source as a probe with attosecond scale time resolution for many a...

  12. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water under visible light using core/shell nano-catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Shih, K; Li, X Y

    2010-01-01

    A microemulsion technique was employed to synthesize nano-sized photocatalysts with a core (CdS)/shell (ZnS) structure. The primary particles of the photocatalysts were around 10 nm, and the mean size of the catalyst clusters in water was about 100 nm. The band gaps of the catalysts ranged from 2.25 to 2.46 eV. The experiments of photocatalytic H(2) generation showed that the catalysts (CdS)(x)/(ZnS)(1-x) with x ranging from 0.1 to 1 were able to produce hydrogen from water photolysis under visible light. The catalyst with x=0.9 had the highest rate of hydrogen production. The catalyst loading density also influenced the photo-hydrogen production rate, and the best catalyst concentration in water was 1 g L(-1). The stability of the nano-catalysts in terms of size, morphology and activity was satisfactory during an extended test period for a specific hydrogen production rate of 2.38 mmol g(-1) L(-1) h(-1) and a quantum yield of 16.1% under visible light (165 W Xe lamp, lambda>420 nm). The results demonstrate that the (CdS)/(ZnS) core/shell nano-particles are a novel photo-catalyst for renewable hydrogen generation from water under visible light. This is attributable to the large band-gap ZnS shell that separates the electron/hole pairs generated by the CdS core and hence reduces their recombinations.

  13. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  14. 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2013, the 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2013 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference is to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2013 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  15. 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and technological trends in the field of condition monitoring of machinery working under a broad range of operating conditions. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on an original piece of work presented and discussed at the 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations, CMMNO 2014, held on December 15-16, 2014, in Lyon, France. The contributions have been grouped into three different sections according to the main subfield (signal processing, data mining, or condition monitoring techniques) they are related to. The book includes both theoretical developments as well as a number of industrial case studies, in different areas including, but not limited to: noise and vibration; vibro-acoustic diagnosis; signal processing techniques; diagnostic data analysis; instantaneous speed identification; monitoring and diagnostic systems; and dynamic and fault modeling. This book no...

  16. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing, CSLP 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present volume contains the proceedings of CSLP 2007, the 4th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing which takes place in Roskilde, Denmark, on 20 August, 2007. CSLP 2007 is a�liated with Context07: Sixth International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling...... our invited speaker, Annelies Braffort, who will talk on the modelling of spatio-temporal constraints in sign language processing. We will also express a special thanks to Barbara Hemforth who accepted to send us a late paper which emphasizes the importance of the psycholinguistic dimension...... involvement has been important for the establishment of the forum around the CSLP workshops. Revised papers from the 1st CSLP were published as Springer Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (volume 3438). We want to thank the program committee listed below, the invited speaker, and all researchers who...

  17. Giant viruses in the oceans: the 4th Algal Virus Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant double-stranded DNA viruses (such as record breaking Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus, with particle sizes of 0.2 to 0.6 μm, genomes of 300 kbp to 1.200 kbp, and commensurate complex gene contents, constitute an evolutionary mystery. They challenge the common vision of viruses, traditionally seen as highly streamlined genomes optimally fitted to the smallest possible -filterable- package. Such giant viruses are now discovered in increasing numbers through the systematic sampling of ocean waters as well as freshwater aquatic environments, where they play a significant role in controlling phyto- and bacterio- plankton populations. The 4th algal virus workshop showed that the study of these ecologically important viruses is now massively entering the genomic era, promising a better understanding of their diversity and, hopefully, some insights on their origin and the evolutionary forces that shaped their genomes.

  18. 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Wittrock, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    This book treats the development and application of adaptive optics for industry and medicine. The contributions describe recently developed components for adaptive-optics systems such as deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, and mirror drivers as well as complete adaptive optical systems and their applications in industry and medicine. Applications range from laser-beam forming and adaptive aberration correction for high-power lasers to retinal imaging in ophthalmology. The contributions are based on presentations made at the 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics in Industry and Medicine which took place in Münster, Germany, in October 2003. This highly successful series of workshops on adaptive optics started in 1997 and continues with the 5th workshop in Beijing in 2005.

  19. Giant partially thrombosed 4 th ventricular posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm; microsurgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhad Hossain Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of progressive occipital headache, vomiting, walking difficulty, and repeated fall. She had no history of sudden and severe headache. She had positive cerebellar signs, predominantly on the right side. Computerized tomography (CT scan, CT angiogram, and magnetic resonance image (MRI of the brain showed suspected partially thrombosed giant 4 th ventricular posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Patient developed severe hypersensitivity reaction during both CT scan and MRI after contrast injection. Though needed, digital subtraction angiogram (DSA of cerebral vessels was not done. The aneurysm was managed by microsurgical clipping of the aneurysm neck and partial excision of thrombosed aneurysm. Here, we report the details of management of these difficult giant aneurysm without DSA.

  20. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  1. 4th International Conference on Frontiers in Intelligent Computing : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Tandra; Kar, Samarjit; Satapathy, Suresh; Mandal, Jyotsna

    2016-01-01

    The proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Frontiers in Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications 2015 (FICTA 2015) serves as the knowledge centre not only for scientists and researchers in the field of intelligent computing but also for students of post-graduate level in various engineering disciplines. The book covers a comprehensive overview of the theory, methods, applications and tools of Intelligent Computing. Researchers are now working in interdisciplinary areas and the proceedings of FICTA 2015 plays a major role to accumulate those significant works in one arena. The chapters included in the proceedings inculcates both theoretical as well as practical aspects of different areas like Nature Inspired Algorithms, Fuzzy Systems, Data Mining, Signal Processing, Image processing, Text Processing, Wireless Sensor Networks, Network Security and Cellular Automata. .

  2. 4th International Conference on Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Tien; Thi, Hoai; Nguyen, Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    This proceedings consists of 20 papers which have been selected and invited from the submissions to the 4th International Conference on Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Applications (ICCSAMA 2016) held on 2-3 May, 2016 in Laxenburg, Austria. The conference is organized into 5 sessions: Advanced Optimization Methods and Their Applications, Models for ICT applications, Topics on discrete mathematics, Data Analytic Methods and Applications and Feature Extractio, respectively. All chapters in the book discuss theoretical and practical issues connected with computational methods and optimization methods for knowledge engineering. The editors hope that this volume can be useful for graduate and Ph.D. students and researchers in Applied Sciences, Computer Science and Applied Mathematics. .

  3. Atom-Generated Spatial Multi-Mode Structure of Squeezed Light

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Mi; Xiao, Zhihao; Dowling, Jonathan P; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E

    2015-01-01

    We generate a squeezed vacuum field via an interaction between a laser beam and an atomic ensemble. A measurement of the quantum noise of a spatially modified squeezed field is conducted. We find the noise suppression to be greatly affected by the transverse profile of the spatial mask and its position along the propagation direction. We have developed a multimode model to describe the mode structure of the light fields which qualitatively explains the quadrature noise behavior in terms of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes.

  4. Black-light continuum generation in a silica-core photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, T; Ragueh, A R; Lee, M W; Stiller, B; Fanjoux, G; Barviau, B; Mussot, A; Kudlinski, A

    2012-01-15

    We report the observation of a broadband continuum spanning from 350 to 470 nm in the black-light region of the electromagnetic spectrum as a result of picosecond pumping a solid-core silica photonic crystal fiber at 355 nm. This was achieved despite strong absorption and a large normal dispersion of silica glass in the UV. Further investigations reveal that the continuum generation results from the interplay of intermodally phase-matched four-wave mixing and cascaded Raman scattering. We also discuss the main limitations in terms of bandwidth and power due to temporal walk-off, fiber absorption, and the photo darkening effect, and we suggest simple solutions.

  5. Enhancing High-Order Harmonic Generation in Light Molecules by Using Chirped Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Astiaso, M.; Silva, R. E. F.; Gubaydullin, A.; Rivière, P.; Meier, C.; Martín, F.

    2016-08-01

    One of the current challenges in high-harmonic generation is to extend the harmonic cutoff to increasingly high energies while maintaining or even increasing the efficiency of the high-harmonic emission. Here we show that the combined effect of down-chirped pulses and nuclear dynamics in light molecules allows one to achieve this goal, provided that long enough IR pulses are used to allow the nuclei to move well outside the Franck-Condon region. We also show that, by varying the duration of the chirped pulse or by performing isotopic substitution while keeping the pulse duration constant, one can control the extension of the harmonic plateau.

  6. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-07-16

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator.

  7. Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave light at 194 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeland, D J; Cruz, F C; Bergquist, J C

    1997-06-20

    Over 2 mW of continuous-wave tunable 194-nm light is produced by sum-frequency mixing approximately 500 mW of 792-nm and 500 mW of 257-nm radiation in beta-barium borate (BBO). The powers in both fundamental beams are enhanced in separate ring cavities whose optical paths overlap in the Brewster-cut BBO crystal. Due to the higher circulating fundamental powers, the sum-frequency-generated power is nearly 2 orders of magnitude greater than previously reported values.

  8. Genetic optimization of attosecond pulse generation in light-field synthesizers

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, E; Tosa, V; Goulielmakis, E; Varjú, K; Dombi, P

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate control over attosecond pulse generation and shaping by numerically optimizing the synthesis of few-cycle to sub-cycle driver waveforms. The optical waveform synthesis takes place in an ultrabroad spectral band covering the ultraviolet-infrared domain. These optimized driver waves are used for ultrashort single and double attosecond pulse production (with tunable separation) revealing the potentials of the light wave synthesizer device demonstrated by Wirth et al. [Science 334, 195 (2011)]. The results are also analyzed with respect to attosecond pulse propagation phenomena.

  9. Asymptotic key generation rates with phase-randomized coherent light by decoy method

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, M

    2007-01-01

    The asymptotic key generation (AKG) rates of quantum key distribution (QKD) with the decoy method are discussed in both the forward error correction and the reverse error correction cases when the QKD system is equipped with phase-randomized coherent light with arbitrary number of intensities. For this purpose, we derive a useful convex expansion of the phase-randomized coherent state. We also derive upper bounds of AKG rates on a natural and concrete channel model. Using these upper bounds, we numerically check that the AKG rates are almost saturated when the number of intensities is three.

  10. Ebastine in the light of CONGA recommendations for the development of third-generation antihistamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rico

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available S Rico1,2, RM Antonijoan1,3, MJ Barbanoj1,2,31Centre d’lnvestigació de Medicaments, Institut de Recerca; Servei de Farmacologia Clínica, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 2Departament de Farmacologia i Terapèutica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Centro de investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, SpainAbstract: In 2003 a consensus group on new-generation antihistamines (CONGA defined the characteristics required for a third-generation H1 antihistamine as there had been much controversy about this issue since the early 1990s. One of the antihistamines that had been claimed to belong to such a group is the second-generation antihistamine, ebastine. The objective of this review is to analyze the pharmacology of ebastine, in light of the CONGA recommendations for the development of new-generation antihistamines: (1 anti-inflammatory properties, (2 potency, efficacy and effectiveness, (3 lack of cardiotoxicity, (4 lack of drug interactions, (5 lack of CNS effects, and (6 pharmacological approach. Ebastine seems to have anti-inflammatory properties that help to ameliorate nasal congestion, though this has not yet been conclusively demonstrated. Its pharmacological–therapeutic profile does not differ greatly from that of other second-generation antihistamines. Its cardiac safety has been widely assessed and no cardiac toxicity has been found at therapeutic doses despite initial concerns. The risk of potentially relevant drug interactions has been investigated and ruled out. Ebastine does not produce sedation at therapeutic doses and drug interaction studies with classical CNS depressants have not demonstrated a synergistic effect. Pharmacologically, ebastine is an H1 inverse agonist. Perhaps the answer to the quest for new-generation antihistamines lies not only in H1 but in a combined approach with other histamine receptors.Keywords: ebastine, antihistamines, third-generation, CONGA

  11. Development of the AMES network throughout the 4th and 5th EURATOM framework programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevini, F.; Debarberis, L.; Toerroenen, K.; Gerard, R.; Davies, L.M

    2004-08-01

    The AMES (Ageing Materials European Strategy) network started its activity in 1993 with the aim of studying ageing mechanisms and remedial procedures for structural materials used for nuclear reactor components. Acad. L.M. Davies led AMES during successful development from the beginning until the end of the 4th Framework Programme, and greatly contributed during the 5th Framework Programme with his precious advice and as EPLAF Chairman. Among others, during the 4th EURATOM Framework Program some projects co-financed by the European Commission were carried out on non-destructive monitoring techniques for thermal ageing, reference dosimetry, and reconstitution techniques applied to Charpy specimens. Within the 5th EURATOM Framework Program, other projects were approved for funding and are currently running. Their focus is on the mechanism of irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel materials, namely the influence of chemical composition, on the improvement of surveillance temperature measurement, on the validation of the master curve approach, and on non-destructive techniques to monitor ageing of irradiated steels, which all have relations to plant life management and extension. The paper will present an overview of the outcome of the projects having plant life management implications, especially non-destructive techniques applied to thermal ageing and neutron embrittlement monitoring (AMES-NDT and GRETE), improved surveillance for VVER 440 reactors (COBRA), dosimetry (AMES-DOSIMETRY, MADAM and REDOS), PISA and FRAME. The project co-ordinators have provided most of the material here presented, but together with them all the project members gave their contribution and are therefore acknowledged.

  12. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food.

  13. The 4th surveillance testing for Kori unit 3 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwun Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 4th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Kori unit 3 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X and W are 4.983E+18, 1.641E+19, 3.158E+19, and 4.469E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.840 for the 1st through 4th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 12% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.362E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 12th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 3.481E+19, 4.209E+19, 5.144E+19 and 5.974E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Kori unit 3 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 48 refs., 35 figs., 41 tabs. (Author)

  14. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events.

  15. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  16. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra E. Beltran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients’ outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine. The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10% for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (. Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia.

  17. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Nohra E.; Garcia, Laura E.; Garcia-Lorenzana, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients' outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine). The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10%) for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (P < 0.01). Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia. PMID:23841094

  18. Quarterly report on the electric power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany. 4th quarter 1997. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 4. Quartal 1997. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  19. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 4th quarter 1996. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Federal Railways, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 4. Vierteljahr 1996. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  20. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 4th quarter 1998. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, an overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 4. Vierteljahr 1998. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, L.

    1999-07-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  1. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (Nanosafe2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, F.; Damlencourt, J.-F.; Schuster, F.; Gaultier, V.

    2015-05-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (NANOSAFE 2014) held in Grenoble, France, from 18th to 20th November 2014. The issues of fast progress in the field of Nanosafety are up to the potential benefits that nanotechnology can bring to mankind. Making more efficient - more sustainable - easier to share mineral resources, increasing the yields of new energy technologies, enabling drugs that act selectively and locally are just few examples of the wide range of nanomaterial applications that currently benefit humanity. Nevertheless, the dynamic development of nanomaterials requires the adhesion from the general public who rightly demand major progresses in Nanosafety as a prerequisite. This is our exciting responsibility and challenge! Following the successful outcome of the three past international conferences on safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008, 2010 and 2012, the organizing committee has the pleasure to welcoming you again to Minatec, Grenoble with some of the most famous specialists in the field. This year, two new topics have been added dealing with the "New Application of Nanomaterials" and "Nano-responsible Development" in addition to the usual issues addressed in previous Nanosafe conferences such as Expology, Detection and Characterization, Toxicology, Environmental Interactions, Nanomaterials Release, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, Risk Management. The debates in 2012 proved highly successful so this formula has been kept in 2014 with 3 round tables: Nano-Responsible Development, Risks and Benefits for the Environment, Toxicology Progress. In this 4th edition, there were more than 330 registered participants from 28 different countries including 160 oral presentation covering the whole Nanosafety issues in 12 sessions, satellite workshops and round tables. This high number of participants makes this edition one of

  2. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 4th IAEA Technical Meeting on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities Special issue containing papers presented at the 4th IAEA Technical Meeting on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, K.; Wilson, H. R.

    2010-05-01

    The 4th IAEA technical meeting (TM) on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities was held in Kyoto, May 18th--20th 2009, following the first (Seeon), second (Trieste) and third (York) meetings in this series. This IAEA-TM was motivated by the recent advances in theoretical methodology, the rapid progress in observations of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas and the evolution of fusion research as we approach the ITER era. The international advisory committee (IAC) and local organizing committee (LOC), the members of which are listed below, collaborated to define the scope and the content of the scientific programme. Young scientists were actively encouraged to participate in this TM to help stimulate their future research careers and raise their international profiles. Through these young scientists, the IAEA-TM planned to identify the future directions of research. About 90 researchers, from 13 countries and the IAEA, participated in this IAEA-TM, with 72 scientific presentations. The talks and posters generated enthusiastic discussions, contributing to the vibrancy of the meeting. This special issue of Nuclear Fusion consists of a cluster of papers, reporting some of the main contributions to the IAEA-TM. The articles in this cluster are representative of the scientific width of presentations at the meeting, spanning topics from micro-turbulence to large-scale MHD dynamics and from transport to detailed analysis of diagnostics. They demonstrate the quality and depth of the research presented at the conference. List of IAC (alphabetical order): B. Breizman (USA), S. Guenter (Germany), T. S. Hahm (USA), K. Itoh (Japan, Chair of 2009), Ya. I. Kolesnichenko (Ukraine), A. G. Peeters (UK), H. Wilson (UK) List of LOC (alphabetical order): A. Fukuyama, R. Horiuchi, S.-I. Itoh, N. Kasuya, Y. Kishimoto (co-chair), K. Kusano, J. Li, K. Mima, S. Murakami, H. Naitou, N. Nakajima, Y. Nakamura, H. Ohtani, S. Okamura, T. Ozeki, S. Sudo (co-chair), H. Sugama, Y. Todo, S. Tokuda, S

  3. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ItraMAS Corporation. Sdn. Bhd., 542A-B Mukim 1, Lorong Perusahaan Baru 2, Kawasan Perindustrian, Perai 13600, Penang (Malaysia); Yap, B.K. [Center of Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jln. Uniten-Ikram, 4300 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Woon, K.L., E-mail: ph7klw76@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN{sub 6})/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency.

  4. Enhancement and electric charge-assisted tuning of nonlinear light generation in bipolar plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Zhou, Liangcheng; Chou, Stephen Y

    2014-05-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new plasmonic nonlinear light generation (NLG) structure, termed plasmonic-enhanced, charge-assisted second-harmonic generator (p-CASH), that not only achieves high second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement (76-fold), large SHG tunability by bias (8%/V), wide tuning range (280%), 7.8 × 10(-9) conversion efficiency, and high stability but also exhibits a SHG tuning, that is bipolar rather than unipolar, not due to the third-order nonlinear polarization term, hence fundamentally different from the classic electric field induced SHG-tuning (EFISH). We propose a new SHG tuning mechanism: the second-order nonlinear polarization term enhanced by plasmonic effects, changed by charge injection and negative oxygen vacancies movement, and is nearly 3 orders of magnitude larger than EFISH. p-CASH is a bipolar parallel-plate capacitor with thin layers of plasmonic nanostructures, a TiOx (semiconductor and nonlinear) and a SiO2 (insulator) sandwiched between two electrodes. Fabrication of p-CASH used nanoimprint on 4″ wafer and is scalable to wallpaper-sized areas. The new structure, new properties, and new understanding should open up various new designs and applications of NLG in various fields.

  5. Technique for the comparison of light spectra from natural and laboratory generated lightning current arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchard, D.; Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A.

    2016-08-01

    A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.

  6. Red and Blue Light Generation in an LiTaO3 Crystal with a Double Grating Domain Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-Wei; ZHU Shi-Ning; ZHU Yong-Yuan; WANG Hui-Tian; LUO Guo-Zhen; LIU Hui; MIN Nai-Ben; LIANG Xiao-Yan; XU Zu-Yan

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneous red and blue light generation in an LiTaOs crystal with a double grating structure is reported for the first time. The double grating consists of two separate domain reversal sequences (superlattices) in seriesand is fabricated by the field poling technique at room temperature. Using a picosecond 532 nm laser as a pump source, the red light at 631 nm and blue light at 460nm are generated at the same time. A possible applicationof the superlattice crystal is presented. X

  7. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  8. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  9. Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Tsubokawa, Hiroshi; Guo, Hengchang; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Sato, Ki-ichi; Takashima, Keijiro; Kashiwagi, Kaori; Saito, Naoaki; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Ito, Hiromasa

    2007-01-01

    We developed a novel scheme for two-photon fluorescence bioimaging. We generated supercontinuum (SC) light at wavelengths of 600 to 1200 nm with 774-nm light pulses from a compact turn-key semiconductor laser picosecond light pulse source that we developed. The supercontinuum light was sliced at around 1030- and 920-nm wavelengths and was amplified to kW-peak-power level using laboratory-made low-nonlinear-effects optical fiber amplifiers. We successfully demonstrated two-photon fluorescence bioimaging of mouse brain neurons containing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

  10. The 4th ATLAS Physics Workshop in Athens: The discussions, social events, environment, atmosphere, etc.

    CERN Multimedia

    Kawagoe, K

    Over 220 people attended the 4th Atlas Software Workshop in Athens, Greece, a place with a history of thousands of years of scientific achievement. The workshop was hosted by the University of Athens, the National Technical University of Athens, and the Aristotle University of Thessalonki. The venue for the meeting was the newly opened Conference Center of the Physics Department of the University of Athens which featured very comfortable plush red chairs (too comfortable for some of the more jet-lagged workshop participants!). Fig.1. Participants gathering in front of the Conference Center. The workshop schedule was structured to allow plenty of time during breaks for the many lively discussions that developed from the presentations. Ample supplies of coffee, juice, and cookies fueled the discussions. Discussions continued over lunches featuring Greek Salads and other tasty fare. The food was so good that one speaker offered the meal tickets as prize for answering a quiz at the end of her talk! The w...

  11. Effectiveness of fenbendazole against later 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P W; Baird, J D

    1983-12-01

    Twelve pony foals (reared worm-free) were inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris. Approximately 8 weeks later, 4 of the foals were given fenbendazole (10% suspension) at a dosage rate of 10 mg/kg of body weight daily for 5 days and 4 foals were given the suspension at a dosage rate of 50 mg/kg daily for 3 days; the remaining foals were given a placebo. All treatments were administered by stomach tube. Fenbendazole was 99.6 and 97.9% effective in the 2 treatment groups, respectively, in eliminating later 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae located near the origin of major intestinal arteries. On microscopic examination of the ileocolic artery from fenbendazole-treated foals, a few larval remnants were found beneath the tunica intima in small organized mural thrombi overgrown with endothelium. It would appear that larvae are rapidly destroyed after administration of fenbendazole. A pony foal reared on pasture and with arteriographic evidence of arteritis of the cranial mesenteric and ileocolic arteries was treated with fenbendazole (10% suspension) by stomach tube at a dosage rate of 50 mg/kg of body weight daily for 3 days. By arteriographic examination made 4 weeks later, there was evidence of regression of the lesion, and at necropsy done a week later, there was no arteritis or larvae in the lumen of those arteries.

  12. 4th ATLAS Physics Workshop (Athens) - Report from the Physics Sessions

    CERN Multimedia

    Kersevan, B P

    The 4th ATLAS Physics Workshop provided a showcase for studies of some of the most exciting aspects of LHC physics, both within the Standard Model and beyond. It was clear from the wide range of topics covered, from QCD studies to TeV-scale Black Hole production, that preparations are well in hand for understanding whatever Nature, and the LHC, may throw at us. The Standard Model session concentrated on QCD and Electroweak physics, which will form the core of the ATLAS physics program during the first years of LHC operation. Convenor Matt Dobbs began by summarising recent and ongoing studies and pointed out that the first ATLAS papers will aim to prove that we understand LHC physics in the regime where the Standard Model is reliable. Only then will we be able to make convincing claims for the existence of New Physics. Subsequent talks discussed our understanding of this 'bread-and-butter' physics, including minimum bias processes and underlying events (Arthur Moraes), Parton Distribution Functions (Jon Butte...

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk.

  14. A 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radio applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, Wang; Xuegui, Chang; Xiao, Wang; Kefeng, Han; Xi, Tan; Na, Yan; Hao, Min

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radios. The design exploits an active-RC low pass filter (LPF) structure with digital assistant, which is flexible for tunability of filter characteristics, such as cut-off frequency, selectivity, type, noise, gain and power. A novel reconfigurable operational amplifier is proposed to realize the optimization of noise and scalability of power dissipation. The chip was fabricated in an SMIC 0.13 μm CMOS process. The main filter and frequency calibration circuit occupy 1.8 × 0.8 mm2 and 0.48 × 0.25 mm2 areas, respectively. The measurement results indicate that the filter provides Butterworth and Chebyshev responses with a wide frequency tuning range from 280 kHz to 15 MHz and a gain range from 0 to 18 dB. An IIP3 of 29 dBm is achieved under a 1.2 V power supply. The input inferred noise density varies from 41 to 133 according to a given standard, and the power consumptions are 5.46 mW for low band (from 280 kHz to 3 MHz) and 8.74 mW for high band (from 3 to 15 MHz) mode.

  15. A 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radio applications*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weiwei; Chang Xuegui; Wang Xiao; Han Kefeng; Tan Xi; Yan Na; Min Hao

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radios. The design exploits an active-RC low pass filter (LPF) structure with digital assistant, which is flexible for tunability of filter characteristics, such as cut-off frequency, selectivity, type, noise, gain and power. A novel reconfigurable operational amplifier is proposed to realize the optimization of noise and scalability of power dissipation. The chip was fabricated in an SMIC 0.13μm CMOS process. The main filter and frequency calibration circuit occupy 1.8 × 0.8 mm2 and 0.48 × 0.25 mm2 areas, respectively. The measurement results indicate that the filter provides Butterworth and Chebyshev responses with a wide frequency tuning range from 280 kHz to 15 MHz and a gain range from 0 to 18 dB. An IIP3 of 29 dBm is achieved under a 1.2 V power supply. The input inferred noise density varies from 41 to 133 nV/√(Hz) according to a given standard, and the power consumptions are 5.46 mW for low band (from 280 kHz to 3 MHz) and 8.74 mW for high band (from 3 to 15 MHz) mode.

  16. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  17. Charge generation layers for solution processed tandem organic light emitting diodes with regular device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-04-22

    Tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) utilizing fluorescent polymers in both sub-OLEDs and a regular device architecture were fabricated from solution, and their structure and performance characterized. The charge carrier generation layer comprised a zinc oxide layer, modified by a polyethylenimine interface dipole, for electron injection and either MoO3, WO3, or VOx for hole injection into the adjacent sub-OLEDs. ToF-SIMS investigations and STEM-EDX mapping verified the distinct functional layers throughout the layer stack. At a given device current density, the current efficiencies of both sub-OLEDs add up to a maximum of 25 cd/A, indicating a properly working tandem OLED.

  18. Quantum versus classical descriptions of sub-Poissonian light generation in three-wave mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Bajer, J; Bajer, Jiri; Miranowicz, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Sub-Poissonian light generation in the non-degenerate three-wave mixing is studied numerically and analytically within quantum and classical approaches. Husimi Q-functions and their classical trajectory simulations are analysed to reveal a special regime corresponding to the time-stable sub-Poissonian photocount statistics of the sum-frequency mode. Conditions for observation of this regime are discussed. Theoretical predictions of the Fano factor and explanation of the extraordinary stabilization of the sub-Poissonian photocount behavior are obtained analytically by applying the classical trajectories. Scaling laws for the maximum sub-Poissonian behavior are found. Noise suppression levels in the non-degenerate vs degenerate three-wave mixing are discussed on different time scales compared to the revival times. It is shown that the non-degenerate conversion offers much better stabilization of the suppressed noise in comparison to that of degenerate process.

  19. Generation of Antibunched Light by Excited Molecules in a Microcavity Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, F.; DiGiuseppe, G.; Marrocco, M.

    1996-01-01

    The active microcavity is adopted as an efficient source of non-classical light. By this device, excited by a mode-locked laser at a rate of 100 MHz, single-photons are generated over a single field mode with a nonclassical sub-poissonian distribution. The process of adiabatic recycling within a multi-step Franck-Condon molecular optical-pumping mechanism, characterized in our case by a quantum efficiency very close to one, implies a pump self-regularization process leading to a striking n-squeezing effect. By a replication of the basic single-atom excitation process a beam of quantum photon (Fock states) can be created. The new process represents a significant advance in the modern fields of basic quantum-mechanical investigation, quantum communication and quantum cryptography.

  20. White-light emission from solid carbon in aqueous solution during hydrogen generation induced by nanosecond laser pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Ikuko; Yamamoto, Shota; Maeda, Kosuke

    2016-07-01

    We previously discovered a novel method of hydrogen generation from high-grade charcoal in an aqueous solution using nanosecond laser pulse irradiation. In this paper, white-light emission during this reaction is reported: A broad spectrum over the visible range is observed above a threshold excitation energy density. The white-light emission is a simultaneous product of the hydrogen generation reaction and is attributed to blackbody radiation in accordance with Planck's Law at a temperature above 3800 K. Consequently, we propose that hydrogen generation induced by laser irradiation proceeds similarly to classical coal gasification, which features reactions at high pressure and high temperature.

  1. SESAME -- A third generation synchrotron light source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Herman

    2012-03-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research centre in construction in Jordan, enabling world-class research while promoting peace through scientific cooperation. Its centerpiece, a new 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Electron Storage Ring (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance, 12 places for insertion devices), will provide intense light from infra-red to hard X-rays. Members of the Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority,Turkey) provide the operations budget. Voluntary contributions by several Council Members that could amount to over 20 million over 5 years are now being finalized. This, plus funds from other sources, will enable acquisition of the technical components of the new ring and the upgrading of beamline equipment donated by several European and US labs. All concrete shielding is complete. The 0.8 GeV BESSY I injector system, a gift from Germany, is now being installed. A training program has been underway since 2000. SESAME is on track to start operation with four day-one beam lines in 2015.

  2. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  3. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B., E-mail: ryan.comes@pnnl.gov; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Gao, Ran [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Apgar, Brent A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Martin, Lane W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  4. An enantioselective synthetic route toward second-generation light-driven rotary molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijper, Thomas C; Pijper, Dirk; Pollard, Michael M; Dumur, Frédéric; Davey, Stephen G; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Ben L

    2010-02-05

    Controlling the unidirectional rotary process of second-generation molecular motors demands access to these motors in their enantiomerically pure form. In this paper, we describe an enantioselective route to three new second-generation light-driven molecular motors. Their synthesis starts with the preparation of an optically active alpha-methoxy-substituted upper-half ketone involving an enzymatic resolution. The subsequent conversion of this ketone to the corresponding hydrazone by treatment with hydrazine led to full racemization. However, conversion to a TBDMS-protected hydrazone by treatment with bis-TBDMS hydrazine, prepared according to a new procedure, proceeds with nearly full retention of the stereochemical integrity. Oxidation of the TBDMS-protected hydrazone and subsequent coupling to a lower-half thioketone followed by recrystallization provided the molecular motors with >99% ee. As these are the first molecular motors that have a methoxy substituent at the stereogenic center, the photochemical and thermal isomerization steps involved in the rotary cycle of one of these new molecules were studied in detail with various spectroscopic techniques.

  5. Modeling laser produced plasmas with smoothed particle hydrodynamics for next generation advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Robert; Griffith, Alec; Murillo, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    A computational model has been developed to study the evolution of a plasma generated by next-generation advanced light sources such as SLAC's LCLS and LANL's proposed MaRIE. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to model the plasma evolution because of the ease with which it handles the open boundary conditions and large deformations associated with these experiments. Our work extends the basic SPH method by utilizing a two-fluid model of an electron-ion plasma that also incorporates time dependent ionization and recombination by allowing the SPH fluid particles to have an evolving mass based on the mean ionization state of the plasma. Additionally, inter-species heating, thermal conduction, and electric fields are also accounted for. The effects of various initial conditions and model parameters will be presented, with the goal of using this framework to develop a model that can be used in the design and interpretation of future experiments. This work was supported by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Computational Physics Workshop.

  6. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  7. PREFACE: CYGNUS 2013: 4th Workshop on Directional Detection of Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Tatsuhiro; Miuchi, Kentaro

    2013-12-01

    It is a great pleasure to publish the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Directional Detection of Dark Matter held in Toyama, Japan on 10-12 June 2013 (CYGNUS 2013). These proceedings contain written versions of the presentations made at CYGNUS 2013 as scientific outputs of the directional detection of dark matter. The GYGNUS workshop started in 2007 at Boulby Underground Laboratory (UK), followed by CYGNUS 2009 (MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) and CYGNUS 2011 (AUSSOIS, France). CYGNUS 2013 was held by the combination of a two and a half days of scientific program and a half day visit to the underground laboratory (Kamioka Observatory) as a 'tradition' of CYGNUS workshops. The name 'CYGNUS' came from the fact that the 'dark matter wind' is expected to come from the direction of the constellation Cygnus due to the motion of the Solar system in the galaxy. A general aim of these CYGNUS workshops is to bring together the theoretical and experimental studies on the directional dark matter detection. Directional detection of dark matter is a promising approach to a 'clear detection' and also to 'further investigations' of galactic dark matter, or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Directional detection requires the simultaneous detection of the energy and track of low energy recoils. Among many technological challenges for the requirement above, three of them, namely size, background, and directionality (angular resolution and head-tail detection), are most important to demonstrate and improve the quality as a dark matter detector. In the workshop, up-to-date activities by the international reserchers are discussed. The workshop was a great success thanks to the oral contributions and fruitful discussions held throughout the workshop period. We hope that readers will remember and share the great enthusiasm shown during the CYGNUS 2013 workshop. The Editors Tatsuhiro Naka and Kentaro Miuchi

  8. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  9. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  10. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  11. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  12. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  13. 4th International Conference of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, Budapest, June 28 – 29, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Commission on the History of Cartography of the International Cartographic Association (ICA) in collaboration with Dr. Zsolt Török from the Loránd Eötvös University in Budapest organized the 4th International Conference of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography titled Exploration, Discovery, Cartography in Budapest on June 28 and 29, 2012.

  14. Data correction on July 4th, 2012 - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Open...chemistry open_tggates_biochemistry.zip (666 KB) Simple search and download CEL file attachments Open...bout This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Data correction on July 4th, 2012 - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Hydrogen peroxide generated by NADPH oxidase is involved in high blue-light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Xing, Da; Zhang, Lingrui

    2009-08-01

    One of the most important functions of blue light is to induce chloroplast movements by reducing the damage to photosynthetic machinery under excess light. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), generated by various environmental stimuli, can act as a signaling molecule that regulates a number of developmental processes and environmental responses. To investigate whether H2O2 is involved in high blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements, we use luminescence spectrometer to observe H2O2 generation with the assistance of the fluorescence probe dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA). After treatment with high blue light, a large quantity of H2O2 indicated by the fluorescence intensity of DCF is produced in a dose-dependent manner in leaf strip of Arabidopsis. Enzymatic assay shows that the activity of NADPH oxidase, which is a major site for H2O2 generation, also rapidly increases in treated strips. Exogenously applied H2O2 can promote the high blue light-induced chloroplast movements. Moreover, high blue light-induced H2O2 generation can be abolished completely by addition of exogenous catalase (CAT), and partly by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (DCMU), which are an NADPH oxidase inhibitor and a blocker of electron transport chain. And subsequent chloroplast movements can be abolished by CAT and DPI, but not by DCMU. These results presented here suggested that high blue light can induce oxidative burst, and NADPH oxidase as a major producer for H2O2 is involved in blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements.

  16. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  17. Light Harvesting and White-Light Generation in a Composite of Carbon Dots and Dye-Encapsulated BSA-Protein-Capped Gold Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Monoj Kumar; Paramanik, Bipattaran; Bain, Dipankar; Patra, Amitava

    2016-08-08

    Several strategies have been adopted to design an artificial light-harvesting system in which light energy is captured by peripheral chromophores and it is subsequently transferred to the core via energy transfer. A composite of carbon dots and dye-encapsulated BSA-protein-capped gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) has been developed for efficient light harvesting and white light generation. Carbon dots (C-dots) act as donor and AuNCs capped with BSA protein act as acceptor. Analysis reveals that energy transfer increases from 63 % to 83 % in presence of coumarin dye (C153), which enhances the cascade energy transfer from carbon dots to AuNCs. Bright white light emission with a quantum yield of 19 % under the 375 nm excitation wavelength is achieved by changing the ratio of components. Interesting findings reveal that the efficient energy transfer in carbon-dot-metal-cluster nanocomposites may open up new possibilities in designing artificial light harvesting systems for future applications.

  18. Interaction between hollow needles - electric field, light emission and ozone generation study in multineedle to plate electrical discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriha, Vitezslav

    2004-09-01

    Multi hollow needle to plate electrical discharges in air are studied as ozone sources. Dependence of ozone concentration as an function of applied voltage, discharge current, mutual hollow needles position and electrical connection, working gas flow rate, distances between needles tips and plate electrode, visible light emission was measured experimentally in these systems. Electric field was numerically modeled. Light emission and electrical field distributions were compared. Coming from light emission and electric field a model of energy density spatial distribution was built. This model was finally compared with ozone generation.

  19. Optimum projection pattern generation for grey-level coded structured light illumination systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2017-04-01

    Structured light illumination (SLI) systems are well-established optical inspection techniques for noncontact 3D surface measurements. A common technique is multi-frequency sinusoidal SLI that obtains the phase map at various fringe periods in order to estimate the absolute phase, and hence, the 3D surface information. Nevertheless, multi-frequency SLI systems employ multiple measurement planes (e.g. four phase shifted frames) to obtain the phase at a given fringe period. It is therefore an age old challenge to obtain the absolute surface information using fewer measurement frames. Grey level (GL) coding techniques have been developed as an attempt to reduce the number of planes needed, because a spatio-temporal GL sequence employing p discrete grey-levels and m frames has the potential to unwrap up to pm fringes. Nevertheless, one major disadvantage of GL based SLI techniques is that there are often errors near the border of each stripe, because an ideal stepwise intensity change cannot be measured. If the step-change in intensity is a single discrete grey-level unit, this problem can usually be overcome by applying an appropriate threshold. However, severe errors occur if the intensity change at the border of the stripe exceeds several discrete grey-level units. In this work, an optimum GL based technique is presented that generates a series of projection patterns with a minimal gradient in the intensity. It is shown that when using this technique, the errors near the border of the stripes can be significantly reduced. This improvement is achieved with the choice generated patterns, and does not involve additional hardware or special post-processing techniques. The performance of that method is validated using both simulations and experiments. The reported technique is generic, works with an arbitrary number of frames, and can employ an arbitrary number of grey-levels.

  20. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  1. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  2. Compositional and geochemical characteristics of light hydrocarbons for typical marine oils and typical coal-generated oils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Different types of crude oils have different light hydrocarbon compositional and geochemical characteristics. Based on the light hydrocarbon data from two kinds of oils, i.e., coal-generated oils and marine oils in China, light hydrocarbons in marine oils in the Tazhong area are generally relatively enriched in n-heptane, and coal-generated oils from the Turpan Basin are enriched in methylcyclohexane . The K1 values, reported by Mango (1987), range from 0.97 to 1.19 in marine oils, basically consistent with what was reported by Mango on light hydrocarbons in terms of the majority of the crude oil data. But the K1 values of coal-generated oils are particularly high (1.35-1.66) and far greater than those of marine oils; heptane values in marine oils, ranging from 32.3% to 45.4%, and isoheptane values, ranging from 1.9 to 3.7, are respectively higher than those of coal-generated oils, indicating that the oils are in the high-maturity stage. In addition, expulsion temperatures of coal-generated oils from the Turpan Basin are obviously lower than those of marine oils from the Tazhong area.

  3. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  4. Generation of 3-D surface maps in waste storage silos using a structured light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, B. L.; Rowe, J. C.; Dinkins, M. A.; Christensen, B.; Selleck, C.; Jacoboski, D.; Markus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface contours inside the large waste storage tanks typical of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are, in general, highly irregular. In addition to pipes and other pieces of equipment in the tanks, the surfaces may have features such as mounds, fissures, crystalline structures, and mixed solid and liquid forms. Prior to remediation activities, it will be necessary to characterize the waste to determine the most effective remediation approaches. Surface contour data will be required both prior to and during remediation. The use is described of a structured light source to generate 3-D surface contour maps of the interior of waste storage silos at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, OH. The landscape inside these large waste storage tanks bears a strong resemblance to some of the landscapes that might be encountered during lunar or planetary exploration. Hence, these terrestrial 3-D mapping techniques may be directly applicable to extraterrestrial exploration. In further development, it will be demonstrated that these 3-D data can be used for robotic task planning just as 3-D surface contour data of a satellite could be used to plan maintenance tasks for a space-based servicing robot.

  5. Synthesis of fluorescent core-shell nanomaterials and strategies to generate white light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Ramanjot [Department of Nanotechnology, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib (India); Pandey, O. P. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India); Wei, Xueyong [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 Xi' an (China); Sharma, Manoj, E-mail: manojnarad@gmail.com, E-mail: manojsharma@bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Nanotechnology, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib (India); UNAM–Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2015-07-28

    In this work, cadmium free core-shell ZnS:X/ZnS (X = Mn, Cu) nanoparticles have been synthesized and used for white light generation. First, the doping concentration of Manganese (Mn) was varied from 1% to 4% to optimize the dopant related emission and its optimal value was found to be 1%. Then, ZnS shell was grown over ZnS:Mn(1%) core to passivate the surface defects. Similarly, the optimal concentration of Copper (Cu) was found to be 0.8% in the range varied from 0.6% to 1.2%. In order to obtain an emission in the whole visible spectrum, dual doping of Mn and Cu was done in the core and the shell, respectively. A solid-solid mixing in different ratios of separately doped quantum dots (QDs) emitting in the blue green and the orange region was performed. Results show that the optimum mixture of QDs excited at 300 nm gives Commission Internationale del'Éclairage color coordinates of (0.35, 0.36), high color rendering index of 88, and correlated color temperature of 4704 K with minimum self-absorption.

  6. Generation of Ultrashort Light Bullets in Dispersive Kerr Media Using the Fourth-Order Dispersion-Dependent Spatiotemporal Instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文双春; 钱列加; 范滇元

    2003-01-01

    A new method for generation of a train of ultrashort pulses or a sequence of ultrashort light bullets is proposed.This method is based on the fourth-order dispersion-dependent spatiotemporal instability in dispersive Kerr media. The repetition-rate of the generated bullets can be made quite large by increasing the corresponding spatial modulation frequency locating in the new instability region resulted from fourth-order dispersion.

  7. Degradation of methyl and ethyl mercury by singlet oxygen generated from sea water exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, I; Suda, M; Hirayama, K

    1993-01-01

    Photodegradation of methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl Hg (EtHg) in sea water was studied by sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, and by determining inorganic Hg produced by degradation. Sea water containing 1 microM MeHg or EtHg was exposed to sunlight or UV light. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine was added to the solution for preventing Hg loss during the light exposure. MeHg and EtHg in sea water were degraded by sunlight (> 280 nm), UV light A (320-400 nm) and UV light B (280-320 nm), though the amounts of inorganic Hg produced from MeHg were 1/6th to 1/12th those from EtHg. Inorganic Hg production was greater with increasing concentration of sea water. Degradation of MeHg and EtHg by the UV light A exposure was inhibited by singlet oxygen (1O2) trappers such as NaN3, 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane, histidine, methionine and 2,5-dimethylfuran. On the other hand, inhibitors or scavengers of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radical did not inhibit the photodegradation of alkyl Hg. These results suggested that 1O2 generated from sea water exposed to sunlight, UV light A or UV light B was the reactive oxygen species mainly responsible for the degradation of MeHg and EtHg.

  8. Wave-front phase-modulation control and focusing of second-harmonic light generated in transparent nonlinear random structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Can; Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Martorell, Jordi

    2013-06-01

    We theoretically investigate how phase-only spatial light modulation can enable controlling and focusing the second-harmonic light generated in transparent nonlinear random structures. The studied structures are composed of domains with random sizes and antiparallel polarization, which accurately model widely used ferroelectric crystals such as strontium barium niobate. Using a first-principles Green-function formalism, we account for the effect that spatial light modulation of the fundamental beam introduces into the second-order nonlinear frequency conversion occurring in the considered class of structures. This approach provides a complete description of the physical origin of the second-harmonic light generation in the system, as well as the optimization of the light intensity in any arbitrary direction. Our numerical results show how the second-harmonic light is influenced by both the disorder in the structure and the boundaries of the crystal. Particularly, we find that the net result from the interplay between disorder and boundary effects is strongly dependent on the dimensions of the crystal and the observation direction. Remarkably, our calculations also show that although in general the maximum possible enhancement of the second-order light is the same as the one corresponding to linear light scattering in turbid media, in the Cerenkov phase matching direction the enhancement can exceed the linear limit. The theoretical analysis presented in this work expands the current understanding of light control in complex media and could contribute to the development of a new class of imaging and focusing techniques based on nonlinear frequency mixing in random optical materials.

  9. Femtosecond timing distribution and control for next generation accelerators and light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li -Jin [Idesta Quantum Electronics, LLC, Newton, NJ (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Femtosecond Timing Distribution At LCLS Free-electron-lasers (FEL) have the capability of producing high photon flux from the IR to the hard x-ray wavelength range and to emit femtosecond and eventually even attosecond pulses. This makes them an ideal tool for fundamental as well as applied re-search. Timing precision at the Stanford Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) between the x-ray FEL (XFEL) and ultrafast optical lasers is currently no better than 100 fs RMS. Ideally this precision should be much better and could be limited only by the x-ray pulse duration, which can be as short as a few femtoseconds. An increasing variety of science problems involving electron and nuclear dynamics in chemical and material systems will become accessible as the timing improves to a few femtoseconds. Advanced methods of electron beam conditioning or pulse injection could allow the FEL to achieve pulse durations less than one femtosecond. The objective of the work described in this proposal is to set up an optical timing distribution system based on mode locked Erbium doped fiber lasers at LCLS facility to improve the timing precision in the facility and allow time stamping with a 10 fs precision. The primary commercial applications for optical timing distributions systems are seen in the worldwide accelerator facilities and next generation light sources community. It is reasonable to expect that at least three major XFELs will be built in the next decade. In addition there will be up to 10 smaller machines, such as FERMI in Italy and Maxlab in Sweden, plus the market for upgrading already existing facilities like Jefferson Lab. The total market is estimated to be on the order of a 100 Million US Dollars. The company owns the exclusive rights to the IP covering the technology enabling sub-10 fs synchronization systems. Testing this technology, which has set records in a lab environment, at LCLS, hence in a real world scenario, is an important corner stone of bringing the

  10. FEMTOSECOND TIMING DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL FOR NEXT GENERATION ACCELERATORS AND LIGHT SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li-Jin [Idesta Quantum Electronics, LLC

    2014-03-31

    Femtosecond Timing Distribution At LCLS Free-electron-lasers (FEL) have the capability of producing high photon flux from the IR to the hard x-ray wavelength range and to emit femtosecond and eventually even at-tosecond pulses. This makes them an ideal tool for fundamental as well as applied re-search. Timing precision at the Stanford Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) between the x-ray FEL (XFEL) and ultrafast optical lasers is currently no better than 100 fs RMS. Ideally this precision should be much better and could be limited only by the x-ray pulse duration, which can be as short as a few femtoseconds. An increasing variety of science problems involving electron and nuclear dynamics in chemical and material systems will become accessible as the timing improves to a few femtoseconds. Advanced methods of electron beam conditioning or pulse injection could allow the FEL to achieve pulse durations less than one femtosecond. The objec-tive of the work described in this proposal is to set up an optical timing distribution sys-tem based on modelocked Erbium doped fiber lasers at LCLS facility to improve the timing precision in the facility and allow time stamping with a 10 fs precision. The primary commercial applications for optical timing distributions systems are seen in the worldwide accelerator facilities and next generation light sources community. It is reasonable to expect that at least three major XFELs will be built in the next decade. In addition there will be up to 10 smaller machines, such as FERMI in Italy and Maxlab in Sweden, plus the market for upgrading already existing facilities like Jefferson Lab. The total market is estimated to be on the order of a 100 Million US Dollars. The company owns the exclusive rights to the IP covering the technology enabling sub-10 fs synchronization systems. Testing this technology, which has set records in a lab environment, at LCLS, hence in a real world scenario, is an important corner stone of bringing the

  11. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    2011-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  12. 1.5 W green light generation by single-pass second harmonic generation of a single-frequency tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Sumpf, Bernd;

    2009-01-01

    More than 1.5 W of green light at 531 nm is generated by singlepass second harmonic generation in periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3. The pump laser is a high power tapered laser with a distributed Bragg reflector etched in the ridge section of the laser to provide wavelength selectivity. The output...... power of the single-frequency tapered laser is 9.3 W in continuous wave operation. A conversion efficiency of 18.5 % was achieved in the experiments....

  13. PREFACE: 4th Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Stanko; Probert, Matt; Migliorato, Max; Pal, Joydeep

    2014-06-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the MediaCityUK, University of Salford, Manchester, UK on 22-24 January 2014. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2012 at the University of Leeds, in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-performance computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Semi-empirical Electronic Structure Methods, Multi-scale Approaches, Modelling of PV devices, Electron Transport, and Graphene. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Photonic Structures, and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognized experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several contributions also from representatives of

  14. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  15. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science (JPL co-I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Jonathan

    Here we propose "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science," a project being led by Dr. Christopher Walker of the University of Arizona. The Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory was ready for its second Antarctic flight (STO-2) in the 2015-2016 austral summer. However, due to the late establishment of the stratospheric anti-cyclone and poor surface conditions, STO-2 was unable to launch. The decision was made to winter-over the STO-2 payload in its hangar for launch during the 2016-2017 Antarctic campaign. Funds to cover preparations and deployment of key members of the instrument team in support of the campaign are being provided by NASA under the existing grant. However, these funds are only sufficient to cover expenses up to December 31st, 2016. Here, we request resources for calendar year 2017 to support mission operations, payload recovery, and science operations. These elements will enable the team to deliver fully on STO-2's science mission, and maximize NASA's demonstrated investment in STO-2's success. STO-2 addresses a key problem in modern astrophysics: understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately ˜ of the Southern Galactic Plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). In addition, STO-2 will perform path finding observations of the 63 μm [OI] line toward selected regions. With 1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. The STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO-2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3- dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky

  16. Analytical determination of the two-body gravitational interaction potential at the 4th post-Newtonian approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato

    2013-01-01

    We complete the analytical determination, at the 4th post-Newtonian approximation, of the main radial potential describing the gravitational interaction of two bodies within the effective one-body formalism. The (non logarithmic) coefficient a_5 (nu) measuring this 4th post-Newtonian interaction potential is found to be linear in the symmetric mass ratio nu. Its nu-independent part a_5 (0) is obtained by an analytical gravitational self-force calculation that unambiguously resolves the formal infrared divergencies which currently impede its direct post-Newtonian calculation. Its nu-linear part a_5 (nu) - a_5 (0) is deduced from recent results of Jaranowski and Sch\\"afer, and is found to be significantly negative.

  17. Mid-Session of 4th High Level China-France Forum On Local Government Cooperation Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yuna

    2014-01-01

    <正>A Mid-Session of the 4th High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation(HLCFFLGC)with the theme of"Innovative Development of Cities"was held in Chengdu on October 21,2013.It was jointly organized by the CPAFFC,the Sichuan Provincial People’s Government,the National Commission for Decentralized Cooperation of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs,and

  18. Relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators on sleep disturbance-data from the 4th Korean working conditions survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Taejun; Ye, Byeongjin; Kim, Jung-Il; Park, Siwoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. Methods The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one...

  19. 4th International Conference of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, Budapest, June 28 – 29, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rajakovic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Commission on the History of Cartography of the International Cartographic Association (ICA in collaboration with Dr. Zsolt Török from the Loránd Eötvös University in Budapest organized the 4th International Conference of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography titled Exploration, Discovery, Cartography in Budapest on June 28 and 29, 2012.

  20. Vice-Chairman Wang Attended the 4th China Int'l Credit and Risk Management Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 4th China International Credit and Risk Management Conference was held September 19-21,2007 in Shenzhen,China.The 3-day Conference was co-hosted by the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),China's National Office of Rectification and Standardization of Market Economic Order(NORSMEO),FCIB-China,the Export-Import Bank of China,and the Shenzhen Municipal Government.

  1. Integration of historical, archaeoseismic and paleoseismological data for the reconstruction of the early seismic history in Messina Strait (south Italy: the 1st and 4th centuries AD earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serafina Barbano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical accounts, archaeoseismic and paleoseismological evidence allowed us to reappraise two earthquakes affecting northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria in the 1st (probably between 14 and 37 and 4th (likely between 361 and 363 centuries AD, to obtain a better reconstruction of their effects and to reconsider their sources.The 1st century event damaged the area from Oppido (Calabria to Tindari (Sicily, roughly that of the February 6, 1783 Calabria earthquake. The similitude of these earthquakes is further stressed by the fact that they generated tsunamis, as recorded by historical data and by the tsunami deposits found at Capo Peloro, the oldest dated 0-125 AD, the youngest linked to the 1783 event. These earthquakes could be related to the same Calabria seismic source: the Scilla fault. Northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria were also damaged by one or more earthquakes in the 4th century AD and several towns were rebuilt/restored at that time. The hit area roughly coincides with that of the Messina 1908 earthquake suggesting similar seismic sources for the events. However, because close in time, historical descriptions of the 4th century Sicilian earthquake were mixed with those of the 365 Crete earthquake that generated a basin-wide tsunami most likely reaching also the Sicilian coasts. Reevaluating location, size, damage area and tsunamigenic potential of these two earthquakes of the 1st and 4th centuries AD is relevant for reassessing the seismogenic and tsunamigenic potential of the faults around the Messina Strait and the seismic hazard of the affected areas.

  2. Observation of propagating femtosecond light pulse train generated by an integrated array illuminator as a spatially and temporally continuous motion picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Masatomo; Komatsu, Aya; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Toshihiro

    2005-05-02

    We observed a propagating femtosecond light pulse train generated by an integrated array illuminator as a spatially and temporally continuous motion picture. To observe the light pulse train propagating in air, light-in-flight holography is applied. The integrated array illuminator is an optical device for generating an ultrashort light pulse train from a single ultrashort pulse. The experimentally obtained pulse width and pulse interval were 130 fs and 19.7 ps, respectively. A back-propagating femtosecond light pulse train, which is the -2 order diffracted light pulse from the array illuminator and which is difficult to observe using conventional methods, was observed.

  3. White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, S.; Ozel, T.; Sari, E.; Demir, H. V.

    2007-02-01

    We introduce white light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals of single, dual, triple and quadruple combinations hybridized with InGaN/GaN LEDs. Such hybridization of different nanocrystal combinations provides the ability to conveniently adjust white light parameters including the tristimulus coordinates (x,y), correlated colour temperature (Tc) and colour rending index (Ra). We present the design, growth, fabrication and characterization of our white hybrid nanocrystal-LEDs that incorporate combinations of (1) yellow nanocrystals (λPL = 580 nm) on a blue LED (λEL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.25), Tc = 2692 K and Ra = 14.69; (2) cyan and red nanocrystals (λPL = 500 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λEL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.28), Tc = 3246 K and Ra = 19.65; (3) green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λPL = 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λEL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.30,0.28), Tc = 7521 K and Ra = 40.95; and (4) cyan, green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λPL = 500, 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λEL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.24,0.33), Tc = 11 171 K and Ra = 71.07. These hybrid white light sources hold promise for future lighting and display applications with their highly adjustable properties.

  4. Self-Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic and White-Light Generation in a Biaxial Zinc Tungstate Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osewski, Pawel; Belardini, Alessandro; Petronijevic, Emilija; Centini, Marco; Leahu, Grigore; Diduszko, Ryszard; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-01-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical materials are used to generate new frequencies by exploiting second-harmonic generation (SHG), a phenomenon where a nonlinear material generates light at double the optical frequency of the input beam. Maximum SHG is achieved when the pump and the generated waves are in phase, for example through birefringence in uniaxial crystals. However, applying these materials usually requires a complicated cutting procedure to yield a crystal with a particular orientation. Here we demonstrate the first example of phase matching under the normal incidence of SHG in a biaxial monoclinic single crystal of zinc tungstate. The crystal was grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the (102) plane perpendicular to the growth direction. Additionally, at the same time white light was generated as a result of stimulated Raman scattering and multiphoton luminescence induced by higher-order effects such as three-photon luminescence enhanced by cascaded third-harmonic generation. The annealed crystal offers SHG intensities approximately four times larger than the as grown one; optimized growth and annealing conditions may lead to much higher SHG intensities. PMID:28338074

  5. Self-Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic and White-Light Generation in a Biaxial Zinc Tungstate Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osewski, Pawel; Belardini, Alessandro; Petronijevic, Emilija; Centini, Marco; Leahu, Grigore; Diduszko, Ryszard; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-03-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical materials are used to generate new frequencies by exploiting second-harmonic generation (SHG), a phenomenon where a nonlinear material generates light at double the optical frequency of the input beam. Maximum SHG is achieved when the pump and the generated waves are in phase, for example through birefringence in uniaxial crystals. However, applying these materials usually requires a complicated cutting procedure to yield a crystal with a particular orientation. Here we demonstrate the first example of phase matching under the normal incidence of SHG in a biaxial monoclinic single crystal of zinc tungstate. The crystal was grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the (102) plane perpendicular to the growth direction. Additionally, at the same time white light was generated as a result of stimulated Raman scattering and multiphoton luminescence induced by higher-order effects such as three-photon luminescence enhanced by cascaded third-harmonic generation. The annealed crystal offers SHG intensities approximately four times larger than the as grown one; optimized growth and annealing conditions may lead to much higher SHG intensities.

  6. Highly-Efficient Blue-Light Generation by Intracavity Frequency Doubling with LiB3O5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林学春; 李瑞宁; 崔大复; 姚爱云; 冯衍; 毕勇; 许祖彦

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the generation of highly-efficient blue light in critically type-I phase-matched LiBsO5(LBO) with intracavity frequency doubling of diode-pumped Nd: YA G laser. A maximum output power of 502 m W at 473nm blue light was obtained and the overall optical-to-optical efficiency is up to 11.2%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest conversion efficiency for 473 nm output using a diode pumped Nd:YAG laser through LBO.

  7. A natural connection between neutrino mass generation and the lightness of a next-to-minimal supersymmetric Standard Model pseudoscalar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debottam Das; Asmaa Abada; Gautam Bhattacharyya; Cédric Weiland

    2012-10-01

    One of the attractive properties of the NMSSM is that it can accommodate a light pseudoscalar of order 10 GeV. However, such scenarios are constrained by several experimental results, especially those related to the fermionic decays of the pseudoscalar. In this work, extending the NMSSM field content by two gauge singlets, with lepton number +1 and −1, we generate neutrino masses via the inverse see-saw mechanism at one hand and on the other hand a very light pseudoscalar becomes experimentally viable by having dominant invisible decay channels which help it to evade the existing bounds.

  8. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19-21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.phpThe Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe.THE CORE PARTICIPANTING INSTITUTES INCLUDED: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)-IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam'You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!' Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that's how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality.The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19-21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan.The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students to get in touch

  9. Light-Emission and Electricity-Generation Properties of Photovoltaic Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Rubrene/DBP Light-Emission and Electron-Donating Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Soo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the dependence of the characteristics of photovoltaic organic light-emitting diodes (PVOLEDs on the composition of the light-emission and electron-donating layer (EL-EDL. 5,6,11,12-Tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene: dibenzo{[f,f′]-4,4′,7,7′-tetraphenyl}diindeno[1,2,3-cd:1′,2′,3′-lm]perylene (DBP was used to form the EL-EDL, and C60 was used as an electron-accepting layer (EAL material. A half-gap junction was formed at the EAL/EL-EDL interface. As the rubrene ratio in the EL-EDL increased, the emission spectra became blue-shifted and the light-emission efficiency increased. The highest emission efficiency was achieved with an EL-EDL composed of 95% rubrene and 5% DBP. The short-circuit current decreased as the rubrene content increased up to 50% and then saturated, while the open-circuit voltage was almost unchanged regardless of the rubrene content. The power-conversion efficiency and fill factor increased as the composition of the EL-EDL approached that of pure materials. By controlling the rubrene : DBP ratio, the emission color could be adjusted. The emission efficiency of devices with mixed rubrene/DBP EL-EDLs could be greater than that of either pure rubrene or pure DBP devices. We obtained an overall power-conversion efficiency of 3% and a fill factor greater than 50%.

  10. Efficient white light generation from 2,3-diphenyl-1,2-dihydro-quinoxaline complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Y.; Kant, S.; Rai, R. N.; Rai, S. B.

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we report two organic materials dispersed in transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) matrix for efficient white light simulation under different optical excitations. A newly synthesized complex of benzoin and o-phenyldiamine is observed to be white on illumination with a blue LED. A new concept of white light emitting tube is also demonstrated. A mixture of 2,2″-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyldi-2,1-ethenediyl)-bis-benzenesulfonic acid disodium salt and complex is optimized to emit white light extended in the violet region on 355 nm laser excitation. The optical quality of the emitted white light is adjudged by the CIE coordinate, correlated color temperature and color rendition index in both the cases.

  11. Generation of Tunable Amplitude-Squeezed Light by Injection Locking of a Laser Diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-Min; HE Ling-Xiang; ZHANG Tian-Cai; XIE Chang-De; PENG Kun-Chi

    2000-01-01

    Tunable amplitude squeezing around the D2 line of cesium has been experimentally accomplished at room temperature in a quantum-well laser diode with light injection from a single-mode distributed Bragg-Reflector laser diode. While the master laser frequency is tuned, amplitude squeezing of the output light from the slave laser can be maintained at about 0.9dB throughout a tunabIe range of~l.7 GHz around the cesium D2 line.

  12. Doppler shift generated by a moving diffraction grating under incidence by polychromatic diffuse light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou, Kokou B

    2016-05-20

    We consider the spectral response of moving diffraction gratings, in which the incident light extends over a broad angular range and where the diffracted light is observed from a specific angle. We show that the dispersion relation between the frequency perceived by an observer who is looking at a moving grating and the incident frequency can exhibit some unique features, such as a flat band (i.e., a local minimum). An observer can see the light diffracted into a nonspecular diffraction order from a multitude of incident light rays, and the angle of incidence of each ray is frequency dependent; as a consequence, when the grating is moving, each incident ray experiences a Doppler shift in frequency that depends on its angle of incidence. We find that remarkable features appear near a Wood anomaly where the angle of incidence, for a given diffraction angle, can change very quickly with frequency. This means that light of multiple frequencies and incident from multiple angles can be mixed by the motion of the grating into the same diffracted ray and their frequencies can be compressed into a narrower range. The existence of a flat band means that a moving grating can be used as a device to increase the intensity of the perceived diffracted light due to spectral compression. The properties of a grating in motion in sunlight can also be relevant to the study of naturally occurring gratings which are typically in oscillatory motion.

  13. Adaptive Generation and Diagnostics of Linear Few-Cycle Light Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently we introduced the class of highly localized wavepackets (HLWs as a generalization of optical Bessel-like needle beams. Here we report on the progress in this field. In contrast to pulsed Bessel beams and Airy beams, ultrashort-pulsed HLWs propagate with high stability in both spatial and temporal domain, are nearly paraxial (supercollimated, have fringe-less spatial profiles and thus represent the best possible approximation to linear “light bullets”. Like Bessel beams and Airy beams, HLWs show self-reconstructing behavior. Adaptive HLWs can be shaped by ultraflat three-dimensional phase profiles (generalized axicons which are programmed via calibrated grayscale maps of liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs. Light bullets of even higher complexity can either be freely formed from quasi-continuous phase maps or discretely composed from addressable arrays of identical nondiffracting beams. The characterization of few-cycle light bullets requires spatially resolved measuring techniques. In our experiments, wavefront, pulse and phase were detected with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, 2D-autocorrelation and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER. The combination of the unique propagation properties of light bullets with the flexibility of adaptive optics opens new prospects for applications of structured light like optical tweezers, microscopy, data transfer and storage, laser fusion, plasmon control or nonlinear spectroscopy.

  14. Far-infrared-light shadowgraphy for high extraction efficiency of extreme ultraviolet light from a CO2-laser-generated tin plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukuma, Hiraku; Hosoda, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yosuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Kodama, Takeshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    The two-color, double-pulse method is an efficient scheme to generate extreme ultraviolet light for fabricating the next generation semiconductor microchips. In this method, a Nd:YAG laser pulse is used to expand a several-tens-of-micrometers-scale tin droplet, and a CO2 laser pulse is subsequently directed at the expanded tin vapor after an appropriate delay time. We propose the use of shadowgraphy with a CO2 laser probe-pulse scheme to optimize the CO2 main-drive laser. The distribution of absorption coefficients is derived from the experiment, and the results are converted to a practical absorption rate for the CO2 main-drive laser.

  15. Generation of two-lobe light fields with a rotating intensity distribution under propagation for single emitter spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volostnikov V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the results of studies on the generation of two-lobe light fields with the intensity distribution rotating during the field propagation. Such fields are needed to determine the depth of bedding of single emitters in spectral studies of substance properties. On the base of the spiral beam optics, the phase distributions were obtained for the synthesis of two-lobe fields with different speeds of rotation of the intensity distribution. The light fields have been formed by using a liquid-crystal spatial phase modulator HOLOEYE HEO-1080P. The influence of the illuminating beam parameters and the aberrations of the system on the quality of the formed light field was also studied.

  16. Enhancement of second harmonic generation in NaNO2-infiltrated opal photonic crystal using structural light focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-08-01

    Experimental and numerical results for second harmonic generation (SHG) in photonic crystal (PC) based on NaNO2-infiltrated opal matrix are presented. SHG is performed in reflection mode; thus, the direction of the SHG maximum is equal to the angle of mirror reflection. The PC was pumped with femtosecond optical pulses at different angles of incidence, allowing the dependence of the SHG efficiency on the location of the fundamental wavelength toward the PC band gap (BG) to be examined. The most efficient SHG was observed when pumping the BG of the PC. To interpret the experimental results, finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations of the light interaction with the PC were conducted. The observed effect of highly efficient SHG is associated with structural light focusing, and, as a consequence, with strong optical field localization within certain near-surface PC regions. Thus, SHG enhancement based on structural light focusing in PC was demonstrated.

  17. Generation of two-lobe light fields with a rotating intensity distribution under propagation for single emitter spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volostnikov, V. G.; Vorontsov, E. N.; Kotova, S. P.; Losevsky, N. N.; Prokopova, D. V.; Razueva, E. V.; Samagin, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The paper outlines the results of studies on the generation of two-lobe light fields with the intensity distribution rotating during the field propagation. Such fields are needed to determine the depth of bedding of single emitters in spectral studies of substance properties. On the base of the spiral beam optics, the phase distributions were obtained for the synthesis of two-lobe fields with different speeds of rotation of the intensity distribution. The light fields have been formed by using a liquid-crystal spatial phase modulator HOLOEYE HEO-1080P. The influence of the illuminating beam parameters and the aberrations of the system on the quality of the formed light field was also studied.

  18. Enhancement of second harmonic generation in NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal photonic crystal using structural light focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I., E-mail: kirzay@gmail.com; Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: st.yurchenko@mail.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 105005, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-04

    Experimental and numerical results for second harmonic generation (SHG) in photonic crystal (PC) based on NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal matrix are presented. SHG is performed in reflection mode; thus, the direction of the SHG maximum is equal to the angle of mirror reflection. The PC was pumped with femtosecond optical pulses at different angles of incidence, allowing the dependence of the SHG efficiency on the location of the fundamental wavelength toward the PC band gap (BG) to be examined. The most efficient SHG was observed when pumping the BG of the PC. To interpret the experimental results, finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations of the light interaction with the PC were conducted. The observed effect of highly efficient SHG is associated with structural light focusing, and, as a consequence, with strong optical field localization within certain near-surface PC regions. Thus, SHG enhancement based on structural light focusing in PC was demonstrated.

  19. Real-time optical correlator using computer-generated holographic filter on a liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Limitations associated with the binary phase-only filter often used in optical correlators are presently circumvented in the writing of complex-valued data on a gray-scale spatial light modulator through the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH) algorithm. The CGH encodes complex-valued data into nonnegative real CGH data in such a way that it may be encoded in any of the available gray-scale spatial light modulators. A CdS liquid-crystal light valve is used for the complex-valued CGH encoding; computer simulations and experimental results are compared, and the use of such a CGH filter as the synapse hologram in a holographic optical neural net is discussed.

  20. Electro-optically generating and controlling right- and left-handed circularly polarized multiring modes of light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenguo; She, Weilong

    2012-07-15

    We propose a simple method for generating and controlling right- and left-handed circularly polarized (RHP and LHP) multiring modes of light beams by means of Pockels effect in a single strontium barium niobate (SBN) crystal. The numerical results show that an LHP Laguerre-Gaussian LG(0l) beam, propagating along the optical axis of the crystal, will partly turn into an RHP vortex light field of order l+2. Moreover, a pair of the LHP and RHP components of the output light field is LG-like modes sharing an identically radial index, which is electro-optically controllable. The power ratio between these two components depends on the applied electric field and the mode of input beam.

  1. Efficient generation of 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light with spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.

    We propose an efficient concept increasing the power of diode laser systems in the visible spectral range. In comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation enhances the available power significantly. Combining two...... 1060 nm tapered diode lasers, we achieve a 2.5-3.2 fold increase of green light with a maximum power of 3.9 Watts in a diffraction-limited beam. At this level, diode lasers have a high application potential, for example, within the biomedical field. In order to enhance the power even further, our...... concept can be expanded combining multiple diode lasers....

  2. Efficient generation of highly squeezed light and second harmonic wave with periodically poled MgO:LiNbO_3

    CERN Document Server

    Masada, Genta; Satoh, Yasuhiro; Ishizuki, Hideki; Taira, Takunori; Furusawa, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We report on effective generation of continuous-wave squeezed light and second harmonics with a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO$_{\\mathrm{3}}$ (PPMgLN) crystal which enables us to utilize the large nonlinear optical coefficient $d_{\\mathrm{33}}$. We achieved the squeezing level of $-7.60 \\pm 0.15$dB at 860 nm by utilizing a subthreshol optical parametric oscillator with a PPMgLN crystal. We also generated 400 mW of second harmonics at 430 nm from 570 mW of fundamental waves with 70% of conversion efficiency by using a PPMgLN crystal inside an external cavity.

  3. A Solar Automatic Tracking System that Generates Power for Lighting Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Xun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we design and test a novel solar tracking generation system. Moreover, we show that this system could be successfully used as an advanced solar power source to generate power in greenhouses. The system was developed after taking into consideration the geography, climate, and other environmental factors of northeast China. The experimental design of this study included the following steps: (i the novel solar tracking generation system was measured, and its performance was analyzed; (ii the system configuration and operation principles were evaluated; (iii the performance of this power generation system and the solar irradiance were measured according to local time and conditions; (iv the main factors affecting system performance were analyzed; and (v the amount of power generated by the solar tracking system was compared with the power generated by fixed solar panels. The experimental results indicated that compared to the power generated by fixed solar panels, the solar tracking system generated about 20% to 25% more power. In addition, the performance of this novel power generating system was found to be closely associated with solar irradiance. Therefore, the solar tracking system provides a new approach to power generation in greenhouses.

  4. Generation of keys for image optical encryption in spatially incoherent light aimed at reduction of image decryption error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2014-05-01

    At present time methods of optical encryption are actively developed. The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution which require application of complex holographic schemes in conjunction with spatially coherent light. This leads to complex optical schemes and low decryption quality. To eliminate these disadvantages it is possible to implement optical encryption using spatially incoherent illumination which requires registration of light intensity distribution only. However this applies new restrictions on encryption keys: Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of encryption key should overlap Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of image to be encrypted otherwise loss of information is unavoidable. Therefore it seems that best key should have white spectrum. On the other hand due to fact that only light intensity distribution is registered, spectra of image to be encrypted and encryption key always have peaks at zero frequency and their heights depend on corresponding total energy. Since encrypted image contains noise, ratio of its average spectrum energy to noise average energy determines signal to noise ratio of decrypted image. Therefore ratio of amplitude at zero frequency to average spectrum amplitude (RZA) of encryption key defines decrypted images quality. For generation of encryption keys with low RZA method of direct search with random trajectory (DSRT) was used. To estimate impact of key RZA on decrypted images error numerical experiments were conducted. For experiments keys with different RZA values but with same energy value were generated and used. Numerically simulated optical encryption and decryption of set of test images was conducted. Results of experiment demonstrate that application of keys with low RZA generated by DSRT method leads to up to 20% lower error in comparison to keys generated by means of uniform random

  5. Spatial subharmonic generation of orthogonally polarized light waves in BaTiO(3) by phase-matched nonlinear mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A; Odoulov, S; Jungen, R; Tschudi, T

    1991-12-15

    The development of a spatial subharmonic, i.e., of a light wave propagating at the bisector of two pump waves, with orthogonal polarizations incident upon a BaTiO(3) crystal in a plane normal to the optical axis is observed and studied. Parametric amplification of a seed wave meeting the phase-matching condition in the presence of two pump waves is shown to be the main reason for subharmonic generation in this crystal.

  6. Light-triggered liposomal cargo delivery platform incorporating photosensitizers and gold nanoparticles for enhanced singlet oxygen generation and increased cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzka, Zofia; Clement, Sandhya; Goldys, Ewa M; Deng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We developed light-triggered liposomes incorporating 3–5 nm hydrophobic gold nanoparticles and Rose Bengal (RB), a well-known photosensitizer used for photodynamic therapy. Singlet oxygen generated by these liposomes with 532 nm light illumination was characterized for varying the molar ratio of lipids and gold nanoparticles while keeping the amount of RB constant. Gold nanoparticles were found to enhance the singlet oxygen generation rate, with a maximum enhancement factor of 1.75 obtained for the molar ratio of hydrogenated soy l-α-phosphatidylcholine:1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(hexanoylamine):gold of 57:5:17 compared with liposomes loaded with RB alone. The experimental results could be explained by the local electric field enhancement caused by gold nanoparticles. We further assessed cellular cytotoxicity of gold-loaded liposomes by encapsulating an antitumor drug, doxorubicin (Dox); such Dox-loaded liposomes were applied to human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) and exposed to light. Gold-loaded liposomes containing RB and Dox where Dox release was triggered by light were found to exhibit higher cytotoxicity compared with the liposomes loaded with RB and Dox alone. Our results indicate that gold-loaded liposomes incorporating photosensitizers may serve as improved agents in photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy. PMID:28203076

  7. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF MULTI-COMPONENT AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS FOR LIGHT-DRIVEN HYDROGEN GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Richard Eisenberg

    2012-07-18

    The research focussed on fundamental problems in the conversion of light to stored chemical energy. Specifically, work was completed on the design, synthesis and study of multi-component super- and supramolecular systems for photoinduced charge separation, one of the key steps in artificial photosynthesis, and on the use of these and related systems for the photochemical generation of H2 from water. At the center of these systems are chromophores comprised of square planar coordinated Pt(II) ions with arylacetylide and either diimine or terpyridyl ligands. Previous work had shown that the chromophores are photoluminescent in fluid solution with long-lived metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) excited states that are necessarily directional. An advance which set the stage for a number of proposed studies was the light-driven production of hydrogen from water using a Pt(terpyridyl)(arylacetylide)+ chromophore and a sacrificial electron donor. The reaction is catalytic and appears to rival previously reported ruthenium bipyridyl systems in terms of H2 production. Variation of system components and mechanistic studies were conducted to understand better the individual steps in the overall process and how to improve its efficiency. Success with light driven H2 generation was employed as a key probe as new systems were constructed consisting of triads for photoinduced charge separation placed in close proximity to the H2 generating catalyst - a Pt colloid - through direct linkage or supramolecular interactions with the polymer used to stabilize the colloid. In order to prepare new donor-chromophore-acceptor (D-C-A) triads and associated D-C and C-A dyads, new ligands were synthesized having functional groups for different coupling reactions such as simple amide formation and Pd-catalyzed coupling. In these systems, the donor was attached to the arylacetylide ligands and the acceptor was linked to the diimine or terpyridyl chelate. Research under the contract proved

  8. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5

    2011-12-01

    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  9. Efficient Generation of Red and Blue Light in a Dual-Structure Periodically Poled LiTaO3 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何京良; 胡小鹏; 祝世宁; 朱永元; 闵乃本

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the efficient generation of red light at 671 nm and blue light at 447nm from a diode-pumped Q-switched 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 laser together with a periodically poled LiTaO3 (PPLT) crystal. The sample used in this experiment is a dual-structure PPLT crystal with the period of 14.9 μm for the second harmonic generation and that of 4.9μm for the third harmonic generation. The red and blue light, with the respective average power of 752 m W and 153 m W were obtained in a single path under an average fundamental power of 1.74 W, corresponding to the conversion efficiencies of 43.2% and 8.8%, respectively. These results indicate that the dual-structure PPLT can be used to construct a compact and efficient all-solid-state red-and-blue dual-wavelength laser.

  10. The effect of a surface diffraction lattice on the laser generation of light in CdS monocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagay, V.A.; Kolbasov, G.Ya.; Snitko, O.V.; Sterligov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Laser generation is studied, along with the spectra of amplification of light in laminar CdS monocrystals with a surface diffraction lattice (DR) with excitation by a pulsed nitrogen laser. It is shown that the directivity diagram (DN) of the radiation is formed with the participation of indirect modes of the crystal and has features as compared with samples of CdS without the diffraction lattice; in this the spectrum of radiation is not changed. With radiation the directivity diagram of the amplification of the testing beam it is established that the maximums of amplification correlate according to position and the angular width with the loops of the angular distribution of the intensity of the laser generation in the CdS. It is shown that an increase in the light amplification factor in crystals with a diffraction lattice leads to a reduction in the threshold of laser generation. The conditions for light propagation in crystals with a diffraction lattice are analyzed.

  11. Doppler shift generated by a moving diffraction grating under incidence by polychromatic diffuse light

    CERN Document Server

    Dossou, Kokou B

    2016-01-01

    We consider the spectral response of moving diffraction gratings, in which the incident light extends over a broad angular range and where the diffracted light is observed from a specific angle. We show that the dispersion relation between the frequency perceived by an observer who is looking at a moving grating and the incident frequency can exhibit some unique features, such as a flat band (i.e., a local minimum). An observer can see the light diffracted into a non-specular diffraction order from a multitude of incident light rays and the angle of incidence of each ray is frequency-dependent; as a consequence, when the grating is moving, each incident ray experiences a Doppler shift in frequency that depends on its angle of incidence. We find that remarkable features appear near a Wood anomaly where the angle of incidence, for a given diffraction angle, can change very quickly with frequency. This means that light of multiple frequencies and incident from multiple angles can be mixed by the motion of the gr...

  12. What makes single-helical metamaterials generate "pure" circularly polarized light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Yang, ZhenYu; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Peng; Lu, ZeQing; Yu, Yang; Li, ShengXi; Yuan, XiuHua

    2012-01-16

    Circular polarizers with left-handed helical metamaterials can transmit right-handed circularly polarized (RCP) light with few losses. But a certain amount of left-handed circularly polarized (LCP) light will occur in the transmitted light, which is the noise of the circular polarizer. Therefore, we defined the ratio of the RCP light intensity to the LCP light intensity as the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. In our previous work, it's found that circular polarizers with multi-helical metamaterials have two orders higher S/N ratios than that of single-helical metamaterials. However, it has been a great challenge to fabricate such multi-helical structures with micron or sub-micron feature sizes. Is it possible for the single-helical metamaterials to obtain equally high S/N ratios as the multi-helical ones? To answer this question, we systematically investigated the influences of structure parameters of single-helical metamaterials on the S/N ratios using the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method. It was found that the single-helical metamaterials can also reach about 30dB S/N ratios, which are equal to the multi-helical ones. Furthermore, we explained the phenomenon by the antenna theory and optimized the performances of the single-helical circular polarizers.

  13. Self-Esteem and Academic Performance of 4th Graders in two Elementary Schools in Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Colquhoun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, 62% of pupils who sat the 4th grade literacy and numeracy examination attained mastery, which increased to 67% in 2009 from 50% in 2001. No study has examined the role of self-esteem on the academic performance of Jamaican 4th graders. The main objectives were, 1 evaluate the influence of selfesteem on academic performance, 2 determine factors that account for changes in self-esteem, and 3 examine factors of academic performance. The sample for this research was one hundred and twenty (120 respondents. Multiple repression techniques were conducted to identify variables explaining performance, with self-esteem being among the variables. A p-value ≤0.10 was used to indicate statistical significance. There is a positive correlation between self-esteem and academic performance (rs = 0.611, p<0.0001. Four variables emerged as statistical significant factors of self-esteem-academic performance, age of respondents, gender and parental behaviour, which explain 64.4% of the variability in self-esteem. Boys had a lower self-esteem (b = -3.911 than their female counterparts. Self-esteem is the most influential factor that account for academic performance. Of the nine variables used, four emerged as explaining academic performance, which explained 73.6% of the variability in academic performance. The emerging findings and knowledge gleaned from this work present a critical guide and a framework for policy practitioners to implement measure that can effectively address low performance among 4th graders.

  14. Synapses as therapeutic targets for Autism Spectrum Disorders: an International Symposium held in Pavia on July 4th, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eCuratolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New progresses into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs have been discussed in one day International Symposium held in Pavia (Italy on July 4th, 2014 entitled Synapses as therapeutic targets for Autism Spectrum Disorders (satellite of the FENS Forum for Neuroscience, Milan 2014. In particular, world experts in the field have highlighted how animal models of ASDs have greatly advanced our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in synaptic dysfunction leading sometimes to synaptic clinical trials in children.

  15. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  16. High-efficiency blue light generation at 426 nm in low pump regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianfeng; Yang, Chen; Xue, Jia; Zhang, Yuchi; Li, Gang; Zhang, Tiancai

    2016-05-01

    We report high-efficiency Ti:sapphire-laser-based frequency doubling at the cesium D2 line 852 nm using a 20 mm-long periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal in a bow-tie four-mirror ring enhancement cavity. The relatively complete cavity design procedure is presented. Focusing that is over twice as loose as optimal focusing is used, and both the fundamental frequency wave and second harmonic beam absorption-induced thermal lensing effects are weakened. Blue light of 210 mW at 426 nm, where absorption is severe, was obtained with 310 mW mode-matched fundamental light, corresponding to conversion efficiency of up to 67%. The blue light beam power showed 1.5% RMS fluctuation over 40 min.

  17. Band-gap nonlinear optical generation: The structure of internal optical field and the structural light focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I., E-mail: kirzay@gmail.com; Katyba, Gleb M.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: st.yurchenko@mail.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Gorelik, Vladimir S. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-07

    A novel approach for the enhancement of nonlinear optical effects inside globular photonic crystals (PCs) is proposed and systematically studied via numerical simulations. The enhanced optical harmonic generation is associated with two- and three-dimensional PC pumping with the wavelength corresponding to different PC band-gaps. The interactions between light and the PC are numerically simulated using the finite-difference time-domain technique for solving the Maxwell's equations. Both empty and infiltrated two-dimensional PC structures are considered. A significant enhancement of harmonic generation is predicted owing to the highly efficient PC pumping based on the structural light focusing effect inside the PC structure. It is shown that a highly efficient harmonic generation could be attained for both the empty and infiltrated two- and three-dimensional PCs. We are demonstrating the ability for two times enhancement of the parametric decay efficiency, one order enhancement of the second harmonic generation, and two order enhancement of the third harmonic generation in PC structures in comparison to the nonlinear generations in appropriate homogenous media. Obviously, the nonlinear processes should be allowed by the molecular symmetry. The criteria of the nonlinear process efficiency are specified and calculated as a function of pumping wavelength position towards the PC globule diameter. Obtained criterion curves exhibit oscillating characteristics, which indicates that the highly efficient generation corresponds to the various PC band-gap pumping. The highest efficiency of nonlinear conversions could be reached for PC pumping with femtosecond optical pulses; thus, the local peak intensity would be maximized. Possible applications of the observed phenomenon are also discussed.

  18. Energy transfer and colour tunability in UV light induced Tm3 +/Tb3 +/Eu3 +: ZnB glasses generating white light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, V.; Gupta, Kiran; Parthasaradhi Reddy, C.; Ham, Byoung S.

    2017-03-01

    A promising energy transfer (Tm3 + → Tb3 + → Eu3 +) approach is brought forward to generate white light emission under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation for solid state lightening. Tm3 +/Tb3 +/Eu3 + ions are combinedly doped in zinc borate glass system in view of understanding energy transfer process resulting in white light emission. Zinc borate (host) glass displayed optical and luminescence properties due to formation of Zn(II)x-[O(- II)]y centres in the ZnB glass matrix. At 360 nm (UV) excitation, triply doped Tm3 +/Tb3 +/Eu3 +: ZnB glasses simultaneously shown their characteristic emission bands in blue (454 nm: 1D2 → 3F4), green (547 nm: 5D4 → 7F5) and red (616 nm: 5D0 → 7F2) regions. In triple ions doped glasses, energy transfer dynamics is discussed in terms of Forster-Dexter theory, excitation & emission profiles, lifetime curves and from partial energy level diagram of three ions. The role of Tb3 + in ET from Tm3 + → Eu3 + was discussed using branch model. From emission decay analysis, energy transfer probability (P) and efficiency (η) were evaluated. Colour tunability from blue to white on varying (Tb3 +, Eu3 +) content is demonstrated from Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Based on chromaticity coordinates, other colour related parameters like correlated colour temperature (CCT) and colour purity are also computed for the studied glass samples. An appropriate blending of such combination of rare earth ions could show better suitability as potential candidates in achieving multi-colour and warm/cold white light emission for white LEDs application in the field of solid state lightening.

  19. Energy transfer and colour tunability in UV light induced Tm(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(3+): ZnB glasses generating white light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, V; Gupta, Kiran; Parthasaradhi Reddy, C; Ham, Byoung S

    2017-03-15

    A promising energy transfer (Tm(3+)→Tb(3+)→Eu(3+)) approach is brought forward to generate white light emission under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation for solid state lightening. Tm(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(3+) ions are combinedly doped in zinc borate glass system in view of understanding energy transfer process resulting in white light emission. Zinc borate (host) glass displayed optical and luminescence properties due to formation of Zn(II)x-[O(-II)]y centres in the ZnB glass matrix. At 360nm (UV) excitation, triply doped Tm(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(3+): ZnB glasses simultaneously shown their characteristic emission bands in blue (454nm: (1)D2→(3)F4), green (547nm: (5)D4→(7)F5) and red (616nm: (5)D0→(7)F2) regions. In triple ions doped glasses, energy transfer dynamics is discussed in terms of Forster-Dexter theory, excitation & emission profiles, lifetime curves and from partial energy level diagram of three ions. The role of Tb(3+) in ET from Tm(3+)→Eu(3+) was discussed using branch model. From emission decay analysis, energy transfer probability (P) and efficiency (η) were evaluated. Colour tunability from blue to white on varying (Tb(3+), Eu(3+)) content is demonstrated from Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Based on chromaticity coordinates, other colour related parameters like correlated colour temperature (CCT) and colour purity are also computed for the studied glass samples. An appropriate blending of such combination of rare earth ions could show better suitability as potential candidates in achieving multi-colour and warm/cold white light emission for white LEDs application in the field of solid state lightening.

  20. Innovative Development of Next Generation and Energy Efficient Solid State Light Sources for General Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Ferguson

    2006-07-31

    This two year program resulted in a novel broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source (BSDLED) that uses a dual wavelength light emitting diode (LED) and combinations of phosphors to create a broadband emission that is real-time controllable. Four major focuses of this work were as follows: (1) creation of a two terminal dual wavelength LED with control of the relative intensities of the two emission peaks, (2) bandgap modeling of the two terminal dual LED to explain operation based on the doping profile, (3) novel use of phosphor combinations with dual LEDs to create a broadband spectral power distribution that can be varied to mimic a blackbody radiator over a certain range and (4) investigation of novel doping schemes to create tunnel junctions or equivalent buried current spreading layers in the III-nitrides. Advances were achieved in each of these four areas which could lead to more efficient solid state light sources with greater functionality over existing devices. The two-terminal BSDLED is an important innovation for the solid-state lighting industry as a variable spectrum source. A three-terminal dual emitter was also investigated and appears to be the most viable approach for future spectrally dynamic solid state lighting sources. However, at this time reabsorption of emission between the two active regions limits the usefulness of this device for illumination applications.

  1. Mercury flow experiments. 4th report Measurements of erosion rate caused by mercury flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, H; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a construction plan of the Material-Life Science Facility, which is consisted of a Muon Science Facility and a Neutron Scattering Facility, in order to open up the new science fields. The Neutron Scattering Facility will be utilized for advanced fields of Material and Life science using high intensity neutron generated by the spallation reaction of a 1 MW pulsed proton beam and mercury target. Design of the spallation mercury target system aims to obtain high neutron performance with high reliability and safety. Since the target system is using mercury as the target material and contains large amount of radioactive spallation products, it is necessary to estimate reliability for strength of instruments in a mercury flow system during lifetime of the facility. Piping and components in the mercury flow system would be damaged by erosion with mercury flow, since these components will be we...

  2. OPTIMUM STOICHIOMETRY OF CADMIUM ZINC TELLURIDE THIN FILMS IN THE LIGHT OF OPTICAL, STRUCTURAL AND PHOTON GENERATED GAIN STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. MONISHA CHAKRABORTY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium Zinc Telluride (Cd1-xZnxTe is a potential material for high energy imaging devices. Proper methods are adopted in this work to fabricate large area device grade Cd1-xZnxTe thin films for ‘x’ varying from 0.0567 to 0.2210. Large work function Nickel (Ni is the contact points on these films. The fabricated films are subjected to optical characterization, structural characterization and photon generated gain studies. Properties of fabricated films are found to vary with ‘x’. Photon generated gains of Ni-Cd1-xZnxTe structures are obtained. The present paper dealt with the estimation of optimum ‘x’ in Cd1-xZnxTe thin films in the light of optical, structural and photon generated gain studies.

  3. Status and Prospects of Agri-Tourism in Selected Municipalities of the 4th District of Batangas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA VENUS L. RECIO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available – The study was to identify the profile of the agri-tourism sites in the selected municipalities in the 4th district of Batangas. Specifically, it determines the status and prospects of agri-tourism in the selected municipalities in the 4th district of Batangas in terms of Socio-Economic and Environmental Aspects; and have proposed an action plan to promote the agri-tourism as a destination. The researchers have conducted the study to see how the agri-tourism benefits the community in terms of their economy and environmental aspects. This study have provided more awareness to the community about the Agri-tourism in the place. In addition this research educates people to be more vigilant enough on giving importance on the Agri-tourism we have in Batangas. Results showed that the three major agri-tourism farms in the fourth district of Batangas were Vilela’s Farm, British Farm and Moca Farm. Agri-tourism in Batangas has socio-economic effects to the residents of the fourth district of Batangas. Agri-tourism has no environmental effect as assessed by the residents of Batangas.

  4. Phosphors for near UV-Emitting LED's for Efficacious Generation of White Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-09-30

    1) We studied phosphors for near-UV (nUV) LED application as an alternative to blue LEDs currently being used in SSL systems. We have shown that nUV light sources could be very efficient at high current and will have significantly less binning at both the chip and phosphor levels. We identified phosphor blends that could yield 4100K lamps with a CRI of approximately 80 and LPWnUV,opt equal to 179 for the best performing phosphor blend. Considering the fact that the lamps were not optimized for light coupling, the results are quite impressive. The main bottleneck is an optimum blue phosphor with a peak near 440 nm with a full width half maximum of about 25 nm and a quantum efficiency of >95%. Unfortunately, that may be a very difficult task when we want to excite a phosphor at ~400 nm with a very small margin for Stokes shift. Another way is to have all the phosphors in the blend having the excitation peak at 400 nm or slightly shorter wavelength. This could lead to a white light source with no body color and optimum efficacy due to no self-absorption effects by phosphors in the blend. This is even harder than finding an ideal blue phosphor, but not necessarily impossible. 2) With the phosphor blends identified, light sources using nUV LEDs at high current could be designed with comparable efficacy to those using blue LEDs. It will allow us to design light sources with multiple wattages using the same chips and phosphor blends simply by varying the input current. In the case of blue LEDs, this is not currently possible because varying the current will lower the efficacy at high current and alter the color point. With improvement of phosphor blends, control over CRI could improve. Less binning at the chip level and also at the phosphor blend level could reduce the cost of SSL light sources. 3) This study provided a deeper understanding of phosphor characteristics needed for LEDs in general and nUV LEDs in particular. Two students received Ph.D. degrees and three

  5. Evolution of circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster populations reared in constant light and dark regimes for over 330 generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K L; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2017-02-03

    Organisms are believed to have evolved circadian clocks as adaptations to deal with cyclic environmental changes, and therefore it has been hypothesized that evolution in constant environments would lead to regression of such clocks. However, previous studies have yielded mixed results, and evolution of circadian clocks under constant conditions has remained an unsettled topic of debate in circadian biology. In continuation of our previous studies, which reported persistence of circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster populations evolving under constant light, here we intended to examine whether circadian clocks and the associated properties evolve differently under constant light and constant darkness. In this regard, we assayed activity-rest, adult emergence and oviposition rhythms of D. melanogaster populations which have been maintained for over 19 years (~330 generations) under three different light regimes - constant light (LL), light-dark cycles of 12:12 h (LD) and constant darkness (DD). We observed that while circadian rhythms in all the three behaviors persist in both LL and DD stocks with no differences in circadian period, they differed in certain aspects of the entrained rhythms when compared to controls reared in rhythmic environment (LD). Interestingly, we also observed that DD stocks have evolved significantly higher robustness or power of free-running activity-rest and adult emergence rhythms compared to LL stocks. Thus, our study, in addition to corroborating previous results of circadian clock evolution in constant light, also highlights that, contrary to the expected regression of circadian clocks, rearing in constant darkness leads to the evolution of more robust circadian clocks which may be attributed to an intrinsic adaptive advantage of circadian clocks and/or pleiotropic functions of clock genes in other traits.

  6. The PV LED Engine - a new generation of intelligent solar powered LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    to dispose intelligently over the energy.To validate the model high-end PV products on the market has been bought, simulated and thewhole electrical system been characterized electrically (battery, LED, electrical circuit, PV) and optical properties of the optical system in front of the solar panel......Digging down cables for small electrical applications in the urban environment is extremely expensivedue to the high labour cost associated with it. Small stand-alone PV applications powered by 0.5-50 Wp can become very attractive since e.g. in Copenhagen in Denmark the cost of digging down cables...... in thecity is about 1000 $ pr. meter so the cost savings on the cable digging can easily pay for the solar cells. The requirements to the products from the municipalities are high so if e.g. the products are for lighting purpose the reliability of the product meeting some specied amount of light is very...

  7. Soliton Properties of Light Pulses on the Surface of Ionic Crystals Generated by Strong Nonlinear Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jia-Sheng; MA Ben-Kun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically discuss the soliton properties of light pulse transportation on the surface of an ionic crystal having strong nonlinear interactions between ions of unit cells. We analyze in detail the dark solitons when the nonlinear coefficient g is positive and negative, respectively. It is found that whether the nonlinear coefficient g is positive or negative, the dark solitons can be formed over the whole dispersion relation area of surface polaritons considering nonlinear effects. Attention should be paid to the fact that around ωTO, the light pulse can form advanced dark solitons, and there is a switching area from advanced dark soliton to retarded dark soliton near ωTO. We also discuss the effects of higher nonlinear dispersion on the solitons.

  8. High-Power Blue Light Generation by External Frequency Doubling of an Optical Parametric Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕勇; 张鸿博; 孙志培; 包照日格图; 李惠清; 孔宇鹏; 林学春; 王桂玲; 张杰; 侯玮; 李瑞宁; 崔大复; 许祖彦; 宋立维; 章萍; 崔建峰; 樊仲维

    2003-01-01

    We report on an all-solid-state high-power quasi-continuous blue light source by the frequency doubling of a signal wave from an optical parametric oscillator(OPO).A 50-mm-long LiB3O5(LBO)crystal is used for the OPO,which is pumped by a diode-pumped Nd:YAG green laser(10kHz,50ns).Tunable blue emission in a new nonlinear crystal BiB3O6(BiBO)is obtained with a wavelength range from 450 to 495 nm.The average power of the signal output is as high as 9.3 W from 924 to 970nm.The maximum output of the blue laser with the second harmonic walk-off compensation is 1.3 W average power at 470nm for 6.2 W of OPO signal light at 940nm.

  9. The green light generation by self-frequency-doubled Yb:YCOB crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Qiannan; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantages of the broad emission bands of a Yb3+ doped calcium yttrium oxoborate (Yb:YCOB) crystal cut along the optimized direction out of principle planes with the maximum effective nonlinear coefficient, the self-frequency-doubled green light based on the self-frequency-doubling behavior of Yb:YCOB was achieved with a maximum output power of 710 mW at 523 nm.

  10. Sacrificial hydrogen generation from aqueous triethanolamine with Eosin Y-sensitized Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst in UV, visible and solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Pankaj; Gomaa, Hassan; Ray, Ajay K

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we have studied Eosin Y-sensitized sacrificial hydrogen generation with triethanolamine as electron donor in UV, visible, and solar light irradiation. Aeroxide TiO2 was loaded with platinum metal via solar photo-deposition method to reduce the electron hole recombination process. Photocatalytic sacrificial hydrogen generation was influenced by several factors such as platinum loading (wt%) on TiO2, solution pH, Eosin Y to Pt/TiO2 mass ratio, triethanolamine concentration, and light (UV, visible and solar) intensities. Detailed reaction mechanisms in visible and solar light irradiation were established. Oxidation of triethanolamine and formaldehyde formation was correlated with hydrogen generation in both visible and solar lights. Hydrogen generation kinetics followed a Langmuir-type isotherm with reaction rate constant and adsorption constant of 6.77×10(-6) mol min(-1) and 14.45 M(-1), respectively. Sacrificial hydrogen generation and charge recombination processes were studied as a function of light intensities. Apparent quantum yields (QYs) were compared for UV, visible, and solar light at four different light intensities. Highest QYs were attained at lower light intensity because of trivial charge recombination. At 30 mW cm(-2) we achieved QYs of 10.82%, 12.23% and 11.33% in UV, visible and solar light respectively.

  11. Spatiotemporal light bullets and supercontinuum generation in β-BBO crystal with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuminas, R; Tamošauskas, G; Valiulis, G; Dubietis, A

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally study filamentation and supercontinuum generation in a birefringent medium [beta-barium borate (β-BBO) crystal] pumped by intense 90 fs, 1.8 μm laser pulses whose carrier wavelength falls in the range of anomalous group velocity dispersion of the crystal. We demonstrate that the competition between the intrinsic cubic and cascaded-quadratic nonlinearities may serve as a useful tool for controlling the self-action effects via phase matching condition. In particular, we found that spectral superbroadening of the ordinary polarization is linked to three-dimensional self-focusing and formation of self-compressed spatiotemporal light bullets that could be accessed within a certain range of either positive or negative phase mismatch. In the extraordinary polarization, we detect giant spectral shifts of the second harmonic radiation, which are attributed to a light bullet-induced self-phase matching.

  12. Two stacked tandem white organic light-emitting diodes employing WO3 as a charge generation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Jong-Kwan; Lee, Na Yeon; Lee, SeungJae; Seo, Bomin; Yang, JoongHwan; Kim, Jinook; Yoon, Soo Young; Kang, InByeong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, many studies have been conducted to improve the electroluminescence (EL) performance of organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs) by using appropriate organic or inorganic materials as charge generation layer (CGL) for their application such as full color displays, backlight units, and general lighting source. In a stacked tandem white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs), a few emitting units are electrically interconnected by a CGL, which plays the role of generating charge carriers, and then facilitate the injection of it into adjacent emitting units. In the present study, twostacked WOLEDs were fabricated by using tungsten oxide (WO3) as inorganic charge generation layer and 1,4,5,8,9,11- hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) as organic charge generation layer (P-CGL). Organic P-CGL materials were used due to their ease of use in OLED fabrication as compared to their inorganic counterparts. To obtain high efficiency, we demonstrate two-stacked tandem WOLEDs as follows: ITO/HIL/HTL/HTL'/B-EML/ETL/N-CGL/P-CGL (WO3 or HAT-CN)/HTL″/YG-EML/ETL/LiF/Al. The tandem devices with blue- and yellow-green emitting layers were sensitive to the thickness of an adjacent layer, hole transporting layer for the YG emitting layer. The WOLEDs containing the WO3 as charge generation layer reach a higher power efficiency of 19.1 lm/W and the current efficiency of 51.2 cd/A with the white color coordinate of (0.316, 0.318) than the power efficiency of 13.9 lm/W, and the current efficiency of 43.7 cd/A for organic CGL, HAT-CN at 10 mA/cm2, respectively. This performance with inserting WO3 as CGL exhibited the highest performance with excellent CIE color coordinates in the two-stacked tandem OLEDs.

  13. Real time demonstration of high bitrate quantum random number generation with coherent laser light

    CERN Document Server

    Symul, T; Lam, P K; 10.1063/1.3597793

    2011-01-01

    We present a random number generation scheme that uses broadband measurements of the vacuum field contained in the radio-frequency sidebands of a single-mode laser. Even though the measurements may contain technical noise, we show that suitable algorithms can transform the digitized photocurrents into a string of random numbers that can be made arbitrarily correlated with a subset of the quantum fluctuations (high quantum correlation regime) or arbitrarily immune to environmental fluctuations (high environmental immunity). We demonstrate up to 2 Gbps of real time random number generation that were verified using standard randomness tests.

  14. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010 The Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'10) is organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from July 5 to July 10, 2010. The scientific programme covers the topics Fusion Plasma and Materials; Plasma Modeling and Fundamentals; Plasma Sources, Diagnostics and Technology. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007), IWSSPP'08, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 207 (2010), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 34 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants who sent their manuscripts and passed through the (sometimes heavy and troublesome) refereeing and editing

  15. Assessment of passive safety injection systems of ALWRs. Final report of the European Commission 4th framework programme. Project FI4I-CT95-004 (APSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuunanen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy; Vihavainen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland); D' Auria, F. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Kimber, G. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The European Commission 4th Framework Programme project 'Assessment of Passive Safety Injection Systems of Advanced Light Water Reactors (FI4I-CT95-0004)' involved experiments on the PACTEL test facility and computer simulations of selected experiments. The experiments focused on the performance of Passive Safety Injection Systems (PSIS) of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) in Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) conditions. The PSIS consisted of a Core Make-up Tank (CMT) and two pipelines. A pressure balancing line (PBL) connected the CMT to one cold leg. The injection line (IL) connected it to the downcomer. The project involved 15 experiments in three series. The experiments provided valuable information about condensation and heat transfer processes in the CMT, thermal stratification of water in the CMT, and natural circulation flow through the PSIS lines. The experiments showed the examined PSIS works efficiently in SBLOCAs although the flow through the PSIS may stop in very small SBLOCAs, when the hot water fills the CMT. The experiments also demonstrated the importance of flow distributor (sparger) in the CMT to limit rapid condensation. The project included validation of three thermal-hydraulic computer codes (APROS, CATHARE and RELAP5). The analyses showed the codes are capable of simulating the overall behaviour of the transients. The codes predicted accurately the core heatup, which occurred when the primary coolant inventory was reduced so much that the core top became free of water. The detailed analyses of the calculation results showed that some models in the codes still need improvements. Especially, further development of models for thermal stratification, condensation and natural circulation flow with small driving forces would be necessary for accurate simulation of phenomena in the PSIS. (orig.)

  16. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    SO4 (X=Si, Ge, Ti) Systems * A DSC and Conductivity Study of the Influence of Cesium Ion on the Beta-Alpha Transition in Silver Iodide * Phase Diagrams, Stoichiometries and Properties of Bi4V2O11:M2+ Solid Electrolytes * Physical Properties of Electrodeposited Silver Chromotungstate * Pseudopotential Study of Bonding in the Superionic Material AgI: The Effect of Statistical Distribution of Mobile Ions * Cubic Phase Dominant Region in Submicron BaTiO3 Particles * The Crystallization of CoZr Amorphous Alloys via Electrical Resistivity * Cation Ratio Related Properties of Synthetic Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide and it's Nanocomposite * DC Conductivity of Nano-Particles of Silver Iodide * Effect of Anomalous Diffusion on Quasielastic Scattering in Superionic Conductors * Computer Simulation Study of Conductivity Enhancement in Superionic-Insulator Composites * Dynamics of Superionic Silver and Copper Iodide Salt Melts * Influence of Dopant Salt AgI, Glass Modifier Ag2O and Glass Formers (SeO3 + MoO3) on Electrical Conductivity in Quaternary Glassy System * Fast Ion Conductivity in the Presence of Competitive Network Formers * Role of Alkali Ions in Borate Glasses * Inelastic Light Scattering in Cadmium Borate Glasses * Investigation on Transport Properties of Mixed Glass System 0.75 [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]. 0.25[Ag2O:CrO3] * Conduction Mechanism in Lithium Tellurite Glasses * Optimized Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolyte * Stabilized Superfine Zirconia Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Process * Study of New PAN-based Electrolytes * Electrical and Thermal Characterization of PVA based Polymer Electrolytes * Conductive Electroactive Polymers: Versatile Solid State Ionic Materials * The Role of Ag2O Addition on the Superconducting Properties of Y-124 Compound * Absorption Spectra Studies of the C60 Films on Transition Metal Film Substrates * Effect of Alumina Dispersal on the Conductivity and Crystallite Size of Polymer Electrolyte * New Mixed Galss-Polymer Solid Electrolytes

  17. Phase-transient hierarchical turbulence as an energy correlation generator of blazar light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Mitsuru

    2008-01-01

    Hierarchical turbulent structure constituting a jet is considered to reproduce energy-dependent variability in blazars, particularly, the correlation between X- and gamma-ray light curves measured in the TeV blazar Markarian 421. The scale-invariant filaments are featured by the ordered magnetic fields that involve hydromagnetic fluctuations serving as electron scatterers for diffusive shock acceleration, and the spatial size scales are identified with the local maximum electron energies, which are reflected in the synchrotron spectral energy distribution (SED) above the near-infrared/optical break. The structural transition of filaments is found to be responsible for the observed change of spectral hysteresis.

  18. Spin-Selective Generation of Triplet Nitrenes: Olefin Aziridination through Visible-Light Photosensitization of Azidoformates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Spencer O; Farney, Elliot P; Kim, Sangyun; Bates, Desiree M; Yoon, Tehshik P

    2016-02-01

    Azidoformates are interesting potential nitrene precursors, but their direct photochemical activation can result in competitive formation of aziridination and allylic amination products. Herein, we show that visible-light-activated transition-metal complexes can be triplet sensitizers that selectively produce aziridines through the spin-selective photogeneration of triplet nitrenes from azidoformates. This approach enables the aziridination of a wide range of alkenes and the formal oxyamination of enol ethers using the alkene as the limiting reagent. Preparative-scale aziridinations can be easily achieved under continuous-flow conditions.

  19. Coherent entangled light generated by quantum dots in the presence of nuclear magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, R M; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Farrer, I A; Nicoll, C A; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2011-01-01

    A practical source of high fidelity entangled photons is desirable for quantum information applications and exploring quantum physics. Semiconductor quantum dots have recently been shown to conveniently emit entangled light when driven electrically, however the fidelity was not optimal. Here we show that the fidelity is not limited by decoherence, but by coherent interaction with nuclei. Furthermore we predict that on 100\\mu s timescales, strongly enhanced fidelities could be achieved. This insight could allow tailoring of quantum logic to operate using quantum dots in the fault tolerant regime.

  20. Conditional generation of arbitrary single-mode quantum states of light by repeated photon subtractions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiurasek, J; Cerf, N J; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Garcia-Patron, Raul; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the conditional generation of arbitrary finite superpositions of (squeezed) Fock states in a single mode of a traveling optical field. The suggested setup requires only a source of squeezed states, beam splitters, strong coherent beams, and photodetectors with single-photon sensitivity. The method does not require photodetectors with a high efficiency nor with a single-photon resolution.

  1. Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125 nm generated by sum-frequency four-wave mixing in mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museur, L.; Olivero, C.; Riedel, D.; Castex, M. C.

    The polarization of the VUV light generated by four-wave sum-frequency mixing process ω4=2ω1+ω2 in mercury vapor at room temperature is analyzed in detail. Due to the specific two-photon transition used to enhance the nonlinear process, the polarization of the VUV wave is shown to be identical to the polarization of the wave at the frequency ω2. In particular, circularly polarized VUV is observed with degree of circular polarization exceeding 0.99.

  2. Addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscopy based on 2D acousto-optical deflector and spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yonghong; Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Qu, Junle; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Hanben; Gao, Bruce Z

    2012-09-01

    We present an addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscope by combining a 2D acousto-optical deflector with a spatial light modulator. The SLM shapes an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:Sapphire laser beam into a multifocus array, which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a 2D acousto-optical deflector. Compared to the single-beam-scan technique, the multifocus array scan can increase the scanning rate and the field-of-view size with the multi-region imaging ability.

  3. Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering light generation in BBO crystal by using two crossing femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2008-07-01

    As broad as 12000 cm(-1) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) light from ultraviolet to infrared was generated in a BBO crystal by using two crossing femtosecond laser pulses with 30% conversion efficiency. More than fifteenth-order anti-Stokes and second-order Stokes Raman sidebands were observed with nice Gaussian spatial mode. The effect of the crossing angle between two input beams on the spectrum and emitting angle of the Raman sidebands was studied in detail. Calculation shows that the phase-matching condition determines the frequencies and angles of the sidebands.

  4. Real-time computer-generated hologram by means of liquid-crystal television spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Fai; Psaltis, Demetri; Diep, Joseph; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of an inexpensive liquid-crystal television) (LCTV) as a spatial light modulator for coherent-optical processing in the writing and reconstruction of a single computer-generated hologram has been demonstrated. The thickness nonuniformities of the LCTV screen were examined in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and the phase distortions were successfully removed using a technique in which the LCTV screen was submerged in a liquid gate filled with an index-matching nonconductive mineral oil with refractive index of about 1.45.

  5. Preliminary Study on LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 Utilization as Fuel Salt of miniFUJI Molten Salt Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Widayani; Irwanto, Dwi

    2016-08-01

    miniFUJI reactor is molten salt reactor (MSR) which is one type of the Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The original miniFUJI reactor design uses LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as a fuel salt. In the present study, the use of LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 as fuel salt instead of LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 will be discussed. The neutronics cell calculation has been performed by using PIJ (collision probability method code) routine of SRAC 2006 code, with the nuclear data library is JENDL-4.0. The results reveal that the reactor can attain the criticality condition with the plutonium concentration in the fuel salt is equal to 9.16% or more. The conversion ratio diminishes with the enlarging of plutonium concentration in the fuel. The neutron spectrum of miniFUJI MSR with plutonium fuel becomes harder compared to that of the 233U fuel.

  6. APPLICATION OF SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATORS FOR GENERATION OF LASER BEAMS WITH A SPIRAL PHASE DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zinchik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. This paper discusses numerical simulation of spiral beams. Spiral beams have been experimentally obtained with the use of liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LCD SLM. The ability of dynamical change for the laser beam parameters has been studied. Method. Spiral beams are traditionally obtained by means of static masks defining the amplitude and phase distribution of the beam. The paper deals with modernized method with the use of two LCD SLMs. Modulators form separately the amplitude and phase distribution of the laser beam. Main Results. Numerical modeling of space spiral beams with different amplitude and phase characteristics has been carried out with the use of VirtualLab 5.0 software package manufactured by LightTrans GmbH. Simulation results are compared to the results of a natural experiment. Experimental results are in good agreement with computer simulation. It is shown that LCD SLMs application gives the possibility for dynamical change of the spiral beam parameters, their structure and the dependence of rotation angle on the distance. Distribution phase inversion leads to a change in the rotation direction of the laser beam and, therefore, to a change in the direction of its orbital angular momentum. Practical Relevance. The use of spatial modulators makes it possible to change dynamically the beam parameters, including rotation direction change. The results can be applied for solution of problems related to laser manipulating of microparticles, as well as the problems of determining the phase inhomogeneities of transparent objects.

  7. A Visible-Light-Active Heterojunction with Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shiba P; Hood, Zachary D; More, Karren L; Chen, Vincent W; Lachgar, Abdou

    2016-07-21

    A visible-light-active carbon nitride (CN)/strontium pyroniobate (SNO) heterojunction photocatalyst was fabricated by deposition of CN over hydrothermally synthesized SNO nanoplates by a simple thermal decomposition process. The microscopic study revealed that nanosheets of CN were anchored to the surface of SNO resulting in an intimate contact between the two semiconductors. Diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectra show that the resulting CN/SNO heterojunction possesses intense absorption in the visible region. The structural and spectral properties endowed the CN/SNO heterojunction with remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity. Specifically, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate per mole of CN was found to be 11 times higher for the CN/SNO composite compared to pristine CN. The results clearly show that the composite photocatalyst not only extends the light absorption range of SNO but also restricts photogenerated charge-carrier recombination, resulting in significant enhancement in photocatalytic activity compared to pristine CN. The relative band positions of the composite allow the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of CN to migrate to that of SNO. This kind of charge migration and separation leads to the reduction in the overall recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers, which is regarded as one of the key factors for the enhanced activity. A plausible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the heterostructured composite is proposed based on observed activity, photoluminescence, time-resolved fluorescence emission decay, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and band position calculations.

  8. Non-classical light generated by quantum-noise-driven cavity optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel W C; Botter, Thierry; Schreppler, Sydney; Purdy, Thomas P; Brahms, Nathan; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2012-08-23

    Optomechanical systems, in which light drives and is affected by the motion of a massive object, will comprise a new framework for nonlinear quantum optics, with applications ranging from the storage and transduction of quantum information to enhanced detection sensitivity in gravitational wave detectors. However, quantum optical effects in optomechanical systems have remained obscure, because their detection requires the object’s motion to be dominated by vacuum fluctuations in the optical radiation pressure; so far, direct observations have been stymied by technical and thermal noise. Here we report an implementation of cavity optomechanics using ultracold atoms in which the collective atomic motion is dominantly driven by quantum fluctuations in radiation pressure. The back-action of this motion onto the cavity light field produces ponderomotive squeezing. We detect this quantum phenomenon by measuring sub-shot-noise optical squeezing. Furthermore, the system acts as a low-power, high-gain, nonlinear parametric amplifier for optical fluctuations, demonstrating a gain of 20 dB with a pump corresponding to an average of only seven intracavity photons. These findings may pave the way for low-power quantum optical devices, surpassing quantum limits on position and force sensing, and the control and measurement of motion in quantum gases.

  9. Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen under visible light on La2CuO4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Lahmar; M Trari

    2015-08-01

    The semiconducting properties of La2CuO4 prepared by a chemical route are investigated for the first time by the photo-electrochemical technique. The optical gap is found to be 1.27 eV and the transition is directly allowed. p-Type conductivity is demonstrated from the Mott–Schottky plot in alkaline KOH solution (0.1 M), extrapolation of the linear region to the potential axis gives a flat band potential of −0.41 VSCE, a holes density of 1.75 × 1019 cm−3 and a space-charge region of 18 nm. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, measured over the frequency range (1 mHz–105 Hz), reveals the predominance of the bulk contribution with a constant phase element. The energy diagram shows the feasibility of La2CuO4 for the H2 evolution under visible light. The best performance occurs at pH 12.5 in the presence of S2O$^{2-}_{3}$ as holes scavenger. A liberation rate of 20.6 mol mn−1 (g catalyst)−1 is obtained under full light (29 mW cm−2).

  10. Three-dimensional rendering of computer-generated holograms acquired from point-clouds on light field displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Athanasia; Blinder, David; Ceulemans, Beerend; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Holograms, either optically acquired or simulated numerically from 3D datasets, such as point clouds, have special rendering requirements for display. Evaluating the quality of hologram generation techniques is not straightforward, since high-quality holographic display technologies are still immature, In this paper we present a framework for three-dimensional rendering of colour computer-generated holograms (CGHs) acquired from point-clouds, on high-end light field displays. This allows for the rendering of holographic content with horizontal parallax and wide viewing angle. We deploy prior work, namely a fast CGH method that inherently handles occlusion problems to acquire high quality colour holograms from point clouds. Our experiments showed that rendering holograms with the proposed framework provides 3D effect with depth disparity and horizontal-only with wide viewing angle. Therefore, it allows for the evaluation of CGH techniques regarding functional properties such as depth cues and efficient occlusion handling.

  11. Double-lambda microscopic model for entangled light generation by four-wave-mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Glorieux, Q; Guibal, S; Guidoni, L; Likforman, J -P; Coudreau, T; Arimondo, E

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we study four-wave-mixing in an atomic double-{\\Lambda} system driven by a far-detuned pump. Using the Heisenberg-Langevin formalism, and based on the microscopic properties of the medium, we calculate the classical and quantum properties of seed and conju- gate beams beyond the linear amplifier approximation. A continuous variable approach gives us access to relative-intensity noise spectra that can be directly compared to experiments. Restricting ourselves to the cold-atom regime, we predict the generation of quantum-correlated beams with a relative-intensity noise spectrum well below the standard quantum limit (down to -6 dB). Moreover entanglement between seed and conjugate beams measured by an inseparability down to 0.25 is expected. This work opens the way to the generation of entangled beams by four-wave mixing in a cold atomic sample.

  12. Laying Out Land Parcels and the Oldest Boundary Stone in Croatia from the 4th Century BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical position of the Chora Pharos (nowadays Starogradsko polje, climate conditions and brief historical development of colonization on the island of Hvar are described in the paper. Also described is how Greek from the island of Paros established the town Pharos (today’s Stari Grad and how they constructed Chora Pharos (today’s Starogradsko polje. They divided the field Starogradsko polje into rectangular parcels with dimensions 1 Greek stage × 5 Greek stage (181 m × 905 m. The large project “Starogradsko polje” demonstrated that one Pharos foot equals 0.3026 m. They used the groma for pegging out orthogonal angles. Finally, there is a photograph of the boundary stone from the Chora Pharos (Starogradsko polje from the 4th century before Christ which is deposited in the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb. This is the oldest boundary stone in Croatia and as geodesists, we can consider it a geodetic monument.

  13. Ultra-Fast Tracking Power Supply with 4th order Output Filter and Fixed-Frequency Hysteretic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    A practical solution is presented for the design of a non-isolated DC/DC power converter with very low output ripple voltage and very fast output voltage step response. The converter is intended for use as an envelope tracking power supply for an RFPA (Radio Frequency Power Amplifier) in a Tetra2...... base station. A simple and effective fixed-frequency hysteretic control scheme for the converter (buck with 4th order output filter) is developed and analyzed. The proposed approach is verified experimentally by a 500W output prototype, capable of delivering any voltage in the range of 10-30V within 10......μs with 10mVpp of output ripple and efficiencies in the 88- 95% range....

  14. Hydromedusae from the Arctic in 2010 during the 4th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunguang; HUANG Jiaqi; XIANG Peng; WANG Yanguo; XU Zhenzu; GUO Donghui; LIN Mao

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-seven stations (48 grid stations and nine stratified stations) were sampled across the study region (67.000°-88.394°N, 152.500°-178.643°W ) during the 4th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHI-NARE 4) from July to August 2010 by the icebreaker R/V Xuelong. A total of 24 species of Hydromedusae were identified from 130 zooplankton samples, of which seven species belonged to Automedusa, eight species to Anthomedusae, four species to Leptomedudae, and three species to Siphonophora. Catablema multicir-ratum Kishinouye, 1910, Bougainvillia bitentaculata Uchida, 1925, and Euphysa japonica (Maas, 1909) were recorded for the first time in the Arctic sea. In the present paper, 18 species of Hydromedusae were described and illustrated, of which three species were described for the first time in the Arctic sea, and 15 species were described for the first time in China.

  15. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4(th/5(th Century CE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mowlavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4(th/5(th century CE. In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran.

  16. Juvenile hormone III and nutrition effects on spermatogenesis in the 4th instar nymphs of Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Costa Schuetz

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available When 4th instar nymphs of Panstrongylus megistus are fed with a saturant blood meal, there is an intense proliferation of the spermatogonia. At the end of the intermoult, the older spermatogonial cysts differentiate into 1st primary spermatocyte cysts. In the nymphs deprived of the blood meal this evolution is not observed, but a small growth of the testicular follicles occurs, due to a few mitotic divisions. This growth is observed at least, until 25 days after ecdysis. Since day 15, an autolytic process starts in the older spermatogonial cysts. The presence of exogenous juvenile hormone III (JH III does not promote the development of the germ cells in the fasting insects. There is only a small growth of the testicular follicles and the autolytic process is also observed. In the precocious adults obtained by allatectomy or precocene II treatment, germ cells are observed in all development stages, except packed and elongated spermatozoa bundels.

  17. Plasmas generated by ultra-violet light rather than electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, R. N. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Allen, J. E. [University College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 4BH, United Kingdom and OCIAM, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Thomas, D. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, CCCEE, Universidade de Madeira, Largo do Municipio, 9000 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-12-15

    We analyze, in both plane and cylindrical geometries, a collisionless plasma consisting of an inner region where generation occurs by UV illumination, and an un-illuminated outer region with no generation. Ions generated in the inner region flow outwards through the outer region and into a wall. We solve for this system's steady state, first in the quasi-neutral regime (where the Debye length λ{sub D} vanishes and analytic solutions exist) and then in the general case, which we solve numerically. In the general case, a double layer forms where the illuminated and un-illuminated regions meet, and an approximately quasi-neutral plasma connects the double layer to the wall sheath; in plane geometry, the ions coast through the quasi-neutral section at slightly more than the Bohm speed c{sub s}. The system, although simple, therefore has two novel features: a double layer that does not require counter-streaming ions and electrons, and a quasi-neutral plasma where ions travel in straight lines with at least the Bohm speed. We close with a précis of our asymptotic solutions of this system, and suggest how our theoretical conclusions might be extended and tested in the laboratory.

  18. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  19. Vortical light bullets in second-harmonic-generating media supported by a trapping potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a three-dimensional (3D) model of optical media with the quadratic ($\\chi ^{(2)}$) nonlinearity and an effective 2D isotropic harmonic-oscillator (HO) potential. While it is well known that 3D \\chi^2 solitons with embedded vorticity ("vortical light bullets") are unstable in the free space, we demonstrate that they have a broad stability region in the present model, being supported by the HO potential against the splitting instability. The shape of the vortical solitons may be accurately predicted by the variational approximation (VA). They exist above a threshold value of the total energy (norm) and below another critical value, which determines a stability boundary. The existence threshold vanishes is a part of the parameter space, depending on the mismatch parameter, which is explained by means of the comparison with the 2D counterpart of the system. Above the stability boundary, the vortex features shape oscillations, periodically breaking its axisymmetric form and restoring it. Collisions be...

  20. Parametric Processes for Generation and Low Noise Detection of Infrared Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse

    of 500 compared to previous measurements. The second test was performed at the Atmospheric Physics Department at the German Aerospace Center in Oberpfaffenhofen. Here the upconversion detector was tested as an alternative to an InGaAs detector in a differential absorption lidar setup for long range....... The investigations analyse and measure the influence of the different parameters that defines the physical properties of the applied nonlinear optical processes. The emphasis is on how to use the parametric processes as an engineering tool for designing versatile lightsources and low noise detection systems....... The first chapter of the thesis introduces and motivates the work with frequency conversion, sketching the potential of the noise properties for upconversion based detection systems and the increased wavelength availability for parametric light sources. A selection of prior work is presented to give...

  1. Blue-Violet Light Irradiation Dose Dependently Decreases Carotenoids in Human Skin, Which Indicates the Generation of Free Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Vandersee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to ultraviolet and infrared irradiation, which are known to facilitate cutaneous photoaging, immunosuppression, or tumour emergence due to formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, potentially similar effects of visible light on the human skin are still poorly characterized. Using a blue-violet light irradiation source and aiming to characterize its potential influence on the antioxidant status of the human skin, the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was measured noninvasively in nine healthy volunteers using resonance Raman spectroscopy following irradiation. The dose-dependent significant degradation of carotenoids was measured to be 13.5% and 21.2% directly after irradiation at 50 J/cm² and 100 J/cm² (P<0.05. The irradiation intensity was 100 mW/cm². This is above natural conditions; the achieved doses, though, are acquirable under natural conditions. The corresponding restoration lasted 2 and 24 hours, respectively. The degradation of cutaneous carotenoids indirectly shows the amount of generated free radicals and especially reactive oxygen species in human skin. In all volunteers the cutaneous carotenoid concentration dropped down in a manner similar to that caused by the infrared or ultraviolet irradiations, leading to the conclusion that also blue-violet light at high doses could represent a comparably adverse factor for human skin.

  2. White light generation over three octaves by femtosecond filament at 3.9 µm in argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Daniil; Ališauskas, Skirmantas; Pugžlys, Audrius; Voronin, Alexander; Zheltikov, Aleksei; Petrarca, Massimo; Béjot, Pierre; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Baltuška, Andrius

    2012-08-15

    We report the first (to our knowledge) experimental results and numerical simulations on mid-IR femtosecond pulse filamentation in argon using 0.1 TW peak-power, 80 fs, 3.9 μm pulses. A broadband supercontinuum spanning the spectral range from 350 nm to 5 μm is generated, whereby about 4% of the mid-IR pulse energy is converted into the 350-1700 nm spectral region. These mid-IR-visible coherent continua offer a new, unique tool for time-resolved spectroscopy based on a mid-IR filamentation laser source.

  3. Generation of Pseudoscalar Bosons by Stimulated Raman Scattering of Light in Dielectric Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorelik V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of pseudoscalar excitations of liquids and crystals vibration states in spontaneous and stimulated Raman spectra revealing are reported. The selection rules for pseudoscalar modes of molecules and crystals observation have been obtained. The experiments on observation of spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering on pseudoscalar modes of molecules and crystals have been fulfilled. The excitation of stimulated Raman scattering was with using of solid state laser YAG:Nd3+, generating intense (up to 1 TW/cm2 ultrashort (60 ps laser pulses with energy 10 mJ and frequency repetition 10 Hz. The relationship between pseudoscalar bosons of dielectric media and axion of vacuum is analyzed.

  4. Experimental and theoretical studies in non-linear optical applications. Fiber oscillatiors, regenerative amplifiers, simulations on white-light generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Haider

    2015-12-15

    Compact and stable ultrafast laser sources for electron diffraction experiments are the first step in accomplishing the dream experiment of producing a molecular movie. This thesis work focuses on developing new robust laser sources to enable arbitrary scaling in laser repetition rate, pulse energy, duration and stability as needed to provide sufficient integrated detected electrons for high quality diffraction patterns that can be inverted to real space movies. In chapter 2, the construction of a novel stable and high power stretched pulse fiber oscillator outputting 300 mW at 31 MHz and compressible pulses to below 90 fs will be described. Chapter 3 describes the construction of a solid-state regenerative amplifier that was developed to achieve pulse energies above 1mJ with 0.40 mJ already achieved at 1 kHz. Novel simulation techniques were explored that aided the construction of the amplifier. Chapter 4 derives a new, fast and powerful numerical theory that is implemented for generalized non-linear Schrodinger equations in all spatial dimensions and time. This new method can model complicated terms in these equations that outperforms other numerical methods with respect to minimizing numerical error and increased speed. These advantages are due to this method's Fourier nature. A simulation tool was created, employing this numerical technique to simulate white-light generation in bulk media. The simulation matches extremely well with published experimental data, and is superior to the original simulation method used to match the experiment. The use of this tool enables accurate calculations of continuum or white light generation as needed for different experimental protocols and serves as the primary input to generate wide bandwidth coherent light.This work has solved the problem of predictably designing continuum generation within targeted wavelength ranges. This information is needed as part of an overall scheme in laser source development to coherently

  5. 4th Optimization Day

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhard, Andrew; Ralph, Daniel; Glover, Barney M

    1999-01-01

    Although the monograph Progress in Optimization I: Contributions from Aus­ tralasia grew from the idea of publishing a proceedings of the Fourth Optimiza­ tion Day, held in July 1997 at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, the focus soon changed to a refereed volume in optimization. The intention is to publish a similar book annually, following each Optimization Day. The idea of having an annual Optimization Day was conceived by Barney Glover; the first of these Optimization Days was held in 1994 at the University of Ballarat. Barney hoped that such a yearly event would bring together the many, but widely dispersed, researchers in Australia who were publishing in optimization and related areas such as control. The first Optimization Day event was followed by similar conferences at The University of New South Wales (1995), The University of Melbourne (1996), the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (1997), and The University of Western Australia (1998). The 1999 conference will return to Ballarat ...

  6. 4th Abel Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Friedlander, Eric; Jahren, Björn; Østvær, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Abel Symposium took place at the University of Oslo in August 2007. The goal of the symposium was to bring together mathematicians whose research efforts have led to recent advances in algebraic geometry, algebraic K-theory, algebraic topology, and mathematical physics. A common theme of this symposium was the development of new perspectives and new constructions with a categorical flavor. As the lectures at the symposium and the papers of this volume demonstrate, these perspectives and constructions have enabled a broadening of vistas, a synergy between once-differentiated subjects, and solutions to mathematical problems both old and new.

  7. Novel Approaches to High-Efficiency III-V Nitride Heterostructure Emitters for Next-Generation Lighting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell D. Dupuis

    2004-09-30

    We report research activities and technical progress on the development of high-efficiency long wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 540nm) green light emitting diodes which covers the first year of the three-year program ''Novel approaches to high-efficiency III-V nitride heterostructure emitters for next-generation lighting applications''. The first year activities were focused on the installation, set-up, and use of advanced equipment for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of III-nitride films and the characterization of these materials (Task 1) and the design, fabrication, testing of nitride LEDs (Task 4). As a progress highlight, we obtained improved quality of {approx} 2 {micro}m-thick GaN layers (as measured by the full width at half maximum of the asymmetric (102) X-ray diffraction peak of less than 350 arc-s) and higher p-GaN:Mg doping level (free hole carrier higher than 1E18 cm{sup -3}). Also in this year, we have developed the growth of InGaN/GaN active layers for long-wavelength green light emitting diodes, specifically, for emission at {lambda} {approx} 540nm. The effect of the Column III precursor (for Ga) and the post-growth thermal annealing effect were also studied. Our LED device fabrication process was developed and initially optimized, especially for low-resistance ohmic contacts for p-GaN:Mg layers, and blue-green light emitting diode structures were processed and characterized.

  8. Diffusion voltage in polymer light emitting diodes measured with electric field induced second harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, P.K.; Rafaelsen, J.; Pedersen, T.G.; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 103, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2005-12-01

    We apply electric field induced second harmonic (EFISH) to polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) and demonstrate the ability to determine the diffusion voltage in PLED devices. The EFISH signal is proportional to the square of the effective field, which is the sum of the diffusion voltage and the applied voltage. By minimizing the EFISH-signal as a function of the applied voltage, the diffusion voltage is determined by measuring the applied voltage that cancels out the diffusion voltage. The PLEDs are fabricated with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the hole injecting contact and two different electron injecting contacts, namely aluminum and calcium. The diffusion voltage originates from the rearranged charges caused by the difference in Fermi levels in the materials in the PLEDs. Different contacts will thus cause different diffusion voltages. We demonstrate here that the EFISH signal is proportional to the square of the effective field in both reverse and forward bias, and discuss the dependence on contact materials. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Photo-electrochemical hydrogen generation using band-gap modified nanotubular titanium oxide in solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, K. S.; Misra, M.; Mahajan, V. K.; Gandhi, T.; Pillai, P.; Mohapatra, S. K.

    Anodization of Ti in acidified fluoride solution results in an ordered nanotubular titanium oxide surface. In this study, vertically oriented arrays of TiO 2 nanotubes were prepared by incorporating nitrate and phosphate species during the anodization process. These nanotubes were annealed at 650 °C in a carbonaceous atmosphere using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace for a brief period. The carbon-modified nanotubular TiO 2 produced a photo-current density of more than 2.75 mA cm -2 at 0.2 V Ag/AgCl under solar light illumination. This photo-current density corresponds to a hydrogen evolution rate of about 11 l h -1 using a photo-anode of 1 m 2 area. The enhanced hydrogen evolution behavior of carbon-modified nanotubular TiO 2 is highly reproducible and sustainable for long duration. Annealed (at 350 °C in nitrogen atmosphere) TiO 2 nanotubes showed improved photo-activity as compared to the as-anodized or thermally oxidized TiO 2 photo-anodes.

  10. Ribavirin exerts differential effects on functions of Cd4+ Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cell clones in hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Langhans

    Full Text Available Ribavirin improves outcomes of therapy in chronic hepatitis C but its mode of action has still remained unclear. Since ribavirin has been proposed to modulate the host's T cell responses, we studied its direct effects on CD4(+ T cell clones with diverse functional polarization which had been generated from patients with chronic hepatitis C. We analysed in vitro proliferation ([(3H] thymidine uptake and cytokine responses (IL-10, IFN-gamma at varying concentrations of ribavirin (0-10 µg/ml in 8, 9 and 7 CD4(+ TH1, TH2 and regulatory T cell (Treg clones, respectively. In co-culture experiments, we further determined effects of ribarivin on inhibition of TH1 and TH2 effector cells by Treg clones. All clones had been generated from peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C in the presence of HCV core protein. Ribavirin enhanced proliferation of T effector cells and increased production of IFN-gamma in TH1 clones, but had only little effect on IL-10 secretion in TH2 clones. However, ribavirin markedly inhibited IL-10 release in Treg clones in a dose dependent fashion. These Treg clones suppressed proliferation of T effector clones by their IL-10 secretion, and in co-culture assays ribavirin reversed Treg-mediated suppression of T effector cells. Our in vitro data suggest that--in addition to its immunostimulatory effects on TH1 cells--ribavirin can inhibit functions of HCV-specific Tregs and thus reverses Treg-mediated suppression of T effector cells in chronic hepatitis C.

  11. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation over lanthanum doped TiO2 under UV light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Xie, L; Li, Y; Qu, J L; Zheng, J; Li, X G

    2009-02-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different amount of lanthanum were obtained by sol-gel approach and followed annealing at different temperature. The crystal size of TiO2 doped with lanthanum was smaller than that of pure TiO2. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 doped with lanthanum for water splitting into H2 was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 doped with lanthanum for water splitting into H2 is higher than that of pure TiO2. It was found that the optimal photocatalyst was TiO2 doped with 2 wt% lanthanum and calcined at 600 degrees C for 4 h which had hydrogen generation rate 700.6 micromol h(-1).

  12. Light sources generating self-splitting beams and their propagation in non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhangrong

    2014-06-01

    A class of random sources producing far fields self-splitting intensity profiles with variable spacing between the x and y directions is introduced. The beam conditions for ensuring the sources to generate a beam are derived. Based on the derived analytical expression, the evolution behavior of the beams produced by these families of sources in free space and turbulence atmospheric are explored and comparatively analyzed. By changing the modulation parameters n and m, the degree of coherence of Gaussian Schell-model source in the x and y directions are modulated respectively, and then the number of splitting beams and the spacing between splitting beams can be adjusted. It is illustrated that the self-splitting intensity profile is stable when beams propagate in free space, but they eventually transformed into a Gaussian profiles when it passes at sufficiently large distances from its source through the turbulent atmosphere.

  13. Operation Mode Selection for Chongqing Bonded Port Based on 4th-Gen Port Characteristics%基于第四代港口特征的重庆保税港经营模式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡涛

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies the characteristics of 4th-generation ports and how it figures in the running of the ports and then proposes the innovated operation mode for the Chongqing bonded port after reviewing its features as a 4th-generation port. The new strategy would strive for an elevated point of view when planning and running the port, forge stable port-enterprise and port-local alliances, and form tight supply chain connections with the economic hinterlands.%通过研究第四代港口的特征,提出了基于第四代港口特征的重庆保税港经营模式.着重探讨在港口的经营过程中引入第四代港口的特征,使保税港依靠第四代港口特征,以全局视角规划港口经营,形成稳定的港企、港区联盟,并通过供应链紧密联系经济腹地,促使重庆保税港跨人新的发展阶段.

  14. Search for Pair Produced Heavy Quarks Decaying into a Z Boson and a Light Generation Jet

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)672562

    We present here our results from the search for the pair production of new massive quarks using $20\\ifb$ data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 proton-proton collisions at $\\rts=$8TeV centre of mass energy. There are many models extending beyond the well established Standard Model (SM) predicting additional massive quarks on top of the existing quark list. One of them is the grand unified theory (GUT) having the exceptional $E_{6}$ as its symmetry group. This model predicts an additional iso-singlet down type quark for each existing SM family with possible decay channels involving $\\Wpm,\\Zboson$ and $H$. Assuming a similar mass structure, the lightest of these quarks denoted by the letter $D$ would be the first one to be discovered at ATLAS. Our search focuses on the decay signature of $D$ quark decays via a $\\Zboson$ boson which would further decay into two leptons. The other heavy quark searches at ATLAS are carried out with the assumption that the new quarks should couple to the heavy generations $t$...

  15. White light generation by carbonyl based indole derivatives due to proton transfer: an efficient fluorescence sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Nidhi; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Chowdhury, Papia

    2013-04-01

    The motivation of the present work is to understand the optical, chemical, and electrical aspects of the proton transfer mechanism of indole (I) and some carbonyl based indole derivatives: indole-3-carboxaldehyde (I3C) and indole-7-carboxaldehyde (I7C) for both powder form and their liquid solution. Structural information for indole derivatives (isolated molecule and in solution) is obtained with density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods. Calculated transition energies are used to generate UV-vis, FTIR, Raman, and NMR spectra which are later verified with the experimental spectra. The occurrence of different conformers [cis (N(c)), trans (N(t)), and zwitterion (Z*)] have been interpreted by Mulliken charge, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, and polarization versus electric field (P-E loop) studies. (1)H and (13)C NMR and molecular vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes established the stability of Nc due to the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IHB) in the ground state (S0). Computed/experimental UV-vis absorption/emission studies reveal the creation of new species: zwitterion (Z*) and anion (A*) in the excited state (S1) due to excited state intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer (ESI(ra)PT and ESI(er)PT). Increased electrical conductivity (σ(ac)) with temperature and increased ferroelectric polarization at higher field verifies proton conduction in I7C.

  16. Overcoming CD4 Th1 Cell Fate Restrictions to Sustain Antiviral CD8 T Cells and Control Persistent Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Snell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral persistence specifically inhibits CD4 Th1 responses and promotes Tfh immunity, but the mechanisms that suppress Th1 cells and the disease consequences of their loss are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of CD4 Th1 cells specifically leads to progressive CD8 T cell decline and dysfunction during viral persistence. Therapeutically reconstituting CD4 Th1 cells restored CD4 T cell polyfunctionality, enhanced antiviral CD8 T cell numbers and function, and enabled viral control. Mechanistically, combined interaction of PD-L1 and IL-10 by suppressive dendritic cell subsets inhibited new CD4 Th1 cells in both acute and persistent virus infection, demonstrating an unrecognized suppressive function for PD-L1 in virus infection. Thus, the loss of CD4 Th1 cells is a key event leading to progressive CD8 T cell demise during viral persistence with important implications for restoring antiviral CD8 T cell immunity to control persistent viral infection.

  17. Overcoming CD4 Th1 Cell Fate Restrictions to Sustain Antiviral CD8 T Cells and Control Persistent Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Laura M; Osokine, Ivan; Yamada, Douglas H; De la Fuente, Justin Rafael; Elsaesser, Heidi J; Brooks, David G

    2016-09-20

    Viral persistence specifically inhibits CD4 Th1 responses and promotes Tfh immunity, but the mechanisms that suppress Th1 cells and the disease consequences of their loss are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of CD4 Th1 cells specifically leads to progressive CD8 T cell decline and dysfunction during viral persistence. Therapeutically reconstituting CD4 Th1 cells restored CD4 T cell polyfunctionality, enhanced antiviral CD8 T cell numbers and function, and enabled viral control. Mechanistically, combined interaction of PD-L1 and IL-10 by suppressive dendritic cell subsets inhibited new CD4 Th1 cells in both acute and persistent virus infection, demonstrating an unrecognized suppressive function for PD-L1 in virus infection. Thus, the loss of CD4 Th1 cells is a key event leading to progressive CD8 T cell demise during viral persistence with important implications for restoring antiviral CD8 T cell immunity to control persistent viral infection.

  18. Predictions for the energy loss of light ions in laser-generated plasmas at low and medium velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayzac, W; Bagnoud, V; Basko, M M; Blažević, A; Frank, A; Gericke, D O; Hallo, L; Malka, G; Ortner, A; Tauschwitz, An; Vorberger, J; Roth, M

    2015-11-01

    The energy loss of light ions in dense plasmas is investigated with special focus on low to medium projectile energies, i.e., at velocities where the maximum of the stopping power occurs. In this region, exceptionally large theoretical uncertainties remain and no conclusive experimental data are available. We perform simulations of beam-plasma configurations well suited for an experimental test of ion energy loss in highly ionized, laser-generated carbon plasmas. The plasma parameters are extracted from two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, and a Monte Carlo calculation of the charge-state distribution of the projectile ion beam determines the dynamics of the ion charge state over the whole plasma profile. We show that the discrepancies in the energy loss predicted by different theoretical models are as high as 20-30%, making these theories well distinguishable in suitable experiments.

  19. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@physics.iitd.ac.in; Joseph, Joby, E-mail: joby@physics.iitd.ac.in [Photonics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-08-04

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  20. A N2 Plasma Light Source Generated in Hollow Cathode Discharge and Its Application in Lithographic Plate Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao-yang; CHEN Qiang; ZHANG Guang-qiu

    2007-01-01

    Computer to conventional plate (CTCP) technology is getting more and more attention in printing industries.In this paper we report a nitrogen plasma light source generated in hollow cathode discharge (HCD),which is used for pre-sensitivity (PS) plate exposure.The N2 molecule emits abundant spectrum ranging from 350 nm to 460 nm.With the voltage of 580 V,current of 1.8 A and pressure of 70 Pa in the discharge an optical power density of 0.46 mW/cm2 is obtained.The optical power density could be further increased with optimizing the lens system.The phototonus efficiency of this source is discussed in detail based upon the chemical principle and the FTIR analysis on the coating material.

  1. Influence of Virtual Photon Process on the Generation of Squeezed Light from Atoms in an Optical Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranya B. Bhattacherjee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that a collection of two-level atoms in an optical cavity beyond the rotating wave approximation and in the dispersive-adiabatic and non-dispersive adiabatic regime constitutes a nonlinear medium and is capable of generating squeezed state of light. It is found that squeezing produced in the non-dispersive adiabatic regime is significantly high compared to that produced in the dispersive-adiabatic limit. On the other hand, we also show that it could be possible to observe the Dicke superradiant quantum phase transition in the dispersive-adiabatic regime where the Ã2 term is negligible. Such a system can be an essential component of a larger quantum-communication system.

  2. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  3. Solid-core and hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for generation of bright ultraviolet light (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Nicolas Y.; Jiang, Xin; Travers, John C.; Ermolov, Alexey; Russell, Philip S.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades the interest in photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has grown considerably, particularly in nonlinear optics where it allows enhanced control over the dispersion landscape. Although silica is the material most commonly used to fabricate PCF, its limited window of transmission and its susceptibility to optical damage at wavelengths below 350nm is driving the development of fibers made from glasses with transmission windows extending into the deep ultraviolet and the mid-infrared. An alternative is offered by gas-filled hollow-core fiber, in which the light propagates predominantly in the gas. In kagomé-style hollow-core PCF filled with noble gas, the weak anomalous dispersion of the empty fiber is balanced by the normal dispersion of the filling gas, resulting in a versatile system whose dispersion landscape can be adjusted in real time [Travers et al., JOSAB 28, A11 (2011)]. Under appropriate conditions the launched pulse undergoes soliton self-compression followed by emission of a band of dispersive radiation in the UV. UV light tunable down to 113 nm has been generated with this technique [Russell et al., Nat. Photon. 8, 278 (2014)]. Solid-core ZBLAN (fluorozirconate) glass PCF is transparent from 0.2 to 7.8µm. Launching 1nJ 140fs pulses at 1µm wavelength into a 1µm diameter core resulted, after 4cm of propagation, in generation of a supercontinuum spectrum extending from 210nm to beyond 2µm. In strong contrast to silica PCF, the ZBLAN PCF showed no signs of any solarization-related damage, even when operating over many hours [Jiang et al., Nat. Photon. 9, 133 (2015)].

  4. Effect of the coherent cancellation of the two-photon resonance on the generation of vacuum ultraviolet light by two-photon reasonantly enhanced four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, M.G.; Garrett, W.R.; Judish, J.P.; Wunderlich, R.

    1988-11-01

    Many of the most impressive demonstrations of the efficient generation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light have made use of two- photon resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing to generate light at ..omega../sub VUV/ = 2..omega../sub L1/ +- ..omega../sub L2/. The two-photon resonance state is coupled to the ground state both by two photons from the first laser, or by a photon from the second laser and one from the generated VUV beam. We show here that these two coherent pathways destructively interfere once the second laser is made sufficiently intense, thereby leading to an important limiting effect on the achievable conversion efficiency. 4 refs.

  5. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet light pulses from high-order harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötzing, M.; Adam, R.; Weier, C.; Plucinski, L.; Eich, S.; Emmerich, S.; Rollinger, M.; Aeschlimann, M.; Mathias, S.; Schneider, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    The fundamental mechanism responsible for optically induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films has been under intense debate since almost two decades. Currently, numerous competing theoretical models are in strong need for a decisive experimental confirmation such as monitoring the triggered changes in the spin-dependent band structure on ultrashort time scales. Our approach explores the possibility of observing femtosecond band structure dynamics by giving access to extended parts of the Brillouin zone in a simultaneously time-, energy- and spin-resolved photoemission experiment. For this purpose, our setup uses a state-of-the-art, highly efficient spin detector and ultrashort, extreme ultraviolet light pulses created by laser-based high-order harmonic generation. In this paper, we present the setup and first spin-resolved spectra obtained with our experiment within an acquisition time short enough to allow pump-probe studies. Further, we characterize the influence of the excitation with femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by comparing the results with data acquired using a continuous wave light source with similar photon energy. In addition, changes in the spectra induced by vacuum space-charge effects due to both the extreme ultraviolet probe- and near-infrared pump-pulses are studied by analyzing the resulting spectral distortions. The combination of energy resolution and electron count rate achieved in our setup confirms its suitability for spin-resolved studies of the band structure on ultrashort time scales.

  6. Experimental study on the chirped structure of the white-light continuum generation by femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全冬晖; 刘世林; 张蕾; 杨健; 汪力; 杨国桢; 翁羽翔

    2003-01-01

    The chirped structure of the white-light continuum generation(WLCG)pulse produced by focusing 800nm laser pulse with a pulse duration of 150fs(FWHM:full-width-at-half-maximum)onto a 2.4 mm thick sapphire plate was investigated by the optical Kerr gate technique with normal hexane as the optical Kerr gate medium.The observed WLCG was positively chirped,the measured anti-Stokes spectrum of WLCG ranges from 449 to 580nm with a temporal span of 2.56ps.When using metal reflecting mirrors to eliminate the group velocity dispersion(GVD)effect,we found that a span of 1.3ps still remained,indicating that the chirped pulse cannot be accounted for simply by GVD of the pulse propagation in the dispersive media.Our results suggest that the light-induced refractive index change due to the third-order nonlinear optical effect leads to an additional positive group velocity dispersion,which contributes to an important portion of the observed temporal broadening of the chirped WLCG.In addition to using reflective optical elements instead of dispersive optical elements,an effective way of reducing the chirp is to minimize the optical path length of the WLCG medium.

  7. An Examination to Activities on Learning Domain of “Matter and Change” in the 4th and 5th Grade Science and Technology Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Karadaş

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate “Matter and Change” activities in the 4th and 5th Grade Science and Technology Textbook in Turkey in respect to “Science and Technology Programme” educational attainment, competency of concept teaching, accuracy of phrases and concepts after activities and in accordance with related subject. For this purpose, three 4th Grade and three 5th Grade Science and Technology Textbooks used in 2010-2011 terms and accepted as essential science textbook by Ministry of National Education were examined. Results show that more than half of the activities in the 4.th Grade textbooks and more activities in the 5.th Grade textbooks were consistent with educational attainments, some activities have no attainment, some attainments have more than one activity, and some attainments have no activities. Moreover, wrong or inaccurate definitions and phrases were determined.

  8. Factors related to the reading comprehension skills of 4th grade students according to data of PIRLS 2001 Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan ERMAN-ASLANOĞLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Central to a nation’s pursuit of its social, political, and economic goals is a literate and well-educated population. Furthermore, the ability to read is fundamental to individual intellectual development and personal growth. Knowledge about how well students can read, together with information about which policy-related factors are implicated in understanding reading achievement, can provide policy makers and researchers worldwide with insights into how to improve literacy and reading achievement. The aim of this study is to model the factors related to the reading comprehension skills of 4th grade students according to the PIRLS 2001 data. A model has been proposed by making use of the student, teacher, family questionnaires used in the PIRLS 2001 study, with variables considered as related to the reading comprehension skills of students, in addition to taking into account the related literature. A structural equation model has been used in order to define the relation among the students’ reading comprehension skills and the specifications of the family, school, teacher and student. Taking into account the regression equation obtained by the result of the structural equation model analysis, it is seen that the determination coefficient is 0.51. This shows that 0.51 of reading comprehension skills of the Turkish students taking place in the PIRLS study can be explained by the features of family, school, teacher, and student, as specified for this study.

  9. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for pediatric-related residencies was well received and led to improved performance of targeted skills and increased self-reported preparedness in many targeted domains. PMID:27014522

  10. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kiniwa

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8(+ T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4(+ T helper (Th cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4(+ T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1 as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4(+ Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4(+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma.

  11. Meeting report: 4th ISIRV antiviral group conference: Novel antiviral therapies for influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L; Fry, Alicia M

    2016-05-01

    The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) held its 4th Antiviral Group Conference at the University of Texas on 2-4 June, 2015. With emerging resistance to the drugs currently licensed for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza viruses, primarily the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) and the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, and the lack of effective interventions against other respiratory viruses, the 3-day programme focused on the discovery and development of inhibitors of several virus targets and key host cell factors involved in virus replication or mediating the inflammatory response. Virus targets included the influenza haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and M2 proteins, and both the respiratory syncytial virus and influenza polymerases and nucleoproteins. Therapies for rhinoviruses and MERS and SARS coronaviruses were also discussed. With the emerging development of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics, the potential implications of antibody-dependent enhancement of disease were also addressed. Topics covered all aspects from structural and molecular biology to preclinical and clinical studies. The importance of suitable clinical trial endpoints and regulatory issues were also discussed from the perspectives of both industry and government. This meeting summary provides an overview, not only for the conference participants, but also for those interested in the current status of antivirals for respiratory viruses.

  12. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  13. Charge generation layers for all-solution processed organic tandem light emitting diodes with regular device architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    We present multi-photon OLEDs where enhanced light emission was achieved by stacking two OLEDs utilizing a regular device architecture (top cathode) and an intermediate charge carrier generation layer (CGL) for monolithic device interconnection. With respect to future printing processes for organic optoelectronic devices, all functional layers were deposited from solution. The CGL comprises a low-work function zinc oxide layer that was applied from solution under ambient conditions and at moderate processing temperatures and a high-work function interlayer that was realized from various solution processable precursor-based metal oxides, like molybdenum-, vanadium- and tungsten-oxide. Since every injected electron-hole pair generates two photons, the luminance and the current efficiency of the tandem OLED at a given device current are doubled while the power efficiency remains constant. At a given luminance, the lower operating current in the tandem device reduces electrical stress and improves the device life-time. ToF-SIMS, TEM/FIB and EDX analyses provided evidence of a distinct layer sequence without intermixing upon solution deposition.

  14. Apogossypolone targets mitochondria and light enhances its anticancer activity by stimulating generation of singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe-Yu Hu; Jing Wang; Gang Cheng; Xiao-Feng Zhu; Peng Huang; Dajun Yang; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Apogossypolone (ApoG2), a novel derivative of gossypol, has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and to have antitumor activity in multiple types of cancer cells. Recent reports suggest that gossypol stimulates the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leukemia and colorectal carcinoma cells; however, gossypol-mediated cell death in leukemia cells was reported to be ROS-independent. This study was conducted to clarify the effect of ApoG2-induced ROS on mitochondria and cell viability, and to further evaluate its utility as a treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We tested the photocytotoxicity of ApoG2 to the pooriy differentiated NPC cell line CNE-2 using the ROS-generating TL/10 illumination system. The rapid ApoG2-induced cell death was partially reversed by the antioxidant N-acetyI-L-cysteine (NAC), but the ApoG2-induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was not reversed by NAC. In the presence of TL/10 illumination, APOG2 generated massive amounts of singlet oxygen and was more effective in inhibiting cell growth than in the absence of illumination. We also determined the influence of light on the anti-proliferative activity of ApoG2 using a CNE-2-xenograft mouse model. ApoG2 under TL/10 illumination healed tumor wounds and suppressed tumor growth more effectively than ApoG2 treatment alone. These results indicate that the ApoG2-induced CNE-2 cell death is partly ROS-dependent. ApoG2 may be used with photodynamic therapy (PDT) to treat NPC.

  15. The Place and Importance of Values Education in 4.th and 5th. Grade Primary School Social Studies Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Yiğit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘value’ has been used in many different meanings until today in different areas and it has been the reason for confusion in values education. In this sense, Weber (1990 has stated that different approaches to the term ‘value’ have played a negative role for the production of values. Kohlberg (1981 has defined ‘value’ as giving moral decisions and acting accordingly while Hill (1991 interpreted values as the beliefs that people care and direct the life of individuals. On the other hand, Veugelers (2000 defined values as the beliefs that help individuals to decide what is good or evil. International organizations also saw the need to define values in accordance with their missions. In the Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations, it is indicated that education should strengthen human rights and freedom while supporting tolerance among different religious groups, ethnicities and nations (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948. UNESCO is another organization that defined the role of values in education. According to the report by UNESCO, education becomes valuable if one learns (a how to know (b how to do, (c how to live together and (d how to be. In this sense, UNESCO has also claimed that in order to develop intercultural and interfaith dialogue, common values accepted by everyone should be given in schools. It has been observed that critical thinking and problem solving skills were given in values education programs in western societies while those skills have started to be taught in Turkey recently. In this study, the main values education movements and the processes and principles of teaching values education in real life are analyzed. We looked at the place of values education in 4th and 5th grade Social Studies textbooks in Turkey. After analyzing the basic processes and principles of values education, we looked at the values to be given to the students in the textbooks. Values education approaches have

  16. Novel Approaches to High-Efficiency III-V Nitride Heterostructure Emitters for Next-Generation Lighting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell Dupuis

    2007-06-30

    We report research activities and technical progress on the development of high-efficiency long wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 540nm) green light emitting diodes which covers whole years of the three-year program 'Novel approaches to high-efficiency III-V nitride heterostructure emitters for next-generation lighting applications'. The research activities were focused on the development of p-type layer that has less/no detrimental thermal annealing effect on as well as excellent structural and electrical properties and the development of green LED active region that has superior luminescence quality for {lambda}{approx}540nm green LEDs. We have also studied (1) the thermal annealing effect on blue and green LED active region during the p-type layer growth; (2) the effect of growth parameters and structural factors for LED active region on electroluminescence properties; (3) the effect of substrates and orientation on electrical and electro-optical properties of green LEDs. As a progress highlight, we obtained green-LED-active-region-friendly In{sub 0.04}Ga{sub 0.96}N:Mg exhibiting low resistivity with higher hole concentration (p=2.0 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and a low resistivity of 0.5 {omega}-cm) and improved optical quality green LED active region emitting at {approx}540nm by electroluminescence. The LEDs with p-InGaN layer can act as a quantum-confined Stark effect mitigation layer by reducing strain in the QW. We also have achieved (projected) peak IQE of {approx}25% at {lambda}{approx}530 nm and of {approx}13% at {lambda}{approx}545 nm. Visible LEDs on a non-polar substrate using (11-20) {alpha}-plane bulk substrates. The absence of quantum-confined Stark effect was confirmed but further improvement in electrical and optical properties is required.

  17. Novel Approaches to High-Efficiency III-V Nitride Heterostructure Emitters for Next-Generation Lighting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell D. Dupuis

    2006-01-01

    We report research activities and technical progress on the development of high-efficiency long wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 540nm) green light emitting diodes which covers the second year of the three-year program ''Novel approaches to high-efficiency III-V nitride heterostructure emitters for next-generation lighting applications''. The second year activities were focused on the development of p-type layer that has less/no detrimental thermal annealing effect on green LED active region as well as excellent structural and electrical properties and the development of green LED active region that has superior luminescence quality for {lambda} {approx}540nm green LEDs. We have also studied the thermal annealing effect on blue and green LED active region during the p-type layer growth. As a progress highlight, we obtained green-LED-active-region-friendly In{sub 0.04}Ga{sub 0.96}N:Mg exhibiting low resistivity with higher hole concentration (p=2.0 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and a low resistivity of 0.5 {Omega}-cm) and improved optical quality green LED active region emitting at {lambda} {approx}540nm by electroluminescence. The active region of the green LEDs was found to be much more sensitive to the thermal annealing effect during the p-type layer growth than that of the blue LEDs. We have designed grown, fabricated green LED structures for both 520 nm and 540 nm for the evaluation of second year green LED development.

  18. Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated Carbon Dioxide and Synthetic Lure-Baited Light Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated...and light, bed-net, tent, andodor-baited traps (Mboera 2005). TheCenters forDiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) light trap with its typical 4Ð6 W...using paper- clips. Although primarily developed and used to attract day ßying Stegomyia ( Aedes ) mosquitoes, blends of this lureÕs primary ingredients

  19. Power electronic supplies for public lighting systems with distributed generation capability: solution proposals for power and minimization of the impact in grid quality

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana Barcia, Pablo José

    2016-01-01

    This PhD Thesis, entitled “Power Electronic Supplies For Public Lighting Systems With Distributed Generation Capability: Solution Proposals For Power And Control Stages, Characterization And Minimization Of The Impact In Grid Quality”, has been developed as one of the core research activities of the Efficient Energy Conversion, Industrial Electronics and Lighting Engineering group (CE3I2), from the Electrical Engineering Department (DIEECS) of the University of Oviedo. This work targets th...

  20. Logic and theory of algorithms: 4th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2008, Athens, Greece, June 15-20, 2008: Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckman, A.; Dimitracopoulos, C.; Löwe, B.

    2008-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2008, held in Athens, Greece, in June 2008. The 36 revised full papers presented together with 25 invited tutorials and lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from 108 submission

  1. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  2. European guidelines for empirical antibacterial therapy for febrile neutropenic patients in the era of growing resistance: summary of the 2011 4th European Conference on Infections in Leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averbuch, D.; Orasch, C.; Cordonnier, C.; Livermore, D.M.; Mikulska, M.; Viscoli, C.; Gyssens, I.C.J.; Kern, W.V.; Klyasova, G.; Marchetti, O.; Engelhard, D.; Akova, M.; Ecil, a.j.v.o.E.E.I.E.E.; Eln, .

    2013-01-01

    Owing to increasing resistance and the limited arsenal of new antibiotics, especially against Gram-negative pathogens, carefully designed antibiotic regimens are obligatory for febrile neutropenic patients, along with effective infection control. The Expert Group of the 4(th) European Conference on

  3. A solar light driven dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) for simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jing; Wang, Rui; Li, Yunpo; Tang, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Qingyi; Xia, Ligang; Li, Xuejin; Li, Jinhua; Li, Caolong; Zhou, Baoxue

    2016-07-05

    In this paper, a novel dual heterojunction Photocatalytic Fuel Cell (PFC) system based on BiVO4/TiO2 nanotubes/FTO photoanode and ZnO/CuO nanowires/FTO photocathode has been designed. Compared with the electrodes in PFCs reported in earlier literatures, the proposed heterojunction not only enhances the visible light absorption but also offers a higher photoconversion efficiency. In addition, the nanostructured heterojunction owns a large surface area that ensures a large amount of active sites for organics degradation. The performance of the PFC base on the dual photoelectrodes was also studied herein. The results indicated that the PFC in ths paper exhibits a superior performance and its JV(max) reached 0.116 mw cm(-2), which is higher than that in most of reported PFCs with a Pt-free photocathode. When hazardous organic compounds such as methyl orange, Congo red and methylene blue were decomposed, the degradation rates obtained is to be 76%, 83%, and 90% respectively after 80 mins reaction. The proposed heterojunction photoelectrodes provided great potential for cost-effective and high-efficiency organic pollutants degradation and electricity generation in a PFC system.

  4. Computational design of faster rotating second-generation light-driven molecular motors by control of steric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruganti, Baswanth; Fang, Changfeng; Durbeej, Bo

    2015-09-07

    We report a systematic computational investigation of the possibility to accelerate the rate-limiting thermal isomerizations of the rotary cycles of synthetic light-driven overcrowded alkene-based molecular motors through modulation of steric interactions. Choosing as a reference system a second-generation motor known to accomplish rotary motion in the MHz regime and using density functional theory methods, we propose a three-step mechanism for the thermal isomerizations of this motor and show that variation of the steric bulkiness of the substituent at the stereocenter can reduce the (already small) free-energy barrier of the rate-determining step by a further 15-17 kJ mol(-1). This finding holds promise for future motors of this kind to reach beyond the MHz regime. Furthermore, we demonstrate and explain why one particular step is kinetically favored by decreasing and another step is kinetically favored by increasing the steric bulkiness of this substituent, and identify a possible back reaction capable of impeding the rotary rate.

  5. Analysis of body composition of the abdomen at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebral body by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Tetsujiro

    1988-10-01

    Body composition of the area at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebral section was studied on X-ray CT images in 62 normal volunteers (32 men and 30 women ), whose ages ranged from 20 and 79 years. The total cross-sectional area was smallest in persons in their twenties, irrespecstive of sex, and began to increase after the age of 30. The abdominal cavity and muscles had the highest cross-sectional ratio (34%) to the total body, followed by subcutaneous fat in men. In women, the subcutaneous fat and abdominal cavity had a ratio of 34% to the total body. According to age groups, men in their twenties and thirties had the highest ratio of the muscle to the total body, followed by that of abdominal cavity and subcutaneous fat. In the group older than 40, the ratio of organs to the total body was as follows: the abdominal cavity>muscle>subcutaneous fat. Since the age of 70, each ratio of the muscle or subcutaneous fat to the total body was the same. Women between their twenties and fifties had the highest ratio of subcutaneous fat to the total body. Since the age of 60, the ratio of the abdominal cavity became highest. The subcutaneous fat and abdominal cavity tended to increase with aging; and the muscles tended to decrease. The real area of the vertebra increased slightly, but the vertebral foramen tended to decrease with aging. In men, mean areas of the muscles were as follows: abdominis lateralis>erector spinae>psoas major>quadratus lumborum and transversospinalis>rectus abdominis muscle. The same tendency was observed for women, except for the quadratus lumborum and rectus abdominis muscle. According to Rohrer index, the real areas of all components except the vertebral foramen tended to increase in the order of types A, C, and D in men. In women, the real area of the subcutaneous fat increased as well in the order of types A, C, and D. (Namekawa, K).

  6. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  7. Detection and comparison of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by chlorophyllin metal (Fe, Mg and Cu) complexes under ultrasonic and visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Guo, Yuwei; Gao, Jingqun; Jin, Xudong; Wang, Zhiqiu; Wang, Baoxin; Li, Kai; Li, Ying

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, in order to examine the mechanisms of sonodynamic and photodynamic reactions, the chlorophyllin metal (Chl-M (M=Fe, Mg and Cu)) complexes were irradiated by ultrasound (US) and visible-light (VL), respectively, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by the method of Oxidation-Extraction Spectrometry (OES). That is, the 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) is oxidized by the generated ROS into 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO), which can display a various visible absorption around 563 nm wavelength. Besides, some influence parameters on the generation of ROS were also reviewed. The results demonstrated an apparent synergistic effect of Chl-M and ultrasonic or visible-light irradiation for the generation of ROS. Moreover, the quantities of generated ROS increase with the increase of (ultrasonic or visible-light) irradiation time and Chl-M (M=Fe, Mg and Cu) concentration. Finally, several quenchers were used to determine the kind of the generated ROS. It is wished that this paper might offer some valuable references for the study on the sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) mechanisms and the application of Chl-M in tumor treatment.

  8. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  9. First TRUE Stage - Transport of solutes in an interpreted single fracture. Proceedings from the 4th international seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    . The outcome of the 4th International Aespoe seminar focused on the TRUE-1 experiments can be summarised in the following main points: There is a general consensus that the observed retardation observed in the TRUE-1 experiments requires diffusion into geological material to be an active process. This supported by the -3/2 slope noted in log-log BTCs. Whether this is due to diffusion (and subsequent sorption) in the altered matrix rock, or in possible fault gouge cannot be differentiated with available data; Some researchers claim that the observed enhanced retardation may be explained by diffusion into stagnant water pools, pure surface sorption, or may be due to an underestimation in the flow-wetted surface area. The latter effect may be attributed to a more complex flow path (multi-layered structure) or three-dimensional effects; A clear differentiation between the principal active process can only assessed by resin injection and subsequent excavation and analysis; It was identified that experiments of TRUE type are important for improving the understanding of retention processes. However, this type of experiment will not be part of a site characterisation programme; It was recommended to broaden the data base from the TRUE-1 site before characterising pore space with resin techniques. This includes tracer dilution tests using sinks in other features than Feature A. The seminar was divided into four sessions: 1. Detailed characterisation of transport-related properties (Three contributions separately indexed). 2. Alternative evaluation of TRUE-1 results (Five contributions separately indexed). 3. Related studies (Three contributions separately indexed). 4. Understanding of retention processes in a single fracture (Two contributions separately indexed)

  10. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science JHU/APL Co-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Pietro

    This is a collaboration Co-I Institution proposal for the proposal "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science" whose lead proposal is submitted by the University of Arizona with Dr. Christofer Walker as PI. STO-2 was flight-ready in the 2015-2016 austral summer. However, due to the late establishment of the stratospheric anti-cyclone and poor surface conditions, STO-2 was unable to launch. The decision was made to winter-over the STO-2 payload in its hangar for launch during the 2016-2017 Antarctic campaign. Funds to cover preparations and deployment of key members of the instrument team in support of the campaign are being provided by NASA under the existing grant. However, these funds are only sufficient to cover expenses up to approximately December 31st. Here we request supplemental funds to cover costs associated with STO-2 operations and recovery beyond this date. STO-2 will address a key problem in modern astrophysics, understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately 1/4 of the Southern Galactic Plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). In addition, STO-2 will perform path finding observations of the 63 μm [OI] line toward selected regions. With 1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. The STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO-2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3-dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation

  11. Miniaturized diode laser module emitting green light at 532 nm with a power of more than 900 mW for next-generation holographic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julian; Blume, Gunnar; Jedrzejczyk, Daniel; Eppich, Bernd; Feise, David; Kreutzmann, Sabrina; Sahm, Alexander; Paschke, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    We present a micro-integrated laser module based on an amplified diode laser and second harmonic generation which is a promising candidate for a green light source in next-generation 3D holographic displays. The light emitted by the amplified laser has a wavelength of 1064 nm, reaches a power up to 8.2 W and has a long coherence length of >400 m. For second harmonic generation, we tested two geometries of periodically poled lithium niobate crystals in single pass: a bulk crystal and a planar waveguide crystal. With the planar waveguide crystal, we achieve an output power >900 mW and a coherence length >20 m at a wavelength of 532 nm.

  12. Ovarian and adipose tissue dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome: report of the 4th special scientific meeting of the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Bulent O.; Azziz, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in our understanding of ovarian dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and alterations in adipose tissue function are likely to play an important role in its pathophysiology. This review highlights the principal novel concepts presented at the 4th special scientific meeting of the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society, “Ovarian and Adipose Tissue Dysfunction: Potential Roles in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome,” which occurred on June 6, 2008 in San Francisco...

  13. 胡适对五四运动的认识与思考%Hu Shi’ s Understanding and Thinking on the May 4th Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良发

    2015-01-01

    胡适对五四运动的态度,前后有明显变化,由起初赞扬继而深表同情,及至晚年的批评。胡适认为五四运动的爆发除了中国政府的外交失败,还与北京高校学生庆祝一战胜利的游行活动有关,而五四运动的价值在于独立人格的形成,并成为社会发展的主要推力。胡适没有系统研究五四运动,但其言说仍对后世学人的形上致思颇多启发意义。%Hu Shi’ s attitude had a significant change about the May 4th Movement.He praised and showed sympathy in his early life, but later he harshly criticized.He thought that the May 4th outbreak was due to Chinese government diplomatic failure, and it’ s related to Peking university students to celebrate the end of the First World War.The May 4th value lied in the formation of the independent personality, and became the main thrust of social development.Hu Shi didn’ t study May 4th Movement systemical-ly, but what he said had a lot of inspiration significance for the later scholars.

  14. The atlas of the diagrams for the generalization of the 4th Appelrot class of especially remarkable motions to a gyrostat in a double force field

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabov, Pavel E.; Smirnov, Gleb E.; Kharlamov, Mikhail P.

    2013-01-01

    For the system with two degrees of freedom, which is an analogue of the 4th Appelrot class for a gyrostat of the Kowalevski type in a double force field the problem of the classification of bifurcation diagrams is solved. The separating set is built and its completeness is proved. All transformations taking place in the diagrams are shown. The results serve as a necessary part of solving the problem of obtaining the topological invariants for the Reyman - Semenov-Tian-Shansky system.

  15. The construction of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter: delivery of the 3rd and 4th endcap "Dees" and Ring Flanges to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Delivery of the 3rd and 4th Dees and Ring Flanges of the CMS-ECAL endcaps to CERN. The pictures show also an endcap crystal with its VPT (Vacuum PhotoTriode), the aluminium blackplates of the endcap Dees and four mock supercrystals (5x5 crystals) attached in their position on the backplate, along with 138 positional spacers. Finally, endcap assembly in the CMS construction hall in Cessy (neighbouring France) is also shown.

  16. Efficient concept for generation of diffraction-limited green light by sum-frequency generation of spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hasler, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power...... can be expanded combining multiple diode lasers to increase the power even further....

  17. Biological Damage Threshold Induced by Ultrashort Fundamental, 2nd, and 4th Harmonic Light Pulses from a Mode-Locked Nd: Glass Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    above. The buffer used for all experiments was 0.1 M NaCl + 0.01 M Tris (Sigma Trizma -base MW 121.1) titrated with HCI to pH 7.0. 2 2 The D vs K2 curves... buffer , I M NaCl, 0.01 M EDTA, and 0.05 M Na2CO3, pH 9.3. We do not understand why DNA passes through Millipore filters so much more easily at high pH...manipulation of the more dilute bulk gel. (3) Interchanging the buffer in the anode and cathode compartments every few hours was effective in moderating pH

  18. A 4th-Order Particle-in-Cell Method with Phase-Space Remapping for the Vlasov-Poisson Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Andrew; Van Straalen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Numerical solutions to the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations have important applications to both plasma physics and cosmology. In this paper, we present a new Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method for solving this system that is 4th-order accurate in both space and time. Our method is a high-order extension of one presented previously [B. Wang, G. Miller, and P. Colella, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 33 (2011), pp. 3509--3537]. It treats all of the stages of the standard PIC update - charge deposition, force interpolation, the field solve, and the particle push - with 4th-order accuracy, and includes a 6th-order accurate phase-space remapping step for controlling particle noise. We demonstrate the convergence of our method on a series of one- and two- dimensional electrostatic plasma test problems, comparing its accuracy to that of a 2nd-order method. As expected, the 4th-order method can achieve comparable accuracy to the 2nd-order method with many fewer resolution elements.

  19. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  20. Generation of more than 300 mW diffraction-limited light at 405 nm by second-harmonic generation of a tapered diode laser with external cavity feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Holm, J.; Sumpf, B.;

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed a blue laser source consisting of a single-frequency tapered diode laser with external cavity feedback that is frequency doubled by a quasi-phase matched KTP (PPKTP) in a bowtie ring cavity and extract more than 360 mW of power at 405 nm. The conversion efficiency from fundame...... fundamental laser power to second harmonic power is 35 %, while it is 64 % from coupled fundamental power to extracted blue light. Thermal effects and gray tracking set an upper limit on the amount of generated blue light....

  1. Solving X-ray protein structures without a crystal: using X-ray Free Electron Laser, the fourth generation synchrotron light sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Huang

    2010-01-01

    @@ A synchrotron light source is a source of electromagnetic radiation artificially produced by specialized electron accelerators. Compared to the commonly used in-house X-ray sources, it is wavelength adjustable, much stronger and more focused. In the last two decades, synchrotron usage has become the mainstream for X-ray protein structure determination. Taking the advantage of micro-focus light beams of the third generation synchrotron, the size of a usable protein crystal for data collection decreases to micron level, which increases the rate of macromolecular structure determination to about 10 new protein data bank entries per day.

  2. 热光源产生贝塞尔光束的理论与实验%Theory and Experiment of Bessel Beam Generated by Thermal Light Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程治明; 吴逢铁; 郑维涛; 张前安; 范丹丹

    2012-01-01

    Bessel-like beam is generated by using thermal light source. The incident condition for the light waves with multi-wavelength passing through axicon simultaneously is analyzed and simulated. The results show that Bessel beam can be generated behind the axicon, but the contrast of the cross section light intensity drops because of the incoherent superposition of the multi-wavelength light waves. In our experiment, halogen light cup is used as thermal light source for generating Bessel beam. A set of optical system is designed to improve the spatial coherence of the light waves, and the Besse!-!ike beam is generated after the light waves passing the axicon. Comparing the experimental result with the numerical simulation, it is found that Bessel beam obtained from experiment is basically in accord with the numerical calculation. Besides the maximum diffraction-free distance is shorter in the experiment, which is analyzed at the end of the paper.%利用热光源获得了近似贝塞尔光束.对多波长光波同时入射轴棱锥的情形进行分析和数值模拟,结果显示轴棱锥后会形成近似贝塞尔光束,但受光场非相干叠加的影响截面光强对比度降低.实验采用卤素灯杯作为产生贝塞尔光束的热光源,针对热光源相干性差的特点设计出一套光学系统,提高光波的空间相干性,再使光波平行透过轴棱锥得到了近似贝塞尔光束.将实验结果与数值计算对比,发现实验所得贝塞尔光束的特性与理论基本吻合,但最大无衍射距离较理论计算所得的短,并对此进行了分析.

  3. Anion-selective channelrhodopsin expressed in neuronal cell culture and in vivo in murine brain: Light-induced inhibition of generation of action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, D A; Malyshev, A Yu; Salozhin, S V; Nekrasova, O V; Petrovskaya, L E; Roshchin, M V; Borodinova, A A; Feldman, T B; Balaban, P M; Kirpichnikov, M P; Ostrovsky, M A

    2015-01-01

    Anionic channelrhodopsin slow ChloC was expressed in the culture of nerve cells and in vivo in mouse brain. We demonstrated ability of slow ChloC to suppress effectively the activity of the neuron in response to the illumination with the visible light. It has been shown for a first time that slow ChloC works equally efficiently in both neuronal culture and in the whole brain being expressed in vivo. Thus, slow ChloC could be considered as an effective optogenetic tool capable in response to light stimulation to inhibit the generation of action potentials in the neuron.

  4. Guest Editor's introduction: Selected papers from the 4th USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sventek, Joe

    1998-12-01

    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Introduction The USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems (COOTS) is held annually in the late spring. The conference evolved from a set of C++ workshops that were held under the auspices of USENIX, the first of which met in 1989. Given the growing diverse interest in object-oriented technologies, the C++ focus of the workshop eventually became too narrow, with the result that the scope was widened in 1995 to include object-oriented technologies and systems. COOTS is intended to showcase advanced R&D efforts in object-oriented technologies and software systems. The conference emphasizes experimental research and experience gained by using object-oriented techniques and languages to build complex software systems that meet real-world needs. COOTS solicits papers in the following general areas: application of, and experiences with, object-oriented technologies in particular domains (e.g. financial, medical, telecommunication); the architecture and implementation of distributed object systems (e.g. CORBA, DCOM, RMI); object-oriented programming and specification languages; object-oriented design and analysis. The 4th meeting of COOTS was held 27 - 30 April 1998 at the El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Several tutorials were given. The technical program proper consisted of a single track of six sessions, with three paper presentations per session. A keynote address and a provocative panel session rounded out the technical program. The program committee reviewed 56 papers, selecting the best 18 for presentation in the technical sessions. While we solicit papers across the spectrum of applications of object-oriented technologies, this year there was a predominance of distributed, object-oriented papers. The accepted papers reflected this asymmetry, with 15 papers on distributed objects and 3 papers on object-oriented languages. The papers in this special issue are

  5. Impact of a 4th generation iterative reconstruction technique on image quality in low-dose computed tomography of the chest in immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, A.; Hennes, F.O.; Klink, T.; Schultzendorff, H.C. von; Hammerle, D.; Adam, G.; Regier, M. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Buhk, J.H. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology; Sehner, S. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology; Nagel, H.D. [Dr. HD Nagel, Science and Technology for Radiology, Buchholz (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the image quality of an iterative reconstruction (IR) technique in low-dose MDCT (LDCT) of the chest of immunocompromised patients in an intraindividual comparison to filtered back projection (FBP) and to evaluate the dose reduction capability. Materials and Methods: 30 chest LDCT scans were performed in immunocompromised patients (Brilliance iCT; 20 - 40 mAs; mean CTDIvol: 1.7 mGy). The raw data were reconstructed using FBP and the IR technique (iDose4 trademark, Philips, Best, The Netherlands) set to seven iteration levels. 30 routine-dose MDCT (RDCT) reconstructed with FBP served as controls (mean exposure: 116 mAs; mean CDTIvol: 7.6 mGy). Three blinded radiologists scored subjective image quality and lesion conspicuity. Quantitative parameters including CT attenuation and objective image noise (OIN) were determined. Results: In LDCT high iDose4 trademark levels lead to a significant decrease in OIN (FBP vs. iDose7: subscapular muscle 139.4 vs. 40.6 HU). The high iDose4 trademark levels provided significant improvements in image quality and artifact and noise reduction compared to LDCT FBP images. The conspicuity of subtle lesions was limited in LDCT FBP images. It significantly improved with high iDose4 trademark levels (> iDose4). LDCT with iDose4 trademark level 6 was determined to be of equivalent image quality as RDCT with FBP. Conclusion: iDose4 trademark substantially improves image quality and lesion conspicuity and reduces noise in low-dose chest CT. Compared to RDCT, high iDose4 trademark levels provide equivalent image quality in LDCT, hence suggesting a potential dose reduction of almost 80%. (orig.)

  6. Electroluminescence imaging of Morgan Solar Inc.'s 4th generation CPV technology for in-line quality control and optical efficiency estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael; Dufour, Pascal; Drew, Kristine; Myrskog, Stefan; Morgan, John Paul

    2014-10-01

    An electroluminescence test for a Concentrated PV system is presented with the objective of capturing high resolution pseudo-efficiency maps that highlight optical defects in the concentrator system. Key parameters of the experimental setup and imaging system are presented. Image processing is discussed, including comparison of experimental to nominal results and the quantitative estimation of optical efficiency. Efficiency estimates are validated using measurements under a collimated solar simulator and ray-tracing software. Further validation is performed by comparison of the electroluminescence technique to direct mapping of the optical efficiency. Initial results indicate the mean estimation error for Isc is -2.4% with a standard deviation is 6.9% and a combined measurement and analysis time of less than 5 seconds per optic. An extension of this approach to in-line quality control is discussed.

  7. Supercomputing '91; Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference on High Performance Computing, Albuquerque, NM, Nov. 18-22, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on supercomputing are presented. The general topics addressed include: program analysis/data dependence, memory access, distributed memory code generation, numerical algorithms, supercomputer benchmarks, latency tolerance, parallel programming, applications, processor design, networks, performance tools, mapping and scheduling, characterization affecting performance, parallelism packaging, computing climate change, combinatorial algorithms, hardware and software performance issues, system issues. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  8. Highly efficient and inverted tandem organic light-emitting devices using a MoO3/Al/MoO3 charge generation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Ze; Lee, Chih-Chien; Li, Yan-De; Yeh, Tzu-Hung; Chang, Po-Chien; Biring, Sajal; Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Su, Chia-Hung; Liu, Shun-Wei

    2017-03-01

    We present bottom-emission, inverted, tandem phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PHOLEDs) using a multilayer charge generation layer (CGL) of MoO3/Al/MoO3 (MAM), which exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency of 40% and current efficiency of 120 cd/A. In this inverted tandem structure, the feature of MAM shows a high optical transmittance (approximately 90%) in visible light, an efficient charge generation property, and a relatively smooth morphology (root mean square of ∼0.336 nm) providing an efficient CGL to connect the bottom and top display units. In addition, the device structure of ITO/LiF/TAPC/MAM/BPhen:CS2CO3/BPhen/LiF/Al was proposed to capacitance characterization, and the results demonstrated that using the ultrathin Al of ∼2 nm in a MAM structure exhibited a more efficient CGL for high performance inverted tandem PHOLEDs.

  9. Long-term stable stacked CsPbBr3 quantum dot films for highly efficient white light generation in LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hyun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Kang, Bong Kyun; Choi, Seung Hee; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-12-01

    We report highly efficient ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr3 perovskite QD films for white light generation in LED application. Ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr3 quantum dots is applied with Sr2Si5N8 : Eu(2+) red phosphor on an InGaN blue chip, achieving a highly efficient luminous efficacy of 67.93 lm W(-1) under 20 mA current.

  10. Integrated lighting systems in building at 15° S latitude: Use of photovoltaic generation as a complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Durante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to evaluate building energy and illumination performance considering situations of total sun protection and exposure of building openings. The specific objectives were: to estimate equal illuminance curves with measurements and computer simulations; to estimate the energy savings provided by a supplementary lighting system controlled by the user (Scenario 1 - real and another system that ignores the contribution of natural lighting (Scenario 2 - simulated; to quantify photovoltaic panel areas to meet these artificial lighting scenarios (1 and 2 and to estimate the CO2 emissions avoided by the use of natural light. It was demonstrated that Scenario 1 presented average Contribution of Natural Lighting (CIN values of 2% and saved 10.5% of total annual energy when compared to Scenario 2. The last CIN presented was up to 17 times higher than Scenario 1, which provided excessive illumination in the room studied. It would be necessary to cover 3% and 37% of the roof with photovoltaic panels to supply energy for Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. The installation of a photovoltaic panel system would be economically unviable, with a payback period of 60 years, longer than its lifetime. However, it was possible to demonstrate its environmental benefits, the elimination of 689kg of CO2 emissions/year, which is equivalent to the neutralization provided by four arboreal units in the same period.

  11. Refractive-index distributions generating as light rays a given family of curves lying on a surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghero, Francesco; Kotoulas, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    In the framework of geometrical optics, we consider the inverse problem consisting in obtaining refractive-index distributions n=n(u,v) of a two-dimensional transparent inhomogeneous isotropic medium from a known family f(u,v)=c of monochromatic light rays, lying on a given regular surface. Using some basic concepts of differential geometry, we establish a first-order linear partial differential equation relating the assigned family of light rays with all possible refractive-index profiles compatible with this family. In particular, we study the refractive-index distribution producing, as light rays, a given family of geodesic lines on some remarkable surfaces. We give appropriate examples to explain the theory.

  12. On the history of deformation phosphenes and the idea of internal light generated in the eye for the purpose of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüsser, O J; Hagner, M

    1990-02-01

    Deformation phosphenes are light sensations evoked by deformation of the eyeball in total darkness. They were first reported in Western literature by Alcmaeon of Croton in the fifth century B.C. The phenomenon of deformation phosphenes was instrumental in prompting some pre-Socratic philosophers and Plato to conceive the idea that efferent light is emitted from the eye for the purpose of vision and a 'cone of vision' is formed by interaction with the external light. In the theories of vision this cone of vision played an important role as a signal-transmitting structure and was also used by the Greek opticians as a geometrical construction to explain optical properties of vision. The impact of the deformation phosphene experiment on the ideas of visual sensation can be followed from Greek antiquity through the period of Roman dominance and Galen's medical teaching on to medieval times and up to the late Renaissance when, based on the anatomy of the eye as illustrated by Felix Platter, the image formation on the retina was correctly described for the first time by Johannes Kepler. In the generations following, deformation phosphenes were still employed as an important argument in defence of the theories of vision. However, the idea of physical light generated by eyeball deformation was rejected with increasing frequency during the 17th and 18th centuries. The literature on this topic is discussed, comprising the contributions of the Arabic philosophers and physicians of the 9th and 10th centuries A.D., the Franciscan and Dominican philosophers of the 13th century, Nicolaus Cusanus of the 15th century, several anatomists of the 16th and 17th centuries, Kepler, Plempius, Descartes, Boyle, Newton and others. After Kepler, the mechanical interpretation of the deformation phosphene being caused by direct action of the eyeball deformation onto the retina slowly became dominant, and the idea that physical light is generated in the eye disappeared. The experimentum crucis

  13. The JAERI and Universities joint project research reports on the 4th joint research project between JAERI and Universities on backend chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    In the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities on Backend Chemistry, the 4th-term researches of it were performed on sixteen themes from April of 1999 to March of 2001 under the four categories, i.e. Nuclear-chemistry and physical-chemistry properties of actinides', 'Solid state chemistry and nuclear fuel engineering of actinides', 'Solution chemistry and technologies for separation and analysis of actinides' and Treatment of radioactive waste and environmental chemistry'. The present report compiled the papers contributed to the Joint Research Project. (author)

  14. Report on the 4th Europhysics Workshop on the role of electric fields in plasma confinement and exhaust (Funchal, Madeira, 24-25 June 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, G.; Tendler, M.

    2002-08-01

    The 4th Europhysics Workshop was organized in Funchal in Madeira as a Satellite Meeting of the 28th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, and attended by about 45 scientists from 15 countries. It was hosted by the Portuguese Association IST-Euratom, and organized by the Czech Association Euratom/IPP.CR. The scope of the workshop is broad and includes experiments, techniques, theory and modelling pertinent to the effects of electric fields on plasmas. After refereeing, 18 of the 27 (oral) contributions were published in the October 2001 issue of Czechoslovak Journal of Physics.

  15. Global challenges in the management of congenital cataract: proceedings of the 4th International Congenital Cataract Symposium held on March 7, 2014, New York, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Phoebe D; Courtright, Paul; Wilson, M Edward; Lewallen, Susan; Taylor, David Samuel; Ventura, Marcelo C; Bowman, Richard; Woodward, Lee; Ditta, Lauren C; Kruger, Stacey; Haddad, Danny; El Shakankiri, Nihal; Rai, Salma Kc; Bailey, Tehara; Lambert, Scott R

    2015-04-01

    Childhood cataracts have become a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness in many areas of the world. Here we summarize regional focus group discussions from the 4th Annual International Congenital Cataract Symposium on the current situation, challenges, and recommendations for the management of congenital cataracts in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Central America, South America, and developed nations. Strategies for managing congenital cataracts must be adapted and developed according to regional conditions. A basic framework for acceptable outcomes must focus on developing systems to address the critical components of education, access, quality care, and good follow-up.

  16. Effect of olfactory and visual stimuli on the orientation of the 4th instar larvae of the stem borer Chilo partellus swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokro, P G; Saxena, K N

    1991-01-01

    The orientational responses of 4th instar larvae of Chilo partellus to different sources of stimuli being artificial diet, leaves and stems of maize and sorghum were tested, under free choice and no-choice situations. Larvae were attracted to maize and sorghum in a moderate to high degree dependent on what choice they were given. The orientational preference of the larvae, offered a choice between the visual and the odour sources, depended upon their stimulating capacities which were represented by the percentages of individuals responding to the sources of stimuli. Odour played a greater role than visual stimuli in this close range attraction when the two competed with each other.

  17. White light generation from Dy3+-doped ZnO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasimhadri, M.; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb; Chen, Baojiu; Yi, Soung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Hyun

    2009-07-01

    Dysprosium doped ZnO-B2O3-P2O5 (ZBP) glasses were prepared by a conventional melt quenching technique in order to study the luminescent properties and their utility for white light emitting diodes (LEDs). X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. The present glasses were characterized by infrared and Raman spectra to evaluate the vibrational features of the samples. The emission and excitation spectra were reported for the ZBP glasses. Strong blue (484 nm) and yellow (574 nm) emission bands were observed upon various excitations. These two emissions correspond to the F49/2→H615/2 and F49/2→H613/2 transitions of Dy3+ ions, respectively. Combination of these blue and yellow bands gives white light to the naked eye. First time, it was found that ZnO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses efficiently emit white light under 400 and 454 nm excitations, which are nearly match with the emissions of commercial GaN blue LEDs and InGaN LED, respectively. CIE chromaticity coordinates also calculated for Dy3+: ZBP glasses to evaluate the white light emission.

  18. Exploiting light chains for the scalable generation and platform purification of native human bispecific IgG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nicolas; Elson, Greg; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Dheilly, Elie; Fouque, Nicolas; Laurendon, Amélie; Gueneau, Franck; Ravn, Ulla; Depoisier, Jean-François; Moine, Valery; Raimondi, Sylvain; Malinge, Pauline; Di Grazia, Laura; Rousseau, François; Poitevin, Yves; Calloud, Sébastien; Cayatte, Pierre-Alexis; Alcoz, Mathias; Pontini, Guillemette; Fagète, Séverine; Broyer, Lucile; Corbier, Marie; Schrag, Delphine; Didelot, Gérard; Bosson, Nicolas; Costes, Nessie; Cons, Laura; Buatois, Vanessa; Johnson, Zoe; Ferlin, Walter; Masternak, Krzysztof; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies enable unique therapeutic approaches but it remains a challenge to produce them at the industrial scale, and the modifications introduced to achieve bispecificity often have an impact on stability and risk of immunogenicity. Here we describe a fully human bispecific IgG devoid of any modification, which can be produced at the industrial scale, using a platform process. This format, referred to as a κλ-body, is assembled by co-expressing one heavy chain and two different light chains, one κ and one λ. Using ten different targets, we demonstrate that light chains can play a dominant role in mediating specificity and high affinity. The κλ-bodies support multiple modes of action, and their stability and pharmacokinetic properties are indistinguishable from therapeutic antibodies. Thus, the κλ-body represents a unique, fully human format that exploits light-chain variable domains for antigen binding and light-chain constant domains for robust downstream processing, to realize the potential of bispecific antibodies. PMID:25672245

  19. Next-Generation Lighting Initiative at the U.S. Department of Energy: Catalyzing Science Into the Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodrick, James

    2007-06-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) is a pivotal emerging technology that promises to fundamentally alter and improve lighting systems—and buildings—of the future, significantly lowering energy use and costs and enhancing the quality of our building environments. No other lighting technology offers our nation so much potential to conserve electricity, at a time when our nation needs bold solutions to achieve greater energy independence. Major research and market introduction challenges must be addressed before the full promise of SSL is realized. This paper discusses the role of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as a catalyst in accelerating SSL technology advances, as it works in partnership with industry, research and academic organizations, and market transformation partners. Through a series of ongoing, interactive workshops, DOE and its partners have developed an extensive plan designed to ensure that DOE funds the appropriate research and development (R&D) topics and commercialization support strategies to help our nation's best and brightest lighting experts move SSL from the laboratory into the marketplace.

  20. Optomechanical design and construction of a vacuum-compatible optical parametric oscillator for generation of squeezed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, A R; Mansell, G L; McRae, T G; Chua, S S Y; Yap, M J; Ward, R L; Slagmolen, B J J; Shaddock, D A; McClelland, D E

    2016-06-01

    With the recent detection of gravitational waves, non-classical light sources are likely to become an essential element of future detectors engaged in gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. Operating a squeezed light source under high vacuum has the advantages of reducing optical losses and phase noise compared to techniques where the squeezed light is introduced from outside the vacuum. This will ultimately provide enhanced sensitivity for modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors that will soon become limited by quantum noise across much of the detection bandwidth. Here we describe the optomechanical design choices and construction techniques of a near monolithic glass optical parametric oscillator that has been operated under a vacuum of 10(-6) mbar. The optical parametric oscillator described here has been shown to produce 8.6 dB of quadrature squeezed light in the audio frequency band down to 10 Hz. This performance has been maintained for periods of around an hour and the system has been under vacuum continuously for several months without a degradation of this performance.

  1. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy and Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhang, Ming-Yi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [Solar Fuels Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  2. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Xue, Can

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h-1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  3. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h−1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  4. Efficient concept generating 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light with spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hasler, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We propose an efficient concept increasing the power of diode laser systems in the visible spectral range. In comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, we show that spectral beam combining with subsequent sumfrequency generation enhances the available power significantly. Com...... potential of green diode laser systems, for example, within the biomedical field. In order to enhance the power even further, our proposed concept can be expanded combining multiple diode lasers.......We propose an efficient concept increasing the power of diode laser systems in the visible spectral range. In comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, we show that spectral beam combining with subsequent sumfrequency generation enhances the available power significantly...

  5. MoS2-coated microspheres of self-sensitized carbon nitride for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quan; Sun, Huaming; Xie, Zunyuan; Gao, Ziwei; Xue, Can

    2017-02-01

    We have successfully coated the self-sensitized carbon nitride (SSCN) microspheres with a layer of MoS2 through a facile one-pot hydrothermal method by using (NH4)2MoS4 as the precursor. The resulted MoS2-coated SSCN photocatalyst appears as a core-shell structure and exhibits enhanced visible-light activities for photocatalytic H2 generation as compared to the un-coated SSCN and the standard g-C3N4 reference with MoS2 coating. The photocatalytic test results suggest that the oligomeric s-triazine dyes on the SSCN surface can provide additional light-harvesting capability and photogenerated charge carriers, and the coated MoS2 layer can serve as active sites for proton reduction towards H2 evolution. This synergistic effect of surface triazine dyes and MoS2 coating greatly promotes the activity of carbon nitride microspheres for vishible-light-driven H2 generation. This work provides a new way of future development of low-cost noble-metal-free photocatalysts for efficient solar-driven hydrogen production.

  6. Synthesis and visible light photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline PrFeO3 perovskite for hydrogen generation in ethanol-water system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Tijare; S Bakardjieva; J Subrt; M V Joshi; S S Rayalu; S Hishita; Nitin Labhsetwar

    2014-03-01

    Nanocrystalline PrFeO3 perovskite type orthoferrite was synthesized at 700°C by using three different synthesis methods, namely sol-gel, template and combustion method. The synthesized materials were characterized by XRD, BET-SA, SEM, HRTEM, XPS, FTIR and UV-DRS techniques to understand their physico-chemical properties. Characterization data reveal the formation of nanocrystalline PrFeO3 perovskite composition with improved physical properties, possibly due to lower synthesis temperature used. PrFeO3 synthesized by sol-gel method consists of crystallite size of about 20 nm with absorption maxima at 595 nm wavelength in visible light range. This photocatalyst shows hydrogen generation of about 2847 mol.g-1.h-1, under visible light irradiation in ethanol-water system. The photocatalyst was further investigated for various operational parameters such as photocatalyst dose variation, illumination intensity, time, etc. in a view to optimize the hydrogen generation as well as to understand mechanistic aspects. This material appears to follow a semiconductor type mechanism for ethanol-assisted visible light photocatalyic water-splitting and can also be an interesting candidate to develop hetero-junction type photocatalysts.

  7. An adaptive-binning method for generating constant-uncertainty/constant-significance light curves with Fermi-LAT data

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, B; Larsson, S; Ballet, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a method enabling the creation of constant-uncertainty/constant-significance light curves with the data of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The adaptive-binning method enables more information to be encapsulated within the light curve than with the fixed-binning method. Although primarily developed for blazar studies, it can be applied to any sources. This method allows the starting and ending times of each interval to be calculated in a simple and quick way during a first step. The reported mean flux and spectral index (assuming the spectrum is a power-law distribution) in the interval are calculated via the standard LAT analysis during a second step. The absence of major caveats associated with this method has been established by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. We present the performance of this method in determining duty cycles as well as power-density spectra relative to the traditional fixed-binning method.

  8. Generation of White Light from Dysprosium-Doped Strontium Aluminate Phosphor by a Solid-State Reaction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ishwar Prasad; Bisen, D. P.; Brahme, N.; Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar

    2016-04-01

    A single-host lattice, white light-emitting SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure of prepared SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was in a monoclinic phase with space group P21. The chemical composition of the sintered SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was confirmed by the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy technique. Under ultra-violet excitation, the characteristic emissions of Dy3+ are peaking at 475 nm, 573 nm and 660 nm, originating from the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 →&!nbsp; 6H13/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 in the 4f9 configuration of Dy3+ ions. Commission International de I'Eclairage color coordinates of SrAl2O4:Dy3+ are suitable for white light-emitting phosphor. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples as white color light sources for industrial uses, correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) values were calculated. Values of CCT and CRI were found well within the defined acceptable range. Mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity of SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor increased linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston. Thus, the present investigation indicates piezo-electricity was responsible for producing ML in sintered SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor. Decay rates of the exponential decaying period of the ML curves do not change significantly with impact velocity. The photoluminescence and ML results suggest that the synthesized SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was useful for the white light-emitting diodes and stress sensor respectively.

  9. Graduating 4th year radiology residents' perception of optimal imaging modalities for neoplasm and trauma: a pilot study from four U.S. universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Elias Junior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess 4th year radiology residents' perception of the optimal imaging modality to investigate neoplasm and trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven 4th year radiology residents from four residency programs were surveyed. They were asked about the best imaging modality to evaluate the brain and spine, lungs, abdomen, and the musculoskeletal system. Imaging modalities available were MRI, CT, ultrasound, PET, and X-ray. All findings were compared to the ACR appropriateness criteria. RESULTS: MRI was chosen as the best imaging modality to evaluate brain, spine, abdominal, and musculoskeletal neoplasm in 96.3%, 100%, 70.4%, and 63% of residents, respectively. CT was chosen by 88.9% to evaluate neoplasm of the lung. Optimal imaging modality to evaluate trauma was CT for brain injuries (100%, spine (92.6%, lung (96.3%, abdomen (92.6%, and major musculoskeletal trauma (74.1%; MRI was chosen for sports injury (96.3%. There was agreement with ACR appropriateness criteria. CONCLUSION: Residents' perception of the best imaging modalities for neoplasm and trauma concurred with the appropriateness criteria by the ACR.

  10. Review of Handbook of Autopsy Practice, Brenda L. Waters (Ed.). 4th edition, Humana Press (2009). ISBN: 978-1-58829-841-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2010-01-01

    This 4th edition of Handbook of Autopsy Practice is a thoroughly updated version. Autopsy practice has undergone significant changes in recent time due to technological advancements such as molecular diagnostics, immunohistochemisty and the introduction of post-mortem imaging techniques. In the s......This 4th edition of Handbook of Autopsy Practice is a thoroughly updated version. Autopsy practice has undergone significant changes in recent time due to technological advancements such as molecular diagnostics, immunohistochemisty and the introduction of post-mortem imaging techniques...... techniques used for post-mortem investigation of the cardio-vascular system, the nervous system and eye and adnexa. Autopsy microbiology, chemistry and chromosome analysis and autopsies of bodies containing radioactive material are also among the topics that are addressed in this handbook, as well as post...... of tables providing organ weights and body measurements for foetuses, children and adults. The Handbook of Autopsy Practice fulfils its purpose, and is a very worthwhile purchase for any autopsy facility....

  11. Graduating 4th year radiology residents' perception of optimal imaging modalities for neoplasm and trauma: a pilot study from four U.S. universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias Junior, Jorge [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). School of Medicine; Semelka, Richard C.; Altun, Ersan; Thomas, Sarah L., E-mail: richsem@med.unc.ed [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Balci, N. Cem [Saint Louis University, MO (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Hussain, Shahid M. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Martin, Diego R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Our purpose was to assess 4th year radiology residents' perception of the optimal imaging modality to investigate neoplasm and trauma. Materials and methods: twenty-seven 4th year radiology residents from four residency programs were surveyed. They were asked about the best imaging modality to evaluate the brain and spine, lungs, abdomen, and the musculoskeletal system. Imaging modalities available were MRI, CT, ultrasound, PET, and Xray. All findings were compared to the ACR appropriateness criteria. Results: MRI was chosen as the best imaging modality to evaluate brain, spine, abdominal, and musculoskeletal neoplasm in 96.3%, 100%, 70.4%, and 63% of residents, respectively. CT was chosen by 88.9% to evaluate neoplasm of the lung. Optimal imaging modality to evaluate trauma was CT for brain injuries (100%), spine (92.6%), lung (96.3%), abdomen (92.6%), and major musculoskeletal trauma (74.1%); MRI was chosen for sports injury (96.3%). There was agreement with ACR appropriateness criteria. Conclusion: residents' perception of the best imaging modalities for neoplasm and trauma concurred with the appropriateness criteria by the ACR. (author)

  12. An Investigation on Elementary School Students' Level of Math Learning, Using Math E-Books (A Case Study: Pishtazan Computer Primary School, 4th Zone of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Naseri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the focus on technology exists in all schools and classes, teachers need to know how to apply it in their teaching practices. The use of ICT in education is an undeniable necessity. Since the use of information and communication technology can smooth the paths of teaching-learning process for students, the researchers in this study tried to apply one of the information and communication technology tools, called electronic books (E-books in teaching math. The aim of this study is to examine elementary school students' level of math learning, using math e-books with the focus on teaching multiplication (Case Study: Pishtazan computer primary school, the 4th zone of Tehran. Using a quasi-experimental study, 61 third grade students from two primary schools for girls located in the 4th education zone of Tehran were selected. Math tests were used to collect data. Using T-test for independent samples, the results showed that level of math learning was higher in the students who have been trained with the help of e-book, compared to the students who have been trained through traditional teaching method.

  13. Blue-violet light irradiation dose dependently decreases carotenoids in human skin, which indicates the generation of free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersee, Staffan; Beyer, Marc; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to ultraviolet and infrared irradiation, which are known to facilitate cutaneous photoaging, immunosuppression, or tumour emergence due to formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, potentially similar effects of visible light on the human skin are still poorly characterized. Using a blue-violet light irradiation source and aiming to characterize its potential influence on the antioxidant status of the human skin, the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was measured noninvasively in nine healthy volunteers using resonance Raman spectroscopy following irradiation. The dose-dependent significant degradation of carotenoids was measured to be 13.5% and 21.2% directly after irradiation at 50 J/cm² and 100 J/cm² (P skin. In all volunteers the cutaneous carotenoid concentration dropped down in a manner similar to that caused by the infrared or ultraviolet irradiations, leading to the conclusion that also blue-violet light at high doses could represent a comparably adverse factor for human skin.

  14. Carbon coating stabilized Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gao; Zhou, Peng; Zhao, Meiming; Zhu, Weidong; Yan, Shicheng; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-07-28

    Self-doping by Ti(3+) is a useful method to expand the light response of TiO2 into the visible light region. However, to obtain a stable Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 seems to be a challenge due to the easy oxidation of Ti(3+) during the heterogeneous reaction. Here, we propose a simple carbon coating route to stabilize the Ti(3+)-doped TiO2, in which both the Ti(3+) and precursor of the carbon coating layer were in situ formed from the hydrothermal hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide. The carbon coated Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 exhibited excellent stability for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, the proposed stabilizing mechanism is that the conductive carbon coating layer as a barrier layer prevents the H2O and O2 from diffusing into the surface of the photocatalyst, which can oxidize the surface O vacancies and Ti(3+) in TiO2. Our findings offer a simple route to prepare a highly stable TiO2-based photocatalyst with visible light response.

  15. Visible-light responsive photocatalytic fuel cell based on WO(3)/W photoanode and Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode for simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanpeng; Li, Jinhua; Li, Xuejin; Huang, Ke; Zhou, Baoxue; Cai, Weimin; Shangguan, Wenfeng

    2012-10-16

    A visible-light driven photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) system comprised of WO(3)/W photoanode and Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode was established for organic compounds degradation with simultaneous electricity generation. The central idea for its operation is the mismatched Fermi levels between the two photoelectrodes. Under light illumination, the Fermi level of WO(3)/W photoanode is higher than that of Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode. An interior bias can be produced based on which the electrons of WO(3)/W photoanode can transfer from the external circuit to combine with the holes of Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode then generates the electricity. In this manner, the electron/hole pairs separations at two photoelectrodes are facilitated to release the holes of WO(3)/W photoanode and electrons of Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode. Organic compounds can be decomposed by the holes of WO(3)/W photoanode due to its high oxidation power (+3.1-3.2 V(NHE)). The results demonstrated that various model compounds including phenol, Rhodamine B, and Congo red can be successfully decomposed in this PFC system, with the degradation rate after 5 h operation were obtained to be 58%, 63%, and 74%, respectively. The consistent operation for continuous water treatment with the electricity generation at a long time scale was also confirmed from the result. The proposed PFC system provides a self-sustained and energy-saving way for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery.

  16. Photonics at the frontiers. Generation of few-cycle light pulses via NOPCPA and real-time probing of charge transfer in hybrid photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Daniel

    2011-11-11

    In the first part of this thesis the methodics of the non-collinear, optically parametric amplification of chirped light pulses (NOPCPA) for the generation of few-cycle light pulses in the visible (Vis) and near infrared (NIR) with of 5-8 fs half-width are essential further developed. Fundamental parametric influences, like the existence of a parametrically induced phase and the generation of optically parametric fluorescence (OPF), are studied both by theoretical analyses and numerical simulations and by concrete experiments. Experimentally in the framework of this thesis fwe-cycle light pulses with a pulse width of 7.9 fs, 130 mJ energy, at 805 nm central wavelength and a very high seed-pulse-limited prepulse contrast of 11 and 8 orders of magnitude are reached at 30 ps and approximately 3 ps. One the one hand it has been succeeded to accelerate with the broad-band pulse amplifier quasi-monoenergetic electrons with energies of up to 50 MeV. For this the light pulse is focussed to relativistic intensities of several W/cm{sup 2} in a helium gas jet. On the other hand XUV light was produced up to the 20th harmonic of the generated light pulse from the broad-band pulse amplifier by its sub-cycle interaction with solid surfaces. In the framework of this thesis furthermore new, extended concepts for still broader-band NOPCPA over one octave were developed and characterized, which contain the application of two pump pulses in one NOPCPA stage and the application of two different pump wavelength in two subsequent NOPCPA stages. In the second part of this thesis broad-band white-light spectra and by means of NOPCPA spectrally tunable light pulses are applied in order to realize a transient absorption spectrometer with multichannel detection. This new excitation-query construction combines a very broad-band UV-Vis-NIR query with a high time resolution of 40 fs and high sensitivity for the transient change of the optical density of less than 10{sup -4}. By this it has in

  17. 4th July 2011 - Russian Deputy Director-General Director of Directorate for Scientific and Technical Complex ROSATOM V. Pershukov in the ATLAS underground experimental area with Adviser T. Kurtyka, ATLAS Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and ATLAS Russian users.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th July 2011 - Russian Deputy Director-General Director of Directorate for Scientific and Technical Complex ROSATOM V. Pershukov in the ATLAS underground experimental area with Adviser T. Kurtyka, ATLAS Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and ATLAS Russian users.

  18. 4th February 2011- Polish Ambassador to the United Nations Office R. A. Henczel visiting CMS control room and underground experimental area with his daughter, guided by Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011- Polish Ambassador to the United Nations Office R. A. Henczel visiting CMS control room and underground experimental area with his daughter, guided by Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

  19. Plants as concept generators for biomimetic light-weight structures with variable stiffness and self-repair mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Speck; Tom Masselter; Bettina Prüm; Olga Speck; Rolf Luchsinger; Siegfried Fink

    2004-01-01

    Plants possess many structural and functional properties that have a high potential to serve as concept generators for the production of biomimetic technical materials and structures. We present data on two features of plants (variable stiffness due to pressure changes in cellular structures and rapid self-repair functions) that may be used as models for biomimetic projects.

  20. First-order quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in surface-poled Ti:indiffused lithium niobate waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Busacca, Alessandro C; Eason, Robert W; Mailis, Sakellaris; 10.1063/1.1758776

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate efficient first-order quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a surface periodically poled Ti:indiffused lithium niobate waveguide; 6 mW of continuous-wave blue radiation (wavelength = 412.6 nm) was produced showing the potential of surface domain inversion for efficient nonlinear waveguide interactions.

  1. Selected Contributions of the 4th European Meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis. Environmental Applications (SPEA 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato Rodriguez, S.; Gernjak, W.; Pereze Pena, J.; Dona Rodriguez, J.M. (eds.)

    2007-11-15

    In developed countries, the importance of water as a resource and problems derived from its scarcity has led to growing social and legislative demands. As a consequence, in the last 30 years, new fields of research have opened in a search for more efficient water treatment methods. This is the case of the advanced oxidation techniques (AOTs) and their application to nonbiodegradable contaminants, which can otherwise be removed from water, but not eliminated. Fast development of research in this field has encouraged chemists, chemical engineers and related professionals to meet and debate their findings and plan new strategies for the future, working toward evermore efficient methods of wastewater treatment wherever needed. The same can be said of gaseous effluents, as emission limits for organic air pollution become stricter. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pose an environmental and health threat, which can be treated by adsorption, incineration, condensation, etc., or be completely destroyed by chemical methods, such as the very promising gas-phase photocatalytic air pollution treatment. The SPEA Meetings have been held against this background, particularly this fourth one, where scientists assembled to present and debate their latest achievements in low-cost treatment technologies for wastewater, gaseous effluents and polluted soils. This Special Issue of Catalysis Today was compiled from the scientific reports generated by the congress, and includes a selection of some of the most interesting work presented at the meeting. The 34-member Scientific Committee were from 11 different countries (Argentina, Chile, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, and the USA). One hundred and thirty-five delegates from 22 different countries attended the congress (representing 368 authors). One hundred and thirty-eight communications were presented, 45 oral presentations and 93 posters. Three plenary lectures, one round table and two poster

  2. Correlation between intensity fluctuations of light generated by scattering of Young’s diffractive electromagnetic waves by a quasi-homogeneous, anisotropic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Feinan

    2016-11-01

    Based on the first-order Born approximation, formulas are derived for the correlation between intensity fluctuations (CIF) of light generated by a Young’s diffractive electromagnetic wave scattered by a spatially quasi-homogeneous (QH), anisotropic medium. It is shown that the CIF of the scattered field can be written as the summation of the Fourier transforms of the strengths and normalized correlation coefficients (NCCs) of the scattering potentials. The differences between our results and those obtained in the previous literature are discussed. Our results might be important in investigating the high-order intensity correlation of an electromagnetic wave scattered from a 3D anisotropic object.

  3. Influence of Light Polarization States on Sum-Frequency Generation in a Chiral Medium with a Two-Coupled-Oscillator Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑仰东; 李俊庆; 李淳飞

    2002-01-01

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) is investigated using the two-coupled-oscillator molecular model. The influence of the polarization states and angles of two incident beams on reflected and transmitted sum-frequency lights is discussed by considering the circular birefringence in a chiral medium. The different response of media with two kinds of enantiomers to polarization states of incident beams is also discussed. Furthermore, the relations between the SFG spectrum and the polarization states are studied. The theoretical result is consistent with a known experimental fact.

  4. A Structural Equation Model to Explain the Effect of Fluent Reading, Literal Comprehension and Inferential Comprehension Levels of Elementary School 4th Grade Students on Success in Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Ulu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Structural equation model was used in this study to determine the effect of fluent reading, literal comprehension and inferential comprehension levels of elementary school 4th grade students on success in problem solving. The sampling of the research is composed of 279 students at elementary school 4th grade. In the research, in order to figure out reading accuracy percentage and reading rate, total 5 scales were used: a reading text, prosodic reading scale, literal comprehension scale, infer...

  5. White light generation in Ce{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+}-Sm{sup 3+} codoped oxyfluoroborate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari Babu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V.V., E-mail: ravi.phy@pondiuni.edu.in

    2014-10-15

    Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}and Sm{sup 3+} oxyfluoroborate glasses were prepared and characterized using absorption, photoluminescence and time decay spectral analysis respectively. The decrease of emission peak intensity and lifetime values of Ce{sup 3+} ions are observed by introducing Tb{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} into glass. This is due to an efficient energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}; Tb{sup 3+} to Sm{sup 3+} and cross-relaxation channels. Further, the important characteristic parameters of white light emitting materials viz., energy transfer efficiency, chromaticity color coordinates, correlated color temperature and color purity are evaluated. - Highlights: • The energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+}; Sm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} to Sm{sup 3+} is studied. • CIE color coordinates fall in blue, green and white regions. • Ce{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+}-Sm{sup 3+} doped glasses exhibit white light emission under 312 nm excitation.

  6. Climatic changes and social transformations in the Near East and North Africa during the 'long' 4th millennium BC: A comparative study of environmental and archaeological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Joanne; Brooks, Nick; Banning, Edward B.; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Campbell, Stuart; Clare, Lee; Cremaschi, Mauro; di Lernia, Savino; Drake, Nick; Gallinaro, Marina; Manning, Sturt; Nicoll, Kathleen; Philip, Graham; Rosen, Steve; Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Weninger, Bernhard; Zerboni, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the possible links between rapid climate change (RCC) and social change in the Near East and surrounding regions (Anatolia, central Syria, southern Israel, Mesopotamia, Cyprus and eastern and central Sahara) during the 'long' 4th millennium (∼4500-3000) BC. Twenty terrestrial and 20 marine climate proxies are used to identify long-term trends in humidity involving transitions from humid to arid conditions and vice versa. The frequency distribution of episodes of relative aridity across these records is calculated for the period 6300-2000 BC, so that the results may be interpreted in the context of the established arid episodes associated with RCC around 6200 and 2200 BC (the 8.2 and 4.2 kyr events). We identify two distinct episodes of heightened aridity in the early-mid 4th, and late 4th millennium BC. These episodes cluster strongly at 3600-3700 and 3100-3300 BC. There is also evidence of localised aridity spikes in the 5th and 6th millennia BC. These results are used as context for the interpretation of regional and local archaeological records with a particular focus on case studies from western Syria, the middle Euphrates, southern Israel and Cyprus. Interpretation of the records involves the construction of plausible narratives of human-climate interaction informed by concepts of adaptation and resilience from the literature on contemporary (i.e. 21st century) climate change and adaptation. The results are presented alongside well-documented examples of climatically-influenced societal change in the central and eastern Sahara, where detailed geomorphological studies of ancient environments have been undertaken in tandem with archaeological research. While the narratives for the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean remain somewhat speculative, the use of resilience and adaptation frameworks allows for a more nuanced treatment of human-climate interactions and recognises the diversity and context-specificity of human responses to climatic

  7. Generation of Light with Multimode Time-Delayed Entanglement Using Storage in a Solid-State Spin-Wave Quantum Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kate R.; Beavan, Sarah E.; Longdell, Jevon J.; Sellars, Matthew J.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we demonstrate generating and storing entanglement in a solid-state spin-wave quantum memory with on-demand readout using the process of rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE). Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), resulting from an inverted ensemble of Pr3 + ions doped into a Y2 SiO5 crystal, generates entanglement between collective states of the praseodymium ensemble and the output light. The ensemble is then rephased using a four-level photon echo technique. Entanglement between the ASE and its echo is confirmed and the inseparability violation preserved when the RASE is stored as a spin wave for up to 5 μ s . RASE is shown to be temporally multimode with almost perfect distinguishability between two temporal modes demonstrated. These results pave the way for the use of multimode solid-state quantum memories in scalable quantum networks.

  8. Generation of Light with Multimode Time-Delayed Entanglement Using Storage in a Solid-State Spin-Wave Quantum Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kate R; Beavan, Sarah E; Longdell, Jevon J; Sellars, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    Here, we demonstrate generating and storing entanglement in a solid-state spin-wave quantum memory with on-demand readout using the process of rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE). Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), resulting from an inverted ensemble of Pr^{3+} ions doped into a Y_{2}SiO_{5} crystal, generates entanglement between collective states of the praseodymium ensemble and the output light. The ensemble is then rephased using a four-level photon echo technique. Entanglement between the ASE and its echo is confirmed and the inseparability violation preserved when the RASE is stored as a spin wave for up to 5  μs. RASE is shown to be temporally multimode with almost perfect distinguishability between two temporal modes demonstrated. These results pave the way for the use of multimode solid-state quantum memories in scalable quantum networks.

  9. Generation of 9 MeV γ-rays by all-laser-driven Compton scattering with second-harmonic laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Golovin, Grigory; Chen, Shouyuan; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Baozhen; Haden, Daniel; Banerjee, Sudeep; Silano, Jack; Karwowski, Hugon; Umstadter, Donald

    2014-07-15

    Gamma-ray photons with energy >9  MeV were produced when second-harmonic-generated laser light (3 eV) inverse-Compton-scattered from a counterpropagating relativistic (~450  MeV) laser-wakefield-accelerated electron beam. Two laser pulses from the same laser system were used: one to accelerate electrons and one to scatter. Since the two pulses play very different roles in the γ-ray generation process, and thus have different requirements, a novel laser system was developed. It separately and independently optimized the optical properties of the two pulses. This approach also mitigated the deleterious effects on beam focusing that generally accompany nonlinear optics at high peak-power levels.

  10. UVB in solar-simulated light causes formation of BaP-photoproducts capable of generating phosphorylated histone H2AX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Go; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko

    2010-09-30

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), wide-spread mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants, are consistently exposed to sunlight in the environment. Our previous paper showed that benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposed to solar-simulated light (SSL) induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) [T. Toyooka, G. Ohnuki, Y. Ibuki, Solar-simulated light-exposed benzo[a]pyrene induces phosphorylation of histone H2AX, Mutat. Res. 650 (2008) 132-139], a marker of DNA double strand breaks. In this study, we found the ultraviolet B (UVB) region of SSL to produce photomodified BaP with high cytotoxicity and the ability to generate γ-H2AX. Degradation of BaP by SSL, resulting in an increase in cytotoxicity and the generation of γ-H2AX, was decreased by UVB-masking using a glass plate. Exposure to UVB itself increased the cytotoxicity of BaP and amount of γ-H2AX generated. Other PAHs, 1,2-benzoanthracene and 1,2:5,6-dibenzoanthracene, which absorb UVB, also showed enhanced cytotoxicity and the promoted the generation of γ-H2AX after exposure to SSL, whereas naphthalene and chrysene, which have low absorption in the UVB region, did not. These findings suggested that UVB is important for the degradation of PAHs having absorbance in this region, but that the production of genotoxic intermediates during the degradation process needs to be considered. UVB is a two-edged blade in environments, effectively degrading toxic chemicals but also producing genotoxic compounds as reactive intermediates.

  11. An Exploratory Study of 4th, 5th, and 6th Grade Summer Camp Participants’ Attitudes and Intentions Towards Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Cater

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a growing problem among children, particularly school-aged youth. Research suggests children are especially prone to inactivity in the summer months when access to structured school-time and extra-curricular activities is reduced. Community programs like residential summer camps offer an excellent environment for engaging children in enjoyable physical activities while also helping them learn to be more physically active when they return home. Pre-existing attitudes often influence how much change a program inspires in an individual. The purpose of this study was to explore 4th, 5th, and 6th grade summer camp participants’ attitudes towards physical activity. Results of this study indicate that youth have a fairly neutral, though positive, attitude towards physical activity and that parental support of physical activity is still extremely important, even at this age. Campers also indicated relatively high intentions to remain physically active in the two weeks after the camp ended

  12. Determining the oil-recovery coefficient for the developed part of the 4th gas-oil horizon in Anastasievsk-Troitskii field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basin, Ya.N.; Konoplev, Yu.V.

    1971-01-01

    A special feature of the 4th gas-oil horizon is that it has a relatively small thickness (20 to 25 m), a huge gas cap (150 m thick), and an active bottom water drive. Production has to be regulated to prevent invasion of the oil zone by gas and water. In order to regulate production, geophysical methods were used to determine oil saturations. Position of the water-oil contact and of oil-gas contact were established with neutron gamma logs, neutron-neutron logs, and lateral logs. It was found that maximum displacement of oil by gas, and gas by oil occurred only near the initial gas-oil contact. The data indicated that about 72% of the oil in place is being recovered.

  13. Development of a low-noise, 4th-order readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors in gamma spectrometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Su, Lin; Wei, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ran; Hu, Yann

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an ASIC readout circuit development, which aims to achieve low noise. In order to compensate the leakage current and improve gain, a dual-stage CSA has been utilized. A 4th-order high-linearity shaper is proposed to obtain a Semi-Gaussian wave and further decrease the noise induced by the leakage current. The ASIC has been designed and fabricated in a standard commercial 2P4M 0.35 μm CMOS process. Die area of one channel is about 1190 μm×147 μm. The input charge range is 1.8 fC. The peaking time can be adjusted from 1 μs to 3 μs. Measured ENC is about 55e- (rms) at input capacitor of 0 F. The gain is 271 mV/fC at the peaking time of 1 μs.

  14. Experience-based teaching of acute medicine for extra motivated medical students and young physicians – 4th Emergency Medicine Course and 6th AKUTNĚ.CZ Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Štourač

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faculty of Medicine of the Masaryk University (MU, and especially its departments focusing on acute medicine, make an active effort to find and to support extra motivated students by organising courses and congresses with simulation-based learning sessions for them. 4th Emergency Medicine Course (EMC and 6th AKUTNĚ.CZ Congress were organised during 2014. EMC was held during a weekend in mid-April for 80 medical students. The congress was held on 22nd November 2014. A group of more than 700 enthusiastic professionals including physicians, nursing staff and medical students interested in acute medicine met again in Brno at the University Campus Bohunice. We also report the evaluation of effectiveness of different types of sessions, as well as its influence on practical skills and the fixation of memory footprint. The website AKUTNĚ.CZ (www.akutne.cz is freely accessible, and anyone can find and watch all the videos and presentations there.

  15. The Review of the 4th Bioethics Conference in China%第四届全国生命伦理学学术会议综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田冬霞

    2011-01-01

    The 4th Bioethics Conference had been hold in Kunming, Yunnan province.More than 100 shcolars (including scholars from Hongkong and Taiwan) discussed hotly with many very important bioethical issue, and given some significant suggestions and advices.%第四届全国生命伦理学学术会议于2010年8月6日至8日在云南昆明召开,100多名来自国内及香港、台湾地区的与会学者对生命伦理学的一些重要问题展开了热烈而富有建设性的探讨.

  16. 论“五四”小说的人生意蕴%On the Meaning of Human Life in the Novels of May 4th Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健

    2001-01-01

    During the time of the May 4th Movement, Luxun and writers from a dozen of literary societies broke the bondage of feudal ideology, took human life as the principal theme of their literary creation, described rich and colourful features of human life in their writings, thus manifesting fully the meaning and value of human life in various aspects.%“五四”时期,鲁迅、文学研究会、创造社、乡土小说家的小说创作,突破了封建思想的束缚,以人为创作主体,展现了丰富多彩的人生,多元化地表现出人生意义和人的价值。

  17. Efficient second harmonic generation of double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 self-Raman laser producing 7.9 W yellow light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyong; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Ge; Huang, Chenghui; Wei, Yong; Shen, Hongyuan; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Lingxiong; Chen, Zhenqiang

    2009-11-23

    A high power and efficient 588 nm yellow light is demonstrated through intracavity frequency doubling of an acousto-optic Q-switched self-frequency Raman laser. A 30-mm-length double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO(4) crystal was utilized for efficient self-Raman laser operation by reducing the thermal effects and increasing the interaction length for the stimulated Raman scattering. A 15-mm-length LBO with non-critical phase matching (theta = 90 degrees, phi = 0 degrees) cut was adopted for efficient second-harmonic generation. The focus position of incident pump light and both the repetition rate and the duty cycle of the Q-switch have been optimized. At a repetition rate of 110 kHz and a duty cycle of 5%, the average power of 588 nm light is up to 7.93 W while the incident pump power is 26.5 W, corresponding to an overall diode-yellow conversion efficiency of 30% and a slope efficiency of 43%.

  18. The influence of bubble populations generated under windy conditions on the blue-green light transmission in the upper ocean: An exploratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengan; Tan, Jianyu; Lai, Qingzhi

    2016-12-01

    The “blue-green window” in the ocean plays an important role in functions such as communication between vessels, underwater target identification, and remote sensing. In this study, the transmission process of blue-green light in the upper ocean is analyzed numerically using the Monte Carlo method. First, the effect of total number of photons on the numerical results is evaluated, and the most favorable number is chosen to ensure accuracy without excessive costs for calculation. Then, the physical and mathematical models are constructed. The rough sea surface is generated under windy conditions and the transmission signals are measured in the far field. Therefore, it can be conceptualized as a 1D slab with a rough boundary surface. Under windy conditions, these bubbles form layers that are horizontally homogeneous and decay exponentially with depth under the influence of gravity. The effects of bubble populations on the process of blue-green light transmission at different wind speeds, wavelengths, angle of incidence and chlorophyll-a concentrations are studied for both air-incident and water-incident cases. The results of this study indicate that the transmission process of blue-green light is significantly influenced by bubbles under high wind-speed conditions.

  19. The 4th surveillance test and evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel material (capsule W) of Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwon Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 4th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Yonggwang unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X and W are 5.762E+18, 1.5391E+19, 3.5119E+19, and 4.2610E+19 n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of measurement versus calculation, was 0.899 for the 1st through 4th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 12.3% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.357E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 11th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 3.525E+19, 4.337E+19, 5.148E+19 and 5.960E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Yonggwang unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 48 refs., 35 figs., 42 tabs. (Author)

  20. The May 4th Movement of Vernacular Novel Death Narrative Tragic Beauty%论五四乡土小说死亡叙事的悲剧美

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The May 4th literature revolution is not only a personality spirit rebel the traditional idea of revolution, it is also a profound aesthetic and artistic revolution. In the field of artistic revolution, May 4th na-tive novelists with outstanding performance, especially the death narrative in tragic manifestation of death, completed the traditional death performance art of subversion.The tragic style of presentation has not only en-riched the death forms, provides another perspective on death, but also in some sense to Chinese change avoid death the national mentality, with a positive attitude and thoughts of death, from the face of death in the courage that life will sublimate.%  五四文学革命不仅是一场以个性精神反叛传统观念的思想革命,同时也是一场深刻的审美与艺术革命。在这场艺术革命中,五四乡土小说家有着突出的表现,尤其是其死亡叙事以悲剧表现死亡,完成了对传统死亡表现艺术的颠覆。这种悲剧风格的表现方式不仅丰富了死亡的表现形式,提供了审视死亡的另一视角,而且也在一定意义上促使中国人改变回避死亡的民族心态,以积极的态度思考死亡,从直面死亡的勇气中使生命意志得到升华。