Sample records for 4f imaging system

  1. 4F-based optical phase imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to 4F-based optical phase imaging system and in particular to reconstructing quantitative phase information of an object when using such systems. The invention applies a two-dimensional, complex spatial light modulator (SLM) to impress a complex spatial synthesized modulation...... in addition to the complex spatial modulation impressed by the object. This SLM is arranged so that the synthesized modulation is superimposed with the object modulation and is thus placed at an input plane to the phase imaging system. By evaluating output images from the phase imaging system, the synthesized...... modulation is selected to optimize parameters in the output image which improves the reconstruction of qualitative and quantitative object phase information from the resulting output images....

  2. Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging system with a 4f aspherical acoustic lens (United States)

    Jen, En; Lin, Hsintien; Chiang, Huihua Kenny


    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a modality for achieving high-contrast images of blood vessels or tumors. Most PA imaging systems use complex reconstruction algorithms under conventional linear array transducers. We introduced the optical simulating method to improve the acoustic lens design and obtain a PA imaging system with improved spatial revolution (a 0.5-mm point spread function and a lateral image resolution of more than 1 mm) is realized using a 4f aspherical acoustic lens. The acoustic lens approach improved the image resolution and enabled direct reconstruction of three-dimensional (3-D) PA images. The system demonstrated a lateral resolution of more than 1 mm, a field of view of 8.5 deg, and a depth of focus of 10 mm. The system displays great potential for developing a real-time 3-D PA camera system for biomedical ultrasound imaging applications.

  3. Simultaneous measurements of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption using a 4f imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A method is reported to simultaneously measure the nonlinear absorption and re-fraction coefficients of materials using a nonlinear-imaging technique with a phase object. In this technique, the sign and magnitude of both the nonlinear absorption and refraction can be acquired conveniently from the analysis of three experiment images: the linear image, the nonlinear image and the image without sample. In order to validate our approach, we demonstrate this method for ZnSe at 532 nm where two-photon absorption is present and the nonlinear refractive index n2 is negative. The values of β (nonlinear absorption coefficient) and n2 we measured are very close to the values found in other literature.

  4. A novel reconfigurable optical interconnect architecture using an Opto-VLSI processor and a 4-f imaging system. (United States)

    Shen, Mingya; Xiao, Feng; Alameh, Kamal


    A novel reconfigurable optical interconnect architecture for on-board high-speed data transmission is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The interconnect architecture is based on the use of an Opto-VLSI processor in conjunction with a 4-f imaging system to achieve reconfigurable chip-to-chip or board-to-board data communications. By reconfiguring the phase hologram of an Opto-VLSI processor, optical data generated by a vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) associated to a chip (or a board) is arbitrarily steered to the photodetector associated to another chip (or another board). Experimental results show that the optical interconnect losses range from 5.8dB to 9.6dB, and that the maximum crosstalk level is below -36dB. The proposed architecture is tested for high-speed data transmission, and measured eye diagrams display good eye opening for data rate of up to 10Gb/s.

  5. An Opto-VLSI-based reconfigurable optical adddrop multiplexer employing an off-axis 4-f imaging system. (United States)

    Shen, Mingya; Xiao, Feng; Ahderom, Selam; Alameh, Kamal


    A novel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) structure is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The ROADM structure employs two arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs), an array of optical fiber pairs, an array of 4-f imaging microlenses that are offset in relation to the axis of symmetry of the fiber pairs, and a reconfigurable Opto-VLSI processor that switches various wavelength channels between the fiber pairs to achieve add or drop multiplexing. Experimental results are shown, which demonstrate the principle of add/drop multiplexing with crosstalk of less than -27dB and insertion loss of less than 8dB over the Cband for drop and through operation modes.

  6. System design of programmable 4f phase modulation techniques for rapid intensity shaping: a conceptual comparison (United States)

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus


    The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.

  7. Enlarging the angle of view in Michelson-interferometer-based shearography by embedding a 4f system. (United States)

    Wu, Sijin; He, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Lianxiang


    Digital shearography based on Michelson interferometers suffers from the disadvantage of a small angle of view due to the structure. We demonstrate a novel digital shearography system with a large angle of view. In the optical arrangement, the imaging lens is in front of the Michelson interferometer rather than behind it as in traditional digital shearography. Thus, the angle of view is no longer limited by the Michelson interferometer. The images transmitting between the separate lens and camera are accomplished by a 4f system in the new style of shearography. The influences of the 4f system on shearography are also discussed.

  8. Digital confocal microscopy using a virtual 4f-system based on numerical beam propagation for depth measurement without mechanical scanning (United States)

    Goto, Yuta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Toda, Masataka; Kuno, Yasuyuki; Nozawa, Jin; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Tomita, Akihisa


    We propose a digital confocal microscope using a virtual 4f-system based on numerical beam propagation for depth measurement without mechanical scanning. In our technique, the information in the sample target along the depth direction is obtained by defocusing the virtual 4f-system, which consists of two virtual lenses arranged in a computer simulation. The principle of our technique is completely different from that of the mechanical scanning method used in the conventional confocal microscope based on digital holography. By using the virtual 4f-system, the measurement and exposure time can be markedly reduced because multilayered tomographic images are generated using a single measurement. In this study, we tested the virtual depth imaging technique by measuring cover glasses arranged along the depth direction.

  9. Core-level magnetic circular dichroism in 3d and 4f magnetic systems (invited) (abstract) (United States)

    Koide, T.


    With the recent availability of circulary polarized synchrotron radiation over a wide photon energy range from VUV to hard X rays, the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in core-level photoabsorption has rapidly attracted growing interest, both experimentally and theoretically. This novel technique can provide element-specific and site-selective information about the magnetic and the electronic states in various magnetic substances because the core-level MCD process involves optical transitions in which the one-electron initial states are well localized and have well-defined angular momenta. In order to get insight into the local magnetic states in 3d and 4f magnetic systems, we have studied MCD of ferrites, Fe1-xPtx alloys, and mixed-valence CeRh3B2 at the core-absorption edges in the VUV˜soft x-ray region. The experiments were performed by utilizing directly characterized, circularly polarized undulator radiation and off-plane synchrotron radiation1 in conjunction with an ultrahigh vacuum compatible superconducting magnet of special design.2 Clear MCD signals were observed for CeRh3B2 in the prethreshold region of the Ce 4d→4f (N4,5) edges. A comparison of the experimental MCD spectrum with theoretical ones3 for uniaxial crystal fields of Δc=0 and 0.2 eV shows that the experimental spectrum qualitatively agrees with the theoretical one for Δc=0 eV. Theory predicts that the MCD pattern for ΔcCeRh3B2. We will also present the MCD data in the M2,3 core-absorption region for ferrites (Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4) and Fe1-xPtx alloys, discussing the results.

  10. Impulse attack-free four random phase mask encryption based on a 4-f optical system. (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar


    Optical encryption methods based on double random phase encryption (DRPE) have been shown to be vulnerable to different types of attacks. The Fourier plane random phase mask (RPM), which is the most important key, can be cracked with a single impulse function attack. Such an attack is viable because the Fourier transform of a delta function is a unity function. Formation of a unity function can be avoided if RPMs are placed in front of both lenses in a 4-f optical setup, thereby protecting the DRPE from an impulse attack. We have performed numerical simulations to verify the proposed scheme. Resistance of this scheme is checked against the brute force and the impulse function attacks. The experimental results validate the feasibility of the scheme.

  11. Implementation of gray level error conpensation for optical 4f system%光学4f系统灰度误差补偿的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亮; 姜孜锜; 蒲秀娟


    为补偿光学4f系统灰度误差,提出基于直方图匹配和径向基函数(RBF)神经网络的灰度误差补偿方法.首先利用径向基函数神经网络拟合经光学4f系统输出图像的直方图与对应输入图像的直方图之间的非线性变换,得到输出图像与输入图像的直方图匹配变换曲线的最优估计;再依据直方图匹配曲线的最优估计对经光学4f系统的输出图像进行直方图匹配,得到灰度误差补偿后的图像.利用实际的光学4f系统进行光学实验,灰度误差补偿后图像的信噪比平均提高了2.96 dB,视觉效果明显改善.实验结果表明,该方法能有效补偿光学4f系统灰度误差,提高基于光学4f系统的光学信息处理的精度.%To compensate the gray level error in optical 4f system,a method for gray level error compensation based on histogram matching and Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network was proposed.The nonlinear transformation of histogram between input and output images in optical 4f System was fitted by RBF neural network,then the optimal estimation of curve for histogram matching between input and output images was obtained.The gray level error compensation image was obtained by utilizing histogram matching according to the optimal estimation of curve for histogram matching.The average Peak Signalto-Noise Ratio (PSNR) gain achieved was 2.96 dB and the visual effect of images processed was improved by utilizing the proposed method in actual optical 4f system.The experimental results show the gray level error in optical 4f system can be compensated effectively and the precision of optical information processing was improved by the proposed method.

  12. Exotic phenomena in 4f systems: From complex magnetism to surface conduction (United States)

    Thomas, Sean Michael

    For materials synthesized with f-electron elements, the interaction between f-electrons and conduction electrons often leads to interesting physics. As the temperature is lowered, the f-electrons can hybridize with the conduction electrons in a process known as the Kondo effect. In a Kondo lattice material, the screening may become coherent at the so-called coherence temperature T*. The resulting material is often metallic, containing heavy bands with effective masses many times larger than the free electron mass. In some cases, the development of coherence leads to a filled heavy-electron band where the chemical potential lies within the hybridization gap, resulting in insulating behavior. CeAgBi2 is an antiferromagnetic compound (TN = 6.4 K) belonging to the former (metallic) case. The close energy scales of the Kondo coherence, antiferromagnetism, and crystal field levels results in complex physical properties. Transport measurements reveal a coupling between the different magnetic phases and Hall resistivity. As the field is increased, the antiferromagnetic transition temperature is suppressed to zero Kelvin. Typically, this is expected to result in a quantum critical point. However, due to strange transport behavior in the paramagnetic regime, the usual signatures of quantum criticality are hidden. SmB6 is a Kondo insulator due to the fact that the hybridization results in the opening of a gap. However, as the temperature is further lowered, the resistance saturates. Originally believed to be due to in-gap conduction states in the bulk, the true reason for the resistance saturation is a robust conducting surface state. Several theories predict that the surface state is a result of SmB6 belonging to a class of materials known as topological insulators. However, direct imaging of the spin-momentum locking of the surface states indicative of a topological insulator has proved elusive. Through transport and magnetic measurements, indirect evidence of the nature of

  13. Highly compact (4F2) and well behaved nano-pillar transistor controlled resistive switching cell for neuromorphic system application. (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Wang, Xinpeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Kang, Jinfeng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee


    To simplify the architecture of a neuromorphic system, it is extremely desirable to develop synaptic cells with the capacity of low operation power, high density integration, and well controlled synaptic behaviors. In this study, we develop a resistive switching device (ReRAM)-based synaptic cell, fabricated by the CMOS compatible nano-fabrication technology. The developed synaptic cell consists of one vertical gate-all-around Si nano-pillar transistor (1T) and one transition metal-oxide based resistive switching device (1R) stacked on top of the vertical transistor directly. Thanks to the vertical architecture and excellent controllability on the ON/OFF performance of the nano-pillar transistor, the 1T1R synaptic cell shows excellent characteristics such as extremely high-density integration ability with 4F(2) footprint, ultra-low operation current (<2 nA), fast switching speed (<10 ns), multilevel data storage and controllable synaptic switching, which are extremely desirable for simplifying the architecture of neuromorphic system.

  14. Imaging System (United States)


    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  15. Phase equilibria in the NaF-CdO-NaPO3 system at 873 K and crystal structure and physico-chemical characterizations of the new Na2CdPO4F fluorophosphate (United States)

    Aboussatar, Mohamed; Mbarek, Aïcha; Naili, Houcine; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Avignant, Daniel; Zambon, Daniel


    Isothermal sections of the diagram representing phase relationships in the NaF-CdO-NaPO3 system have been investigated by solid state reactions and powder X-ray diffraction. This phase diagram investigation confirms the polymorphism of the NaCdPO4 side component and the structure of the ß high temperature polymorph (orthorhombic, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=9.3118(2), b=7.0459(1), c=5.1849(1) Å has been refined. A new fluorophosphate, Na2CdPO4F, has been discovered and its crystal structure determined and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. It exhibits a new 3D structure with orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=5.3731(1), b=6.8530(1), c=12.2691(2) Å. The structure is closely related to those of the high temperature polymorph of the nacaphite Na2CaPO4F and the fluorosilicate Ca2NaSiO4F but differs essentially in the cationic repartition since the structure is fully ordered with one Na site (8d) and one Cd site (4c). Relationships with other Na2MIIPO4F (MII=Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) have been examined and the crystal-chemical and topographical analysis of these fluorophosphates is briefly reviewed. IR, Raman, optical and 19F, 23Na, 31P MAS NMR characterizations of Na2CdPO4F have been investigated.

  16. Imaging systems and applications. (United States)

    Catrysse, Peter B; Imai, Francisco H; Linne von Berg, Dale C; Sheridan, John T


    Imaging systems have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging system requires the integration of optics, sensing, image processing, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from fundamental theories to novel imaging modalities and provides a systems perspective to imaging.

  17. Medical imaging systems (United States)

    Frangioni, John V


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  18. NH4F/H3PO4体系中阳极氧化法制备TiO2纳米管阵列%Fabrication of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays via Electrochemical Anodization in NH4F/H3PO4 Electrolyte Solution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纲; 刘中清; 王磊; 卢静; 张昭


    以价廉的Ni板代替常用的Pt片为阴极,纯钛为阳极,采用电化学阳极氧化法在NH4F-H3PO4体系中制备出TiO2纳米管阵列.详细研究了制备参数(溶液酸度、氟离子浓度、外加电压和氧化时间)对所获纳米管阵列形貌的影响.采用场发射扫描电镜(FE-SEM)和X射线衍射(XRD)对样品的形貌和晶相结构进行了表征.在最优化的条件下,可以获得形貌规整、表面干净、有序的TiO2纳米管阵列.纳米管阵列的平均管径为60 nm.管长约530 nm.采用阳极氧化法制备的纳米管阵列是非晶态的.经400℃热处理2 h后,可以转变为锐钛矿相.实验结果还发现,经过热处理后,纳米管阵列变得更为有序,管径扩大至约95 nm.%TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodization of titanium in aqueous electrolyte solution of NH4F+H3PO4 using a Nickel sheet of low cost as cathode instead of conventionally used noble Platinum. The effects of preparation parameters, i.e., concentration of H3PO4 and F-, applied voltage and anodization time, on the morphology of as-prepared nanotube arrays were systematically studied. Field emission scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM) and X-ray dittraction(XRD) analysis were carried out to characterize the morphology and structure of the samples. The results showed that the self-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with an average pore size of 60 nm and a length of 530 nm could be obtained under optimum conditions. The as-prepared nanotube arrays were amorphous and transformed to an anatase crystal structure after being annealed at 400 ℃ for 2 h. It was also found that the freshly-prepared nanotube arrays got more ordered after calcination, with a pore size of ca. 95 nm.

  19. Radiation imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.; Immel, David M.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Plummer, Jean R.; Serrato, Michael G.


    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  20. Radiation imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immel, David M.; Bobbit, III, John T.; Plummer, Jean R.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Serrato, Michael G.


    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  1. Snapshot spectral imaging system (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; McGunnigle, Gerald; Leitner, Raimund


    Spectral imaging is the combination of spectroscopy and imaging. These fields are well developed and are used intensively in many application fields including industry and the life sciences. The classical approach to acquire hyper-spectral data is to sequentially scan a sample in space or wavelength. These acquisition methods are time consuming because only two spatial dimensions, or one spatial and the spectral dimension, can be acquired simultaneously. With a computed tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) it is possible to acquire two spatial dimensions and a spectral dimension during a single integration time, without scanning either spatial or spectral dimensions. This makes it possible to acquire dynamic image scenes without spatial registration of the hyperspectral data. This is advantageous compared to tunable filter based systems which need sophisticated image registration techniques. While tunable filters provide full spatial and spectral resolution, for CTIS systems there is always a tradeoff between spatial and spectral resolution as the spatial and spectral information corresponding to an image cube is squeezed onto a 2D image. The presented CTIS system uses a spectral-dispersion element to project the spectral and spatial image information onto a 2D CCD camera array. The system presented in this paper is designed for a microscopy application for the analysis of fixed specimens in pathology and cytogenetics, cell imaging and material analysis. However, the CTIS approach is not limited to microscopy applications, thus it would be possible to implement it in a hand-held device for e.g. real-time, intra-surgery tissue classification.

  2. Cardiac Imaging System (United States)


    Although not available to all patients with narrowed arteries, balloon angioplasty has expanded dramatically since its introduction with an estimated further growth to 562,000 procedures in the U.S. alone by 1992. Growth has fueled demand for higher quality imaging systems that allow the cardiologist to be more accurate and increase the chances of a successful procedure. A major advance is the Digital Cardiac Imaging (DCI) System designed by Philips Medical Systems International, Best, The Netherlands and marketed in the U.S. by Philips Medical Systems North America Company. The key benefit is significantly improved real-time imaging and the ability to employ image enhancement techniques to bring out added details. Using a cordless control unit, the cardiologist can manipulate images to make immediate assessment, compare live x-ray and roadmap images by placing them side-by-side on monitor screens, or compare pre-procedure and post procedure conditions. The Philips DCI improves the cardiologist's precision by expanding the information available to him.

  3. 77 FR 321 - Section 4(f) Policy Paper (United States)


    ... Federal Highway Administration Section 4(f) Policy Paper AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... draft Section 4(f) Policy Paper that will provide guidance on the procedures the FHWA will follow when... practicable. Background A copy of the proposed Section 4(f) Policy Paper is available for download and...

  4. Scorpion image segmentation system (United States)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.


    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  5. Analysis list: E4f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E4f1 Embryonic fibroblast + mm9

  6. Tactical Imaging System (United States)

    Mocenter, Michael M.


    The ability to send photographic information to command centers is a vital element in performing effective near real-time reconnaissance and surveillance operations. This imagery, in conjunction with other battlefield data, provides the battlefield commander with up-to-date intelligence for making decisions. Until recently, the ability to provide this real-time information was severely restricted by the logistics of physically moving, developing, and then disseminating the film. This time delay resulted in out-of-date, stale intelligence. This problem situation has eased recently due to technological developments that have been instrumental in facilitating the dissemination of near real-time information to forward operating areas and behind enemy lines. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has capitalized on these developments and established the Tactical Imaging System (TIS). This miniaturized, man-pack, SATCOM/HF transmitting system provides near real-time tactical imagery. It consists of an image sensor, image intensifier, zoom lens, and image transmission processor. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications. The TIS will have potential application in areas such as identification (friend or foe), reconnaissance, surveillance, and battlefield assessment. Under the TIS program, NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed hands-on experience in still video images and related technologies, including fleet satellite communications, HF transmission, image compression algorithms, VSLI integrated circuitry design, and day/night imagery techniques. NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed a complete, miniaturized system to conduct operational demonstrations, and to demonstrate operational tactics and utilization concepts. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications.

  7. Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging...

  8. Quantitative luminescence imaging system (United States)

    Batishko, C. R.; Stahl, K. A.; Fecht, B. A.

    The goal of the Measurement of Chemiluminescence project is to develop and deliver a suite of imaging radiometric instruments for measuring spatial distributions of chemiluminescence. Envisioned deliverables include instruments working at the microscopic, macroscopic, and life-sized scales. Both laboratory and field portable instruments are envisioned. The project also includes development of phantoms as enclosures for the diazoluminomelanin (DALM) chemiluminescent chemistry. A suite of either phantoms in a variety of typical poses, or phantoms that could be adjusted to a variety of poses, is envisioned. These are to include small mammals (rats), mid-sized mammals (monkeys), and human body parts. A complete human phantom that can be posed is a long-term goal of the development. Taken together, the chemistry and instrumentation provide a means for imaging rf dosimetry based on chemiluminescence induced by the heat resulting from rf energy absorption. The first delivered instrument, the Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (QLIS), resulted in a patent, and an R&D Magazine 1991 R&D 100 award, recognizing it as one of the 100 most significant technological developments of 1991. The current status of the project is that three systems have been delivered, several related studies have been conducted, two preliminary human hand phantoms have been delivered, system upgrades have been implemented, and calibrations have been maintained. Current development includes sensitivity improvements to the microscope-based system; extension of the large-scale (potentially life-sized targets) system to field portable applications; extension of the 2-D large-scale system to 3-D measurement; imminent delivery of a more refined human hand phantom and a rat phantom; rf, thermal and imaging subsystem integration; and continued calibration and upgrade support.

  9. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd{sup +3} with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerico, Soraya; Carubelli, Celia R.; Massabni, Ana M.G.; Stucchi, Elizabeth B.; Leite, Sergio R. de A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Malta, Oscar [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental


    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd{sup 3+} ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and Aspartame{sup TM} in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  10. Holographic display system of a three-dimensional image with distortion-free magnification and zero-order elimination (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Tan, Qiaofeng; Jin, Guofan


    We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) holographic display system which consists of a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) and a modified 4-f system. The 3-D scene is generated from OpenGL, and the point source algorithm with anti-aliasing technique is used to generate the Fresnel hologram. A modified 4-f system is proposed to produce distortion-free magnification of the 3-D image and eliminate the zero-order interruption of the 3-D holographic imaging system. This method can make efficient utilization of the space-bandwidth product of the SLM, which promises the image quality and keeps the 3-D imaging zone unchanged. Numerical simulations and optical experiments are performed, and the results show that our proposed method can reconstruct enlarged 3-D optical image with correct magnification factor and low image noise.

  11. Acoustic imaging system (United States)

    Smith, Richard W.


    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  12. ee4fγ—A program for e+e-→4f,4f γ with nonzero fermion masses (United States)

    Kołodziej, Karol; Jegerlehner, Fred


    A computer program ee4fγ for calculating cross-sections of any four fermion final state of e+e--annihilation at high energy and the corresponding bremsstrahlung reaction that is possible in the framework of the Standard Model is presented. As the fermion masses are arbitrary, the cross-sections for channels that do not contain e+ and/or e- in the final state can be computed without any collinear cut, the on-shell top quark production can be studied and the Higgs boson exchange can be incorporated in a consistent way. The program can be used as a Monte Carlo generator of unweighted events as well. Program summaryTitle of program:ee4fγ Version: 1.0 (February 2004) Catalogue identifier: ADTQ Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computers: all Operating systems: Unix/Linux Programming language used:FORTRAN 90 CPC Program Library subprograms used:RANLUX, ACPR RANLUX 79 (1994) 111—a random number generator Memory required to execute with typical data: 4.0 Mb No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 364 490 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 278 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of physical problem: Description of all e+e-→4 fermions and corresponding bremsstrahlung reactions that are possible in the Standard Model (SM) to lowest order and with nonzero fermion masses at center of mass energies typical for next generation linear colliders. Such reactions are relevant, typically, for W-pair or intermediate mass Higgs boson production and decay. Method of solution: Matrix elements are calculated with the helicity amplitude method. The phase space integration is performed numerically utilizing a multi-channel Monte Carlo method. Restrictions on complexity of the problem: No higher order effects are taken into account, except for assuming the fine

  13. Query Adaptive Image Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Dubewar


    Full Text Available Images play a crucial role in various fields such as art gallery, medical, journalism and entertainment. Increasing use of image acquisition and data storage technologies have enabled the creation of large database. So, it is necessary to develop appropriate information management system to efficiently manage these collections and needed a system to retrieve required images from these collections. This paper proposed query adaptive image retrieval system (QAIRS to retrieve images similar to the query image specified by user from database. The goal of this system is to support image retrieval based on content properties such as colour and texture, usually encoded into feature vectors. In this system, colour feature extracted by various techniques such as colour moment, colour histogram and autocorrelogram and texture feature extracted by using gabor wavelet. Hashing technique is used to embed high dimensional image features into hamming space, where search can be performed by hamming distance of compact hash codes. Depending upon minimum hamming distance it returns the similar image to query image.

  14. Impact of the Kohn-Sham Delocalization Error on the 4f Shell Localization and Population in Lanthanide Complexes. (United States)

    Duignan, Thomas J; Autschbach, Jochen


    The extent of ligand to metal donation bonding and mixing of 4f (and 5d) orbitals with ligand orbitals is studied by Kohn-Sham (KS) calculations for LaX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I), GdX3, and LuX3 model complexes, CeCl6(2-), YbCp3, and selected lanthanide complexes with larger ligands. The KS delocalization error (DE) is quantified via the curvature of the energy for noninteger electron numbers. The extent of donation bonding and 4f-ligand mixing correlates well with the DE. For Lu complexes, the DE also correlates with the extent of mixing of ligand and 4f orbitals in the canonical molecular orbitals (MOs). However, the localized set of MOs and population analyses indicate that the closed 4f shell is localized. Attempts to create situations where mixing of 4f and ligand orbitals occurs due to a degeneracy of fragment orbitals were unsuccessful. For La(III) and, in particular, for Ce(IV), Hartree-Fock, KS, and coupled cluster singles and doubles calculations are in agreement in that excess 4f populations arise from ligand donation, along with donation into the 5d shell. Likewise, KS calculations for all systems with incompletely filled 4f shells, even those with "optimally tuned" functionals affording a small DE, produce varying degrees of excess 4f populations which may be only partially attributed to 5d polarization.

  15. Structure of Some 4f Rare Earth Liquid Metals - A Charged Hard Sphere Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.B. Thakor; P.N. Gajjar; A.R. Jani


    A well-established pseodopotential is used to study the structure of some 4f rare earth liquid metals (Ce,Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Yb). The structure factor S(q), pair distribution function g(r), interatomic distance r1, and coordination number n1 are calculated using Charged Hard Sphere (CHS) reference system. To introduce the exchange and correlation effects, the local field correction due to Sarkar et al. (S) is applied. The present investigation is successful in generating the structural information of Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Yb 4f rare earth liquid metals.

  16. Array imaging system for lithography (United States)

    Kirner, Raoul; Mueller, Kevin; Malaurie, Pauline; Vogler, Uwe; Noell, Wilfried; Scharf, Toralf; Voelkel, Reinhard


    We present an integrated array imaging system based on a stack of microlens arrays. The microlens arrays are manufactured by melting resist and reactive ion etching (RIE) technology on 8'' wafers (fused silica) and mounted by wafer-level packaging (WLP)1. The array imaging system is configured for 1X projection (magnification m = +1) of a mask pattern onto a planar wafer. The optical system is based on two symmetric telescopes, thus anti-symmetric wavefront aberrations like coma, distortion, lateral color are minimal. Spherical aberrations are reduced by using microlenses with aspherical lens profiles. In our system design approach, sub-images of individual imaging channels do not overlap to avoid interference. Image superposition is achieved by moving the array imaging system during the exposure time. A tandem Koehler integrator illumination system (MO Exposure Optics) is used for illumination. The angular spectrum of the illumination light underfills the pupils of the imaging channels to avoid crosstalk. We present and discuss results from simulation, mounting and testing of a first prototype of the investigated array imaging system for lithography.

  17. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  18. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques (United States)

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.


    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a

  19. 77 FR 42802 - Section 4(f) Policy Paper (United States)


    ... Service Team, and/or the Office of Chief Counsel should be consulted as appropriate for assistance. For... and do not cause other severe problems of a magnitude that substantially outweigh the importance of... problems of a magnitude that substantially outweigh the importance of protecting the Section 4(f)...

  20. Trigonal bipyramidal 5d-4f molecules with SMM behavior. (United States)

    Saber, Mohamed R; Dunbar, Kim R


    A family of trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) 5d-4f cyanide bridged aggregates were synthesized that exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization below 4 K as indicated by a signal in the out-of-phase ac susceptibility data under zero field.

  1. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Cooper, Moogega; Adler, John; Jacobson, Tobias


    A document discusses a hyperspectral imaging instrument package designed to be carried aboard a helicopter. It was developed to map the depths of Greenland's supraglacial lakes. The instrument is capable of telescoping to twice its original length, allowing it to be retracted with the door closed during takeoff and landing, and manually extended in mid-flight. While extended, the instrument platform provides the attached hyperspectral imager a nadir-centered and unobstructed view of the ground. Before flight, the instrument mount is retracted and securely strapped down to existing anchor points on the floor of the helicopter. When the helicopter reaches the destination lake, the door is opened and the instrument mount is manually extended. Power to the instrument package is turned on, and the data acquisition computer is commanded via a serial cable from an onboard user-operated laptop to begin data collection. After data collection is complete, the instrument package is powered down and the mount retracted, allowing the door to be closed in preparation for landing. The present design for the instrument mount consists of a three-segment telescoping cantilever to allow for a sufficient extended length to see around the landing struts and provide a nadir-centered and unobstructed field of view for the hyperspectral imager. This instrument works on the premise that water preferentially absorbs light with longer wavelengths on the red side of the visible spectrum. This property can be exploited in order to remotely determine the depths of bodies of pure freshwater. An imager flying over such a lake receives light scattered from the surface, the bulk of the water column, and from the lake bottom. The strength of absorption of longer-wavelength light depends on the depth of the water column. Through calibration with in situ measurements of the water depths, a depth-determining algorithm may be developed to determine lake depth from these spectral properties of the

  2. The strong correlation of the 4f electrons of erbium in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Yu Rui; Wang Xun; Ye Lin


    The local spin density approximation (LSDA) with the Hubbard model correction is adopted to describe the electronic structures of O-codoped Er-Si systems. The electrons in the 4f orbitals of Er atoms are taken as localized electrons in the framework of an all-electron treatment. The total density of states (DOS) and the partial densities of states for Si(3s, 3p), Er(4f), Er(5d), Er(6s), O(2s), and O(2p) in this ErSiO system are calculated. It is found that the inclusion of the Hubbard U greatly influences the partial DOS of the Er 4f electrons. The separation between the spin-up and the spin-down states of the highly localized 4f orbitals is larger than that of the LSDA results obtained without considering the Hubbard U-parameter. The calculation results provide possible explanations of the experimentally observed erbium-induced impurity energy levels in Si detected by deep-level transient spectroscopy.

  3. Image processing system for digital chest X-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocklin, M.; Gourlay, A.; Jackson, P.; Kaye, G.; Miessler, M. (I.B.M. U.K. Scientific Centre, Winchester (UK)); Kerr, I.; Lams, P. (Radiology Department, Brompton Hospital, London (UK))


    This paper investigates the requirements for image processing of digital chest X-ray images. These images are conventionally recorded on film and are characterised by large size, wide dynamic range and high resolution. X-ray detection systems are now becoming available for capturing these images directly in photoelectronic-digital form. The hardware and software facilities required for handling these images are described. These facilities include high resolution digital image displays, programmable video look up tables, image stores for image capture and processing and a full range of software tools for image manipulation. Examples are given of the applications of digital image processing techniques to this class of image.

  4. Density Functional Study of Structures and Electron Affinities of BrO4F/BrO4F-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li


    Full Text Available The structures, electron affinities and bond dissociation energies of BrO4F/BrO4F− species have been investigated with five density functional theory (DFT methods with DZP++ basis sets. The planar F-Br…O2…O2 complexes possess 3A' electronic state for neutral molecule and 4A' state for the corresponding anion. Three types of the neutral-anion energy separations are the adiabatic electron affinity (EAad, the vertical electron affinity (EAvert, and the vertical detachment energy (VDE. The EAad value predicted by B3LYP method is 4.52 eV. The bond dissociation energies De (BrO4F → BrO4-mF + Om (m = 1-4 and De- (BrO4F- → BrO4-mF- + Om and BrO4F- → BrO4-mF + Om- are predicted. The adiabatic electron affinities (EAad were predicted to be 4.52 eV for F-Br…O2…O2 (3A'← 4A' (B3LYP method.

  5. Simultaneous observation of low temperature 4f-4f and 3d-3d emission spectra in a series of Cr(III)(ox)Ln(III) assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Subhan, M A; Suzuki, T; Choi, J H; Kaizaki, S


    We report here the low temperature emission spectra in the heterometal dinuclear 3d-4f assembled molecular system [(acac) sub 2 Cr sup I sup I sup I (mu-ox)Ln sup I sup I sup I (HBpz sub 3) sub 2] (Cr(ox)Ln:acac sup - =acetylacetonate, ox sup 2 sup - =oxalate, HBpz sub 3 sup - =hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate; Ln=La, Nd, Ho, Er , Tm and Yb) in comparison with those of Na[Cr(acac) sub 2 (ox)] and [(HBpz sub 3) sub 2 Ln(mu-ox)Ln(HBpz sub 3) sub 2](Ln=Nd and Er). From 10 to 150 K the Cr(ox)Ln complexes show a broad emission band around 800 nm from the sup 2 E state of Cr(III) moiety. At room temperature no sup 2 E- sup 4 A sub 2 emission was observed in the Cr(ox)Ln except for the La and Lu complexes. On warming from 10 to 300 K rapid quenching of the sup 2 E- sup 4 A sub 2 emission of Cr(III) is suggested to result from the energy transfer from Cr to Ln in the Cr(ox)Ln. The excitation spectra and the life-time were also measured with monitoring the 4f-4f emission peaks of the Cr(ox)Yb complex.

  6. Acoustic imaging system (United States)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.


    Tool detects noise sources by scanning sound "scene" and displaying relative location of noise-producing elements in area. System consists of ellipsoidal acoustic mirror and microphone and a display device.

  7. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Futang; Zhang, Zuyin


    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized channels. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo- color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously, all parameters of flight and radiometric data are sorted in hard disk for post- processing. The sensitivity of the radiometer (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new displaying method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate that the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  8. Display System Image Quality (United States)


    windecreen movement table and an optical angular deviation measurement device (Task, Genco , Smith, and Dabbs, 1983). For most HUDs, the spectral...ASD(ENA)-TR-83-5019, Dec 1983, pp 11-19. Task, H.L., Genco , L.V., Smith, K., and Dabbs, G., "System for measuring angular deviation in a tranparency

  9. Limbic system (image) (United States)

    ... structures which govern emotions and behavior. The limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus and amygdala, is involved in the formation of long-term memory, and is closely associated with the olfactory structures (having to do with the sense of ...

  10. EDITORIAL: Imaging systems and techniques Imaging systems and techniques (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George; Nikita, Konstantina; Pastorino, Matteo; Karras, Dimitrios


    The papers in this special issue focus on providing the state-of-the-art approaches and solutions to some of the most challenging imaging areas, such as the design, development, evaluation and applications of imaging systems, measuring techniques, image processing algorithms and instrumentation, with an ultimate aim of enhancing the measurement accuracy and image quality. This special issue explores the principles, engineering developments and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, and encourages broad discussion of imaging methodologies, shaping the future and identifying emerging trends. The multi-faceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment and technological evolution. There is an urgent need to address new problems, which tend to be either static but complex, or dynamic, e.g. rapidly evolving with time, with many unknowns, and to propose innovative solutions. For instance, the battles against cancer and terror, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, management of natural resources and environmental monitoring are some of the areas that need to be addressed. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios and demanding design parameters, e.g. speed, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), specificity, contrast, spatial resolution, scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environments, necessitate the development of a multi-functional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, and operation on diverse detection and imaging principles. Efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level present another important research area. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, and using high-resolution, high-selectivity nano-imaging methods, quantum dots, nanoparticles, biomarkers, nanostructures, nanosensors, micro-array imaging chips

  11. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Carrano, Carmen J.


    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  12. A compact THz imaging system (United States)

    Sešek, Aleksander; Å vigelj, Andrej; Trontelj, Janez


    The objective of this paper is the development of a compact low cost imaging THz system, usable for observation of the objects near to the system and also for stand-off detection. The performance of the system remains at the high standard of more expensive and bulkiest system on the market. It is easy to operate as it is not dependent on any fine mechanical adjustments. As it is compact and it consumes low power, also a portable system was developed for stand-off detection of concealed objects under textile or inside packages. These requirements rule out all optical systems like Time Domain Spectroscopy systems which need fine optical component positioning and requires a large amount of time to perform a scan and the image capture pixel-by-pixel. They are also almost not suitable for stand-off detection due to low output power. In the paper the antenna - bolometer sensor microstructure is presented and the THz system described. Analysis and design guidelines for the bolometer itself are discussed. The measurement results for both near and stand-off THz imaging are also presented.

  13. 3D Backscatter Imaging System (United States)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)


    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  14. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert


    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  15. Dehybridization of the 4f shell in Si-substituted CeRh3B2 (United States)

    Malik, S. K.; Shenoy, G. K.; Dhar, S. K.; Paulose, P. L.; Vijayaraghavan, R.


    The compound CeRh3B2 is known to order magnetically with an unusually high Curie temperature (TC) of 115 K and a low saturation moment of about 0.4μB. We have studied the magnetic behavior of the system CeRh3(B1-xSix)2 (0CeRh3B2 arises because of the Ce 4f hybridization with the neighboring ligands.

  16. Compact Microscope Imaging System Developed (United States)

    McDowell, Mark


    The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. The CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, can scan, find areas of interest, focus, and acquire images automatically. Large numbers of multiple cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is only feasible with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities. The software also has a user-friendly interface that can be used independently of the hardware for post-experiment analysis. CMIS has potential commercial uses in the automated online inspection of precision parts, medical imaging, security industry (examination of currency in automated teller machines and fingerprint identification in secure entry locks), environmental industry (automated examination of soil/water samples), biomedical field (automated blood/cell analysis), and microscopy community. CMIS will improve research in several ways: It will expand the capabilities of MSD experiments utilizing microscope technology. It may be used in lunar and Martian experiments (Rover Robot). Because of its reduced size, it will enable experiments that were not feasible previously. It may be incorporated into existing shuttle orbiter and space station experiments, including glove-box-sized experiments as well as ground-based experiments.

  17. The RTSS Image Generation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvermann, K.; Graeber, S.; Mager, J.W.L.J.; Smith, M.H.


    Main market demands for the visual system of a simulator are photorealism and low latency time. RTSS, a general purpose image generation module developed within the European ESPRIT project HAMLET, can meet these demands through the use of High Performance Computing technology. This technology provid

  18. Imaging Systems in TLE Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Thomas Højgaard; Neubert, Torsten; Laursen, Steen


    documented using the right equipment in the right way. This chapter provides an introduction to the concepts of low light imagers, and how they can be successfully applied in TLE research. As examples, we describe the 2003 and 2004 Spritewatch systems, which integrate low-light cameras with a digital...

  19. Stereoscopic wide field of view imaging system (United States)

    Prechtl, Eric F. (Inventor); Sedwick, Raymond J. (Inventor); Jonas, Eric M. (Inventor)


    A stereoscopic imaging system incorporates a plurality of imaging devices or cameras to generate a high resolution, wide field of view image database from which images can be combined in real time to provide wide field of view or panoramic or omni-directional still or video images.

  20. Image and information management system (United States)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)


    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places ''hot spots'', or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  1. Image and information management system (United States)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)


    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places hot spots, or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  2. Inertial imaging with nanomechanical systems (United States)

    Hanay, M. Selim; Kelber, Scott I.; O’Connell, Cathal D.; Mulvaney, Paul; Sader, John E.; Roukes, Michael L.


    Mass sensing with nanoelectromechanical systems has advanced significantly during the last decade. With nanoelectromechanical systems sensors it is now possible to carry out ultrasensitive detection of gaseous analytes, to achieve atomic-scale mass resolution and to perform mass spectrometry on single proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of mass within an individual analyte can be imaged—in real time and at the molecular scale—when it adsorbs onto a nanomechanical resonator. Each single-molecule adsorption event induces discrete, time-correlated perturbations to all modal frequencies of the device. We show that by continuously monitoring a multiplicity of vibrational modes, the spatial moments of mass distribution can be deduced for individual analytes, one-by-one, as they adsorb. We validate this method for inertial imaging, using both experimental measurements of multimode frequency shifts and numerical simulations, to analyse the inertial mass, position of adsorption and the size and shape of individual analytes. Unlike conventional imaging, the minimum analyte size detectable through nanomechanical inertial imaging is not limited by wavelength-dependent diffraction phenomena. Instead, frequency fluctuation processes determine the ultimate attainable resolution. Advanced nanoelectromechanical devices appear capable of resolving molecular-scale analytes. PMID:25822931

  3. Advanced Imaging Algorithms for Radiation Imaging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The intent of the proposed work, in collaboration with University of Michigan, is to develop the algorithms that will bring the analysis from qualitative images to quantitative attributes of objects containing SNM. The first step to achieving this is to develop an indepth understanding of the intrinsic errors associated with the deconvolution and MLEM algorithms. A significant new effort will be undertaken to relate the image data to a posited three-dimensional model of geometric primitives that can be adjusted to get the best fit. In this way, parameters of the model such as sizes, shapes, and masses can be extracted for both radioactive and non-radioactive materials. This model-based algorithm will need the integrated response of a hypothesized configuration of material to be calculated many times. As such, both the MLEM and the model-based algorithm require significant increases in calculation speed in order to converge to solutions in practical amounts of time.

  4. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  5. Multi-channel medical imaging system (United States)

    Frangioni, John V.


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  6. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangioni, John V.


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  7. Multi-channel medical imaging system (United States)

    Frangioni, John V


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in the subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  8. Energies of 4f^N and 4f^N-15d States Relative to Host Bands in Rare-earth-doped Fluorides (United States)

    Thiel, C. W.; Joubert, M.-F.; Tkachuk, A.


    Energies of 4f^N states relative to crystal band states were measured for rare-earth ions in the optical host materials LiYF4, Na0.4Y0.6F2.2, and LaF3 using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Spectra were modeled to determine the valence band maximum and 4f^ electron binding energies in each material. These results were combined with 4f^N to 4f^N-15d transition energies to determine 5d binding energies for the lowest levels of excited 4f^N-15d configurations. While 4f^N ground-state energies vary within several eV of the valence band maximum for different rare-earth ions in each host, the lowest 4f^N-15d states have similar energies and are several eV below the bottom of the conduction band. A simple model accurately described 4f^N and 4f^N-15d binding energies across the entire series of rare-earth ions. These results improve the understanding of optical materials for lasers, phosphors, and spectral hole burning applications for optical signal processing and data storage.

  9. A collection of hyperspectral images for imaging systems research (United States)

    Skauli, Torbjørn; Farrell, Joyce


    A set of hyperspectral image data are made available, intended for use in modeling of imaging systems. The set contains images of faces, landscapes and buildings. The data cover wavelengths from 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers, spanning the visible, NIR and SWIR electromagnetic spectral ranges. The images have been recorded with two HySpex line-scan imaging spectrometers covering the spectral ranges 0.4 to 1 micrometers and 1 to 2.5 micrometers. The hyperspectral data set includes measured illuminants and software for converting the radiance data to estimated reflectance. The images are being made available for download at

  10. Stochastic image reconstruction for a dual-particle imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, M.C., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Polack, J.K., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Poitrasson-Rivière, A., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Flaska, M., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 137 Reber Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Clarke, S.D., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pozzi, S.A., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tomanin, A., E-mail: [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, 21027 Ispra, VA (Italy); Lainsa-Italia S.R.L., via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, VA (Italy); Peerani, P., E-mail: [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, 21027 Ispra, VA (Italy)


    Stochastic image reconstruction has been applied to a dual-particle imaging system being designed for nuclear safeguards applications. The dual-particle imager (DPI) is a combined Compton-scatter and neutron-scatter camera capable of producing separate neutron and photon images. The stochastic origin ensembles (SOE) method was investigated as an imaging method for the DPI because only a minimal estimation of system response is required to produce images with quality that is comparable to common maximum-likelihood methods. This work contains neutron and photon SOE image reconstructions for a {sup 252}Cf point source, two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel canisters representing point sources, and the MOX fuel canisters representing a distributed source. Simulation of the DPI using MCNPX-PoliMi is validated by comparison of simulated and measured results. Because image quality is dependent on the number of counts and iterations used, the relationship between these quantities is investigated.

  11. Digital Solution to Mining Image Monitor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘越男; 孙继平; 苏辉; 那景芳


    The thesis describes an advanced digital solution to mining digital image monitor system, which makes up the shortage of the traditional mining analog image monitor. It illustrates the system components and how to choose the encoder bandwidth of the system. The problem of image multicast and its solution in LAN are also discussed.

  12. Accessing 4f-states in single-molecule spintronics. (United States)

    Fahrendorf, Sarah; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Besson, Claire; Caciuc, Vasile; Matthes, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Kögerler, Paul; Bürgler, Daniel E; Schneider, Claus M


    Magnetic molecules are potential functional units for molecular and supramolecular spintronic devices. However, their magnetic and electronic properties depend critically on their interaction with metallic electrodes. Charge transfer and hybridization modify the electronic structure and thereby influence or even quench the molecular magnetic moment. Yet, detection and manipulation of the molecular spin state by means of charge transport, that is, spintronic functionality, mandates a certain level of hybridization of the magnetic orbitals with electrode states. Here we show how a judicious choice of the molecular spin centres determines these critical molecule-electrode contact characteristics. In contrast to late lanthanide analogues, the 4f-orbitals of single bis(phthalocyaninato)-neodymium(III) molecules adsorbed on Cu(100) can be directly accessed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Hence, they contribute to charge transport, whereas their magnetic moment is sustained as evident from comparing spectroscopic data with ab initio calculations. Our results showcase how tailoring molecular orbitals can yield all-electrically controlled spintronic device concepts.

  13. Information Systems - Cancer Imaging Program (United States)

    The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) represents an effort by CIP grantees in a consortium to create a database of spiral CT images of the lung for use in CAD (computer-aided detection) algorithm research. The Imaging Database Resources Initiative (IDRI) is extending the efforts of the LIDC, to create a larger database of spiral CT imaging of the lung for use in CAD algorithm research. Image Archive Resources contains links to Web sites related to the interests of the NCI CIP Image Archive Committee. The Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) is a database of research data on in vivo molecular imaging and contrast agents.

  14. Improved Interactive Medical-Imaging System (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Twombly, Ian A.; Senger, Steven


    An improved computational-simulation system for interactive medical imaging has been invented. The system displays high-resolution, three-dimensional-appearing images of anatomical objects based on data acquired by such techniques as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). The system enables users to manipulate the data to obtain a variety of views for example, to display cross sections in specified planes or to rotate images about specified axes. Relative to prior such systems, this system offers enhanced capabilities for synthesizing images of surgical cuts and for collaboration by users at multiple, remote computing sites.

  15. Investigation of energy shift of 4f3 and 4f5d levels in Nd-doped YLF and LLF crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Felipe Henriques Librantz


    Full Text Available We observed ultraviolet (UV luminescence from 4f25d and 4f3 configuration in Nd-doped YLiF4 (YLF and LuLiF4 (LLF crystals induced by multiphotonic excitation of the three photons (532 nanometers [nm]. The LLF lattice is more compact than the YLF crystal and favours an absorption and emission shift of the main peaks due to crystal field strength. The red and blue shifts of the emission bands towards to lower (and higher energy are different for the transitions from 4f3 and 4f25d levels. The 4f3 transitions have smaller shift (~5 times smaller than the shift of the 4f25d due to 5s25p6 closed-shell shielding effect. On the other hand the 4f25d transitions are more susceptible to lattice change. The effect of the crystalline field was compared for both lattice. The result shows that these emission bands from 4f25d configuration always shift to lower energy when substituting the Y3+ by Lu3+ (i.e., the last one has the ionic radius 5% smaller than Y3+.

  16. Image acquisition system for a hospital enterprise (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M.; Beecher, David E.


    Hospital enterprises are being created through mergers and acquisitions of existing hospitals. One area of interest in the PACS literature has been the integration of information systems and imaging systems. Hospital enterprises with multiple information and imaging systems provide new challenges to the integration task. This paper describes the requirements at the BJC Health System and a testbed system that is designed to acquire images from a number of different modalities and hospitals. This testbed system is integrated with Project Spectrum at BJC which is designed to provide a centralized clinical repository and a single desktop application for physician review of the patient chart (text, lab values, images).

  17. Copper Causes Regiospecific Formation of C4F8-Containing Six-Membered Rings and their Defluorination/Aromatization to C4F4-Containing Rings in Triphenylene/1,4-C4F8I2 Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippy, Kerry C.; Bukovsky, Eric V.; Clikeman, Tyler T.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xue B.; Popov, Alexey; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.


    The presence of Cu in reactions of triphenylene (TRPH) and 1,4-C4F8I2 at 360 °C led to regiospecific substitution of TRPH ortho C(β) atoms to form C4F8-containing rings, completely suppressing substitution on C(α) atoms. In addition, Cu caused selective reductive-defluorination/aromatization (RD/A) to form C4F4- containing aromatic rings. Without Cu, the reactions of TRPH and 1,4- C4F8I2 were not regiospecific and no RD/A was observed. These results, supported by DFT calculations, are the first examples of Cupromoted (i) regiospecific perfluoroannulation, (ii) preparative C–F activation, and (iii) RD/A. HPLC-purified products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature PES, and 1H/19F NMR.

  18. Gel Structure of the 17R4/F127 Mixed Solutions%17R4/F127混合水溶液的凝胶结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宇; 吕中元; 孙昭艳; 安立佳; 李秀宏; 吴忠华


    Rheology and small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS) were used to study the effect of the content of 17R4(PO14EO24PO14) and temperature on the gel structure of the 17R4/F127(EO99PO65EO99) mixed solutions.It was indicated that the structures of sol,soft gel and hard gel were corresponding to disorder phase,disorder/cubic coexisted phase and cubic phase.With increasing temperature,hard sphere radius and aggregation number of micelle decreased.For pure 17R4,it is difficult to form micelles.However,when the temperature was increased,17R4 chains took part in the formation of micelles and therefore the number of micelles increased,which made the number of F127 chains in one micelle decrease.Thus,the number of PEO blocks of F127 in coronal part decreased and then the coronal part became softer.As a result,a fcc-bcc transition occurred in the system with 17R4/F127 molar ratio of 2.%结合流变学频率扫描和同步辐射小角X射线散射(SAXS),研究了17R4(PO14-EO24-PO14)含量和温度对17R4/F127(EO99-PO65-EO99)混合水溶液凝胶结构的影响.结果表明,溶胶、软凝胶和硬凝胶分别对应无序结构、无序与立方相共存结构以及立方相结构.对于F127水溶液体系,可以将F127形成的胶束看作硬球,随着温度的升高,胶束的硬球半径和胶束中F127链的聚集数随之减小,这是因为17R4在较低温度下很难形成胶束,当温度升高时,17R4链参与胶束的形成,从而使胶束数目增加,因此每个胶束中的F127链数也随之减小.当17R4含量较高时,胶束外壳中F127部分的PEO链段数随着温度升高两减小,胶束外壳变得更软,因此,当17R4/F127摩尔比为2∶1时,混合溶液在高温下呈现面心立方(fcc)到体心立方(bcc)的结构转变.

  19. Towards a proton imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civinini, C., E-mail: Carlo.Civinini@fi.infn.i [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Candiano, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Capineri, L. [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Mazzaglia, E. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Menichelli, D.; Pieri, S. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)


    Hadron therapy for tumor treatment is nowadays used in several medical centres. The main advantage in using protons or light ions beams is the possibility of tightly shaping the radiation dose to the target volume. Presently the spatial accuracy of the therapy is limited by the uncertainty in stopping power distribution, which is derived, for each treatment, from the photon attenuation coefficients measured by X-ray tomography. A direct measurement of the stopping powers will help in reducing this uncertainty. This can be achieved by using a proton beam and a detection system able to reconstruct a tomography image of the patient. As a first step towards such a system an apparatus able to perform a proton transmission radiography (pCR) has been designed. It consists of a silicon microstrip tracker, measuring proton trajectories, and a YAG:Ce calorimeter to determine the particle residual energy. Proton beam and laboratory tests have been performed on the system components prototypes: the main results will be shown and discussed.

  20. Imaging System and Plasma Imaging on HL-2A Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑银甲; 冯震; 罗萃文; 刘莉; 李伟; 严龙文; 杨青巍; 刘永


    As a new diagnostic means, plasma-imaging system has been developed on the HL2A tokamak, with a basic understanding of plasma discharge scenario of the entire torus, checking the plasma position and the clearance between the plasma and the first wall during discharge. The plasma imaging system consists of (1) color video camera, (2) observation window and turn mirror,(3) viewing & collecting optics, (4) video cable, (5) Video capture card as well as PC. This paper mainly describes the experimental arrangement, plasma imaging system and detailed part in the system, along with the experimental results. Real-time monitoring of plasma discharge process,particularly distinguishing limitor and divertor configuration, the imaging system has become key diagnostic means and laid the foundation for further physical experiment on the HL-2A tokamak.

  1. Developing stereo image based robot control system (United States)

    Suprijadi, Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F.; Srigutomo, W.


    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  2. Fibre laser based broadband THz imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn

    State-of-the-art optical fiber technology can contribute towards complex multi-element broadband terahertz imaging systems. Classical table-top terahertz imaging systems are generally limited to a single emitter/receiver pair, which constrains their imaging capability to tedious raster scanning...... imaging techniques. This thesis exhibits that fiber technology can improve the robustness and the flexibility of terahertz imaging systems both by the use of fiber-optic light sources and the employment of optical fibers as light distribution medium. The main focus is placed on multi-element terahertz...

  3. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprijadi,; Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F; Srigutomo, W. [Department of Physics, FMIPA, InstitutTeknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha No. 10. Bandung 40132, Indonesia (Indonesia)


    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  4. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.


    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  5. Mainstream Smoke Chemistry and in Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of the Reference Cigarettes 3R4F and 2R4F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemer E


    Full Text Available A new reference cigarette, the 3R4F, has been developed to replace the depleting supply of the 2R4F cigarette. The present study was designed to compare mainstream smoke chemistry and toxicity of the two reference cigarettes under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO machine smoking conditions, and to further compare mainstream smoke chemistry and toxicological activity of the 3R4F cigarette by two different smoking regimens, i.e., the machine smoking conditions specified by ISO and the Health Canada intensive (HCI smoking conditions.

  6. Physical Optics Based Computational Imaging Systems (United States)

    Olivas, Stephen Joseph

    There is an ongoing demand on behalf of the consumer, medical and military industries to make lighter weight, higher resolution, wider field-of-view and extended depth-of-focus cameras. This leads to design trade-offs between performance and cost, be it size, weight, power, or expense. This has brought attention to finding new ways to extend the design space while adhering to cost constraints. Extending the functionality of an imager in order to achieve extraordinary performance is a common theme of computational imaging, a field of study which uses additional hardware along with tailored algorithms to formulate and solve inverse problems in imaging. This dissertation details four specific systems within this emerging field: a Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System, an Extended Depth-of-Focus Imaging System, a Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System, and a Compressive Imaging System. The Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System is part of a larger project, where the work presented in this thesis was to use image processing techniques to mitigate problems inherent to fiber bundle image relay and then, form high-resolution wide field-of-view panoramas captured from multiple sensors within a custom state-of-the-art imager. The Extended Depth-of-Focus System goals were to characterize the angular and depth dependence of the PSF of a focal swept imager in order to increase the acceptably focused imaged scene depth. The goal of the Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System was to build a system that can capture a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), long-exposure image which is inherently blurred while at the same time capturing motion data using additional optical sensors in order to deblur the degraded images. Lastly, the objective of the Compressive Imager was to design and build a system functionally similar to the Single Pixel Camera and use it to test new sampling methods for image generation and to characterize it against a traditional camera. These computational

  7. Image enhancement method for fingerprint recognition system. (United States)

    Li, Shunshan; Wei, Min; Tang, Haiying; Zhuang, Tiange; Buonocore, Michael


    Image enhancement plays an important role in Fingerprint Recognition System. In this paper fingerprint image enhancement method, a refined Gabor filter, is presented. This enhancement method can connect the ridge breaks, ensures the maximal gray values located at the ridge center and has the ability to compensate for the nonlinear deformations. The result shows it can improve the performance of image enhancement.

  8. Image Control In Automatic Welding Vision System (United States)

    Richardson, Richard W.


    Orientation and brightness varied to suit welding conditions. Commands from vision-system computer drive servomotors on iris and Dove prism, providing proper light level and image orientation. Optical-fiber bundle carries view of weld area as viewed along axis of welding electrode. Image processing described in companion article, "Processing Welding Images for Robot Control" (MFS-26036).

  9. A reasoning system for image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jin Sheng


    Full Text Available For image analysis in computer, the traditional approach is extracting and transcoding features after image segmentation. However, in this paper, we present a different way to analyze image. We adopt spatial logic technology to establish a reasoning system with corresponding semantic model, and prove its soundness and completeness, and then realize the image analysis in formal way. And it can be applied in artificial intelligence. This is a new attempt and also a challenging approach.

  10. Image Processing in Intelligent Medical Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashev Dmitriy


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use of high-performance computing systems with the parallel-operation architecture in intelligent medical systems, such as medical robotic systems, based on a computer vision system, is an automatic control system with the strict requirements, such as high reliability, accuracy and speed of performance. It shows the basic block-diagram of an automatic control system based on a computer vision system. The author considers the possibility of using a reconfigurable computing environment in such systems. The design principles of the reconfigurable computing environment allows to improve a reliability, accuracy and performance of whole system many times. The article contains the brief overview and the theory of the research, demonstrates the use of reconfigurable computing environments for the image preprocessing, namely morphological image processing operations. Present results of the successful simulation of the reconfigurable computing environment and implementation of the morphological image processing operations on the test image in the MATLAB Simulink.

  11. Ligand field density functional theory calculation of the 4f2→ 4f15d1 transitions in the quantum cutter Cs2KYF6:Pr3+. (United States)

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Urland, Werner; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Daul, Claude


    Herein we present a Ligand Field Density Functional Theory (LFDFT) based methodology for the analysis of the 4f(n)→ 4f(n-1)5d(1) transitions in rare earth compounds and apply it for the characterization of the 4f(2)→ 4f(1)5d(1) transitions in the quantum cutter Cs2KYF6:Pr(3+) with the elpasolite structure type. The methodological advances are relevant for the analysis and prospection of materials acting as phosphors in light-emitting diodes. The positions of the zero-phonon energy corresponding to the states of the electron configurations 4f(2) and 4f(1)5d(1) are calculated, where the praseodymium ion may occupy either the Cs(+)-, K(+)- or the Y(3+)-site, and are compared with available experimental data. The theoretical results show that the occupation of the three undistorted sites allows a quantum-cutting process. However size effects due to the difference between the ionic radii of Pr(3+) and K(+) as well as Cs(+) lead to the distortion of the K(+)- and the Cs(+)-site, which finally exclude these sites for quantum-cutting. A detailed discussion about the origin of this distortion is also described.

  12. Carbothermal reduction synthesis of carbon coated Na2FePO4F for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Cui, Dongming; Chen, Shasha; Han, Chang; Ai, Changchun; Yuan, Liangjie


    Carbon coated spherical Na2FePO4F particles with typical diameters from 500 nm to 1 μm have been synthesized through an economical carbothermal reduction method with a simple apparatus. Mixed carbon source consists of citric acid and phenolic resin can form highly graphitized carbon and remarkably improve the electrical conductivity. When cycled against lithium, Na2FePO4F/C cathodes deliver maximum discharge capacity of 119 mAh g-1 at a low rate of 0.05 C. Reversible capacity of 110 mAh g-1, 74 mAh g-1 and 52 mAh g-1 can be obtained at 0.1 C, 1 C and 2 C rates, respectively. And after 30 cycles at 0.1 C, 91% of the discharge capacity can still be maintained. The electrochemical kinetic characteristic of electrode material is investigated by EIS and the apparent Li+ diffusion coefficient in the Li/Na2FePO4F system is evaluated to be as high as 1.152 × 10-11 cm2 s-1. This study demonstrates that the practical and economical synthesis process can be a promising way for industrial production of high performance Na2FePO4F/C electrode material for large-scale lithium ion batteries.

  13. Photonics-enhanced smart imaging systems (United States)

    Ottevaere, Heidi; Belay, Gebirie Y.; Thienpont, Hugo


    We discuss different photonics-enhanced multichannel multiresolution imaging systems in which the different channels have different imaging properties, namely a different FOV and angular resolution, over different areas of an image sensor. This could allow different image processing algorithms to be implemented to process the different images. A basic threechannel multiresolution imaging system was designed at 587.6 nm where each of the three channels consist of four aspherical lens surfaces. These lenses have been fabricated in PMMA through ultra-precision diamond tooling and afterwards assembled with aperture stops, baffles and a commercial CMOS sensor. To reduce the influence of chromatic aberrations, hybrid lenses, which contain diffractive surfaces on top of refractive ones, have been included within the previous designs of the three channels. These hybrid lenses have also been fabricated through ultra-precision diamond tooling, assembled and verified in an experimental demonstration. The three channels with hybrid lenses show better image quality (both in the simulation and experiment) compared to the purely refractive three channel design. Because of a limited depth of field of the aforementioned multichannel multiresolution imaging systems, a voltage tunable lens has been integrated in the first channel to extend the depth of field of the overall system. The refocusing capability has significantly improved the depth of field of the system and ranged from 0.25 m to infinity compared to 9 m to infinity for the aforementioned basic three-channel multiresolution imaging system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Jeyapriyamvadha


    Full Text Available Content-Based Image Retrieval is a technique used to retrieve similar images where the most challenging aspect is to bridge the gap between low level feature layout and high level semantic concepts. Efficient and effective retrieval techniques of images are desired to work out a certain image on the condition that the result would be more suitable than the input image. A novel method is proposed, which links various images as threads; where the texture features and shape features of the images are extracted and stored. The minimum distance between the query image and the thread provides the output. These threads are based upon the query result. The resultant retrieval system is found to be beneficial and interactive.

  15. Remote canopy hemispherical image collection system (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Liu, Bingyu; Yang, Yi; Han, Fang; Cui, Jian


    Canopies are major part of plant photosynthesis and have distinct architectural elements such as tree crowns, whorls, branches, shoots, etc. By measuring canopy structural parameters, the solar radiation interception, photosynthesis effects and the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation under the canopy can be evaluated. Among canopy structure parameters, Leaf Area Index (LAI) is the key one. Leaf area index is a crucial variable in agronomic and environmental studies, because of its importance for estimating the amount of radiation intercepted by the canopy and the crop water requirements. The LAI can be achieved by hemispheric images which are obtained below the canopy with high accuracy and effectiveness. But existing hemispheric images canopy-LAI measurement technique is based on digital SLR camera with a fisheye lens. Users need to collect hemispheric image manually. The SLR camera with fisheye lens is not suit for long-term canopy-LAI outdoor measurement too. And the high cost of SLR limits its capacity. In recent years, with the development of embedded system and image processing technology, low cost remote canopy hemispheric image acquisition technology is becoming possible. In this paper, we present a remote hemispheric canopy image acquisition system with in-field/host configuration. In-field node based on imbed platform, low cost image sensor and fisheye lens is designed to achieve hemispherical image of plant canopy at distance with low cost. Solar radiation and temperature/humidity data, which are important for evaluating image data validation, are obtained for invalid hemispherical image elimination and node maintenance too. Host computer interacts with in-field node by 3G network. The hemispherical image calibration and super resolution are used to improve image quality in host computer. Results show that the remote canopy image collection system can make low cost remote canopy image acquisition for LAI effectively. It will be a potential

  16. R&D studies of a RICH detector using pressurized C$_{4}$F$_{8}$O radiator gas and a CsI-based gaseous photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, A.G; Barnaföldi, G.G; Bellwied, R; Bencédi, G; Bencze, G; Berényi, D; Boldizsár, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chinellato, D.D; Cindolo, F; Das-Bose, L; Das, D; Das, K; De Cataldo, G; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Futó, E; Garcia, E; Hamar, G; Harton, A; Jimenez, R.T; Kim, D.W; Kim, J.S; Knospe, A; Kovacs, L; Lévai, P; Markert, C; Martinengo, P; Molnar, L; Nappi, E; Olah, L; Paic, G; Pastore, C; Patino, M.E; Peskov, V; Pinsky, L; Piuz, F; Pochybova, S; Sgura, I; Sinha, T; Song, J; Timmins, A; Van Beelen, J.B; Varga, D; Volpe, G; Weber, M; Xaplanteris, L; Yi, J; Yoo, I.-K


    We report on studies of layout and performance of a new Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector using for the fi rst time pressurized C 4 F 8 O radiator gas and a photon detector consisting of a MWPC equipped with a CsI photocathode. In particular, we present here the results of beam tests of a MWPC having an adjustable anode – cathode gap, aiming at the optimization of single photoelectron detection and Cherenkov angle resolution. This system was proposed as a Very High Momentum Particle Identi fi cation (VHMPID) upgrade for the ALICE experiment at LHC to provide charged hadron track-by-track identi fi cation in the momentum range 5 – 25 GeV/c.

  17. Automated imaging system for single molecules (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel


    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  18. Modeling the chemical shift of lanthanide 4f electron binding energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, P.


    Lanthanides in compounds can adopt the tetravalent [Xe]4fn−1 (like Ce4+, Pr4+, Tb4+), the trivalent [Xe]4fn (all lanthanides), or the divalent [Xe]4f n+1 configuration (like Eu2+, Yb2+, Sm2+, Tm2+). The 4f-electron binding energy depends on the charge Q of the lanthanide ion and its chemical environ

  19. Multi region based image retrieval system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Manipoonchelvi; K Muneeswaran


    Multimedia information retrieval systems continue to be an active research area in the world of huge and voluminous data. The paramount challenge is to translate or convert a visual query from a human and find similar images or videos in large digital collection. In this paper, a technique of region based image retrieval, a branch of Content Based Image Retrieval, is proposed. The proposed model does not need prior knowledge or full semantic understanding of image content. It identifies significant regions in an image based on feature-based attention model which mimic viewer’s attention. The Curvelet Transform in combination with colour descriptors are used to represent each significant region in an image. Experimental results are analysed and compared with the state-of-the-art Region Based Image Retrieval Technique.

  20. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System (United States)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan


    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  1. Imaging characteristics of photogrammetric camera systems (United States)

    Welch, R.; Halliday, J.


    In view of the current interest in high-altitude and space photographic systems for photogrammetric mapping, the United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) undertook a comprehensive research project designed to explore the practical aspects of applying the latest image quality evaluation techniques to the analysis of such systems. The project had two direct objectives: (1) to evaluate the imaging characteristics of current U.S.G.S. photogrammetric camera systems; and (2) to develop methodologies for predicting the imaging capabilities of photogrammetric camera systems, comparing conventional systems with new or different types of systems, and analyzing the image quality of photographs. Image quality was judged in terms of a number of evaluation factors including response functions, resolving power, and the detectability and measurability of small detail. The limiting capabilities of the U.S.G.S. 6-inch and 12-inch focal length camera systems were established by analyzing laboratory and aerial photographs in terms of these evaluation factors. In the process, the contributing effects of relevant parameters such as lens aberrations, lens aperture, shutter function, image motion, film type, and target contrast procedures for analyzing image quality and predicting and comparing performance capabilities. ?? 1973.

  2. Scanned Image Projection System Employing Intermediate Image Plane (United States)

    DeJong, Christian Dean (Inventor); Hudman, Joshua M. (Inventor)


    In imaging system, a spatial light modulator is configured to produce images by scanning a plurality light beams. A first optical element is configured to cause the plurality of light beams to converge along an optical path defined between the first optical element and the spatial light modulator. A second optical element is disposed between the spatial light modulator and a waveguide. The first optical element and the spatial light modulator are arranged such that an image plane is created between the spatial light modulator and the second optical element. The second optical element is configured to collect the diverging light from the image plane and collimate it. The second optical element then delivers the collimated light to a pupil at an input of the waveguide.

  3. Field ionization process of Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧; 沈礼; 戴长建


    The field ionization process of the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states, converging to the first ionization limit, 4f76s 9S4, is systematically investigated. The spectra of the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states are populated with three-step laser excitation, and detected by electric field ionization (EFI) method. Two different kinds of the EFI pulses are applied after laser excitation to observe the possible impacts on the EFI process. The exact EFI ionization thresholds for the 4f76snp Rydberg states can be determined by observing the corresponding EFI spectra. In particular, some structures above the EFI threshold are found in the EFI spectra, which may be interpreted as the effect from black body radiation (BBR). Finally, the scaling law of the EFI threshold for the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states with the effective quantum number is built.

  4. The design of image stabilization control system (United States)

    Lin, Zhe; Wu, Chunnan; Yu, Fei; Kang, Xiaojun


    For high resolution satellite remote sensing cameras, the line of sight (LOS) moving during the image exposure period will cause the modulation transfer function (MTF) degradation and image blurring. Image stabilization component is used to improve image quality by actively removing the apparent motion induced by vibration, tracking error and attitude instability. In this paper, the image stabilization component is considered as a kind of closed loop servo control system, and the image stabilization effect is converted into servo control performance for research. Firstly, the image stabilization servo loop scheme and transfer function model are constructed and the LOS jitter is considered as the output of a stochastic system derived by white-Gaussian noise. Based on the proposed model, the demand boundary of jitter rejection function is described, and the design criterion to be satisfied is obtained according to the requirement of image stabilization performance. And then, a discrete Kalman estimation algorithm is introduced into image stabilization servo loop to filter out the noise caused by pixel-shift sensor (PSS) and compensate for the delay due to the PSS measurement. Based on the given design criterion, the control law is designed by using the output of Kalman filter. The computer simulation is achieved to show that the proposed control strategy can significantly improve the image stabilization performance.

  5. Terahertz Imaging Systems With Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Löffler, Torsten; Dall, Jørgen


    This paper presents the research and development of two terahertz imaging systems based on photonic and electronic principles, respectively. As part of this study, a survey of ongoing research in the field of terahertz imaging is provided focusing on security applications. Existing terahertz...

  6. grc4f v1.1 a four-fermion event generator for e+e- collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, J; Kaneko, T; Kato, K; Kawabata, S; Kurihara, Y; Munehisa, T; Perret-Gallix, D; Shimizu, Y; Tanaka, H


    grc4f is a Monte-Carlo package for generating e+e- to 4-fermion processes in the standard model. All of the 76 LEP-2 allowed fermionic final state processes evaluated at tree level are included in version 1.1. grc4f addresses event simulation requirements at e+e- colliders such as LEP and up-coming linear colliders. Most of the attractive aspects of grc4f come from its link to the GRACE system: a Feynman diagram automatic computation system. The GRACE system has been used to produce the computational code for all final states, giving a higher level of confidence in the calculation correctness. Based on the helicity amplitude calculation technique, all fermion masses can be kept finite and helicity information can be propagated down to the final state particles. The phase space integration of the matrix element gives the total and differential cross sections, then unweighted events are Generated. Initial state radiation (ISR) corrections are implemented in two ways, one is based on the electron structure funct...

  7. Grc4f v1.0 a four-fermion event generator for e+e- collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, J; Kaneko, T; Kato, K; Kawabata, S; Kurihara, Y; Munehisa, T; Perret-Gallix, D; Shimizu, Y; Tanaka, H


    grc4f is a Monte-Carlo package for generating e+e- to 4-fermion processes in the standard model. All of the 76 LEP-2 allowed fermionic final state processes evaluated at tree level are included in version 1.0. grc4f addresses event simulation requirements at e+e- colliders such as LEP and up-coming linear colliders. Most of the attractive aspects of grc4f come from its link to the GRACE system: a Feynman diagram automatic computation system. The GRACE system has been used to produce the computational code for all final states, giving a higher level of confidence in the calculation correctness. Based on the helicity amplitude calculation technique, all fermion masses can be kept finite and helicity information can be propagated down to the final state particles. The phase space integration of the matrix element gives the total and differential cross sections, then unweighted events are Generated. Initial state radiation (ISR) corrections are implemented in two ways, one is based on the electron structure funct...

  8. Sampling system for in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jorgen Arendt; Mathorne, Jan


    Newly developed algorithms for processing medical ultrasound images use the high frequency sampled transducer signal. This paper describes demands imposed on a sampling system suitable for acquiring such data and gives details about a prototype constructed. It acquires full clinical images...... at a sampling frequency of 20 MHz with a resolution of 12 bits. The prototype can be used for real time image processing. An example of a clinical in vivo image is shown and various aspects of the data acquisition process are discussed....

  9. A computational study of magnetic exchange interactions of 3d and 4f electrons in Ti-Ce co-doped AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Azmat, Mian [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din [Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Alzahrani, Eman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Taif (Saudi Arabia)


    To investigate the nature of 3d-4f exchange interactions in III-Nitride semiconductors, Ti-Ce co-doped AlN were studied using first principles calculations. The calculations were performed using supercell approach with varying dopant concentration and different inter-dopant separation. The configuration with dopant located as nearest neighbor distance and diluted concentration of 3.125% was found most stable. The results exhibited prominent evidence of 3d-4f-5d strong hybridization suggesting 3d-4f direct exchange interactions which may play valuable role to exploit the system as high Curie temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors for use in spintronics. Moreover, metal to metal charge transfer was also observed in the materials which may be exploited for their use in electrochemical applications. The 4f-5d and 3d-5d hybridizations were observed that predicts excellent luminescence phenomena in the materials. The presence of impurity related deep intermediate bands suggest applications of the materials in opto-electronic and spintronics devices. - Highlights: • Double exchange interaction in Ti:AlN. • Impurity induced narrowing of band gap. • Superexchange interaction in Ce:AlN. • 3d-4f exchange interaction between Ti-3d and Ce-4f states. • High Curie temperature n-type ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Li2Co1−xMxPO4F (M = Fe, Mn cathode materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellie R. Khasanova


    Full Text Available In the search for high-energy materials, novel 3D-fluorophosphates, Li2Co1−xFexPO4F and Li2Co1−xMnxPO4F, have been synthesized. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been applied to analyze the structural and morphological features of the prepared materials. Both systems, Li2Co1−xFexPO4F and Li2Co1−xMnxPO4F, exhibited narrow ranges of solid solutions: x ≤ 0.3 and x ≤ 0.1, respectively. The Li2Co0.9Mn0.1PO4F material demonstrated a reversible electrochemical performance with an initial discharge capacity of 75 mA·h·g−1 (current rate of C/5 upon cycling between 2.5 and 5.5 V in 1 M LiBF4/TMS electrolyte. Galvanostatic measurements along with cyclic voltammetry supported a single-phase de/intercalation mechanism in the Li2Co0.9Mn0.1PO4F material.

  11. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  12. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  13. Multiple energy synchrotron biomedical imaging system (United States)

    Bassey, B.; Martinson, M.; Samadi, N.; Belev, G.; Karanfil, C.; Qi, P.; Chapman, D.


    A multiple energy imaging system that can extract multiple endogenous or induced contrast materials as well as water and bone images would be ideal for imaging of biological subjects. The continuous spectrum available from synchrotron light facilities provides a nearly perfect source for multiple energy x-ray imaging. A novel multiple energy x-ray imaging system, which prepares a horizontally focused polychromatic x-ray beam, has been developed at the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy bend magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The imaging system is made up of a cylindrically bent Laue single silicon (5,1,1) crystal monochromator, scanning and positioning stages for the subjects, flat panel (area) detector, and a data acquisition and control system. Depending on the crystal’s bent radius, reflection type, and the horizontal beam width of the filtered synchrotron radiation (20-50 keV) used, the size and spectral energy range of the focused beam prepared varied. For example, with a bent radius of 95 cm, a (1,1,1) type reflection and a 50 mm wide beam, a 0.5 mm wide focused beam of spectral energy range 27 keV-43 keV was obtained. This spectral energy range covers the K-edges of iodine (33.17 keV), xenon (34.56 keV), cesium (35.99 keV), and barium (37.44 keV) some of these elements are used as biomedical and clinical contrast agents. Using the developed imaging system, a test subject composed of iodine, xenon, cesium, and barium along with water and bone were imaged and their projected concentrations successfully extracted. The estimated dose rate to test subjects imaged at a ring current of 200 mA is 8.7 mGy s-1, corresponding to a cumulative dose of 1.3 Gy and a dose of 26.1 mGy per image. Potential biomedical applications of the imaging system will include projection imaging that requires any of the extracted elements as a contrast agent and multi-contrast K-edge imaging.

  14. Design of embedded endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system (United States)

    Li, Ming; Zhou, Hao; Wen, Shijie; Chen, Xiodong; Yu, Daoyin


    Endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system is an important component in the endoscopic ultrasonography system (EUS). Through the ultrasonic probe, the characteristics of the fault histology features of digestive organs is detected by EUS, and then received by the reception circuit which making up of amplifying, gain compensation, filtering and A/D converter circuit, in the form of ultrasonic echo. Endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system is the back-end processing system of the EUS, with the function of receiving digital ultrasonic echo modulated by the digestive tract wall from the reception circuit, acquiring and showing the fault histology features in the form of image and characteristic data after digital signal processing, such as demodulation, etc. Traditional endoscopic ultrasonic imaging systems are mainly based on image acquisition and processing chips, which connecting to personal computer with USB2.0 circuit, with the faults of expensive, complicated structure, poor portability, and difficult to popularize. To against the shortcomings above, this paper presents the methods of digital signal acquisition and processing specially based on embedded technology with the core hardware structure of ARM and FPGA for substituting the traditional design with USB2.0 and personal computer. With built-in FIFO and dual-buffer, FPGA implement the ping-pong operation of data storage, simultaneously transferring the image data into ARM through the EBI bus by DMA function, which is controlled by ARM to carry out the purpose of high-speed transmission. The ARM system is being chosen to implement the responsibility of image display every time DMA transmission over and actualizing system control with the drivers and applications running on the embedded operating system Windows CE, which could provide a stable, safe and reliable running platform for the embedded device software. Profiting from the excellent graphical user interface (GUI) and good performance of Windows CE, we can not

  15. Fabrication of a Terahertz Imaging System (United States)


    portable Stirling Cycle coolers . This SiC-based THz source, or other THz sources still under development, can replace the CO2 laser used in the...1 DARPA PROJECT FINAL REPORT PROJECT TITLE: Fabrication of a Terahertz Imaging System PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: Profs. James Kolodzey and...29 2004 OBJECTIVE: Demonstration of a THz imaging system , constructed using commercial components and devices fabricated at the University of

  16. A New Marmoset P450 4F12 Enzyme Expressed in Small Intestines and Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Antihistaminic Drug Ebastine. (United States)

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yuki, Yukako; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi


    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are attracting attention as animal models in preclinical studies for drug development. However, cytochrome P450s (P450s), major drug-metabolizing enzymes, have not been fully identified and characterized in marmosets. In this study, based on the four novel P450 4F genes found on the marmoset genome, we successfully isolated P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 cDNAs in marmoset livers. Deduced amino acid sequences of the four marmoset P450 4F forms exhibited high sequence identities (87%-93%) to the human and cynomolgus monkey P450 4F homologs. Marmoset P450 4F3B and 4F11 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in livers, whereas marmoset P450 4F2 and 4F12 mRNAs were highly expressed in small intestines and livers. Four marmoset P450 4F proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 In addition, marmoset P450 4F12 effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of antiallergy drug ebastine, a human P450 2J/4F probe substrate. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by small intestine and liver microsomes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys showed greatly higher values than those of humans. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by marmoset and cynomolgus monkey small intestine microsomes were inhibited (approximately 60%) by anti-P450 4F antibodies, unlike human small intestine microsomes, suggesting that contribution of P450 4F enzymes for ebastine hydroxylation in the small intestine might be different between marmosets/cynomolgus monkeys and humans. These results indicated that marmoset P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 were expressed in livers and/or small intestines and were functional in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, similar to those of cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  17. Digital Image Enhancement with Fuzzy Interface System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Present day application requires various version kinds of images and pictures as sources of information for interpretation and analysis. Whenever an image is converted from one form to another, such as, digitizing, scanning, transmitting, storing, etc. Some form of degradation occurs at the output. Hence, the output image has to undergo a process called image enhancement which consist of a collection of techniques that seeks to improve the visual appearances of an image. Image enhancement technique is basically improving the perception of information in images for human viewers and providing 'better' input for other automated image processing techniques. This thesis presents a new approach for image enhancement with fuzzy interface system. Fuzzy techniques can manage the vagueness and ambiguity efficiently (an image can be represented as fuzzy set. Fuzzy logic is a powerful tool to represent and process human knowledge in form of fuzzy if-then rules. Compared to other filtering techniques, fuzzy filter gives the better performance and is able to represent knowledge in a comprehensible way.

  18. A fractal-based image encryption system

    KAUST Repository

    Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.


    This study introduces a novel image encryption system based on diffusion and confusion processes in which the image information is hidden inside the complex details of fractal images. A simplified encryption technique is, first, presented using a single-fractal image and statistical analysis is performed. A general encryption system utilising multiple fractal images is, then, introduced to improve the performance and increase the encryption key up to hundreds of bits. This improvement is achieved through several parameters: feedback delay, multiplexing and independent horizontal or vertical shifts. The effect of each parameter is studied separately and, then, they are combined to illustrate their influence on the encryption quality. The encryption quality is evaluated using different analysis techniques such as correlation coefficients, differential attack measures, histogram distributions, key sensitivity analysis and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test suite. The obtained results show great potential compared to other techniques.

  19. Breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS): Magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardivon, Anne A. [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail:; Athanasiou, Alexandra [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Thibault, Fabienne [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); El Khoury, Carl [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    This article reviews the technical aspects and interpretation criteria in breast MR imaging based on the first edition of breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS) published by the American College of Radiology (ACR) in 2003. In a second article, practical cases will be proposed for training the readers. The major aims of using this lexicon are: first to use a logical and standardized description of MR lesions, secondly to obtain a structured MR report with a clear final impression (BIRADS assessment categories), and thirdly to help comparison between different clinical studies based on similar breast MRI terminology.

  20. Image Resolution of a Holographic System (United States)


    transfer function and linear systems theory to optical systems. This has also been applied to holographic image analysis (Refs. l I and 12). The...view point, the linear systems theory is applied in correlating the intensity distribution of a known point or line radiation source with the intensity...function of a holographic system, (2) a discussion of linear systems theory to allow a thorough description of a method for obtaining the line

  1. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Hihara


    Full Text Available Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS, which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS’s performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost.

  2. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor. (United States)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun


    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS's performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost.

  3. Imaging systems and applications: introduction to the feature. (United States)

    Imai, Francisco H; Linne von Berg, Dale C; Skauli, Torbjørn; Tominaga, Shoji; Zalevsky, Zeev


    Imaging systems have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging system requires the integration of optics, sensing, image processing, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from design of stimuli for human perception, optics applications, and image enhancement to novel imaging modalities in both color and infrared spectral imaging, gigapixel imaging as well as a systems perspective to imaging.

  4. Electron attachment properties of c-C4F8O in different environments (United States)

    Chachereau, A.; Fedor, J.; Janečková, R.; Kočišek, J.; Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.


    The electron attachment properties of octafluorotetrahydrofuran (c-C4F8O) are investigated using two complementary experimental setups. The attachment and ionization cross sections of c-C4F8O are measured using an electron beam experiment. The effective ionization rate coefficient, electron drift velocity and electron diffusion coefficient in c-C4F8O diluted to concentrations lower than 0.6% in the buffer gases N2, CO2 and Ar, are measured using a pulsed Townsend experiment. A kinetic model is proposed, which combines the results of the two experiments.

  5. Visual computing scientific visualization and imaging systems

    CERN Document Server


    This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...

  6. Currency Recognition System Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Saifullah


    Full Text Available In the last few years a great technological advances in color printing, duplicating and scanning, counterfeiting problems have become more serious. In past only authorized printing house has the ability to make currency paper, but now a days it is possible for anyone to print fake bank note with the help of modern technology such as computer, laser printer. Fake notes are burning questions in almost every country. Like others country Bangladesh has also hit really heard and has become a very acute problem. Therefore there is a need to design a currency recognition system that can easily make a difference between real and fake banknote and the process will time consuming. Our system describes an approach for verification of Bangladeshi currency banknotes. The currency will be verified by using image processing techniques. The approach consists of a number of components including image processing, image segmentation, feature extraction, comparing images. The system is designed by MATLAB. Image processing involves changing the nature of an image in order to improve its pictorial information for human interpretation. The image processing software is a collection of functions that extends the capability of the MATLAB numeric computing environment. The result will be whether currency is real or fake.

  7. A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system (United States)

    Volpi, D.; Tullis, I. D. C.; Laios, A.; Pathiraja, P. N. J.; Haldar, K.; Ahmed, A. A.; Vojnovic, B.


    We describe the development and performance analysis of two clinical near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS) devices that aim to overcome some of the limitations of current FIGS systems. The devices operate in a widefield-imaging mode and can work (1) in conjunction with a laparoscope, during minimally invasive surgery, and (2) as a hand-held, open surgery imaging system. In both cases, narrow-band excitation light, delivered at multiple wavelengths, is efficiently combined with white reflectance light. Light is delivered to ~100 cm2 surgical field at 1-2 mW/cm2 for white light and 3-7 mW/cm2 (depending on wavelength) of red - near infrared excitation, at a typical working distance of 350 mm for the hand-held device and 100 mm for the laparoscope. A single, sensitive, miniaturized color camera collects both fluorescence and white reflectance light. The use of a single imager eliminates image alignment and software overlay complexity. A novel filtering and illumination arrangement allows simultaneous detection of white reflectance and fluorescence emission from multiple dyes in real-time. We will present both fluorescence detection sensitivity modeling and practical performance data. We have demonstrated the efficiency and the advantages of the devices both pre-clinically and during live surgery on humans. Both the hand-held and the laparoscopic systems have proved to be reliable and beneficial in an ongoing clinical trial involving sentinel lymph node detection in gynecological cancers. We will show preliminary results using two clinically approved dyes, Methylene blue and indocyanine green. We anticipate that this technology can be integrated and routinely used in a larger variety of surgical procedures.

  8. An image retrieval system based on fractal dimension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚敏; 易文晟; 沈斌; DAIHong-hua


    This paper presents a new kind of image retrieval system which obtains the feature vectors of im-ages by estimating their fraetal dimension; and at the same time establishes a tree-structure image database. After preproeessing and feature extracting, a given image is matched with the standard images in the image da-tabase using a hierarchical method of image indexing.

  9. An image retrieval system based on fractal dimension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents a new kind of image retrieval system which obtains the feature vectors of images by estimating their fractal dimension; and at the same time establishes a tree-structure image database. After preprocessing and feature extracting, a given image is matched with the standard images in the image database using a hierarchical method of image indexing.

  10. An image retrieval system based on fractal dimension. (United States)

    Yao, Min; Yi, Wen-Sheng; Shen, Bin; Dai, Hong-Hua


    This paper presents a new kind of image retrieval system which obtains the feature vectors of images by estimating their fractal dimension; and at the same time establishes a tree-structure image database. After preprocessing and feature extracting, a given image is matched with the standard images in the image database using a hierarchical method of image indexing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado-Molina, J.


    Full Text Available A low-cost airborne digital imaging system capable to perform aerial surveys with small-format cameras isintroduced. The equipment is intended to obtain high-resolution multispectral digital photographs constituting so aviable alternative to conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery. Monitoring software handles all theprocedures involved in image acquisition, including flight planning, real-time graphics for aircraft position updatingin a mobile map, and supervises the main variables engaged in the imaging process. This software also creates fileswith the geographical position of the central point of every image, and the flight path followed by the aircraftduring the entire survey. The cameras are mounted on a three-axis stabilized platform. A set of inertial sensorsdetermines platform's deviations independently from the aircraft and an automatic control system keeps thecameras at a continuous nadir pointing and heading, with a precision better than ± 1 arc-degree in three-axis. Thecontrol system is also in charge of saving the platform’s orientation angles when the monitoring software triggersthe camera. These external orientation parameters, together with a procedure for camera calibration give theessential elements for image orthocorrection. Orthomosaics are constructed using commercial GIS software.This system demonstrates the feasibility of large area coverage in a practical and economical way using smallformatcameras. Monitoring and automatization reduce the work while increasing the quality and the amount ofuseful images.

  12. An approach to designing optimal imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, G.W.; Barrett, H.H.; Borgstrom, M.C.; Cargill, E.B.; Fiete, R.D.; Myers, K.J.; Patton, D.D.; Smith, W.E.; Stempski, M.O.; Paxman, R.G.


    This paper reports recent work by the authors to develop a systematic basis for the improvement of existing and the development of new imaging systems for nuclear medicine. Assessment of imaging systems is typically done by using the radiologists' perceptual skills in a number of tasks which approximate the clinical setting. For these psycho-physical experiments, an object class with a specified number of categories must first be selected (e.g., liver with or without lesions). Data collected by the system to be evaluated are then used to generate a set of images which are displayed to the observers. From the experiment comes a figure of merit that is used to evaluate the system. However, there is often no clear indication of how one should use the information from the psychophysical study to guide physicists and engineers toward specific improvements in the imaging system. Proposed here is a procedure which will provide a feedback loop for system improvement. A key part of this procedure involves identifying and selecting features that can be used to classify images into their respective categories. The human-evaluation segment of the paradigm, which makes use of signal-detection theory and multidimensional scaling techniques, serves as a verification of the computer-selected features.

  13. Processing nanoparticles with A4F-SAXS for toxicological studies: Iron oxide in cell-based assays. (United States)

    Knappe, Patrick; Boehmert, Linda; Bienert, Ralf; Kamutzki, Silvana; Karmutzki, Silvana; Niemann, Birgit; Lampen, Alfonso; Thünemann, Andreas F


    Nanoparticles are not typically ready-to-use for in vitro cell culture assays. Prior to their use in assays, powder samples containing nanoparticles must be dispersed, de-agglomerated, fractionated by size, and characterized with respect to size and size distribution. For this purpose we report exemplarily on polyphosphate-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous suspension. Fractionation and online particle size analysis was performed in a time-saving procedure lasting 50 min by combining asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (A4F) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Narrowly distributed nanoparticle fractions with radii of gyration (R(g)) from 7 to 21 nm were obtained from polydisperse samples. The A4F-SAXS combination is introduced for the preparation of well-characterized sample fractions originating from a highly polydisperse system as typically found in engineered nanoparticles. A4F-SAXS processed particles are ready-to-use for toxicological studies. The results of preliminary tests of the effects of fractionated iron oxide nanoparticles with a R(g) of 15 nm on a human colon model cell line are reported.

  14. Overcoming Dynamic Disturbances in Imaging Systems (United States)

    Young, Eric W.; Dente, Gregory C.; Lyon, Richard G.; Chesters, Dennis; Gong, Qian


    We develop and discuss a methodology with the potential to yield a significant reduction in complexity, cost, and risk of space-borne optical systems in the presence of dynamic disturbances. More robust systems almost certainly will be a result as well. Many future space-based and ground-based optical systems will employ optical control systems to enhance imaging performance. The goal of the optical control subsystem is to determine the wavefront aberrations and remove them. Ideally reducing an aberrated image of the object under investigation to a sufficiently clear (usually diffraction-limited) image. Control will likely be distributed over several elements. These elements may include telescope primary segments, telescope secondary, telescope tertiary, deformable mirror(s), fine steering mirror(s), etc. The last two elements, in particular, may have to provide dynamic control. These control subsystems may become elaborate indeed. But robust system performance will require evaluation of the image quality over a substantial range and in a dynamic environment. Candidate systems for improvement in the Earth Sciences Enterprise could include next generation Landsat systems or atmospheric sensors for dynamic imaging of individual, severe storms. The technology developed here could have a substantial impact on the development of new systems in the Space Science Enterprise; such as the Next Generation Space Telescope(NGST) and its follow-on the Next NGST. Large Interferometric Systems of non-zero field, such as Planet Finder and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure, could benefit. These systems most likely will contain large, flexible optormechanical structures subject to dynamic disturbance. Furthermore, large systems for high resolution imaging of planets or the sun from space may also benefit. Tactical and Strategic Defense systems will need to image very small targets as well and could benefit from the technology developed here. We discuss a novel

  15. Proposed Hyperchaotic System for Image Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asst. Prof. Dr. Alia Karim Abdul Hassan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hyper chaos system based on Hénon and Logistic maps which provides characteristics of high capacity, security and efficiency. The Proposed hyper chaos system is employed to generate the key for diffusion in an image encryption algorithm. The simulation experiments to the image encryption algorithm which based on the proposed hyper chaos system show that the algorithm security analysis it has large key space (10 84 that ensures a strong resistance against attack of exhaustion as the key space will be greater, strong sensitivity of encryption key and good statistical characteristics. Encryption and decryption time is suitable for different applications.

  16. Novel optical system for neonatal brain imaging (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhou, Shuoming; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton; Anday, Endla; Ravishankar, Sudha; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Maria


    A highly portable, fast, safe and affordable imaging system that provides interpretable images of brain function in full- and pre-term neonates within a few seconds has been applied to neonates with normal and pathological states. We have used a uniquely sensitive optical tomography system, termed phased array, which has revealed significant functional responses, particularly to parietal stimulation in neonate brain. This system can indicate the blood concentration and oxygenation change during the parietal brain activation in full- and pre-term neonates. The preliminary clinical results, especially a longitudinal study of a cardiac arrest neonate, suggest a variety of future applications.

  17. IOCP Application in Radiation Imaging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Shu-qiang; ZHAO; Xiao; ZHANG; Guo-guang


    Using IOCP kernel object,integrated with multi-thread,event and message queue mechanisms,imaging system communicates with other sub-systems efficiently.On data processing steps,data analysis and data handling are assigned to I/O thread pool and logic thread pool

  18. Active imaging system with Faraday filter (United States)

    Snyder, James J.


    An active imaging system has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The system has high sensitivity to the laser illumination while eliminating solar background.

  19. Construction of nitronyl nitroxide-based 3d-4f clusters: structure and magnetism. (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Feng; Hu, Peng; Li, Yun-Gai; Li, Li-Cun


    Three unprecedented nitronyl nitroxide radical-bridged 3d-4f clusters, [Ln2 Cu2 (hfac)10 (NIT-3py)2 (H2 O)2 ](Ln(III) =Y, Gd, Dy), have been obtained from the self-assembly of Ln(hfac)3 , Cu(hfac)2 , and the radical ligand. The Dy complex shows a slow relaxation of magnetization, representing the first nitronyl nitroxide radical-based 3d-4f cluster with single-molecule magnet behavior.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhongrui; Gao Zhenming


    An efficient image transmission scheme is proposed based on byte partition and adaptive sub-channel distribution technique in Filtered MultiTone (FMT) system over frequency selective slow fading channel. According to the simulation results and analysis of a typical image with matlab, improvement in Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) of the received image and low complexity for equalization is demonstrated remarkably. Comparing with no adaptive and no actual channel equalization scheme, the proposed scheme saves over 6 dB when PSNR=40 dB.

  1. Digital image-rectification system (United States)

    Van Wie, P. H.; Stein, M.; Puccinelli, E.; Fields, B.


    System removes spatial distortions from data and brings data into conformance with Universal Transverse Mercator map projection, produces digital output products suitable for further machine processing and analysis, and fills need for geometrically corrected Landsat multispectral scanner digital data in several remote sensing application areas.

  2. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.


    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  3. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Vaivoda


    Full Text Available CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4. CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9–2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01. This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies.

  4. Optical Digital Image Storage System (United States)


    This could be accomplished even if the files were artificially determined. " Super files," composed of a number of files, could be artificially order to expedite transfer through the scanning process. These " super files" could later be broken down into their actual component files. Another...hesitant about implementing an optical disk system. While Sandra Napier believed it "looks promising," she felt an optical disk replacement of microfilm

  5. Results of a low power ice protection system test and a new method of imaging data analysis (United States)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.; Mesander, Geert A.


    Tests were conducted on a BF Goodrich De-Icing System's Pneumatic Impulse Ice Protection (PIIP) system in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Characterization studies were done on shed ice particle size by changing the input pressure and cycling time of the PIIP de-icer. The shed ice particle size was quantified using a newly developed image software package. The tests were conducted on a 1.83 m (6 ft) span, 0.53 m (221 in) chord NACA 0012 airfoil operated at a 4 degree angle of attack. The IRT test conditions were a -6.7 C (20 F) glaze ice, and a -20 C (-4 F) rime ice. The ice shedding events were recorded with a high speed video system. A detailed description of the image processing package and the results generated from this analytical tool are presented.

  6. A new route for graphene wrapping LiVPO{sub 4}F/C nano composite toward superior lithium storage property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaomeng; Peng, Wenjie, E-mail:; Fan, Yulei; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun; Wang, Jiexi, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Simple solution route was used for coating process. • Core–shell structure with multi conductive shell was obtained. • Greatly enhanced electrochemical performance was demonstrated. - Abstract: To enhance the electronic conductivity of LiVPO{sub 4}F, graphene-decorated LiVPO{sub 4}F/C nano composites were prepared via a solution route followed by low-temperature calcination. XRD results reveal that the crystal structure of LiVPO{sub 4}F/C with graphene wrapping remains unchanged. SEM and TEM images demonstrate that the as-synthesized graphene modified particles tend to become smaller and are dispersed uniformly into the graphene layers. The graphene sheets stretch out and cross-link into a conducting network around the LiVPO{sub 4}F particles, resulting in improved electronic conductivity and enhanced electrolyte permeability. SAED patterns confirmed the presence of graphene, as well as crystalline nature of LiVPO{sub 4}F with clear lattice structure and sharp diffraction spots. When applied as cathodes for lithium ion batteries, the graphene wrapped LiVPO{sub 4}F/C nano composites exhibit better cycle ability and rate capability than the pristine one. Particularly, the sample prepared by using 60 mL graphene oxide dispersion demonstrates a superior rate capability with a discharge capacity of 117 mA h g{sup −1} at 8 C, as well as excellent cycling stability, maintaining 83.7% capacity retention after 350 cycles at 8 C. CV and EIS tests separately indicate that the graphene modified samples possess lower polarization and faster charge transfer than the bare sample.

  7. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems. (United States)

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke


    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems.

  8. A4F-SAXS online-coupling for the investigation of nanoparticles and polymers; Die A4F-SAXS Online-Kopplung zur Untersuchung von Nanopartikeln und Polymeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, Patrick


    In the present thesis the online-coupling of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (A4F) with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a versatile analytical tool is introduced and applied to current challenges in nanoparticle analysis as well as to model systems of technically relevant polymers. The A4F provides size separation of sample solutions and suspensions. Due to the separation principle only low shear forces are applied which appear in competing methods. Therefore, this method allows processing of very sensitive sample materials. SAXS allows non-destructive probing of nanoscale structures in the range of about one to one hundred nanometers. By coupling with A4F, the complexity of sample systems with broad size distributions, which are therefore frequently hard to characterize, is reduced significantly prior to further analysis. Applying this approach, detailed information about sample properties can be gained accurately with respect to the shape, size and size distribution of particles or conformation of macromolecules in short time. Addition of a dynamic light scattering detector to the setup allows a further conclusion. With the latter, a nanoparticles suspension was characterized rapidly and with good precision with respect to the core properties of the particles as well as the thickness of the stabilizer's shell in a single online run. These parameters are important when dealing not only with functionality but also with the bioavailability or toxicity of nanoparticles. This methodology was also successfully applied to polymer systems for the first time, namely poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)s as well as strong and weak polyelectrolytes. Additionally, due to the applied separation method samples with broad molar mass distributions were processable which otherwise tend to interfere with stationary phase-based chromatography. Furthermore, using SAXS, structural properties can be resolved from smaller polymer size-fractions which are hardly accessible with

  9. Caliciviruses differ in their functional requirements for eIF4F components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhry, Y.; Nayak, A.; Bordeleau, M-E.;


    proteins can interact directly with the initiation factors eIF4E and eIF3. Translation initiation on feline calicivirus (FCV) RNA requires eIF4E because it is inhibited by recombinant 4E-BP1. However, to date, there have been no functional studies carried out with respect to norovirus translation...... initiation, because of a lack of a suitable source of VPg-linked viral RNA. We have now used the recently identified murine norovirus (MNV) as a model system for norovirus translation and have extended our previous studies with FCV RNA to examine the role of the other eIF4F components in translation...... initiation. We now demonstrate that, as with FCV, MNV VPg interacts directly with eIF4E, although, unlike FCV RNA, translation of MNV RNA is not sensitive to 4E-BP1, eIF4E depletion, or foot-and-mouth disease virus Lb protease-mediated cleavage of eIF4G. We also demonstrate that both FCV and MNV RNA...

  10. 4 f excitations in Ce Kondo lattices studied by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (United States)

    Amorese, A.; Dellea, G.; Fanciulli, M.; Seiro, S.; Geibel, C.; Krellner, C.; Makarova, I. P.; Braicovich, L.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Brookes, N. B.; Kummer, K.


    The potential of resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering to measure 4 f crystal electric-field excitation spectra in Ce Kondo lattices has been examined. Spectra have been obtained for several Ce systems and show a well-defined structure determined by crystal-field, spin-orbit, and charge-transfer excitations only. The spectral shapes of the excitation spectra can be well understood in the framework of atomic multiplet calculations. For CeCu2Si2 we found notable disagreement between the inelastic x-ray-scattering spectra and theoretical calculations when using the crystal-field scheme proposed from inelastic neutron scattering. Modified sets of crystal-field parameters yield better agreement. Our results also show that, with the very recent improvements of soft x-ray spectrometers in resolution to below 30 meV at the Ce M4 ,5 edges, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering could be an ideal tool to determine the crystal-field scheme in Ce Kondo lattices and other rare-earth compounds.

  11. Performance of laser based optical imaging system (United States)

    Shah, Dhrupesh S.; Banerjee, Arup; Vora, Anup; Biswas, Amiya; Patel, Naimesh; Kurulkar, Amit; Dutt, Ashutosh


    Day night imaging application requires high dynamic range optical imaging system to detect targets of interest covering mid-day (>32000 Lux)[1], and moonless night ( 1mLux)[1] under clear sky- (visibility of >10km, atmospheric loss of 500m, atmospheric loss of >15dB/Km) conditions. Major governing factors for development of such camera systems are (i) covert imaging with ability to identify the target, (ii) imaging irrespective to the scene background, (iii) reliable operation , (iv) imaging capabilities in inclement weather conditions, (v) resource requirement vs availability power & mass, (vi) real-time data processing, (vii) self-calibration, and (viii) cost. Identification of optimum spectral band of interest is most important to meet these requirements. Conventional detection systems sensing in MWIR and LWIR band has certain draw backs in terms of target detection capabilities, susceptibility to background and huge thermo-mechanical resource requirement. Alternatively, range gated imaging camera system sensing in NIR/SWIR spectrum has shown significant potential to detect wide dynamic range targets. ToF Camera configured in NIR band has certain advantages in terms of Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) development with large format detectors and thermo-mechanical resource requirement compared to SWIR band camera configuration. In past, ToF camera systems were successfully configured in NIR spectrum using silicon based Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD), Intensifier CCD (ICCD) along with Gating device and pulsed laser source having emission in between 800nm to 900nm. However, these systems have a very low dynamic range and not suitable for clear sky mid-day conditions. Recently silicon based scientific grade CMOS image sensors have shown significant improvement in terms of high NIR responsivity and available in bigger formats (5MP or more), adequate Full well capacity for day time imaging (>30Ke), very low readout noise (<2e) required for night imaging and higher frame

  12. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.


    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  13. Web Based Distributed Coastal Image Analysis System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project develops Web based distributed image analysis system processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to provide decision...

  14. A Gimbal-Stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gimbal-stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (GCHIS) fully integrates multi-sensor spectral imaging, stereovision, GPS and inertial measurement,...

  15. Overexpression of the Rap2.4f transcriptional factor in Arabidopsis promotes leaf senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Senescence is a complex and highly regulated process. Leaf senescence is influenced by endogenous developmental and external environmental signals. In this work, we found that expression of an Ap2/DREB-type transcription factor gene, Arabidopsis Rap2.4f (At4g28140), was upregulated by salt, mannitol, and dark treatments. Constitutively overexpressing Rap2.4f under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter led to an increased chlorophyll degradation rate and upregulation of many senescence-associated genes in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines. Our results show that Rap2.4f is a positive regulator of senescence, promoting both developmental and dark-induced leaf senescence.

  16. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism in resonant and non-resonant Gd 4f photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S.; Gammon, W.J.; Pappas, D.P. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others


    The enhancement of the magnetic linear dichroism in resonant 4f photoemission (MLDRPE) is studied from a 50 monolayer film of Gd/Y(0001). The ALS at beamline 7.0.1 provided the source of linearly polarized x-rays used in this study. The polarized light was incident at an angle of 30 degrees relative to the film plane, and the sample magnetization was perpendicular to the photon polarization. The linear dichroism of the 4f core levels is measured as the photon energy is tuned through the 4d-4f resonance. The authors find that the MLDRPE asymmetry is strongest at the resonance. Near the threshold the asymmetry has several features which are out of phase with the fine structure of the total yield.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of 4-[F-18]fluoro thalidomide for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Jeong, K. H.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Thalidomide has been recently rediscovered for its possible utility as an antitumor agent, although it was marketed as a sedative in the 1950s and later found to be a potent teratogen. In this study, therefore, F-18 labeled thalidomide was synthesized and evaluated for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis. 4-[F-18]Fluoro thalidomide ([F-18]1) was prepared by labeling of 4-trimethylammonium thalidomide triflate with TBA[F-18]F in DMSO (90 .deg. C, 10 min) and purified by HPLC. The triflate salt was prepared from 3-fluoro phthalic anhydride in 3 steps. [F-18]1 was incubated with HUVEC cells at 37 .deg. C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. Dynamic PET images of [F-18]1 was obtained in mice implanted with LLC cells. In vitro metabolism study of [F-18]1 was carried out using mouse, rabbit, or human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, and the metabolites obtained from the mouse liver microsomal incubation of 1 were analyzed using LC-MS. Radiochemical yield of [F-18]1 was 50-60%, and the specific activity was 42-120 GBq/imol. The HUVEC cell uptake of [F-18]1 increased with time (100% at 15 min and 241% at 120 min). PET images showed that the radioactivity was accumulated in the liver, the kidneys and the bladder of the mice, and brain uptake was shown from 40 min postinjection. However, there was low level of radioactivity uptake in tumor. [F-18]1 was not metabolized by mouse, rabbit, or human liver microsomes but was hydrolyzed significantly at physiological pH. The hydrolyzed product was further analyzed by LC-MS, showing a mass peak corresponding to that of 4-fluoro-N-(o-carboxybenzoyl)glutamic acid imide. This result suggests that [F-18]1 is easily hydrolyzed at physiological pH and thus may not be suitable for the in vivo studies of tumor angiogenesis at least in rodents, although it was reported that the hydrolysis product of thalidomide may be responsible for its angiogenesis activity in humans.

  18. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System (United States)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.


    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  19. Musculoskeletal imaging in progress: the EOS imaging system. (United States)

    Wybier, Marc; Bossard, Philippe


    The EOS 2D/3D radio-imaging device (Biospace med, France) can disclose a digital radiographic image of bones with a very low radiation dose. This in turn allows in obtaining a single image of a large field of view, as wide as the full skeleton. The simultaneous capturing of spatially paired AP and lateral X-ray images is also a specificity of EOS imaging, which further provides secondary 3D (volumic) reformation of skeletal images. The main indications of this new imaging technology are assessment and follow-up of balance disorders of the spine and of the lower limbs.

  20. Enhanced green emission from La0.4F3:Ce0.45,Tb0.15/TiO2 core/shell structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.K. Srinivasan; B.S. Panigrahi; N. Suriyamurthy; P.K. Parida; B. Venkatraman


    Nano sized La0.4F3:Ce0.45,Tb0.15 (core), La0.4F3:Ce0.45,Tb0.15 (TiO2) (core) shell, La0.55F:Ce0.45, and La0.85F3:Tb0.15 particles were synthesized by adopting co-precipitation technique in acidic environment and coated with TiO2 to form a core-shell structure by adopting a mechanical dispersion method at room temperature. The synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime spectroscopy. The crystal structure of La0.4F3:Ce0.45,Tb0.15 remained the same as LaF3 after being doped with Ce and Tb ions but with a slight decrease in the lattice parameter. TEM image confirmed the for-mation of a core-shell structure. The La0.4F3:Ce0.45,Tb0.15/TiO2 exhibited Tb3+fluorescence enhancement by a factor of 1.76. Scin-tillation from the synthesized materials was also observed under X-ray excitation.

  1. A PET imaging system dedicated to mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, J


    The imaging system Clear-PEM for positron emission mammography, under development within the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN, is presented. The detector is based on pixelized LYSO crystals optically coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APD) and readout by a fast low-noise electronic system. A dedicated digital trigger and data acquisition system is used for on-line selection of coincidence events with high efficiency, large bandwidth and negligible dead-time. The detector module performance was characterized in detail.

  2. Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath


    A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be

  3. Imaging of systemic vasculitis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, Magdy [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cairo University, Department of Medical Imaging, Cairo (Egypt); Laxer, Ronald; Yeung, Rae [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rheumatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Manson, David; Doria, Andrea S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    The term ''systemic vasculitis'' encompasses a diverse set of diseases linked by the presence of blood-vessel inflammation that are often associated with critical complications. These diseases are uncommon in childhood and are frequently subjected to a delayed diagnosis. Although the diagnosis and treatment may be similar for adult and childhood systemic vasculitides, the prevalence and classification vary according to the age group under investigation. For example, Kawasaki disease affects children while it is rarely encountered in adults. In 2006, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PReS) proposed a classification system for childhood vasculitis adopting the system devised in the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference in 1993, which categorizes vasculitides according to the predominant size of the involved blood vessels into small, medium and large vessel diseases. Currently, medical imaging has a pivotal role in the diagnosis of vasculitis given recent developments in the imaging of blood vessels. For example, early diagnosis of coronary artery aneurysms, a serious complication of Kawasaki disease, is now possible by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT); positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) helps to assess active vascular inflammation in Takayasu arteritis. Our review offers a unique approach using the integration of the proposed classification criteria for common systemic childhood vasculitides with their most frequent imaging findings, along with differential diagnoses and an algorithm for diagnosis based on common findings. It should help radiologists and clinicians reach an early diagnosis, therefore facilitating the ultimate goal of proper management of affected children. (orig.)

  4. A LANDSAT digital image rectification system (United States)

    Vanwie, P.; Stein, M.


    DIRS is a digital image rectification system for the geometric correction of LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital image data. DIRS removes spatial distortions from the data and brings it into conformance with the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) map projection. Scene data in the form of landmarks are used to drive the geometric correction algorithms. Two dimensional least squares polynominal and spacecraft attitude modeling techniques for geometric mapping are provided. Entire scenes or selected quadrilaterals may be rectified. Resampling through nearest neighbor or cubic convolution at user designated intervals is available. The output products are in the form of digital tape in band interleaved, single band or CCT format in a rotated UTM projection. The system was designed and implemented on large scale IBM 360 computers.

  5. Luminescence in Li2Sr2Al2PO4F9:Dy3+ - a novel nanophosphor. (United States)

    Shinde, K N; Dhoble, S J


    Earlier research has revealed numerous advantages of the wet chemical method in reaction acceleration, yield improvement, enhanced photoluminescence properties and the evolution of new material phases. In the present study the novel nanophosphor Li(2)Sr(2)Al(2)PO(4)F(9):Dy(3+) was synthesized by a one-step wet chemical method. Formation of single-phase compounds was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The average diameter of the particles was calculated from the TEM image as ca. 20 nm. The synthesized nanophosphor exhibited intense blue and yellow emissions at 482 and 575 nm, respectively, owing to the Dy(3+) ion, by Hg-free excitation at 387 nm, i.e. solid-state lighting excitation. The results obtained showed that phosphors have the potential for applications in the lamp industry.

  6. Design of Digital Imaging System for Optimization of Control Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong; HAO Qun; YANG Guang; SUN Hong-wei


    The design of experimental system of digital imaging system for control parameter is discussed in detail. Signal processing of digital CCD imaging system is first analyzed. Then the real time control of CCD driver and digital processing circuit and man-machine interaction are achieved by the design of digital CCD imaging module and control module. Experimental results indicate that the image quality of CCD experimental system makes a good response to the change of control parameters. The system gives an important base for improving image quality and the applicability of micro imaging system in complex environment.

  7. Establishing Information Security Systems via Optical Imaging (United States)


    Laser Object Computer Fig. 5. A schematic setup for the proposed method using holography: BSC, Beam splitter cube; CCD, Charge-coupled device. The...SLM Object~~~, ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laser CCD DJ Fig. 9. A schematic for computational ghost imaging: BD, bucket detector...polarization. (c) Since the sophisticated optoelectronic devices and systems should be analyzed before the retrieval, any hostile hacker will need to

  8. Imaging system design for improved information capacity (United States)

    Fales, C. L.; Huck, F. O.; Samms, R. W.


    Shannon's theory of information for communication channels is used to assess the performance of line-scan and sensor-array imaging systems and to optimize the design trade-offs involving sensitivity, spatial response, and sampling intervals. Formulations and computational evaluations account for spatial responses typical of line-scan and sensor-array mechanisms, lens diffraction and transmittance shading, defocus blur, and square and hexagonal sampling lattices.

  9. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie


    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C4F8 inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. CxFy (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma source, as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C4F8 reaction set used in the model. The C4F8 plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model.

  10. Fluoride Bridges as Structure-Directing Motifs in 3d-4f Cluster Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Torben; Pedersen, Kasper; Thuesen, Christian Aa.


    The use of kinetically robust chromium(III) fluorido complexes as synthons for mixed 3d-4f clusters is reported. The tendency toward linear {CrIII–F–LnIII} units dictates the cluster topology. Specifically, we show that reaction of cis-[CrIIIF2(NN)2]NO3 (NN = 1,10-phenanthroline (“phen”) or 2,2′-...

  11. Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) system description (United States)

    Moik, J. G.


    The Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) operates under control of the IBM-OS/MVT operating system and uses an IBM-2250 model 1 display unit as interactive graphic device. The input language in the form of character strings or attentions from keys and light pen is interpreted and causes processing of built-in image processing functions as well as execution of a variable number of application programs kept on a private disk file. A description of design considerations is given and characteristics, structure and logic flow of SMIPS are summarized. Data management and graphic programming techniques used for the interactive manipulation and display of digital pictures are also discussed.

  12. Compact Microscope Imaging System with Intelligent Controls (United States)

    McDowell, Mark


    The figure presents selected views of a compact microscope imaging system (CMIS) that includes a miniature video microscope, a Cartesian robot (a computer- controlled three-dimensional translation stage), and machine-vision and control subsystems. The CMIS was built from commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and custom machine-vision software. The machine-vision and control subsystems include adaptive neural networks that afford a measure of artificial intelligence. The CMIS can perform several automated tasks with accuracy and repeatability . tasks that, heretofore, have required the full attention of human technicians using relatively bulky conventional microscopes. In addition, the automation and control capabilities of the system inherently include a capability for remote control. Unlike human technicians, the CMIS is not at risk of becoming fatigued or distracted: theoretically, it can perform continuously at the level of the best human technicians. In its capabilities for remote control and for relieving human technicians of tedious routine tasks, the CMIS is expected to be especially useful in biomedical research, materials science, inspection of parts on industrial production lines, and space science. The CMIS can automatically focus on and scan a microscope sample, find areas of interest, record the resulting images, and analyze images from multiple samples simultaneously. Automatic focusing is an iterative process: The translation stage is used to move the microscope along its optical axis in a succession of coarse, medium, and fine steps. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the image is computed at each step, and the FFT is analyzed for its spatial-frequency content. The microscope position that results in the greatest dispersal of FFT content toward high spatial frequencies (indicating that the image shows the greatest amount of detail) is deemed to be the focal position.

  13. FIZICS: fluorescent imaging zone identification system, a novel macro imaging system. (United States)

    Skwish, Stephen; Asensio, Francisco; King, Greg; Clarke, Glenn; Kath, Gary; Salvatore, Michael J; Dufresne, Claude


    Constantly improving biological assay development continues to drive technological requirements. Recently, a specification was defined for capturing white light and fluorescent images of agar plates ranging in size from the NUNC Omni tray (96-well footprint, 128 x 85 mm) to the NUNC Bio Assay Dish (245 x 245 mm). An evaluation of commercially available products failed to identify any system capable of fluorescent macroimaging with discrete wavelength selection. To address the lack of a commercially available system, a custom imaging system was designed and constructed. This system provides the same capabilities of many commercially available systems with the added ability to fluorescently image up to a 245 x 245 mm area using wavelengths in the visible light spectrum.

  14. Sistema Óptico de Encriptación de Doble Máscara de Fase bajo Arquitectura 4f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ríos


    Full Text Available Nowadays the area of optical encryption of information concentrates the efforts of many researchers in laboratories around the world, mainly because contributions presented in the last two decades have shown the reliability, versatility and applicability of such systems. One of the most successful systems, which is currently protected by several patents, is based on the use of two random phase masks and a 4f architecture. In this contribution we do a review of this optical encryption system. We present the theory and the basic procedure explaining the setups and techniques that allow its experimental implementation, andwe present results obtained by computational simulations of the optical virtual system to show the validity of the method.

  15. Test Facility For Thermal Imaging Systems (United States)

    Fontanella, Jean-Claude


    The test facility is designed to measure the main performances of thermal imaging systems : optical transfer function, minimum resolvable thermal difference, noise equivalent temperature difference and spectral response. The infrared sources are slits, MRTD four bar patterns or the output slit of a monochromator which are placed in the focal plane of two collimators. The response of the system can be measured either on the display using a photometer or in the video signal using a transient recorder. Most of the measurements are controlled by a minicomputer. Typical results are presented.

  16. Massive Medical Images Retrieval System Based on Hadoop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-An YAO


    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of massive medical images retrieval, against the defects of the single-node medical image retrieval system, a massive medical images retrieval system based on Hadoop is put forward. Brushlet transform and Local binary patterns algorithm are introduced firstly to extract characteristics of the medical example image, and store the image feature library in the HDFS. Then using the Map to match the example image features with the features in the feature library, while the Reduce to receive the calculation results of each Map task and ranking the results according to the size of the similarity. At the end, find the optimal retrieval results of the medical images according to the ranking results. The experimental results show that compared with other medical image retrieval systems, the Hadoop based medical image retrieval system can reduce the time of image storage and retrieval, and improve the image retrieval speed.

  17. Vapor pressures of mixtures of CFC-114 with the potential replacement coolants C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, L.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Otey, M.G. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)


    The U.S. Enrichment Corporation`s production of isotopically enriched uranium depends solely on two plants which utilize the gaseous diffusion process. This process uses large quantities of CFC-114 as an evaporative coolant. CFC-114, however, will be phased out of production at the end of 1995 due to its potential to deplete stratospheric ozone. A search has been underway for substitutes for a number of years. The initial search (1988-89) for an ozone-friendly, commercially available, chemically compatible substitute yielded two candidates, FC-c318 (c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) and FC-3110 (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}). The intended mode of replacing coolant was to stage the new coolant into independent subsystems of the plants, so that some systems would continue to operate on CFC-114, and an increasing number would operate on the new coolant. During that changeover process, the possibility of coolant mixing arises in variety of scenarios. This work was intended to generate sufficient experimental information to be able to predict the vapor pressure of coolant mixtures over the range of operating conditions likely to be found in the diffusion plants. Specifically, vapor pressures were measured over the temperature range 322 to 355 K (120{degrees}F to 180{degrees}F) and over the full range of mole fractions for binary mixtures of CFC-114 with FC-3110, and of CFC-114 with FC-c318.

  18. Glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging (United States)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Serra, Rolando L.; Vannucci, André L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Li, Li M.


    In this work we show two different glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging: a stereoscopic system that employs a vertically dispersive holographic screen (VDHS) and a multi-autostereoscopic system, both used to produce 3D MRI/CT images. We describe how to obtain a VDHS in holographic plates optimized for this application, with field of view of 7 cm to each eye and focal length of 25 cm, showing images done with the system. We also describe a multi-autostereoscopic system, presenting how it can generate 3D medical imaging from viewpoints of a MRI or CT image, showing results of a 3D angioresonance image.

  19. Molecular Imaging with Activatable Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen


    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a newly emerged multiple disciplinary field that aims to visualize, characterize and quantitatively measure biological processes at cellular and molecular levels in humans and other living systems. A reporter gene is a piece of DNA encoding reporter protein, which presents as a readily measurable phenotype that can be distinguished easily from the background of endogenous protein. After being transferred into cells of organ systems (transgenes, the reporter gene can be utilized to visualize transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, protein-protein interactions, or trafficking of proteins or cells in living subjects. Herein, we review previous classification of reporter genes and regroup the reporter gene based imaging as basic, inducible and activatable, based on the regulation of reporter gene transcription and post-translational modification of reporter proteins. We then focus on activatable reporters, in which the signal can be activated at the posttranslational level for visualizing protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylation or tertiary structure changes. The applications of several types of activatable reporters will also be summarized. We conclude that activatable reporter imaging can benefit both basic biomedical research and drug development.

  20. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.


    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  1. Spin-forbidden and spin-enabled 4f(14)-->4f(13)5d(1) transitions of Yb(2+)-doped CsCaBr3. (United States)

    Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Seijo, Luis; Barandiarán, Zoila


    The lowest part of the 4f-->5d absorption spectrum of Yb(2+)-doped CsCaBr(3) crystals has been calculated using methods of quantum chemistry and it is presented here. A first, low-intensity band is found on the low energy side of the spectrum, followed by several strong absorption bands, in agreement with experimental observations in trivalent and divalent lanthanide ions of the second half of the lanthanide series, doped in crystals. Based on Hund's rule, these transitions are usually interpreted as "spin-forbidden" and "spin-allowed" transitions, but this interpretation has been recently questioned in the literature. Here, a two-step relativistic method has been used which reveals the spin composition of the excited state wave functions. The forbidden band is found to be due to spin-forbidden transitions involving "high-spin" excited states because their 1 (3)T(1u) character is 90%. However, the allowed bands cannot be described as spin-allowed transitions involving "low-spin" excited states. Rather, they correspond to "spin-enabled" transitions because they get their intensity from limited (smaller than 45%) electric dipole enabling low-spin (1)T(1u) character. Calculations using a spin-free Hamiltonian revealed that the difference in their electronic structures is related to the fact that the 4f(13)5d(t(2g))(1) manifold is split by an energy gap which separates the lowest (high-spin) 1 (3)T(1u) from the rest of terms, which, in turn, lie very close in energy from each other. As a consequence, the lowest spin-orbit components of 1 (3)T(1u) are shown to remain 90% pure when spin-orbit coupling is considered, whereas a strong spin-orbit coupling exists between the remaining 4f(13)5d(t(2g))(1) terms, among which the 1-3 (1)T(1u) enabling ones lie. As a result, there is a widespread electric dipole enabling (1)T(1u) character, which, although never higher than 45%, leads to a number of spin-enabled absorption bands.

  2. Special feature on imaging systems and techniques (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George


    The IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST'2012) was held in Manchester, UK, on 16-17 July 2012. The participants came from 26 countries or regions: Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, UAE, UK and USA. The technical program of the conference consisted of a series of scientific and technical sessions, exploring physical principles, engineering and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, as reflected by the diversity of the submitted papers. Following a rigorous review process, a total of 123 papers were accepted, and they were organized into 30 oral presentation sessions and a poster session. In addition, six invited keynotes were arranged. The conference not only provided the participants with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and disseminate research outcomes but also paved a way to establish global collaboration. Following the IST'2012, a total of 55 papers, which were technically extended substantially from their versions in the conference proceeding, were submitted as regular papers to this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology . Following a rigorous reviewing process, 25 papers have been finally accepted for publication in this special feature and they are organized into three categories: (1) industrial tomography, (2) imaging systems and techniques and (3) image processing. These papers not only present the latest developments in the field of imaging systems and techniques but also offer potential solutions to existing problems. We hope that this special feature provides a good reference for researchers who are active in the field and will serve as a catalyst to trigger further research. It has been our great pleasure to be the guest editors of this special feature. We would like to thank the authors for their contributions, without which it would

  3. A hybrid continuous-wave terahertz imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolganova, Irina N., E-mail:; Zaytsev, Kirill I., E-mail:; Metelkina, Anna A.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)


    A hybrid (active-passive mode) terahertz (THz) imaging system and an algorithm for imaging synthesis are proposed to enhance the THz image quality. The concept of image contrast is used to compare active and passive THz imaging. Combining the measurement of the self-emitted radiation of the object with the back-scattered source radiation measurement, it becomes possible to use the THz image to retrieve maximum information about the object. The experimental results confirm the advantages of hybrid THz imaging systems, which can be generalized for a wide range of applications in the material sciences, chemical physics, bio-systems, etc.

  4. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun


    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  5. Towards Better Retrievals in Content -Based Image Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vaibhava


    Full Text Available -This paper presents a Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR System called DEICBIR-2. The system retrieves images similar to a given query image by searching in the provided image database.Standard MPEG-7 image descriptors are used to find the relevant images which are similar to thegiven query image. Direct use of the MPEG-7 descriptors for creating the image database and retrieval on the basis of nearest neighbor does not yield accurate retrievals. To further improve the retrieval results, B-splines are used for ensuring smooth and continuous edges of the images in the edge-based descriptors. Relevance feedback is also implemented with user intervention. These additional features improve the retrieval performance of DEICBIR-2 significantly. Computational performance on a set of query images is presented and the performance of the proposed system is much superior to the performance of DEICBIR[9] on the same database and on the same set of query images.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓明; 蒋大真; 等


    By obtaining a feasible filter function,reconstructed images can be got with linear interpolation and filtered backoprojection techniques.Considering the gray and spatial correlation neighbour informations of each pixel,a new supervised classification method is put forward for the reconstructed images,and an experiment with noise image is done,the result shows that the method is feasible and accurate compared with ideal phantoms.

  7. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1560 Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system is a device intended to project...

  8. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Swarms Parameters in c-C4F8/CF4 Gas Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-li; XIAO Deng-ming; WANG Yan-an; ZHANG Zhou-sheng


    The swarm parametes for c-C4F8/CF4 mixtures, including the density-normalized effective ionization coefficient, drift velocity and mean energy were calculated using Monte-Carlo method with the null collision technique. The overall density-reduced electric field strength could be varied between 150 and 500 Td,while the c-C4F8 content in gas mixtures is varied in the range of 0-100%. The value of the density-normalize deffective ionization coefficient shows a strong dependence on the c-C4F8 content, becoming more electronegative as the content of c-C4F8 is increased. The drift velocity of c-C4F4/CF4 mixtures is more affected by CF4. The calculated limiting field strength for c-C4F8/CF4 mixtures is higher than that of SF6/CF4.

  9. 4f orbital and spin magnetism in cerium intermetallic compounds studied by magnetic circular x-ray dichroism (United States)

    Schillé, J. Ph.; Bertran, F.; Finazzi, M.; Brouder, Ch.; Kappler, J. P.; Krill, G.


    Magnetic circular x-ray dichroism experiments at the M4,5 absorption edges of cerium in the intermetallic compounds CeCuSi, CeRh3B2, and CeFe2 are reported. By applying general sum rules, it is shown that these experiments are able to yield both the magnitude and the direction of the 4f magnetic moment on Ce. An estimation of the orbital contribution to those 4f moments is given. Our experiments demonstrate the existence of a 4f magnetic moment on Ce in CeFe2 and confirm the extreme sensitivity of the 4f orbital contribution to the degree of localization of the 4f electrons. This 4f orbital contribution is significantly higher than the one predicted from spin-resolved band-structure calculations.

  10. Image-gathering system design for information and fidelity (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Mccormick, Judith A.; Park, Stephen K.


    Image gathering and processing are assessed in terms of information and fidelity, and the relationship between these two figures of merit is examined. It is assumed that the system is linear and isoplanatic and that the signal and noise amplitudes are Gaussian, wide-sense stationary, and statistically independent. Within these constraints, it is found that the combined process of image gathering and reconstruction (which is intended to reproduce the output of the image-gathering system) behaves as optical, or photographic, image formation in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system ordinarily does not maximize the fidelity of the reconstructed image. The combined process of image gathering and restoration (which is intended to reproduce the input of the image-gathering system) behaves more as a communication channel in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system tends to maximize the fidelity of optimally restored representations of the input.

  11. Double Layer Image Security System using Encryption and Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Sekhon Brar


    Full Text Available The image security on internet transfers is the concern of the hour as the breaching attacks into the image databases are rising every year. The hackers take advantage of the stolen personal and important images to fulfill their dangerous and unethical intentions. The image data theft can be used to defame a person on the internet by posting the illegal and unacceptable images of that person (internet user. Hence the images transfers have to be secure to ensure the privacy of the user's image data. In this research, a number of image security systems have been studied to evaluate the research gap. Majority of the existing image security systems are not up to date to protect against the latest breaching attacks. So, we have proposed an effective and robust image security framework particularly designed for the images. The proposed has been designed and implemented using MATLAB. In this research, a hybrid image security framework has been proposed to overcome the problem stated earlier, which will be implemented by combining various techniques together to achieve the image security goal. The techniques included in the combination would beimage compression, cryptography andsteganography. DWT compression has been used, because it is a stronger compression algorithm. The steganographed image would be compressed to reduce its size. Blowfish encryption algorithm would be used for the encryption purposes. It offers maximum throughput (faster and also energy efficient. Compressed image would be encrypted to enhance the image security. Real image will be hidden into another image. A cluster based steganographic technique will be used. Real image and face image would be analyzed, and the real image would be embedded in those areas of face image, where color schemes of the real image and face image would be most similar. Kmeans or Hierarchical clustering would be used as a clustering technique. An all new comparative analysis technique would be applied to

  12. Three-dimensional integral imaging display system via off-axially distributed image sensing (United States)

    Piao, Yongri; Qu, Hongjia; Zhang, Miao; Cho, Myungjin


    In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional integral imaging display system with a multiple recorded images using off-axially distributed image sensing. First, the depth map of the 3D objects is extracted from the off-axially recorded multi-perspective 2D images by using profilometry technique. Then, the elemental image array is computationally synthesized using the extracted depth map based on ray mapping model. Finally, the 3D images are optically displayed in integral imaging system. To show the feasibility of the proposed method, the optical experiments for 3D objects are carried out and presented in this paper.

  13. 4f bands in Ce heavy fermions and mixed valent compounds at T and Gt; T{sub K}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Joyce, J.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Arko, A.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fisk, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tang, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lawrence, J.M. [Institute for Surface and Interface Science, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 92717 (United States); Riseborough, P.S. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States); Canfield, P.C. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)


    We report evidence of 4f band character in Ce 4f states at T and Gt;T{sub K} using high-resolution angle-resolved resonant photoemission. The Ce intermetallic compound CePt{sub 2+x} was grown and studied in situ by the method of MBE and was characterized by LEED, XPS and XAS. These new findings suggest a need for a re-examination of 4f photoemission in Ce compounds. ((orig.)).

  14. 4f bands in Ce heavy fermions and mixed valent compounds at T {much_gt} T{sub K}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A.B.; Joyce, J.J.; Arko, A.J.; Thompson, J.D.; Tang, J.; Fisk, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lawrence, J.M. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Inst. for Surface and Interface Science; Riseborough, P. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States); Canfield, P.C. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)


    We report evidence of 4f band character in Ce 4f states at {Tau}{much_gt}{Tau}{sub K} using the technique of high-resolution angle-resolved resonant photoemission. The Ce intermetallic compound CePt{sub +x} was grown and studied in situ by the method of MBE and was characterized by LEED, XPS and XAS. These new findings would suggest a need for a reexamination of 4f photoemission in Ce compounds.

  15. 4f heavy femion photoelectron spectra do not exhibit the Kondo scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Andrews, A.B.; Blyth, I.R.; Barlett, R.J.; Fisk, Z. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Canfield, P.C.; Olson, C.G.; Benning, P.J. [Iowa Sate Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Poirier, D.M.; Weaver, J.H. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Riseborough, P.S. [Polytechnic Univ., Brookyln, NY (United States)


    It has been the authors contention for some time that the Single Impurity Anderson Model (SIAM), as extended by Gunnarsson and Schonhammer (GS), or the non-crossing approximation (NCA), does not correctly describe the 4f photoelectron spectra of heavy fermions. Recently they have concentrated on Yb heavy fermions since in these materials the Kondo resonance (KR) is fully occupied and thus accessible via photoemission. In particular, they have repeatedly pointed out that the width, position, spectral weight, lineshape, and temperature dependence of the features assumed to be the KR and its sidebands, are nearly independent of the Kondo temperature, T{sub K}, while at the same time bearing a striking resemblance to the simple 4f core level spectra of pure Yb metal, or of Lu isostructural Lu compounds. It is important to resolve these issues in view of the fundamental nature of the problem.

  16. Long-term tropospheric trend of octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8 or PFC-318

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann


    Full Text Available Air samples collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania between 1978 and 2008 and during a series of more recent aircraft sampling programmes have been analysed to determine the atmospheric abundance and trend of octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8 or PFC-318. c-C4F8 has an atmospheric lifetime in excess of 3000 yr and a global warming potential (GWP of 10 300 (100 yr time horizon, making it one of the most potent greenhouse gases detected in the atmosphere to date. The abundance of c-C4F8 in the Southern Hemisphere has risen from 0.35 ppt in 1978 to 1.2 ppt in 2010, and is currently increasing at a rate of around 0.03 ppt yr−1. It is the third most abundant perfluorocarbon (PFC in the present day atmosphere, behind CF4 (~75 ppt and C2F6 (~4 ppt. Although a number of potential sources of c-C4F8 have been reported, including the electronics and semi-conductor industries, there remains a large discrepancy in the atmospheric budget. Using a 2-D global model to derive top-down global emissions based on the Cape Grim measurements yields a recent (2007 emission rate of around 1.1 Gg yr−1 and a cumulative emission up to and including 2007 of 38.1 Gg. Emissions reported on the EDGAR emissions database for the period 1986–2005 represent less than 1% of the top-down emissions for the same period, which suggests there is a large unaccounted for source of this compound. It is also apparent that the magnitude of this source has varied considerably over the past 30 yr, declining sharply in the late 1980s before increasing again in the mid-1990s.

  17. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the Li4F4 cluster (United States)

    Heidenreich, A.; Sauer, J.


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed directly on the ab initio potential energy surface of Li4F4, which was generated within the Hartree-Fock approximation using a Gaussian basis set (split valence contraction). Trajectories at different temperatures yield the temperature dependence of the infrared spectra and the photoelectron spectra. For the infrared spectra comparison is made with MD results using a shell model ion pair potential function.

  18. Long-term tropospheric trend of octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8 or PFC-318

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann


    Full Text Available Air samples collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania between 1978 and 2008 and during a series of more recent aircraft sampling programmes have been analysed to determine the atmospheric abundance and trend of octafluorocyclobutane (-C4F8 or PFC-318. c-C4F8 has an atmospheric lifetime in excess of 3000 yr and a global warming potential (GWP of 10 300 (100 yr time horizon, making it one of the most potent greenhouse gases detected in the atmosphere to date. The abundance of c-C4F8 in the Southern Hemisphere has risen from 0.35 ppt in 1978 to 1.2 ppt in 2010, and is currently increasing at a rate of around 0.03 ppt yr−1. It is the third most abundant perfluorocarbon (PFC in the present day atmosphere, behind CF4 (~75 ppt and C2F6 (~4 ppt. The origin of c-C4F8 is unclear. Using a 2-D global model to derive top-down global emissions based on the Cape Grim measurements yields a recent (2007 emission rate of around 1.1 Gg yr−1 and a cumulative emission up to and including 2007 of 38.1 Gg. Emissions reported on the EDGAR emissions database for the period 1986–2005 represent less than 1 % of the top-down emissions for the same period, which suggests there is a large unaccounted for source of this compound. It is also apparent that the magnitude of this source has varied considerably over the past 30 yr, declining sharply in the late 1980s before increasing again in the mid-1990s.

  19. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer (United States)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.


    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  20. The Acoi Algebra: a Query Algebra for Image Retrieval Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, N.J.; Kersten, M.L.


    Content-based image retrieval systems rely on a query-by-example technique often using a limited set of global image features. This leads to a rather coarse-grain approach to locate images. The next step is to concentrate on queries over spatial relations amongst objects within the images. This call

  1. Superhydrophobic treatment using atmospheric-pressure He/C4F8 plasma for buoyancy improvement (United States)

    Noh, Sooryun; Moon, A.-Young; Moon, Se Youn


    A superhydrophobic miniature boat was fabricated with aluminum alloy plates treated with atmospheric-pressure helium (He)/octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) plasma using 13.56 MHz rf power. When only 0.13% C4F8 was added to He gas, the contact angle of the surface increased to 140° and the surface showed superhydrophobic properties. On the basis of chemical and morphological analyses, fluorinated functional groups (CF, CF2, and CF3) and nano-/micro-sized particles were detected on the Al surface. These features brought about superhydrophobicity similar to the lotus effect. While the miniature boat, assembled with plasma-treated plates, was immersed in water, a layer of air (i.e., a plastron) surrounded the superhydrophobic surfaces. This effect contributed to the development of a 4.7% increase in buoyancy. In addition, the superhydrophobic properties lasted for two months under the submerged condition. These results demonstrate that treatment with atmospheric-pressure He/C4F8 plasma is a promising method of improving the load capacity and antifouling properties, and reducing the friction of marine ships through a fast and low-cost superhydrophobic treatment process.

  2. The Transcription Factor E4F1 Coordinates CHK1-Dependent Checkpoint and Mitochondrial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Rodier


    Full Text Available Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  3. Effect of Sr doping in layered Eu3Bi2S4F4 superconductor (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Zhai, Hui-Fei; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Feng, Chun-Mu; Cao, Guang-Han; Xu, Zhu-An


    We report the effect of Sr-doping in the BiS2-based superconductor {{Eu}}3-xSr x Bi2S4F4. Eu3Bi2S4F4 is a self-doped compound with a mixed Eu valence state. By the partial substitution of Sr for Eu, T c gradually decreases and superconductivity disappears above 0.3 K when x\\gt 1.0. Magnetic-susceptibility and specific-heat measurements reveal that Sr substitution leads to a decrease in both Eu2+ and Eu3+ populations. The decreased Eu3+ population, and the corresponding lower charge carrier density, may be the main origin for the suppression of superconductivity. In addition, we find a significant increase in the Sommerfeld coefficient {γ }0 upon Sr doping, which may be due to the Kondo effect between the magnetic moments (associated to Eu2+ ions) and the conducting electrons. This work implies that the Kondo effect could compete with superconductivity in Eu3Bi2S4F4.

  4. The transcription factor E4F1 coordinates CHK1-dependent checkpoint and mitochondrial functions. (United States)

    Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Baraibar, Martín; Houlès, Thibault; Lacroix, Matthieu; Delpech, Hélène; Hatchi, Elodie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Severac, Dany; Dubois, Emeric; Caramel, Julie; Julien, Eric; Friguet, Bertrand; Le Cam, Laurent; Sardet, Claude


    Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  5. FLIR systems submicro rotary stirling cycle IDCA for imaging systems (United States)

    Uri, Bin-Nun


    The advantages of the common Rotary Stirling cycle coolers over the Split Stirling Linear are the overall size, light weight, low cooler input power and high efficiency. The main disadvantage has always been self induced vibration. Self induced vibration is a major consideration in the design of stabilized IR imaging systems/(GIMBALS) due to the effect it has on image quality i.e. Jitter. The "irregular shape" of the Rotary cooling engine attached to the payload and optics is also a problem in terms of the limits it has on optical system size. To address these issues, FLIR Systems Inc in Boston MA, developed a new rotary Stirling cycle cooling engine known as the FLIR Submicro Cooler. The Submicro is now in production and has been applied in a few products especially in FLIR"S smallest GIMBAL which measures 7.0 inch in spherical diameter. In this paper we discuss the improvements made in terms of IDCA implementation in stabilized imaging systems.

  6. Multiband optics for imaging systems (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Gibson, Daniel J.; Bayya, Shyam S.; Nguyen, Vinh Q.; Kotov, Mikhail; McClain, Collin


    There is a strong desire to reduce size and weight of single and multiband IR imaging systems in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations on hand-held, helmet mounted or airborne platforms. NRL is developing new IR glasses that expand the glass map and provide compact solutions to multispectral imaging systems. These glasses were specifically designed to have comparable glass molding temperatures and thermal properties to enable lamination and co-molding of the optics which leads to a reduction in the number of air-glass interfaces (lower Fresnel reflection losses). Our multispectral optics designs using these new materials demonstrate reduced size, complexity and improved performance. This presentation will cover discussions on the new optical materials, multispectral designs, as well fabrication and characterization of new optics. Additionally, graded index (GRIN) optics offer further potential for both weight savings and increased performance but have so far been limited to visible and NIR bands (wavelengths shorter than about 0.9 µm). NRL is developing a capability to extend GRIN optics to longer wavelengths in the infrared by exploiting diffused IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. These IR-GRIN lenses are compatible with all IR wavebands (SWIR, MWIR and LWIR) and can be used alongside conventional materials. The IR-GRIN lens technology, design space and anti-reflection considerations will be presented in this talk.

  7. Directive Antenna for Ultrawideband Medical Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin M. Abbosh


    Full Text Available A compact and directive ultrawideband antenna is presented in this paper. The antenna is in the form of an antipodal tapered slot with resistive layers to improve its directivity and to reduce its backward radiation. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 3.1 GHz to more than 10.6 GHz. It features a directive radiation with a peak gain which is between 4 dBi and 11 dBi in the specified band. The time domain performance of the antenna shows negligible distortion. This makes it suitable for the imaging systems which require a very short pulse for transmission/reception. The effect of the multilayer human body on the performance of the antenna is also studied. The breast model is used for this purpose. It is shown that the antenna has more than 90% fidelity factor when it works in free space, whereas the fidelity factor decreases as the signal propagates inside the human body. However, even inside the human body, the fidelity factor is still larger than 70% revealing the possibility of using the proposed antenna in biomedical imaging systems.

  8. A Miniature-Based Image Retrieval System

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful


    Due to the rapid development of World Wide Web (WWW) and imaging technology, more and more images are available in the Internet and stored in databases. Searching the related images by the querying image is becoming tedious and difficult. Most of the images on the web are compressed by methods based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) including Joint Photographic Experts Group(JPEG) and H.261. This paper presents an efficient content-based image indexing technique for searching similar images using discrete cosine transform features. Experimental results demonstrate its superiority with the existing techniques.

  9. Prototype of Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    Microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection has received the attention of a large number of research groups in the last decade. In this paper, the imaging system currently being developed at the Technical university of Denmark is presented. This includes a description of the antenna system......, the microwave hardware, and the imaging algorithm....

  10. Millimeter-wave Imaging Systems with Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löffler, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy;


    The paper describes development of a millimetre-wave imaging system using multi-element aperture filling techniques [1]. Such imaging systems are increasingly demonstrated for security applications and in particular standoff imaging of persons and bonding flaw and defect detection [2]. The major...

  11. An image processing system for digital chest X-ray images. (United States)

    Cocklin, M; Gourlay, A; Jackson, P; Kaye, G; Miessler, M; Kerr, I; Lams, P


    This paper investigates the requirements for image processing of digital chest X-ray images. These images are conventionally recorded on film and are characterised by large size, wide dynamic range and high resolution. X-ray detection systems are now becoming available for capturing these images directly in photoelectronic-digital form. In this report, the hardware and software facilities required for handling these images are described. These facilities include high resolution digital image displays, programmable video look up tables, image stores for image capture and processing and a full range of software tools for image manipulation. Examples are given of the application of digital image processing techniques to this class of image.

  12. Low Quality Image Retrieval System For Generic Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.D.N. Wijesekera


    Full Text Available Abstract Content Based Image Retrieval CBIR systems have become the trend in image retrieval technologies as the index or notation based image retrieval algorithms give less efficient results in high usage of images. These CBIR systems are mostly developed considering the availability of high or normal quality images. High availability of low quality images in databases due to usage of different quality equipment to capture images and different environmental conditions the photos are being captured has opened up a new path in image retrieval research area. The algorithms which are developed for low quality image based image retrieval are only a few and have been performed only for specific domains. Low quality image based image retrieval algorithm on a generic database with a considerable accuracy level for different industries is an area which remains unsolved. Through this study an algorithm has been developed to achieve above mentioned gaps. By using images with inappropriate brightness and compressed images as low quality images the proposed algorithm is tested on a generic database which includes many categories of data instead of using a specific domain. The new algorithm developed gives better precision and recall values when they are clustered into the most appropriate number of clusters which changes according to the level of quality of the image. As the quality of the image decreases the accuracy of the algorithm also tends to be reduced a space for further improvement.

  13. Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery (United States)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf


    A compact multi-spectral imaging system is presented as diagnostic tool in dermatology and neurosurgery. Using an electronically tunable filter, a sensitive high resolution digital camera, 140 spectral images from 400 nm up to 720 nm are acquired in 40 s. Advanced image processing algorithms are used to enable interactive acquisition, viewing, image registration and image analysis. Experiments in the department of dermatology and neurosurgery show that multispectral imaging reveals much more detail than conventional medical photography or a surgical microscope, as images can be reprocessed to enhance the view on e.g. tumor boundaries. Using a hardware-based interactive registration algorithm, multi-spectral images can be aligned to correct for motion occurred during image acquisition or to compare acquisitions from different moments in time. The system shows to be a powerful diagnostics tool for medical imaging in the visual and near IR range.

  14. Modeling of a Single Multimode Fiber Imaging System

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Deming; Su, Lei


    We present a detailed theoretical analysis on image transmission via a single multimode fiber (MMF). A single MMF imaging model is developed to study the light wave propagation from the light source to the camera, by using free-space Fourier optics theory and mode-coupling theory. A mathematical expression is obtained for the complete single MMF imaging system, which is further validated by image-transmission simulations. Our model is believed to be the first theoretical model to describe the complete MMF imaging system based on the transmission of individual modes. Therefore, this model is robust and capable of analyzing MMF image transmission under specific mode-coupling conditions. We use our model to study bending-induced image blur in single-MMF image transmission, and the result has found a good agreement with that of existing experimental studies. These should provide important insights into future MMF imaging system developments.

  15. A Ferret-based gastrointestinal image retrieval system. (United States)

    Bedrick, Steven; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree


    We developed a web-based interface for image retrieval and cluster analysis system. The system handles search queries using Ferret, a port to the Ruby language of the Apache Lucene indexing and searching system. The system uses de-identified endoscopic images from the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative data repository, and is designed for use by students and researchers.

  16. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis (United States)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo


    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  17. An Automatic Number Plate Recognition System under Image Processing


    Sarbjit Kaur


    Automatic Number Plate Recognition system is an application of computer vision and image processing technology that takes photograph of vehicles as input image and by extracting their number plate from whole vehicle image , it display the number plate information into text. Mainly the ANPR system consists of 4 phases: - Acquisition of Vehicle Image and Pre-Processing, Extraction of Number Plate Area, Character Segmentation and Character Recognition. The overall accuracy and efficiency of whol...

  18. Theoretical aspects of nonlinear echo image system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ruiquan; FENG Shaosong


    In order to develop the nonlinear echo image system to diagnose pathological changes in biological tissue , a simple physical model to analyse the character of nonlinear reflected wave in biological medium is postulated. The propagation of large amplitude plane sound wave in layered biological media is analysed for the one dimensional case by the method of successive approximation and the expression for the second order wave reflected from any interface of layered biological media is obtained. The relations between the second order reflection coefficients and the nonlinear parameters of medium below the interface are studied in three layers interfaces. Finally, the second order reflection coefficients of four layered media are calculated numerically. The results indicate that the nonlinear parameter B/A of each layer of biological media can be determined by the reflection method.

  19. Digital image fusion systems: color imaging and low-light targets (United States)

    Estrera, Joseph P.


    This paper presents digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) systems in color imaging and low light target applications. This paper will discuss first the digital sensors that are utilized in the noted image fusion applications which is a 1900x1086 (high definition format) CMOS imager coupled to a Generation III image intensifier for the visible/near infrared (NIR) digital sensor and 320x240 or 640x480 uncooled microbolometer thermal imager for the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) digital sensor. Performance metrics for these digital imaging sensors will be presented. The digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) process will be presented in context of early fused night vision systems such as the digital image fused system (DIFS) and the digital enhanced night vision goggle and later, the long range digitally fused night vision sighting system. Next, this paper will discuss the effects of user display color in a dual color digital image fusion system. Dual color image fusion schemes such as Green/Red, Cyan/Yellow, and White/Blue for image intensifier and thermal infrared sensor color representation, respectively, are discussed. Finally, this paper will present digitally fused imagery and image analysis of long distance targets in low light from these digital fused systems. The result of this image analysis with enhanced A+B digital image fusion systems is that maximum contrast and spatial resolution is achieved in a digital fusion mode as compared to individual sensor modalities in low light, long distance imaging applications. Paper has been cleared by DoD/OSR for Public Release under Ref: 08-S-2183 on August 8, 2008.

  20. Photoacoustic imaging system for peripheral small-vessel imaging based on clinical ultrasound technology (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Hirota, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Murakoshi, Dai; Ishii, Hiroyasu; Tada, Takuji; Wada, Takatsugu; Hayakawa, Toshiro; Azuma, Ryuichi; Otani, Naoki; Itoh, Kenji; Ishihara, Miya


    One of the features of photoacoustic (PA) imaging is small-vessel visualization realized without injection of a contrast agent or exposure to X-rays. For carrying out clinical studies in this field, a prototype PA imaging system has been developed. The PA imaging system utilizes a technological platform of FUJIFILM's clinical ultrasound (US) imaging system mounting many-core MPU for enhancing the image quality of US B-mode and US Doppler mode, which can be superposed onto PA images. By evaluating the PA and US Doppler images of the prototyped system, the applicability of the prototype system to small-vessel visualization has been discussed. The light source for PA imaging was on a compact cart of a US unit and emitted 750 nm wavelength laser pulses. The laser light was transferred to illumination optics in a handheld US transducer, which was connected to the US unit. Obtained PA rf data is reconstructed into PA images in the US unit. 3D images were obtained by scanning a mechanical stage, which the transducer is attached to. Several peripheral parts such as fingers, palms and wrists were observed by PA and US Doppler imaging. As for small arteries, US Doppler images were able to visualize the bow-shaped artery in the tip of the finger. Though PA images cannot distinguish arteries and veins, it could visualize smaller vessels and showed good resolution and vascular connectivity, resulting in a complementary image for the US Doppler images. Therefore, superposed images of the PA, US B-mode and US Doppler can visualize from large to small vessels without a contrast agent, which should be a differentiating feature of US/PA combined technology from other clinical vascular imaging modalities.

  1. Red nucleus and rubrospinal tract disorganization in the absence of Pou4f1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus E. eMartinez-Lopez


    Full Text Available The red nucleus is a neuronal population that plays an important role in forelimb motor control and locomotion. Histologically it is subdivided into two subpopulations, the parvocellular red nucleus located in the diencephalon and the magnocellular red nucleus in the mesencephalon. The red nucleus integrates signals from motor cortex and cerebellum and projects to spinal cord interneurons and motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract. Pou4f1 is a transcription factor highly expressed in this nucleus that has been related to its specification. Here we profoundly analyzed consequences of Pou4f1 loss-of-function in development, maturation and axonal projection of the red nucleus. Surprisingly, red nucleus neurons are specified and maintained in the mutant, no cell death was detected. Nevertheless, the nucleus appeared disorganized with a strong delay in radial migration and with a wider neuronal distribution; the neurons did not form a compacted population as they do in controls, Robo1 and Slit2 were miss-expressed. Cplx1 and Npas1, expressed in the red nucleus, are transcription factors involved in neurotransmitter release, neuronal maturation and motor function processes among others. In our mutant mice, both transcription factors are lost, suggesting an abnormal maturation of the red nucleus. The resulting altered nucleus occupied a wider territory. Finally, we examined rubrospinal tract development and found that the red nucleus neurons were able to project to the spinal cord but their axons appeared defasciculated. These data suggest that Pou4f1 is necessary for the maturation of red nucleus neurons but not for their specification and maintenance.

  2. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing in Drosophila spliceosomal assembly factor RNP-4F during development. (United States)

    Fetherson, Rebecca A; Strock, Stephen B; White, Kristen N; Vaughn, Jack C


    The 5'- and 3'-UTR regions in pre-mRNAs play a variety of roles in controlling eukaryotic gene expression, including translational modulation. Here we report the results of a systematic study of alternative splicing in rnp-4f, which encodes a Drosophila spliceosomal assembly factor. We show that most of the nine introns are constitutively spliced, but several patterns of alternative splicing are observed in two pre-mRNA regions including the 5'-UTR. Intron V is shown to be of recent evolutionary origin and is infrequently spliced, resulting in generation of an in-frame stop codon and a predicted truncated protein lacking a nuclear localization signal, so that alternative splicing regulates its subcellular localization. Intron 0, located in the 5'-UTR, is subject to three different splicing decisions in D. melanogaster. Northern analysis of poly(A+) mRNAs reveals two differently sized rnp-4f mRNA isoforms in this species. A switch in relative isoform abundance occurs during mid-embryo stages, when the larger isoform becomes more abundant. This isoform is shown to represent intron 0 unspliced mRNA, whereas the smaller transcript represents the product of alternative splicing. Comparative genomic analysis predicts that intron 0 is present in diverse Drosophila species. Intron 0 splicing results in loss of an evolutionarily conserved stem-loop constituting a potential cis-regulatory element at the 3'-splice site. A model is proposed for the role of this element both in 5'-UTR alternative splicing decisions and in RNP-4F translational modulation. Preliminary evidences in support of our model are discussed.

  3. Optical image processing by using a photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide (United States)

    Liang, Bao-Lai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Su-Heng; Guo, Qing-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Simmonds, Paul J.; Wang, Zhao-Qi


    By combining the photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide of a Ce:SBN crystal with a coherent 4-f system we are able to manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image to perform edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations. Theoretical analysis of this optical image processor is presented to interpret the experimental observations. This work provides an approach for optical image processing by using photorefractive spatial solitons.

  4. Surface shift of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels of the rare-earth metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Johansson, Börje; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    The surface energy shifts of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels for the lanthanide metals have been calculated from first principles by means of a Green’s-function technique within the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method. We use the concept of complete screening to identify...... as well as those found in previous initial-state model calculations. The present theory agrees well with very recent high-resolution, single-crystal film measurements for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu. We furthermore utilize the unique possibility offered by the lanthanide metals to clarify the roles...

  5. Temperature dependence of 4f PES features and hole occupancy in ytterbium heavy fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A.B.; Blyth, R.I.R.; Arko, A.J. [and others


    We have measured the temperature dependence between 80 and 300K and spectral weight of the 4f features in clean single crystal Yb heavy fermions, cleaved in a vacuum of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} Torr. A small ({approx}10%) decrease in spectral weight differs substantially from the reported {approx}50% decrease over this range. All divalent features are much larger than expected, yielding n{sub f} values far too small. The intensity of the divalent features in YbAuCu{sub 4} is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than expected.

  6. Temperature dependence of 4f PES features and hole occupancy in ytterbium heavy fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A.B. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)); Blyth, R.I.R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)); Arko, A.J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)); Joyce, J.J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)); Fisk, Z. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)); Thompson, J.D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)); Bartlett, R.J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)); Canfield, P.C. (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States)); Olson, C.G. (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States)); Benning, P. (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States)); Riseborough, P.S. (Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York (United States))


    We have measured the temperature dependence between 80 and 300 K and spectral weight of the 4f features in clean single crystal Yb heavy fermions, cleaved in a vacuum of 5x10[sup -11] Torr. A small ( similar 15%) decrease in spectral weight differs substantially from the reported similar 50% decrease over this range. All divalent features are much larger than expected, yielding n[sub f] values far too small. The intensity of the divalent features in YbAuCu[sub 4] is about two orders of magnitude larger than expected. ((orig.))

  7. Evidence for the photoemission nature of Gd 4f resonant photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S.R.; Gammon, W.J. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cummins, T.R.; Waddill, G.D. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Laan, G. van der [Daresbury Lab., Warrington (United Kingdom); Goodman, K.W.; Tobin, J.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The constructive interference between direct and indirect channels above the absorption threshold of a core level leads to a massive increase in the emission cross section leading to a phenomenon called resonant photoemission. Using novel magnetic linear dichroism in angular distribution photoelectron spectroscopy experiment, the authors have tried to understand the nature of the resonant photoemission process in Gd metal. The presence of dichroism in Gd 4f photoemission intensity at a photo energy corresponding to resonant photoemission clearly demonstrates the photoemission-like nature of the resonant photoemission process.

  8. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (United States)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi


    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ∼ 7~\\text{eV} ) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν ≳ 400~\\text{eV} ) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of \\text{Ce}M\\text{I}{{\\text{n}}5} (M=\\text{Rh} , \\text{Ir} , and \\text{Co} ) and \\text{YbR}{{\\text{h}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UFeG}{{\\text{a}}5} , their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all \\text{U}~5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UP}{{\\text{d}}3} and \\text{U}{{\\text{O}}2} are essentially explained by the localized model that treats \\text{U}~5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion \\text{U} -based compounds such as the hidden-order compound \\text{UR}{{\\text{u}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} , their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures

  9. Position sensor based on slit imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun Zeng(曾爱军); Xiangzhao Wang(王向朝); Yang Bu(步扬); Dailin Li(李代林)


    A position sensor based on slit imaging is proposed and its measurement principle is described.An imaging slit is illuminated by a collimated laser beam with square-wave modulation and imaged on a detection double slit through a 4f system.A magnified image of the detection double slit is formed on a bi-cell detector.The position of the imaging slit is obtained by detecting light intensity on two parts of the bi-cell detector.In experiments,the feasibility of the sensor was verified.The repeatability was less than 40 nm.

  10. Optimization of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Izquierdo Fuente


    Full Text Available On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced.

  11. Localized and mixed valence state of Ce 4 f in superconducting and ferromagnetic CeO1 -xFxBiS2 revealed by x-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy (United States)

    Sugimoto, T.; Ootsuki, D.; Paris, E.; Iadecola, A.; Salome, M.; Schwier, E. F.; Iwasawa, H.; Shimada, K.; Asano, T.; Higashinaka, R.; Matsuda, T. D.; Aoki, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Mizokawa, T.


    We have performed Ce L3-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Ce 4 d -4 f resonant photoemission spectroscopy (PES) on single crystals of CeO1 -xFxBiS2 for x =0.0 and 0.5 in order to investigate the Ce 4 f electronic states. In Ce L3-edge XAS, a mixed valence of Ce was found in the x =0.0 sample, and F doping suppressed it, which is consistent with the results on polycrystalline samples. As for resonant PES, we found that the Ce 4 f electrons in both x =0.0 and 0.5 systems respectively formed a flat band at 1.0 and 1.4 eV below the Fermi level and there was no contribution to the Fermi surfaces. Interestingly, Ce valence in CeOBiS2 deviates from Ce3 + even though Ce 4 f electrons are localized, indicating the Ce valence is not in a typical valence fluctuation regime. We assume that localized Ce 4 f in CeOBiS2 is mixed with unoccupied Bi 6 pz , which is consistent with a previous local structural study. Based on the analysis of the Ce L3-edge XAS spectra using Anderson's impurity model calculation, we found that the transfer integral becomes smaller, increasing the number of Ce 4 f electrons upon the F substitution for O.

  12. Radionuclide Imaging Technologies for Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Calvin R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Reid, Chantal D. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    The main objective of this project is to develop technologies and experimental techniques for studying the dynamics of physiological responses of plants to changes in their interface with the local environment and to educate a new generation of scientists in an interdisciplinary environment of biology, physics and engineering. Also an important goal is to perform measurements to demonstrate the new data that can be produced and made available to the plant-biology community using the imaging technologies and experimental techniques developed in this project. The study of the plant-environment interface includes a wide range of topics in plant physiology, e.g., the root-soil interface, resource availability, impact of herbivores, influence of microbes on root surface, and responses to toxins in the air and soil. The initial scientific motivation for our work is to improve understanding of the mechanisms for physiological responses to abrupt changes in the local environment, in particular, the responses that result in short-term adjustments in resource (e.g., sugars, nutrients and water) allocations. Data of time-dependent responses of plants to environmental changes are essential in developing mechanistic models for substance intake and resource allocation. Our approach is to use radioisotope tracing techniques to study whole-plant and plant organ (e.g., leaves, stems, roots) dynamical responses to abrupt changes in environmental conditions such as concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, nutrient availability and lighting. To this aim we are collaborating with the Radiation Detector and Imaging Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory Facility (JLab) to develop gamma-ray and beta particle imaging systems optimized for plant studies. The radioisotope tracing measurements are conducted at the Phytotron facility at Duke University. The Phytotron is a controlled environment plant research facility with a variety of plant growth chambers. One chamber

  13. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail:; Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi [CYRIC, Tohoku University, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)


    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a {sup 22}Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET

  14. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system is a device that combines the features of continuous wave doppler-effect technology with pulsed-echo effect technology and is intended...

  15. The 4f-5d luminescence transitions in cerium-doped LuF3 (United States)

    Guerbous, L.; Krachni, O.

    Emission and excitation spectra of the Ce3+ ion in LuF3 single crystal were measured at 77 K. The broad bands observed in these spectra were attributed to the parity-allowed electric-dipole 4f ← 5d transitions within Ce3+ ion. No zero-phonon lines were observed, which is indicative of a strong electron-phonon coupling in this host. It is shown that Ce3+ 5d excited configuration splits into five crystal-field components in LuF3. The influence of the crystalline environment on the position of the lowest Ce3+ 5d level is investigated. The energy of the lowest level of the 4fN-15d excited configuration was predicted for all the trivalent rare earth ions embedded in LuF3. Positions of crystal field spitting levels of 4fN-15d configuration relative to the host electronic bands were discussed.

  16. The operation technology of realtime image processing system (Datacube)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Park, Jin Seok


    In this project, a Sparc VME-based MaxSparc system, running the solaris operating environment, is selected as the dedicated image processing hardware for robot vision applications. In this report, the operation of Datacube maxSparc system, which is high performance realtime image processing hardware, is systematized. And image flow example programs for running MaxSparc system are studied and analyzed. The state-of-the-arts of Datacube system utilizations are studied and analyzed. For the next phase, advanced realtime image processing platform for robot vision application is going to be developed. (author). 19 refs., 71 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. A system and method for imaging body areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, F.P.C.


    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an externa

  18. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part II: Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.;


    ultrasound imaging for studying brain function in animals. The paper explains the underlying acquisition and estimation methods for fast 2-D and 3-D velocity imaging and gives a number of examples. Future challenges and the potentials of parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging are also discussed....

  19. Spectroscopy of Pr3+ 4f5d Configuration in LaF3 Nanocrystals/Oxyfluoride Glass Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Chunxia; Huang Shihua; You Fangtian; Tao Ye; Xu Jianhua; Zhang Guobin; Wang Xiaojun; Dejneka M J; Yen W M


    There are two types of Pr3+ ion in the Pr3+ doped oxyfluoride glass containing LaF3 nanocrystal: the lowest 4f5d state of Pr3+ in LaF3 nanocrystal is located energetically higher than the 1S0 state, while in glass the lowest 4f5d state is lower than the 1S0 state. We deduce the positions of the lowest 4f5d band of these two types of Pr3+ ion by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and ultraviolet (UV) excitation spectra. When the sample is excited by 181 nm, the narrow band emission of 4f2→4f2 of Pr3+ ion in the nanocrystal and the broad band emission of 4f5d→4f2 in the glass appear at the same time. However, the second step of the photon cascade emission(PCE) of Pr3+ in the LaF3 nanocrystal, corresponding to the emission of 3P0→3H4, can be observed at 20 K, but not at room temperature. The reason accounting for this phenomenon was discussed in detail.

  20. Measurement of Swarm Parameters of c-C4F8/CO2 and Its Insulation Characteristics Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liu-chun; XIAO Deng-ming; ZHANG Dong; WU Bian-tao


    In c-C4F8 and c-C4F8/CO2 mixtures, the swarm parameters including ionization coefficient, attachment coefficient and effective ionization coefficient were obtained at the ratio of the electric field strength to the gas density between 150-550 Td by the steady-state Townsend (SST) method. Static breakdown voltages at each ratio were also measured at the SST condition. The limiting field strengths were obtained by two methods:computing the density-normalized effective ionization coefficient as a function of the overall density-reduced electric field strength; and measuring static breakdown voltages as a function of the product of gas density and electrode separation. Good agreement was obtained by these two methods, which ensures the correctness of the former method. The limiting field strengths of c-C4F8 and c-C4F8/CO2 mixtures were compared with those ofpure SF6, SF6/CO2 mixtures and pure c-C4Fs. It is found that buffer gas CO2 does not reduce the limiting field strengths of c-C4F8 greatly, the limiting field strengths of c-C4F8/CO2 mixtures are higher than those of SF6/CO2 mixtures or even pure SF6, and so c-C4F8/CO2 mixtures are suggested to be possible substitutes for SF6.

  1. System refinement for content based satellite image retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NourElDin Laban


    Full Text Available We are witnessing a large increase in satellite generated data especially in the form of images. Hence intelligent processing of the huge amount of data received by dozens of earth observing satellites, with specific satellite image oriented approaches, presents itself as a pressing need. Content based satellite image retrieval (CBSIR approaches have mainly been driven so far by approaches dealing with traditional images. In this paper we introduce a novel approach that refines image retrieval process using the unique properties to satellite images. Our approach uses a Query by polygon (QBP paradigm for the content of interest instead of using the more conventional rectangular query by image approach. First, we extract features from the satellite images using multiple tiling sizes. Accordingly the system uses these multilevel features within a multilevel retrieval system that refines the retrieval process. Our multilevel refinement approach has been experimentally validated against the conventional one yielding enhanced precision and recall rates.

  2. mage Mining using Content Based Image Retrieval System


    Rajshree S. Dubey; Niket Bhargava; Rajnish Choubey


    The image depends on the Human perception and is also based on the Machine Vision System. The Image Retrieval is based on the color Histogram, texture. The perception of the Human System of Image is based on the Human Neurons which hold the 1012 of Information; the Human brain continuously learns with the sensory organs like eye which transmits the Image to the brain which interprets the Image. The research challenge is that how the brain processes the informationin the semantic manner is hot...

  3. HOPIS: hybrid omnidirectional and perspective imaging system for mobile robots. (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Yung; Wang, Min-Liang


    In this paper, we present a framework for the hybrid omnidirectional and perspective robot vision system. Based on the hybrid imaging geometry, a generalized stereo approach is developed via the construction of virtual cameras. It is then used to rectify the hybrid image pair using the perspective projection model. The proposed method not only simplifies the computation of epipolar geometry for the hybrid imaging system, but also facilitates the stereo matching between the heterogeneous image formation. Experimental results for both the synthetic data and real scene images have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  4. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system (United States)

    Mihailescu, Lucian [Livermore, CA; Vetter, Kai M [Alameda, CA


    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  5. Noise simulation system for determining imaging conditions in digital radiography (United States)

    Tanaka, R.; Ichikawa, K.; Matsubara, K.; Kawashima, H.


    Reduction of exposure dose and improvement in image quality can be expected to result from advances in the performance of imaging detectors. We propose a computerized method for determining optimized imaging conditions by use of simulated images. This study was performed to develop a prototype system for image noise and to ensure consistency between the resulting images and actual images. An RQA5 X-ray spectrum was used for determination of input-output characteristics of a flat-panel detector (FPD). The number of incident quantum to the detector per pixel (counts/pixel) was calculated according to the pixel size of the detector and the quantum number in RQA5 determined in IEC6220-1. The relationship among tube current-time product (mAs), exposure dose (C/kg) at the detector surface, the number of incident quanta (counts/pixel), and pixel values measured on the images was addressed, and a conversion function was then created. The images obtained by the FPD was converted into a map of incident quantum numbers and input into random-value generator to simulate image noise. In addition, graphic user interface was developed to observe images with changing image noise and exposure dose levels, which have trade-off relationship. Simulation images provided at different noise levels were compared with actual images obtained by the FPD system. The results indicated that image noise was simulated properly both in objective and subjective evaluation. The present system could allow us to determine necessary dose from image quality and also to estimate image quality from any exposure dose.

  6. Three-dimensional imaging system combining vision and ultrasonics (United States)

    Wykes, Catherine; Chou, Tsung N.


    Vision systems are being applied to a wide range of inspection problems in manufacturing. In 2D systems, a single video camera captures an image of the object and application of suitable image processing techniques enables information about dimension, shape and the presence of features and flaws to be extracted from the image. This can be used to recognize, inspect and/or measure the part. 3D measurement is also possible with vision systems but requires the use of either two or more cameras, or structured lighting (i.e. stripes or grids) and the processing of such images is necessarily considerably more complex, and therefore slower and more expensive than 3D imaging. Ultrasonic imaging is widely used in medical and NDT applications to give 3D images; in these systems, the ultrasound is propagated into a liquid or a solid. Imaging using air-borne ultrasound is much less advanced, mainly due to the limited availability of suitable sensors. Unique 2D ultrasonic ranging systems using in-house built phased arrays have been developed in Nottingham which enable both the range and bearing of targets to be measured. The ultrasonic/vision system will combine the excellent lateral resolution of a vision system with the straightforward range acquisition of the ultrasonic system. The system is expected to extend the use of vision systems in automation, particularly in the area of automated assembly where it can eliminate the need for expensive jigs and orienting part-feeders.

  7. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review. (United States)

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto


    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis.

  8. ARPES in strongly correlated 4f and 5f systems: Comparison to the Periodic Anderson Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Cox, L.E. [and others


    The electronic structure of both Ce and U heavy fermions appears to consist of extremely narrow, nearly temperature independent bands (i.e., no spectral weight loss or transfer with temperature). A small dispersion of the f-bands above the Kondo temperature is easily measurable so that a Kondo resonance, as defined by NCA, is not evident. Preliminary results, however, indicate that the Periodic Anderson Model captures some of the essential physics. Angle-integrated resonant photoemission results on {delta}-Pu indicate a narrow 5f feature at E{sub F}, similar in width to f-states in Ce and U compounds, but differing in that cross-section behavior of the near-E{sub F} feature suggests substantial 6D admixture.

  9. Hypersensitivity in the 4f-4f absorption spectra of tris (acetylacetonato) neodymium(III) complexes with imidazole and pyrazole in non-aqueous solutions. Effect of environment on hypersensitive transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Anees A.; Ilmi, Rashid [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Iftikhar, K., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)


    The optical absorption spectra of [Nd(acac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O, [Nd(acac){sub 3}(im){sub 2}] and [Nd(acac){sub 3}(pz){sub 2}] (where acac is the anion of acetylacetone, im is imidazole and pz is pyrazole) complexes in the visible region have been analyzed. The transition {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} <- {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} located near the middle of the visible region (17,500 cm{sup -1}) is hypersensitive. Its behavior is in sharp contrast to many other typically weak and consistently unvaried, normal 4f-4f transitions. It is overlapped by a less intense transition {sup 2}G{sub 7/2} <- {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}. The band shapes of the hypersensitive transition show remarkable changes on passing from aqueous solution to various non-aqueous solutions, which is the result of changes in the environment about the Nd(III) ion in the various solutions and suggests coordination of a solvent molecules. Pyridine has been found especially effective in promoting 4f-4f electric-dipole intensity. The DMSO invades the complexes and replaces the water molecules and heterocyclic amines from the coordination sphere. Two DMSO molecules coordinate and the complexes acquire similar structure, [Nd(acac){sub 3}(DMSO){sub 2}] in solution. The oscillator strength and the band shape of the hypersensitive transition of all the complexes remains the same in this solvent. The IR spectra and the NMR spectra of the complexes have also discussed. - Highlights: > Structurally similar eight-coordinate complexes of neodymium are synthesized. > The 4f-4f absorption spectra are investigated in non-aqueous solvents. > Methanol, isopropanol and acetonitrile are coordinating solvents. > Pyridine and DMSO are coordinating solvents by replacing the ancillary ligands. > Pyridine is most effective in promoting the 4f-4f intensity.

  10. Chromatically Corrected Imaging Systems for Charged-Particle Radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Blind, Barbara


    In proton radiography, imaging with systems consisting of quadrupole magnets is an established technique for viewing the material distribution and composition of objects, either statically or during fast events such as explosions. With the most favorable magnet configuration, the -I lens, chromatic aberrations generally dominate the image blur. Image resolution can be improved, and largely decoupled from the input-beam parameters, by using a second-order achromatic bend with some additional higher-order aberration correction. The aberration-correction approach is discussed. For a given resolution, such a bend allows use of much lower-energy imaging particles than a -I lens. Each bend design represents a set of equivalent systems; an 800-MeV proton design and its equivalent 40-MeV electron system are presented. The electron system is useful for imaging small objects. Magnet errors in the achromatic bends must be tightly controlled to preserve image quality, but not beyond feasibility of present technology. Sys...

  11. Analysis and Management System of Digital Ultrasonic Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Qiang; ZHANG Hai-yan; LI Xia; WANG Ke


    This paper presents the analysis and management system of digital ultrasonic image. The system can manage medical ultrasonic image by collecting, saving and transferring, and realize that section offices of ultrasonic image in hospital network manage. The system use network technology in transferring image between ultrasonic equipments to share patient data in ultrasonic equipments. And doctors can input patient diagnostic report,saved by text file and case history, digitally managed. The system can be realized by Visual C++ which make windows applied. The system can be brought forward because PACS prevail with various hospitals,but PACS is expensive. In view of this status, we put forward to the analysis and management system of digital ultrasonic image,which is similar to PACS.

  12. A review of imaging techniques for systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Ming J


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a review of imaging techniques and of their utility in system biology. During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology. In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, PET (Positron Emission Tomography, and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology. As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

  13. Data delivery system for MAPPER using image compression (United States)

    Yang, Jeehong; Savari, Serap A.


    The data delivery throughput of electron beam lithography systems can be improved by applying lossless image compression to the layout image and using an electron beam writer that can decode the compressed image on-the-fly. In earlier research we introduced the lossless layout image compression algorithm Corner2, which assumes a somewhat idealized writing strategy, namely row-by-row with a raster order. The MAPPER system has electron beam writers positioned in a lattice formation and each electron beam writer writes a designated block in a zig-zag order. We introduce Corner2-MEB, which redesigns Corner2 for MAPPER systems.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of C4F9O(CH2)3OC4F9 and CF3CFHCF2O (CH2)3OCF3CFHCF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, A. M.; Hurley, M. D.; Wallington, T. J.


    FTIR smog chamber techniques were used to measure k(Cl + CF3CFHCF2O(CH2)(3)OCF2CFHCF3) = (2.97 +/- 0.17) x 10(-12) k(OH + CF3CFHCF2O(CH2)(3)OCF2CFHCF3) = (2.45 +/- 0.14) x 10(-13), k(Cl + C4F9O(CH2)(3)OC4F9) = (1.45 +/- 0.16) x 10(-12), and k(OH + C4F9O(CH2)(3)OC4F9) = (1.44 +/- 0.10) x 10(-13) cm......(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) in 700 Torr of air at 296 K. The atmospheric lifetimes of CF3CFHCF2O(CH2)(3)OCF(2)ZCFHCF(3) and C4F9O(CH2)(3)OC4F9 with respect to reaction with OH radicals are estimated to be 46 and 83 days, respectively. In 700 Torr of N2/02 diluent at 296 K, decomposition via C-C bond...

  15. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education. (United States)

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao


    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  16. A secure online image trading system for untrusted cloud environments. (United States)

    Munadi, Khairul; Arnia, Fitri; Syaryadhi, Mohd; Fujiyoshi, Masaaki; Kiya, Hitoshi


    In conventional image trading systems, images are usually stored unprotected on a server, rendering them vulnerable to untrusted server providers and malicious intruders. This paper proposes a conceptual image trading framework that enables secure storage and retrieval over Internet services. The process involves three parties: an image publisher, a server provider, and an image buyer. The aim is to facilitate secure storage and retrieval of original images for commercial transactions, while preventing untrusted server providers and unauthorized users from gaining access to true contents. The framework exploits the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients and the moment invariants of images. Original images are visually protected in the DCT domain, and stored on a repository server. Small representation of the original images, called thumbnails, are generated and made publicly accessible for browsing. When a buyer is interested in a thumbnail, he/she sends a query to retrieve the visually protected image. The thumbnails and protected images are matched using the DC component of the DCT coefficients and the moment invariant feature. After the matching process, the server returns the corresponding protected image to the buyer. However, the image remains visually protected unless a key is granted. Our target application is the online market, where publishers sell their stock images over the Internet using public cloud servers.

  17. Image Content Based Retrieval System using Cosine Similarity for Skin Disease Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeep Kaur


    Full Text Available A content based image retrieval system (CBIR is proposed to assist the dermatologist for diagnosis of skin diseases. First, after collecting the various skin disease images and their text information (disease name, symptoms and cure etc, a test database (for query image and a train database of 460 images approximately (for image matching are prepared. Second, features are extracted by calculating the descriptive statistics. Third, similarity matching using cosine similarity and Euclidian distance based on the extracted features is discussed. Fourth, for better results first four images are selected during indexing and their related text information is shown in the text file. Last, the results shown are compared according to doctor’s description and according to image content in terms of precision and recall and also in terms of a self developed scoring system.

  18. Phase retrieval with background compensation in 4f configuration: advanced augmented Lagrangian technique for amplitude object

    CERN Document Server

    Migukin, Artem; Katkovnik, Vladimir


    Generally, wave field reconstructions obtained by phase-retrieval algorithms are noisy, blurred and corrupted by various artifacts such as irregular waves, spots, etc. These disturbances, arising due to many factors such as non-idealities of optical system (misalignment, focusing errors), dust on optical elements, reflections, vibration, are hard to be localized and specified. It is assumed that there is a generalized pupil function at the object plane which describes aberrations in the coherent imaging system manifested at the sensor plane. Here we propose a novel two steps phase-retrieval algorithm to compensate these distortions. We first estimate the cumulative disturbance, called background, using special calibration experiments. Then, we use this background for reconstruction of the object amplitude and phase. The second part of the algorithm is based on the maximum likelihood approach and, in this way, targeted on the optimal amplitude and phase reconstruction from noisy data. Numerical experiments dem...

  19. Exploratory survey of image quality on CR digital mammography imaging systems in Mexico. (United States)

    Gaona, E; Rivera, T; Arreola, M; Franco, J; Molina, N; Alvarez, B; Azorín, C G; Casian, G


    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of image quality and dose in computed radiographic digital mammography (CRDM) systems. Studies included CRDM systems of various models and manufacturers which dose and image quality comparisons were performed. Due to the recent rise in the use of digital radiographic systems in Mexico, CRDM systems are rapidly replacing conventional film-screen systems without any regard to quality control or image quality standards. Study was conducted in 65 mammography facilities which use CRDM systems in the Mexico City and surrounding States. The systems were tested as used clinically. This means that the dose and beam qualities were selected using the automatic beam selection and photo-timed features. All systems surveyed generate laser film hardcopies for the radiologist to read on a scope or mammographic high luminance light box. It was found that 51 of CRDM systems presented a variety of image artefacts and non-uniformities arising from inadequate acquisition and processing, as well as from the laser printer itself. Undisciplined alteration of image processing settings by the technologist was found to be a serious prevalent problem in 42 facilities. Only four of them showed an image QC program which is periodically monitored by a medical physicist. The Average Glandular Dose (AGD) in the surveyed systems was estimated to have a mean value of 2.4 mGy. To improve image quality in mammography and make more efficient screening mammographic in early detection of breast cancer is required new legislation.

  20. Penumbral imaging and numerical evaluation of large area source neutron imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The fusion neutron penumbral imaging system Monte Carlo model was established. The transfer functions of the two discrete units in the neutron source were obtained in two situations:Imaging in geometrical near-optical and real situation. The spatial resolutions of the imaging system in two situations were evaluated and compared. The penumbral images of four units in the source were obtained by means of 2-dimensional (2D) convolution and Monte Carlo simulation. The penumbral images were reconstructed with the same method of filter. The same results were confirmed. The encoding essence of penumbral imaging was revealed. With MCNP(Monte Carlo N-particle) simulation,the neutron penumbral images of the large area source (200 μm×200 μm) on scintillation fiber array were obtained. The improved Wiener filter method was used to reconstruct the penumbral image and the source image was obtained. The results agree with the preset neutron source image. The feasibility of the neutron imaging system was verified.

  1. Penumbral imaging and numerical evaluation of large area source neutron imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YueLei; HU HuaSi; ZHANG BoPing; LI LinBo; CHEN Da; SHAN Qing; ZHU Jie


    The fusion neutron penumbral imaging system Monte Carlo model was established. The transfer func-tions of the two discrete units in the neutron source were obtained in two situations: Imaging in geo-metrical near-optical and real situation. The spatial resolutions of the imaging system in two situations were evaluated and compared. The penumbral images of four units in the source were obtained by means of 2-dimensional (2D) convolution and Monte Carlo simulation. The penumbral images were reconstructed with the same method of filter. The same results were confirmed. The encoding essence of penumbral imaging was revealed. With MCNP(Monte Carlo N-particle) simulation, the neutron pen-umbral images of the large area source (200 μm×200 μm) on scintillation fiber array were obtained. The improved Wiener filter method was used to reconstruct the penumbral image and the source image was obtained. The results agree with the preset neutron source image. The feasibility of the neutron imaging system was verified.

  2. Imaging system for cardiac planar imaging using a dedicated dual-head gamma camera (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Umeno, Marc M.


    A cardiac imaging system employing dual gamma imaging heads co-registered with one another to provide two dynamic simultaneous views of the heart sector of a patient torso. A first gamma imaging head is positioned in a first orientation with respect to the heart sector and a second gamma imaging head is positioned in a second orientation with respect to the heart sector. An adjustment arrangement is capable of adjusting the distance between the separate imaging heads and the angle between the heads. With the angle between the imaging heads set to 180 degrees and operating in a range of 140-159 keV and at a rate of up to 500kHz, the imaging heads are co-registered to produce simultaneous dynamic recording of two stereotactic views of the heart. The use of co-registered imaging heads maximizes the uniformity of detection sensitivity of blood flow in and around the heart over the whole heart volume and minimizes radiation absorption effects. A normalization/image fusion technique is implemented pixel-by-corresponding pixel to increase signal for any cardiac region viewed in two images obtained from the two opposed detector heads for the same time bin. The imaging system is capable of producing enhanced first pass studies, bloodpool studies including planar, gated and non-gated EKG studies, planar EKG perfusion studies, and planar hot spot imaging.

  3. Imaging Systems for Size Measurements of Debrisat Fragments (United States)

    Shiotani, B.; Scruggs, T.; Toledo, R.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J. C.; Sorge, M.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Krisko, P.; Cowardin, H.


    The overall objective of the DebriSat project is to provide data to update existing standard spacecraft breakup models. One of the key sets of parameters used in these models is the physical dimensions of the fragments (i.e., length, average-cross sectional area, and volume). For the DebriSat project, only fragments with at least one dimension greater than 2 mm are collected and processed. Additionally, a significant portion of the fragments recovered from the impact test are needle-like and/or flat plate-like fragments where their heights are almost negligible in comparison to their other dimensions. As a result, two fragment size categories were defined: 2D objects and 3D objects. While measurement systems are commercially available, factors such as measurement rates, system adaptability, size characterization limitations and equipment costs presented significant challenges to the project and a decision was made to develop our own size characterization systems. The size characterization systems consist of two automated image systems, one referred to as the 3D imaging system and the other as the 2D imaging system. Which imaging system to use depends on the classification of the fragment being measured. Both imaging systems utilize point-and-shoot cameras for object image acquisition and create representative point clouds of the fragments. The 3D imaging system utilizes a space-carving algorithm to generate a 3D point cloud, while the 2D imaging system utilizes an edge detection algorithm to generate a 2D point cloud. From the point clouds, the three largest orthogonal dimensions are determined using a convex hull algorithm. For 3D objects, in addition to the three largest orthogonal dimensions, the volume is computed via an alpha-shape algorithm applied to the point clouds. The average cross-sectional area is also computed for 3D objects. Both imaging systems have automated size measurements (image acquisition and image processing) driven by the need to quickly

  4. A performance analysis system for MEMS using automated imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaVigne, G.F.; Miller, S.L.


    The ability to make in-situ performance measurements of MEMS operating at high speeds has been demonstrated using a new image analysis system. Significant improvements in performance and reliability have directly resulted from the use of this system.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianjiu HUANG; Xi WEN; Fanping ZENG


    The authors define and study topological pre-image entropy for the non-autonomous discrete dynamical systems given by a sequence {fi}∞/i=1 of continuous self-maps of a compact topological space.The basic properties and the invariant with respect to equiconjugacy of pre-image entropy for the non-autonomous discrete dynamical systems are obtained.

  6. Ascorbic acid decomposition into oxalate ions: a simple synthetic route towards oxalato-bridged heterometallic 3d-4f clusters. (United States)

    Dinca, Alina S; Shova, Sergiu; Ion, Adrian E; Maxim, Catalin; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Andruh, Marius


    Two types of oxalato-bridged heterometallic 3d-4f dodeca- and hexanuclear compounds have been obtained by connecting six bi- and, respectively, trinuclear moieties through oxalato bridges arising from the slow decomposition of the L-ascorbic acid.

  7. Self-Assembly of Hexanuclear Clusters of 4f and 5f Elements with Cation Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwu, J.; Good, Justin J.; DiStefano, Victoria H.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.


    Six hexanuclear clusters of 4f and 5f elements were synthesized by room-temperature slow concentration experiments. Cerium(IV), thorium(IV), and plutonium(IV) each form two different hexanuclear clusters, among which the cerium and plutonium clusters are isotypic, whereas the thorium clusters show more diversity. The change in ionic radii of approximately 0.08 Å between these different metal ions tunes the cavity size so that NH{sub 4}{sup +} (1.48 Å) has the right dimensions to assemble the cerium and plutonium clusters, whereas Cs{sup +} (1.69 Å) is necessary to assemble the thorium clusters. If these cations are not used in the reactions, only amorphous material is obtained.

  8. Toward the development of an image quality tool for active millimeter wave imaging systems (United States)

    Barber, Jeffrey; Weatherall, James C.; Greca, Joseph; Smith, Barry T.


    Preliminary design considerations for an image quality tool to complement millimeter wave imaging systems are presented. The tool is planned for use in confirming operating parameters; confirmation of continuity for imaging component design changes, and analysis of new components and detection algorithms. Potential embodiments of an image quality tool may contain materials that mimic human skin in order to provide a realistic signal return for testing, which may also help reduce or eliminate the need for mock passengers for developmental testing. Two candidate materials, a dielectric liquid and an iron-loaded epoxy, have been identified and reflection measurements have been performed using laboratory systems in the range 18 - 40 GHz. Results show good agreement with both laboratory and literature data on human skin, particularly in the range of operation of two commercially available millimeter wave imaging systems. Issues related to the practical use of liquids and magnetic materials for image quality tools are discussed.

  9. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays System Based on FPGA for Image Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Chen; Jian-Hua Xu; Ya-Dong Jiang


    A FPGA-based image recognition system is designed for colorimetric sensor array in order to recognize a wide range of volatile organic compounds. The gas molecule is detected by the responsive sensor array and the responsive image is obtained. The image is decomposed to RGB color components using CMOS image sensor. An embedded image recognition archi- tecture based on Xilinx Spartan-3 FPGA is designed to implement the algorithms of image recognition. The algorithm of color coherence vector is discussed in detail[X1] compared with the algorithm of color histograms, and experimental results demonstrate that both of the two algorithms could be analyzed effectively to represent different volatile organic compounds according to their different responsive images in this system.

  10. Method and system to synchronize acoustic therapy with ultrasound imaging (United States)

    Owen, Neil (Inventor); Bailey, Michael R. (Inventor); Hossack, James (Inventor)


    Interference in ultrasound imaging when used in connection with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is avoided by employing a synchronization signal to control the HIFU signal. Unless the timing of the HIFU transducer is controlled, its output will substantially overwhelm the signal produced by ultrasound imaging system and obscure the image it produces. The synchronization signal employed to control the HIFU transducer is obtained without requiring modification of the ultrasound imaging system. Signals corresponding to scattered ultrasound imaging waves are collected using either the HIFU transducer or a dedicated receiver. A synchronization processor manipulates the scattered ultrasound imaging signals to achieve the synchronization signal, which is then used to control the HIFU bursts so as to substantially reduce or eliminate HIFU interference in the ultrasound image. The synchronization processor can alternatively be implemented using a computing device or an application-specific circuit.

  11. Development of energy selective neutron imaging system at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongyul; Kim, Jeong ho; Lee, Suhyun; Moon, Myung Kook; Kim, TaeJoo; Shin, Eun Joo; Woo, Wanchuck [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Energy selective neutron imaging is one of advanced neutron imaging techniques because it is critical to examine the crystallographic phase distribution and spatial phase transformation for the development and application of new grade high-strength steels using energy selective neutron imaging. In this work, we are developing the energy selective neutron imaging system at the Ex-core Neutron irradiation Facility (ENF) for thermal neutron beam and the 18m Small Angle Neutron Scattering (18mSANS) beam line for cold neutron beam at HANARO. The energy selective neutron imaging system is being developed at the ENF and 18mSANS beam line at HANARO. We are expecting to get neutron radiographic images which can distinguish bcc and fcc phases in the prepared sample. The result of energy selective neutron imaging will provide the spatial distribution of the new deformation induced phase, which is important to make a relationship between phase transformation and mechanical behavior of the sample.

  12. Enhancement system of nighttime infrared video image and visible video image (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Piao, Yan


    Visibility of Nighttime video image has a great significance for military and medicine areas, but nighttime video image has so poor quality that we can't recognize the target and background. Thus we enhance the nighttime video image by fuse infrared video image and visible video image. According to the characteristics of infrared and visible images, we proposed improved sift algorithm andαβ weighted algorithm to fuse heterologous nighttime images. We would deduced a transfer matrix from improved sift algorithm. The transfer matrix would rapid register heterologous nighttime images. And theαβ weighted algorithm can be applied in any scene. In the video image fusion system, we used the transfer matrix to register every frame and then used αβ weighted method to fuse every frame, which reached the time requirement soft video. The fused video image not only retains the clear target information of infrared video image, but also retains the detail and color information of visible video image and the fused video image can fluency play.

  13. 4f heavy fermion photoelectron spectra do not exhibit the Kondo scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Andrews, A.B.; Blyth, R.I.R.; Bartlett, R.J.; Fisk, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Canfield, P.C.; Olson, C.G.; Benning, P.J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Poirier, D.M.; Weaver, J.H. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Riseborough, P.S. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)


    It has been the authors contention for some time that the Single Impurity Anderson Model (SIAM), as extended by Gunnarsson and Schonhammer (GS), or the non-crossing approximation (NCA), does not correctly describe the 4f photoelectron spectra of heavy fermions. Recently, they have concentrated on Yb heavy fermions since in these materials the Kondo resonance (KR) is fully occupied and thus accessible via photoemission. In particular, they have repeatedly pointed out that the width, position, spectral weight, lineshape, and temperature dependence of the features assumed to be the KR and its sidebands, are nearly independent of the Kondo temperature, T{sub K}, while at the same time bearing a striking resemblance to the simple 4f core level spectra of pure Yb metal, or of Lu in isostructural Lu compounds. It is important to resolve these issues in view of the fundamental nature of the problem. Here, the authors chose to test the bulk vs. surface hypothesis by performing measurements on YbCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and YbAl{sub 3} single crystals at hv {approx} 120 eV (UPS) and hv {approx} 1,500 eV(XPS) to see if the n{sub f}, hole occupancy, values increase markedly at XPS energies as the electron escape depth increases by about a factor of 3--5. Measurements were performed at both 300K and 20K using single crystals cleaved in-situ, with photoelectrons collected in normal emission for maximum bulk sensitivity. UPS measurements were performed at NSLS and the University of Wisconsin SRC, while XPS measurements were done at the University of Minnesota. The UPS, ultraviolet photoelectron spectra, and the L{sub III} edge x-ray absorption and photoemission measurements are in fundamental disagreement.

  14. Image nonlinearity and non-uniformity corrections using Papoulis - Gerchberg algorithm in gamma imaging systems (United States)

    Shemer, A.; Schwarz, A.; Gur, E.; Cohen, E.; Zalevsky, Z.


    In this paper, the authors describe a novel technique for image nonlinearity and non-uniformity corrections in imaging systems based on gamma detectors. The limitation of the gamma detector prevents the producing of high quality images due to the radionuclide distribution. This problem causes nonlinearity and non-uniformity distortions in the obtained image. Many techniques have been developed to correct or compensate for these image artifacts using complex calibration processes. The presented method is based on the Papoulis - Gerchberg(PG) iterative algorithm and is obtained without need of detector calibration, tuning process or using any special test phantom.

  15. Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4F disease caused by S399fsx410 mutation in the PRX gene. (United States)

    Kabzinska, D; Drac, H; Sherman, D L; Kostera-Pruszczyk, A; Brophy, P J; Kochanski, A; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, I


    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4F disease (CMT4F) is an autosomal recessive neuropathy caused by mutations in the PRX gene. To date, only seven mutations have been identified in the PRX gene. In this study, the authors report a novel S399fsX410 mutation in the PRX gene and its effects at the protein level, which was identified in an 8-year-old patient with early-onset CMT disease.

  16. Programmable Real-time Clinical Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System. (United States)

    Kim, Jeesu; Park, Sara; Jung, Yuhan; Chang, Sunyeob; Park, Jinyong; Zhang, Yumiao; Lovell, Jonathan F; Kim, Chulhong


    Photoacoustic imaging has attracted interest for its capacity to capture functional spectral information with high spatial and temporal resolution in biological tissues. Several photoacoustic imaging systems have been commercialized recently, but they are variously limited by non-clinically relevant designs, immobility, single anatomical utility (e.g., breast only), or non-programmable interfaces. Here, we present a real-time clinical photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system which consists of an FDA-approved clinical ultrasound system integrated with a portable laser. The system is completely programmable, has an intuitive user interface, and can be adapted for different applications by switching handheld imaging probes with various transducer types. The customizable photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system is intended to meet the diverse needs of medical researchers performing both clinical and preclinical photoacoustic studies.

  17. Advanced imaging of skeletal manifestations of systemic mastocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fishman, E.K.; Carrino, J.A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Horger, M.S. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)


    Systemic mastocytosis comprises a group of clonal disorders of the mast cell that most commonly involves the skeletal system. Imaging can be helpful in the detection and characterization of the osseous manifestations of this disease. While radiography and bone scans are frequently used for this assessment, low-dose multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can be more sensitive for the detection of marrow involvement and for the demonstration of the various disease patterns. In this article, we review the pathophysiological and clinical features of systemic mastocytosis, discuss the role of imaging for staging and management, and illustrate the various cross-sectional imaging appearances. Awareness and knowledge of the imaging features of this disorder will increase the accuracy of image interpretation and can contribute important information for management decisions. (orig.)

  18. High Temperature Fiberoptic Thermal Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will fabricate and demonstrate a small diameter single fiber endoscope that can perform high temperature thermal imaging in a jet engine...

  19. System design of the compact IR space imaging system MIRIS (United States)

    Han, Wonyong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Youngsik; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Ree, Chang-Hee; Moon, Bongkon; Cha, Sang-Mok; Park, Sung-Joon; Park, Jang-Hyun; Nam, Uk-Won; Ka, Nung Hyun; Lee, Mi Hyun; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Seon, Kwang-Il; Lee, Duk-Hang; Yang, Sun Choel; Rhee, Seung-Woo; Park, Jong-Oh; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsumoto, Toshio


    Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS) is the main payload of the Korea Science and Technology Satellite-3 (STSAT-3), which is being developed by Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute (KASI). MIRIS is a small space telescope mainly for astronomical survey observations in the near infrared wavelengths of 0.9~2 μm. A compact wide field (3.67 x 3.67 degree) optical design has been studied using a 256 x 256 Teledyne PICNIC FPA IR sensor with a pixel scale of 51.6 arcsec. The passive cooling technique is applied to maintain telescope temperature below 200 K with a cold shutter in the filter wheel for accurate dark calibration and to reach required sensitivity, and a micro stirling cooler is employed to cool down the IR detector array below 100K in a cold box. The science mission of the MIRIS is to survey the Galactic plane in the emission line of Paschen-α (Paα, 1.88 μm) and to detect the cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation. Comparing the Paα map with the Hα data from ground-based surveys, we can probe the origin of the warm-ionized medium (WIM) of the Galaxy. The CIB is being suspected to be originated from the first generation stars of the Universe and we will test this hypothesis by comparing the fluctuations in I (0.9~1.2 um) and H (1.2~2.0 um) bands to search the red shifted Lyman cutoff signature. Recent progress of the MIRIS imaging system design will be presented.

  20. Ultrawideband antennas for microwave imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    Denidni, Tayeb A


    This book presents ultrawideband antennas and their applications on microwave imaging. The chapters focus on recent techniques, analysis, and applications along with the future vision of this emerging field of applied electromagnetics. Several emerging topics are essayed, including dielectric resonator antennas and planar ultrawideband antennas for microwave imaging.This resource incorporates modern design concepts, analysis, and optimization techniques based on recent developments. Readers are also provided with an extensive overview of current regulations, including those related to microwav

  1. Stokes image reconstruction for two-color microgrid polarization imaging systems. (United States)

    Lemaster, Daniel A


    The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a new microgrid polarization imaging system capable of simultaneously reconstructing linear Stokes parameter images in two colors on a single focal plane array. In this paper, an effective method for extracting Stokes images is presented for this type of camera system. It is also shown that correlations between the color bands can be exploited to significantly increase overall spatial resolution. Test data is used to show the advantages of this approach over bilinear interpolation. The bounds (in terms of available reconstruction bandwidth) on image resolution are also provided.

  2. Phase transfer function based method to alleviate image artifacts in wavefront coding imaging system (United States)

    Mo, Xutao; Wang, Jinjiang


    Wavefront coding technique can extend the depth of filed (DOF) of the incoherent imaging system. Several rectangular separable phase masks (such as cubic type, exponential type, logarithmic type, sinusoidal type, rational type, et al) have been proposed and discussed, because they can extend the DOF up to ten times of the DOF of ordinary imaging system. But according to the research on them, researchers have pointed out that the images are damaged by the artifacts, which usually come from the non-linear phase transfer function (PTF) differences between the PTF used in the image restoration filter and the PTF related to real imaging condition. In order to alleviate the image artifacts in imaging systems with wavefront coding, an optimization model based on the PTF was proposed to make the PTF invariance with the defocus. Thereafter, an image restoration filter based on the average PTF in the designed depth of field was introduced along with the PTF-based optimization. The combination of the optimization and the image restoration proposed can alleviate the artifacts, which was confirmed by the imaging simulation of spoke target. The cubic phase mask (CPM) and exponential phase mask (EPM) were discussed as example.

  3. Unusual Mixed Valence of Eu in Two Materials-EuSr2Bi2S4F4 and Eu2SrBi2S4F4: Mössbauer and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy Investigations. (United States)

    Haque, Zeba; Thakur, Gohil Singh; Parthasarathy, Rangasamy; Gerke, Birgit; Block, Theresa; Heletta, Lukas; Pöttgen, Rainer; Joshi, Amish G; Selvan, Ganesan Kalai; Arumugam, Sonachalam; Gupta, Laxmi Chand; Ganguli, Ashok Kumar


    We have synthesized two new Eu-based compounds, EuSr2Bi2S4F4 and Eu2SrBi2S4F4, which are derivatives of Eu3Bi2S4F4, an intrinsic superconductor with Tc = 1.5 K. They belong to a tetragonal structure (SG: I4/mmm, Z = 2), similar to the parent compound Eu3Bi2S4F4. Our structural and (151)Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy studies show that, in EuSr2Bi2S4F4, Eu-atoms exclusively occupy the crystallographic 2a-sites. In Eu2SrBi2S4F4, 2a-sites are fully occupied by Eu-atoms and the other half of Eu-atoms and Sr-atoms together fully occupy 4e-sites in a statistical distribution. In both compounds Eu atoms occupying the crystallographic 2a-sites are in a homogeneous mixed valent state ∼2.6-2.7. From our magnetization studies in an applied H ≤ 9 T, we infer that the valence of Eu-atoms in Eu2SrBi2S4F4 at the 2a-sites exhibits a shift toward 2+. Our XPS studies corroborate the occurrence of valence fluctuations of Eu and after Ar-ion sputtering show evidence of enhanced population of Eu(2+)-states. Resistivity measurements, down to 2 K, suggest a semimetallic nature for both compounds.

  4. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Hepatobiliary and Gastrointestinal System Imaging. (United States)

    Low, Chen Sheng; Ahmed, Haseeb; Notghi, Alp


    Radionuclide imaging for the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal system covers a wide range of different indications and imaging techniques. This wide variety allows the different functional assessments of both systems. Therefore, the understanding of each technique and its indications is essential. Cholescintigraphy is a well-established method in the assessment of acute and chronic cholecystitis. It also has a role in the detection of biliary atresia. The assessment of gastrointestinal transit is also well-established in radionuclide imaging for functional investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding with radionuclide imaging is also standard practice. This article aims to review the pitfalls and limitations in all of these areas.

  5. Compensating focusing for space hyper spectral imager's fore optical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yicha Zhang; Wei Liu


    @@ The performance of space hyper spectral imager is severely affected by turbulent orbit temperature. Turbulence results in a defocus in the fore optical system of the imager. To address this problem, a focusing system is added. A number of simulation methods are applied on the fore optical system to study the relationship between temperature and focusing. In addition, this process is conducted to obtain a practical reference for focusing while the imager is flying on orbit. The obtained correlation between focusing and temperature is proven effective based on ground imaging and simulation testing.%The performance of space hyper spectral imager is severely affected by turbulent orbit temperature. Turbulence results in a defocus in the fore optical system of the imager. To address this problem, a focusing system is added. A number of simulation methods are applied on the fore optical system to study the relationship between temperature and focusing. In addition, this process is conducted to obtain a practical reference for focusing while the imager is flying on orbit. The obtained correlation between focusing and temperature is proven effective based on ground imaging and simulation testing.

  6. Analog and digital systems of imaging in roentgenodiagnostics. (United States)

    Oborska-Kumaszyńska, Dominika; Wiśniewska-Kubka, Sylwia


    In the recent years, we have been witnessing a very dynamic development of diagnostic methods of imaging. In contemporary radiology, the carrier of the diagnostic information is the image, obtained as a result of an X-ray beam transmitted through the patient's body, with modulation of intensity, and processing of data collected by the detector. Depending on the diagnostic method used, signals can be detected with analog (x-ray film) or digital systems (CR, DR and DDR). Each of these methods of image acquisition, due to its own technological solutions, determines a different quality of imaging (diagnostic data). The introduction of digital image receptors, instead of conventional SF systems, increased the patient dose, as a result of a gradually increasing exposure. This followed from the fact that in digital systems, the increased radiation dose reduces image noise and improves image quality, and that is owing to the data capacity of these systems (impossible in SF systems with a limited data capacity of the image detector). The availability of the multitude of imaging systems, each characterized by disparate qualitative and quantitative parameters, implies the problem of evaluation and enforcement of a proper efficiency from manufacturers of these systems.At the same time, there is a legal problem present in our country, i.e. the lack of laws and regulations regarding standards of the scope of quality control (parameters) and measurement methodology for the systems of digital image acquisition. In the European countries, the scope and standards of control are regulated by the manufacturers and European Guidelines, whereas in the United States, AAPM Reports have been introduced, that specifically describe methods of tests performance, their frequency, as well as target values and limits. This paper is a review of both, the scope of quality control parameters of image detectors in analog and digital systems of imaging, and the measurement methodology. The parameters

  7. Comparison of analog and digital transceiver systems for MR imaging. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki


    We critically evaluated analog and digital transceivers for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems under identical experimental conditions to identify and compare their advantages and disadvantages. MR imaging experiments were performed using a 4.74-tesla vertical-bore superconducting magnet and a high sensitivity gradient coil probe. We acquired 3-dimensional spin echo images of a kumquat with and without using a gain-stepping scan technique to extend the dynamic range of the receiver systems. The acquired MR images clearly demonstrated nearly identical image quality for both transceiver systems, but DC and ghosting artifacts were obtained for the analog transceiver system. We therefore concluded that digital transceivers have several advantages over the analog transceivers.

  8. Early Stage Disease Diagnosis System Using Human Nail Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S. Indi


    Full Text Available Human’s hand nail is analyzed to identify many diseases at early stage of diagnosis. Study of person hand nail color helps in identification of particular disease in healthcare domain. The proposed system guides in such scenario to take decision in disease diagnosis. The input to the proposed system is person nail image. The system will process an image of nail and extract features of nail which is used for disease diagnosis. Human nail consist of various features, out of which proposed system uses nail color changes for disease diagnosis. Here, first training set data is prepared using Weka tool from nail images of patients of specific diseases. A feature extracted from input nail image is compared with the training data set to get result. In this experiment we found that using color feature of nail image average 65% results are correctly matched with training set data during three tests conducted.

  9. Multiphase Systems for Medical Image Region Classification (United States)

    Garamendi, J. F.; Malpica, N.; Schiavi, E.


    Variational methods for region classification have shown very promising results in medical image analysis. The Chan-Vese model is one of the most popular methods, but its numerical resolution is slow and it has serious drawbacks for most multiphase applications. In this work, we extend the link, stablished by Chambolle, between the two classes binary Chan-Vese model and the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model to a multiphase four classes minimal partition problem. We solve the ROF image restoration model and then we threshold the image by means of a genetic algorithm. This strategy allows for a more efficient algorithm due to the fact that only one well posed elliptic problem is solved instead of solving the coupled parabolic equations arising in the original multiphase Chan-Vese model.

  10. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  11. Experimental Study of Partial Discharge Characteristics of C4F8/N2 Mixtures%C4F8/N2混合气体局部放电特性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢卫军; 张国强; 李康; 牛文豪; 王新; 王迎迎


    由于SF6气体的温室效应,减少或杜绝SF6气体的使用已成为共识.从局部放电(partial discharge,PD)性能的角度探讨了用C4F8/N2混合气体代替SF6气体用于气体绝缘设备的可行性.通过试验测量C4F8/N2混合气体在不同气压、不同混合比、不同电极距离情形下的局部放电起始电压,得到了这3种因素对混合气体局部放电性能的影响,并与纯SF6气体的局部放电起始电压做了对比.结果表明:纯C4F8气体的局部放电起始电压是纯SF6气体的1.3倍左右:C4F8气体与N2气体具有协同效应,协同系数在0.45左右:C4F8/N2混合气体的局部放电能力与同混合比的SF6/N2混合气体的相似.因此,综合考虑液化温度、环境影响、局部放电性能后,C4F8气体含量在10%-20%的C4F8/N2混合气体有可能替代SF6气体用于气体绝缘设备.%Because of the greenhouse effect of SF6 gas, it became a common view that less or no SF6 gas would be used in future. The partial discharge (PD) characteristics of C4F8/N2 gas mixtures and the possibility of substituting SF6 gas used in gas insulated equipment were discussed. The partial discharge inception voltages of C4F8/N2 gas mixtures were measured in different gas pressures, mixing ratios and electrodes distances,and compared with that of pure SF6 gas. The influences of these factors were also analyzed. The results show that the partial discharge inception voltages of pure C4F8 gas are about 1.3 times of that of pure SF6 gas; the C4F8 gas has a synergism with N2 gas, and the synergism factor is about 0.45; and the partial discharge characteristics of C4F8/N2 mixtures are similar to that of SF6/N2 with the same mixing ratio. Therefore, after considering the liquefaction temperature, the effects on environmental and the characteristics of partial discharge, it has a possibility that C4F8/N2 gas mixtures can be used in gas insulated equipment for substituting SF6 gas.

  12. New enhancement of infrared image based on human visual system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianhe Yu; Qiuming Li; Jingmin Dai


    Infrared images are firstly analyzed using the multifractal theory so that the singularity of each pixel can be extracted from the images. The multifractal spectrum is then estimated, which can reflect overall characteristic of an infrared image. Thus the edge and texture of an infrared image can be accurately extracted based on the singularity of each pixel and the multifractal spectrum. Finally the edge pixels are classified and enhanced in accordance with the sensitivity of human visual system to the edge profile of an infrared image. The experimental results obtained by this approach are compared with those obtained by other methods. It is found that the proposed approach can be used to highlight the edge area of an infrared image to make an infrared image more suitable for observation by human eyes.

  13. CYP4F2基因多态性与华法林维持剂量关系的研究进展%Research progress in association between CYP4F2 gene polymorphism and warfarin maintenance dose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢爽; 李一石


    Currently, warfarin is the most widely used oral anticoagulant in clinic. Since warfarin has narrow therapeutic window and significant individual differences in dose, it easily leads to complications due to improper anticoagulate therapy. In recent 3 years, as the rapid development of pharmacogenomics, it has been found that CYP4F2 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 2) gene polymorphism ( rs2108622) relates to warfarin individual dosage requirement. We reviewed research progress in association between CYP4F2 gene polymorphism. Most studies found that CYP4F2 gene polymorphism relates to warfarin dose, and the mutant T allele was associated with higher warfarin dose requirement, CYP4F2 * 3 polymorphism can explain 1% ~ 10% warfarin individual dosage difference.%华法林是目前临床上应用最广泛的口服抗凝药,其治疗安全范围窄,剂量个体差异大,临床应用中容易出现抗凝不当所致的并发症.近3年来,随着药物基因组学的快速发展,发现细胞色素P450酶4F2(CYP4F2)基因多态性(rs2108622)与华法林个体剂量差异相关.本文综述了近3年来在不同人种中进行的有关CYP4F2*3(rs2108622)与华法林的维持剂量关系的研究.大多数研究发现CYP4F2基因多态性与华法林维持剂量存在相关性,其中突变的T等位基因与华法林高剂量相关;CYP4F2*3可以解释1%~10%华法林剂量个体差异.

  14. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo


    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  15. Lock-In Imaging System for Detecting Disturbances in Fluid (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Dimarcantonio, Albert L. (Inventor)


    A lock-in imaging system is configured for detecting a disturbance in air. The system includes an airplane, an interferometer, and a telescopic imaging camera. The airplane includes a fuselage and a pair of wings. The airplane is configured for flight in air. The interferometer is operatively disposed on the airplane and configured for producing an interference pattern by splitting a beam of light into two beams along two paths and recombining the two beams at a junction point in a front flight path of the airplane during flight. The telescopic imaging camera is configured for capturing an image of the beams at the junction point. The telescopic imaging camera is configured for detecting the disturbance in air in an optical path, based on an index of refraction of the image, as detected at the junction point.

  16. High Performance Image Processing And Laser Beam Recording System (United States)

    Fanelli, Anthony R.


    The article is meant to provide the digital image recording community with an overview of digital image processing, and recording. The Digital Interactive Image Processing System (DIIPS) was assembled by ESL for Air Force Systems Command under ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER's guidance. The system provides the capability of mensuration and exploitation of digital imagery with both mono and stereo digital images as inputs. This development provided for system design, basic hardware, software and operational procedures to enable the Air Force's System Command photo analyst to perform digital mensuration and exploitation of stereo digital images as inputs. The engineering model was based on state-of-the-art technology and to the extent possible off-the-shelf hardware and software. A LASER RECORDER was also developed for the DIIPS Systems and is known as the Ultra High Resolution Image Recorder (UHRIR). The UHRIR is a prototype model that will enable the Air Force Systems Command to record computer enhanced digital image data on photographic film at high resolution with geometric and radiometric distortion minimized.

  17. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components (United States)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael


    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  18. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael


    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  19. An LED-array-based range imaging system used for enhancing three-dimensional imaging (United States)

    Wang, Huanqin; Xu, Jun; He, Deyong; Zhao, Tianpeng; Wang, Anting; Ming, Hai; Kong, Deyi


    An LED-array-based range imaging system is proposed for three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement. The range image is obtained by time-division electronic scanning of the LED Time-of-Flight (TOF) range finders in array, and no complex mechanical scanning is needed. By combining with a low cost CCD/CMOS sensor for capturing the twodimensional (2-D) image, the proposed range imaging system can be used to accomplish a high quality 3-D imaging. A sophisticated co-lens optical path is designed to assure the natural registration between the range image and 2-D image. Experimental tests for evaluation of the imaging system performance are described. It was found that the 3-D images can be acquired at a rate of 10 frames per second with a depth resolution better than 5mm in the range of 50 - 1000mm, which is sufficient for many practical applications, including the obstacle detection in robotics, machine automation, 3-D vision, virtual reality games and 3-D video.

  20. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss


    Full Text Available The first atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 38 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.18 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.28 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 3.6% of the total PFC radiative forcing. The globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs during 1973–2011 are 4.58 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, 3.29 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 7.50 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.19 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 2.51 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the early 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12 and in the mid-to-late 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. The more recent slow down in the growth rates of the high molecular weight PFCs suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s. Nevertheless continued monitoring of these potent, extremely long-lived greenhouse gases is necessary to verify that global PFC emissions continue to decline.

  1. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss


    Full Text Available Atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.17 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 6% of the total anthropogenic PFC radiative forcing (Montzka and Reimann, 2011; Oram et al., 2012. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the late 1990s peaking at 6.2 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, at 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C5F12 and 16.6 ppq yr−1 for C6F14 and in the early 1990s for C7F16 at 4.7 ppq yr−1 and in the mid 1990s for C8F18 at 4.8 ppq yr−1. The 2011 globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs are subsequently lower at 2.2 ppq yr−1 for C4F10, 1.4 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.4 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 0.9 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The more recent slowdown in the growth rates suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Binfeng; Luo Feilu; Cao Xiongheng; Xu Xiaojie


    A theory model is established to describe the voltage-current response function. The peak amplitude and the zero-crossing time of the transient signal is extracted as the imaging features, array pulsed eddy current (PEC) imaging is proposed to detect corrosion. The test results show that this system has the advantage of fast scanning speed, different imaging mode and quantitative detection, it has a broad application in the aviation nondestructive testing.

  3. Breast imaging with the SoftVue imaging system: first results (United States)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Schmidt, Steven; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Janer, Roman; Kunz, Dave; Chen, Xiaoyang; Goll, Jeffrey; Wallen, Andrea; Zafar, Fouzaan; Allada, Veerendra; West, Erik; Jovanovic, Ivana; Li, Kuo; Greenway, William


    For women with dense breast tissue, who are at much higher risk for developing breast cancer, the performance of mammography is at its worst. Consequently, many early cancers go undetected when they are the most treatable. Improved cancer detection for women with dense breasts would decrease the proportion of breast cancers diagnosed at later stages, which would significantly lower the mortality rate. The emergence of whole breast ultrasound provides good performance for women with dense breast tissue, and may eliminate the current trade-off between the cost effectiveness of mammography and the imaging performance of more expensive systems such as magnetic resonance imaging. We report on the performance of SoftVue, a whole breast ultrasound imaging system, based on the principles of ultrasound tomography. SoftVue was developed by Delphinus Medical Technologies and builds on an early prototype developed at the Karmanos Cancer Institute. We present results from preliminary testing of the SoftVue system, performed both in the lab and in the clinic. These tests aimed to validate the expected improvements in image performance. Initial qualitative analyses showed major improvements in image quality, thereby validating the new imaging system design. Specifically, SoftVue's imaging performance was consistent across all breast density categories and had much better resolution and contrast. The implications of these results for clinical breast imaging are discussed and future work is described.

  4. Linear description of ultrasound imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    These notes have been prepared for the international summer school on advanced ultrasound imaging sponsored by The Danish Research Academy. The notes should be read in conjunction with the notes prepared by Anderson and Trahey1. The intended audience is Ph.D. students working in medical ultrasound...

  5. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.


    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  6. Design and image processing for tactile endoscope system (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Susuki, Yuto; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Ken; Ohno, Yuko


    We have developed new type tactile endoscope with silicone rubber membrane. The system consists of silicone rubber membrane, image sensor and illumination system. A surface of the Silicone rubber membrane has any patterns which made by nanotechnology. This pattern is deformed by pressing tissue such as cancer, colon and so on. The deformed pattern is captured by image sensor. This pattern is analyzed by image processing. In this paper, the proposed architecture is presented. With several test targets, the characteristics of the prototype systems are evaluated in the computation simulation.

  7. Pier scour monitoring system by bed-level image tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Yi CHANG; Jihn-Sung LAI; Teng-Yi YU; Franco LIN; Lung-Cheng LEE; Whey-Fone TSAI; Chin-Hsiung LOH


    A scour monitoring system with a micro camera tracking the bed-level images is proposed in this study. Two image recognition algorithms have been developed to support the bed-level image tracking approach. Through the laboratory experiments of pier scour, this study demonstrates that the proposed system is able to accurately monitor the scour-depth evolution in real time. In addition, five commonly-used temporal scour models are employed to simulate scour-depth evolution and their results are compared with monitoring data. In general, the results indicate that the proposed scour monitoring system has the potential for further applications in the field.

  8. System for objective assessment of image differences in digital cinema (United States)

    Fliegel, Karel; Krasula, Lukáš; Páta, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek


    There is high demand for quick digitization and subsequent image restoration of archived film records. Digitization is very urgent in many cases because various invaluable pieces of cultural heritage are stored on aging media. Only selected records can be reconstructed perfectly using painstaking manual or semi-automatic procedures. This paper aims to answer the question what are the quality requirements on the restoration process in order to obtain acceptably close visual perception of the digitally restored film in comparison to the original analog film copy. This knowledge is very important to preserve the original artistic intention of the movie producers. Subjective experiment with artificially distorted images has been conducted in order to answer the question what is the visual impact of common image distortions in digital cinema. Typical color and contrast distortions were introduced and test images were presented to viewers using digital projector. Based on the outcome of this subjective evaluation a system for objective assessment of image distortions has been developed and its performance tested. The system utilizes calibrated digital single-lens reflex camera and subsequent analysis of suitable features of images captured from the projection screen. The evaluation of captured image data has been optimized in order to obtain predicted differences between the reference and distorted images while achieving high correlation with the results of subjective assessment. The system can be used to objectively determine the difference between analog film and digital cinema images on the projection screen.

  9. [Intraoperative graft assessment using fluorescent imaging system (SPY)]. (United States)

    Kawashima, T; Naraoka, S; Kakizaki, T


    We investigated the efficacy of intraoperative fluorescent imaging system for the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We used SPY imaging system in 100 CABG (57 off-pump and 43 on-pump CABG), totalling 287 distal anastomoses. The total graft patency rate on postoperative angiography in this series was 96.2% (276/287). Graft revision was done in 10 cases (10.0%) and 13 anastomoses (4.5%) by SPY imaging, which all resulted in good patency at postoperative angiography. On the other hand, 7 distal anastomoses and 1 mammary graft (2.8%) appeared to be successful on intraoperative SPY imaging, but were revealed to be occluded by postoperative angiography. SPY imaging system is useful for graft validation, and may contribute to improvement of coronary bypass graft patency.

  10. Novel endoscopic imaging system for early cancer diagnosis (United States)

    Igarashi, Makoto; Gono, Kazuhiro


    We have developed the novel video endoscope imaging techniques; Narrow band imaging (NBI), Auto-Fluorescence Imaging (AFI), Infra-Red Imaging (IRI) and Endo-Cytoscopy System (ECS). The purpose of these imaging techniques is to emphasize the important tissue features associated with early stage of lesions. We have already launched the new medical endoscope system including NBI, AFI and IRI (EVIS LUCERA SPECTRUM, OLYMPUS MEDICAL SYSTEMS Co., Ltd., Fig.1). Moreover ECS, which has enough magnification to observe cell nuclei on a superficial mucosa under methylene blue dye staining, is the endoscopic instrument with ultra-high optical zoom. In this paper we demonstrate the concepts and the medical efficacy of each technology.

  11. A novel track imaging system as a range counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Matsufuji, N. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kanayama, S. [Chiba University (Japan); Ishida, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kohno, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Koba, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)


    An image-intensified, camera-based track imaging system has been developed to measure the tracks of ions in a scintillator block. To study the performance of the detector unit in the system, two types of scintillators, a dosimetrically tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator EJ-240 and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, were separately irradiated with carbon ion ({sup 12}C) beams of therapeutic energy from HIMAC at NIRS. The images of individual ion tracks in the scintillators were acquired by the newly developed track imaging system. The ranges reconstructed from the images are reported here. The range resolution of the measurements is 1.8 mm for 290 MeV/u carbon ions, which is considered a significant improvement on the energy resolution of the conventional ΔE/E method. The detector is compact and easy to handle, and it can fit inside treatment rooms for in-situ studies, as well as satisfy clinical quality assurance purposes.

  12. Continuous-terahertz-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Wang, Ruixue; Zuo, Shasha; Wu, Dong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing


    Molecular imaging techniques are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research and potentially in clinical practice. We present a continuous-terahertz (THz)-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications, in which an infrared (IR) laser is integrated into a 0.2-THz reflection-mode continuous-THz-wave imaging system to induce surface plasmon polaritons on the nanoparticles and further improve the intensity of the reflected signal from the water around the nanoparticles. A strong and rapid increment of the reflected THz signal in the nanoparticle solution upon the IR laser irradiation is demonstrated, using either gold or silver nanoparticles. This low-cost, simple, and stable continuous-THz-wave molecular imaging system is suitable for miniaturization and practical imaging applications; in particular, it shows great promise for cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug-delivery monitoring.

  13. First-principles prediction of the magnetism of 4f rare-earth-metal-doped wurtzite zinc oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AG El Hachimi; H Zaari; A Benyoussef; M El Yadari; A El Kenz


    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of wurtzite ZnO semiconductor doped with rare earth (RE=La, Ce, Pr, Pm, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) atoms were studied using spin-polarized density functional theory based on the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method as implemented in the Wien2k code. In this approach the generalized gradient ap-proximation (GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. Our results showed that the substitution of RE ions in ZnO induced spins polarized localized states in the band gap. Moreover, the studied DMSs compounds retained half metallicity at dopant concentration x=0.625%for most of the studied elements, with 100%spin polarization at the Fermi level (EF). The total magnetic moments of these compounds existed due to RE 4f states present at EF, while small induced magnetic moments existed on other non-magnetic atoms as well. Finally, the energy difference between far and near configurations was investigated. It was found that the room temperature ferromagnetism was possible for RE-doped ZnO at near configuration. Since the RE-RE separation was long enough (far configuration) for magnetic coupling, the system became paramagnetic or antiferromagnetic ground state.

  14. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)


    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  15. Underwater Acoustic Image Transmission System Based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng En; Xu Ru


    The underwater acoustic image transmission system based on the high-speed DSP device TMS320C549 has been studied. We use Goertzel algorithm for source decoding and MFSK for modulation. Turbo code is used for channel coding and decoding. The purpose is to implement underwater video image data transmission.

  16. Phosphorimager and PD densitometer imaging system network. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document discusses the research projects undertaken as a result of the availability of the PhosphorImager and PD Densitometer Imaging System Network, at the University of Georgia`s Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. The benefit gained from the equipment is described for each project.

  17. Robust algebraic image enhancement for intelligent control systems (United States)

    Lerner, Bao-Ting; Morrelli, Michael


    Robust vision capability for intelligent control systems has been an elusive goal in image processing. The computationally intensive techniques a necessary for conventional image processing make real-time applications, such as object tracking and collision avoidance difficult. In order to endow an intelligent control system with the needed vision robustness, an adequate image enhancement subsystem capable of compensating for the wide variety of real-world degradations, must exist between the image capturing and the object recognition subsystems. This enhancement stage must be adaptive and must operate with consistency in the presence of both statistical and shape-based noise. To deal with this problem, we have developed an innovative algebraic approach which provides a sound mathematical framework for image representation and manipulation. Our image model provides a natural platform from which to pursue dynamic scene analysis, and its incorporation into a vision system would serve as the front-end to an intelligent control system. We have developed a unique polynomial representation of gray level imagery and applied this representation to develop polynomial operators on complex gray level scenes. This approach is highly advantageous since polynomials can be manipulated very easily, and are readily understood, thus providing a very convenient environment for image processing. Our model presents a highly structured and compact algebraic representation of grey-level images which can be viewed as fuzzy sets.

  18. High-speed CMOS image sensor for high-throughput lensless microfluidic imaging system (United States)

    Yan, Mei; Huang, Xiwei; Jia, Qixiang; Nadipalli, Revanth; Wang, Tongxi; Shang, Yang; Yu, Hao; Je, Minkyu; Yeo, Kiatseng


    The integration of CMOS image sensor and microfluidics becomes a promising technology for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. However, commercial image sensors usually have limited speed and low-light sensitivity. One high-speed and high-sensitivity CMOS image sensor chip is introduced in this paper, targeted for high-throughput microfluidic imaging system. Firstly, high speed image sensor architecture is introduced with design of column-parallel single-slope analog-todigital converter (ADC) with digital correlated double sampling (CDS). The frame rate can be achieved to 2400 frames/second (fps) with resolution of 128×96 for high-throughput microfluidic imaging. Secondly, the designed system has superior low-light sensitivity, which is achieved by large pixel size (10μm×10μm, 56% fill factor). Pixel peak signalnoise- ratio (SNR) reaches to 50dB with 10dB improvement compared to the commercial pixel (2.2μm×2.2μm). The degradation of pixel resolution is compensated by super-resolution image processing algorithm. By reconstructing single image with multiple low-resolution frames, we can equivalently achieve 2μm resolution with physical 10μm pixel. Thirdly, the system-on-chip (SoC) integration results in a real-time controlled intelligent imaging system without expensive data storage and time-consuming computer analysis. This initial sensor prototype with timing-control makes it possible to develop high-throughput lensless microfluidic imaging system for POC diagnosis.

  19. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R; Rossi, Ethan A


    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2-3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5-0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05-0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3-5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7-1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07-0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing.

  20. Pressure-enhanced superconductivity in Eu3Bi2S4F4 (United States)

    Luo, Yongkang; Zhai, Hui-Fei; Zhang, Pan; Xu, Zhu-An; Cao, Guang-Han; Thompson, J. D.


    The pressure effect on the newly discovered charge-transferred BiS2-based superconductor, Eu3Bi2S4F4 , with a Tc of 1.5 K at ambient pressure, is investigated by transport and magnetic measurements. Accompanied with the enhancement of metallicity under pressures, the onset superconducting transition temperature increases abruptly around 1.0 GPa, reaching ˜10.0 K at 2.26 GPa. Alternating current magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that a new superconducting phase with a higher Tc emerges and dominates at high pressures. In the broad pressure window of 0.68 GPa≤p ≤2.00 GPa, the high-Tc phase coexists with the low-Tc phase. Hall effect measurements reveal a significant difference in electronic structures between the two superconducting phases. Our work devotes the effort to establish the commonality of pressure effect on the BiS2-based superconductors, and also uncovers the importance of electron carrier density in the high-Tc phase.

  1. Single camera imaging system for color and near-infrared fluorescence image guided surgery. (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyue; Zhu, Nan; Pacheco, Shaun; Wang, Xia; Liang, Rongguang


    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging systems have been developed for image guided surgery in recent years. However, current systems are typically bulky and work only when surgical light in the operating room (OR) is off. We propose a single camera imaging system that is capable of capturing NIR fluorescence and color images under normal surgical lighting illumination. Using a new RGB-NIR sensor and synchronized NIR excitation illumination, we have demonstrated that the system can acquire both color information and fluorescence signal with high sensitivity under normal surgical lighting illumination. The experimental results show that ICG sample with concentration of 0.13 μM can be detected when the excitation irradiance is 3.92 mW/cm(2) at an exposure time of 10 ms.

  2. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the large subunit of the human lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumadue, J.A.; Glick, A.B.; Ruddle, F.H.


    Among the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes is the surface antigen 4F2. The authors have used DNA-mediated gene transfer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to obtain cell lines that contain the gene encoding the large subunit of the human 4F2 antigen in a mouse L-cell background. Human DNAs cloned from these cell lines were subsequently used as hybridization probes to isolate a full-length cDNA clone expressing 4F2. Sequence analysis of the coding region has revealed an amino acid sequence of 529 residues. Hydrophobicity plotting has predicted a probable structure for the protein that includes an external carboxyl terminus, an internal leader sequence, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and two possible membrane-associated domains. The 4F2 cDNA detects a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA in T-cell and B-cell lines. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA derived from quiescent and serum-stimulated Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts reveals a cell-cycle modulation of 4F2 gene expression: the mRNA is present in quiescent fibroblasts but increases 8-fold 24-36 hr after stimulation, at the time of maximal DNA synthesis.

  3. Optical multipolar spread functions of an aplanatic imaging system (United States)

    Rouxel, Jérémy R.; Toury, Timothée


    The electromagnetic field near the focus of a perfect imaging system is calculated for different multipolar sources that play an important role in the radiation of nanostructures. Those multipoles are the exact and extended multipoles occurring in electrodynamics. The theory of diffraction of vector waves is reviewed rigorously for a dipolar radiation and applied to the imaging of multipolar sources. Different geometries are considered in order to connect with experiments and the multipolar spread functions are given in a ready-to-use format up to the octupolar order, in the general case and in the paraxial approximation. Defocus imaging is finally considered to provide a first step toward multipolar imaging.

  4. Systemic Fluorescence Imaging of Zebrafish Glycans with Bioorthogonal Chemistry. (United States)

    Agarwal, Paresh; Beahm, Brendan J; Shieh, Peyton; Bertozzi, Carolyn R


    Vertebrate glycans constitute a large, important, and dynamic set of post-translational modifications that are notoriously difficult to manipulate and image. Although the chemical reporter strategy has been used in conjunction with bioorthogonal chemistry to image the external glycosylation state of live zebrafish and detect tumor-associated glycans in mice, the ability to image glycans systemically within a live organism has remained elusive. Here, we report a method that combines the metabolic incorporation of a cyclooctyne-functionalized sialic acid derivative with a ligation reaction of a fluorogenic tetrazine, allowing for the imaging of sialylated glycoconjugates within live zebrafish embryos.

  5. Determination of 4f energy levels for trivalent lanthanide ions in YAlO{sub 3} by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yuhei; Ueda, Kazushige, E-mail:


    A simple method to analyze 4f energy levels of trivalent lanthanide (Ln) ions was demonstrated by conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements using Ln ions doped YAlO{sub 3} sintered polycrystalline samples. Although XPS peaks derived from Ln 4f states overlapped with the host's valence band consisting of O 2p states, the difference XPS spectra between Ln doped and non-doped samples showed only the Ln 4f peaks due to the large difference of photoionization cross sections between Ln 4f and O 2p orbitals. The difference spectra showing Ln 4f states were aligned at the valence band maximum (VBM) making use of the peaks of Al 2p inner shells, and the Ln{sup 3+} 4f energy levels referred to the VBM were determined from the Ln{sup 3+} 4f peak energies. The Ln{sup 3+} 4f energy levels obtained by this simple method were in good agreement with those previously obtained by resonant ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements using single crystal samples. - Highlights: • Lanthanide (Ln) 4f energy in YAlO{sub 3} was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • The method used differences in photoionization probability between Ln 4f and O 2p. • Ln 4f states were obtained by difference spectra between Ln- and non-doped samples. • Obtained 4f energy levels agreed with those reported by a sophisticated method.

  6. Imaging System and Method for Biomedical Analysis (United States)


    fluorescent nanoparticles . Generally, Noiseux et al. teach injecting multiple fluorescent nanoparticle dyes into the food sample, imaging the sample a...example, AIDS, malaria , cholera, lymphoma, and typhoid. The present disclosure can be used to capture and count microscopic cells for application as...Base plate 214 is sealed against cover 204 by the adhesive 210. Base plate 214 can have a thickness 216 of, for example, about 100 µm. At least a

  7. MIRMAID: A Content Management System for Medical Image Analysis Research. (United States)

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis D; Kline, Timothy L; Blezek, Daniel J; Langer, Steve G; Ryan, William J; Erickson, Bradley J


    Today, a typical clinical study can involve thousands of participants, with imaging data acquired over several time points across multiple institutions. The additional associated information (metadata) accompanying these data can cause data management to be a study-hindering bottleneck. Consistent data management is crucial for large-scale modern clinical imaging research studies. If the study is to be used for regulatory submissions, such systems must be able to meet regulatory compliance requirements for systems that manage clinical image trials, including protecting patient privacy. Our aim was to develop a system to address these needs by leveraging the capabilities of an open-source content management system (CMS) that has a highly configurable workflow; has a single interface that can store, manage, and retrieve imaging-based studies; and can handle the requirement for data auditing and project management. We developed a Web-accessible CMS for medical images called Medical Imaging Research Management and Associated Information Database (MIRMAID). From its inception, MIRMAID was developed to be highly flexible and to meet the needs of diverse studies. It fulfills the need for a complete system for medical imaging research management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Gulis


    Full Text Available Instruments for spectral filtration of images are an important element of the systems used in remote sensing, medical diagnostics, in-process measurements. The aim of this study is analysis of the functional features and characteristics of the proposed two image monochromator versions which are based on dispersive spectral filtering. The first is based on the use of a dispersive monochromator, where collimating and camera lenses form a telescopic system, the dispersive element of which is within the intermediate image plane. The second version is based on an imaging double monochromator with dispersion subtraction by back propagation. For the telescopic system version, the spectral and spatial resolutions are estimated, the latter being limited by aberrations and diffraction from the entrance slit. The device has been numerically simulated and prototyped. It is shown that for the spectral bandwidth 10 nm (visible spectral range, the aberration-limited spot size is from 10–20 μm at the image center to about 30 μm at the image periphery for the image size 23–27 mm. The monochromator with dispersion subtraction enables one to vary the spectral resolution (up to 1 nm and higher by changing the intermediate slit width. But the distinctive feature is a significant change in the selected central wavelength over the image field. The considered designs of dispersive image monochromators look very promising due to the particular advantages over the systems based on tunable filters as regards the spectral resolution, fast tuning, and the spectral contrast. The monochromator based on a telescopic system has a simple design and a rather large image field but it also has a limited light throughput due to small aperture size. The monochromator with dispersion subtraction has higher light throughput, can provide high spectral resolution when recording a full data cube in a series of measuring acts for different dispersive element positions. 

  9. Agency Secure Image And Storage Tracking System (ASIST) (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Agency Secure Image and Storage Tracking System (Missions): is a Documentum-based user interface developed and maintained by the USAID OCIO (formerly IRM) to improve...

  10. A neutron-sensitive image intensifier-television system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.B.; Smith, H.G.; Willems, R.A.


    A neutron-sensitive, image intensifier-digital television system has been developed for area recording of weak patterns in neutron scattering studies. It can also be used as a low resolution neutron radiography instrument. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Three-Dimensional Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the proposal is to design, develop and demonstrate a potentially portable Compton x-ray scatter 3D-imaging system by using specially...

  12. Tele-medical imaging conference system based on the Web. (United States)

    Choi, Heung-Kook; Park, Se-Myung; Kang, Jae-Hyo; Kim, Sang-Kyoon; Choi, Hang-Mook


    In this paper, a medical imaging conference system is presented, which is carried out in the Web environment using the distributed object technique, CORBA. Independent of platforms and different developing languages, the CORBA-based medical imaging conference system is very powerful for system development, extension and maintenance. With this Web client/server, one could easily execute a medical imaging conference using Applets on the Web. The Java language, which is object-oriented and independent of platforms, has the advantage of free usage wherever the Web browser is. By using the proposed system, we envisage being able to open a tele-conference using medical images, e.g. CT, MRI, X-ray etc., easily and effectively among remote hospitals.

  13. Three-dimensional surface imaging system for assessing human obesity (United States)

    Xu, Bugao; Yu, Wurong; Yao, Ming; Pepper, M. Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.


    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable, and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3-D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for the estimation of body composition. We present a new 3-D body imaging system, which is designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology is used to satisfy the requirement for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisition. The portability of the system is created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements is improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3-D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also are developed. The overall performance of the system is evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  14. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity (United States)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.


    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  15. Three-Dimensional Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA application requires a system that can generate 3D images of non-metallic material when access is limited to one side of the material. The objective of this...

  16. An acoustic imaging system of migration technique used in borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Weijun; WU Nan; SUN Jian; ZHANG Hailan


    In order to detect the damage of casing boreholes, an acoustic imaging method with a two-dimensional ultrasonic array was presented. Each element of the array independently emits down ultrasonic waves, the echoes received by all elements are sampled and transmitted to a computer on ground surface, where the dynamic migration method is used to form a 2 or 3-dimensional image of the situation in the borehole. The numerical simulation and experiment are conducted that demonstrate a high imaging accuracy with a small number of elements used in array. Since the delay circuits used in the traditional phased array imaging system is not needed in this system, and all data process could be completed in a ground system,the complexity and the volume of system in borehole may be significantly simplified, which is critical to the borehole instrument.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and guidance using image processing. The proposed system includes counting the number of parked vehicles, and dentifying the stalls available. The system detects cars through images instead of using electronic sensors embedded on the floor. A camera is installed at the entry point of the parking lot. It capturesimage sequences. The image sequences are then analyzed using digital image processing for vehicle detection and according to the status ofvehicle occupancy inside, real time guidance and information is provided to the incoming driver.

  18. The Use of QBIC Content-Based Image Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Wu


    Full Text Available The fast increase in digital images has caught increasing attention on the development of image retrieval technologies. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR has become an important approach in retrieving image data from a large collection. This article reports our results on the use and users study of a CBIR system. Thirty-eight students majored in art and design were invited to use the IBM’s OBIC (Query by Image Content system through the Internet. Data from their information needs, behaviors, and retrieval strategies were collected through an in-depth interview, observation, and self-described think-aloud process. Important conclusions are:(1)There are four types of information needs for image data: implicit, inspirational, ever-changing, and purposive. The types of needs may change during the retrieval process. (2)CBIR is suitable for the example-type query, text retrieval is suitable for the scenario-type query, and image browsing is suitable for the symbolic query. (3)Different from text retrieval, detailed description of the query condition may lead to retrieval failure more easily. (4)CBIR is suitable for the domain-specific image collection, not for the images on the Word-Wide Web.[Article content in Chinese

  19. Suppression of fixed pattern noise for infrared image system (United States)

    Park, Changhan; Han, Jungsoo; Bae, Kyung-Hoon


    In this paper, we propose suppression of fixed pattern noise (FPN) and compensation of soft defect for improvement of object tracking in cooled staring infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) imaging system. FPN appears an observable image which applies to non-uniformity compensation (NUC) by temperature. Soft defect appears glittering black and white point by characteristics of non-uniformity for IR detector by time. This problem is very important because it happen serious problem for object tracking as well as degradation for image quality. Signal processing architecture in cooled staring IRFPA imaging system consists of three tables: low, normal, high temperature for reference gain and offset values. Proposed method operates two offset tables for each table. This is method which operates six term of temperature on the whole. Proposed method of soft defect compensation consists of three stages: (1) separates sub-image for an image, (2) decides a motion distribution of object between each sub-image, (3) analyzes for statistical characteristic from each stationary fixed pixel. Based on experimental results, the proposed method shows an improved image which suppresses FPN by change of temperature distribution from an observational image in real-time.

  20. Identification of the predicted 5s-4f level crossing optical lines with applications to metrology and searches for the variation of fundamental constants. (United States)

    Windberger, A; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; Bekker, H; Oreshkina, N S; Berengut, J C; Bock, V; Borschevsky, A; Dzuba, V A; Eliav, E; Harman, Z; Kaldor, U; Kaul, S; Safronova, U I; Flambaum, V V; Keitel, C H; Schmidt, P O; Ullrich, J; Versolato, O O


    We measure optical spectra of Nd-like W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt ions of particular interest for studies of a possibly varying fine-structure constant. Exploiting characteristic energy scalings we identify the strongest lines, confirm the predicted 5s-4f level crossing, and benchmark advanced calculations. We infer two possible values for optical M2/E3 and E1 transitions in Ir^{17+} that have the highest predicted sensitivity to a variation of the fine-structure constant among stable atomic systems. Furthermore, we determine the energies of proposed frequency standards in Hf^{12+} and W^{14+}.

  1. Interactive display system having a digital micromirror imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Kaull, Lisa; Brewster, Calvin


    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector cooperates with a digital imaging device, e.g. a digital micromirror imaging device, for projecting an image through the panel for display on the outlet face. The imaging device includes an array of mirrors tiltable between opposite display and divert positions. The display positions reflect an image light beam from the projector through the panel for display on the outlet face. The divert positions divert the image light beam away from the panel, and are additionally used for reflecting a probe light beam through the panel toward the outlet face. Covering a spot on the panel, e.g. with a finger, reflects the probe light beam back through the panel toward the inlet face for detection thereat and providing interactive capability.

  2. Systematic Calibration for a Backpacked Spherical Photogrammetry Imaging System (United States)

    Rau, J. Y.; Su, B. W.; Hsiao, K. W.; Jhan, J. P.


    A spherical camera can observe the environment for almost 720 degrees' field of view in one shoot, which is useful for augmented reality, environment documentation, or mobile mapping applications. This paper aims to develop a spherical photogrammetry imaging system for the purpose of 3D measurement through a backpacked mobile mapping system (MMS). The used equipment contains a Ladybug-5 spherical camera, a tactical grade positioning and orientation system (POS), i.e. SPAN-CPT, and an odometer, etc. This research aims to directly apply photogrammetric space intersection technique for 3D mapping from a spherical image stereo-pair. For this purpose, several systematic calibration procedures are required, including lens distortion calibration, relative orientation calibration, boresight calibration for direct georeferencing, and spherical image calibration. The lens distortion is serious on the ladybug-5 camera's original 6 images. Meanwhile, for spherical image mosaicking from these original 6 images, we propose the use of their relative orientation and correct their lens distortion at the same time. However, the constructed spherical image still contains systematic error, which will reduce the 3D measurement accuracy. Later for direct georeferencing purpose, we need to establish a ground control field for boresight/lever-arm calibration. Then, we can apply the calibrated parameters to obtain the exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of all spherical images. In the end, the 3D positioning accuracy after space intersection will be evaluated, including EOPs obtained by structure from motion method.

  3. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging with a handheld system. (United States)

    van den Berg, Pim J; Daoudi, Khalid; Steenbergen, Wiendelt


    Flow imaging is an important technique in a range of disease areas, but estimating low flow speeds, especially near the walls of blood vessels, remains challenging. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging can be an alternative since there is little signal contamination from background tissue with photoacoustic imaging. We propose flow imaging using a clinical photoacoustic system that is both handheld and portable. The system integrates a linear array with 7.5 MHz central frequency in combination with a high-repetition-rate diode laser to allow high-speed photoacoustic imaging--ideal for this application. This work shows the flow imaging performance of the system in vitro using microparticles. Both two-dimensional (2-D) flow images and quantitative flow velocities from 12 to 75  mm/s were obtained. In a transparent bulk medium, flow estimation showed standard errors of ∼7% the estimated speed; in the presence of tissue-realistic optical scattering, the error increased to 40% due to limited signal-to-noise ratio. In the future, photoacoustic flow imaging can potentially be performed in vivo using fluorophore-filled vesicles or with an improved setup on whole blood.

  4. Driving micro-optical imaging systems towards miniature camera applications (United States)

    Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Leitel, Robert; Bräuer, Andreas


    Up to now, multi channel imaging systems have been increasingly studied and approached from various directions in the academic domain due to their promising large field of view at small system thickness. However, specific drawbacks of each of the solutions prevented the diffusion into corresponding markets so far. Most severe problems are a low image resolution and a low sensitivity compared to a conventional single aperture lens besides the lack of a cost-efficient method of fabrication and assembly. We propose a microoptical approach to ultra-compact optics for real-time vision systems that are inspired by the compound eyes of insects. The demonstrated modules achieve a VGA resolution with 700x550 pixels within an optical package of 6.8mm x 5.2mm and a total track length of 1.4mm. The partial images that are separately recorded within different optical channels are stitched together to form a final image of the whole field of view by means of image processing. These software tools allow to correct the distortion of the individual partial images so that the final image is also free of distortion. The so-called electronic cluster eyes are realized by state-of-the-art microoptical fabrication techniques and offer a resolution and sensitivity potential that makes them suitable for consumer, machine vision and medical imaging applications.

  5. Medical Image Digitalization and Archiving Information System in Serbia (United States)

    Sajfert, Vjekoslav; Milićević, Vladimir; Jevtić, Vesna; Jovanović, Višnja


    The paper gives a brief presentation of digital and archiving imaging system (PACS) with a survey of the main characteristics and development of the system worldwide as well as the possibilities and the area of its implementation in our conditions. We have given a proposition for digitalization and archiving of both the existing and future medical imaging in accordance with our possibilities for world standards implementation.

  6. PAMS Photo Image Retrieval Prototype System Design Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, M.L., Westinghouse Hanford


    This System Design Description (SDD) documents the detail design of the Photo Audio/Visual Management System (PAMS) Photo Image Retrieval Prototype (PPIRP) subsystem. This SDD shows how the software is structured to satisfy the requirements identified in the PAMS Photo Image Prototype Requirements Document. It is a description of the software structure, software components,interfaces, and data that make up the PPIRP subsystem.

  7. Document Indexing for Image-Based Optical Information Systems. (United States)

    Thiel, Thomas J.; And Others


    Discussion of image-based information retrieval systems focuses on indexing. Highlights include computerized information retrieval; multimedia optical systems; optical mass storage and personal computers; and a case study that describes an optical disk system which was developed to preserve, access, and disseminate military documents. (19…

  8. A 4F2-cross-point phase change memory using nano-crystalline doped GeSbTe material (United States)

    Takaura, Norikatsu; Kinoshita, Masaharu; Tai, Mitsuharu; Ohyanagi, Takasumi; Akita, Kenichi; Morikawa, Takahiro


    This paper reports on the use of nano-crystalline doped GeSbTe, or nano-GST, to fabricate a cross-point phase change memory with 4F2 cell size and test results obtained for it. We show the characteristics of a poly-Si diode select device with a high on-off ratio and data writing in a 4F2 memory cell array. The advantages of nano-GST over conventional GeSbTe are presented in terms of neighboring disturbance and 4F2 cross-point array formation. The memory cells’ high drivability, low power, and selective write and read performances are demonstrated. The scalability of the diode current density is also presented.

  9. Image quality of a cone beam O-arm 3D imaging system (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Weir, Victor; Lin, Jingying; Hsiung, Hsiang; Ritenour, E. Russell


    The O-arm is a cone beam imaging system designed primarily to support orthopedic surgery and is also used for image-guided and vascular surgery. Using a gantry that can be opened or closed, the O-arm can function as a 2-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy device or collect 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging data like a CT system. Clinical applications of the O-arm in spine surgical procedures, assessment of pedicle screw position, and kyphoplasty procedures show that the O-arm 3D mode provides enhanced imaging information compared to radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. In this study, the image quality of an O-arm system was quantitatively evaluated. A 20 cm diameter CATPHAN 424 phantom was scanned using the pre-programmed head protocols: small/medium (120 kVp, 100 mAs), large (120 kVp, 128 mAs), and extra-large (120 kVp, 160 mAs) in 3D mode. High resolution reconstruction mode (512×512×0.83 mm) was used to reconstruct images for the analysis of low and high contrast resolution, and noise power spectrum. MTF was measured using the point spread function. The results show that the O-arm image is uniform but with a noise pattern which cannot be removed by simply increasing the mAs. The high contrast resolution of the O-arm system was approximately 9 lp/cm. The system has a 10% MTF at 0.45 mm. The low-contrast resolution cannot be decided due to the noise pattern. For surgery where locations of a structure are emphasized over a survey of all image details, the image quality of the O-arm is well accepted clinically.

  10. New real-time image processing system for IRFPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-jian; LIU Shang-qian; CHENG Yu-bao


    Influenced by detectors' material,manufacturing technology etc,every detector in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) will output different voltages even if their input radiation flux is the same.And this is called non-uniformity of IRFPA.At the same time,the high background temperature,low temperature difference between targets and background and the low responsivity of IRFPA result in low contrast of infrared images.So non-uniformity correction and image enhancement are important techniques for IRFPA imaging system.This paper proposes a new real-time infrared image processing system based on Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA).The system implements non-uniformity correction,image enhancement and video synthesization etc.By using parallel architecture and pipeline technique,the system processing speed is as high as 50Mx12bits per second.It is appropriate greatly to a large IRFPA and a high frame frequency IRFPA imaging system.The system is miniatured in one FPGA.

  11. Invited article: Digital beam-forming imaging riometer systems. (United States)

    Honary, Farideh; Marple, Steve R; Barratt, Keith; Chapman, Peter; Grill, Martin; Nielsen, Erling


    The design and operation of a new generation of digital imaging riometer systems developed by Lancaster University are presented. In the heart of the digital imaging riometer is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which is used for the digital signal processing and digital beam forming, completely replacing the analog Butler matrices which have been used in previous designs. The reconfigurable nature of the FPGA has been exploited to produce tools for remote system testing and diagnosis which have proven extremely useful for operation in remote locations such as the Arctic and Antarctic. Different FPGA programs enable different instrument configurations, including a 4 × 4 antenna filled array (producing 4 × 4 beams), an 8 × 8 antenna filled array (producing 7 × 7 beams), and a Mills cross system utilizing 63 antennas producing 556 usable beams. The concept of using a Mills cross antenna array for riometry has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. The digital beam forming has been validated by comparing the received signal power from cosmic radio sources with results predicted from the theoretical beam radiation pattern. The performances of four digital imaging riometer systems are compared against each other and a traditional imaging riometer utilizing analog Butler matrices. The comparison shows that digital imaging riometer systems, with independent receivers for each antenna, can obtain much better measurement precision for filled arrays or much higher spatial resolution for the Mills cross configuration when compared to existing imaging riometer systems.

  12. Real Time Medical Image Consultation System Through Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durga Prasad


    Full Text Available Teleconsultation among doctors using a telemedicine system typically involves dealing with and sharing medical images of the patients. This paper describes a software tool written in Java which enables the participating doctors to view medical images such as blood slides, X-Ray, USG, ECG etc. online and even allows them to mark and/or zoom specific areas. It is a multi-party secure image communication system tool that can be used by doctors and medical consultants over the Internet.

  13. Numerical simulations of volume holographic imaging system resolution characteristics (United States)

    Sun, Yajun; Jiang, Zhuqing; Liu, Shaojie; Tao, Shiquan


    Because of the Bragg selectivity of volume holographic gratings, it helps VHI system to optically segment the object space. In this paper, properties of point-source diffraction imaging in terms of the point-spread function (PSF) are investigated, and characteristics of depth and lateral resolutions in a VHI system is numerically simulated. The results show that the observed diffracted field obviously changes with the displacement in the z direction, and is nearly unchanged with displacement in the x and y directions. The dependence of the diffracted imaging field on the z-displacement provides a way to possess 3-D image by VHI.

  14. IBIS - A geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.


    IBIS (Image Based Information System) is a geographic information system which makes use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remotely sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set. The first applications (St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Los Angeles County) have been restricted to the design of a land resource inventory and analysis system. It is thought that the algorithms and the hardware interfaces developed will be readily applicable to other Landsat imagery.

  15. A novel modulated excitation imaging system for microultrasound. (United States)

    Qiu, Weibao; Yu, Yanyan; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zheng, Hairong; Sun, Lei


    Microultrasound (micro-US), also known as ultrasound biomicroscope, is able to delineate small structures with fine spatial resolution. However, micro-US suffers limited depth of penetration due to significantly large attenuation at high frequencies. Modulated excitation imaging has displayed the capability to improve the penetration depth, while maintaining the spatial resolution. But the effectiveness of this technique in micro-US has not been fully demonstrated. In addition, the current modulated excitation imaging systems for micro-US are designed for specific excitation method, therefore, lack of flexibility, and are typically bulky and expensive. This paper presents the development of a novel system to achieve modulated excitation imaging with high programmability and flexibility to satisfy various micro-US studies. It incorporates a high-voltage arbitrary waveform generator for producing desired excitation waveform, and a programmable imaging receiver implemented by the state-of-the-art electronics and field-programmable gate array. Test results show that the proposed modulated excitation imaging system can acquire up to 20 dB signal-to-noise ratio improvement and 83% increase of penetration depth in contrast to traditional short-pulse imaging method. In vivo experiment on the dorsal skin of a human hand demonstrates good performance of the programmable modulated excitation imaging system.

  16. Medical image information system 2001. Development of the medical image information system to risk management- Medical exposure management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuranishi, Makoto; Kumagai, Michitomo; Shintani, Mitsuo [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital


    This paper discusses the methods and systems for optimizing the following supplements 10 and 17 for national health and medical care. The supplements 10 and 17 of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) system, which is now under progress for the purpose to keep compatibility within medical image information system as an international standard, are important for making the cooperation between HIS (hospital information system)/RIS (radiation information system) and modality (imaging instruments). Supplement 10 concerns the system to send the information of patients and their orders through HIS/RIS to modality and 17, the information of modality performed procedure step (MPPS) to HIS/RIS. The latter defines to document patients' exposure, a part of which has not been recognized in Japan. Thus the medical information system can be useful for risk-management of medical exposure in future. (K.H.)

  17. Spectrally Adaptable Compressive Sensing Imaging System (United States)


    viewed by a Stingray F-033C CCD Color Camera. The desired bands are depicted in (g). The original desired bands are shown in (a). Reconstructed images...would be viewed by a Stingray F-033C CCD Color Camera. The desired bands are indicated in (e). The original desired bands are shown in (a). Reconstructed...times and the mean PSNR is estimated. The resulting spectral data cubes are shown as they would be viewed by a Stingray F-033C CCD Color Camera. Figure

  18. Osiris: a medical image-manipulation system. (United States)

    Ligier, Y; Ratib, O; Logean, M; Girard, C


    We designed a general-purpose computer program, Osiris, for the display, manipulation, and analysis of digital medical images. The program offers an intuitive, window-based interface with direct access to generic tools. Characterized by user-friendliness, portability, and extensibility, Osiris is compatible with both Unix-based and Macintosh-based platforms. It is readily modified and can be used to develop new tools. It is able to monitor the entries made during a work session and thus provide data on its use. Osiris and its source code are being distributed, free of charge, to universities and research groups around the world.

  19. Real-time Imaging Orientation Determination System to Verify Imaging Polarization Navigation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lu


    Full Text Available Bio-inspired imaging polarization navigation which can provide navigation information and is capable of sensing polarization information has advantages of high-precision and anti-interference over polarization navigation sensors that use photodiodes. Although all types of imaging polarimeters exist, they may not qualify for the research on the imaging polarization navigation algorithm. To verify the algorithm, a real-time imaging orientation determination system was designed and implemented. Essential calibration procedures for the type of system that contained camera parameter calibration and the inconsistency of complementary metal oxide semiconductor calibration were discussed, designed, and implemented. Calibration results were used to undistort and rectify the multi-camera system. An orientation determination experiment was conducted. The results indicated that the system could acquire and compute the polarized skylight images throughout the calibrations and resolve orientation by the algorithm to verify in real-time. An orientation determination algorithm based on image processing was tested on the system. The performance and properties of the algorithm were evaluated. The rate of the algorithm was over 1 Hz, the error was over 0.313°, and the population standard deviation was 0.148° without any data filter.

  20. Imaging of blood cells based on snapshot Hyper-Spectral Imaging systems (United States)

    Robison, Christopher J.; Kolanko, Christopher; Bourlai, Thirimachos; Dawson, Jeremy M.


    Snapshot Hyper-Spectral imaging systems are capable of capturing several spectral bands simultaneously, offering coregistered images of a target. With appropriate optics, these systems are potentially able to image blood cells in vivo as they flow through a vessel, eliminating the need for a blood draw and sample staining. Our group has evaluated the capability of a commercial Snapshot Hyper-Spectral imaging system, the Arrow system from Rebellion Photonics, in differentiating between white and red blood cells on unstained blood smear slides. We evaluated the imaging capabilities of this hyperspectral camera; attached to a microscope at varying objective powers and illumination intensity. Hyperspectral data consisting of 25, 443x313 hyperspectral bands with ~3nm spacing were captured over the range of 419 to 494nm. Open-source hyper-spectral data cube analysis tools, used primarily in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, indicate that white blood cells features are most prominent in the 428-442nm band for blood samples viewed under 20x and 50x magnification over a varying range of illumination intensities. These images could potentially be used in subsequent automated white blood cell segmentation and counting algorithms for performing in vivo white blood cell counting.

  1. 21 CFR 876.1300 - Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system. (United States)


    ... § 876.1300 Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system. (a) Identification. An ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system is used for visualization of the small bowel... Special Controls Guidance Document: Ingestible Telemetric Gastrointestinal Capsule Imaging Systems;...

  2. A semi-automated image analysis procedure for in situ plankton imaging systems. (United States)

    Bi, Hongsheng; Guo, Zhenhua; Benfield, Mark C; Fan, Chunlei; Ford, Michael; Shahrestani, Suzan; Sieracki, Jeffery M


    Plankton imaging systems are capable of providing fine-scale observations that enhance our understanding of key physical and biological processes. However, processing the large volumes of data collected by imaging systems remains a major obstacle for their employment, and existing approaches are designed either for images acquired under laboratory controlled conditions or within clear waters. In the present study, we developed a semi-automated approach to analyze plankton taxa from images acquired by the ZOOplankton VISualization (ZOOVIS) system within turbid estuarine waters, in Chesapeake Bay. When compared to images under laboratory controlled conditions or clear waters, images from highly turbid waters are often of relatively low quality and more variable, due to the large amount of objects and nonlinear illumination within each image. We first customized a segmentation procedure to locate objects within each image and extracted them for classification. A maximally stable extremal regions algorithm was applied to segment large gelatinous zooplankton and an adaptive threshold approach was developed to segment small organisms, such as copepods. Unlike the existing approaches for images acquired from laboratory, controlled conditions or clear waters, the target objects are often the majority class, and the classification can be treated as a multi-class classification problem. We customized a two-level hierarchical classification procedure using support vector machines to classify the target objects ( 95%). First, histograms of oriented gradients feature descriptors were constructed for the segmented objects. In the first step all non-target and target objects were classified into different groups: arrow-like, copepod-like, and gelatinous zooplankton. Each object was passed to a group-specific classifier to remove most non-target objects. After the object was classified, an expert or non-expert then manually removed the non-target objects that could not be removed

  3. Description of an optimized ChIP-seq analysis pipeline dedicated to genome wide identification of E4F1 binding sites in primary and transformed MEFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Houlès


    To identify this program, we performed E4F1 ChIP-seq analyses in primary Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEF and in p53−/−, H-RasV12-transformed MEFs. The program directly controlled by E4F1 was obtained by intersecting the lists of E4F1 genomic targets with the lists of genes differentially expressed in E4F1 KO and E4F1 WT cells (Rodier et al., 2015. We describe hereby how we improved our ChIP-seq analyses workflow by applying prefilters on raw data and by using a combination of two publicly available programs, Cisgenome and QESEQ.

  4. ORIS: the Oak Ridge Imaging System operation's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, P. R.; Dillon, R. S.


    The Oak Ridge Imaging System (ORIS) programs are briefly described. This volume is intended as an operators manual, but it includes program abstracts and instructions for assembling the modules and adding new ones. The instructions are specifically for the RK8E version, but they apply with minor changes to versions for other OS/8 devices. The system provides for access, storage, processing, and display of nuclear medicine images and for any other type of data displayable in image form. The system is not limited to square image arrays or to any specific size of data arrays below 16K elements. The complete code package for ORIS is available as MED-8/ORIS from the Biomedical Computing Technology Information Center (BCTIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. Image-based Vehicle Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Jun Yee


    Electronic toll collection (ETC) system has been a common trend used for toll collection on toll road nowadays. The implementation of electronic toll collection allows vehicles to travel at low or full speed during the toll payment, which help to avoid the traffic delay at toll road. One of the major components of an electronic toll collection is the automatic vehicle detection and classification (AVDC) system which is important to classify the vehicle so that the toll is charged according to the vehicle classes. Vision-based vehicle classification system is one type of vehicle classification system which adopt camera as the input sensing device for the system. This type of system has advantage over the rest for it is cost efficient as low cost camera is used. The implementation of vision-based vehicle classification system requires lower initial investment cost and very suitable for the toll collection trend migration in Malaysia from single ETC system to full-scale multi-lane free flow (MLFF). This project ...

  6. Electro-optical imaging system performance measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Toet, A.; Valeton, J.M.


    The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD), the minimum resolvable contrast (MRC), and the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) are end-to-end EO system performance measures; that is, laboratory measures that characterize EO system performance with a human observer in the loop. Such s

  7. Application of a medical image processing system in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Hua Fang; Xiao-Feng Li; Zhou Li; Ying-Fang Fan; Chao-Min Lu; Yan-Peng Huang; Feng-Ping Peng


    BACKGROUND: At present, imaging is used not only to show the form of images, but also to make three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and visual simulations based on original data to guide clinical surgery. This study aimed to assess the use of a medical image-processing system in liver transplantation surgery. METHODS: The data of abdominal 64-slice spiral CT scan were collected from 200 healthy volunteers and 37 liver cancer patients in terms of hepatic arterial phase, portal phase, and hepatic venous phase. A 3D model of abdominal blood vessels including the abdominal aorta system, portal vein system, and inferior vena cava system was reconstructed by an abdominal image processing system to identify vascular variations. Then, a 3D model of the liver was reconstructed in terms of hepatic segmentation and liver volume was calculated. The FreeForm modeling system with a PHANTOM force feedback device was used to simulate the real liver transplantation environment, in which the total process of liver transplantation was completed. RESULTS: The reconstructed model of the abdominal blood vessels and the liver was clearly demonstrated to be three-dimensionally consistent with the anatomy of the liver, in which the variations of abdominal blood vessels were identiifed and liver segmentation was performed digitally. In the model, liver transplantation was simulated subsequently, and different modus operandi were selected successfully. CONCLUSION: The digitized medical image processing system may be valuable for liver transplantation.

  8. Calibration of a Microwave Imaging System Using a Known Scatterer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    the effect of noise. At the Technical University of Denmark, a 32-channel microwave imaging system for breast cancer screening has been under development for some time. In this system, each antenna is equipped with its own transceiver module, containing amplifiers, switches, and a mixer. This design ensures...... that the low-amplitude RF signals, available at the terminals of the antennas, only need to travel a very short distance to get to the low-noise amplifier, while the RF as well as the IF signals running to and from the transceiver modules all have significant amplitudes. However, some leakage between...... a measurement with an empty imaging system and a measurement with a simple known object in the system, i.e., a metal cylinder, and the relative change observed between simulations of the same two situations. Assuming that the simulation software is capable of accurately modeling the imaging system, some...

  9. Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Sherwood


    Full Text Available A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR and ultrasound (US image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle.

  10. Prototype of a rectal wall ultrasound image analysis system (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Ng, Wan S.; Abeyratne, Udantha R.; Tsang, Charles B.


    This paper presents a software system prototype for rectal wall ultrasound image processing, image display and 3D reconstruction and visualization of the rectal wall structure, which is aimed to help surgeons cope with large quantities of rectal wall ultrasound images. On the core image processing algorithm part, a novel multigradient field active contour model proposed by authors is used to complete the multi-layer boundary detection of the rectal wall. A novel unifying active contour model, which combines region information, gradient information and contour's internal constraint, is developed for tumor boundary detection. The region statistical information is described accurately by Gaussian Mixture Model, whose parameter solution is computed by Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The whole system is set up on Java platform. Java JAI technology is used for 2D image display, Java3D technology is employed for 3D reconstruction and visualization. The system prototype is currently composed of three main modules: image processing, image display and 3D visualization.

  11. Image quality simulation and verification of x-ray volume imaging systems (United States)

    Kroon, Han; Schoumans, Nicole; Snoeren, Ruud


    Nowadays, 2D X-ray systems are used more and more for 3-dimensional rotational X-ray imaging (3D-RX) or volume imaging, such as 3D rotational angiography. However, it is not evident that the application of settings for optimal 2D images also guarantee optimal conditions for 3D-RX reconstruction results. In particular the search for a good compromise between patient dose and IQ may lead to different results in case of 3D imaging. For this purpose we developed an additional 3D-RX module for our full-scale image quality & patient dose (IQ&PD) simulation model, with specific calculations of patient dose under rotational conditions, and contrast, sharpness and noise of 3D images. The complete X-ray system from X-ray tube up to and including the display device is modelled in separate blocks for each distinguishable component or process. The model acts as a tool for X-ray system design, image quality optimisation and patient dose reduction. The model supports the decomposition of system level requirements, and takes inherently care of the prerequisite mutual coherence between component requirements. The short calculation times enable comprehensive multi-parameter optimisation studies. The 3D-RX IQ&PD performance is validated by comparing calculation results with actual measurements performed on volume images acquired with a state-of-the-art 3D-RX system. The measurements include RXDI dose index, signal and contrast based on Hounsfield units (H and ΔH), modulation transfer function (MTF), noise variance (σ2) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Further we developed a new 3D contrast-delta (3D-CΔ) phantom with details of varying size and contrast medium material and concentration. Simulation and measurement results show a significant correlation.

  12. Towards the Intensity Interferometry Stellar Imaging System

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, M; Dravins, D; Kieda, D; Le Bohec, S; Núñez, P; Ribak, E


    The imminent availability of large arrays of large light collectors deployed to exploit atmospheric Cherenkov radiation for gamma-ray astronomy at more than 100GeV, motivates the growing interest in application of intensity interferometry in astronomy. Indeed, planned arrays numbering up to one hundred telescopes will offer close to 5,000 baselines, ranging from less than 50m to more than 1000m. Recent and continuing signal processing technology developments reinforce this interest. Revisiting Stellar Intensity Interferometry for imaging is well motivated scientifically. It will fill the short wavelength (B/V bands) and high angular resolution (< 0.1mas) gap left open by amplitude interferometers. It would also constitute a first and important step toward exploiting quantum optics for astronomical observations, thus leading the way for future observatories. In this paper we outline science cases, technical approaches and schedule for an intensity interferometer to be constructed and operated in the visible...

  13. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin [Department of Radiology, Tzu-Chi University and Radiation Oncology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsin Wu, Tung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Ming [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Lin [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jason J.S., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Hui, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)


    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO{sub 2} probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153{+-}0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693{+-}0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO{sub 2} probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  14. Grenade-launched imaging projectile system (GLIMPS) (United States)

    Nunan, Scott C.; Coakley, Peter G.; Niederhaus, Gregory A.; Lum, Chris


    A system has been developed for delivering and attaching a sensor payload to a target using a standard 40-mm grenade launcher. The projectile incorporates an attachment mechanism, a shock mitigation system, a power source, and a video-bandwidth transmitter. Impact and launch g-loads have been limited to less than 10,000 g's, enabling sensor payloads to be assembled using Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The GLIMPS projectile is intended to be a general-purpose delivery system for a variety of sensor payloads under the Unattended Ground Sensors program. Test results and development issues are presented.

  15. Concepts leading to the IMAGE-100 hybrid interactive system (United States)

    Mackin, T. F.; Sulester, J. M. (Principal Investigator)


    As LACIE Procedure 1 evolved from the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem smallfields procedures, it became evident that two computational systems would have merit-the LACIE/Earth Resources Interactive Processing System based on a large IBM-360 computer oriented for operational use with high computational throughput, and a smaller, highly interactive system based on a PDP 11-45 minicomputer and its display system, the IMAGE-100. The latter had advantages for certain phases; notably, interactive spectral aids could be implemented quite rapidly. This would allow testing and development of Procedure 1 before its implementation on the LACIE/Earth Resources Interactive Processing System. The resulting minicomputer system, called the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem IMAGE-100 Hybrid System, allowed Procedure-1 operations to be performed interactively, except for clustering, classification, and automatic selection of best acquisitions, which were offloaded to the LACIE/Earth Resources Interactive Processing System.

  16. An Automatic Number Plate Recognition System under Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Kaur


    Full Text Available Automatic Number Plate Recognition system is an application of computer vision and image processing technology that takes photograph of vehicles as input image and by extracting their number plate from whole vehicle image , it display the number plate information into text. Mainly the ANPR system consists of 4 phases: - Acquisition of Vehicle Image and Pre-Processing, Extraction of Number Plate Area, Character Segmentation and Character Recognition. The overall accuracy and efficiency of whole ANPR system depends on number plate extraction phase as character segmentation and character recognition phases are also depend on the output of this phase. Further the accuracy of Number Plate Extraction phase depends on the quality of captured vehicle image. Higher be the quality of captured input vehicle image more will be the chances of proper extraction of vehicle number plate area. The existing methods of ANPR works well for dark and bright/light categories image but it does not work well for Low Contrast, Blurred and Noisy images and the detection of exact number plate area by using the existing ANPR approach is not successful even after applying existing filtering and enhancement technique for these types of images. Due to wrong extraction of number plate area, the character segmentation and character recognition are also not successful in this case by using the existing method. To overcome these drawbacks I proposed an efficient approach for ANPR in which the input vehicle image is pre-processed firstly by iterative bilateral filtering , adaptive histogram equalization and number plate is extracted from pre-processed vehicle image using morphological operations, image subtraction, image binarization/thresholding, sobel vertical edge detection and by boundary box analysis. Sometimes the extracted plate area also contains noise, bolts, frames etc. So the extracted plate area is enhanced by using morphological operations to improve the quality of

  17. Automatic Age Estimation System for Face Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Teng Lin


    Full Text Available Humans are the most important tracking objects in surveillance systems. However, human tracking is not enough to provide the required information for personalized recognition. In this paper, we present a novel and reliable framework for automatic age estimation based on computer vision. It exploits global face features based on the combination of Gabor wavelets and orthogonal locality preserving projections. In addition, the proposed system can extract face aging features automatically in real‐time. This means that the proposed system has more potential in applications compared to other semi‐automatic systems. The results obtained from this novel approach could provide clearer insight for operators in the field of age estimation to develop real‐world applications.

  18. Spectral Imaging Visualization and Tracking System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Observation Mission need for innovative optical tracking systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Spectral...

  19. Automatic Age Estimation System for Face Images


    Chin-Teng Lin; Dong-Lin Li; Jian-Hao Lai; Ming-Feng Han; Jyh-Yeong Chang


    Humans are the most important tracking objects in surveillance systems. However, human tracking is not enough to provide the required information for personalized recognition. In this paper, we present a novel and reliable framework for automatic age estimation based on computer vision. It exploits global face features based on the combination of Gabor wavelets and orthogonal locality preserving projections. In addition, the proposed system can extract face aging features automatically in rea...

  20. Image Segmentation for Food Quality Evaluation Using Computer Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandhini. P


    Full Text Available Quality evaluation is an important factor in food processing industries using the computer vision system where human inspection systems provide high variability. In many countries food processing industries aims at producing defect free food materials to the consumers. Human evaluation techniques suffer from high labour costs, inconsistency and variability. Thus this paper provides various steps for identifying defects in the food material using the computer vision systems. Various steps in computer vision system are image acquisition, Preprocessing, image segmentation, feature identification and classification. The proposed framework provides the comparison of various filters where the hybrid median filter was selected as the filter with the high PSNR value and is used in preprocessing. Image segmentation techniques such as Colour based binary Image segmentation, Particle swarm optimization are compared and image segmentation parameters such as accuracy, sensitivity , specificity are calculated and found that colour based binary image segmentation is well suited for food quality evaluation. Finally this paper provides an efficient method for identifying the defected parts in food materials.

  1. CLEC4F is an inducible C-type lectin in F4/80-positive cells and is involved in alpha-galactosylceramide presentation in liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ya Yang

    Full Text Available CLEC4F, a member of C-type lectin, was first purified from rat liver extract with high binding affinity to fucose, galactose (Gal, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc, and un-sialylated glucosphingolipids with GalNAc or Gal terminus. However, the biological functions of CLEC4F have not been elucidated. To address this question, we examined the expression and distribution of murine CLEC4F, determined its binding specificity by glycan array, and investigated its function using CLEC4F knockout (Clec4f-/- mice. We found that CLEC4F is a heavily glycosylated membrane protein co-expressed with F4/80 on Kupffer cells. In contrast to F4/80, CLEC4F is detectable in fetal livers at embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5 but not in yolk sac, suggesting the expression of CLEC4F is induced as cells migrate from yolk cells to the liver. Even though CLEC4F is not detectable in tissues outside liver, both residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating mononuclear cells surrounding liver abscesses are CLEC4F-positive upon Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes infection. While CLEC4F has strong binding to Gal and GalNAc, terminal fucosylation inhibits CLEC4F recognition to several glycans such as Fucosyl GM1, Globo H, Bb3∼4 and other fucosyl-glycans. Moreover, CLEC4F interacts with alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer in a calcium-dependent manner and participates in the presentation of α-GalCer to natural killer T (NKT cells. This suggests that CLEC4F is a C-type lectin with diverse binding specificity expressed on residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating monocytes in the liver, and may play an important role to modulate glycolipids presentation on Kupffer cells.

  2. Thermoluminescence dosimetry in quality imaging in CR mammography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G. [UAM-Xochimilco, 04960 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Diaz G, J.A.I. [CICATA, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11599 mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arreola, M. [Department of Radiology, Shands Hospital at UF, PO Box 100374, Gainesville, FL 32610-0374 (United States)


    The aim of this work is to estimate the average glandular dose with Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) and comparison with quality imaging in CR mammography. For measuring dose, FDA and ACR use a phantom, so that dose and image quality are assessed with the same test object. The mammography is a radiological image to visualize early biological manifestations of breast cancer. Digital systems have two types of image-capturing devices, Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) and CR mammography. In Mexico, there are several CR mammography systems in clinical use, but only one CR mammography system has been approved for use by the FDA. Mammography CR uses a photostimulable phosphor detector (PSP) system. Most CR plates are made of 85% BaFBr and 15% BaFI doped with europium (Eu) commonly called barium fluoro halide. We carry out an exploratory survey of six CR mammography units from three different manufacturers and six dedicated x-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure. The results show three CR mammography units (50%) have a dose that overcomes 3.0 mGy and it doesn't improve the image quality and dose to the breast will be excessive. The differences between doses averages from TLD system and dosimeter with ionization chamber are less than 10%. TLD system is a good option for average glandular dose measurement. (Author)

  3. Dosimetry and image quality assessment in a direct radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Paixao, Lucas; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Marcio Alves de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Anatomia e Imagem; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araujo [Clinica Dra. Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Objective: to evaluate the mean glandular dose with a solid state detector and the image quality in a direct radiography system, utilizing phantoms. Materials and methods: Irradiations were performed with automatic exposure control and polymethyl methacrylate slabs with different thicknesses to calculate glandular dose values. The image quality was evaluated by means of the structures visualized on the images of the phantoms. Results: considering the uncertainty of the measurements, the mean glandular dose results are in agreement with the values provided by the equipment and with internationally adopted reference levels. Results obtained from images of the phantoms were in agreement with the reference values. Conclusion: the present study contributes to verify the equipment conformity as regards dose values and image quality. (author)

  4. Visual Attention Shift based on Image Segmentation Using Neurodynamic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Duan


    Full Text Available A method of predicting visual attention shift is proposed based on image segmentation using neurodynamic system in this paper. The input image is mapped to a neural oscillator network. Each oscillator corresponding to a pixel is modeled by means of simplified Wilson-Cowan equations, and is coupled with its 8-nearest neighbors. Then the image is segmented by classifying the oscillation curves of the excitatory groups of all the oscillators. The classifier is constructed based on features of frequency, offset, phase and amplitude of the curves. The visual attention shift between the regions on the image is predicted according to the saliency strength of each region. Referring to the mechanism of winner-take-all competition, the saliency of a region is the aggregation of the dissimilarities between this region and all the other ones. Experimental results on images show the effectiveness of our method.

  5. Efficient lossy compression for compressive sensing acquisition of images in compressive sensing imaging systems. (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Lan, Xuguang; Yang, Meng; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning


    Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI) is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS) acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  6. Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Li


    Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  7. Radar imaging of solar system ices (United States)

    Harcke, Leif J.

    We map the planet Mercury and Jupiter's moons Ganymede and Callisto using Earth-based radar telescopes and find that all of these have regions exhibiting high, depolarized radar backscatter and polarization inversion (m c > 1). Both characteristics suggest significant volume scattering from water ice or similar cold-trapped volatiles. Synthetic aperture radar mapping of Mercury's north and south polar regions at fine (6 km) resolution at 3.5 cm wavelength corroborates the results of previous 13 cm investigations of enhanced backscatter and polarization inversion (0.9 caused by simple double-bounce geometries, since the bright, reflective regions do not appear on the radar-facing wall but, instead, in shadowed regions not directly aligned with the radar look direction. Thermal models require the existence of such a layer to preserve ice deposits in craters at other than high polar latitudes. The additional attenuation (factor 1.64 +/- 15%) of the 3.5 cm wavelength data from these experiments over previous 13 cm radar observations is consistent with a range of layer thickness from 0 +/- 11 to 35 +/- 15 cm, depending on the assumed scattering law exponent n. Our 3.5 cm wavelength bistatic aperture synthesis observations of the two outermost Galilean satellites of Jupiter, Ganymede and Callisto, resolve the north-south ambiguity of previous images, and confirm the disk-integrated enhanced backscatter and polarization inversion noted in prior investigations. The direct imaging technique more clearly shows that higher backscatter are as are associated with the terrain that has undergone recent resurfacing, such as the sulci and the impact crater basins. The leading hemispheres of both moons have somewhat higher (20% +/- 5%) depolarized echoes than their trailing hemispheres, suggesting additional wavelength-scale structure in the regolith. Two improvements to existing delay-Doppler techniques enhance data reduction. First, correlation using subsets of the standard

  8. Interpretation of the 4f-5d Excitation Spectra of Eu3+ and Tb3+ Doped in Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The structure of the low-temperature 4fN→4fN-15d excitation spectra of Eu3+ and Tb3+ doped in crystals LiYF4, YPO4 and CaF2 measured by van Pieterson et al. In 2002 was analyzed and assigned based on the simple model proposed by Duan and co-workers in the last few years. Some complemental discussion on effects of J-mixing on the f-d transition intensities for Eu3+ due to the f-electron crystal-field interaction Hcf(f), which was ignored in the simple model, was presented. Some previously unexplained peaks for Tb3+ were interpreted to be spin-forbidden transitions to higher 5d crystal-field levels, or assigned to be f→d excitations with the core 4f7 excited from 8S to 6P, 6I and 6D, respectively. It is shown that the main structure of 4f-5d excitation spectra of Eu3+ and Tb3+ can be well interpreted with the simple model.

  9. A novel frameshift mutation of POU4F3 gene associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Keun [Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hong-Joon [Soree Ear Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu-Yup [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, College of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Rekil, E-mail: [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Un-Kyung, E-mail: [Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Autosomal dominant mutations in the transcription factor POU4F3 gene are associated with non-syndromic hearing loss in humans; however, there have been few reports of mutations in this gene worldwide. We performed a mutation analysis of the POU4F3 gene in 42 unrelated Koreans with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, identifying a novel 14-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 (c.662del14) in one patient. Audiometric examination revealed severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in this patient. The novel mutation led to a truncated protein that lacked both functional POU domains. We further investigated the functional distinction between wild-type and mutant POU4F3 proteins using in vitro assays. The wild-type protein was completely localized in the nucleus, while the truncation of protein seriously affected its nuclear localization. In addition, the mutant failed to activate reporter gene expression. This is the first report of a POU4F3 mutation in Asia, and moreover our data suggest that further investigation will need to delineate ethnicity-specific genetic background for autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss within Asian populations.

  10. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bogaerts, Annemie [Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)


    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. C{sub x}F{sub y} (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma source, as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C{sub 4}F{sub 8} reaction set used in the model. The C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model.

  11. Research on indoor experimentation of range SAL imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    By means of advantages of both SAR and lidar, the combination of the techniques of (inverse) synthetic aperture and lidar makes it possible to obtain high resolution 2-D image. In this paper, an indoor experimental system of inverse synthetic aperture lidar imaging is given and a processing approach is presented. The given system is in the mode of lidar system with separated receiver and transmitter, which can effectively eliminate the jamming from the lens or/and the intersection between two optic fibers. Based on the reference channel techniques, a method for the compensation of nonlinear frequency in the time domain is presented, which can solve the problem of nonlinear frequency efficiently. Then, with the mature inverse synthetic aperture algorithm, an image of inverse synthetic aperture lidar can be obtained, which is the first attempt in China. Finally, experimental results confirm the validity of the presented method and the feasibility of the experimental system.

  12. Radiation dose reduction and new image modalities development for interventional C-arm imaging system (United States)

    Niu, Kai

    Cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading health problems and causes of death in the US. Due to the minimally invasive nature of the evolution of image guided techniques, interventional radiological procedures are becoming more common and are preferred in treating many cardiovascular diseases and strokes. In addition, with the recent advances in hardware and device technology, the speed and efficacy of interventional treatment has significantly improved. This implies that more image modalities can be developed based on the current C-arm system and patients treated in interventional suites can potentially experience better health outcomes. However, during the treatment patients are irradiated with substantial amounts of ionizing radiation with a high dose rate (digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with 3muGy/frame and 3D cone beam CT image with 0.36muGy/frame for a Siemens Artis Zee biplane system) and/or a long irradiation time (a roadmapping image sequence can be as long as one hour during aneurysm embolization). As a result, the patient entrance dose is extremely high. Despite the fact that the radiation dose is already substantial, image quality is not always satisfactory. By default a temporal average is used in roadmapping images to overcome poor image quality, but this technique can result in motion blurred images. Therefore, reducing radiation dose while maintaining or even improving the image quality is an important area for continued research. This thesis is focused on improving the clinical applications of C-arm cone beam CT systems in two ways: (1) Improve the performance of current image modalities on the C-arm system. (2) Develop new image modalities based on the current system. To be more specific, the objectives are to reduce radiation dose for current modalities (e.g., DSA, fluoroscopy, roadmapping, and cone beam CT) and enable cone beam CT perfusion and time resolved cone beam CT angiography that can be used to diagnose and triage acute

  13. Application of DSP in the image transmission system (United States)

    Gui, Feng; Wei, LinQi


    A scheme to realize static image and video code and decode based on TI DSP chip TMS320C6416 was proposed in this paper, and a reliable image transmission system was developed. According to the application demand, the software has six major modules: (1) initialization of DSP chip and other hardware; (2) video acquisition and input control program; (3) serial port communicating program; (4) RAM storage and communicating program that applies and releases the token-ring; (5) video reconstruct and output control; (6) the major parts of the software, encoding and decoding program, in which wavelet was applied first, then run length coding and Huffman coding were carried out, the image or video could had balance resolution and better visual effect by adaptive processing, in the decoding parts, the reverse operation were executed. After the system line up debugging was carried out, a satisfying result was reached: the comparatively high compression rate, preferable image quality and relatively real-time result.

  14. Clinical software VIII for magnetic resonance imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, Satoru; Takeo, Kazuhiro [Medical Applications Department, Medical Systems Division, Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto (Japan)


    This report describes the latest techniques of MRA (magnetic resonance angiography) and the brain attack diagnosis protocol which are now effectively utilized in the Shimadzu-Marconi MAGNEX ECLIPSE MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) system (1.5 tesla type) and the MAGNEX POLARIS MRI system (1.0 tesla type). As for the latest techniques for MRA, this report refers to the SLINKY (sliding interleaved ky) technique, which provides high-resolution images over a wide range in the direction of slice, without using contrast agent, and to the iPass technique which enables highly reliable CE-MRA (contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography), through easy and simple operation. Also reported are the techniques of diffusion imaging and perfusion imaging, utilized for stroke assessment. (author)

  15. Adaptive Image Transmission Scheme over Wavelet-Based OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOXinying; YUANDongfeng; ZHANGHaixia


    In this paper an adaptive image transmission scheme is proposed over Wavelet-based OFDM (WOFDM) system with Unequal error protection (UEP) by the design of non-uniform signal constellation in MLC. Two different data division schemes: byte-based and bitbased, are analyzed and compared. Different bits are protected unequally according to their different contribution to the image quality in bit-based data division scheme, which causes UEP combined with this scheme more powerful than that with byte-based scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that image transmission by UEP with bit-based data division scheme presents much higher PSNR values and surprisingly better image quality. Furthermore, by considering the tradeoff of complexity and BER performance, Haar wavelet with the shortest compactly supported filter length is the most suitable one among orthogonal Daubechies wavelet series in our proposed system.

  16. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Michelle L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hofmeister, William H. (Nashville, TN); Knorovsky, Gerald A. (Albuquerque, NM); MacCallum, Danny O. (Edgewood, NM); Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Smugeresky, John E. (Pleasanton, CA)


    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  17. Visible-Light Tomography Using an Optical Imaging-System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingesson, L. C.; Koning, J. J.; Donne, A. J. H.; D.C. Schram,


    A system for tomography in the wavelength range 200-1 100 nm has been designed for the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP). The plasma is viewed from five directions in one poloidal plane with a total of 80 detectors. An optical imaging system consisting of two spherical mirrors for each viewing direct

  18. Visible Korean human images on MIOS system (United States)

    Har, Donghwan; Son, Young-Ho; Lee, Sung-Won; Lee, Jung Beom


    Basically, photography has the attributes of reason, which encompasses the scientific knowledge of optics, physics and chemistry, and delicate sensibility of individuals. Ultimately, the photograph pursues "effective communication." Communication is "mental and psychosocial exchange mediated by material symbols, such as language, gesture and picture," and it has four compositions: "sender, receiver, message and channel." Recently, a change in the communication method is on the rise in the field of art and culture, including photography. Until now, communication was mainly achieved by the form of messages unilaterally transferred from senders to receivers. But, nowadays, an interactive method, in which the boundary of sender and receiver is obscure, is on the increase. Such new communication method may be said to have arrived from the desire of art and culture societies, pursuing something new and creative in the background of utilization of a variety of information media. The multi-view screen we developed is also a communication tool capable of effective interaction using photos or motion pictures. The viewer can see different images at different locations. It utilizes the basic lenticular characteristics, which have been used in printing. Each motion picture is displayed on the screen without crosstalk. The multi-view screen is different in many aspects from other display media, and is expected to be utilized in many fields, including advertisement, display and education.

  19. Smart Parking System with Image Processing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Reza


    Full Text Available Smart Parking Systems obtain information about available parking spaces, process it and then place the car at a certain position. A prototype of the parking assistance system based on the proposed architecture was constructed here. The adopted hardware, software, and implementation solutions in this prototype construction are described in this paper. The effective circular design is introduced here having rack-pinion special mechanism which is used to lift and place the car in the certain position. The design of rack pinion mechanism is also simulated using AUTODESK INVENTOR and COMSOL software.

  20. eIF4F is a nexus of resistance to anti-BRAF and anti-MEK cancer therapies. (United States)

    Boussemart, Lise; Malka-Mahieu, Hélène; Girault, Isabelle; Allard, Delphine; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Tomasic, Gorana; Thomas, Marina; Basmadjian, Christine; Ribeiro, Nigel; Thuaud, Frédéric; Mateus, Christina; Routier, Emilie; Kamsu-Kom, Nyam; Agoussi, Sandrine; Eggermont, Alexander M; Désaubry, Laurent; Robert, Caroline; Vagner, Stéphan


    In BRAF(V600)-mutant tumours, most mechanisms of resistance to drugs that target the BRAF and/or MEK kinases rely on reactivation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway, on activation of the alternative, PI(3)K-AKT-mTOR, pathway (which is ERK independent) or on modulation of the caspase-dependent apoptotic cascade. All three pathways converge to regulate the formation of the eIF4F eukaryotic translation initiation complex, which binds to the 7-methylguanylate cap (m(7)G) at the 5' end of messenger RNA, thereby modulating the translation of specific mRNAs. Here we show that the persistent formation of the eIF4F complex, comprising the eIF4E cap-binding protein, the eIF4G scaffolding protein and the eIF4A RNA helicase, is associated with resistance to anti-BRAF, anti-MEK and anti-BRAF plus anti-MEK drug combinations in BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma, colon and thyroid cancer cell lines. Resistance to treatment and maintenance of eIF4F complex formation is associated with one of three mechanisms: reactivation of MAPK signalling, persistent ERK-independent phosphorylation of the inhibitory eIF4E-binding protein 4EBP1 or increased pro-apoptotic BCL-2-modifying factor (BMF)-dependent degradation of eIF4G. The development of an in situ method to detect the eIF4E-eIF4G interactions shows that eIF4F complex formation is decreased in tumours that respond to anti-BRAF therapy and increased in resistant metastases compared to tumours before treatment. Strikingly, inhibiting the eIF4F complex, either by blocking the eIF4E-eIF4G interaction or by targeting eIF4A, synergizes with inhibiting BRAF(V600) to kill the cancer cells. eIF4F not only appears to be an indicator of both innate and acquired resistance but also is a promising therapeutic target. Combinations of drugs targeting BRAF (and/or MEK) and eIF4F may overcome most of the resistance mechanisms arising in BRAF(V600)-mutant cancers.

  1. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of nerves with a clinical ultrasound system (United States)

    Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.


    Accurate and efficient identification of nerves is of great importance during many ultrasound-guided clinical procedures, including nerve blocks and prostate biopsies. It can be challenging to visualise nerves with conventional ultrasound imaging, however. One of the challenges is that nerves can have very similar appearances to nearby structures such as tendons. Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of near-infrared optical spectroscopy for differentiating nerves and adjacent tissues, as this modality can be sensitive to optical absorption of lipids that are present in intra- and extra-neural adipose tissue and in the myelin sheaths. These studies were limited to point measurements, however. In this pilot study, a custom photoacoustic system with a clinical ultrasound imaging probe was used to acquire multi-spectral photoacoustic images of nerves and tendons from swine ex vivo, across the wavelength range of 1100 to 1300 nm. Photoacoustic images were processed and overlaid in colour onto co-registered conventional ultrasound images that were acquired with the same imaging probe. A pronounced optical absorption peak centred at 1210 nm was observed in the photoacoustic signals obtained from nerves, and it was absent in those obtained from tendons. This absorption peak, which is consistent with the presence of lipids, provides a novel image contrast mechanism to significantly enhance the visualization of nerves. In particular, image contrast for nerves was up to 5.5 times greater with photoacoustic imaging (0.82 +/- 0.15) than with conventional ultrasound imaging (0.148 +/- 0.002), with a maximum contrast of 0.95 +/- 0.02 obtained in photoacoustic mode. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of photoacoustic imaging to improve clinical outcomes in ultrasound-guided interventions in regional anaesthesia and interventional oncology.

  2. Development of a new electronic neutron imaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Brenizer, J S; Gibbs, K M; Mengers, P; Stebbings, C T; Polansky, D; Rogerson, D J


    An electronic neutron imaging camera system was developed for use with thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons in applications that include nondestructive inspection of explosives, corrosion, turbine blades, electronics, low Z components, etc. The neutron images are expected to provide information to supplement that available from X-ray tests. The primary camera image area was a 30x30 cm field-of-view with a spatial resolution approaching 1.6 line pairs/mm (lp/mm). The camera had a remotely changeable second lens to limit the field-of-view to 7.6x7.6 cm for high spatial resolution (at least 4 lp/mm) thermal neutron imaging, but neutron and light scatter will limit resolution for fast neutrons to about 0.5 lp/mm. Remote focus capability enhanced camera set-up for optimum operation. The 75 dB dynamic range camera system included sup 6 Li-based screens for imaging of thermal and epithermal neutrons and ZnS(Ag)-based screens for fast neutron imaging. The fast optics was input to a Super S-25 Gen II image intensifi...

  3. [PIV: a computer-aided portal image verification system]. (United States)

    Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wu, Jing


    Portal image verification (PIV) is one of the key actions in QA procedure for sophisticated accurate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a PIV software as a tool for improving the accuracy and visualization of portal field verification and computing field placement errors. PIV was developed in the visual C++ integrated environment under Windows 95 operating system. It can improve visualization by providing tools for image processing and multimode images display. Semi-automatic register methods make verification more accurate than view-box method. It can provide useful quantitative errors for regular fields. PIV is flexible and accurate. It is an effective tool for portal field verification.

  4. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.


    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  5. A Refined Hybrid Image Retrieval System using Text and Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Goel


    Full Text Available Image retrieval (IR continues to be most exciting and fastest growing research areas due to significant progress in data storage and image acquisition techniques. Broadly, Image Retrieval can be Text based or Content based. Text-based Image Retrieval (TBIR is proficient in 'named-entity queries (e.g. searching images of 'TajMahal. Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR shows its proficiency in querying by visual content. Both the techniques having their own advantages and disadvantages and still have not been very successful in uncovering the hidden meanings/semantics of the image. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that improves the quality of image retrieval and overcomes the limitations of individual approaches. For text retrieval, matching term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf weightings and cosine similarity are used, whereas for content matching the search space is narrowed down using color moments and then the two results obtained are combined to show better results than the individual approaches. Further refinement using color histogram technique improves the performance of the system significantly.

  6. Rapid Circular Tomography System Suitable For Cardiac Imaging (United States)

    Kruger, R. A.; Sorensor, J. A.; Boye, J. R.; Conrad, J.; Ric, S. P. D.; Yih, B. C.; Liu, P.


    Tomographic DSA (digital subtraction angiography) can be used to improve the image quality that results from intravenous angiographic studies of relatively stationary arterial anatomy. While DSA removes much of the non-opacified anatomy, tomographic blurring reduces both the severity of patient motion artefacts and the confusion introduced by overlapping vascular anatomy. For this purpose a conventional longitudinal tomography device to which an image intensifier and television has been added can be used. However, such an apparatus is inadequate for cardiac imaging due to the slow speed of the tomographic motion. A tomographic system consisting of a rotating focal spot x-ray tube and an image intensifier, modified to allow electronic image scanning, is proposed. After this device is constructed it will be possible to acquire tomographic images of the beating heart in as little as .005-.010 seconds. When combined with image subtraction it is anticipated that the quality of intravenous coronary angiograms will be improved in much the same way that tomographic DSA improves image quality in many of the other arteries of the body.

  7. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system


    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian


    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. V...

  8. Global point tracking based panoramic image stabilization system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娟娟; 郭宝龙; 吴宪祥


    A novel image stabilization system is presented,which consists of a global feature point tracking based motion estimation,a Kalman filtering based motion smoothing and an image mosaic based panoramic compensation.The global motion is estimated using feature point matching and iteration with the least-square method.Then,the Kalman filter is applied to smooth the original motion vectors to effectively alleviate unwanted camera vibrations and follow the intentional camera scan.Lastly,the loss information of im...

  9. Combined ultrasonic and photoacoustic system for deep tissue imaging (United States)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Jankovic, Ladislav; Wang, Lihong V.


    A combined ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging system is presented that is capable of deep tissue imaging. The system consists of a modified clinical ultrasound array system and tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser. The system is designed for noninvasive detection of sentinel lymph nodes and guidance of needle biopsies for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer patients. Using a fraction of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety limit, photoacoustic imaging of methylene blue achieved penetration depths of greater than 5 cm in chicken breast tissue. Photoacoustic imaging sensitivity was measured by varying the concentration of methylene blue dye placed at a depth of 3 cm within surrounding chicken breast tissue. Signal-to-noise ratio, noise equivalent sensitivity, and axial spatial resolution were quantified versus depth based on in vivo and chicken breast tissue experiments. The system has been demonstrated in vivo for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in rats following intradermal injection of methylene blue. These results highlight the clinical potential of photoacoustic image-guided identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for axillary staging in breast cancer patients.

  10. Fluoroscopic image-guided intervention system for transbronchial localization (United States)

    Rai, Lav; Keast, Thomas M.; Wibowo, Henky; Yu, Kun-Chang; Draper, Jeffrey W.; Gibbs, Jason D.


    Reliable transbronchial access of peripheral lung lesions is desirable for the diagnosis and potential treatment of lung cancer. This procedure can be difficult, however, because accessory devices (e.g., needle or forceps) cannot be reliably localized while deployed. We present a fluoroscopic image-guided intervention (IGI) system for tracking such bronchoscopic accessories. Fluoroscopy, an imaging technology currently utilized by many bronchoscopists, has a fundamental shortcoming - many lung lesions are invisible in its images. Our IGI system aligns a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) defined from a pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scan with live fluoroscopic images. Radiopaque accessory devices are readily apparent in fluoroscopic video, while lesions lacking a fluoroscopic signature but identifiable in the CT scan are superimposed in the scene. The IGI system processing steps consist of: (1) calibrating the fluoroscopic imaging system; (2) registering the CT anatomy with its depiction in the fluoroscopic scene; (3) optical tracking to continually update the DRR and target positions as the fluoroscope is moved about the patient. The end result is a continuous correlation of the DRR and projected targets with the anatomy depicted in the live fluoroscopic video feed. Because both targets and bronchoscopic devices are readily apparent in arbitrary fluoroscopic orientations, multiplane guidance is straightforward. The system tracks in real-time with no computational lag. We have measured a mean projected tracking accuracy of 1.0 mm in a phantom and present results from an in vivo animal study.

  11. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system (United States)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.


    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  12. Image-based fingerprint verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Singla


    Full Text Available Biometric-based identification/verification systems provide a solution to the security concerns in the modern world where machine is replacing human in every aspect of life. Fingerprints, because of their uniqueness, are the most widely used and highly accepted biometrics. Fingerprint biometric systems are either minutiae-based or pattern learning (image based. The minutiae-based algorithm depends upon the local discontinuities in the ridge flow pattern and are used when template size is important while image-based matching algorithm uses both the micro and macro feature of a fingerprint and is used if fast response is required. In the present paper an image-based fingerprint verification system is discussed. The proposed method uses a learning phase, which is not present in conventional image-based systems. The learning phase uses pseudo random sub-sampling, which reduces the number of comparisons needed in the matching stage. This system has been developed using LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench toolbox version 6i. The availability of datalog files in LabVIEW makes it one of the most promising candidates for its usage as a database. Datalog files can access and manipulate data and complex data structures quickly and easily. It makes writing and reading much faster. After extensive experimentation involving a large number of samples and different learning sizes, high accuracy with learning image size of 100 100 and a threshold value of 700 (1000 being the perfect match has been achieved.

  13. Compressive imaging system design using task-specific information. (United States)

    Ashok, Amit; Baheti, Pawan K; Neifeld, Mark A


    We present a task-specific information (TSI) based framework for designing compressive imaging (CI) systems. The task of target detection is chosen to demonstrate the performance of the optimized CI system designs relative to a conventional imager. In our optimization framework, we first select a projection basis and then find the associated optimal photon-allocation vector in the presence of a total photon-count constraint. Several projection bases, including principal components (PC), independent components, generalized matched-filter, and generalized Fisher discriminant (GFD) are considered for candidate CI systems, and their respective performance is analyzed for the target-detection task. We find that the TSI-optimized CI system design based on a GFD projection basis outperforms all other candidate CI system designs as well as the conventional imager. The GFD-based compressive imager yields a TSI of 0.9841 bits (out of a maximum possible 1 bit for the detection task), which is nearly ten times the 0.0979 bits achieved by the conventional imager at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5.0. We also discuss the relation between the information-theoretic TSI metric and a conventional statistical metric like probability of error in the context of the target-detection problem. It is shown that the TSI can be used to derive an upper bound on the probability of error that can be attained by any detection algorithm.

  14. An autotuning respiration compensation system based on ultrasound image tracking. (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Chun; Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Teng, Kuan-Ting; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Tien, Der-Chi; Wu, Chih-Jen; Jeng, Shiu-Chen; Chiou, Jeng-Fong


    The purpose of this study was to develop an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) for extracting the exact displacement of internal organs caused by respiratory motion. The program can track organ displacements in real time, and analyze the displacement signals associated with organ displacements via a respiration compensating system (RCS). The ultrasound imaging system is noninvasive and has a high spatial resolution and a high frame rate (around 32 frames/s), which reduces the radiation doses that patients receive during computed tomography and X-ray observations. This allows for the continuous noninvasive observation and compensation of organ displacements simultaneously during a radiation therapy session.This study designed a UITA for tracking the motion of a specific target, such as the human diaphragm. Simulated diaphragm motion driven by a respiration simulation system was observed with an ultrasound imaging system, and then the induced diaphragm displacements were calculated by our proposed UITA. These signals were used to adjust the gain of the RCS so that the amplitudes of the compensation signals were close to the target movements. The inclination angle of the ultrasound probe with respect to the surface of the abdomen affects the results of ultrasound image displacement tracking. Therefore, the displacement of the phantom was verified by a LINAC with different inclination-angle settings of the ultrasound probe. The experimental results indicate that the best inclination angle of the ultrasound probe is 40 degrees, since this results in the target displacement of the ultrasound images being close to the actual target motion. The displacement signals of the tracking phantom and the opposing displacement signals created by the RCS were compared to assess the positioning accuracy of our proposed ultrasound image tracking technique combined with the RCS.When the ultrasound probe was inclined by 40 degrees in simulated respiration experiments using sine

  15. Infrared image acquisition system for vein pattern analysis (United States)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Solís-Villarreal, J.


    The physical shape of the hand vascular distribution contains useful information that can be used for identifying and authenticating purposes; which provide a high level of security as a biometric. Furthermore, this pattern can be used widely in health field such as venography and venipuncture. In this paper, we analyze different IR imaging systems in order to obtain high visibility images of the hand vein pattern. The images are acquired in the range of 400 nm to 1300 nm, using infrared and thermal cameras. For the first image acquisition system, we use a CCD camera and a light source with peak emission in the 880 nm obtaining the images by reflection. A second system consists only of a ThermaCAM P65 camera acquiring the naturally emanating infrared light from the hand. A method of digital image analysis is implemented using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) to remove noise. Subsequently, adaptive thresholding and mathematical morphology operations are implemented to get the vein pattern distribution.

  16. SVD for imaging systems with discrete rotational symmetry. (United States)

    Clarkson, Eric; Palit, Robin; Kupinski, Matthew A


    The singular value decomposition (SVD) of an imaging system is a computationally intensive calculation for tomographic imaging systems due to the large dimensionality of the system matrix. The computation often involves memory and storage requirements beyond those available to most end users. We have developed a method that reduces the dimension of the SVD problem towards the goal of making the calculation tractable for a standard desktop computer. In the presence of discrete rotational symmetry we show that the dimension of the SVD computation can be reduced by a factor equal to the number of collection angles for the tomographic system. In this paper we present the mathematical theory for our method, validate that our method produces the same results as standard SVD analysis, and finally apply our technique to the sensitivity matrix for a clinical CT system. The ability to compute the full singular value spectra and singular vectors will augment future work in system characterization, image-quality assessment and reconstruction techniques for tomographic imaging systems.

  17. Hapten-derivatized nanoparticle targeting and imaging of gene expression by multimodality imaging systems. (United States)

    Cheng, C-M; Chu, P-Y; Chuang, K-H; Roffler, S R; Kao, C-H; Tseng, W-L; Shiea, J; Chang, W-D; Su, Y-C; Chen, B-M; Wang, Y-M; Cheng, T-L


    Non-invasive gene monitoring is important for most gene therapy applications to ensure selective gene transfer to specific cells or tissues. We developed a non-invasive imaging system to assess the location and persistence of gene expression by anchoring an anti-dansyl (DNS) single-chain antibody (DNS receptor) on the cell surface to trap DNS-derivatized imaging probes. DNS hapten was covalently attached to cross-linked iron oxide (CLIO) to form a 39+/-0.5 nm DNS-CLIO nanoparticle imaging probe. DNS-CLIO specifically bound to DNS receptors but not to a control single-chain antibody receptor. DNS-CLIO (100 microM Fe) was non-toxic to both B16/DNS (DNS receptor positive) and B16/phOx (control receptor positive) cells. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging could detect as few as 10% B16/DNS cells in a mixture in vitro. Importantly, DNS-CLIO specifically bound to a B16/DNS tumor, which markedly reduced signal intensity. Similar results were also shown with DNS quantum dots, which specifically targeted CT26/DNS cells but not control CT26/phOx cells both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that DNS nanoparticles can systemically monitor the expression of DNS receptor in vivo by feasible imaging systems. This targeting strategy may provide a valuable tool to estimate the efficacy and specificity of different gene delivery systems and optimize gene therapy protocols in the clinic.

  18. Analog signal processing for optical coherence imaging systems (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) are non-invasive optical coherence imaging techniques, which enable micron-scale resolution, depth resolved imaging capability. Both OCT and OCM are based on Michelson interferometer theory. They are widely used in ophthalmology, gastroenterology and dermatology, because of their high resolution, safety and low cost. OCT creates cross sectional images whereas OCM obtains en face images. In this dissertation, the design and development of three increasingly complicated analog signal processing (ASP) solutions for optical coherence imaging are presented. The first ASP solution was implemented for a time domain OCT system with a Rapid Scanning Optical Delay line (RSOD)-based optical signal modulation and logarithmic amplifier (Log amp) based demodulation. This OCT system can acquire up to 1600 A-scans per second. The measured dynamic range is 106dB at 200A-scan per second. This OCT signal processing electronics includes an off-the-shelf filter box with a Log amp circuit implemented on a PCB board. The second ASP solution was developed for an OCM system with synchronized modulation and demodulation and compensation for interferometer phase drift. This OCM acquired micron-scale resolution, high dynamic range images at acquisition speeds up to 45,000 pixels/second. This OCM ASP solution is fully custom designed on a perforated circuit board. The third ASP solution was implemented on a single 2.2 mm x 2.2 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip. This design is expandable to a multiple channel OCT system. A single on-chip CMOS photodetector and ASP channel was used for coherent demodulation in a time domain OCT system. Cross-sectional images were acquired with a dynamic range of 76dB (limited by photodetector responsivity). When incorporated with a bump-bonded InGaAs photodiode with higher responsivity, the expected dynamic range is close to 100dB.

  19. Information system for administrating and distributing color images through internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The information system for administrating and distributing color images through the Internet ensures the consistent replication of color images, their storage - in an on-line data base - and predictable distribution, by means of a digitally distributed flow, based on Windows platform and POD (Print On Demand technology. The consistent replication of color images inde-pendently from the parameters of the processing equipment and from the features of the programs composing the technological flow, is ensured by the standard color management sys-tem defined by ICC (International Color Consortium, which is integrated by the Windows operation system and by the POD technology. The latter minimize the noticeable differences between the colors captured, displayed or printed by various replication equipments and/or edited by various graphical applications. The system integrated web application ensures the uploading of the color images in an on-line database and their administration and distribution among the users via the Internet. For the preservation of the data expressed by the color im-ages during their transfer along a digitally distributed flow, the software application includes an original tool ensuring the accurate replication of colors on computer displays or when printing them by means of various color printers or presses. For development and use, this application employs a hardware platform based on PC support and a competitive software platform, based on: the Windows operation system, the .NET. Development medium and the C# programming language. This information system is beneficial for creators and users of color images, the success of the printed or on-line (Internet publications depending on the sizeable, predictable and accurate replication of colors employed for the visual expression of information in every activity fields of the modern society. The herein introduced information system enables all interested persons to access the

  20. Architectural Review of Load Balancing Single System Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Ahmed


    Full Text Available Problem statement: With the growing popularity of clustering application combined with apparent usability, the single system image is in the limelight and actively studied as an alternative solution for computational intensive applications as well as the platform for next evolutionary grid computing era. Approach: Existing researches in this field concentrated on various features of Single System Images like file system and memory management. However, an important design consideration for this environment is load allocation and balancing that is usually handled by an automatic process migration daemon. Literature shows that the design concepts and factors that affect the load balancing feature in an SSI system are not clear. Result: This study will review some of the most popular architecture and algorithms used in load balancing single system image. Various implementations from the past to present will be presented while focusing on the factors that affect the performance of such system. Conclusion: The study showed that although there are some successful open source systems, the wide range of implemented systems investigated that research activity should concentrate on the systems that have already been proposed and proved effectiveness to achieve a high quality load balancing system.

  1. Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) users manual (United States)

    Moik, J. G.


    The Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIP) is designed to facilitate the acquisition, digital processing and recording of image data as well as pattern recognition in an interactive mode. Objectives of the system are ease of communication with the computer by personnel who are not expert programmers, fast response to requests for information on pictures, complete error recovery as well as simplification of future programming efforts for extension of the system. The SMIP system is intended for operation under OS/MVT on an IBM 360/75 or 91 computer equipped with the IBM-2250 Model 1 display unit. This terminal is used as an interface between user and main computer. It has an alphanumeric keyboard, a programmed function keyboard and a light pen which are used for specification of input to the system. Output from the system is displayed on the screen as messages and pictures.

  2. A Novel Analyzer Control System for Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (United States)

    Rhoades, Glendon; Belev, George; Rosenberg, Alan; Chapman, Dean


    Diffraction Enhanced Imaging is an imaging modality that derives contrast from x-ray refraction, an extreme form of scatter rejection (extinction) and absorption which is common to conventional radiography. A critical part of the imaging system is the "analyzer crystal" which is used to re-diffract the beam after passing through the object being imaged. The analyzer and monochromator crystals form a matched parallel crystal set. This analyzer needs to be accurately aligned and that alignment maintained over the course of an imaging session. Typically, the analyzer needs to remain at a specific angle within a few tens of nanoradians to prevent problems with image interpretation. Ideally, the analyzer would be set to a specific angle and would remain at that angle over the course of an imaging session which might be from a fraction of a second to several minutes or longer. In many instances, this requirement is well beyond what is possible by relying on mechanical stability alone and some form of feedback to control the analyzer setting is required. We describe a novel analyzer control system that allows the analyzer to be set at any location in the analyzer rocking curve, including the peak location. The method described is extensible to include methods to extend the range of analyzer control to several Darwin widths away from the analyzer peaked location. Such a system is necessary for the accurate implementation of the method and is intended to make the use of the method simpler without relying on repeated alignment during the imaging session.

  3. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.


    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  4. A New Approach in Cryptographic Systems Using Fractal Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia M.G. Al-Saidi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: With the rapid development in the communications and information transmissions there is a growing demand for new approaches that increase the security of cryptographic systems. Approach: Therefore some emerging theories, such as fractals, can be adopted to provide a contribution toward this goal. In this study we proposed a new cryptographic system utilizing fractal theories; this approach exploited the main feature of fractals generated by IFS techniques. Results: Double enciphering and double deciphering methods performed to enhance the security of the system. The encrypted date represented the attractor generated by the IFS transformation, collage theorem was used to find the IFSM for decrypting data. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed method gave the possibility to hide maximum amount of data in an image that represent the attractor of the IFS without degrading its quality and to make the hidden data robust enough to withstand known cryptographic attacks and image processing techniques which did not change the appearance of image.

  5. Development of inexpensive blood imaging systems: where are we now? (United States)

    Chu, Kaiqin; Smith, Zachary J; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian


    Clinical applications in the developing world, such as malaria and anemia diagnosis, demand a change in the medical paradigm of expensive care given in central locations by highly trained professionals. There has been a recent explosion in optical technologies entering the consumer market through the widespread adoption of smartphones and LEDs. This technology commoditization has enabled the development of small, portable optical imaging systems at an unprecedentedly low cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-field of the application of these systems for low-cost blood imaging with an emphasis on cellular imaging systems. In addition to some promising results addressing specific clinical issues, an overview of the technology landscape is provided. We also discuss several key issues that need to be addressed before these technologies can be commercialized.

  6. Comparison of Laboratory Measurements for IR Imaging System Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-cai; XU Zong-chang; XIAO Shun-wang


    Sensitivity and human performance are two important parameters for IR imaging system. Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) and minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) can describe sensitivity and human performance of IR imaging system. So a lot of engineers apply themselves to studying the methods to measure NETD and MRTD for IR imaging system. The classical laboratory measurement methodologies for NETD and MRTD are introduced. And, two new approaches to three-dimensional (3-D) noise and MRTD/MRC are also portrayed, which can overcome some of the disadvantages existed in classical testing of NETD and MRTD. With the help of the new laboratory measurements, the disadvantages of the classical methods to measure NETD and MRTD can be solved.

  7. THz imaging Si MOSFET system design at 215 GHz (United States)

    Sacco, Andrew P.; Newman, J. Daniel; Lee, Paul P. K.; Fourspring, Kenneth D.; Osborn, John H.; Fiete, Robert D.; Bocko, Mark F.; Ignjatovic, Zeljko; Pipher, Judith L.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Dayalu, Jagannath; Fertig, Gregory J.; Zhang, Chao; Ninkov, Zoran


    Exelis Geospatial Systems and its CEIS partners at the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology are developing an active THz imaging focal plane for use in standoff detection, molecular spectroscopy and penetration imaging. This activity is focused on the detection of radiation centered on the atmospheric window at 215.5 GHz. The pixel consists of a direct coupled bowtie antenna utilizing a 0.35 μm CMOS technology MOSFET, where the plasmonic effect is the principle method of detection. With an active THz illumination source such as a Gunn diode, a design of catadioptric optical system is presented to achieve a resolution of 3.0 mm at a standoff distance of 1.0 m. The primary value of the initial system development is to predict the optical performance of a THz focal plane for active imaging and to study the interaction of THz radiation with various materials.

  8. A compact PC-based X-ray imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asimidis, A. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)]. E-mail:; Evangelou, I. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kokkas, P. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Manthos, N. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Triantis, F. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Speller, R.D. [Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Hall, G. [Physics Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Stelt, P.F. van der [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, NL 1066 EA Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    A compact, portable PC-based X-ray imaging system has been developed based on a 2D silicon microstrip sensor and particle physics readout electronics. The sensor is housed in a specially built hybrid, which also hosts the front-end electronics. The control and the readout electronics used are based on the standard PCI and PMC architectures and were originally developed for High Energy Physics Experiments. The use of PCI based electronics and the development of the control software for the PC-Linux platform led to a compact, portable, low cost imaging system. The system was initially tested and evaluated with beta particles from a {sup 90}Sr radioactive source, gamma rays from an {sup 241}Am radioactive source and cosmic rays, and it displayed consistent response. It was then operated using a compact X-ray machine with Mo tube and images of various targets were reconstructed offline using the ROOT data analysis package.

  9. High-sensitivity, high-speed continuous imaging system (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Bender, III, Howard A


    A continuous imaging system for recording low levels of light typically extending over small distances with high-frame rates and with a large number of frames is described. Photodiode pixels disposed in an array having a chosen geometry, each pixel having a dedicated amplifier, analog-to-digital convertor, and memory, provide parallel operation of the system. When combined with a plurality of scintillators responsive to a selected source of radiation, in a scintillator array, the light from each scintillator being directed to a single corresponding photodiode in close proximity or lens-coupled thereto, embodiments of the present imaging system may provide images of x-ray, gamma ray, proton, and neutron sources with high efficiency.

  10. Automatic system for quantification and visualization of lung aeration on chest computed tomography images: the Lung Image System Analysis - LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Teleinformatica; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Walter Cantidio. Dept. de Medicina Clinica


    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the exam of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of lung parenchyma diseases. There is an increasing interest for computational systems able to automatically analyze the radiological densities of the lungs in CT images. The main objective of this study is to present a system for the automatic quantification and visualization of the lung aeration in HRCT images of different degrees of aeration, called Lung Image System Analysis (LISA). The secondary objective is to compare LISA to the Osiris system and also to specific algorithm lung segmentation (ALS), on the accuracy of the lungs segmentation. The LISA system automatically extracts the following image attributes: lungs perimeter, cross sectional area, volume, the radiological densities histograms, the mean lung density (MLD) in Hounsfield units (HU), the relative area of the lungs with voxels with density values lower than -950 HU (RA950) and the 15th percentile of the least density voxels (PERC15). Furthermore, LISA has a colored mask algorithm that applies pseudo-colors to the lung parenchyma according to the pre-defined radiological density chosen by the system user. The lungs segmentations of 102 images of 8 healthy volunteers and 141 images of 11 patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were compared on the accuracy and concordance among the three methods. The LISA was more effective on lungs segmentation than the other two methods. LISA's color mask tool improves the spatial visualization of the degrees of lung aeration and the various attributes of the image that can be extracted may help physicians and researchers to better assess lung aeration both quantitatively and qualitatively. LISA may have important clinical and research applications on the assessment of global and regional lung aeration and therefore deserves further developments and validation studies. (author)

  11. Compact Video Microscope Imaging System Implemented in Colloid Studies (United States)

    McDowell, Mark


    Long description Photographs showing fiber-optic light source, microscope and charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera head connected to camera body, CCD camera body feeding data to image acquisition board in PC, and Cartesian robot controlled via PC board. The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system can scan, find areas of interest in, focus on, and acquire images automatically. Many multiple-cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is feasible only with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control. The software also has a user-friendly interface, which can be used independently of the hardware for further post-experiment analysis. CMIS has been successfully developed in the SML Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center and adapted for use for colloid studies and is available for telescience experiments. The main innovations this year are an improved interface, optimized algorithms, and the ability to control conventional full-sized microscopes in addition to compact microscopes. The CMIS software-hardware interface is being integrated into our SML Analysis package, which will be a robust general-purpose image-processing package that can handle over 100 space and industrial applications.

  12. Semantics in Image and Video Retrieval Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Multimedia document annotation is used in traditional multimedia database systems. However, without the help of human beings, it is very difficult to extract the semantic content of multimedia automatically. On the other hand, it is a tedious job to annotate multimedia documents in large databases one by one manually. This paper first introduces a method to construct a semantic network on top of a multimedia database. Second, a useful and efficient annotation strategy is presented based on the framework to obtain an accurate and rapid annotation of any multimedia databases. Third, two methods of joint similarity measures for semantic and low-level features are evaluated.

  13. Apparent exchange rate imaging in anisotropic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Lundell, Henrik M; Søgaard, Lise V;


    Double-wave diffusion experiments offer the possibility of probing correlation between molecular diffusion at multiple time points. It has recently been shown that this technique is capable of measuring the exchange of water across cellular membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate the ...... the effect of macroscopic tissue anisotropy on the measurement of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) in multicompartment systems.......Double-wave diffusion experiments offer the possibility of probing correlation between molecular diffusion at multiple time points. It has recently been shown that this technique is capable of measuring the exchange of water across cellular membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate...

  14. Airborne test results for smart pushbroom imaging system with optoelectronic image correction (United States)

    Tchernykh, Valerij; Dyblenko, Serguei; Janschek, Klaus; Seifart, Klaus; Harnisch, Bernd


    Smart pushbroom imaging system (SMARTSCAN) solves the problem of image correction for satellite pushbroom cameras which are disturbed by satellite attitude instability effects. Satellite cameras with linear sensors are particularly sensitive to attitude errors, which cause considerable image distortions. A novel solution of distortions correction is presented, which is based on the real-time recording of the image motion in the focal plane of the satellite camera. This allows using such smart pushbroom cameras (multi-/hyperspectral) even on moderately stabilised satellites, e.g. small sat's, LEO comsat's. The SMARTSCAN concept uses in-situ measurements of the image motion with additional CCD-sensors in the focal plane and real-time image processing of these measurements by an onboard Joint Transform Optical Correlator. SMARTSCAN has been successfully demonstrated with breadboard models for the Optical Correlator and a Smart Pushbroom Camera at laboratory level (satellite motion simulator on base of a 5 DOF industrial robot) and by an airborne flight demonstration in July 2002. The paper describes briefly the principle of operation of the system and gives a description of the hardware model are provided. Detailed results of the airborne tests and performance analysis are given as well as detailed tests description.

  15. Imaging systems for biomedical applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radparvar, M.


    Many of the activities of the human body manifest themselves by the presence of a very weak magnetic field outside the body, a field that is so weak that an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor is needed for specific biomagnetic measurements. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are extremely sensitive detectors of magnetic flux and have been used extensively to detect the human magnetocardiogram, and magnetoencephalogram. and other biomagnetic signals. In order to utilize a SQUID as a magnetometer, its transfer characteristics should be linearized. This linearization requires extensive peripheral electronics, thus limiting the number of SQUID magnetometer channels in a practical system. The proposed digital SQUID integrates the processing circuitry on the same cryogenic chip as the SQUID magnetometer and eliminates the sophisticated peripheral electronics. Such a system is compact and cost effective, and requires minimal support electronics. Under a DOE-sponsored SBIR program, we designed, simulated, laid out, fabricated, evaluated, and demonstrated a digital SQUID magnetometer. This report summarizes the accomplishments under this program and clearly demonstrates that all of the tasks proposed in the phase II application were successfully completed with confirmed experimental results.

  16. High definition 3D imaging lidar system using CCD (United States)

    Jo, Sungeun; Kong, Hong Jin; Bang, Hyochoong


    In this study we propose and demonstrate a novel technique for measuring distance with high definition three-dimensional imaging. To meet the stringent requirements of various missions, spatial resolution and range precision are important properties for flash LIDAR systems. The proposed LIDAR system employs a polarization modulator and a CCD. When a laser pulse is emitted from the laser, it triggers the polarization modulator. The laser pulse is scattered by the target and is reflected back to the LIDAR system while the polarization modulator is rotating. Its polarization state is a function of time. The laser-return pulse passes through the polarization modulator in a certain polarization state, and the polarization state is calculated using the intensities of the laser pulses measured by the CCD. Because the function of the time and the polarization state is already known, the polarization state can be converted to time-of-flight. By adopting a polarization modulator and a CCD and only measuring the energy of a laser pulse to obtain range, a high resolution three-dimensional image can be acquired by the proposed three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system. Since this system only measures the energy of the laser pulse, a high bandwidth detector and a high resolution TDC are not required for high range precision. The proposed method is expected to be an alternative method for many three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system applications that require high resolution.

  17. A portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system for cholecystectomy (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Yang, Chaoyu; Gan, Qi; Ma, Rong; Zhang, Zeshu; Chang, Shufang; Shao, Pengfei; Zhang, Shiwu; Liu, Chenhai; Xu, Ronald


    In this paper we proposed a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system to prevent iatrogenic biliary injuries from occurring during cholecystectomy due to misidentification of the cystic structures. The system consisted of a light source module, a CMOS camera, a Raspberry Pi computer and a 5 inch HDMI LCD. Specifically, the light source module was composed of 690 nm and 850 nm LEDs, allowing the CMOS camera to simultaneously acquire both fluorescence and background images. The system was controlled by Raspberry Pi using Python programming with the OpenCV library under Linux. We chose Indocyanine green(ICG) as a fluorescent contrast agent and then tested fluorescence intensities of the ICG aqueous solution at different concentration levels by our fluorescence microscopic system compared with the commercial Xenogen IVIS system. The spatial resolution of the proposed fluorescence microscopic imaging system was measured by a 1951 USAF resolution target and the dynamic response was evaluated quantitatively with an automatic displacement platform. Finally, we verified the technical feasibility of the proposed system in mouse models of bile duct, performing both correct and incorrect gallbladder resection. Our experiments showed that the proposed system can provide clear visualization of the confluence between the cystic duct and common bile duct or common hepatic duct, suggesting that this is a potential method for guiding cholecystectomy. The proposed portable system only cost a total of $300, potentially promoting its use in resource-limited settings.

  18. Magneto-structural variety of new 3d-4f-4(5)d heterotrimetallic complexes. (United States)

    Visinescu, Diana; Alexandru, Maria-Gabriela; Madalan, Augustin M; Pichon, Céline; Duhayon, Carine; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Andruh, Marius


    Three families of heterotrimetallic chains (type 1-type 3), with different topologies, have been obtained by reacting the 3d-4f complexes, [{Cu(L(1))}xLn(NO3)3] with x = 1 or 2, formed in situ by the reaction of Schiff-base bi-compartmental [Cu(II)(L(1))] complexes and lanthanide(iii) salts, with (NHBu3)3[M(CN)8] (M = Mo(V), W(V)). For type 1 series of compounds, 1-D coordination polymers, with the general formula [{Cu2(valpn)2Ln}{M(CN)8}]·nH2O·mCH3CN (where H2valpn = 1,3-propanediylbis(2-iminomethylene-6-methoxy-phenol), result from the association of trinuclear {CuLn(III)} moieties and [M(V)(CN)8](3-) anions acting as tri-connecting spacers [Ln = La (1), Ce (2), Eu (3), Tb (4), Ho (5), M = Mo; Ln = Tb (6), Ho (7), M = W; m = 0, n = 1.5 (7) and 2 (1-4, 6); n = 1, m = 1 (5)]. The type 2 family has the general formula [{Cu(valdp)Ln(H2O)4}{M(CN)8}]·2H2O·CH3CN (where H2valdp = 1,2-propanediylbis(2-iminomethylene-6-methoxy-phenol)) and also consists of heterotrimetallic chains involving binuclear {Cu(II)Ln(III)} units linked to [M(CN)8](3-) anions coordinating through two cyano groups [Ln = Gd (8), Tb (9), Dy (10); M = Mo; Ln = La (11), Gd (12), Tb (13), Dy (14); M = W]. With large Ln(III) ions (La(III) and Pr(III)), the type 3 family of heterotrimetallic compounds are assembled: [{Cu2(valdp)2Ln(H2O)4}{Mo(CN)8}]·nCH3OH·mCH3CN, n, m = 0, Ln = La (15); n = m = 1, Pr (16), in which the trinuclear {CuLn(III)} nodes are connected to [Mo(V)(CN)8](3-) anions that act as tetra-connecting spacers. For Tb(III) derivatives of the type 1 (compounds 4 and 6), the DC magnetic properties indicate a predominant ferromagnetic Cu(II)-Tb(III) interaction, while the AC magnetic susceptibility (in the presence of a static magnetic field, HDC = 3000 Oe) emphasize the slow relaxation of the magnetization (Ueff/kB = 20.55 K and τ0 = 5.5 × 10(-7) s for compound 4, Ueff/kBT = 15.1 K and τ0 = 1.5 × 10(-7) s for compound 6). A predominant ferromagnetic Cu(II)-Ln(III) interaction was

  19. Feasibility of an image planning system for kilovoltage image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, Bishnu B.; Molloy, Janelle A. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0293 (United States)


    Purpose: Image guidance has become a standard of care for many treatment scenarios in radiation therapy. This is most typically accomplished by use of kV x-ray devices mounted onto the linear accelerator (Linac) gantry that yield planar, fluoroscopic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Image acquisition parameters are chosen via preset techniques that rely on broad categorizations in patient anatomy and imaging goal. However, the optimal imaging technique results in detectability of the features of interest while exposing the patient to minimum dose. Herein, the authors present an investigation into the feasibility of developing an image planning system (IPS) for radiotherapy.Methods: In this first phase, the authors focused on developing an algorithm to predict tissue contrast produced by a common radiotherapy planar imaging chain. Input parameters include a CT dataset and simulated planar imaging technique settings that include kV and mAs. Energy-specific attenuation through each voxel of the CT dataset was calculated in the algorithm to derive a net transmitted intensity. The response of the flat panel detector was integrated into the image simulation algorithm. Verification was conducted by comparing simulated and measured images using four phantoms. Comparisons were made in both high and low contrast settings, as well as changes in the geometric appearance due to image saturation. Results: The authors studied a lung nodule test object to assess the planning system's ability to predict object contrast and detectability. Verification demonstrated that the slope of the pixel intensities is similar, the presence of the nodule is evident, and image saturation at high mAs values is evident in both images. The appearance of the lung nodule is a function of the image detector saturation. The authors assessed the dimensions of the lung nodule in measured and simulated images. Good quantitative agreement affirmed the algorithm's predictive

  20. System Supporting Automatic Generation of Finite Element Using Image Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J; Fukuda


    A mesh generating system has been developed in orde r to prepare large amounts of input data which are needed for easy implementation of a finite element analysis. This system consists of a Pre-Mesh Generator, an Automatic Mesh Generator and a Mesh Modifier. Pre-Mesh Generator produces the shape and sub-block information as input data of Automatic Mesh Generator by c arrying out various image processing with respect to the image information of th e drawing input using scanner. Automatic Mesh Generato...

  1. Optical-digital hybrid image search system in cloud environment (United States)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko; Watanabe, Eriko


    To improve the versatility and usability of optical correlators, we developed an optical-digital hybrid image search system consisting of digital servers and an optical correlator that can be used to perform image searches in the cloud environment via a web browser. This hybrid system employs a simple method to obtain correlation signals and has a distributed network design. The correlation signals are acquired by using an encoder timing signal generated by a rotating disk, and the distributed network design facilitates the replacement and combination of the digital correlation server and the optical correlator.

  2. Optical Image Classification Using Optical/digital Hybrid Image Processing Systems. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyang


    Offering parallel and real-time operations, optical image classification is becoming a general technique in the solution of real-life image classification problems. This thesis investigates several algorithms for optical realization. Compared to other statistical pattern recognition algorithms, the Kittler-Young transform can provide more discriminative feature spaces for image classification. We shall apply the Kittler-Young transform to image classification and implement it on optical systems. A feature selection criterion is designed for the application of the Kittler -Young transform to image classification. The realizations of the Kittler-Young transform on both a joint transform correlator and a matrix multiplier are successively conducted. Experiments of applying this technique to two-category and three-category problems are demonstrated. To combine the advantages of the statistical pattern recognition algorithms and the neural network models, processes using the two methods are studied. The Karhunen-Loeve Hopfield model is developed for image classification. This model has significant improvement in the system capacity and the capability of using image structures for more discriminative classification processes. As another such hybrid process, we propose the feature extraction perceptron. The application of feature extraction techniques to the perceptron shortens its learning time. An improved activation function of neurons (dynamic activation function), its design and updating rule for fast learning process and high space-bandwidth product image classification are also proposed. We have shortened by two-thirds the learning time on the feature extraction perceptron as compared with the original perceptron. By using this architecture, we have shown that the classification performs better than both the Kittler-Young transform and the original perceptron.

  3. Solar System Object Image Search: A precovery search engine (United States)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, Jj


    While regular astronomical image archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either an object designation, a list of observations, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 24.5 million images. As the Pan-STARRS and Hyper Suprime-Cam archives become available, they will be incorporated as well. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at

  4. Task-Based Optimization of Computed Tomography Imaging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Adrian A


    The goal of this thesis is to provide a framework for the use of task-based metrics of image quality to aid in the design, implementation, and evaluation of CT image reconstruction algorithms and CT systems in general. We support the view that task-based metrics of image quality can be useful in guiding the algorithm design and implementation process in order to yield images of objectively superior quality and higher utility for a given task. Further, we believe that metrics such as the Hotelling observer (HO) SNR can be used as summary scalar metrics of image quality for the evaluation of images produced by novel reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we aim to construct a concise and versatile formalism for image reconstruction algorithm design, implementation, and assessment. The bulk of the work focuses on linear analytical algorithms, specifically the ubiquitous filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm. However, due to the demonstrated importance of optimization-based algorithms in a wide variety of CT...

  5. UV Imaging Spectroscopy of the Saturn System (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.


    Highlights of the UVIS investigation on Cassini include the discovery of a neutral oxygen cloud surrounding Saturn and the determination that Saturn's magnetosphere is dominated by neutrals. Later, UVIS observed and measured the cause of these phenomena: that the icy moon Enceladus is erupting water molecules at about 200kg/sec from fissures in its south polar terrain. These eruptions also carry a fraction of small solid ice grains that are sufficient to produce Saturn's ethereal E ring. The morphology of the jets of vapor in the Enceladus plume imply supersonic flow velocities that loft the grains carried in the jets, consistent with theoretical models. UV occultations and spectroscopy define the constituents of Titan's upper atmosphere and explain its dayside and nightside emissions. UVIS sees Saturn's auroral oval evolve and has detected Enceladus' footprint. Self-Gravity Wakes in Saturn's rings were detected by comparing ring occultations with Voyager results and with multiple Cassini UVIS occultations at a range of viewing aspects. We developed a simple 'granola-bar model' to explain our observations and the azimuthal brightness asymmetry observed from the Earth and previous space missions. UVIS has detected numerous small structures in the rings: kittens, propellers and other embedded objects. Some are as small as meters across from UVIS 'tracking' occultations. Features preferentially form where the rings are stirred by resonances and nearby passing moons. This more active ring system seen by Cassini may explain bright haloes in the rings; how the ring system can recycle ring material so that the rings are much older than inferred from Voyager; and provide implications of how planets may form. Future observations will provide the best resolution on active features like edges of the rings, ring haloes and propeller bands.

  6. Image reconstruction technique using projection data from neutron tomography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Abd el Bar


    Full Text Available Neutron tomography is a very powerful technique for nondestructive evaluation of heavy industrial components as well as for soft hydrogenous materials enclosed in heavy metals which are usually difficult to image using X-rays. Due to the properties of the image acquisition system, the projection images are distorted by several artifacts, and these reduce the quality of the reconstruction. In order to eliminate these harmful effects the projection images should be corrected before reconstruction. This paper gives a description of a filter back projection (FBP technique, which is used for reconstruction of projected data obtained from transmission measurements by neutron tomography system We demonstrated the use of spatial Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT and the 2D Inverse DFT in the formulation of the method, and outlined the theory of reconstruction of a 2D neutron image from a sequence of 1D projections taken at different angles between 0 and π in MATLAB environment. Projections are generated by applying the Radon transform to the original image at different angles.

  7. Spatial Cloud Detection and Retrieval System for Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Nasr


    Full Text Available In last the decade we witnessed a large increase in data generated by earth observing satellites. Hence, intelligent processing of the huge amount of data received by hundreds of earth receiving stations, with specific satellite image oriented approaches, presents itself as a pressing need. One of the most important steps in earlier stages of satellite image processing is cloud detection. Satellite images having a large percentage of cloud cannot be used in further analysis. While there are many approaches that deal with different semantic meaning, there are rarely approaches that deal specifically with cloud detection and retrieval. In this paper we introduce a novel approach that spatially detect and retrieve clouds in satellite images using their unique properties .Our approach is developed as spatial cloud detection and retrieval system (SCDRS that introduce a complete framework for specific semantic retrieval system. It uses a Query by polygon (QBP paradigm for the content of interest instead of using the more conventional rectangular query by image approach. First, we extract features from the satellite images using multiple tile sizes using spatial and textural properties of cloud regions. Second, we retrieve our tiles using a parametric statistical approach within a multilevel refinement process. Our approach has been experimentally validated against the conventional ones yielding enhanced precision and recall rates in the same time it gives more precise detection of cloud coverage regions.

  8. Bilateral control-based compensation for rotation in imaging in scan imaging systems (United States)

    Tian, Dapeng; Wang, Yutang; Wang, Fuchao; Zhang, Yupeng


    Scan imaging systems rely on the rotation of a mirror to scan an image. The rotation in the resulting image must be compensated to prevent information loss. Satisfactory performance of an imaging system is difficult to achieve when employing the methods of mechanical transmission and unilateral tracking control, especially when the system suffers from nonlinear factors, disturbances, and dynamic uncertainties. This paper proposes a compensation method based on bilateral control derived from the field of haptic robots. A two-loop disturbance observer was designed to guarantee that the dynamic characteristics of the motor are close to those of the nominal model. The controllers were designed on the basis of the small gain theorem. Experiments were conducted for a comparison with the traditional unilateral control-based compensation. The comparison showed a reduction of 99.83% in the L2 norm of error, which validates the method. The proposed method improves the accuracy of compensation for rotation in imaging, and demonstrates that bilateral control has feasibility for application in various fields, including photogrammetry.

  9. Digital Image Encryption Scheme Based on Multiple Chaotic Systems (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Li, Li; Zhang, Tiejun; Wang, Ning; Song, Xianhua; Niu, Xiamu


    Image encryption is a challenging task due to the significant level of sophistication achieved by forgerers and other cybercriminals. Advanced encryption methods for secure transmission, storage, and retrieval of digital images are increasingly needed for a number of military, medical, homeland security, and other applications. In this paper, we introduce a new digital image encryption algorithm. The new algorithm employs multiple chaotic systems and cryptographic primitive operations within the encryption process, which are efficiently implemented on modern processors, and adopts round keys for encryption using a chaotic map. Experiments conducted show that the proposed algorithm possesses robust security features such as fairly uniform distribution, high sensitivity to both keys and plainimages, almost ideal entropy, and the ability to highly de-correlate adjacent pixels in the cipherimages. Furthermore, it has a large key space, which greatly increases its security for image encryption applications.

  10. Optimization of an Image-Based Talking Head System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liu


    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based talking head system, which includes two parts: analysis and synthesis. The audiovisual analysis part creates a face model of a recorded human subject, which is composed of a personalized 3D mask as well as a large database of mouth images and their related information. The synthesis part generates natural looking facial animations from phonetic transcripts of text. A critical issue of the synthesis is the unit selection which selects and concatenates these appropriate mouth images from the database such that they match the spoken words of the talking head. Selection is based on lip synchronization and the similarity of consecutive images. The unit selection is refined in this paper, and Pareto optimization is used to train the unit selection. Experimental results of subjective tests show that most people cannot distinguish our facial animations from real videos.

  11. Experimental ultrasound system for real-time synthetic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Holm, Ole; Jensen, Lars Joost


    Digital signal processing is being employed more and more in modern ultrasound scanners. This has made it possible to do dynamic receive focusing for each sample and implement other advanced imaging methods. The processing, however, has to be very fast and cost-effective at the same time. Dedicated...... chips are used in order to do real time processing. This often makes it difficult to implement radically different imaging strategies on one platform and makes the scanners less accessible for research purposes. Here flexibility is the prime concern, and the storage of data from all transducer elements......-element ultrasound transducers, and to enable real-time or near realtime processing of the acquired data. The system will be capable of performing the processing for the currently available imaging methods, and will make it possible to perform initial trials in a clinical environment with new imaging modalities...

  12. Digital image processing on a small computer system (United States)

    Danielson, R.


    A minicomputer-based image processing facility provides a relatively low-cost entry point for education about image analysis applications in remote sensing. While a minicomputer has sufficient processing power to produce results quite rapidly for low volumes of small images, it does not have sufficient power to perform CPU- or 1/0-bound tasks on large images. A system equipped with a display terminal is ideally suited for interactive tasks. Software procurement is a limiting factor for most end users, and software availability may well be the overriding consideration in selecting a particular hardware configuration. The hardware chosen should be selected to be compatible with the software and with concern for future expansion.

  13. A small deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Jin, Jiangao; Wang, Baohua; Wu, Peng; Jiao, Jianchao; Su, Yun


    Diffractive membrane imaging can be widely used in infrared band due to its longer minimum linewidth and loose requirement of RMS to fabricate more easily and reduce production period and manufacturing cost than used in visible band. A deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system was designed, consisting of Φ200mm imaging aperture (actual aperture is Φ500mm) and deployable structure that supports the infrared membrane under tension. Its spectral band width is >1.2μm, field of view is >1°, and diffractive efficiency can be >60%. Stowed size is 150mm×150mm×400mm. Research result of this project can promote the application of diffractive membrane imaging in infrared band and provide an effective and feasible means for achieving extremely large optical primary mirror from compact, lightweight payload.

  14. Fast full resolution saliency detection based on incoherent imaging system (United States)

    Lin, Guang; Zhao, Jufeng; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting


    Image saliency detection is widely applied in many tasks in the field of the computer vision. In this paper, we combine the saliency detection with the Fourier optics to achieve acceleration of saliency detection algorithm. An actual optical saliency detection system is constructed within the framework of incoherent imaging system. Additionally, the application of our system to implement the bottom-up rapid pre-saliency process of primate visual saliency is discussed with dual-resolution camera. A set of experiments over our system are conducted and discussed. We also demonstrate the comparisons between our method and pure computer methods. The results show our system can produce full resolution saliency maps faster and more effective.

  15. ISWAR: An Imaging System with Watermarking and Attack Resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Saraju P


    With the explosive growth of internet technology, easy transfer of digital multimedia is feasible. However, this kind of convenience with which authorized users can access information, turns out to be a mixed blessing due to information piracy. The emerging field of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems addresses issues related to the intellectual property rights of digital content. In this paper, an object-oriented (OO) DRM system, called "Imaging System with Watermarking and Attack Resilience" (ISWAR), is presented that generates and authenticates color images with embedded mechanisms for protection against infringement of ownership rights as well as security attacks. In addition to the methods, in the object-oriented sense, for performing traditional encryption and decryption, the system implements methods for visible and invisible watermarking. This paper presents one visible and one invisible watermarking algorithm that have been integrated in the system. The qualitative and quantitative results obtain...

  16. A Recursive Fuzzy System for Efficient Digital Image Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kyriakoulis


    Full Text Available A novel digital image stabilization technique is proposed in this paper. It is based on a fuzzy Kalman compensation of the global motion vector (GMV, which is estimated in the log-polar plane. The GMV is extracted using four local motion vectors (LMVs computed on respective subimages in the logpolar plane. The fuzzy Kalman system consists of a fuzzy system with the Kalman filter's discrete time-invariant definition. Due to this inherited recursiveness, the output results into smoothed image sequences. The proposed stabilization system aims to compensate any oscillations of the frame absolute positions, based on the motion estimation in the log-polar domain, filtered by the fuzzy Kalman system, and thus the advantages of both the fuzzy Kalman system and the log-polar transformation are exploited. The described technique produces optimal results in terms of the output quality and the level of compensation.

  17. All-optically integrated multimodality imaging system: combined photoacoustic microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence imaging (United States)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da


    We have developed a multimodality imaging system by optically integrating all-optical photoacoustic microscopy (AOPAM), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FLM) to provide complementary information including optical absorption, optical back-scattering and fluorescence contrast of biological tissue. By sharing the same low-coherence Michelson interferometer, AOPAM and OCT could be organically optically combined to obtain the absorption and scattering information of the biological tissues. Also, owing to using the same laser source and objective lens, intrinsically registered photoacoustic and fluorescence signals are obtained to present the radiative and nonradiative transition process of absorption. Simultaneously photoacoustic angiography, tissue structure and fluorescence molecular in vivo images of mouse ear were acquired to demonstrate the capabilities of the optically integrated trimodality imaging system, which can present more information to study tumor angiogenesis, vasculature, anatomical structure and microenvironments in vivo.

  18. Optical imaging system-based real-time image saliency extraction method (United States)

    Zhao, Jufeng; Gao, Xiumin; Chen, Yueting; Feng, Huajun


    Saliency extraction has become a popular topic in imaging science. One of the challenges in image saliency extraction is to detect the saliency content efficiently with a full-resolution saliency map. Traditional methods only involve computer calculation and thus result in limitations in computational speed. An optical imaging system-based visual saliency extraction method is developed to solve this problem. The optical system is built by effectively implementing an optical Fourier process with a Fourier lens to form two frequency planes for further operation. The proposed method combines optical components and computer calculations and mainly relies on frequency selection with precise pinholes on the frequency planes to efficiently produce a saliency map. Comparison shows that the method is suitable for extracting salient information and operates in real time to generate a full-resolution saliency map with good boundaries.

  19. HALO: a reconfigurable image enhancement and multisensor fusion system (United States)

    Wu, F.; Hickman, D. L.; Parker, Steve J.


    Contemporary high definition (HD) cameras and affordable infrared (IR) imagers are set to dramatically improve the effectiveness of security, surveillance and military vision systems. However, the quality of imagery is often compromised by camera shake, or poor scene visibility due to inadequate illumination or bad atmospheric conditions. A versatile vision processing system called HALO™ is presented that can address these issues, by providing flexible image processing functionality on a low size, weight and power (SWaP) platform. Example processing functions include video distortion correction, stabilisation, multi-sensor fusion and image contrast enhancement (ICE). The system is based around an all-programmable system-on-a-chip (SoC), which combines the computational power of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with the flexibility of a CPU. The FPGA accelerates computationally intensive real-time processes, whereas the CPU provides management and decision making functions that can automatically reconfigure the platform based on user input and scene content. These capabilities enable a HALO™ equipped reconnaissance or surveillance system to operate in poor visibility, providing potentially critical operational advantages in visually complex and challenging usage scenarios. The choice of an FPGA based SoC is discussed, and the HALO™ architecture and its implementation are described. The capabilities of image distortion correction, stabilisation, fusion and ICE are illustrated using laboratory and trials data.

  20. A High Performance Biometric System Based on Image Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Augusto Rocchietti


    Full Text Available At present, many of the algorithms used and proposed for digital imaging biometric systems are based on mathematical complex models, and this fact is directly related to the performance of any computer implementation of these algorithms. On the other hand, as they are conceived for general purpose digital imaging, these algorithms do not take advantage of any common morphological features from its given domains. In this paper we developed a novel algorithm for the segmentation of the pupil and iris in human eye images, whose improvement’s hope lies in the use of morphological features of the images of the human eye. Based on the basic structure of a standard biometric system we developed and implemented an innovation for each phase of the system, avoiding the use of mathematical complex models and exploiting some common features in any digital image of the human eye from the dataset that we used. Finally, we compared the testing results against other known state of the art works developed over the same dataset.

  1. A semi-automated image analysis procedure for in situ plankton imaging systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Bi

    Full Text Available Plankton imaging systems are capable of providing fine-scale observations that enhance our understanding of key physical and biological processes. However, processing the large volumes of data collected by imaging systems remains a major obstacle for their employment, and existing approaches are designed either for images acquired under laboratory controlled conditions or within clear waters. In the present study, we developed a semi-automated approach to analyze plankton taxa from images acquired by the ZOOplankton VISualization (ZOOVIS system within turbid estuarine waters, in Chesapeake Bay. When compared to images under laboratory controlled conditions or clear waters, images from highly turbid waters are often of relatively low quality and more variable, due to the large amount of objects and nonlinear illumination within each image. We first customized a segmentation procedure to locate objects within each image and extracted them for classification. A maximally stable extremal regions algorithm was applied to segment large gelatinous zooplankton and an adaptive threshold approach was developed to segment small organisms, such as copepods. Unlike the existing approaches for images acquired from laboratory, controlled conditions or clear waters, the target objects are often the majority class, and the classification can be treated as a multi-class classification problem. We customized a two-level hierarchical classification procedure using support vector machines to classify the target objects ( 95%. First, histograms of oriented gradients feature descriptors were constructed for the segmented objects. In the first step all non-target and target objects were classified into different groups: arrow-like, copepod-like, and gelatinous zooplankton. Each object was passed to a group-specific classifier to remove most non-target objects. After the object was classified, an expert or non-expert then manually removed the non-target objects that

  2. Development of unmatched system model for iterative image reconstruction for pinhole collimator of imaging systems in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Keon; Bae, Seung Bin; Lee, Ki Sung; Kim, Yong Kwon; Joung, Jin Hun [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Diverse designs of collimator have been applied to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) according to the purpose of acquisition; thus, it is necessary to reflect geometric characteristic of each collimator for successive image reconstruction. This study carry out reconstruction algorithm for imaging system in nuclear medicine with pinhole collimator. Especially, we study to solve sampling problem which caused in the system model of pinhole collimator. System model for a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) was developed based on the geometry of the collimator. The projector and back-projector were separately implemented based on the ray-driven and voxel-driven methods, respectively, to overcome sparse sampling problem. We perform phantom study for pinhole collimator by using geant4 application for tomographic emission(GATE) simulation tool. The reconstructed images show promising results. Designed iterative reconstruction algorithm with unmatched system model effective to remove sampling problem artefact. Proposed algorithm can be used not only for pinhole collimator but also for various collimator system of imaging system in nuclear medicine.

  3. Imaging response to systemic therapy for bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tobias; Semmler, Wolfhard [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)


    In patients with osteotropic primary tumours such as breast and prostate cancer, imaging treatment response of bone metastases is essential for the clinical management. After treatment of skeletal metastases, morphological changes, in particular of bone structure, occur relatively late and are difficult to quantify using conventional X-rays, CT or MRI. Early treatment response in these lesions can be assessed from functional imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced techniques by MRI or CT and by diffusion-weighted MRI, which are quantifiable. Among the techniques within nuclear medicine, PET offers the acquisition of quantifiable parameters for response evaluation. PET, therefore, especially in combination with CT and MRI using hybrid techniques, holds great promise for early and quantifiable assessment of treatment response in bone metastases. This review summarises the classification systems and the use of imaging techniques for evaluation of treatment response and suggests parameters for the early detection and quantification of response to systemic therapy. (orig.)

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Villacorta


    Full Text Available An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side. Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA with 15 l/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications.

  5. Design of Receiver Used for Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zheng


    Full Text Available As millimeter wave (MMW electronic technologies have matured, the MMW imaging using for human security inspection is emerging as an effective approach to imaging through obscuring materials, such as clothing for concealed weapons detection or plastic mines. This paper introduces temperature sensitivity firstly and then the fringe-washing functions are derived which decide the structure the antenna array and the receivers of the system BHU-2D. Finally, the fringe-washing functions and their phases are calculated from the frequency responses of 24-receiver, they all show good consistency of the receivers which also can be proved from the test results of receivers. From the final imaging of our system, the 1-2K temperature sensitivity is realized successfully.

  6. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics. (United States)

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo


    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  7. TL dosimetry for quality control of CR mammography imaging systems (United States)

    Gaona, E.; Nieto, J. A.; Góngora, J. A. I. D.; Arreola, M.; Enríquez, J. G. F.

    The aim of this work is to estimate the average glandular dose with thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry and comparison with quality imaging in computed radiography (CR) mammography. For a measuring dose, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) use a phantom, so that dose and image quality are assessed with the same test object. The mammography is a radiological image to visualize early biological manifestations of breast cancer. Digital systems have two types of image-capturing devices, full field digital mammography (FFDM) and CR mammography. In Mexico, there are several CR mammography systems in clinical use, but only one system has been approved for use by the FDA. Mammography CR uses a photostimulable phosphor detector (PSP) system. Most CR plates are made of 85% BaFBr and 15% BaFI doped with europium (Eu) commonly called barium flourohalideE We carry out an exploratory survey of six CR mammography units from three different manufacturers and six dedicated X-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure. The results show three CR mammography units (50%) have a dose greater than 3.0 mGy without demonstrating improved image quality. The differences between doses averages from TLD system and dosimeter with ionization chamber are less than 10%. TLD system is a good option for average glandular dose measurement for X-rays with a HVL (0.35-0.38 mmAl) and kVp (24-26) used in quality control procedures with ACR Mammography Accreditation Phantom.

  8. Predicting the Dielectric Strength of c-C4F8 and SF6 Gas Mixtures by Monte Carlo Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bian-tao; XIAO Deng-ming


    An improved Monte Carlo method was used to simulate the motion of electrons in c-C4F8 and SF6 gas mixtures for pulsed townsend discharge. The electron swarm parameters such as effective ionization coefficient, (-α) and drift velocity over the E/N range from 280~700 Td(1Td= 10-21 V·m2) were calculated by employing a set of cross sections available in literature. From the variation cure of (-α) with SF6 partial pressure p, the limiting field (E/N)lim of gas mixture at different gas content was determined. It is found that the limiting field of c-C4F8 and SF6gas mixture is higher than that of pure SF6 at any SF6 mixture ratio. Simulation results show excellent agreement with experiment data available in previous literature.

  9. Depth imaging system for seismic reflection data. Part 1. Outline of system; Hanshaho jishin tansa data no tame no shindo imaging system. 1. System no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Structures of oil and gas fields to be recently explored have changed from simple structures represented by anticline into more complicated and more delicate structures in the deeper underground. In order to discover and develop prospective oil and gas fields among such geological structures, it is indispensable to construct a system which can treat seismic exploration date collectively before stacking and can easily perform imaging of underground structures accurately. Based on the advancement of hardware, Japan National Oil Corporation and Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd. have developed a depth imaging system as an interactive tool for constructing underground structures accurately through a cooperation of highly accurate imaging technology. Using this system, two-dimensional underground structure models can be easily given and modified by interactively referring to results of depth migration velocity analysis and stacking velocity analysis, well data, cross sections after depth transform, etc. 1 fig.

  10. Measuring chromatic aberrations in imaging systems using plasmonic nanoparticles (United States)

    Gennaro, Sylvain D.; Roschuk, Tyler R.; Maier, Stefan A.; Oulton, Rupert F.


    Chromatic aberration in optical systems arises from the wavelength dependence of a glass's refractive index. Polychromatic rays incident upon an optical surface are refracted at slightly different angles and in traversing an optical system follow distinct paths creating images displaced according to color. Although arising from dispersion, it manifests as a spatial distortion correctable only with compound lenses with multiple glasses and accumulates in complicated imaging systems. While chromatic aberration is measured with interferometry, simple methods are attractive for their ease of use and low cost. In this letter we retrieve the longitudinal chromatic focal shift of high numerical aperture (NA) microscope objectives from the extinction spectra of metallic nanoparticles within the focal plane. The method is accurate for high NA objectives with apochromatic correction, and enables rapid assessment of the chromatic aberration of any complete microscopy systems, since it is straightforward to implement

  11. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram


    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  12. Evaluation of IsoCal geometric calibration system for Varian linacs equipped with on-board imager and electronic portal imaging device imaging systems. (United States)

    Gao, Song; Du, Weiliang; Balter, Peter; Munro, Peter; Jeung, Andrew


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the IsoCal geometric calibration system for kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imagers on Varian C-series linear accelerators (linacs). IsoCal calibration starts by imaging a phantom and collimator plate using MV images with different collimator angles, as well as MV and kV images at different gantry angles. The software then identifies objects on the collimator plate and in the phantom to determine the location of the treatment isocenter and its relation to the MV and kV imager centers. It calculates offsets between the positions of the imaging panels and the treatment isocenter as a function of gantry angle and writes a correction file that can be applied to MV and kV systems to correct for those offsets in the position of the panels. We performed IsoCal calibration three times on each of five Varian C-series linacs, each time with an independent setup. We then compared the IsoCal calibrations with a simplified Winston-Lutz (WL)-based system and with a Varian cubic phantom (VC)-based system. The maximum IsoCal corrections ranged from 0.7 mm to 1.5 mm for MV and 0.9 mm to 1.8 mm for kV imagers across the five linacs. The variations in the three calibrations for each linac were less than 0.2 mm. Without IsoCal correction, the WL results showed discrepancies between the treatment isocenter and the imager center of 0.9 mm to 1.6 mm (for the MV imager) and 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm (for the kV imager); with IsoCal corrections applied, the differences were reduced to 0.2 mm to 0.6 mm (MV) and 0.3 mm to 0.6 mm (kV) across the five linacs. The VC system was not as precise as the WL system, but showed similar results, with discrepancies of less than 1.0 mm when the IsoCal corrections were applied. We conclude that IsoCal is an accurate and consistent method for calibration and periodic quality assurance of MV and kV imaging systems.

  13. A Realistic Approach To Evaluating Digital Imaging Systems (United States)

    Greinacher, C. F.; Bach, E.,; Muller, K.,; Patzelt, K.


    Current systems for the production of medical images and current development trends give a basis of experience for the design of a digital PACS including images and demographic data. Such a PACS must contain software and hardware concepts which permit the medical requirements, as presently understood, to be realized. As part of its research Siemens is designing and evaluating a hybrid network configuration which allows extensive flexibility and growth potential despite current limitations in available network bandwidth and storage capacity. As demand for digital data expands, additional installations can be added to the system. The modular concept permits incorporation of technological advances with minimal difficulty. The system allows different digital imaging modalities to communicate with a central data storage and processing system. Data display facilities both with and without manipulation capability are realized using high speed multi image storage devices. The human interface is designed to be ergono-metric, interactive, and user-friendly. Standardized, commercially available hardware has been included wherever possible to provide economical worldwide acceptance. Estimates of digital data per unit time under different conditions are presented and compared to the specifications of software and hardware elements both currently available and envisaged in the near future. Potential limitations of the design, as well as possible solutions incorporating expected technological developments, are discussed.

  14. UWB front-end for SAR-based imaging system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monni, S.; Grooters, R.; Neto, A.; Nennie, F.A.


    A planarly fed UWB leaky lens antenna is presented integrated with wide band transmit and receive front-end electronics, to be used in a SAR-based imaging system. The unique non-dispersive characteristics of this antenna over a very wide bandwidth, together with the dual band front-end electronics b

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance of Al-27 in topaz, Al2SiO4/F, OH/2. (United States)

    Tsang, T.; Ghose, S.


    The Al-27 nuclear quadrupolar coupling constant and asymmetry parameter (eta) in topaz have been determined to be 1.67 (plus or minus 0.03) MHz and 0.38 plus or minus 0.05, respectively. These values and the orientations of the principal axes are consistent with the Fe(3+) paramagnetic resonance data and with the symmetry of the AlO4F2 octahedron.

  16. Development of practical thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Liu, Enguang; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen


    As an optical remote sensing equipment, the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager operates in the thermal infrared spectral band and acquires about 180 wavebands in range of 8.0~12.5μm. The field of view of this imager is 13° and the spatial resolution is better than 1mrad. Its noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is less than 0.2K@300K(average). 1 The influence of background radiation of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager,and a simulation model of simplified background radiation is builded. 2 The design and implementationof the Cryogenic Optics. 3 Thermal infrared focal plane array (FPA) and special dewar component for the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager. 4 Parts of test results of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager.The hyperspectral imaging system is China's first success in developing this type of instrument, whose flight validation experiments have already been embarked on. The thermal infrared hyperspectral data acquired will play an important role in fields such as geological exploration and air pollutant identification.

  17. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics. (United States)

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Kengyelics, S M


    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors.

  18. Development Of An Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS) (United States)

    Efkernan, Albert; Jenkins, Donald


    Historical background is presented of the U. S. Army's requirement for a high performance, lightweight, night vision goggle for use by helicopter pilots. System requirements are outlined and a current program for development of a third generation image intensification device is described. Primary emphasis is on the use of lightweight, precision molded, aspheric plastic optical elements and molded plastic mechanical components. System concept, design, and manufacturing considerations are presented.

  19. Linear-constraint wavefront control for exoplanet coronagraphic imaging systems (United States)

    Sun, He; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Groff, Tyler Dean


    A coronagraph is a leading technology for achieving high-contrast imaging of exoplanets in a space telescope. It uses a system of several masks to modify the diffraction and achieve extremely high contrast in the image plane around target stars. However, coronagraphic imaging systems are very sensitive to optical aberrations, so wavefront correction using deformable mirrors (DMs) is necessary to avoid contrast degradation in the image plane. Electric field conjugation (EFC) and Stroke minimization (SM) are two primary high-contrast wavefront controllers explored in the past decade. EFC minimizes the average contrast in the search areas while regularizing the strength of the control inputs. Stroke minimization calculates the minimum DM commands under the constraint that a target average contrast is achieved. Recently in the High Contrast Imaging Lab at Princeton University (HCIL), a new linear-constraint wavefront controller based on stroke minimization was developed and demonstrated using numerical simulation. Instead of only constraining the average contrast over the entire search area, the new controller constrains the electric field of each single pixel using linear programming, which could led to significant increases in speed of the wavefront correction and also create more uniform dark holes. As a follow-up of this work, another linear-constraint controller modified from EFC is demonstrated theoretically and numerically and the lab verification of the linear-constraint controllers is reported. Based on the simulation and lab results, the pros and cons of linear-constraint controllers are carefully compared with EFC and stroke minimization.

  20. Hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear surface inspection (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.


    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.

  1. A Hybrid DWT-SVD Image-Coding System (HDWTSVD for Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ochoa


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the HDWTSVD system to encode color images. Before encoding, the color components (RGB are transformed into YCbCr. Cb and Cr components are downsampled by a factor of two, both horizontally and vertically, before sending them through the encoder. A criterion based on the average standard deviation of 8x8 subblocks of the Y component is used to choose DWT or SVD for all the components. Standard test images are compressed based on the proposed algorithm.

  2. Three-dimensional illumination system for tomographic particle image velocimetry (United States)

    Zhang, Fen; Song, Yang; Qu, Xiangju; Ji, Yunjing; Li, Zhenhua; He, Anzhi


    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) is a new developed technique for three-component threedimensional (3C-3D) velocity measurement of the flow field based on the optical tomographic reconstruction method, and has been received extensive attention of the related industries. Three-dimensional light source illuminating the tracer particles of flow field is a critical application for tomographic particle image velocimetry. Three-dimensional light source not only determines the size of measurement volume and the range of the scope of application, but also has a great influence on the image quality. In this work, we propose a rectangular light amplification system using powell lens, prisms and two reflectors. The system can be optimized if given the system parameters based on the theoretical model. The rectangular light amplification system will be verified experimentally by measuring the cross section size of the illuminated light source. A 60mm×25mm cross section of rectangular three-dimensional light source can be obtained by using the rectangular light amplification system. The experiments demonstrate the the feasibility the proposed system.

  3. {sup 63}Cu-NMR/NQR studies on apical-F bi-layered cuprates Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 4}F{sub 2} and Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 4}(F{sub 1.6}O{sub 0.4})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, S., E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Sakaguchi, T.; Mukuda, H.; Kitaoka, Y.; Iyo, A. [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Shirage, P.M.; Kito, H.; Kodama, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)


    We report {sup 63}Cu-NMR/NQR on the bi-layered high-T{sub c} copper oxide Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 4}F{sub 2}, which is expected to be a Mott insulator in an ideal case of a nominal content of fluorine, and less fluorinated Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 4}(F{sub 1.6}O{sub 0.4}) to clear the doping mechanism in apical-fluorine multilayered system Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n}F{sub 2}, where n is the number of the layers in a unit cell. In the case of n=3 and, especially, n=4, the origin of carrier doping has been attributed to a self-doping mechanism based on the nominal stoichiometry; electrons are transferred between the inner CuO{sub 2} plane (IP) and the outer one (OP), keeping Cu{sup +2} on average. It is revealed that Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 4}F{sub 2} is an underdoped superconductor with hole carriers, doped by an inevitable deviation from the nominal content of apical fluorines. This result suggests that hole carriers are doped in the same manner for the case of n=3 and 4, and that we should reconsider the self-doping mechanism as the carrier source in the apical-fluorine system.

  4. A 3-D fluorescence imaging system incorporating structured illumination technology (United States)

    Antos, L.; Emord, P.; Luquette, B.; McGee, B.; Nguyen, D.; Phipps, A.; Phillips, D.; Helguera, M.


    A currently available 2-D high-resolution, optical molecular imaging system was modified by the addition of a structured illumination source, OptigridTM, to investigate the feasibility of providing depth resolution along the optical axis. The modification involved the insertion of the OptigridTM and a lens in the path between the light source and the image plane, as well as control and signal processing software. Projection of the OptigridTM onto the imaging surface at an angle, was resolved applying the Scheimpflug principle. The illumination system implements modulation of the light source and provides a framework for capturing depth resolved mages. The system is capable of in-focus projection of the OptigridTM at different spatial frequencies, and supports the use of different lenses. A calibration process was developed for the system to achieve consistent phase shifts of the OptigridTM. Post-processing extracted depth information using depth modulation analysis using a phantom block with fluorescent sheets at different depths. An important aspect of this effort was that it was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of engineering and science students as part of a capstone senior design program. The disciplines represented are mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and imaging science. The project was sponsored by a financial grant from New York State with equipment support from two industrial concerns. The students were provided with a basic imaging concept and charged with developing, implementing, testing and validating a feasible proof-of-concept prototype system that was returned to the originator of the concept for further evaluation and characterization.

  5. An image based vibration sensor for soft tissue modal analysis in a Digital Image Elasto Tomography (DIET) system. (United States)

    Feng, Sheng; Lotz, Thomas; Chase, J Geoffrey; Hann, Christopher E


    Digital Image Elasto Tomography (DIET) is a non-invasive elastographic breast cancer screening technology, based on image-based measurement of surface vibrations induced on a breast by mechanical actuation. Knowledge of frequency response characteristics of a breast prior to imaging is critical to maximize the imaging signal and diagnostic capability of the system. A feasibility analysis for a non-invasive image based modal analysis system is presented that is able to robustly and rapidly identify resonant frequencies in soft tissue. Three images per oscillation cycle are enough to capture the behavior at a given frequency. Thus, a sweep over critical frequency ranges can be performed prior to imaging to determine critical imaging settings of the DIET system to optimize its tumor detection performance.

  6. Integration, Testing, and Analysis of Multispectral Imager on Small Unmanned Aerial System for Skin Detection (United States)


    INTEGRATION, TESTING, AND ANALYSIS OF MULTISPECTRAL IMAGER ON SMALL UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM FOR SKIN......12 2.5 Image Registration ................................................................................................16 2.6

  7. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.


    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  8. High Speed Optical Tomography System for Imaging Dynamic Transparent Media (United States)

    McMackin, Lenore; Hugo, Ronald J.; Pierson, R. E.; Truman, C. R.


    We describe the design and operation of a high speed optical tomography system for measuring two-dimensional images of a dynamic phase object at a rate of 5 kHz. Data from a set of eight Hartmann wavefront sensors is back-projected to produce phase images showing the details of the inner structure of a heated air flow. The tomographic reconstructions have a spatial resolution of approximately 2.0 mm and can measure temperature variations across the flow with an accuracy of about 0.7 C. Series of animated reconstructions at different downstream locations illustrate the development of flow structure and the effect of acoustic flow forcing.

  9. Real-time panoramic infrared imaging system based on FPGA (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Jun; Shen, Yong-Ge


    During the past decades, signal processing architecture, which is based on FPGA, conventional DSP processor and host computer, is popular for infrared or other electro-optical systems. With the increasing processing requirement, the former architecture starts to show its limitation in several respects. This paper elaborates a solution based on FPGA for panoramic imaging system as our first step of upgrading the processing module to System-on-Chip (SoC) solution. Firstly, we compare this new architecture with the traditional to show its superiority mainly in the video processing ability, reduction in the development workload and miniaturization of the system architecture. Afterwards, this paper provides in-depth description of this imaging system, including the system architecture and its function, and addresses several related issues followed by the future development. FPGA has developed so rapidly during the past years, not only in silicon device but also in the design flow and tools. In the end, we briefly present our future system development and introduce those new design tools to make up the limitation of the traditional FPGA design methodology. The advanced design flow through Simulink and Xilinx System Generator (Sysgen) has been elaborated, which enables engineers to develop sophisticated DSP algorithms and implement them in FPGA more efficiently. It is believed that this new design approach can shorten system design cycle by allowing rapid prototyping and refining design process.

  10. A novel thermosonic imaging system for non-destructive testing (United States)

    Willey, C. L.; Xiang, D.; Long, M.


    Thermosonic infrared (Sonic IR) imaging is a new non-destructive testing (NDT) technique that uses high-frequency sonic excitation together with infrared (IR) detection to image surface and subsurface defects. A conventional Sonic IR imaging system employs an ultrasonic welder, which is designed to operate at a single frequency. This single frequency ultrasonic source has been found to yield a "blind zone" for NDT due to the formation of standing waves inside the test piece. To overcome this limitation, a spring loaded ultrasonic transducer was used to generate the desired multi-frequency acoustic chaos in the test object [1]. The limitation of the spring loaded ultrasonic transducer is its repeatability and reproducibility for field applications. In this work, we present the development of a novel thermosonic imaging system, which is capable of exciting the ultrasonic transducer at difflerent frequencies for thermosonic NDT to overcome the limitations associated with a single frequency power source as well as the spring loaded transducer design. A comparison of experimental results will be made between the single frequency and the developed multi-frequency thermosonic NDT systems.

  11. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system. (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian


    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  12. Test for optical systems in laser projection imaging for PCB (United States)

    Qin, Ouyang; Zhou, Jinyun; Lei, Liang; Lin, Qinghua


    Projection imaging is one of the most important steps in the fabrication of Printed Circuit Board. In order to meet the increasing demand for higher resolution, speed and larger area of imaging, a novel Laser Projection Imaging (LPI) has been developed to take the place of the conventional Hg lamp exposure. We set up a system with resolution 10μm over large exposure area of 460mm×610mm on substrate materials. The system is available by the combination of three main parts: an XeF excimer laser with a wavelength of 351nm and single pulse energy of 120mJ, an illumination system with numerical aperture (NA) value of 0.02, and a double telecentric optical projection lens with NA value of 0.025. Such designs can theoretically meet the demand of actual lithography. However, experiments have shown that the propagation loss ratio of laser power from the light source to the substrate can be up to 50% or more so as to hardly achieve the expected results. In this paper, we present our results of experiments under different conditions on laser projection imaging equipment, and meanwhile, parameters such as gas lifetime, pulse repetition rate, exposure dose, as well as the optical lose of quartz microlens array are analyzed. Finally, we acquired the optimum exposure parameters.

  13. Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS): an imaging spectrometer for maritime applications (United States)

    Voelker, Mark A.; Resmini, Ronald G.; Mooradian, Gregory C.; McCord, Thomas B.; Warren, Christopher P.; Fene, Michael W.; Coyle, Christopher C.; Anderson, Richard


    The Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS) is a compact, lightweight visible and near IR pushbroom hyperspectral imaging spectrometer flown on a Piper Aztec aircraft. AAHIS is optimized for use in shallow water, littoral, and vegetation remote sensing. Data are collected at up to 55 frames/second and may be displayed and analyzed inflight or recorded for post-flight processing. Swath width is 200 meters at a flight altitude of 1 km. Each image pixel contains hyperspectral data simultaneously recorded in up to 288 contiguous spectral channels covering the 432 to 832 nm spectral region. Pixel binning typically yields pixels 1.0 meter square with a spectral channel width of 5.5 nm. Design and performance of the AAHIS is presented, including processed imagery demonstrating feature detection and materials discrimination on land and underwater at depths up to 27 meters.

  14. Segmentation of moving images by the human visual system. (United States)

    Chantelau, K


    New segments appearing in an image sequence or spontaneously accelerated segments are band limited by the visual system due to a nonperfect tracking of these segments by eye movements. In spite of this band limitation and acceleration of segments, a coarse segmentation (initial segmentation phase) can be performed by the visual system. This is interesting for the development of purely automatic segmentation algorithms for multimedia applications. In this paper the segmentation of the visual system is modelled and used in an automatic coarse initial segmentation. A suitable model for motion processing based on a spectral representation is presented and applied to the segmentation of synthetic and real image sequences with band limited and accelerated moving foreground and background segments.

  15. A novel fusion imaging system for endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruionu, Lucian Gheorghe; Saftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Gabriel


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Navigation of a flexible endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) probe inside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is problematic due to the small window size and complex anatomy. The goal of the present study was to test the feasibility of a novel fusion imaging (FI) system which uses...... electromagnetic (EM) sensors to co-register the live EUS images with the pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) data with a novel navigation algorithm and catheter. METHODS: An experienced gastroenterologist and a novice EUS operator tested the FI system on a GI tract bench top model. Also, the experienced...... time was 24.6 ± 6.6 min, while the time to reach the clinical target was 8.7 ± 4.2 min. CONCLUSIONS: The FI system is feasible for clinical use, and can reduce the learning curve for EUS procedures and improve navigation and targeting in difficult anatomic locations....

  16. Study on the MWIR imaging ability of optical readout bimaterial microcantilever FPA uncooled infrared imaging system (United States)

    Zhou, Bingbing; Feng, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Ming; Chu, Xuhong; Yu, Xiaomei


    In this paper, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the medium-wave infrared (MWIR) imaging ability based on optical readout bimaterial microcantilever focal plane array (FPA) uncooled infrared imaging system. Multiband infrared imaging technology has been a hotspot in the field of infrared imaging. In the infrared band, medium-wave infrared (3 5 μm) has minimal attenuation of atmospheric infrared window, and it also covers many atomic and molecular absorption peak. Imaging study on MWIR radiation source also appears particularly important. First of all, we introduce the bimaterial microcantilever IR sensing principle and the fabrication of the bimaterial microcantilever FPA. Secondly, the paper introduces the theory of the optical-thermal-mechnical reading based on FPA. Finally, the experimental platform was constructed to conduct the MWIR imaging experiment. The medium-wave infrared radiation source consists of a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (OPO) that is pumped by a polarization-maintained, single-mode fiber amplifier. The length of the 50mm periodically polarized LiNbO3 crystal (5%MgO) is used as the nonlinear crystal. The stable cavity of the ring is designed, and the output of the 3 4 μm band is realized by the design of the nonlinear crystal polarization period. And the FPA employed in our experiment contains 256×256 pixels fabricated on a glass substrate, whose working bandwidth is covering the three IR atmospheric windows. The experimental results show that the bimaterial microcantilever FPA has a good imaging ability to the MWIR sources.

  17. Adaptive field-of-view imaging for efficient receive beamforming in medical ultrasound imaging systems. (United States)

    Agarwal, Anup; Yoo, Yang Mo; Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Kim, Yongmin


    Quadrature demodulation-based phase rotation beamforming (QD-PRBF) is commonly used to support dynamic receive focusing in medical ultrasound systems. However, it is computationally demanding since it requires two demodulation filters for each receive channel. To reduce the computational requirements of QD-PRBF, we have previously developed two-stage demodulation (TSD), which reduces the number of lowpass filters by performing demodulation filtering on summation signals. However, it suffers from image quality degradation due to aliasing at lower beamforming frequencies. To improve the performance of TSD-PRBF with reduced number of beamforming points, we propose a new adaptive field-of-view (AFOV) imaging method. In AFOV imaging, the beamforming frequency is adjusted depending on displayed FOV size and the center frequency of received signals. To study its impact on image quality, simulation was conducted using Field II, phantom data were acquired from a commercial ultrasound machine, and the image quality was quantified using spatial (i.e., axial and lateral) and contrast resolution. The developed beamformer (i.e., TSD-AFOV-PRBF) with 1024 beamforming points provided comparable image resolution to QD-PRBF for typical FOV sizes (e.g., 4.6% and 1.3% degradation in contrast resolution for 160 mm and 112 mm, respectively for a 3.5 MHz transducer). Furthermore, it reduced the number of operations by 86.8% compared to QD-PRBF. These results indicate that the developed TSD-AFOV-PRBF can lower the computational requirement for receive beamforming without significant image quality degradation.

  18. Towards eye-safe standoff Raman imaging systems (United States)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Bââth, Petra; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näsilä, Antti; Östmark, Henric


    Standoff Raman imaging systems have shown the ability to detect single explosives particles. However, in many cases, the laser intensities needed restrict the applications where they can be safely used. A new generation imaging Raman system has been developed based on a 355 nm UV laser that, in addition to eye safety, allows discrete and invisible measurements. Non-dangerous exposure levels for the eye are several orders of magnitude higher in UVA than in the visible range that previously has been used. The UV Raman system has been built based on an UV Fabry-Perot Interferometer (UV-FPI) developed by VTT. The design allows for precise selection of Raman shifts in combination with high out-of-band blocking. The stable operation of the UV-FPI module under varying environmental conditions is arranged by controlling the temperature of the module and using a closed loop control of the FPI air gap based on capacitive measurement. The system presented consists of a 3rd harmonics Nd:YAG laser with 1.5 W average output at 1000 Hz, a 200 mm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, UV-FPI filter and an ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. The design principal leads to a Raman spectrum in each image pixel. The system is designed for field use and easy manoeuvring. Preliminary results show that in measurements of <60 s on 10 m distance, single AN particles of <300 μm diameter can be identified.

  19. A magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible remote catheter navigation system. (United States)

    Tavallaei, Mohammad Ali; Thakur, Yogesh; Haider, Syed; Drangova, Maria


    A remote catheter navigation system compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed to facilitate MRI-guided catheterization procedures. The interventionalist's conventional motions (axial motion and rotation) on an input catheter - acting as the master - are measured by a pair of optical encoders, and a custom embedded system relays the motions to a pair of ultrasonic motors. The ultrasonic motors drive the patient catheter (slave) within the MRI scanner, replicating the motion of the input catheter. The performance of the remote catheter navigation system was evaluated in terms of accuracy and delay of motion replication outside and within the bore of the magnet. While inside the scanner bore, motion accuracy was characterized during the acquisition of frequently used imaging sequences, including real-time gradient echo. The effect of the catheter navigation system on image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was also evaluated. The results show that the master-slave system has a maximum time delay of 41 ± 21 ms in replicating motion; an absolute value error of 2 ± 2° was measured for radial catheter motion replication over 360° and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm in axial catheter motion replication over 100 mm of travel. The worst-case SNR drop was observed to be 2.5%.

  20. New family of generalized metrics for comparative imaging system evaluation (United States)

    Russ, M.; Singh, V.; Loughran, B.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.


    A family of imaging task-specific metrics designated Relative Object Detectability (ROD) metrics was developed to enable objective, quantitative comparisons of different x-ray systems. Previously, ROD was defined as the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier Transform of the object function, weighted by the detector DQE for one detector, divided by the comparable integral for another detector. When effects of scatter and focal spot unsharpness are included, the generalized metric, GDQE, is substituted for the DQE, resulting in the G-ROD metric. The G-ROD was calculated for two different detectors with two focal spot sizes using various-sized simulated objects to quantify the improved performance of new high-resolution CMOS detector systems. When a measured image is used as the object, a Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) value can be generated. A neuro-vascular stent (Wingspan) was imaged with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and a standard flat panel detector (FPD) for comparison using the GM-ROD calculation. As the lower integration bound increased from 0 toward the detector Nyquist frequency, increasingly superior performance of the MAF was evidenced. Another new metric, the R-ROD, enables comparing detectors to a reference detector of given imaging ability. R-RODs for the MAF, a new CMOS detector and an FPD will be presented. The ROD family of metrics can provide quantitative more understandable comparisons for different systems where the detector, focal spot, scatter, object, techniques or dose are varied and can be used to optimize system selection for given imaging tasks.