WorldWideScience

Sample records for 4eme age observation

  1. Fracture num\\'erique chez les seniors du 4eme age. Observation d'une acculturation technique

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Christine; Tarpin-Bernard, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Very old people accumulate the "handicaps": social, physical, psychological or cognitive. Various research thus developed to determine there waiting and needs and also to see the benefit possibly produced by technologies (called ?gerontechnology?) on their living conditions. The object of this article is to present the numerical service offer to very old perople and to see how it takes part in a social justice according to the definition of Rawls (principle of equal freedom, principle of equal opportunity in the access). The adoption, the use and the benefit of technology are analyzed in a theoretical way through a state of the art and in an experimental way through a qualitative and quantitative investigation carried out with a population of very old people. We propose to identify dynamic technological acceptance of old people according to the TAM'S (Technology Acceptance Model) of Davis adapted by (Hamner and Qazi, 2008).

  2. Observations of mixed-aged litters in brown bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, J.E.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on 3 cases of mixed-aged litters (young born in different years) in brown bears (Ursus arctos); in 1 instance the cub-of-the-year (hereafter called cubs) died in the den. Two cases occurred in Sweden after mothers were separated from their young during the breeding season. In one, the mother was separated from the accompanying cub for at least 12.5 hours and possibly up to 3.3 days, and later possibly separated for 4 days. In the other, the mother was separated from her yearling at least 3 times for 1-14, 1-6 and 1-6 days. She was with a male during the first separation. Specific events that produced the mixed-aged litter observed in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem were unknown and our interpretation is based on estimates of ages of accompanying young from photographs. The observation of only 2 mixed-aged litters, after den emergence, from a sample of 406 observed cub litters accompanying radiomarked females confirms the rarity of this phenomenon. The mechanism apparently includes a short separation of mother and young, and, in the case of cubs, the mother must mate while lactating. Better understanding of the physiological mechanisms that allow mixed-age litters would help us in the debate about the occurrence of sexually selected infanticide in bears.

  3. Observable cosmological vector mode in the dark ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Shohei

    2016-09-01

    The second-order vector mode is inevitably induced from the coupling of first-order scalar modes in cosmological perturbation theory and might hinder a possible detection of primordial gravitational waves from inflation through 21 cm lensing observations. Here, we investigate the weak lensing signal in 21 cm photons emitted by neutral hydrogen atoms in the dark ages induced by the second-order vector mode by decomposing the deflection angle of the 21 cm lensing signal into the gradient and curl modes. The curl mode is a good tracer of the cosmological vector and tensor modes since the scalar mode does not induce the curl one. By comparing angular power spectra of the 21 cm lensing curl mode induced by the second-order vector mode and primordial gravitational waves whose amplitude is parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r , we find that the 21 cm curl mode from the second-order vector mode dominates over that from primordial gravitational waves on almost all scales if r ≲10-5. If we use the multipoles of the power spectrum up to ℓmax=1 05 and 1 06 in reconstructing the curl mode from 21 cm temperature maps, the signal-to-noise ratios of the 21 cm curl mode from the second-order vector mode achieve S /N ≈0.46 and 73, respectively. Observation of 21 cm radiation is, in principle, a powerful tool to explore not only the tensor mode but also the cosmological vector mode.

  4. Observable cosmological vector mode in the dark ages

    CERN Document Server

    Saga, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    The second-order vector mode is inevitably induced from the coupling of first-order scalar modes in the cosmological perturbation theory, and might hinder a possible detection of primordial gravitational waves from inflation through 21cm lensing observations. Here, we investigate the weak lensing signal in 21cm photons emitted by neutral hydrogen atoms in the dark ages induced by the second-order vector mode, by decomposing the deflection angle of the 21cm lensing signal into the gradient and curl modes. The curl mode is a good tracer of the cosmological vector and tensor modes since the scalar mode does not induce the curl one. By comparing the angular power spectra of the 21cm lensing curl mode induced by the second-order vector mode and the primordial gravitational waves whose amplitude is parameterized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$, we find that the 21cm curl mode from the second-order vector mode dominates over that from the primordial gravitational waves on almost all scales if $r \\lesssim 10^{-5}$....

  5. Aging worlds in contradiction: gerontological observations in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim von Kondratowitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the existing and developing aging regimes in the Northern and Southern rim countries of the whole Mediterranean region which are all undergoing considerable social and political transformation processes. It is argued that several eye-opening theoretical interventions for such a gerontological project may lead to some methodological problems and pitfalls, which have to be dealt with productively. Central collective concepts of such an analysis (as the change-oriented "modernization effects" of societal aging and the continuity-oriented gaze at the "unity of the region" have to be reconsidered and ought to be more differentiated in order to allow smaller social entities (such as kinship and community systems and their connectivity to be central orientations for analyzing poverty and care management in old age in the Mediterranean region. How to reconnect such a rather micro-political agenda with large processes and big structures of aging policies in the region however still remains an open question.

  6. Ageing effects observed in the CERN omega RICH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, K. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)); Engelfried, J. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)); Faller, F. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)); Lennert, P. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)); Michaels, R. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)); Mueller, U. (Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Rieseberg, H. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)); Siebert, H.W. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)); Waelder, G. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    We report on the new drift chambers of the Omega RICH used in the hyperon beam experiment WA89 at the CERN-SPS and in the heavy-ion experiment WA94. After four data-taking runs in 1990/91/92 it was found that the anode wires of the chambers were coated with a smooth layer of 1 [mu]m thickness. Pulse heights were found to be reduced considerably with respect to those observed on new wires. Washing with alcohol and water in an ultrasonic bath restored the original pulse heights. In 1993 the RICH is running again in experiment WA89. (orig.)

  7. Cluster AgeS Experiment (CASE): Deficiency of observed dwarf novae in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrukowicz, P; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Thompson, I B; Pych, W; Krzeminski, W; Mazur, B

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a search for dwarf novae (DNe) in globular clusters (GCs). It is based on the largest available homogeneous sample of observations, in terms of the time span, number of observations and number of clusters. It includes 16 Galactic GCs and yielded two new certain DNe: M55-CV1 and M22-CV2. All previously known systems located in our fields were recovered, too. We surveyed M4, M5, M10, M12, M22, M30, M55, NGC 288, NGC 362, NGC 2808, NGC 3201, NGC 4372, NGC 6362, NGC 6752, omega Cen (NGC 5139) and 47 Tuc (NGC 104). The discovery of two DNe, namely M55-CV1 and M22-CV2, was already reported by Kaluzny et al. (2005) and Pietrukowicz et al. (2005), respectively. In the remaining 14 GCs we found no certain new DNe. Our result raises the total number of known DNe in the Galactic globular clusters to 12 DNe, distributed among 7 clusters. Our survey recovered all three already known erupting cataclysmic variables (CVs) located in our fields, namely M5-V101, M22-CV1, and V4 in the foreground of M3...

  8. Accounting for correlated observations in an age-based state-space stock assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Fish stock assessment models often relyon size- or age-specific observations that are assumed to be statistically independent of each other. In reality, these observations are not raw observations, but rather they are estimates from a catch-standardization model or similar summary statistics based...

  9. Calibrating the lithium-age relation with open clusters observed with GES (Gaia-ESO Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Albarrán, M. L.; Montes, D.; Gómez Garrido, M.; Tabernero, H. M..; González Hernández, J. I.; GES Survey Builders

    2017-03-01

    Li depletion is strongly age-dependent but currently available data have shown a complex pattern of Li depletion on the pre- and main-sequence stars that is not yet understood. The lithium abundance observed in late-type stars depend not only of the age and the temperature but also on metallicity, mixing mechanisms, convection structure, rotation and magnetic activity. The large number of stars observed within the Gaia-ESO survey (GES - https://www.gaia-eso.eu/) for many open clusters and associations can be used to calibrate the lithium-age relation and its dependence with other parameters that can be derived from the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. We present here the preliminary results of the analysis of membership and Li abundance of the young clusters and associations, as well as of the intermediate-age and old open clusters, observed until now in GES (iDR4) in order to conduct a comparative study. All this information allowed us to characterize the properties of the members of these clusters and identify a series of field contaminant stars, both lithium-rich giants and non-giant outliers.

  10. Accumulation of advanced glycation end (AGEs products in intensive care patients: an observational, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommes Johannes H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the course and eventual outcome in a majority of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. Markers to estimate oxidative stress are not readily available in a clinical setting. AGEs accumulation has been merely described in chronic conditions, but can also occur acutely due to oxidative stress. Since AGEs have emerged to be stable end products, these can be a marker of oxidative stress. Skin autofluorescence (AF is a validated marker of tissue content of AGEs. We hypothesized that AGEs accumulate acutely in ICU patients. Methods We performed an observational prospective study in a medical surgical ICU in a university affiliated teaching hospital. All consecutively admitted ICU patients in a 2 month period were included. Skin AF was measured using an AGE reader in 35 consecutive ICU patients > 18 yrs. As a comparison, historical data of a control group (n = 231 were used. These were also used to calculate age-adjusted AF-levels (AFadj. Values are expressed as median and interquartile range [P25-P75]. Differences between groups were tested by non parametric tests. P Results AFadj values were higher in ICU patients (0.33 [0.00 - 0.68] than in controls (-0.07 [-0.29 - 0.24]; P adj were observed between acute or planned admissions, or presence of sepsis, nor was skin AFadj related to severity of disease as estimated by APACHE-II score, length of ICU, hospital stay or mortality. Conclusion Acute AGE accumulation in ICU patients was shown in this study, although group size was small. This can possibly reflect oxidative stress in ICU patients. Further studies should reveal whether AGE-accumulation will be a useful parameter in ICU patients and whether skin AF has a predictive value for outcome, which was not shown in this small study.

  11. Probing the Intermediate-Age Globular Clusters in NGC 5128 from Ultraviolet Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Soo-Chang; Beasley, Michael A; Lee, Young-Wook; Rich, R Michael; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Yi, Sukyoung K; Bianch, Luciana; Kang, Yongbeom; Lee, Kyeongsook; Chung, Chul; Barlow, Tom A; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Wyder, Ted K; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M; Madore, Barry F; Milliard, Bruno; Szalay, A S; Welsh, Barry Y

    2009-01-01

    We explore the age distribution of the globular cluster (GC) system of the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 using ultraviolet (UV) photometry from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observations, with UV - optical colors used as the age indicator. Most GCs in NGC 5128 follow the general trends of GCs in M31 and Milky Way in UV - optical color-color diagram, which indicates that the majority of GCs in NGC 5128 are old similar to the age range of old GCs in M31 and Milky Way. A large fraction of spectroscopically identified intermediate-age GC (IAGC) candidates with ~ 3-8 Gyr are not detected in the FUV passband. Considering the nature of intermediate-age populations being faint in the far-UV (FUV) passband, we suggest that many of the spectroscopically identified IAGCs may be truly intermediate in age. This is in contrast to the case of M31 where a large fraction of spectroscopically suggested IAGCs are detected in FUV and therefore may not be genuine IAGCs but rather older GCs with developed blue horizontal b...

  12. Observations of geometry and ages constrain relative motion of Hawaii and Louisville plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Paul; Kroenke, Loren W.

    2009-07-01

    The classic view of linear island chains as volcanic expressions of interactions between changing plate tectonic motions and fixed mantle plumes has come under renewed scrutiny. In particular, observed paleolatitudes from the Emperor seamounts imply that the Hawaii hotspot was > 5-15° further north during formation of these seamounts and that rapid retardation of its southward migration was the primary agent forming the angular Hawaii-Emperor bend. Supporting this view are predictions from fluid dynamic experiments that suggest the general mantle circulation may displace narrow mantle plumes; consequently the surface locations of hotspots are not fixed and may have varied considerably in the past. However, the locations and ages of available rock samples place fundamental limits on the relative motion between the Hawaii and Louisville hotspots. Here we use such data to estimate empirical age progression curves for separate chains and calculate the continuous variations in hotspot separations through time. While the data are sparse, the inferred inter-hotspot motion for ages > 55 Myr appears significant but the observed relative motion is only about half of what is predicted by mantle dynamics models. To reconcile the observed paleolatitudes with our observed relative motion requires either a larger contemporaneous southward motion of the Louisville hotspot than previously suggested or a moderate component of true polar wander.

  13. The Ages of A-Stars I: Interferometric Observations and Age Estimates for Stars in the Ursa Major Moving Group

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeremy; Boyajian, T; Schaefer, G; Baines, E; Ireland, M; Patience, J; Brummelaar, T ten; McAlister, H; Ridgway, S T; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Farrington, C; Goldfinger, P J

    2015-01-01

    We have observed and spatially resolved a set of seven A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group with the Classic, CLIMB, and PAVO beam combiners on the CHARA Array. At least four of these stars have large rotational velocities ($v \\sin i$ $\\gtrsim$ 170 $\\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements, the stars' observed photometric energy distributions, and $v \\sin i$ values are used to computationally construct model oblate stars from which stellar properties (inclination, rotational velocity, and the radius and effective temperature as a function of latitude, etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models (Paxton et al. 2011, 2013) to determine masses and ages. The value of this new technique is that it enables the estimation of the fundamental properties of rapidly rotating stars without the need to fully image the star. It can thus be applied to stars with sizes comparable to the interferometric resolution limit as oppose...

  14. Observational Constraints on Interacting Model of New Agegraphic Dark Energy and Alleviation of Cosmic Age Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yun-He; Cui, Jing-Lei; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Many dark energy models fail to pass the cosmic age test via the old quasar APM 08279+5255 at redshift $z=3.91$, even the $\\Lambda$CDM model and the holographic dark energy model are not exception. In this paper, we focus on the topic of age problem in the new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) model. We determine the age of the universe in the NADE model by using the fitting result of observational data including type Ia supernovae (SNIa), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB). It is shown that the NADE model also faces the challenge of the age problem caused by the old quasar APM 08279+5255. In order to overcome such a difficulty, we consider the possible interaction between dark energy and matter. We show that the old quasar APM 08279+5255 at redshift $z=3.91$ can be successfully accommodated in the interacting new agegraphic dark energy (INADE) model at $2\\sigma$ level under the current observational constraints.

  15. Access to healthcare and medical expenditure for the middle-aged and elderly: observations from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the evaluation of a healthcare system, it is of interest to identify factors associated with the usage of different healthcare facilities and with different levels of medical expenditure. METHODS: A survey was conducted in January and February of 2012 in China. It focused on the middle-aged and elderly with age of 45 and above. A total of 2,093 people from 1,152 households were surveyed. RESULTS: For inpatient treatment, the probability of using grade III hospitals, which had the highest level of care, was positively associated with age, being married, living in urban areas, and having higher income. For outpatient treatment, the probability of using grade III hospitals was positively associated with age, being married, working in enterprises, living in urban areas, living in central and western regions, and having higher income, and negatively associated with being farmers. The total and out-of-pocket (OOP medical expenses were analyzed separately. It was found that the expense level was associated with age, education, occupation, living in urban areas, type of hospital used, insurance being used, and per capita income. CONCLUSION: The access to healthcare and level of medical expenditure were found as associated with demographic characteristics. In addition, differences between areas and regions were observed. Such results may be useful for identifying vulnerable population and for tuning future healthcare development policies.

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age Matters—Insights from a 4-Year Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moamena El-Matbouly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92% with a mean age of 28 ± 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.. TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34% and middle age group (21%. The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%, subarachnoid (25%, subdural (24%, and epidural hemorrhage (18%. The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%. Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population.

  17. Effects of observing and producing deictic gestures on memory and learning in different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwehand, Kim

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe studies presented in this dissertation aimed to investigate whether observing or producing deictic gestures (i.e., pointing and tracing gestures to index a referent in space or a movement pathway), could facilitate memory and learning in children, young adults, and older adults. More specifically, regarding memory it was investigated whether the use of deictic gestures would improve performance on tasks targeting cognitive functions that are found to change with age (worki...

  18. Observation on lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in Chinese middle-aged men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingLeng; Xu-YuanHuang; Xian-ShengZhang; Yi-RanHuang

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To observe the incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms(LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in Chinese middle-aged men in Shanghai. Methods: In annual medical physical examination,681 Chinese men over 50 years old were evaluated. Each men completed an International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), Quality of Life Assessment (QoL) and International Index for Erectile Funtion (I]EF-5).

  19. Cortical grey matter content is associated with both age and bimanual performance, but is not observed to mediate age-related behavioural decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Serbruyns, Leen; Solesio-Jofre, Elena; Meesen, Raf; Cuypers, Koen; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-01-01

    Declines in both cortical grey matter and bimanual coordination performance are evident in healthy ageing. However, the relationship between ageing, bimanual performance, and grey matter loss remains unclear, particularly across the whole adult lifespan. Therefore, participants (N = 93, range 20-80 years) performed a complex Bimanual Tracking Task, and structural brain images were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. Analyses revealed that age correlated negatively with task performance. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed that age was associated with grey matter declines in task-relevant cortical areas and that grey matter in these areas was negatively associated with task performance. However, no evidence for a mediating effect of grey matter in age-related bimanual performance decline was observed. We propose a new hypothesis that functional compensation may account for the observed absence of mediation, which is in line with the observed pattern of increased inter-individual variance in performance with age.

  20. The influence of speed, cyclists' age, pedaling frequency, and observer age on observers' time to arrival judgments of approaching bicycles and e-bikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleinitz, Katja; Petzoldt, Tibor; Krems, Josef F; Gehlert, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts. The goal of the two experiments presented in this paper was to examine the influence of speed and a variety of other factors on TTA estimation for conventional bicycles and for e-bikes. In both experiments, participants from two age groups (20-45 years old and 65 years or older) watched video sequences of bicycles approaching at different speeds (15-25km/h) and were asked to judge the TTA at the moment the video was stopped. The results of both experiments showed that an increase in bicycle approach speed resulted in longer TTA estimates (measured as the proportion of estimated TTA relative to actual TTA) for both bicycle types (ηp(2)Exp.1=.489, ηp(2)Exp.2=.705). Compared to younger observers, older observers provided shorter estimates throughout (Exp. I: MDiff=0.35, CI [0.197, 0.509], ηp(2)=.332, Exp. II: MDiff=0.50, CI [.317, 0.682], ηp(2)=.420). In Experiment I, TTA estimates for the conventional bicycle were significantly shorter than for the e-bike (MDiff=0.03, CI [.007, 0.044], ηp(2)=.154), as were the estimates for the elder cyclist compared to the younger one (MDiff=0.05, CI [.025, 0.066], ηp(2)=.323). We hypothesized that the cause for this effect might lie in the seemingly reduced pedaling effort for the e-bike as a result of the motor assistance it provides. Experiment II was able to show that a high pedaling

  1. Paternal age, paternal presence and children’s health: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Gardiner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In an observational study of 31,257 children we investigated the effects of paternal age at the time of the child’s birth, paternal absence and non-biological fathers on children’s health. Results are per 5 year change in paternal age. Older fathers were associated with lower rates of unintentional injuries, odds ratio (OR=0.966, P=0.0027. There was a quadratic association between paternal age and risk of hospital admission, β=0.0121, P=0.0109, with minimum risk at paternal age 37.7. Absent fathers were associated with increased risk of hospital admission, OR=1.19, P<10-3, lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.562, P<10-3, higher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ difficulties scores: β=0.304, P=0.0024 (3 year olds, β>=0.697, P<10-3 (5 year olds. Non-biological fathers were associated with increased risk of unintentional injury, OR=1.16, P=0.0319 and hospital admission, OR=1.26, P=0.0166; lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.343, P=0.0309 and higher SDQ difficulties scores: β=0.908, P<10-3.

  2. The Age of the Directly-Imaged Planet Host Star $\\kappa$ Andromedae Determined From Interferometric Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeremy; Quinn, S; Ireland, M; Boyajian, T; Schaefer, G; Baines, E K

    2016-01-01

    $\\kappa$ Andromedae, an early type star that hosts a directly imaged low mass companion, is expected to be oblate due to its rapid rotational velocity ($v\\sin i$ = $\\sim$162 $\\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$). We observed the star with the CHARA Array's optical beam combiner, PAVO, measuring its size at multiple orientations and determining its oblateness. The interferometric measurements, combined with photometry and this $v\\sin i$ value are used to constrain an oblate star model that yields the fundamental properties of the star and finds a rotation speed that is $\\sim$85\\% of the critical rate and a low inclination of $\\sim$30$^\\circ$. Three modeled properties (the average radius, bolometric luminosity, and equatorial velocity) are compared to MESA evolution models to determine an age and mass for the star. In doing so, we determine an age for the system of 47$^{+27}_{-40}$ Myr. Based on this age and previous measurements of the companion's temperature, the BHAC15 evolution models imply a mass for the companion of 22$^...

  3. Observed temporal evolution of global mean age of stratospheric air for the 2002 to 2010 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive observational data set, consisting of more than 106 SF6 vertical profiles from MIPAS measurements distributed over the whole globe has been condensed into monthly zonal means of mean age of air for the period September 2002 to January 2010, binned at 10° latitude and 1–2 km altitude. The data were analysed with respect to their temporal variation by fitting a regression model consisting of a constant and a linear increase term, 2 proxies for the QBO variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones for the correction of the shapes to the observed data set. The impact of subsidence of mesospheric SF6-depleted air and in-mixing into non-polar latitudes on mid-latitudinal absolute age of air and its linear increase was assessed and found to be small.

    The linear increase of mean age of stratospheric air was found to be positive and partly larger than the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009 for most of the Northern mid-latitudes, the middle stratosphere in the tropics, and parts of the Southern mid-latitudes, as well as for the Southern polar upper stratosphere. Multi-year decrease of age of air was found for the lowermost and the upper stratospheric tropics, for parts of Southern mid-latitudes, and for the Northern polar regions. Analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal variation shed light on the coupling of stratospheric regions to each other. In particular, the Northern mid-latitude stratosphere is well coupled to the tropics, while the Northern lowermost mid-latitudinal stratosphere is decoupled, confirming the separation of the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation from the deep branch. We suggest an overall increased tropical upwelling, together with weakening of mixing barriers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, as a hypothetical model to explain the observed pattern of linear multi-year increase/decrease, and amplitudes

  4. Observed temporal evolution of global mean age of stratospheric air for the 2002 to 2010 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An extensive observational data set, consisting of more than 106 SF6 vertical profiles distributed globally from MIPAS measurements has been condensed into monthly zonal means of mean age of air for the period September 2002 to January 2010, binned at 10° latitude and 1–2 km altitude. The data were analysed with respect to their temporal variation by fitting a regression model consisting of a constant and a linear increase term, 2 proxies for the QBO variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones for the correction of the shapes to the observed data set. The impact of subsidence of mesospheric SF6-depleted air and in-mixing into non-polar latitudes on mid-latitudinal absolute age of air and its linear increase was assessed and found to be small.

    The linear increase of mean age of stratospheric air was found to be positive and partly larger than the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009 for most of the Northern mid-latitudes, the middle stratosphere in the tropics, and parts of the Southern mid-latitudes, as well as for the Southern polar upper stratosphere. Multi-year decrease of age of air was found for the lowermost and the upper stratospheric tropics, for parts of Southern mid-latitudes, and for the Northern polar regions. Analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal variation shed light on the coupling of stratospheric regions to each other. In particular, the Northern mid-latitude stratosphere is well coupled to the tropics, while the Northern lowermost mid-latitudinal stratosphere is decoupled, confirming the separation of the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation from the deep branch. We suggest an overall increased tropical upwelling, together with weakening of mixing barriers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, as a hypothetical model to explain the observed pattern of linear multi-year increase/decrease, and amplitudes and phase

  5. Airborne observations of aerosol microphysical properties and particle ageing processes in the troposphere above Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hamburger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of aerosol microphysical properties were performed in May 2008 during the EUCAARI-LONGREX campaign. Two aircraft, the FAAM BAe-146 and DLR Falcon 20, operated from Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. A comprehensive data set was obtained comprising the wider region of Europe north of the Alps throughout the whole tropospheric column. Prevailing stable synoptic conditions enabled measurements of accumulating emissions inside the continental boundary layer reaching a maximum total number concentration of 19 000 particles cm−3 stp. Ultra-fine particles as indicators for nucleation events were observed within the boundary layer during high pressure conditions and after updraft of emissions induced by frontal passages above 8 km altitude in the upper free troposphere. Aerosol ageing processes during air mass transport are analysed using trajectory analysis. The ratio of particles containing a non-volatile core (250 °C to the total aerosol number concentration was observed to increase within the first 12 to 48 h from the particle source from 50 to 85% due to coagulation. Aged aerosol also features an increased fraction of accumulation mode particles of approximately 40% of the total number concentration. The presented analysis provides an extensive data set of tropospheric aerosol microphysical properties on a continental scale which can be used for atmospheric aerosol models and comparisons of satellite retrievals.

  6. Observing Interactions between Children and Adolescents and their Parents: The Effects of Anxiety Disorder and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.

  7. Airborne observations of aerosol microphysical properties and particle ageing processes in the troposphere above Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, T.; McMeeking, G.; Minikin, A.; Petzold, A.; Coe, H.; Krejci, R.

    2012-12-01

    In-situ measurements of aerosol microphysical properties were performed in May 2008 during the EUCAARI-LONGREX campaign. Two aircraft, the FAAM BAe-146 and DLR Falcon 20, operated from Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. A comprehensive data set was obtained comprising the wider region of Europe north of the Alps throughout the whole tropospheric column. Prevailing stable synoptic conditions enabled measurements of accumulating emissions inside the continental boundary layer reaching a maximum total number concentration of 19 000 particles cm-3 stp. Ultra-fine particles as indicators for nucleation events were observed within the boundary layer during high pressure conditions and after updraft of emissions induced by frontal passages above 8 km altitude in the upper free troposphere. Aerosol ageing processes during air mass transport are analysed using trajectory analysis. The ratio of particles containing a non-volatile core (250 °C) to the total aerosol number concentration was observed to increase within the first 12 to 48 h from the particle source from 50 to 85% due to coagulation. Aged aerosol also features an increased fraction of accumulation mode particles of approximately 40% of the total number concentration. The presented analysis provides an extensive data set of tropospheric aerosol microphysical properties on a continental scale which can be used for atmospheric aerosol models and comparisons of satellite retrievals.

  8. Airborne observations of aerosol microphysical properties and particle ageing processes in the troposphere above Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hamburger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of aerosol microphysical properties were performed in May 2008 during the EUCAARI-LONGREX campaign. Two aircraft, the FAAM BAe-146 and DLR Falcon 20, operated from Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. A comprehensive data set was obtained comprising the wider region of Europe north of the Alps throughout the whole tropospheric column. Prevailing stable synoptic conditions enabled measurements of accumulating emissions inside the continental boundary layer reaching a maximum total number concentration of 19 000 particles cm−3 stp. Nucleation events were observed within the boundary layer during high pressure conditions and after updraft of emissions induced by frontal passages above 8 km altitude in the upper free troposphere. Aerosol ageing processes during air mass transport are analysed using trajectory analysis. The ratio of particles containing a non-volatile core (250 °C to the total aerosol number concentration was observed to increase within the first 12 to 48 h from the particle source from 50 to 85% due to coagulation. Aged aerosol also features an increased fraction of accumulation mode particles of approximately 40% of the total number concentration. The presented analysis provides an extensive data set of tropospheric aerosol microphysical properties on a continental scale which can be used for atmospheric aerosol models and comparisons of satellite retrievals.

  9. Estimating true age-dependence in survival when only adults can be observed: an example with Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiksen, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In long-lived birds, pre-breeders are often difficult or impossible to observe, and even though a proportion of marked adults may be of known age, the estimation of age-specific survival is complicated by the absence of observations during the first years of life. New developments in MARK now allow use of an updated individual covariate. We used this powerful approach to model age-dependence in survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony. Although only 69 marked breeders were of known age, there was strong evidence for a quadratic relationship between true age and survival. We believe that this simple but powerful approach could be implemented for many species and could provide improved estimates of how survival changes with age, a central theme in life history theory.

  10. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2009-01-01

    of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... after several negative smear results by age 50 is similar to the risk at younger ages. Even after several negative smear results, age is not a good discriminative factor for early cessation of cervical cancer screening....

  11. New evidence for positive selection helps explain the paternal age effect observed in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Deepali N; Elmer, Dominik P; Calabrese, Peter; Boulanger, Jérôme; Arnheim, Norman; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2013-10-15

    There are certain de novo germline mutations associated with genetic disorders whose mutation rates per generation are orders of magnitude higher than the genome average. Moreover, these mutations occur exclusively in the male germ line and older men have a higher probability of having an affected child than younger ones, known as the paternal age effect (PAE). The classic example of a genetic disorder exhibiting a PAE is achondroplasia, caused predominantly by a single-nucleotide substitution (c.1138G>A) in FGFR3. To elucidate what mechanisms might be driving the high frequency of this mutation in the male germline, we examined the spatial distribution of the c.1138G>A substitution in a testis from an 80-year-old unaffected man. Using a technology based on bead-emulsion amplification, we were able to measure mutation frequencies in 192 individual pieces of the dissected testis with a false-positive rate lower than 2.7 × 10(-6). We observed that most mutations are clustered in a few pieces with 95% of all mutations occurring in 27% of the total testis. Using computational simulations, we rejected the model proposing an elevated mutation rate per cell division at this nucleotide site. Instead, we determined that the observed mutation distribution fits a germline selection model, where mutant spermatogonial stem cells have a proliferative advantage over unmutated cells. Combined with data on several other PAE mutations, our results support the idea that the PAE, associated with a number of Mendelian disorders, may be explained primarily by a selective mechanism.

  12. Age determinations and Earth-based multispectral observations of lunar light plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The history of light plains still remains doubtful, but there are good arguments - mainly obtained by age determinations and supported by multispectral observations - for an endogenic (magmatic) instead of an (exclusively) impact related origin. Light plains are characterized by smooth areas with an albedo lower than the surrounding highlands (12 - 13 percent), but significantly higher than maria (5 - 6 percent). Before Apollo 16 a volcanic source has been supposed, but analysis of returned samples (highly brecciated and metamorphosed rocks) favored an impact ejecta related origin. Among the currently discussed models are formation by ejecta sedimentation from multi-ringed basins, formation by secondary and tertiary cratering action of ballistically ejected material during the formation of multi-ringed basins, in situ formation by impact melt of large events, and premare (crypto-) volcanism basalts covered by a thin ejecta cover; younger impacts penetrated the ejecta surface to create the dark haloed craters. To find arguments in favor or against these ideas the chronology of light plains is of major importance. Obviously a genetic relationship between the evolution of light plains and the basin forming impacts can be possible only if the events of emplacement features happened simultaneously.

  13. Age-Related Observations of Low Mass Pre-Main and Young Main Sequence Stars (Invited Review)

    CERN Document Server

    Hillenbrand, Lynne A

    2008-01-01

    This overview summarizes the age dating methods available for young sub-solar mass stars. Pre-main sequence age diagnostics include the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram, spectroscopic surface gravity indicators, and lithium depletion; asteroseismology is also showing recent promise. Near and beyond the zero-age main sequence, rotation period or vsini and activity (coronal and chromospheric) diagnostics along with lithium depletion serve as age proxies. Other authors in this volume present more detail in each of the aforementioned areas. Herein, I focus on pre-main sequence HR diagrams and address the questions: Do empirical young cluster isochrones match theoretical isochrones? Do isochrones predict stellar ages consistent with those derived via other independent techniques? Do the observed apparent luminosity spreads at constant effective temperature correspond to true age spreads? While definitive answers to these questions are not provided, some methods of progression are outlined.

  14. X-ray Observations of Parsec-Scale Tails behind Two Middle-Aged Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Kargaltsev, O; Pavlov, G G; Wong, J A; Garmire, G P

    2008-01-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton resolved extremely long tails behind two middle-aged pulsars, J1509-5850 and J1740+1000. The tail of PSR J1509-5850 is discernible up to 5.6' from the pulsar (6.5 pc at a distance of 4 kpc), with a flux of 2*10^{-13} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} in 0.5-8 keV. The tail spectrum fits an absorbed power-law (PL) model with the photon index of 2.3\\pm0.2, corresponding to the 0.5-8 keV luminosity of 1*10^{33} ergs s^{-1}, for n_H= 2.1*10^{22} cm^{-2}. The tail of PSR J1740+1000 is firmly detected up to 5' (2 pc at a 1.4 kpc distance), with a flux of 6*10^{-14} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} in 0.4-10 keV. The PL fit yields photon index of 1.4-1.5 and n_H=1*10^{21} cm^{-2}. The large extent of the tails suggests that the bulk flow in the tails starts as mildly relativistic downstream of the termination shock, and then gradually decelerates. Within the observed extent of the J1509-5850 tail, the average flow speed exceeds 5,000 km s^{-1}, and the equipartition magnetic field is a few times 10^{-5} G. For the J1740+...

  15. Observation of Dust Aging Processes During Transport from Africa into the Caribbean - A Lagrangian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, B.; Sauer, D. N.; Walser, A.; Dollner, M.; Reitebuch, O.; Gross, S.; Chouza, F.; Ansmann, A.; Toledano, C.; Freudenthaler, V.; Kandler, K.; Schäfler, A.; Baumann, R.; Tegen, I.; Heinold, B.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles are regularly transported over long distances impacting air quality, health, weather and climate thousands of kilometers downwind of the source. During transport, particle properties are modified thereby changing the associated impact on the radiation budget. Although mineral dust is of key importance for the climate system many questions such as the change of the dust size distribution during long-range transport, the role of wet and dry removal mechanisms, and the complex interaction between mineral dust and clouds remain open. In June/July 2013, the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace) was conducted to study the transport and transformation of Saharan mineral dust. Besides ground-based lidar and in-situ instruments deployed on Cape Verde, Barbados and Puerto Rico, the DLR research aircraft Falcon was equipped with an extended aerosol in-situ instrumentation, a nadir-looking 2-μm wind lidar and instruments for standard meteorological parameters. During SALTRACE, five large dust outbreaks were studied by ground-based, airborne and satellite measurements between Senegal, Cape Verde, the Caribbean, and Florida. Highlights included the Lagrangian sampling of a dust plume in the Cape Verde area on 17 June which was again measured with the same instrumentation on 21 and 22 June 2013 near Barbados. Between Cape Verde and Barbados, the aerosol optical thickness (500 nm) decreased from 0.54 to 0.26 and the stratification of the dust layers changed significantly from a rather homogenous structure near Africa to a 3-layer structure with embedded cumulus clouds in the Caribbean. In the upper part of the dust layers in the Caribbean, the aerosol properties were similar to the observations near Africa. In contrast, much more variability in the dust properties was observed between 0.7 and 2.5 km altitude probably due to interaction of the mineral dust with clouds. In our

  16. Rotation periods and seismic ages of KOIs - comparison with stars without detected planets from Kepler observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceillier, T.; van Saders, J.; García, R. A.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Creevey, O.; Mathis, S.; Mathur, S.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Salabert, D.; Tayar, J.

    2016-02-01

    One of the most difficult properties to derive for stars is their age. For cool main-sequence stars, gyrochronology relations can be used to infer stellar ages from measured rotation periods and Hertzsprung Russell diagram positions. These relations have few calibrators with known ages for old, long rotation period stars. There is a significant sample of old Kepler objects of interest, or KOIs, which have both measurable surface rotation periods and precise asteroseismic measurements from which ages can be accurately derived. In this work, we determine the age and the rotation period of solar-like pulsating KOIs to both compare the rotation properties of stars with and without known planets and enlarge the gyrochronology calibration sample for old stars. We use Kepler photometric light curves to derive the stellar surface rotation periods while ages are obtained with asteroseismology using the Asteroseismic Modelling Portal in which individual mode frequencies are combined with high-resolution spectroscopic parameters. We thus determine surface rotation periods and ages for 11 planet-hosting stars, all over 2 Gyr old. We find that the planet-hosting stars exhibit a rotational behaviour that is consistent with the latest age-rotation models and similar to the rotational behaviour of stars without detected planets. We conclude that these old KOIs can be used to test and calibrate gyrochronology along with stars not known to host planets.

  17. Ageing of Starch Based Systems as observed with FT-IR and Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.L.M.; Ruhnau, F.C.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Soest, van J.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The retrogradation and physical ageing of model starch systems with respect to their glass transition temperatures Tg have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid state NMR spectroscopy. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) spectra demonstrate the com

  18. Ageing of starch based systems as observed with FT-IR and solid state NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Smits, A.L.M.; Ruhnau, F.C.; Soest, J.J.G. van

    1998-01-01

    The retrogradation and physical ageing of model starch systems with respect to their glass transition temperatures Tg have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy and solid state NMR spectroscopy. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) spectra demonstrate the com

  19. Accumulation of advanced glycation end (AGEs) products in intensive care patients: an observational, prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rommes Johannes H; Smit Jitty M; Greven Wendela L; Spronk Peter E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the course and eventual outcome in a majority of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Markers to estimate oxidative stress are not readily available in a clinical setting. AGEs accumulation has been merely described in chronic conditions, but can also occur acutely due to oxidative stress. Since AGEs have emerged to be stable end products, these can be a marker of oxidative stress. Skin autofluorescence (AF) is a v...

  20. Economic Burden of Bilateral Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Multi-Country Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alan F. Cruess; Gergana Zlateva; Xiao Xu; Gisele Soubrane; Daniel Pauleikhoff; Andrew Lotery; Jordi Mones; Ronald Buggage; Caroline Schaefer; Tyler Knight; Goss, Thomas F

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is limited previous research examining the healthcare costs of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD), which constrains our understanding of the economic impact of this condition. With aging populations, this leading cause of rapid vision loss in Western countries is expected to become a pressing health predicament, requiring decision makers to evaluate alternative treatment strategies for AMD. Objective: To document the economic burden of bilateral NV-AMD, th...

  1. P-glycoprotein expression and amyloid accumulation in human aging and Alzheimer's disease: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Catherine; Miller, Miles C; Monahan, Renée; Osgood, Doreen P; Stopa, Edward G; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), part of the blood-brain barrier, limits drug access to the brain and is the target for therapies designed to improve drug penetration. P-gp also extrudes brain amyloid-beta (Aβ). Accumulation of Aβ is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ accumulates in normal aging and in AD primarily due to decreased Aβ clearance. This is a preliminary report on the relative protein and messenger RNA expression of P-gp in human brains, ages 20-100 years, including AD subjects. In these preliminary studies, cortical endothelial P-gp expression decreased in AD compared with controls (p P-gp expression in human aging are similar to aging rats. Microvessel P-gp messenger RNA remained unchanged with aging and AD. Aβ plaques were found in 42.8% of normal subjects (54.5% of those older than 50 years). A qualitative analysis showed that P-gp expression is lower than the group mean in subjects older than 75 years but increased if younger. Decreased P-gp expression may be related to Aβ plaques in aging and AD. Downregulating P-gp to allow pharmaceuticals into the central nervous system may increase Aβ accumulation.

  2. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age

    CERN Document Server

    Massari, Davide; McConnachie, A; Bono, G; Dall'Ora, M; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Stetson, P B; Turri, P; Tolstoy, E

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way and probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. The aim of this work is to obtain an accurate estimate of the absolute age of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using deep IR data obtained with the multi conjugate adaptive optics system operating at the Gemini South telescope (GeMS). This exquisite photometry, combined with that obtained in V and I bands with HST, allowed us the detection of the faint Main Sequence Knee feature in NGC 2808 colour magnitude diagram. The difference between this point and the main sequence turn off is a good age estimator and provides ages with unprecedented accuracy. We found that NGC 2808 has an age of t=10.9\\pm0.7 (intrinsic) \\pm0.45 (metallicity term) Gyr. A possible contamination by He-enhanced population could make the cluster up to 0.25 Gyr older. Although this age estimate agr...

  3. Stratospheric mean ages and transport rates from observations of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boering, K.A.; Wofsy, S.C.; Daube, B.C.; Schneider, H.R. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Conway, T.J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Measurements of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O concentrations are reported and analyzed to investigate stratospheric transport rates. Temporal variations in tropospheric CO{sub 2} are observed to propagate into the stratosphere, showing that tropospheric air enters the lower tropical stratosphere continuously, ascends, and is transported rapidly (in less than 1 month) to both hemispheres. The mean age of stratospheric air determined from CO{sub 2} data is approximately 5 years in the mid-stratosphere. It is shown that the mean age is mathematically equivalent to a conserved tracer analogous to exhaust from stratospheric aircraft. Comparison of the mean age from models and observations indicates that current model simulations likely underestimate pollutant concentrations from proposed stratospheric aircraft by 25-100%. (author) 36 refs.

  4. Whole lifespan microscopic observation of budding yeast aging through a microfluidic dissection platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Avalos Vizcarra, Ima; Huberts, Daphne H E W; Lee, Luke P; Heinemann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Important insights into aging have been generated with the genetically tractable and short-lived budding yeast. However, it is still impossible today to continuously track cells by high-resolution microscopic imaging (e.g., fluorescent imaging) throughout their entire lifespan. Instead, the field st

  5. Do the generalised cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia indicate a rapidly-ageing brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Dragovic

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The nature and pattern of cognitive deficits (CD in schizophrenia and whether the deficits are generalised or domain specific continues to be debated vigorously. We ascertained the pattern of CD in schizophrenia using a novel statistical approach by comparing the similarity of cognitive profiles of patients and healthy individuals. Methods: In a consecutive sample of 78 patients with schizophrenia, performance on six cognitive domains (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, processing speed, verbal fluency and executive functions was measured using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS. The similarity of cognitive profile between patients and two groups of healthy controls (age-matched and older adults who were in the age group of 70-79 was evaluated using a special purpose-built macro. Results: Cognitive performance profiles in various domains of patients with schizophrenia and age-matched controls were markedly similar in shape, but differed in the overall performance, with patients performing significantly below the healthy controls. However, when the cognitive profiles of patients with schizophrenia were compared to those of older adult controls, the profiles remained similar whilst the overall difference in performance vanished. Conclusions: Cognitive deficit in schizophrenia appears to be generalised. Resemblance of cognitive profiles between patients with schizophrenia and older adult controls provides some support for the accelerated ageing hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  6. Teachers' and Pupils' Behavior in Large and Small Classes: A Systematic Observation Study of Pupils Aged 10 and 11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined class size effects on teacher-pupil interactions, pupil engagement, and pupil-pupil interaction. They extended previous research by recognizing the hierarchical nature of observation data and the possible influence of other variables. The study used a time sampling method involving 257 children (aged 10-11 years) in 16 small…

  7. Science Journals in the Garden: Developing the Skill of Observation in Elementary Age Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karinsa Michelle

    The ability to make and record scientific observations is critical in order for students to engage in successful inquiry, and provides a sturdy foundation for children to develop higher order cognitive processes. Nevertheless, observation is taken for granted in the elementary classroom. This study explores how linking school garden experience with the use of science journals can support this skill. Students participated in a month-long unit in which they practiced their observation skills in the garden and recorded those observations in a science journal. Students' observational skills were assessed using pre- and post-assessments, student journals, and student interviews using three criteria: Accuracy, Detail, and Quantitative Data. Statistically significant improvements were found in the categories of Detail and Quantitative Data. Scores did improve in the category of Accuracy, but it was not found to be a statistically significant improvement.

  8. Relinquishing the Practices of a Lifetime: Observations on ageing, caring and literacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hamilton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on ethnographic and case study data from a variety of sources to explore the changing social practices of literacy across the lifespan. It explores the new literacy demands that people encounter with age when dealing with life events in a range of social domains. These include increased leisure; travel; changing family and peer relationships as a result of death and loss; issues of health and disability and accessing new technologies. It reveals how literacy is implicated in peoples' changing sense of time, place and history; how the older person’s identity as a literate actor may be interrupted by both institutional and informal processes of caring and their disengagement from spheres of activity that were previously central markers of their identity. Ageing thus involves both expansion and retreat from familiar literacy practices.

  9. Muscleblind-like 3 deficit results in a spectrum of age-associated pathologies observed in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongkyu; Dixon, Donald M; Dansithong, Warunee; Abdallah, Walid F; Roos, Kenneth P; Jordan, Maria C; Trac, Brandon; Lee, Han Shin; Comai, Lucio; Reddy, Sita

    2016-08-03

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) exhibits distinctive disease specific phenotypes and the accelerated onset of a spectrum of age-associated pathologies. In DM1, dominant effects of expanded CUG repeats result in part from the inactivation of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. To test the role of MBNL3, we deleted Mbnl3 exon 2 (Mbnl3(ΔE2)) in mice and examined the onset of age-associated diseases over 4 to 13 months of age. Accelerated onset of glucose intolerance with elevated insulin levels, cardiac systole deficits, left ventricle hypertrophy, a predictor of a later onset of heart failure and the development of subcapsular and cortical cataracts is observed in Mbnl3(ΔE2) mice. Retention of embryonic splice isoforms in adult organs, a prominent defect in DM1, is not observed in multiple RNAs including the Insulin Receptor (Insr), Cardiac Troponin T (Tnnt2), Lim Domain Binding 3 (Ldb3) RNAs in Mbnl3(ΔE2) mice. Although rare DM1-like splice errors underlying the observed phenotypes cannot be excluded, our data in conjunction with the reported absence of alternative splice errors in embryonic muscles of a similar Mbnl3(ΔE2) mouse by RNA-seq studies, suggest that mechanisms distinct from the adult retention of embryonic splice patterns may make important contributions to the onset of age-associated pathologies in DM1.

  10. Ice formation and development in aged, wintertime cumulus over the UK: observations and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, I.; Bower, K. N.; Choularton, T. W.; Dearden, C.; Crosier, J.; Westbrook, C.; Capes, G.; Coe, H.; Connolly, P. J.; Dorsey, J. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Williams, P.; Trembath, J.; Cui, Z.; Blyth, A.

    2012-06-01

    In situ high resolution aircraft measurements of cloud microphysical properties were made in coordination with ground based remote sensing observations of a line of small cumulus clouds, using Radar and Lidar, as part of the Aerosol Properties, PRocesses And InfluenceS on the Earth's climate (APPRAISE) project. A narrow but extensive line (~100 km long) of shallow convective clouds over the southern UK was studied. Cloud top temperatures were observed to be higher than -8 °C, but the clouds were seen to consist of supercooled droplets and varying concentrations of ice particles. No ice particles were observed to be falling into the cloud tops from above. Current parameterisations of ice nuclei (IN) numbers predict too few particles will be active as ice nuclei to account for ice particle concentrations at the observed, near cloud top, temperatures (-7.5 °C). The role of mineral dust particles, consistent with concentrations observed near the surface, acting as high temperature IN is considered important in this case. It was found that very high concentrations of ice particles (up to 100 L-1) could be produced by secondary ice particle production providing the observed small amount of primary ice (about 0.01 L-1) was present to initiate it. This emphasises the need to understand primary ice formation in slightly supercooled clouds. It is shown using simple calculations that the Hallett-Mossop process (HM) is the likely source of the secondary ice. Model simulations of the case study were performed with the Aerosol Cloud and Precipitation Interactions Model (ACPIM). These parcel model investigations confirmed the HM process to be a very important mechanism for producing the observed high ice concentrations. A key step in generating the high concentrations was the process of collision and coalescence of rain drops, which once formed fell rapidly through the cloud, collecting ice particles which caused them to freeze and form instant large riming particles. The

  11. Ice formation and development in aged, wintertime cumulus over the UK : observations and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In-situ high resolution aircraft measurements of cloud microphysical properties were made in coordination with ground based remote sensing observations of Radar and Lidar as part of the Aerosol Properties, PRocesses And InfluenceS on the Earth's climate (APPRAISE project. A narrow but extensive line (~100 km long of shallow convective clouds over the southern UK was studied. Cloud top temperatures were observed to be higher than ~−8 °C, but the clouds were seen to consist of supercooled droplets and varying concentrations of ice particles. No ice particles were observed to be falling into the cloud tops from above. Current parameterisations of ice nuclei (IN numbers predict too few particles will be active as ice nuclei to account for ice particle concentrations at the observed near cloud top temperatures (~−7 °C. The role of biological particles, consistent with concentrations observed near the surface, acting as potential efficient high temperature IN is considered important in this case. It was found that very high concentrations of ice particles (up to 100 L−1 could be produced by powerful secondary ice particle production emphasising the importance of understanding primary ice formation in slightly supercooled clouds.

    Aircraft penetrations at −3.5 °C, showed peak ice crystal concentrations of up to 100 L−1 which together with the characteristic ice crystal habits observed (generally rimed ice particles and columns suggested secondary ice production had occurred. To investigate whether the Hallett-Mossop (HM secondary ice production process could account for these observations, ice splinter production rates were calculated. These calculated rates and observations could only be reconciled provided the constraint that only droplets >24 μm in diameter could lead to splinter production, was relaxed slightly by 2 μm.

    Model simulations of the case study were also performed with the WRF

  12. Effects of observing and producing deictic gestures on memory and learning in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H.R. Ouwehand (Kim)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe studies presented in this dissertation aimed to investigate whether observing or producing deictic gestures (i.e., pointing and tracing gestures to index a referent in space or a movement pathway), could facilitate memory and learning in children, young adults, and older adults.

  13. Exploring Tree Age & Diameter to Illustrate Sample Design & Inference in Observational Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casady, Grant M.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biology labs often explore the techniques of data collection but neglect the statistical framework necessary to express findings. Students can be confused about how to use their statistical knowledge to address specific biological questions. Growth in the area of observational ecology requires that students gain experience in…

  14. Perceived energy compensation following various sports: an age and sex comparison. Preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley-Campbell, J L; Moore, M S; Ewen, R E; Williams, C A

    2015-12-01

    Following periods of physical activity, it is not uncommon for exercisers to increase their energy intake as a reward deemed 'earned'. Consumers' awareness of the energy within food and expended from exercise has previously been found to be limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether habitual exercisers (50 adults and 49 children from 5 sports clubs) were able to conceptualise the energy expenditure (EE), following 1 h of their regular sports training, into a quantifiable amount of perceived energy compensation (PEC) in the form of food (chocolate) or drink (sports drink). Mean percentage accuracy for the PEC against EE matched sport. Percentage accuracy failed to significantly correlate to age. These findings indicate a necessity to improve nutrition education surrounding the energy costs of exercise relative to the energy contained within foods/drinks for both adults and children.

  15. An observation study on the effects of queen age on some characteristics of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Çakmak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of the queen’s age on performance of the honeybee (A. mellifera anatoliaca colonies at nomad beekeeping conditions. Performances of the colonies, which had 0, 1, 2 and 3 year-old queens, were compared. The number of combs, brood areas, wintering ability survival rate and honey yield were determined as performance criteria. The average number of combs with bees throughout the experiment in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV was 10.92±0.78, 14.68±0.55, 10.10±0.60, 7.88±0.45 number combs/colony; the average of brood areas was 3078±372.5 cm2, 3668±460.3 cm2, 2215±294.0 cm2, 1665.38±241.8 cm2; the average of wintering ability was 84.3±2.9%, 88.0±3.7%, 46.6±19.0%, 26.8±16.5%; the survival rate was 100%, 100%, 60%, 40%; and the average of honey yields was 31.4±1.89 kg, 41.5±1.05 kg, 20.4±2.62 kg and 12.0±1.41 kg per colony, respectively. A significant and negative correlation between queen age and brood production (r=-80.2, colony strength (r=-62.5, wintering ability (r=-66 and honey yield (r=-75.6 were calculated (P<0.01. The colonies headed by young queens had more brood areas, longer worker colony population, better wintering ability and greater honey yield in comparison to colonies headed by old queens.

  16. Tem Observation Of Age-Hardening Precipitation In Mg-Gd-Y Alloys As Different Gd/Y Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the early stage of aging in Mg-Gd-Y alloys has been observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high angle annular dark field – scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM and calculations of images and electron density and bond overlap population (BOP by first principal to understand the origin of precipitation in this alloy. The small hexagon of 0.37 nm is the first precipitate in this alloy, and this is the evidence of short range ordering of D019 structure. This is referred as the pre β”-phase. In the peak aged condition, β’ phase with bco structure was mainly observed.

  17. Possible retrogenesis observed with fiber tracking: an anteroposterior pattern of white matter disintegrity in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Cheung, Raymond Tak-Fai; Lee, Tatia M C; Chu, Leung-Wing; Chan, Ying-Shing; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Zhang, John X; Qiu, Deqiang; Fung, Germaine; Cheung, Charlton

    2011-01-01

    Retrogenesis refers to the phenomenon by which degenerative processes in aging reverse the sequence of acquisition in development. Although there has been some evidence for brain retrogenesis in abnormal aging, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), it has not been explicitly addressed in the normal aging. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tractography, we explored the effects of normal and abnormal aging on the integrity of white matter (WM) in fifty participants, including 18 AD patients, 17 normal elderly, and 15 normal young adults. Compared with young adults, the traditional voxel-based analysis, and the quantitative fiber tracking methods revealed lower fractional anisotrophy (FA) for both normal elderly and AD patients, indicating WM disintegrity in the anterior part of the brain with developmentally late-myelinating fiber bundles. Furthermore, AD patients showed lower FA in the posterior part of the brain with relatively early-myelinating fiber bundles. Additional analysis on axial diffusion and radial diffusion measures suggest that demyelination may be the main mechanism underlying the observed microstructural impairments. Consistent with a proposal of retrogenesis, our results demonstrate an anteroposterior pattern of white matter disintegrity in both normal aging and AD, with the pattern being more salient in the latter than in the former.

  18. Ice formation and development in aged, wintertime cumulus over the UK: observations and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ high resolution aircraft measurements of cloud microphysical properties were made in coordination with ground based remote sensing observations of a line of small cumulus clouds, using Radar and Lidar, as part of the Aerosol Properties, PRocesses And InfluenceS on the Earth's climate (APPRAISE project. A narrow but extensive line (~100 km long of shallow convective clouds over the southern UK was studied. Cloud top temperatures were observed to be higher than −8 °C, but the clouds were seen to consist of supercooled droplets and varying concentrations of ice particles. No ice particles were observed to be falling into the cloud tops from above. Current parameterisations of ice nuclei (IN numbers predict too few particles will be active as ice nuclei to account for ice particle concentrations at the observed, near cloud top, temperatures (−7.5 °C.

    The role of mineral dust particles, consistent with concentrations observed near the surface, acting as high temperature IN is considered important in this case. It was found that very high concentrations of ice particles (up to 100 L−1 could be produced by secondary ice particle production providing the observed small amount of primary ice (about 0.01 L−1 was present to initiate it. This emphasises the need to understand primary ice formation in slightly supercooled clouds. It is shown using simple calculations that the Hallett-Mossop process (HM is the likely source of the secondary ice.

    Model simulations of the case study were performed with the Aerosol Cloud and Precipitation Interactions Model (ACPIM. These parcel model investigations confirmed the HM process to be a very important mechanism for producing the observed high ice concentrations. A key step in generating the high concentrations was the process of collision and coalescence of rain drops, which once formed fell rapidly through the cloud, collecting ice particles which caused them

  19. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patell, Hilla

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of observation, preparation of the adult, the observer, is necessary. This preparation, says Hilla Patell, requires us to "have an appreciation of the significance of the child's spontaneous activities and a more thorough understanding of the child's needs." She discusses the growth of both the desire to…

  20. Dose- and age-dependent cardiovascular mortality among inhabitants of the Chornobyl contaminated areas. 1988-2010 observation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Prikaschikova, K Ye; Domashevska, T Ye; Kostiuk, G V; Gubina, I G; Tereschenko, S O

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to conduct a descriptive epidemiological analysis of cardiovascular disease mortality among people living in contaminated areas of Ukraine with regard for total cumulative effective doses and age at the time of the Chornobyl accident. Materials and methods. Depending on respective total cumulative effective doses for 1986-2010 the people living in contaminated areas of Ukraine were divided into cohorts of those exposed to 5.6-20.99 mSv (cohort 1) and 21.00-50.99 mSv (cohort 2) radiation doses. Each one was stratified by age categories - younger than 18 years old, aged 18-39 and 40-60 respectively. Death rate (ID/10^3 person-years) and mean error (±m) were calculated and Student's test (t) was applied to estimate the mortality from cardiovascular diseases for 1988-2010 period. Results. The significantly higher (ID/10^3 person-years is 8.08 ± 0.10) cardiovascular disease mortality was revealed within 1988-2010 observation period among inhabitants of contaminated areas exposed to 21.00-50.00 mSv total effective radiation doses accumulated over 1986-2010 as compared to that in cohort 1 (ID/10^3 person-years is 6.29 ± 0.06) for the same period. In the age groups (under 18, 18-39 and 40-60 years old) exposed to 21.0-50.0 mSv doses the mortality rate was significantly higher than in the corresponding age groups of the inhabitants with 5.6-20.99 mSv exposure (1.31 ± 0.08 ID/10^3 person-years, 8.50 ± 0.19, 48.95 ± 0.33 vs 0.75 ± 0.04, 5.00 ± 0.11, 23.52 ± 0.24 respectively). In the elder age groups with higher radiation doses the mortality was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those with lower doses: ID/10^3 person-years was 1.31 ± 0.08 vs. 0.75 ± 0.04 (those under 18 years); 8.50 ± 0.19 vs. 5.00 ± 0,11 (those aged 18-39); 48.95 ± 0.33 vs. 23.54 ± 0.24 (people aged 40-60). Among inhabitants with higher radiation doses the mortality rates for certain groups of cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease

  1. An observational study of comorbidity and healthcare utilisation among HIV-positive patients aged 50 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshani; Moore, Thomas; Cooper, Vanessa; McArdle, Conor; Perry, Nicky; Cheek, Elizabeth; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fisher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The number of HIV-positive people aged ≥50 years is rising each year. We measured the prevalence of non-infectious illnesses and their risk factors and described healthcare use in this UK population. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at an outpatient HIV specialist clinic in south east England. Patients age ≥50 years were invited to complete questionnaires measuring demographics, non-infectious illnesses, medication use, lifestyle and healthcare utilisation. The response rate was 67%. Of 299 participants, 84% reported ≥1 comorbid condition and 61% reported ≥2 (multimorbidity). Most commonly reported were high cholesterol, sexual dysfunction, hypertension and depression. In multivariate analyses, age, number of years HIV-positive and duration of antiretroviral therapy remained significant predictors of comorbidity when controlling for lifestyle factors (exercise, smoking and use of recreational drugs and alcohol). Use of non-HIV healthcare services was associated with increasing comorbidity, a longer duration of HIV and recreational drug use. The majority of HIV-patients aged ≥50 years reported multiple comorbidities and this was associated with polypharmacy and increased use of non-HIV services. Further research examining the quality, safety and patient experience of healthcare is needed to inform development of services to optimally meet the needs of older HIV-positive patients.

  2. Techniques of the environmental observer: India's earth remote sensing program in the age of global information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denicola, Lane A.

    This research examines the emergence in India of earth remote sensing (ERS), a principal medium for environmental analysis, communication, and policy-making. ERS---the science and "craft" of analyzing images of terrestrial phenomena collected by aircraft or satellite---constitutes an information technology whose predominance in environmental discourse has grown continuously since first proposed for such applications by American researchers in 1962. Raising many thorny issues in information access and control, the use and popularization of ERS has intensified dramatically since the mid-1980s. In Westernized discourse (both popular and expert), space research and industry are often depicted at a double-remove from the so-called "developing world," where exotic technologies and esoteric goals are overshadowed by patent human needs and a lack of basic infrastructure. Yet advocates hail the utility of ERS in socially relevant applications, and India has amassed upwards of five decades of experience in space, with systems and products rivaled today only by those of the United States and China. A multi-sited ethnography of a nascent visual medium, the dissertation triangulates on its topic by tracing three analytical threads: (1) a diachronic analysis of Indian ERS satellites as an allegory of statehood and participation in the global present, (2) a synchronic analysis of ERS imagery as a discursive artifact and global information commodity, and (3) an analysis of interpretive practice as observed through a single class of Indian and foreign students at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), considered here as an "interpretive community" of environmental experts. The dissertation is the result of four years of research with ERS students, faculty, researchers, users and administrators in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey and India. In particular, I conducted nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in India in 2002 and 2005, the latter half of which was spent in participant-observation

  3. Neurobehavioral observation and hearing impairment in children at school age in eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T.; Petrik, J.; Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Wimmerova, S.; Wsolova, L. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Neurotoxicity of PCBs has been reported in humans and confirmed in animal studies. It was shown that PCBs can alter a number of developmental physiological processes in which the thyroid plays an essential role. In children, the prenatal exposure to PCBs was associated with reduced birth weight and poor recognition memory. In children with longer duration of breast feeding implying higher PCB exposure, altered behavior, lengthening of psychomotor activities, worse attention, and worse memory performance were found. The so far published data on the association between PCBs exposure and hearing were based mainly on animal observations. Low-frequency auditory impairments have been documented in PCB exposed rats, including elevated behavioral auditory thresholds, decreased amplitude and prolonged latency auditory evoked brain stem responses. Two papers were related to humans only. The first one reported PCB-associated increased thresholds at two out of eight frequencies on audiometry, but only on the left side, and no deficits on evoked potentials or contrast sensitivity in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants. The other paper was focused on hearing impairments in boys of fish-eating mothers, but no individual PCB exposure data were available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between exposure to PCBs and health outcomes assessed, as performance in neurobehavioral tests, thyroid hormones production and hearing status. Selected confounder factors such as heavy metals and health/social background of development in children were also taken into consideration.

  4. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  5. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gypsyamber D'Souza

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC. METHODS: This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. RESULTS: Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. CONCLUSION: There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  6. First Observational Signature of Rotational Deceleration in a Massive, Intermediate-age Star Cluster in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaohan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    While the extended main-sequence turn-offs (eMSTOs) found in almost all 1--2 Gyr-old star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds are often explained by postulating extended star-formation histories, the tight subgiant branches (SGBs) seen in some clusters challenge this popular scenario. Puzzlingly, the SGB of the eMSTO cluster NGC 419 is significantly broader at bluer than at redder colors. We carefully assess and confirm the reality of this observational trend. If we would assume that the widths of the features in color--magnitude space were entirely owing to a range in stellar ages, the star-formation histories of the eMSTO stars and the blue SGB region would be significantly more prolonged than that of the red part of the SGB. This cannot be explained by assuming an internal age spread. We show that rotational deceleration of a population of rapidly rotating stars, a currently hotly debated alternative scenario, naturally explains the observed trend along the SGB. Our analysis shows that a `converging' SGB cou...

  7. Clinical Observation on the Aggressive Lipid-lowering Treatment with Simvastatin on the Aged Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ying; Bu Congya; Zhou Yujie

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To find out the efficient dose and safety of simvastatin (Zocor) on the aged patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for aggressive lipid-lowering treatment. Methods Select 95 aged patients with CAD combined with primary hyperlipemia and give them 20 mg/day of simvastatin for treatment. According to the therapeutic target of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) regulate the dosage of simvastatin in follow-up. Observe 12~18 months. Results After treatment, the TC, LDL-C and triglycerides(TG)of the patients reduced by 40%, 52% and 26% respectively, while there was no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The apolipoprotein A1 arose by 14.4%, while the apolipoprotein B lowered by 25.0%. The ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C was reduced to 1.96. In the 6th month, the 12th month and the 18th month, respectively, 86%,93% and 95% of the patients took 10 mg/day of simvastatin and the result was their TC ≤ 140 mg/dL (3.7 mmol/L) and LDL-C ≤70 mg/dL(1.8 mmol/L).There was no special side-effect. Multi-factor analysis indicated the age of the patients was a significant factor affecting the adjustment of the dosage of simvastatin.Conclusions The therapeutic result of simvastatin on the aged patients with CAD for aggressive lipid-lowring treatment is definite, safe and the dose is lower as well.

  8. Long-Term Changes in Stratospheric Age Spectra in the 21st Century in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan E.; Ma, Jun; Nielsen, J. Eric; Liang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the long-term variations in the stratospheric age spectra using simulations of the 21st century with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry- Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Our purposes are to characterize the long-term changes in the age spectra and identify processes that cause the decrease of the mean age in a warming climate. Changes in the age spectra in the 21st century simulations are characterized by decreases in the modal age, the mean age, the spectral width, and the tail decay timescale. Our analyses show that the decrease in the mean age is caused by two processes: the acceleration of the residual circulation that increases the young air masses in the stratosphere, and the weakening of the recirculation that leads to the decrease of tail of the age spectra and the decrease of the old air masses. The weakening of the stratospheric recirculation is also strongly correlated with the increase of the residual circulation. One important result of this study is that the decrease of the tail of the age spectra makes an important contribution to the decrease of the main age. Long-term changes in the stratospheric isentropic mixing are investigated. Mixing increases in the subtropical lower stratosphere, but its impact on the age spectra is outweighed by the increase of the residual circulation. The impacts of the long-term changes in the age spectra on long-lived chemical traces are also investigated. 37 2

  9. Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain age and method of cyst production influence the observed efficacy of therapeutic agents and contact lens disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Reanne; Heaselgrave, Wayne; Kilvington, Simon

    2003-10-01

    The effects of age in culture and the type of medium used for induction of Acanthamoeba polyphaga (Ros) cysts on susceptibilities to polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB; 3 micro g/ml), chlorhexidine digluconate (30 micro g/ml), myristamidopropyl dimethylamine (20 micro g/ml), H(2)O(2) (3%), and two multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPS-1 and MPS-2, based on 1 micro g of PHMB per ml) were examined. Strain Ros-02 was cryopreserved on isolation in 1991, while strain Ros-91 had been in continuous axenic culture. Significant differences in susceptibilities to the disinfectants were found depending on the medium used for cyst preparation and the age of the test strain, with Ros-02 generally being more resistant. For example, the killing of Ros-91 cysts produced from an axenic culture of trophozoites in the presence of 50 mM MgCl(2) by MPS-2 was 4 logs, but the killing of Ros-02 by MPS-2 was only 2 logs (P < 0.05) and killing of both strains with cysts obtained from monoxenic cultures with Escherichia coli was only 1 log (P < 0.001). Assays repeated with different batches of the various cyst types gave consistent results. A batch of Ros-91 cysts stored at 4 degrees C and tested over an 8-week period with MPS-1 showed progressively increasing susceptibility to disinfection, although there was no loss of viability during storage (P < 0.01). These observations have important implications for the standardization and interpretation of Acanthamoeba disinfectant and therapeutic agent testing.

  10. Amputations and foot ulcers in patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and observed for 19 years. The role of age, gender and co-morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, C; Siersma, V.; Guassora, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of foot ulcers and the incidence of amputations in patients with Type 2 diabetes observed for 19 years after diagnosis. We investigated the role of gender, age and co-morbidities.......To determine the prevalence of foot ulcers and the incidence of amputations in patients with Type 2 diabetes observed for 19 years after diagnosis. We investigated the role of gender, age and co-morbidities....

  11. New observations by visualizing age stratification and internal dynamics of freshwater lenses in heterogeneous media - laboratory experiments and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, L.; Dose, E.; Houben, G.; Himmelsbach, T.

    2012-12-01

    We performed a series of multi-tracer laboratory scale experiments in a transparent sand-box model to visualize (a) processes during the genesis of freshwater lenses and (b) their internal dynamics. For physical modeling an acrylic glass box was used to simulate a cross section of an island, similar to Stoeckl & Houben (2012). Degassed salt water with a density of 1023 kg/m3 was injected from the bottom, saturating the sand inside the model. Fluorescent tracer dyes uranine, eosine and indigotine were used to mark the infiltrating fresh water from the top. All experiments were filmed and analyzed using fast motion mode. We performed two different types of experimental set-up according to Vacher (1988): (1) Layers of different hydraulic conductivity: By filling the sand-box model with sand of different grain sizes, layers of different hydraulic conductivity could be simulated. (2) Recharge distribution: By recharging the island heterogeneously we could observe shifts in the geometry of the freshwater lens. A novel approach of using different tracer colors and varying them spatially and over time within the recharge waters allowed us to visualize and measure internal flow processes. Age stratification and flow paths could therefore be investigated. Moreover, a combination of temporal and spatial tracer color variation in one single experiment enabled us to measure flow velocities of freshwater movement. Additionally, by injecting small amounts of tracer in the salt water environment, movements near the interface between fresh- and saltwater could be observed. Using the finite element model FEFLOW we could model the density driven dynamics of our small scale freshwater lens, including its formation and the degradation after turning off the recharge water. This is important to fill the gap between our physical sand-box model and ongoing field investigations. The main focus of this work is the effects of climate change as well as geological and morphological

  12. Hydrological evidence for a North Atlantic oscillation during the Little Ice Age outside its range observed since 1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín-Puertas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual-resolved precipitation reconstruction for the last 800 yr in Southern Spain has been performed using stable carbon isotope (δ13C of Pinus nigra tree rings. The reconstruction exhibits high- to low-frequency variability and distinguishes a Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1350–1850 characterized by lower averaged rainfall than both in the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the LIA and in the 20th century. The driest conditions are recorded during the Maunder solar Minimum (mid 17th–early 18th centuries, in good agreement with the Spanish documentary archive. Similar linkage between solar activity (maximum/minimum and precipitation (increase/decrease is observed throughout the entire LIA. Additionally, the relationship between the hydrological pattern in the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco during the LIA suggests different spatial distribution of precipitation in the south-eastern sector of the North Atlantic region such as it is known currently. Whereas in the instrumental record the precipitation evolves similarly in both regions and opposite to the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO index, the coldest periods of the LIA shows a contrasting pattern with drier conditions in the South of Spain and wetter in Northern Africa. We suggest an extreme negative NAO conditions, accompanied by a southward excursion of the winter rainfall band beyond that observed in the last century, can explain this contrast. The sustained NAO conditions could have been triggered by solar minima and higher volcanic activity during the LIA.

  13. The Luminosity, Mass, and Age Distributions of Compact Star Clusters in M83 Based on HST/WFC3 Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chandar, Rupali; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaleida, Catherine; Mutchler, Max; Calzetti, Daniela; Saha, Abhijit; O'Connell, Robert; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael; Dopita, Michael A; Frogel, Jay A; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; McCarthy, Patrick; Paresce, Francesco; Silk, Joe; Trauger, John; Walker, Alistair R; Windhorst, Rogier A; Young, Erick

    2010-01-01

    The newly installed Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain multi-band images of the nearby spiral galaxy M83. These new observations are the deepest and highest resolution images ever taken of a grand-design spiral, particularly in the near ultraviolet, and allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars and to measure the luminosities of even faint clusters in the U band. We find that the luminosity function for clusters outside of the very crowded starburst nucleus can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL \\propto L^{alpha}, with alpha = -2.04 +/- 0.08, down to M_V ~ -5.5. We test the sensitivity of the luminosity function to different selection techniques, filters, binning, and aperture correction determinations, and find that none of these contribute significantly to uncertainties in alpha. We estimate ages and masses for the clusters by comparing their measured UBVI,Halpha colors with predictions from single stellar population models....

  14. A prospective, observational, open-label, multicentre study to investigate the daily treatment practice of ranibizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, F. van; Evers-Birkenkamp, K.U.; Lith-Verhoeven, J.J. van; Jong-Hesse, Y. de; Hoppenreijs, V.P.T.; Hommersom, R.F.; Scholten, A.M.; Hoyng, C.B.; Klaver, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The HELIOS (Health Economics with Lucentis in Observational Settings) study was designed on request of the Dutch Health Authority for an observational study to assess the effectiveness and safety of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) in daily practice. ME

  15. Transmission electron microscopic observation of precipitates in an aged Pb-0.1wt.%Ca-0.3wt.%Sn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muras, L. [Bradken Consolidated Ltd., Waratah, NSW (Australia); Munroe, P.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of NSW, Sydney (Australia); Blairs, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of NSW, Sydney (Australia); Krauklis, P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of NSW, Sydney (Australia); Chen, Z.W. [CSIRO Div. of Mfg. Technology, Brisbane Lab., Kenmore, Qld. (Australia); See, J.B. [Pasminco Research Centre, Boolaroo, NSW (Australia)

    1995-05-01

    Samples of a Pb-0.1wt.%Ca-0.3wt.%Sn alloy were cast and either air-cooled or ice-water-quenched. They were then age-hardened for 400 days at ambient temperature and examined by thin foil transmission electron microscopy. In the air-cooled and aged condition, the alloy exhibits a sluggish ageing response, while a rapid ageing response occurs in the water-quenched and aged samples. In both types of sample, precipitate dispersions were observed. These are tentatively identified as Pb{sub 3}Ca with an ordered L1{sub 2} crystal structure. In the air-cooled and aged condition, the particles were about 100 nm in diameter and occurred in planar arrays consistent with precipitation on migrating grain boundaries. In the water-quenched and aged samples, the particles were about 10 nm in diameter and uniformly distributed with a smaller interparticle spacing, which is probably due to nucleation on tangle dislocations. The more rapid ageing kinetics in the water-quenched and aged condition are attributed to the excess vacancy concentration produced by quenching. (orig.)

  16. Muscleblind-like 3 deficit results in a spectrum of age-associated pathologies observed in myotonic dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) exhibits distinctive disease specific phenotypes and the accelerated onset of a spectrum of age-associated pathologies. In DM1, dominant effects of expanded CUG repeats result in part from the inactivation of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. To test the role of MBNL3, we deleted Mbnl3 exon 2 (Mbnl3 ΔE2 ) in mice and examined the onset of age-associated diseases over 4 to 13 months of age. Accelerated onset of glucose intolerance with elevated insulin level...

  17. [Cyclothymia of advanced age (based on data from observations at the geriatric psychiatry office of a general-type polyclinic)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlova, N M; Moroz, I B

    1988-01-01

    Cyclothymia was studied in 129 patients aged over 60 in the gerontology unit of an outpatient clinic in Moscow. Premanifest period of the disease was analyzed clinically to single out the functional and somatic disorders. The typology of the first cyclothymic phases and conditions of their development are described as related to the ages of the disease manifestation under 60 vs over 60. The data evidencing the polar nature of the affective disorders are presented to characterize the natural history of the ailment in senile cyclothymic patients.

  18. Observation of granulations in the basal body of ovarioles and follicular dilatations for the determination of physiological age ofAnopheles gambiaes.s.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigue Anagonou; Virgile Gnanguenon; Fiacre Agossa; Bruno Akinro; Armand Akpo; Martial Gbegbo; Albert Salako; Martin Akogbto

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore ovariole basal body granulations and follicular dilatations for determining physiological age inAnopheles gambiaes.s.(An. gambiaes.s.). Methods: Mosquitoes were collected by using window trap catch and identified morphologically. For the first lot ofmosquitoes, they were dissected, and ovary was left in distilled water for reading ovarian tracheoles and the second was cut and transferred to another blade in a physiological liquid for verification of ovariole basal body granulations. The same approach was followed with the second lot of mosquitoes where follicular dilatations were found after classic dilaceration of ovaries were transferred into physiological liquid. The other body parts of mosquitoes were used to identify the species of theAn. gambiaes.s. complex by PCR. Results:Among the 123An. gambiae s.s. of the first lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 89 mosquitoes versus 114 for the observation of granulations (P > 0.05). Among the 112An. gambiae s.s. of the second lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 84 mosquitoes versus 93 for the observation of follicular dilatations (P > 0.05). Unlike the method of Detinova, observation of follicular dilatations and basal body granulations of ovarioles were possible beyond the stage II Christophers. Conclusions: Overall, the observation of follicular dilatations and ovariole basal body granulations are reliable for the determination of the physiological age inAn. gambiaes.s. Furthermore, these two methods can be used beyond the stage II.

  19. Characterizing Ultraviolet and Infrared Observational Properties for Galaxies. I. Influences of Dust Attenuation and Stellar Population Age

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Ye-Wei; Hao, Cai-Na; Kong, Xu; Zhou, Xu

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between infrared-to-ultraviolet luminosity ratio and ultraviolet color, i.e. the IRX-UV relation, was regarded as a prevalent recipe for correcting extragalactic dust attenuation. Considerable dispersion in this relation discovered for normal galaxies, however, complicates its usability. In order to investigate the cause of the dispersion, in this paper, we select five spiral nearby galaxies, and perform spatially resolved studies on each individual of the galaxies, with combination of ultraviolet and infrared imaging data. We measure all positions within each galaxy and divide the extracted regions into young and evolved stellar populations. By means of this approach, we attempt to discover separate effects of dust attenuation and stellar population age on the IRX-UV relation for individual galaxies. In this work, in addition to dust attenuation, stellar population age is interpreted to be another parameter in the IRX-UV function, and the diversity of star formation histories is suggested to ...

  20. Intra- and inter-observer variation in histological criteria used in age at death determination based on femoral cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Thomsen, J L; Frohlich, B

    1998-01-01

    been carried out dealing with the intra- and inter-observer error. Furthermore, when such studies have been completed, the statistical tools for assessing variability have not been adequate. This study presents the results of applying simple quantitative statistics on several counts of microscopic...... elements as observed on photographic images of cortical bone, in order to assess intra- and inter-observer error. Overall, substantial error was present at the level of identifying and counting secondary osteons, osteon fragments and Haversian canals. Only secondary osteons can be reliably identified...

  1. Analysis of observations and modeling of criteria pollutants and photochemical age indicators during MILAGRO at Tenango del Aire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Suarez, L. G.

    2009-04-01

    We report measurements and modeling results from the mobile air quality monitoring unit and other instruments in Tenango del Aire (TA). Tenango del Aire is a small town in the mountain pass between the Siera de Chichinautzin and the Popocatepel and Iztachiuatl Volcanos. The pass joins the Valley of Mexico and the Valley of Cuernavaca. TA was the most shouter and equipped site on that flank of MILAGRO. We compare model results and measurements of O3, NOx, NOy, CO, SO2, CH2O, mixing high and some VOC speciated analysis. Indicators of photochemical age as O3/CO, NOy/CO, are also reported. Mean hourly averages for all the campaign are reported. Specific episodes are also analyzed in depth. Evidence of a polluted regional background atmosphere is shown. The basic average surface transport patern was as follows, from 09:00 to 12:00 winds from the north arrive to TA bringing fresh polluted parcels from the highly populated sowtheast parts of the MCMA. Between 12:00 and 13:00 hours a shift of wind direction brings back those or parts of those parcels and parcels farer away. Most of the times, this conditions continues until next morning when for few hours air again drains south from the valley of Mexico. Ozone reaches a maximum value between 12:00 and 13:00, and these values stay still until after 18:00. Average value of this plateau is 80 ppb. During this plateau indicators as O3/CO and NOy/CO show that air parcels passing over TA are photochemicaly aged.

  2. Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations of the First Quasars: X-Rays from the Age of Cosmic Enlightenment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, C.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Anderson, S. F.; Fan, X.; Gunn, J. E.; Kaspi, S.; Richards, G. T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2003-06-01

    We report on Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 13 quasars at z~4.7-5.4 mostly taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The present sample complements previous X-ray studies of z>=4 quasars, in which the majority of the objects are optically more luminous and at lower redshifts. All but two of our quasars have been detected in the X-ray band, thus doubling the number of z>=4.8 X-ray-detected quasars. The two nondetections are likely to be due to a short exposure time (SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3) and to the presence of intrinsic absorption (SDSSp J173744.87+582829.5). We confirm and extend to the highest redshifts the presence of a correlation between AB1450(1+z) magnitude and soft X-ray flux for z>=4 quasars and the presence of a steeper optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution (parameterized by αox) for high-luminosity, high-redshift quasars than for lower luminosity, lower redshift quasars. The second effect is likely due to the known anticorrelation between αox and rest-frame 2500 Å luminosity, whose significance is confirmed via partial correlation analysis. The joint ~2.5-36 keV rest-frame spectrum of the z>4.8 SDSS quasars observed thus far by Chandra is well parameterized by a power law with photon index Γ=1.84+0.31-0.30; this photon index is consistent with those of z~0-3 quasars and that obtained from joint spectral fitting of z~4.1-4.5 optically luminous Palomar Digital Sky Survey quasars. No evidence for widespread intrinsic X-ray absorption has been found (NH<~4.0×1022 cm-2 on average at 90% confidence). We also obtained Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) photometric observations for eight of our target quasars. None of these shows significant (greater than 30%) optical variability over the time interval of a few years (in the observed frame) between the SDSS and HET observations.

  3. AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF CHANGING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRENDS IN INCIDENCE OF PEPTIC PERFORATION IN AGE GROUP 15-45 YEARS IN M. Y. HOSPITAL, INDORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Chouhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM To investigate the recent change in epidemiology of benign peptic perforation in young adults. METHODS This is a prospective population-based single centre observational study of all patients diagnosed with benign perforated peptic ulcer; included were both gastric and duodenal ulcer patients admitted to Maharaja Yeshwantrao Hospital, Indore, between September 2013 and September 2015. Ulcers with a malignant neoplasia diagnosis verified by histology after biopsy, traumatic perforation, and perforation of age group >45 and 40 years, the incidence increased over 4 times and mortality more than 12 times compared to younger age <20 years. After 1 month followup, out of 172 discharged patients, 145 (84% patients came with symptoms resolved or having no complication. After 2 months followup, 158 (92% patients came with symptoms resolved and 166 (96% patients changed their dietary habits and lifestyle. CONCLUSION The incidence rate and mortality rate was stable. In our study, we found male preponderance, may be due to their lifestyle changes. Maximum number patients are found in age group 41-45 years. As in all previous studies, as age advances, incidence of peptic perforation also increases. Also, found strong relationship between consumption of oily or spicy food and non-vegetarian food with incidence of peptic perforation. Relation of peptic perforation with NSAIDs, smoking, and alcoholism follows same trends as in previous studies.

  4. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the first quasars X-rays from the age of cosmic enlightenment

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Schneider, D P; Anderson, S F; Fan, X; Gunn, J E; Kaspi, S; Richards, G T; Strauss, M A; Strauss, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 13 quasars at z~4.7-5.4 mostly taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The present sample complements previous X-ray studies of z>4 quasars, in which the majority of the objects are optically more luminous and at lower redshifts. All but two of our quasars have been detected in the X-ray band, thus doubling the number of z>4.8 X-ray detected quasars. The two non-detections are likely to be due to a short exposure time and to the presence of intrinsic absorption. We confirm and extend to the highest redshifts the presence of a correlation between AB1450(1+z) magnitude and soft X-ray flux for z>4 quasars, and the presence of a steeper optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution (parameterized by aox) for high-luminosity, high-redshift quasars than for lower-luminosity, lower-redshift quasars. The second effect is likely due to the known anti-correlation between aox and rest-frame 2500 Angstrom luminosity, whose significance is confirmed v...

  5. Association between different risk factors and vascular accelerated ageing (EVA study): study protocol for a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus Ma; Sanchez-Fernandez, Pedro L; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The process of population ageing that is occurring in developed societies represents a major challenge for the health system. The aim of this study is to analyse factors that have an influence on early vascular ageing (EVA), estimated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and Cardio Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI), and to determine differences by gender in a Spanish population. Methods and analysis An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Study population From the population assigned to the participating healthcare centres, a cluster random sampling stratified by age and gender will be performed to obtain 500 participants aged between 35 and 75. Those who meet the inclusion criteria and give written informed consent will be included in the study. Measurements Main dependent variables: cf-PWV determined using the SphygmoCor System and CAVI estimated using VASERA. Secondary dependent variables: telomere length, carotid intima-media thickness, central and peripheral augmentation index, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, retinal arteriovenous index, and renal and cardiac organ damage. Independent variables: lifestyles (physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption); psychological factors (depression, anxiety and chronic stress); inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent form agreeing to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow the understanding of the relationship of the different influencing factors and their relative weight in the development of EVA. At least 5 publications in first-quartile scientific journals are planned. Trial registration number NCT02623894; Pre

  6. A prospective observational study of early fetal growth velocity and its association with birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudeva, Akhila, E-mail: akhilavasudeva@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Abraham, Anu Annie, E-mail: anuannieabraham@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Kamath, Asha, E-mail: aashakamat@gmail.com [Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, A Constituent College of Manipal University (India)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: We aimed to measure early fetal growth velocity and to correlate this with the birth weight, gestational age at delivery, and with the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes specifically preeclampsia and perinatal mortality. Methods: A data based prospective observational study, wherein sonographic biometry data and specific pregnancy outcome related data were collected from pregnant women's records, starting soon after their first antenatal visit. Early fetal growth velocity was measured using BPD growth between 11 and 14 weeks scan and anomaly scan and standardizing this by Z scoring. Results: Out of 607 fetuses, 41 (6.7%) were slow growing, 531 (87.4%) normally growing, and 35 (5.7%) fast growing (Z scoring <10th{sup ,} 10–90th, and >90th percentiles respectively). As fetal growth velocity increased, the mean birth weight decreased from 2958.7 ± 388.9 (<10th centile), 2742.1 ± 576.6 (10–90th centile), to 2339.3 ± 729.4 (>90th centile); and gestational age at delivery decreased from 38.5 ± 1.3 (<10th centile), 37.5 ± 2.1 (10–90th centile), to 36.4 ± 2.2 (>90th centile), and both these trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001).Faster growing fetuses had a higher risk of preterm delivery(spontaneous + indicated) compared to other 2 groups [OR 4.42 (2.18,8.98)], and slower growing fetuses had a higher risk of postdated deliveries compared to other 2 groups [OR 3.042 (1.44, 6.45)].We found no significant association between early fetal growth velocity and incidence of small for gestational age at birth/low birth weight at term, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Early fetal growth velocity between first and second trimesters, may be one of the important factors influencing ultimate birthweight and gestational age at delivery.

  7. Ellagic acid metabolism by human gut microbiota: consistent observation of three urolithin phenotypes in intervention trials, independent of food source, age, and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Villalba, Rocío; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Selma, María V; Espín, Juan C

    2014-07-16

    Three phenotypes for urolithin production after ellagitannin and ellagic acid intake are consistently observed in different human intervention trials. Subjects can be stratified into three urolithin-producing groups. "Phenotype A" produced only urolithin A conjugates, which included between 25 and 80% of the volunteers in the different trials. "Phenotype B" produced isourolithin A and/or urolithin B in addition to urolithin A, this being the second relevant group (10-50%). "Phenotype 0" (5-25%) was that in which these urolithins were not detected. The three phenotypes were observed independently of the volunteers' health status and demographic characteristics (age, gender, body mass index (BMI)) and of the amount or type of ellagitannin food source ingested (walnuts and other nuts, strawberries, raspberries, and other berries or pomegranates). Interestingly, a higher percentage of phenotype B was observed in those volunteers with chronic illness (metabolic syndrome or colorectal cancer) associated with gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis). These urolithin phenotypes could show differences in the human gut microbiota and should be considered in intervention trials dealing with health benefits of ellagitannins or ellagic acid. Whether this phenotypic variation could be a biomarker related to differential health benefits or illness predisposition deserves further research.

  8. Patient perspective on herpes zoster and its complications: an observational prospective study in patients aged over 50 years in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhassira, Didier; Chassany, Olivier; Gaillat, Jacques; Hanslik, Thomas; Launay, Odile; Mann, Claude; Rabaud, Christian; Rogeaux, Olivier; Strady, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the effect of herpes zoster and zoster-related pain should inform care to improve health-related quality of life in elderly patients. A 12-month, longitudinal, prospective, multicenter observational study conducted in primary care in France enrolled patients aged ≥ 50 years with acute eruptive herpes zoster. Patient-reported zoster-related pain was assessed by validated questionnaires (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions [DN4], Zoster Brief Pain Inventory [ZBPI], and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI]) on days 0 and 15, and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale on day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. Of 1358 patients included, 1032 completed follow-up. Mean ± standard deviation age was 67.7 ± 10.7 (range, 50-95) years; 62.2% were women. Most patients (94.1%) were prescribed antiviral drugs. The prevalence of zoster-related pain on day 0 and at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 was 79.6%, 11.6%, 8.5%, 7.4%, and 6.0%, respectively. Patients with persistent pain had lower scores on the physical and mental component summaries of the SF-12 and the ZBPI interference score than those without pain. By logistic regression analysis, main predictive factors on day 0 for postherpetic neuralgia at month 3 were age, male sex, ZBPI interference score, Physical Component Summary score of the SF-12, and neuropathic quality of pain (DN4 score ≥ 4). Despite early diagnosis and treatment with antiviral agents, many patients with herpes zoster experience persistent pain and marked long-term reduction in health-related quality of life.

  9. Aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1995-01-16

    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  10. The effects of methylphenidate on the classroom behavior of elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Frank J; Tervo, Raymond C; Kim, Ockjean; Hoch, John

    2007-01-01

    High- and low-dose methylphenidate administration was evaluated prospectively for 3 elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy, cognitive impairments, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using single-case, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled designs. An observational time sampling protocol was used to directly measure and quantify classroom behavior. Summary level analysis showed that (1) low-dose (0.3 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with clinically significant (>50%) reductions in stereotyped and disruptive behavior relative to baseline and placebo conditions, (2) high-dose (0.5 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with exacerbated amounts of stereotyped and disruptive behavior, and (3) no changes were directly observed for task-related behavior at either dose. Results are discussed with respect to previous research with methylphenidate administration and cerebral palsy, and the suggestion is made that further work using larger, randomly selected study samples with complementary measures of behavior and performance appears warranted.

  11. Transit time distributions and StorAge Selection functions in a sloping soil lysimeter with time-varying flow paths: Direct observation of internal and external transport variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseok; Pangle, Luke A.; Cardoso, Charléne; Lora, Marco; Volkmann, Till H. M.; Wang, Yadi; Harman, Ciaran J.; Troch, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Transit times through hydrologic systems vary in time, but the nature of that variability is not well understood. Transit times variability was investigated in a 1 m3 sloping lysimeter, representing a simplified model of a hillslope receiving periodic rainfall events for 28 days. Tracer tests were conducted using an experimental protocol that allows time-variable transit time distributions (TTDs) to be calculated from data. Observed TTDs varied with the storage state of the system, and the history of inflows and outflows. We propose that the observed time variability of the TTDs can be decomposed into two parts: "internal" variability associated with changes in the arrangement of, and partitioning between, flow pathways; and "external" variability driven by fluctuations in the flow rate along all flow pathways. These concepts can be defined quantitatively in terms of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions, which is a theory describing lumped transport dynamics. Internal variability is associated with temporal variability in the rSAS function, while external is not. The rSAS function variability was characterized by an "inverse storage effect," whereby younger water is released in greater proportion under wetter conditions than drier. We hypothesize that this effect is caused by the rapid mobilization of water in the unsaturated zone by the rising water table. Common approximations used to model transport dynamics that neglect internal variability were unable to reproduce the observed breakthrough curves accurately. This suggests that internal variability can play an important role in hydrologic transport dynamics, with implications for field data interpretation and modeling.

  12. Burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japanese adults 60 years of age or older: Results from an observational, prospective, physician practice-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Adachi, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Gopala, Kusuma; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2016-12-05

    Approximately one in three persons will develop herpes zoster during their lifetime, and it can lead to serious complications such as postherpetic neuralgia. However, evidence on burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japan is limited. This prospective, observational, multicenter, physician practice-based cohort study was conducted in Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365) to assess the incidence and hospitalization rates of herpes zoster, and the proportion, clinical burden and risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged 60 years or more. Within the study area, 800 subjects developed herpes zoster and 412 were eligible for the study. Herpes zoster incidence was 10.2/1000 person-years and higher among women and older subjects. Subjects with herpes zoster required on average 5.7 outpatient consultations. Herpes zoster-associated hospitalization rate was 3.4% (27/800). The proportion of postherpetic neuralgia and other complications was 9.2% (38/412) and 26.5% (109/412), respectively. Statistically significant association with the development of postherpetic neuralgia was male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-5.38), age of 70-74 years (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.09-11.3), immunosuppressive therapy (OR, 6.44; 95% CI, 1.26-32.9), severe herpes zoster pain at first consultation (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.10-8.62) and rash on upper arms (vs no rash on upper arms; OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.10-10.9). Considerable herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia burden exists among elderly in Japan, and there may be predictive factors at the first visit which could be indicative of the risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia.

  13. Heart Failure Due to Age-Related Cardiac Amyloid Disease Associated With Wild-Type Transthyretin: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Lawreen H.; Sam, Flora; Skinner, Martha; Salinaro, Francesco; Sun, Fangui; Ruberg, Frederick L.; Berk, John L.; Seldin, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure due to wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is an under-appreciated cause of morbidity and mortality in the aging population. The aims of this study were to examine features of disease and characterize outcomes in a large ATTRwt cohort. Methods and Results Over 20 years, 121 patients with ATTRwt were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Median age at enrollment was 75.6 years (range, 62.6–87.8); 97% of patients were Caucasian. The median survival, measured from biopsy diagnosis, was 46.69 months (95% CI, 41.95–56.77); 78% of deaths were due to cardiac causes. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 5-year survival was 35.7% (95% CI, 25–46). Impaired functional capacity (mean VO2 max of 13.5 mL/kg/min) and atrial fibrillation (67%) were common clinical features. Multivariate predictors of reduced survival were elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, 482 ± 337 pg/mL) and uric acid (8.2 ± 2.6 mg/dL), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, 50% median ranging 10-70%), and increased relative wall thickness (RWT, 0.75 ± 0.19). Conclusions In this series of patients with biopsy-proven ATTRwt amyloidosis, poor functional capacity and atrial arrhythmias were common clinical features. Elevated BNP and uric acid, decreased LVEF, and increased RWT were associated with limited survival of only 35.7% at 5 years for the group as a whole. These data establish the natural history of ATTRwt, provide statistical basis for the design of future interventional clinical trials, and highlight the need for more sensitive diagnostic tests and disease-specific treatments for this disease. PMID:26660282

  14. Age-related changes in prevalence and symptom characteristics in kidney deficiency syndrome with varied health status: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence and symptom characteristics of KDS were found to increase consistently with increasing age and deteriorating health status. Kidney deficiency may be an important mechanism of aging in the subhealthy and chronic disease states.

  15. One-Year Outcomes Using Ranibizumab for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Results of a Prospective and Retrospective Observational Multicentre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Hjelmqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Lucentis Quality Registry is a 12-month, open-label, observational, prospective, and retrospective study of ranibizumab administration for wet AMD. Visual acuity (VA was measured with Snellen or ETDRS chart in 370 patients (66.8% women; age range 46–93 years. In total, a mean of 4.7±1.6 injections per patient (range 1–10 was given to month 12. Mean VA score was 58.3±12.2 letters before treatment, 63.3±12.5 after 3 injections (Δ4.9±10.1 letters from baseline, and 59.3±16.2 at 12 months (Δ1.0±13.6. VA score from baseline to month 12 was stable in 74.4% of patients, improved by 15 letters/3 lines or more in 14.7%, and decreased by ≥15 letters/3 lines in 10.9% of patients. With a mean of 4.7 ranibizumab injections per patient per year, mean VA was stabilised but not increased. To maintain the initial gain seen after the first three injections, an average of 1.8±1.5 additional injections does not appear to be adequate.

  16. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS). Volume 4. EMEDS+25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    1.15 0.01 $1.19 1.15 0.01 $1.19 A 6550013571405 BACTERIA CULTURE CONTROL DISCS STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS 10S PG 1 1 0.10 0.01 $46.82 0.10 0.01 $46.82...113.56 0.45 0.01 $113.56 A 6550013354607 TEST KIT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS DETECTION SUFF EA 1 1 1.35 0.01 $146.36 1.35 0.01 $146.36 A...BACTERIA CULTURE CONTROL DISCS STAPHYLOOCCUS SAPROPHYTICUS 10S VI 1 1 0.40 0.00 $94.89 0.40 0.00 $94.89 A 6550014644686 CONTROL PROTEUS MIRABILIS

  17. Evidence-Based Novel Changes in Prevalence and Symptom Characteristics of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome in Persons of Varied Health Status and Different Ages: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the organs is a vital pathophysiologic characteristic in the elderly. A core TCM aging theory is known as aging caused by spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS that can be found in ancient and modern literature. The key objectives of this study were to establish a full-scale trial to evaluate the prevalence, symptom severity, frequency, and distribution of SDS in different age groups as related to health status (healthy, subhealthy, and chronic disease to elucidate the role of spleen deficiency in the aging process and deterioration of health status. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 4 hospitals in China. 1390 participants aged 20–79 were interviewed by investigators who completed questionnaires recording prevalence, severity, and frequency of symptoms as well as other relevant information. The results revealed that prevalence and symptom characteristics of SDS showed regularities with increasing age and deteriorating health status. It supports the TCM concept that spleen deficiency is an important mechanism of aging, subhealth, and chronic diseases. Early recognition of the warning signs and symptoms of SDS may lead to intervention and even prevention strategies for subhealth and chronic diseases as well as promotion of healthy aging.

  18. Observation and analyses on voice changes in the normal aged%正常老年人嗓音变化的观察与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莺; 黄魏宁; 张程; 孟庆茹; 杨立军

    2000-01-01

    目的:综合分析正常老年人嗓音变化的特征。方法:以喉声图仪采集、分析146例正常老年人嗓音声样。结果:老年人嗓音基频下降,80岁以上男性基频升高。老年期共振峰低频谐波规则,声能强,男女声之间差异减少。老年男性谐噪比随增龄有下降趋势,而振幅微扰商则升高。老年女性以上参数变化不明显。结论:老年期嗓音变化属老年人正常生理变化。通过喉声图仪测得其嗓音参数的变化,可作为正常老年期嗓音的客观指标,以鉴别病理嗓音。这些变化说明老年人发音功能有一定程度的衰退,应适当加以维护及加强发音训练。%Objective:To measure the voice samples of the normal aged in order to systemically study the fea-tures of the voice changes. Method :To collect and analyze 146 voice samples of the normal aged with sonogram.Result:The fundamental frequency of the voice of the aged decreases and rises in the male more than 80 yearsolder. The low frequency harmonics are regulation and the intensity is strong in the formant of the aged. Thedifference reduces in voice between male and female. The harmonics to noise ratio tends downwards and the am-plitude perturbation quotient tends upwards along with the growth of age in the aged male. The changes of the above-mentioned parameters are not significant in the aged female. Conclusion:The voice changes are normalphysiological ones in the normal aged. The changes of the parameters are used to evaluate normal aged voice andabnormal one. The changes show that the function in the aged phonation tends to decline to a certain extent andit must be protected and be trained.

  19. Exploratory Investigation of Communication Management in Residential-Aged Care: A Comparison of Staff Knowledge, Documentation and Observed Resident-Staff Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michelle K.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Scarinci, Nerina A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a high prevalence of communication difficulty among older people living in residential-aged care. Such functional deficits can have a negative impact on resident quality of life, staff workplace satisfaction and the provision of quality care. Systematic research investigating the nature of communication management in…

  20. OBSERVATION ON THE INCIDENCE OF NON TYPHOID SALMONELLA (SEEOTYPEHAVANA, DRUG RESISTANCE AND PATHOGENIC STRENGTH TO THE CHILDREN OF less than ONE EYAR OLD AGE IRAN (1976-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mehrabian

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available A hundred and five strains of Salmonella havana were studied from the patients of pediatric hospital of Tehran and Tabriz during 1976-86. The sources of the strains in order to their frequency were from-stool, blood, spinal, fluid, wound and urine. From the epidemiological point of view Salmonella Havana is serotype of most non-typhoid Salmonella. All of the strains had drug resistancy and most of them were resistant to many drugs. Salmonella havana had been considered in the past as a serotype of nonpathogenic agent, but this work resulted that strain has Pathogenic strength to the children of under one year old age Symptoms of diseases caused by this strain were gastroenteritis, diarrhea, Vomiting fever, Focal infection, general infection and meningitis. This strain in about 20% of the cases, particularly in the children fewer than one year old age has caused death.

  1. The Schmidt-Kennicutt Law of Matched-Age Star Forming Regions; Pa-alpha Observations of the Early-Phase Interacting Galaxy Taffy I

    CERN Document Server

    Komugi, S; Motohara, K; Takagi, T; Iono, D; Kaneko, H; Ueda, J; Saitoh, T R; Kato, N; Konishi, M; Koshida, S; Morokuma, T; Takahashi, H; Tanabe, T; Yoshii, Y

    2012-01-01

    In order to test a recent hypothesis that the dispersion in the Schmidt-Kennicutt law arises from variations in the evolutionary stage of star forming molecular clouds, we compared molecular gas and recent star formation in an early-phase merger galaxy pair, Taffy I (UGC\\ 12915/UGC\\ 12914, VV\\ 254) which went through a direct collision 20 Myr ago and whose star forming regions are expected to have similar ages. Narrow-band Pa-alpha image is obtained using the ANIR near-infrared camera on the mini-TAO 1m telescope. The image enables us to derive accurate star formation rates within the galaxy directly. The total star formation rate, 22.2 M_sun/yr, was found to be much higher than previous estimates. Ages of individual star forming blobs estimated from equivalent widths indicate that most star forming regions are ~7 Myr old, except for a giant HII region at the bridge which is much younger. Comparison between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for the regions with the same age exhibits a surprisingly...

  2. Structural observations and U-Pb mineral ages from igneous rocks at the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary in the Salahmi Schist Belt, central Finland: constraints on tectonic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietikäinen, K.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area in Vieremä, central Finland, contains part of Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary. In the east, the area comprises Archaean gneiss and the Salahmi Schist Belt. The rocks of the schist belt are turbiditic metagreywackes, with well-preserved depositional structures, occurring as Proterozoic wedge-shaped blocks, and staurolite schists, the latter representing higher-strained and metamorphosed equivalents of the metagreywackes. In the west of the area there is an Archaean gneiss block, containing strongly elongated structures, and deformed Svecofennian supracrustal rocks, which are cut by deformed granitoids. These are juxtaposed with the schist belt. The boundaries of these tectonometamorphic blocks are narrow, highly strained mylonites and thrust zones. The metamorphic grade of the supracrustal rocks increases from east to west, the increase being stepwise across the mylonitic block boundaries. The rocks are more deformed from east to west with younger structures overprinting. In the staurolite schists of the Salahmi Schist Belt, the most prominent structure is a lineation (L2 that overprints the bedding and axial plane foliation. In Sorronmäki quarry, at the western boundary of the schist belt, this Palaeoproterozoic lineation dominates all the structures in tonalite gneiss, which gives a U-Pb age of 2731±6 Ma. Southeast of the quarry, at the same boundary, the Salahmi schists have been overturned towards the northeast, suggesting that the Archaean gneiss at Sorronmäki has been thrust towards the northeast over these rocks. In the western part of the study area, the Leppikangas granodiorite that intrudes the Svecofennian supracrustal rocks gives a U-Pb age of 1891+6 Ma. In the granodiorite, a strong lineation formed by the intersection of two foliations, which maybe L2 is associated with thrusting towards the northeast. The monazite age of the Archaean Sorronmäki gneiss is 1817+3 Ma, and the titanite age of the Svecofennian

  3. Aging According to Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Uses Erik Erikson's work to discuss how biographies treat aging. Explores how developmental theorists observe biographical representations of the life cycle and its applicability to aging. (Author/BHK)

  4. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  5. Ageing and vascular ageing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    There is an age related decline in various physiological processes. Vascular ageing is associated with changes in the mechanical and the structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance. Arterial compliance can be measured by different parameters like pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and systemic arterial compliance. There is evidence that arterial compliance is reduced in disease states such as hypertension, di...

  6. Constraints on the Surface Magnetic Fields and Age of a Cool Hypergiant: XMM-Newton X-ray Observations of VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Montez, R; Humphreys, R M; Turok, R L; Davidson, K

    2014-01-01

    The complex circumstellar ejecta of highly evolved, cool hypergiants are indicative of multiple, asymmetric mass loss events. To explore whether such episodic, non-isotropic mass loss may be driven by surface magnetic activity, we have observed the archetypical cool hypergiant VY CMa with the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite observatory. The hypergiant itself is not detected in these observations. From the upper limit on the X-ray flux from VY CMa at the time of our observations ($F_{X,UL}~\\approx~8\\times10^{-14} {\\rm~erg~cm}^{-2} {\\rm~s}^{-1}$, corresponding to $\\log~L_X/L_{bol}\\leq-8$), we estimate an average surface magnetic field strength $fB \\leq 2\\times10^{-3}$~G (where $f$ is the filling factor of magnetically active surface regions). These X-ray results for VY CMa represent the most stringent constraints to date on the magnetic field strength near the surface of a hypergiant. VY CMa's mass loss is episodic and may have been in a state of low surface magnetic activity during the XMM observations. The XMM obs...

  7. Ageing Studies on the Drift Tubes of the Muon Spectrometer and Observability of MSSM Heavy Higgses via a Sparticle decay Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis summarized the work performed in INFN Cosenza group within the ATLAS Muon Collaboration. This work is a representative cross section of the different aspects to the preparation of a modern day high energy physics experiment. An important part is dedicated to the testing of specialized detector elements. And the experiment's discovery potential for signatures of new theoretical proposal is evaluated. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part, made up of the first three chapters, is an introduction about the theoretical and the experimental background of the two main work I have performed during the doctoral period. The second part, the fourth chapter, is about the main work I have dealt with, the ageing problem of the Monitored Drift Tube detectors, which make up the Muon Spectrometer. And the last third part, the fifth chapter, is about the study of an MSSM Higgs bosons decay mode into sparticles.

  8. Ageing and vascular ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, B; Rajkumar, C

    2006-01-01

    There is an age related decline in various physiological processes. Vascular ageing is associated with changes in the mechanical and the structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance. Arterial compliance can be measured by different parameters like pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and systemic arterial compliance. There is evidence that arterial compliance is reduced in disease states such as hypertension, diabetes, and end stage renal failure. Changes in arterial compliance can be present before the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological and non‐pharmacological measures have been shown to improve arterial compliance. Arterial compliance may constitute an early cardiovascular risk marker and may be useful in assessing the effects of drugs on the cardiovascular system. Pharmacogenetics and genetics of arterial compliance in the future will improve our knowledge and understanding about vascular ageing. PMID:16754702

  9. 小于胎龄儿早期干预疗效观察%Observation of early intervention efficacy on small for gestational age infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春燕; 王瑞珊; 昌爱慧

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of early intervention on SGA prognosis. METHODS Full-term SGA children in the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Technology from January 2005 to January 2010 were as in the intervention group; full-term small SGA children from January 2000 to December 2010 as control group. All did not have congenital malformations and congenital metabolic diseases. Children in intervention group were given early education in these aspects of vision, hearing, movement, language, cognition and communication by parents according to their age, while giving the massage, gymnastics and active exercise training. The control group did not receive early intervention. RESULTS The basic situations of intervention group and control group had no significant difference which showed the comparability of the two groups. The intellectual development, development quotient and energy region of the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group. CONCLUSION Effective early intervention benefits the intellectual development of the SGA, and improves the prognosis.%目的 探讨早期干预对小于胎龄儿(Small for gestational age,SGA)预后的影响.方法 2005年1月~2010年1月就医于河南科技大学第一附属医院儿科的足月SGA作为干预组,2000年1月~2004年12月就诊的足月SGA为对照组.均除外先天畸形和先天遗传代谢性疾病.干预组通过家长按小儿年龄在视、听、运动、语言、认知及生活与交往等方面进行早期教育,同时给于按摩、体操和主动运动训练.对照组未接受早期干预.结果 干预组和对照组基本情况比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),说明两组有可比性.干预组智能发育各能区及发育商均显著高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 有效的早期干预可促进SGA的智能发育,改善其预后.

  10. Age at Menarche, Level of Education, Parity and the Risk of Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Population-Based Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise F Wilson

    Full Text Available Although rates have declined, hysterectomy is still a frequent gynaecological procedure. To date, there has been no systematic quantification of the relationships between early/mid-life exposures and hysterectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to quantify the associations between age at menarche, education level, parity and hysterectomy.Eligible studies were identified by searches in PubMed and Embase through March 2015. Study-specific estimates were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored using sub-group analysis and meta-regression.Thirty-two study populations were identified for inclusion in at least one meta-analysis. Each year older at menarche was associated with lower risk of hysterectomy-summary hazard ratio 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.95; I2 = 0%; summary odds ratio 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.94; I2 = 61%. Low education levels conferred a higher risk of hysterectomy in the lowest versus highest level meta-analysis (summary hazard ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.80; I2 = 86%, summary odds ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.35, 1.69; I2 = 90% and dose-response meta-analysis (summary odds ratio 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.23; I2 = 85% per each level lower of education. Sub-group analysis showed that the birth cohort category of study participants, the reference category used for level of education, the year the included article was published, quality of the study (as assessed by the authors and control for the key variables accounted for the high heterogeneity between studies in the education level meta-analyses. In the meta-analyses of studies of parity and hysterectomy the results were not statistically significant.The present meta-analyses suggest that the early life factors of age at menarche and lower education level are associated with hysterectomy, although this evidence should be interpreted with some caution due to variance

  11. [A new possible strategy for prevention and preventive treatment of age-related macular degeneration resting on recent clinical and pathophysiological observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tamás

    2009-03-15

    The beneficial effect achieved by the treatment of endothelial dysfunction in chronic cardiovascular diseases is already an evidence belonging to the basic treatment of the disease. Given the fact that the vascular system is uniform and consubstantial both physiologically, pathophysiologically and in terms of therapy, and that it plays a key role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a disease leading to tragic loss of vision with its etiology and therapy being unknown--endothelial dysfunction should be treated. The pleiotropic effects of ACE-inhibitors, AR-blockers and statins and third generation beta blockers help to restitute the balance between vasodilators and vasoconstrictors in endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, the balance of growth factors and their inhibitors, pro- and anti-inflammatory substances and prothrombotic and fibrinolytic factors, inhibit the formation of oxidative stress and its harmful effects; while aspirin with its pleiotropic effects acting as an antiaggregation substance on platelets helps to set the endothelial layer back to its normal balance regarding its vasodilating, antithrombotic, antiadhesive and anti-inflammatory functions; trimetazidine as an adjuvant agent helps to normalize, to restore the disturbed metabolism of the retinal tissue functioning insufficiently, in the end. The angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan with its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonist effect inhibits the development of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and improves it clinically favourably. The third generation beta adrenergic receptor blocker carvedilol and nebivolol as well as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone elicit their antioxidant vascular protective effects mitochondrially. For the above reasons it is suggested that, as a part of long term primary and/or secondary prevention, the following groups of patients with AMD receive--taking into

  12. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M S; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  13. Observation on the quality of life before and after the injection of antiangiogenic drug in the vitreous cavity of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-Dan Wang; Pei-Ying Xu; Tian-Yu Wang; Xiao-Xia Chen; Qing Peng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the vision-related quality of life(VRQL) before and after the injection of antiangiogenic drug into the vitreous cavity of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration(AMD).Methods:The 2000 edition of the Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 that was issued by the National Eye Institute was applied,and the VRQL evaluation was conducted on the initially diagnosed patients with wet-AMD before and after the injection of ranibizumab into the vitreous cavity.Results:Among the wet-AMD patients,patients with better distance visual acuity before the intravitreal injection had a lower VFQ-25 score.After the vitreous cavity injection,the VFQ-25 questionnaire score was related to patient care and education from the doctors and nurses;specifically,the better the nursing,the higher the score.Conclusions:Before the vitreous cavity injection,the degree of distance visual acuity is an important factor affecting the VRQL of wet-AMD patients.In addition,patient care and education from the doctors and nurses toward patients during the pre-,intra-and post-operation of the intravitreal injection are also important factors affecting the VRQL.

  14. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  15. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  16. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  17. A型肉毒毒素联合透明质酸注射治疗面部老化临床疗效观察%Botulinum toxin A joint hyaluronic acid injection Facial aging treatment clinical curative effect observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳芳; 张东晓; 熊玮; 王艳; 徐丽红

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect and safety of botulinum toxin type A and Hyaluronic Acid injection appliedin the treatmernt of facial skin aging.Methods:45 patients of different skin aging problem, according to botulinum toxin type A,and hyaluronic acid injection therapy. All patients were followed up and observed treatment effect and prognosis.Results:45 patients with skin aging problem has been improved to varying degrees of, treatment effective rate was 83.11%. Postoperative adverse reactions and are temporary, recovering well.Conclusion:Combined botulinum toxin A and hyaluronic acid injection treatment of facial skin aging good curative effect, patient satisfaction is high, safe and effective.%目的:探讨A型肉毒毒素、透明质酸注射联合治疗面部皮肤老化疗效及安全性。方法:对45例患者面部老化问题,采用A型肉毒毒素联合透明质酸注射治疗,观察治疗效果。结果:患者面部老化问题得到不同程度的改善,治疗有效率83.11%,术后不良反应轻且都是暂时性,恢复良好。结论:A型肉毒毒素联合透明质酸注射治疗面部皮肤老化疗效好,患者满意度高,安全有效。

  18. For middle-aged and old people in the healthy check-up index of the dynamic observation%健康体检中对中老年人群代谢指标的动态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽香; 王芃

    2014-01-01

    objective to investigate the health physical examination (MS) index for middle-aged and old people in the dynamic observation. Methods select in June 2010 in our hospital 400 cases of healthy check-up people aged metabolic index as observations, analysis the crowd metabolic intervention 1 year after index, in July 2011 the healthy check-up of middle-aged and old man again, after the analysis of medical intervention crowd metabolic index, observe intervention in 1 year metabolic index the dynamic change of middle-aged and old people. The supersession index is hit by middle 400 examples of result this yard in June , 2010 health physical examination old age crowd hypertension (69 examples) , glycuresis (121 examples) , hyperlipidemia (149 examples) , 2-3 kinds superheavy person diseases complication (61 examples), physical examination interferes with queen hypertension , glycuresis , the index has hyperlipidemia and complication under the control of improving a trend noticeably, the index has difference statistics significance comparatively around two set of supersessions (p <0.05). Centring old age crowd metabolizes in healthy physical examination of conclusion dynamic index observation, the supersessions such as blood pressure , blood sugar and blood grease being able to improve the MS patient effectively by the fact that physical examination interferes with measure checks an index , delay being hit by old age crowd combining a disease happening , enhance the quality of life.%目的:探讨健康体检中对中老年人群代谢(MS)指标的动态观察。方法选取2010年6月在本院400例健康体检的中老年人群代谢指标作为观察资料,分析人群代谢指标后采取干预措施1年,于2011年7月再次对中老年人行健康体检,分析体检干预后的人群代谢指标,观察干预1年的中老年人群代谢指标的动态变化。结果2010年6月本院400例健康体检的中老年人群代谢指标中高血压(69

  19. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  20. Age -- Metallicity relation in the MCs clusters (Based on observations made with the Danish 1.54 m and ESO 3.6m Telescopes at La Silla Observatory, Chile)

    CERN Document Server

    Livanou, E; Kontizas, M; Nordström, B; Kontizas, E; Andersen, J; Dirsch, B; Karampelas, A

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate a possible dependence between age and metallicity in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) from a study of small open star clusters, using Str\\"{o}mgren photometry. Our goal is to trace evidence of an age metallicity relation (AMR) and correlate it with the mutual interactions of the two MCs. Our aim is also to correlate the AMR with the spatial distribution of the clusters. In the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the majority of the selected clusters are young (up to 1 Gyr) and our aim is to search for an AMR at this epoch which has not been much studied. Methods: We report on results for 15 LMC and 8 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, scattered all over the area of these galaxies, to cover a wide spatial distribution and metallicity range. The selected LMC clusters were observed with the 1.54m Danish Telescope in Chile, using the Danish Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (DFOSC) with a single 2kx2k CCD, whereas the SMC clusters were observed with the ESO 3.6m Telescope also in Chile with the E...

  1. Comparison of response to 2-years’ growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD, born small for gestational age (SGA, idiopathic short stature (ISS, and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD. The aim of this analysis of data, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Methods Analysis of auxologic data from two ongoing prospective observational studies, NordiNet® International Outcomes Study (NordiNet® IOS and NovoNet®/American Norditropin® Studies: Web-enabled Research (ANSWER Program®. Results 4,582 children aged p = 0.047; p  0.001 vs. IGHD, respectively. Height gain was comparable between IGHD and MPHD. In pre-pubertal children vs. total population, height SDS change after two years was: IGHD, +1.24 vs. +0.97; SGA, +1.17 vs. +1.03; ISS, +1.04 vs. +0.84; and MPHD, +1.16 vs. +0.99 (all p  Conclusions After two years’ GH treatment, change in height SDS was greater in SGA and less in ISS, compared with IGHD; the discrepancy in responses may be due to the disease nature or confounders (i.e. age. Height SDS increase was greatest in pre-pubertal children, supporting early treatment initiation to optimize growth outcomes.

  2. Age determination of raccoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  3. Observer's observables. Residual diffeomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Duch, Paweł; Świeżewski, Jedrzej

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the fate of diffeomorphisms when the radial gauge is imposed in canonical general relativity. As shown elsewhere, the radial gauge is closely related to the observer's observables. These observables are invariant under a large subgroup of diffeomorphisms which results in their usefulness for canonical general relativity. There are, however, some diffeomorphisms, called residual diffeomorphisms, which might be "observed" by the observer as they do not preserve her observables. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of these diffeomorphisms in the case of the spatial and spacetime radial gauges. Although the residual diffeomorphisms do not form a subgroup of all diffeomorphisms, we show that their induced action in the phase space does form a group. We find the generators of the induced transformations and compute the structure functions of the algebras they form. The obtained algebras are deformations of the algebra of the Euclidean group and the algebra of the Poincar\\'e group in the spat...

  4. Normal cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Caroline N; Natelson Love, Marissa C; Triebel, Kristen L

    2013-11-01

    Even those who do not experience dementia or mild cognitive impairment may experience subtle cognitive changes associated with aging. Normal cognitive changes can affect an older adult's everyday function and quality of life, and a better understanding of this process may help clinicians distinguish normal from disease states. This article describes the neurocognitive changes observed in normal aging, followed by a description of the structural and functional alterations seen in aging brains. Practical implications of normal cognitive aging are then discussed, followed by a discussion of what is known about factors that may mitigate age-associated cognitive decline.

  5. A 2-Year, Phase IV, Multicentre, Observational Study of Ranibizumab 0.5 mg in Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Routine Clinical Practice: The EPICOHORT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pagliarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the safety profile of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD in routine clinical practice. Methods. This 2-year, multicentre, observational study was conducted to capture real-world early practice and outcomes across Europe, shortly after European licensing of ranibizumab for nAMD. Being observational in nature, the study did not impose diagnostic/therapeutic interventions/visit schedule. Patients were to be treated as per the EU summary of product characteristics (SmPC in effect during the study. Key outcome measures were incidence of selected adverse events (AEs, treatment exposure, bilateral treatment, compliance to the EU SmPC, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA over 2 years. Results. 755 of 770 patients received treatment. Ranibizumab was generally well tolerated with low incidence of selected AEs (0%–1.9%. Patients received 6.2 (mean injections and 133 patients received bilateral treatment over 2 years. Protocol deviation to treatment compliance was reported in majority of patients. The observed decline in mean BCVA (Month 12, +1.5; Month 24, –1.3 letters may be associated with undertreatment as suggested by BCVA subgroup analysis. Conclusion. The EPICOHORT study conducted in routine clinical practice reinforces the well-established safety profile of ranibizumab in nAMD. In early European practice it appeared that the nAMD patients were undertreated.

  6. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options ... or black, flat patches of skin. Why treat age spots Physical, emotional and social reasons for treating ...

  7. Happy Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秉中

    2009-01-01

    Aging is a normal physiological process in human life.The decline in the ability to repair and regenerate predisposes the aging person to develop disabling problems in the cardiovascular and skeletal systems.Full awareness of aging problems and advocations on the means to prevent their occurrence are mounting.European and US groups rely on scientific,target-oriented means to treat aging manifestations. Oriental medicine aims at prevention,using nutrition and exercise to maintain internal harmony.

  8. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  9. Ageing Polulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Lauridsen, Jørgen Trankjær; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    An ageing society is characterised by an increasing median age of the population. The purpose of this chapter is to document the existing knowledge about the association between population ageing and health care expenditure, and to supplement this overview by a summary of our original research. S...

  10. Perceived age as a biomarker of ageing: a clinical methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, David A; Murray, Peter G; Tomlin, Cyrena C

    2008-01-01

    In a previous field-based study, how old one looks for one's age (perceived age) was found to be predictive of mortality in elderly individuals. In conjunction, perceived age is of relevance and interest to the layperson. Here, a clinical methodology for generating perceived age as a biomarker...... of facial ageing is detailed. The methodology utilises facial photographs of subjects to present images to large numbers of age assessors who are primarily nationals of the country of study origin. In five observational studies in five different countries involving 874 female subjects it was found...... that subject age and assessor gender, nationality, age and ageing expertise had little effect on the perceived age data generated. However, increasing the numbers of age assessors up to 50 substantially increased the reproducibility of the mean perceived age for an image and a minimum of 10 assessors were...

  11. Comparison of cable ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaček, Vít; Kohout, Tomáš

    2010-03-01

    Two cable types, which currently are used in nuclear power plants (NPP) and which are composed by jacket/insulation materials, i.e. PVC/PVC and PVC/PE, were exposed to accelerated ageing conditions, in order to simulate their behavior after 10 years in service. The cables were aged under two different test conditions: With relatively high accelerating ageing speed:Radiation ageing was carried out at room temperature at a dose rate of 2900 Gy/h, followed by thermal ageing at 100 °C. This accelerated ageing condition was fairly fast, but still in compliance with the standards. With moderate ageing speed:The radiation and thermal ageing was performed simultaneously (superimposed) at a dose rate of 2.7-3.7Gy/h and a temperature of 68-70 °C. Such a test condition seems to be very close to the radiation and temperature impact onto the cables in the real NPP service. Finally, mechanical properties were measured to characterize the ageing status of the cables. The purpose of this study was to compare degradation effects, derived from both ageing methods, and to demonstrate that results obtained from high values of accelerating parameters and from fast ageing simulation can be very different from reality. The observed results corroborated this assumption.

  12. Population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  13. The Clinical Observation of 26 Cases Old Age Hypertension Diabetes Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction%老年高血压糖尿病合并急性心肌梗死26例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈源; 董亚辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the elderly hypertension diabetes complicating acute myocardial infarction (mi) of clinical manifestations, complications and prognosis. Methods 26 patients with senile hypertension diabetes complicating acute myocardial infarction (observation group) and the other at the same time, with the department of hypertension diabetes complicating acute myocardial infarction treated 30 cases as control (control group), two groups of patients with clinical data were retrospectively analyzed, compare two groups of fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc), complications. Results Observation group of arrhythmiaFBG, HbAlc, myocardial enzymes were higher than control group, signiifcant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion Old age hypertension diabetes complicating acute myocardial infarction, painless type, more complications, mortality is higher, should strictly control the patients' blood sugar, blood lipid levels.%目的:观察老年高血压糖尿病合并急性心肌梗死的临床表现、并发症及预后情况。方法老年高血压糖尿病合并急性心肌梗死患者26例(观察组),另选取同期、同科室收治的非高血压糖尿病合并急性心肌梗死30例作对照(对照组),回顾性分析两组患者临床资料,观察比较两组空腹血糖(FBG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)、血清酶学情况。结果观察组FBG、HbAlc、心肌酶谱均高于对照组,差异显著(P<0.05)。结论老年高血压糖尿病合并急性心肌梗死无痛型多见,应严格控制患者血糖、血脂水平。

  14. Risk factors for mortality from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children under five years of age in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Sonego

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for death from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children in low- and middle-income countries. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. STUDY SELECTION: Observational studies reporting on risk factors for death from ALRI in children below five years in low- and middle income countries. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Global Health Library, Lilacs, and Web of Science to January 2014. RISK OF BIAS ASSESSMENT: Quality In Prognosis Studies tool with minor adaptations to assess the risk of bias; funnel plots and Egger's test to evaluate publication bias. RESULTS: Out of 10,655 papers retrieved, 77 studies from 39 countries (198,359 children met the inclusion criteria. Host and disease characteristics more strongly associated with ALRI mortality were: diagnosis of very severe pneumonia as per WHO definition (odds ratio 9.42, 95% confidence interval 6.37‒13.92; age below two months (5.22, 1.70‒16.03; diagnosis of Pneumocystis Carinii (4.79, 2.67‒8.61, chronic underlying diseases (4.76, 3.27‒6.93; HIV/AIDS (4.68, 3.72‒5.90; and severe malnutrition (OR 4.27, 3.47‒5.25. Socio-economic and environmental factors significantly associated with increased odds of death from ALRI were: young maternal age (1.84, 1.03‒3.31; low maternal education (1.43, 1.13‒1.82; low socio-economic status (1.62, 1.32‒2.00; second-hand smoke exposure (1.52, 1.20 to 1.93; indoor air pollution (3.02, 2.11‒4.31. Immunisation (0.46, 0.36‒0.58 and good antenatal practices (0.50, 0.31‒0.81 were associated with decreased odds of death. CONCLUSIONS: Host and disease characteristics as well as socio-economic and environmental determinants affect the risk of death from ALRI in children. Together with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, interventions to modify underlying risk factors such as poverty, lack of female education, and poor environmental conditions, should be considered among the strategies to

  15. 中老年女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染48例临床观察%Clinical observation of 48 middle and aged women with diabetes mellitus complicating urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯琴琴; 王宏钊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the clinical differences between the patients with diabetes mellitus ( DM ) complicating urinary tract infection and those with simple urinary tract infection among middle and aged women. Methods The clinical manifestations and treatment between 48 cases with DM complicating urinary tract infection and 24 cases with simple urinary tract infection were analyzed and compared. Results The clinical symptoms of DM complicating urinary tract infection among females were manifold and clinical manifestations were concealed. The incidence rate of irritation sign of bladder was significantly lower than that among patients with simple urinary tract infection ( 58. 3% vs 100. 0% , χ2= 13. 846, P < 0. 01 ). The mean course of treatment in the group of DM complicating urinary tract infection was 15. 0 ± 8. 0 days, which was significantly longer than that in the group of simple urinary tract infection ( 6. 0 ± 3.2 days, t=5.289, P<0. 01 ). Conclusion Exploring the symptoms and clinical course of DM complicating urinary tract infection in middle and aged women is helpful to improve clinical efficacy and prognosis.%目的 观察分析中老年女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染患者与单纯泌尿道感染患者的临床差异.方法 对比分析48例女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染者与24例单纯泌尿道感染患者的临床表现及治疗效果.结果 女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染患者的临床症状多样,表现隐匿,其膀胱刺激症状的出现率明显低于单纯性泌尿道感染患者(58.3% vs 100.0%,χ2=13.846,P<0.05).糖尿病合并泌尿道感染组平均疗程为15.0±8.0天,明显长于单纯泌尿道感染组的6.0±3.2天(t=5.289,P<0.01).结论 探索中老年女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染者的症状及临床疗程特点,将有利于提高临床疗效和改善预后.

  16. Therapeutic Observation of Comprehensive Acupuncture for Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration%针刺综合治疗湿性年龄相关性黄斑变性疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳; 刘文婷; 闵智杰; 璩成彧; 张仁; 徐红

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo systematically and objectively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of comprehensive acupuncture treatment in managing wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and to seek a standard acupuncture protocol for this disease, for promoting the application in clinic.MethodTotally 37 patients (67 eyes) were observed to compare the vision, Amsler grid and rating scale of quality of life for visual impairment before and after the 3-month treatment. The clinical efficacy was then evaluated. ResultThe vision and score of quality of life were significantly changed after intervention (P<0.05); according to Amsler grid, the total improved rate was 79.2% and the total effective rate was 77.6%; age and disease duration were negatively correlated with the therapeutic efficacy (P<0.05).ConclusionComprehensive acupuncture treatment can significantly improve the vision and quality of life in patients with wet ARMD, and the younger the patients and the shorter the disease duration, the higher the therapeutic efficacy.%目的:观察针刺综合治疗湿性年龄相关性黄斑变性的疗效,对针刺治疗该病的疗效进行系统客观的评价,探索针刺治疗该病的规范化方案,以供临床推广运用。方法共观察37例患者67眼,采用自身对照的方法,比较治疗3个月前后视力、Amsler方格表和视功能损害眼病患者生存质量量表指标的变化,并做临床疗效评定。结果治疗后视力和生存质量量表得分与治疗前相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);Amsler方格表检查总改善率79.2%;临床总有效率为77.6%;年龄和病程与疗效呈负相关性(P<0.05)。结论针刺综合治疗湿性年龄相关性黄斑变性能明显改善视功能,提高患者生存质量,患者年龄越小、病程越短,疗效越好。

  17. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity...... and life expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980...

  18. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process inuence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity and life...... expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980 and 2000....

  19. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    and life expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980......This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity...

  20. Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Couillard-Després, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Although significant inconsistencies remain to be clarified, a role for neurogenesis in hippocampal functions, such as cognition, has been suggested by several reports. Yet, investigation in various species of mammals, including humans, revealed that rates of hippocampal neurogenesis are steadily declining with age. The very low levels of hippocampal neurogenesis persisting in the aged brain have been suspected to underlie the cognitive deficits observed in elderly. However, current evidence ...

  1. Clinical Observation of using IPL Combined MEBT/MEBO for Treating Skin Aging%强脉冲光联合MEBT/MEBO治疗皮肤老化的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜平元; 彭程; 尹朝奇; 罗成群; 贺全勇; 毛平

    2011-01-01

    比较观察强脉冲光(intense pulsed light,IPL)联合烧伤湿性医疗技术(MEBT/MEBO)与单用IPL治疗皮肤老化的疗效.将2007年9月~2009年9月采用IPL配合MEBT/MEBO治疗的32例患者(治疗组)与2005年8月~2007年8月单用IPL治疗的32例患者(对照组)的疗效进行对比分析.结果发现治疗组较对照组肤质改善的程度更明显,皮肤更光亮,灼痛和皮肤发红更少,治疗组有效率96.9%,对照组灼痛和皮肤发红较多,对照组有效率62.5%,所有患者均无严重副作用发生.结果表明IPL联合MEBT/MEBO较单用IPL能更好地改善皮肤问题,有较好的临床应用价值.%Explore the clinical value of IPL (intense pulsed light) combined with MEBT/MEBO for treating skin aging. 32 cases were treated with IPL combined with MEBT/MEBO during Sep 2007 and Sep 2009, while 32 cases of patients treated with IPL during Aug 2005 and Aug 2007 were set as control. Clinical results were observed after 3 treatments. The results indicate that 31 cases with combined therapy showed obvious improvements. The effective rate was 96.9%. 20 cases with single IPL showed improvements. The effective rate was 62. 5% , 12 cases did not have any effect. No severe adverse reactions were found. IPL combined with MEBT/MEBO has good clinical value.

  2. Understanding aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later).

  3. Clinical Observation of Insulin in the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes in Different Gestational Age%不同孕周给予胰岛素治疗妊娠期糖尿病的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟悦静; 李彩辉; 朱慧芳

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察不同孕周给予胰岛素治疗妊娠期糖尿病的疗效和安全性。方法:回顾性收集121例妊娠期糖尿病患者资料,按首次使用胰岛素的不同孕周分为观察组(63例)和对照组(58例)。两组患者均给予饮食控制[(热量控制在30~35 kJ/(kg·d),碳水化合物55%,脂肪25%,蛋白质20%)]。在此基础上,观察组患者根据空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(2 h PG)水平于<孕30周给予生物合成人胰岛素注射液,按4∶2∶3∶1的比例以4~6单位分别于三餐前及睡前注射,治疗期间监测患者的血糖情况,防止低血糖等并发症的发生。对照组患者于≥孕30周时给予生物合成人胰岛素注射液(用法用量同对照组)。两组疗程均为15 d。观察两组患者初诊时、分娩时的FPG、2 h PG水平,妊娠结局及新生儿情况,并记录不良反应发生情况。结果:初诊时,两组患者FPG、2 h PG水平比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。分娩时,两组患者FPG、2 h PG水平均显著低于同组初诊时,且观察组低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组患者早产、妊娠期高血压、新生儿窒息、低体质量儿、新生儿低血糖发生率均显著低于对照组,新生儿Apgar评分显著高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者羊水过多、剖宫产、巨大儿发生率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两组患者用药期间均未见明显不良反应发生。结论:在控制饮食的基础上,孕30周前给予胰岛素治疗妊娠期糖尿病,可有效控制血糖水平,改善妊娠结局,且安全性较好。%OBJECTIVE:To observe the efficacy and safety of insulin in the treatment of gestational diabetes in different gesta-tional age. METHODS:The data of 121 women with gestational diabetes were retrospectively analyzed,and divided into observa-tion

  4. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  5. Age Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  6. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...... and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention...... strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful ageing’....

  7. Aging perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosco, T.D.; Brehme, D.; Grigoruta, N.; Kaufmann, L.K.; Lemsalu, L.; Meex, R.C.R.; Schuurmans, A.T.; Sener, N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA) research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisation

  8. Aging Secret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  9. Gay aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults.

  10. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G. M.; Tellier, Siri;

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: We performed a novel, hypothesis-free and quantitative analysis of citation networks exploring the literature on successful ageing that exists in the Web of Science Core Collection Database using the CitNetExplorer software. Outcomes were visualized using timeline-based citation patterns...

  11. Automatic age estimation based on facial aging patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Smith-Miles, Kate

    2007-12-01

    While recognition of most facial variations, such as identity, expression and gender, has been extensively studied, automatic age estimation has rarely been explored. In contrast to other facial variations, aging variation presents several unique characteristics which make age estimation a challenging task. This paper proposes an automatic age estimation method named AGES (AGing pattErn Subspace). The basic idea is to model the aging pattern, which is defined as the sequence of a particular individual' s face images sorted in time order, by constructing a representative subspace. The proper aging pattern for a previously unseen face image is determined by the projection in the subspace that can reconstruct the face image with minimum reconstruction error, while the position of the face image in that aging pattern will then indicate its age. In the experiments, AGES and its variants are compared with the limited existing age estimation methods (WAS and AAS) and some well-established classification methods (kNN, BP, C4.5, and SVM). Moreover, a comparison with human perception ability on age is conducted. It is interesting to note that the performance of AGES is not only significantly better than that of all the other algorithms, but also comparable to that of the human observers.

  12. Aging of prokaryotic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Simon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Until recently it was thought that aging is a characteristic feature only of cells and organisms of eukaryotic origin. Recent studies on Caulobacter crescentus showed that their dimorphic life cycle associated with asymmetric cell division leads to a gradual increase in the time needed for the development of new bacteria generations, which may reflect aging of this organism. Moreover, as shown in Escherichia coli, accelerated exhaustion of proliferative capacity and bacteria death are caused by inheritance of certain structures from the mother cell during cell division. A similar phenomenon, called ‘conditional senescence’, has been observed during the stationary phase of growth in liquid cultures. The aim of this paper is to present the current state of knowledge on the causes, mechanisms and evolutionary significance of aging in bacteria. Some issues associated with bacterial aging will be discussed in the context of similar phenomena occurring in eukaryotic cells.

  13. Ageing and skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Warnke, Arne Jonas

    of countries. Specifically, repeated measures will enable an analysis of whether there is skill gain and skill loss over the lifespan of cohorts and overtime between cohorts. This is especially important because age-skill profiles observed on the basis of a single cross-section are difficult to interpret...... the lifespan and over time....

  14. Evaluation des enseignements/apprentissages bilingues en classes de 4eme primaire de Sierre (Evaluation of a Bilingual Teaching/Learning Experiment in Grade 4 Elementary Classes in Sierre).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregy, Anne-Lore; Revaz, Nadia

    This report, written in French, provides an evaluation of a bilingual French and German experiment within the framework of compulsory schooling in Sierre, a community in Valais, Switzerland. The program began began in the 1994-1995 school year. The models examined are an early partial immersion kindergarten program (model I) and a middle, partial…

  15. Pump used as a turbine (PAT) with flow control - Part 4: Sizing the new spiral casing; Petites centrales hydrauliques. Pompe fonctionnant en turbine avec reglage du debit (Pat-Francis). 4eme partie: dimensionnement et construction de la bache spirale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapallaz, J.-M.

    2007-02-15

    This fourth and final part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the use of a pump equipped with variable guide vanes, similar to a Francis turbine. This fourth part of a four-part article deals with the selection of a pump and describes the general lay-out of the new spiral casing to be adapted for use in the PAT-Francis turbine. The parameters to be taken into account are looked at and calculation examples are presented. Proposals for a simplified construction are examined.

  16. Fuel cycle: the transition between the third and the fourth generation of reactors; Cycle du combustible: faire la transition vers les 3eme et 4eme generations de reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Many challenges arrive today for the french research and development on the fuel cycle: promote the industrial technologies, improve the world increase of the nuclear and adapt the fuel cycle technologies to the future reactors. In this framework the report presents after a recall on the fuel cycle, the researches on the fuel, the optimization of the recycling, the wastes management, the simulation and Phenix an experimentation tool for the fuel. (A.L.B.)

  17. Aging Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Paczuski, Maya

    1997-03-01

    We have shown that in an analytically solvable model of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC)(S. Boettcher & M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 348 (1996). the evolving avalanche is governed by an equation of motion with a memory term that ranges over all past events.(S. Boettcher & M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 54), 1082 (1996). The solution for the propagator shows sub-diffusive behavior with a broad exponential tail. Numerical studies of the temporal correlations during avalanches in a variety of SOC systems indicate that history dependence and hierarchical structures are generic features which emerge dynamically from simple local update rules. In particular, we find(S. Boettcher & M. Paczuski, ``Off-Equilibrium Behavior and Aging in Self-Organized Criticality'', (in preparation).) ``aging'' similar to the slow relaxation behavior in disordered systems that move through ``rugged landscapes'' in phase space, such as spin glasses.

  18. Golden Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      Sometimes, a moment can announce the end of an age. The gold market is like that. Within two transaction days, the gold slumped by 13%and saw a 25%tumble from the high point in August 2011. According to the classic investment theory, a 20%-above decline means the shift from“a bull”to“a bear”market.   The super bear market of gold has lasted a dozen years. But the bull-to-bear shift was completed within only 20 minutes. Wall Street’s analysts and ordinary Chinese people had different understandings to the golden age.   Expecting a bear market, Wall Street continuously dumped gold, resulting in a diving of gold price. Seeing the benefits, leisure Chinese madams made a gold rush, causing a slight bounce of gold price. On April 23, renowned investment bank Goldman Sachs suspended the short sale. So,“Chinese aunts”beating back Wall Street’s analysts became the hottest topic online for the time being.   What are the decisive factors for the crash of gold price? Will the gold market complete a real bull-to-bear shift? Will the golden age of gold be farther or nearer?

  19. Ageing and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixa, B; Komárková, O; Nozicka, Z

    1975-01-01

    A total of 483 healthy persons from Czechoslovakia, divided into three age groups (below 40, 41-60 and above 61 years) were examined for eight types of autoantibodies (antibodies to epithelial cells and to colloid of thyroid gland, parietal cell antibodies, antibody to intersititial duct cells of parotis and to adrenal cells, anti-nuclear and anti-mitochondrial antibodies, intrinsic factor antibodies). A significantly increased occurrence was observed in the oldest age group, the results being more manifest in women. A conspicious increase was seen particularly in the thyroid antibodies. The results correspond to those of other authors from different geographic areas.

  20. Aging Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore D Cosco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven languages – was administered. Grounded theory methods and descriptive statistics were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively.

  1. Aging Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inchang Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelidsharmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most importantgoal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and inthis process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons haveto be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a doublefold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing furtherdrooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the droopingeyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to preparefor these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amountof skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with adecreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases,excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions ofsoft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skinflap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive lookingappearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a naturallook. In this article, the author’s own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty aredescribed specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips.

  2. Observing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    , and analyse how their conceptions of environment are connected to differences of perspective and observation. Results: We show the need to distinguish between inside and outside perspectives on the environment, and identify two very different and complementary logics of observation, the logic of distinction......, and that it is based fully on the conception of observation as indication by means of distinction....

  3. Biology of aging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging of the nervous system is associated with some degree of decline in a number of cognitive functions. With the present day attempts to increase the life span, understanding the metabolic interactions and various mechanisms involved in normal neuronal aging continues to be a challenge. Loss of neurons is now recognized to be more modest than the initial estimates suggested and the loss only affected some of the specific neuroanatomical areas like hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Individual neurons in addition show reduced size of dendritic and axonal arborization. Neurons have significant homeostatic control of the essential physiological functions like synaptic excitability, gene expression and metabolic regulation. Deviation in these normal events can have severe consequences as observed in aging and neurodegeneration. Based on experimental evidence, the evolution of aging is probably the result of altered metabolic triad: the mitochondria, reactive oxygen species and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Perturbations in the metabolic and functional state of this triad lead to a state of decreased homeostatic reserve, where the aged neurons still could maintain adequate function during normal activity. However, these neurons become vulnerable to the stress of excessive metabolic loads associated with spells of ischemia, trauma progressing to neuronal degeneration. Age-related neuronal dysfunction probably involves a host of subtle changes involving the synapses, receptors, neurotransmitters, cytological alterations, electrical transmission, leading to cognitive dysfunction. An exaggeration of it could be the clinical manifestation of dementia, with intraneuronal accumulation of protein aggregates deranging the metabolic state. This review deals with some of the structural, functional and metabolic features of aging nervous system and discusses briefly the functional consequences.

  4. Observables, Disassembled

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Bryan W

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that non-self-adjoint operators can be observables. There are only four ways for this to occur: non-self-adjoint observables can either be normal operators, or be symmetric, or have a real spectrum, or have none of these three properties. I explore each of these four classes of observables, arguing that the class of normal operators provides an equivalent formulation of quantum theory, whereas the other classes considerably extend it.

  5. Feature tracking and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy eAllard

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting results regarding the effect of aging on second-order motion processing (i.e., motion defined by attributes other than luminance, such as contrast. Two studies (Habak & Faubert, 2000; Tang & Zhou, 2009 found that second-order motion processing was more vulnerable to aging than first-order motion processing. Conversely, Billino, Braun, Bremmer and Gegenfurtner (2011 recently found that aging affected first- and second-order motion processing by similar proportions. These three studies used contrast-defined motion as a second-order stimulus, but there can be at least two potential issues when using such a stimulus to evaluate age-related sensitivity losses. First, it has been shown that the motion system processing contrast-defined motion varies depending on the stimulus parameters. Thus, although all these three studies assumed that their contrast-defined motion was processed by a low-level second-order motion system, this was not necessarily the case. The second potential issue is that contrast-defined motion consists in a contrast modulation of a texture rich in high spatial frequencies and aging mainly affects contrast sensitivity at high spatial frequencies. Consequently, some age-related sensitivity loss to second-order motion could be due to a lower sensitivity to the texture rather than to motion processing per se. To avoid these two potential issues, we used a second-order motion stimulus void of high spatial frequencies and which has been shown to be processed by a high-level feature tracking motion system, namely fractal rotation (Lagacé-Nadon, Allard, & Faubert, 2009. We found an age-related deficit on second-order motion processing at all temporal frequencies including the ones for which no age-related effect on first-order motion processing was observed. We conclude that aging affects the ability to track features. Previous age-related results on second-order and global motion processing are discussed in light

  6. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  7. Landing the uniformly accelerating observers

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan; Gruber, Ronald P.

    2006-01-01

    Observers of the uniformly accelerating observers or the observers who make up the system of uniformly accelerating observers reach the same velocity V at different times ti which depends on V and on theirs acceleration gi. Considering a platform that moves with constant velocity V, the observers can land smoothly on it. Their ages and locations in the inertial reference frame attached to the platform are reckoned and compared.

  8. Clinical observation on hematological adverse reactions of oral omeprazole in aged patients%老年反流性食管炎患者口服奥美拉唑的血液系统不良反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 许乐

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the hematological adverse reactions of oral omeprazole administration with convention dosage and treatment course in aged patients.Methods Four hundred and nine cases of reflux esophagitis by endoscopic diagnosis from Beijing Hospital during January 2000 to December 2010 were divided into three groups according to their ages: group A ( 168 cases) aged from 60 to 69 years,group B ( 152 cases) aged from 70 to 79 years and group C (89 cases) aged equal to or above 80 years.Each group of patients was randomly divided into three subgroups,A 1 ( 56 cases),B 1 ( 51 cases) and C 1 ( 30 cases ) were administered with oral omeprazole,20 mg,bid; A2 ( 56 cases ),B2 ( 51 cases ) and C2 ( 30 cases ) were administered with oral famotidine,20 mg,bid; A3 ( 56 cases),B3 ( 50 cases),C3 ( 29 cases ) and all above subgroups were administered with oral sucralfate,10 ml,tid.The treatment course lasted for one month.The clinical efficacy,WBC count,RBC count,the Hemoglobin level,platelet count,as well as the prothrombin time,thrombin time,activated partial thromboplastin time,fibrinogen,Plasma fibronectin and serum D-Dimer were tested and compared after 10-days and 30-days treatment.Results After the treatment,all the patients had alleviated symptoms,to varied extend,especially in subgroups treated with oral omeprazole and sucralfate.After 30 days' treatment,blood WBC counting in B1 subgroup declined to lower than normal values in two cases; PLT counting drops in 1 case; blood WBC dropped in 6 cases and PLT dropped in4 cases of the C1 subgroup;blood WBC counting dropped in 1 case and PLT dropped in 2 cases of the C2 subgroup.Hemoglutination did not show significant change in all groups (P > 0.05 ).Conclusion The hematological adverse reactions of oral omeprasole in aged patients,under convention dosage and treatment course,occured with age increase,especially for blood WBC and platelet counting.%目的 探讨口服常规剂量和疗程的奥美拉唑对老年反流

  9. Observation of the effect of Hongyangfuzheng oral liquid on exercise capacity and aging mechanism%红阳扶正口服液增强运动能力和抗衰老机理的实验观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彩霞; 张彩云; 滕宝霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究红阳扶正口服液对增强运动能力和抗衰老作用的机理.方法 小鼠口服红阳扶正口服液10 d,每鼠尾部负重为体重的5%,力竭后,摘取眼球取血,3000 r/min离心10 min,检测血清乳酸、乳酸脱氢酶、肝糖原、尿素氮、丙二醛和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD),测定红阳扶正口服液对衰老模型小鼠脑中SOD和丙二醛含量的影响.结果 红阳扶正口服液能明显降低血清中乳酸、尿素氮、丙二醛的含量,增加小鼠血清中乳酸脱氢酶、SOD和肝糖原的含量(P<0.05);红阳扶正口服液降低衰老模型小鼠大脑中丙二醛的含量,增加大脑SOD活性.结论 红阳扶正口服液具有增加运动能力和抗衰老的作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of Hongyangfuzheng oral liquid (HOL) on exercise capacity and aging mechanism. Methods Through oral administration with HOL 10 days, each rat tail weight for weight 5%, after exhaustive, removal of eye blood, centrifugal 10 min (3000 r/min). The content of serum lactic acid (LA), lactate dehydrogenase (LAD), hepatic glycogen, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was detected. MDA and SOD in the brain of mice was detected too. Results HOL obviously decrease the content of serum LA, BUN, MDA. LAD, SOD and hepatic glycogen increased in mice serum (P<0.05). HOL reduced the aging model mice brain MDA content, increased SOD activity in brain. Conclusion HOL can increase of exercise capacity and the anti aging effect.

  10. Observing Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, Ilil

    1991-01-01

    Describes how to observe and study the fascinating world of insects in public parks, backyards, and gardens. Discusses the activities and habits of several common insects. Includes addresses for sources of beneficial insects, seeds, and plants. (nine references) (JJK)

  11. Clincal Observation on Pressurized Hollow Screw for Treating Femoral Neck Fracture of the Young and Middle-aged%加压空心螺纹钉治疗青壮年股骨颈骨折临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆东; 张家恒

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of pressurized hollow screw for the treatment of femoral neck fracture of the young and middle-aged patients. Methods; The pressurized hollow screw treatment was given under the C-arm X-ray fluoroscopy after traction. Results:The design of the compression screw was in line with the requirements of biomechanics,with great carrying capacity, which not only had the characteristics of compression, torsion and bending, but also could pressurize to make the fracture fragments in close contact in order to generate stress stimuli to promote fracture healing and femoral revascularization in the area of the fracture. Conclusion; The pressurized hollow screw for treatment of femoral neck fracture of the young and middle-aged patients is simple for operation and firm in fixation with high healing rate,less trauma and bleeding,which shows good clinical efficacy.%目的:探讨加压空心螺纹钉治疗青壮年股骨颈骨折的临床疗效.方法:56例患者行牵引后在C型臂X线机透视下进行加压空心螺纹钉治疗.结果:加压螺钉的设计符合生物力学的要求,其承载能力大,不但具有抗压、抗扭、抗弯的特性,又能加压使骨折断端紧密接触,在骨折处产生有利于骨折愈合的应力刺激,促进骨折愈合及股骨头再血管化.结论:加压空心螺纹钉治疗青壮年股骨颈骨折操作简单,创伤小,出血少,固定牢固,愈合率高,临床疗效较好.

  12. Aging and the intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Over the lifetime of the animal, there are many changes in the function of the body's organ systems. In the gastrointestinal tract there is a general modest decline in the function of the esophagus, stomach, colon,pancreas and liver. In the small intestine, there may be subtle alterations in the intestinal morphology, as well as a decline in the uptake of fatty acids and sugars.The malabsorption may be partially reversed by aging glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) or dexamethasone.Modifications in the type of lipids in the diet will influence the intestinal absorption of nutrients: for example, in mature rats a diet enriched with saturated as compared with polysaturated fatty acids will enhance lipid and sugar uptake, whereas in older animals the opposite effect is observed. Thus, the results of studies of the intestinal adaptation performed in mature rats does not necessarily apply in older animals. The age-associated malabsorption of nutrients that occurs with aging may be one of the several factors which contribute to the malnutrition that occurs with aging.

  13. Raven and the Center of Maffei 1: Multi-Object Adaptive Optics Observations of the Center of a Nearby Elliptical Galaxy and the Detection of an Intermediate Age Population

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J; Lardiere, O; Bradley, C; Blain, C; Oya, S; Akiyama, M; Ono, Y H

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectra that have an angular resolution of ~ 0.15 arcsec are used to examine the stellar content of the central regions of the nearby elliptical galaxy Maffei 1. The spectra were recorded at the Subaru Telescope, with wavefront distortions corrected by the RAVEN Multi-Object Adaptive Optics science demonstrator. The Ballick-Ramsey C_2 absorption bandhead near 1.76 microns is detected, and models in which 10 - 20% of the light near 1.8 microns originates from stars of spectral type C5 reproduce this feature. Archival NIR and mid-infrared images are also used to probe the structural and photometric properties of the galaxy. Comparisons with models suggest that an intermediate age population dominates the spectral energy distribution between 1 and 5 microns near the galaxy center. This is consistent not only with the presence of C stars, but also with the large HBeta index that has been measured previously for Maffei 1. The J-K color is more-or-less constant within 15 arcsec of the galaxy cen...

  14. Observation on the quality of life before and after the injection of antiangiogenic drug in the vitreous cavity of patients with wet age-related macular de-generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-Dan Wang; Pei-Ying Xu; Tian-Yu Wang; Xiao-Xia Chen; Qing Peng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the vision-related quality of life ( VRQL) before and after the injection of antiangiogenic drug into the vitreous cavity of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration ( AMD) . Methods: The 2000 edition of the Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 that was issued by the Na-tional Eye Institute was applied, and the VRQL evaluation was conducted on the initially diagnosed patients with wet-AMD before and after the injection of ranibizumab into the vitreous cavity. Results: Among the wet-AMD patients, patients with better distance visual acuity before the in-travitreal injection had a lower VFQ-25 score. After the vitreous cavity injection, the VFQ-25 questionnaire score was related to patient care and education from the doctors and nurses; specific-ally, the better the nursing, the higher the score. Conclusions: Before the vitreous cavity injection, the degree of distance visual acuity is an im-portant factor affecting the VRQL of wet-AMD patients. In addition, patient care and education from the doctors and nurses toward patients during the pre-, intra-and post-operation of the intrav-itreal injection are also important factors affecting the VRQL.

  15. Observational $\\Delta\

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Antonio García; Monteiro, Mário J P F G; Suárez, Juan Carlos; Reese, Daniel R; Pascual-Granado, Javier; Garrido, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Delta Scuti ($\\delta$ Sct) stars are intermediate-mass pulsators, whose intrinsic oscillations have been studied for decades. However, modelling their pulsations remains a real theoretical challenge, thereby even hampering the precise determination of global stellar parameters. In this work, we used space photometry observations of eclipsing binaries with a $\\delta$ Sct component to obtain reliable physical parameters and oscillation frequencies. Using that information, we derived an observational scaling relation between the stellar mean density and a frequency pattern in the oscillation spectrum. This pattern is analogous to the solar-like large separation but in the low order regime. We also show that this relation is independent of the rotation rate. These findings open the possibility of accurately characterizing this type of pulsator and validate the frequency pattern as a new observable for $\\delta$ Sct stars.

  16. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert C

    1995-01-01

    Combining a critical account of observational methods (telescopes and instrumentation) with a lucid description of the Universe, including stars, galaxies and cosmology, Smith provides a comprehensive introduction to the whole of modern astrophysics beyond the solar system. The first half describes the techniques used by astronomers to observe the Universe: optical telescopes and instruments are discussed in detail, but observations at all wavelengths are covered, from radio to gamma-rays. After a short interlude describing the appearance of the sky at all wavelengths, the role of positional astronomy is highlighted. In the second half, a clear description is given of the contents of the Universe, including accounts of stellar evolution and cosmological models. Fully illustrated throughout, with exercises given in each chapter, this textbook provides a thorough introduction to astrophysics for all physics undergraduates, and a valuable background for physics graduates turning to research in astronomy.

  17. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  18. Stellar ages from asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Lebreton, Yveline

    2008-01-01

    Asteroseismology provides powerful means to probe stellar interiors. The oscillations frequencies are closely related to stellar interior properties via the density and sound speed profiles. Since these are tightly linked with the mass and evolutionary state, we can expect to determine the age and mass of a star from the comparison of its oscillation spectrum with predictions of stellar models. Such a comparison suffers both from the problems we face when modeling a particular star (as the uncertainties on global parameters and chemical composition) and from our misunderstanding of processes at work in stellar interiors (as the transport processes that may lead to core mixing and affect the model ages). For stars where observations have provided precise and numerous oscillation frequencies together with accurate global parameters and additional information (as the radius or the mass if the star is in a binary system, the interferometric radius or the mean density if the star is an exoplanet host), we can also...

  19. Deltagende observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, H.

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen er en introduktion til deltagende observation som samfundsvidenskabelig metode. I artiklen introduceres til de teorihistoriske rødder, forskellige tilgange til metoden, den konkrete fremgangsmåde og de dermed forbundne overvejelser. Endvidere eksemplificeres metoden, og der opstilles en...

  20. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  1. Effects of low dose x-ray on development and differentiation of cerebral cortex, 13. Observation of construction of cerebral cortex in mice irradiated at 17 days of gestational age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, Y. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine)

    1980-03-01

    ICR mice were irradiated with 25 or 100 R of x-ray at 17 days of pregnancy, and /sup 3/H-thymidine was injected immediately after the irradiation. The brain of progenies which were born from irradiated ICR mice was extracted 4 weeks after their birth, and histoautoradiography of the cerebram were made. Distribution of nerve cells labelled strongly with /sup 3/H-thymidine was observed, and the construction of cerebral cortex was discussed. Abnormality in parietal region of new cerebral cortex in which nerve cells labelled strongly with /sup 3/H-thymidine distributed was not found, but a count of nerve cells distributing tended to decrease according to exposure dose.

  2. Ageing in Communal Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Grönvall, Erik;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we adopt the position that design of social media for the elderly and virtual senior communities may be informed by studying ‘real’ senior communities. Since current research efforts target the role of social media and virtual communities for supporting seniors ageing in place, i...... these findings apply to designers of social media technologies. .......e. in their homes, housing communities seem a natural place to begin this enquiry. We conducted observations and informal interviews in six different senior dwellings. In this paper we present the key findings from these visits related to social interaction and the formation of communities and explicate how...

  3. Ageing in communal place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Grönvall, Erik;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we adopt the position that design of social media for the elderly and virtual senior communities may be informed by studying `real´senior communities. Since current research efforts target the role of social media and virtual communities for supporting seniors ageing in place, i...... these findings apply to designers of social media technologies........e. in their homes, housing communities seems a natural place to begin this enquiry. We conducted observations and informal interviews in six different senior dwellings. In this paper we present the key findings from these visits related to social interaction and the formation of communities and explicate how...

  4. Blood DNA methylation age is not associated with cognitive functioning in middle-aged monozygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, A; Tan, Q; Lenart, A

    2016-01-01

    reported in a recent intrapair twin study where epigenetically older twins had increased mortality risk in comparison to their co-twins. In the study presented here, we hypothesize that DNAmAge in blood is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive abilities in middle-aged individuals......The epigenetic clock, also known as DNA methylation age (DNAmAge), represents age-related changes of DNA methylation at multiple sites of the genome and is suggested to be a biomarker for biological age. Elevated blood DNAmAge is associated with all-cause mortality, with the strongest effects....... In 486 monozygotic twins, we investigated the association of DNAmAge, difference between DNAmAge and chronological age and age acceleration with cognition. Despite using a powerful paired twin design, we found no evidence for association of blood DNAmAge with cognitive abilities. This observation...

  5. Cancer, aging and immune reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanussi, Stefania; Serraino, Diego; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Berretta, Massimiliano; De Paoli, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Aging is a complex phenomenon involving multiple physiological functions. Among these, very important are the modifications induced in the immune system; these modifications may be related to cancer development, a disease of older people. We herein describe the age-dependent alterations observed in the various arms of the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immunity are compromised during aging, a condition where an inflammatory status contributes to promote immune suppression and tumour growth. Collectively, aging of the immune system may produce detrimental consequences on the response against tumours in old patients. In fact, preclinical studies and clinical observations in humans have demonstrated age-associated alterations in antitumor immunity. Immunological recovery of old patients after conventional chemotherapy (CT) has not been fully investigated, while several studies conducted in patients undergoing blood stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that a delayed immune reconstitution associated with older age results in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and risk of tumour relapse. Cellular immunotherapy and vaccination are becoming viable options for improving survival and quality of life of cancer patients targeting both the host defences and the tumour. The clinical experience in elderly patients is still in its infancy, but available data indicate that these approaches are feasible and promising. A key problem in the studies on aging, immunity and cancer is that it is difficult to distinguish changes related to age from those related to cancer-dependent immunosuppression, but independent from the age of the subject. Longitudinal studies on aged healthy and cancer persons and the use of new immunological techniques may be required to clarify these issues.

  6. Early pulsar observations with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, J.; Stappers, B.; Hassall, T.; Weltevrede, P.; Alexov, A.; Coenen, T.; van Leeuwen, J.; Kondratiev, V.; Mol, J.D.; Kramer, M.; Noutsos, A.; Karastergiou, A.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution to the proceedings of "A New Golden Age for Radio Astronomy" is simply intended to give some of the highlights from pulsar observations with LOFAR at the time of its official opening: June 12th, 2010. These observations illustrate that, though LOFAR is still under construction and

  7. Age Prejudice of 'Act Your Age.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzo, Zander

    1978-01-01

    Many life-style decisions are often adversely influenced by prejudicial attitudes, norms, and laws about age. The relationship between ways of thinking about developmental tasks and age prejudice is discussed. (Author)

  8. Observe Your Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovšek, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Observe Your Shadow was the title of an observational experiment that was, among others, conducted in the scope of the past year's (2014-2015) first Slovene science competition for elementary school pupils between the ages of 6 and 13. The main reason for establishing a new science competition was popularization of science and its experimental methods, particularly among elementary school students. Elementary school teachers are not generally specialists in science, but rather have (and should have) extremely wide scopes of interests and competencies. By providing them with ideas and instructions for science experiments, we aim to enrich regular school lessons. In the first year alone, the competition took place in over half of Slovene elementary schools, with a total of 9000 participating students. In this paper we shall report about pupils' responses to tasks related to one of the experiments, namely, observation of their shadows on a sunny day.

  9. Old age psychiatry in the modern age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, James P

    2015-11-01

    Old age psychiatry services globally are under threat. The discipline enjoyed its heyday in the two decades bridging the millennium. More recently there has been a move to integrate old age services with those of working age adults, to create 'ageless' services. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that this is a bad idea.

  10. Facial Age Estimation with Age Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Wen, Yonggang; Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-12-01

    Age estimation based on the human face remains a significant problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. In order to estimate an accurate age or age group of a facial image, most of the existing algorithms require a huge face data set attached with age labels. This imposes a constraint on the utilization of the immensely unlabeled or weakly labeled training data, e.g. the huge amount of human photos in the social networks. These images may provide no age label, but it is easily to derive the age difference for an image pair of the same person. To improve the age estimation accuracy, we propose a novel learning scheme to take advantage of these weakly labeled data via the deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). For each image pair, Kullback-Leibler divergence is employed to embed the age difference information. The entropy loss and the cross entropy loss are adaptively applied on each image to make the distribution exhibit a single peak value. The combination of these losses is designed to drive the neural network to understand the age gradually from only the age difference information. We also contribute a dataset including more than one hundred thousand face images attached with their taken dates. Each image is both labeled with the timestamp and people identity. Experimental results on two aging face databases show the advantages of the proposed age difference learning system and the state-of-the-art performance is gained.

  11. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  12. Recognizing Age-Separated Face Images: Humans and Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Daksha Yadav; Richa Singh; Mayank Vatsa; Afzel Noore

    2014-01-01

    Humans utilize facial appearance, gender, expression, aging pattern, and other ancillary information to recognize individuals. It is interesting to observe how humans perceive facial age. Analyzing these properties can help in understanding the phenomenon of facial aging and incorporating the findings can help in designing effective algorithms. Such a study has two components - facial age estimation and age-separated face recognition. Age estimation involves predicting the age of an individua...

  13. Exercise and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...

  14. National Council on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Center for Benefits Access Center for Healthy Aging Donate Skip to Content a A Menu Economic ... Seniors Home Equity Older Workers Money Management Healthy Aging Falls Prevention Chronic Disease Management Flu + You Aging ...

  15. Administration on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  16. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint at any age. It affects almost half of ... A-Z | videos A-Z | training | about us | Customer Support | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. ...

  17. Pregnancy After Age 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy complications > Pregnancy after age 35 Pregnancy after age 35 E-mail to a friend Please fill ... to your dashboard . KEY POINTS Being pregnant after age 35 makes certain complications more likely, including premature ...

  18. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, the population structure changes. A Jenapharm R & D program investigates the endocrinology of aging men. In men, a decrease in production of sex steroids and other hormones with age can be observed. The typical patterns of daily rhythmicity become less distinct. This is part of a very complex picture in which not only isolated hormones are involved, but also the influence of hormones on each other. Many factors from the external and intemal environment mediated by neurotransmitters constantly affect the highly sensitive hormonal balance. Therefore, aging has also been defined as "the gradual dysfunction of homeostatic processes". Declining testosterone (T levels are involved in 'andropausal' symptoms in men: loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, insulin receptor resistance, obesity, osteoporosis, disturbances of lipid metabolism, myocardial and circulatory disturbances, impaired well-being and mood. Data are derived from studies in hypogonadal men treated by T replacement. In such parients under T treatment libido increases, fat mass decreases, muscle strenth, bone mineral density and erythropoesis increase. Whether the symptoms of andropause in aging men could successfully be treated by T substitution remains to be investigated. Negative effects of T, especially on the prostate and the cardiovascular system, are under discussion. There is increasing evidence that low T levels seem to be a risk factor for both the prostate and the cardiovascular system. Jenapharm's new testosterone undecanoate formulation for intramuscular injection can be administered every three months. T levels remain within the physiologic range. No supraphysiologic peaks occur. In women, estrogens have beneficial non-genital effects. Studies concentrate on synthetic estrogens for men without feminizing properties such as gynecomastia and reduced testicular size. Several derivatives of 17-

  19. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  20. Nicotine and neurodegeneration in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Alessio; Leo, Giuseppina; Biagini, Giuseppe; Zoli, Michele

    2002-02-28

    Impairment in cholinergic systems is a highly consistent finding in human dementia. Among cholinergic markers, marked decreases in nicotine binding have been most consistently observed in the telencephalic regions of demented patients and are thought to contribute to the cognitive deficits associated with ageing and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. New evidence that the cholinergic system has a specific pathogenic role in the neurodegenerative alterations of aged and, especially, demented patients is fast accumulating. Both in vivo and in culture, nicotine protects striatal, hippocampal and cortical neurons against the neurotoxicity induced by excitotoxic amino acids as well as the toxicity caused by beta-amyloid, the major component of senile plaques. Further support for the implication of nicotinic receptors in brain ageing is come from recent studies on transgenic animals lacking nicotinic receptor subtypes, which shed light on the mechanisms of nicotine neuroprotection and neurotoxicity.

  1. Age-related skin changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božanić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related skin changes can be induced by chronological ageing, manifested in subcutaneous fat reduction, and photo-ageing eliciting increased elastotic substance in the upper dermis, destruction of its fibrilar structure, augmented intercellular substance and moderate inflammatory infiltrate. Forty-five biopsy skin samples of the sun-exposed and sun-protected skin were analyzed. The patients were both males and females, aged from 17 to 81 years. The thickness of the epidermal layers and the number of cellular living layers is greater in younger skin. The amount of keratohyaline granules is enlarged in older skin. Dermoepidermal junction is flattened and the presence of elastotic material in the dermis is pronounced with age. The amount of inflammatory infiltrate is increased, the fibrous trabeculae are thickened in older skin and the atrophy of the hypodermis is observed. Chronological ageing alters the fibroblasts metabolism by reducing their life span, capacity to divide and produce collagen. During ageing, the enlargement of collagen fibrils diminishes the skin elasticity.

  2. Mitochondria and the aging heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketul R Chaudhary; Haitham El-Sikhry; John M Seubert

    2011-01-01

    The average human life span has markedly increased in modern society largely attributed to advances in medical and therapeutic sciences that have successfully reduced important health risks.However,advanced age results in numerous alterations to cellular and subcellular components that can impact the overall health and function of an individual.Not surprisingly,advanced age is a major risk factor for the development of heart disease in which elderly populations observe increased morbidity and mortality.Even healthy individuals that appear to have normal heart fimction under resting conditions,actually have an increased susceptibility and vulnerability to stress.This is confounded by the impact that stress and disease can have over time to both the heart and vessels. Although, there is a rapidly growing body of literature investigating the effects of aging on the heart and how age-related alterations affect cardiac fimction, the biology of aging and underlying mechanisms remain unclear .In this review,we summarize effects of aging on the heart and discuss potential theories of cellular aging with special emphasis on mitochondrial dysfunction.

  3. Observing the stars. Love in the age of systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Ansgar Jakobsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of scholars have demonstrated how the cultural industry involves people in a participatory culture in which users actively construct personal identities. However, the link between a public of mass-mediated entertainment and the private sphere of intimacy and personal identity is a paradox. A consistent theory to clarify that paradox is lacking in the cultural studies literature. I suggest that social systems theory in the Luhmannian tradition may explain in economical terms why the continuous performance and intensification of the paradox of mass-mediated intimacy is a major trait of contemporary culture. Nevertheless, the article does not address normative issues. It is neither an apology for the culture industry, nor a condemnation. The aim is simply to bring one of the most powerful tools of analysis in social theory today to bear on an aspect of modern society which is as important as it is baffling.

  4. Ageing-Driven Pension Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonenkamp, J.; Meijdam, Lex; Ponds, Eduard; Westerhout, Ed

    2016-01-01

    This paper stems from the observation that there are two world-wide trends, pension reform and population ageing, and asks whether the two may be related. Exploring the cases of pension reform in different countries, we find that, although they are very different, the cases share a common characteri

  5. Ageing-driven pension reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonenkamp, J.; Meijdam, Lex; Ponds, Eduard; Westerhout, Ed

    2017-01-01

    This paper stems from the observation that there are two world-wide trends, pension reform and population ageing, and asks whether the two may be related. Exploring the cases of pension reform in different countries, we find that, although they are very different, the cases share a common characteri

  6. Spectral ageing a new age perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rawlings, S; Rawlings, Katherine M Blundell & Steve

    2002-01-01

    We present an up-to-date critique of the physical basis for the spectral ageing method. We find that the number of cases where this method may be meaningfully applied to deduce the ages of classical double radio sources is small indeed. This critique is much more than merely a re-expression of anxieties about the calibration of spectral ageing (which have been articulated by others in the past).

  7. [Age(ing), ambivalence and mimicry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This essay aims to show that the concept of ambivalence could prove especially productive for gerontology. It is known that age(ing) is a category that is characterized by difference and at the same time delineates a process. Ambivalence is eminently suitable for capturing this duality as it enables us to take into account the dynamics peculiar to age(ing) and move beyond those conventional rigid distinctions which fail to grasp key nuances. These theoretical considerations will be put to the test by looking at the so-called young-old and their ambivalent positioning as well as their own mimicry of the middle-agers.

  8. New concept of age(ing: Prospective age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the last century was the century of world population growth, according to demographers, the XXI century will be century of population aging. Statistics undoubtedly show that number of elderly will continue it’s growth in the future. If old age is seen as period of life with reduced physical and mental capabilities and increased disability, and demographic aging as increase of dependent population, trends are quite disturbing, at least in certain societal segments. In developed countries, this population category is no longer treated as passive or as a "burden of society" and efforts are made for better social inclusion of older people. In contrast to growing interest in this phenomenon, the concepts that define the aging of the population remained stagnant. The aim of this paper is to introduce into domestic literature the term "prospective age" as a dynamic category which is more affected with socio-historical conditions, not only with biological as traditional definition of aging suggested. Papers written by Sanderson and Scherbov offer new methodological options for study of population aging, because it takes into account the biometric rather than chronological approach. Calculation of prospective years is a simple operation that requires pair of the same number of remained life expectancy from life tables for two different periods (the year of concern is index, and the one we are comparing with is standard year, so that phrase "40s is the new 30s" or "70s the new 60s" gets scientific foundation. Average remaining years of life represent a realistic indicator suggesting increased capacity, activity and vitality of individuals, which is due to accepted demographic parameters still considered old. „Prospective threshold“ is defined as the age when life expectancy falls below 15 years (it is subjective choice made by Sanderson and Scherbov, which is also used in this paper and during the elaboration of these ideas three demographic

  9. Aging and intuitive physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léoni, Véronique; Mullet, Etienne; Chasseigne, Gerard

    2002-07-01

    The present study was aimed at comparing the judgment capacities manifested by young adults, middle-aged adults, and elderly people in an everyday life setting implying the consideration of direct as well as inverse relationships between the cues and the criterion. The chosen situation was borrowed from elementary physics and concerned the relationships between mass, volume and density. In forming their estimations of mass, all elderly people were able to use volume and density information. In addition, most of them were able to combine these pieces of information in a correct, multiplicative way. In forming their estimations of volume, all elderly people were able to use mass and density information but a majority of them used the density information in a direct way. By contrast, most young and middle-aged adults correctly used the density information in an inverse way. The findings strengthen and extend the case made by Chasseigne et al. [Acta Psychologica 97 (1997) 235] as regards the trouble elderly people face in using inverse relationships in a judgment situation. The difficulty elderly people face is not confined to learning settings. It may also be observed in ecological, non-learning environments, where the relationships considered do not entirely depend on the experimenter's choice.

  10. Xerostomia in the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M

    1989-01-01

    Xerostomia is a symptom associated with a variety of causes. Disorders in the production and transport as well as excessive depletion of saliva may lead to xerostomia. It is difficult to make any general statement about the functional significance of salivary gland changes associated with aging, as the clinical evidence is controversial and data from different studies do not encourage any uniform conclusion. Rational treatments of xerostomias may be performed casually (for example, withdrawal or exchange of drugs inhibiting salivary secretion), but will often only be practical as a symptomatic therapy. Special attention should be directed toward maintenance of adequate oral hygiene in order to prevent clinical complications such as increased dental caries, monilial infection, dysgeusia and tooth sensitivity, which are associated with xerostomia and are often observed in elderly xerostomic patients.

  11. Accelerated aging of AP/HTPB propellants and the influence of various environmental aging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers, H.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary resuits on accelerated aging of lab-scale produced AP/HTPB propellant and propellants from dissectioned rocket motors are discussed, including aging logic, storage conditions, test techniques and resuits on mechanical, ballistic and safety testing. The mam aging effect observed was harde

  12. Reprogramming aging and progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The aging rate of an organism depends on the ratio of tissue degeneration to tissue repair. As a consequence, molecular alterations that tip this balance toward degeneration cause accelerated aging. Conversely, interventions can be pursued to reduce tissue degeneration or to increase tissue repair with the aim of delaying the onset of age-associated manifestations. Recent studies on the biology of stem cells in aging have revealed the influence of systemic factors on their functionality and demonstrated the feasibility of reprogramming aged and progeroid cells. These results illustrate the reversibility of some aspects of the aging process and encourage the search for new anti-aging and anti-progeria interventions.

  13. UV, stress and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic—also called "photo-aging"—resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on ...

  14. PerformAge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2012-01-01

    a uniformly rosy picture of aging and old age, but unfold an opening up of life taking the heroines and heroes of aging life to the open road in search of themselves and new roles in life as a quest of self-knowledge, self-development – a role for the future. Different viewpoints enabling readers to identify...... closely with the aging self in motion – a life still in becoming as PerformAge....

  15. Recognizing age-separated face images: humans and machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Daksha; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Noore, Afzel

    2014-01-01

    Humans utilize facial appearance, gender, expression, aging pattern, and other ancillary information to recognize individuals. It is interesting to observe how humans perceive facial age. Analyzing these properties can help in understanding the phenomenon of facial aging and incorporating the findings can help in designing effective algorithms. Such a study has two components--facial age estimation and age-separated face recognition. Age estimation involves predicting the age of an individual given his/her facial image. On the other hand, age-separated face recognition consists of recognizing an individual given his/her age-separated images. In this research, we investigate which facial cues are utilized by humans for estimating the age of people belonging to various age groups along with analyzing the effect of one's gender, age, and ethnicity on age estimation skills. We also analyze how various facial regions such as binocular and mouth regions influence age estimation and recognition capabilities. Finally, we propose an age-invariant face recognition algorithm that incorporates the knowledge learned from these observations. Key observations of our research are: (1) the age group of newborns and toddlers is easiest to estimate, (2) gender and ethnicity do not affect the judgment of age group estimation, (3) face as a global feature, is essential to achieve good performance in age-separated face recognition, and (4) the proposed algorithm yields improved recognition performance compared to existing algorithms and also outperforms a commercial system in the young image as probe scenario.

  16. Recognizing age-separated face images: humans and machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Yadav

    Full Text Available Humans utilize facial appearance, gender, expression, aging pattern, and other ancillary information to recognize individuals. It is interesting to observe how humans perceive facial age. Analyzing these properties can help in understanding the phenomenon of facial aging and incorporating the findings can help in designing effective algorithms. Such a study has two components--facial age estimation and age-separated face recognition. Age estimation involves predicting the age of an individual given his/her facial image. On the other hand, age-separated face recognition consists of recognizing an individual given his/her age-separated images. In this research, we investigate which facial cues are utilized by humans for estimating the age of people belonging to various age groups along with analyzing the effect of one's gender, age, and ethnicity on age estimation skills. We also analyze how various facial regions such as binocular and mouth regions influence age estimation and recognition capabilities. Finally, we propose an age-invariant face recognition algorithm that incorporates the knowledge learned from these observations. Key observations of our research are: (1 the age group of newborns and toddlers is easiest to estimate, (2 gender and ethnicity do not affect the judgment of age group estimation, (3 face as a global feature, is essential to achieve good performance in age-separated face recognition, and (4 the proposed algorithm yields improved recognition performance compared to existing algorithms and also outperforms a commercial system in the young image as probe scenario.

  17. The Gestational Age Pattern of Human Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Vaupel, James W.; Jacobsen, Rune;

    2016-01-01

    In order to check hypotheses about the cause for "ontogenescense" -- the phenomenon of a declining force of mortality prior to maturity -- I analyse data on human mortality by gestational age. Based on extensive microdata on births, fetal- and infant deaths in the US 2009 I calculate a joint fetal......-infant lifetable by gestational age spanning week 23 until week 100 after the last menstrual period of the mother. This joint lifetable shows a remarkable regularity in the gestational age profile of fetal- and infant mortality: Mortality rates are declining over the whole observed age range with the exception...... of a "birth hump" peaking week 38. The absolute rate of decline slows down over age. The observed gestational age pattern of the force of mortality is consistent with three hypotheses concerning the causes for ontogenescense: 1) Adaptation: as the organism growths it becomes more resilient towards death, 2...

  18. Reaction to Reading The Age of Exuberance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨士杰

    2013-01-01

    Up till now only a few papers have been found to analyze The Age of Exuberance. It is extremely interesting for us to read The Age of Exuberance: backgrounds to eighteenth-century English literature by Donald Greene, who tries to see the eigh⁃teenth century from a different perspective, observing it as an exuberant, luxuriant age full of variety. It is the eighteenth century that witnesses the emergence of many news things.

  19. 低剂量伽玛刀照射实验性癫痫老龄大鼠海马神经元超微结构观察%Ultrastructural observation of hippocampal neurons of experimental epileptic aged rats after exposed to low-dose gamma knife radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传红; 赖晃文; 唐庚云; 王捷; 梁军潮; 詹纯列; 吴小丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the ultrastructural changes in hippocampal neurons of epileptic aged rats after exposed to low-dose gamma knife radiation. Methods: The aged rat models of epilepsy were established by infiltration of penicillin into cortex. Fifty seven rats were divided randomly into control group, epilepsy model group and low-dose gamma knife radiation group. The radiation was carried out with a peripheral dose of 12 Gy and 50% isodose curve. The samples of hippocampus of the entral aged rats and experimental epileptic rats with and without exposure to gamma knife, irradiation were taken and for transmission electron microscopic observation. Results; In control aged rat, numerous lipofuscin granules appeared in the cytoplasm of apparentely normal hippocampal neurons. In epileptic rats the vacuolation of mitochondria and increase of lipofuscin granules in the cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons were obviously and apoptotic neurons were found in the late stage of epileptic rat. After low-dose gamma knife radiation, there was an obviously recovelry of normal ultrastrcture of the injured neuron at the late stage of treatment. Conclusion: Ultrastructural injury of hippocampal neurons of experimental epileptic aged rat was obviously recovery at the late stage of low dose gamma knife radiation treatment.%目的:观察低剂量伽玛刀照射实验性老龄癫痫大鼠海马神经元超微结构的变化.方法:采用青霉素定位浸润建立老龄大鼠癫痫动物模型,将57只老龄大鼠分为对照组、癫痫组和癫痫后伽玛刀照射组.照射周边剂量12Gy,等剂量曲线为50%,0.5 h~60 d后取靶区海马制备电镜样品,透射电镜观察.结果:对照组海马神经元的超微结构正常;癫痫大鼠可见神经元细胞器明显空化,部分神经元凋亡;伽玛刀照射组早期与癫痫模型组基本一致,中期和晚期部分结构得以恢复,线粒体修复较为明显.结论:老龄癫痫大鼠经低剂量伽玛刀照射,中、晚

  20. The Gestational Age Pattern of Human Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas

    I present a lifetable by gestational age from week 23 until week 100 after the last menstrual period of the mother. The lifetable shows the pre-natal, peri-natal and post-natal mortality levels for US fetus/infants conceived in the year 2009. The observed age pattern of the force of mortality...

  1. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  2. Alaska Radiometric Ages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Radiometric Age file is a database of radiometric ages of rocks or minerals sampled from Alaska. The data was collected from professional publications...

  3. Visual Signs of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Rexbye

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.

  4. [Aging and gynecologic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Arturo A

    2005-01-01

    The interrelation between cancer and ageing in women is emphasized, on its increased incidence, in their molecular background, into the particular biological characteristics of the different tumors and the effects of ageing in the affected women.

  5. Memory and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over age 65, such memory lapses can be frightening. They wonder if they ...

  6. Aging and Health: Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Glaucoma Macular Degeneration Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cataracts Basic Facts & Information ... Are Cataracts? Cataracts are a common result of aging and occur frequently in older people. About one ...

  7. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ...

  8. Corrected Age for Preemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Corrected Age For Preemies Page Content Article Body If your ...

  9. Ages and Stages: Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & ... Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be ...

  10. Polyphenols and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Queen, Brannon L.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2010-01-01

    Age-associated changes within an individual are inherently complex and occur at multiple levels of organismal function. The overall decline in function of various tissues is known to play a key role in both aging and the complex etiology of certain age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of polyphenols to protect against age-associated disorders through a variety of important mechanisms. Numerous lines of evidenc...

  11. VERITAS Observations under Bright Moonlight

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The presence of moonlight is usually a limiting factor for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes due to the high sensitivity of the camera photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In their standard configuration, the extra noise limits the sensitivity of the experiment to gamma-ray signals and the higher PMT currents also accelerates PMT aging. Since fall 2012, observations have been carried out with VERITAS under bright moonlight (Moon illumination $> 35\\%$), in two observing modes, by reducing the voltage applied to the PMTs and with UV bandpass filters, which allow observations up to $\\sim80\\%$ Moon illumination resulting in $29\\%$ more observing time over the course of the year. In this presentation, we provide details of these new observing modes and their performance relative to the standard VERITAS observations.

  12. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger

    the representative consumer is subject to physiological aging. In modeling aging we draw on recent research in the fields of biology and medicine. The speed of the aging process, and thus the time of death, are endogenously determined by optimal health investments. We calibrate the model to US data and proceed...

  13. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...

  14. Language and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  15. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  16. Peroxisomes in yeast ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by the progressive decline in cellular functions that eventually leads to death. In human, ageing is associated with several age-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the years, research performed in several simpler sho

  17. Methods for age estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sümeyra Demirkıran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concept of age estimation plays an important role on both civil law and regulation of criminal behaviors. In forensic medicine, age estimation is practiced for individual requests as well for request of the court. In this study it is aimed to compile the methods of age estimation and to make recommendations for the solution of the problems encountered. In radiological method the epiphyseal lines of the bones and views of the teeth are used. In order to estimate the age by comparing bone radiographs; Greulich-Pyle Atlas (GPA, Tanner-Whitehouse Atlas (TWA and “Adli Tıpta Yaş Tayini (ATYT” books are used. Bone age is found to be 2 years older averagely than chronologic age, especially in puberty, according to the forensic age estimations described in the ATYT book. For the age estimation with teeth, Demirjian method is used. In time different methods are developed by modifying Demirjian method. However no accurate method was found. Histopathological studies are done on bone marrow cellularity and dermis cells. No correlation was found between histopathoogical findings and choronologic age. Important ethical and legal issues are brought with current age estimation methods especially in teenage period. Therefore it is required to prepare atlases of bone age compatible with our society by collecting the findings of the studies in Turkey. Another recommendation could be to pay attention to the courts of age raising trials of teenage women and give special emphasis on birth and population records

  18. UV, stress and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  19. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  20. Aging, longevity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  1. Ageing and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2010-11-01

    Ageing, which all creatures must encounter, is a challenge to every living organism. In the human body, it is estimated that cell division and metabolism occurs exuberantly until about 25 years of age. Beyond this age, subsidiary products of metabolism and cell damage accumulate, and the phenotypes of ageing appear, causing disease formation. Among these age-related diseases, neurodegenerative diseases have drawn a lot of attention due to their irreversibility, lack of effective treatment, and accompanied social and economical burdens. In seeking to ameliorate ageing and age-related diseases, the search for anti-ageing drugs has been of much interest. Numerous studies have shown that the plant polyphenol, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), extends the lifespan of several species, prevents age-related diseases, and possesses anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. The beneficial effects of resveratrol are believed to be associated with the activation of a longevity gene, SirT1. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cerebrovascular disease. The therapeutic potential of resveratrol, diet and the roles of stem cell therapy are discussed to provide a better understanding of the ageing mystery.

  2. Aging is not a disease: distinguishing age-related macular degeneration from aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD.

  3. Ages of young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Soderblom, David R; Jeffries, Rob D; Mamajek, Eric E; Naylor, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Determining the sequence of events in the formation of stars and planetary systems and their time-scales is essential for understanding those processes, yet establishing ages is fundamentally difficult because we lack direct indicators. In this review we discuss the age challenge for young stars, specifically those less than ~100 Myr old. Most age determination methods that we discuss are primarily applicable to groups of stars but can be used to estimate the age of individual objects. A reliable age scale is established above 20 Myr from measurement of the Lithium Depletion Boundary (LDB) in young clusters, and consistency is shown between these ages and those from the upper main sequence and the main sequence turn-off -- if modest core convection and rotation is included in the models of higher-mass stars. Other available methods for age estimation include the kinematics of young groups, placing stars in Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, pulsations and seismology, surface gravity measurement, rotation and activ...

  4. Can aging be programmed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the aging process has long been a biological riddle, because it is difficult to explain the evolution of a trait that has apparently no benefit to the individual. Over 60 years ago, Medawar realized that the force of natural selection declines with chronological age because...... of unavoidable environmental risks. This forms the basis of the mainstream view that aging arises as a consequence of a declining selection pressure to maintain the physiological functioning of living beings forever. Over recent years, however, a number of articles have appeared that nevertheless propose...... the existence of specific aging genes; that is, that the aging process is genetically programmed. If this view were correct, it would have serious implications for experiments to understand and postpone aging. Therefore, we studied in detail various specific proposals why aging should be programmed. We find...

  5. Age-Specific Correlates of Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias; Trommlerová, Sofia Karina

    2016-02-01

    Growth faltering describes a widespread phenomenon that height- and weight-for-age of children in developing countries collapse rapidly in the first two years of life. We study age-specific correlates of child nutrition using Demographic and Health Surveys from 56 developing countries to shed light on the potential drivers of growth faltering. Applying nonparametric techniques and exploiting within-mother variation, we find that maternal and household factors predict best the observed shifts and bends in child nutrition age curves. The documented interaction between age and maternal characteristics further underlines the need not only to provide nutritional support during the first years of life but also to improve maternal conditions.

  6. Perinatal Complications and Aging Indicators by Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Belsky, Daniel W.; Chapple, Simon; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Israel, Salomon; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Rivera, Christine D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Wolke, Dieter; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal complications predict increased risk for morbidity and early mortality. Evidence of perinatal programming of adult mortality raises the question of what mechanisms embed this long-term effect. We tested a hypothesis related to the theory of developmental origins of health and disease: that perinatal complications assessed at birth predict indicators of accelerated aging by midlife. METHODS: Perinatal complications, including both maternal and neonatal complications, were assessed in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort (N = 1037), a 38-year, prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Two aging indicators were assessed at age 38 years, objectively by leukocyte telomere length (TL) and subjectively by perceived facial age. RESULTS: Perinatal complications predicted both leukocyte TL (β = −0.101; 95% confidence interval, −0.169 to −0.033; P = .004) and perceived age (β = 0.097; 95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 0.165; P = .005) by midlife. We repeated analyses with controls for measures of family history and social risk that could predispose to perinatal complications and accelerated aging, and for measures of poor health taken in between birth and the age-38 follow-up. These covariates attenuated, but did not fully explain the associations observed between perinatal complications and aging indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide support for early-life developmental programming by linking newborns’ perinatal complications to accelerated aging at midlife. We observed indications of accelerated aging “inside,” as measured by leukocyte TL, an indicator of cellular aging, and “outside,” as measured by perceived age, an indicator of declining tissue integrity. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying perinatal programming of adult aging is needed. PMID:25349321

  7. Aging and the aged in Aesopic fables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, J

    1997-01-01

    Little attempt has been made to re-assess the attitudes to aging and old age of the ancient-medieval Greek-speaking world on the basis of the literary remains (which are common to both) since Richardson (1933). There are however some collections (proverbs, sayings, "purple passages" from literature and so forth) which include material revealing attitudes which are in fact quite different from those of today and which can even be surprising. One such collection, the large number of fables which more or less conform to the genre associated with Aesop, is here analyzed to isolate the texts which have to do with aging and the attitudes they reveal. Of the surprisingly few fables which touch upon the matter, most are distinctly complimentary. In most instances the elderly are seen to increase, rather diminish, in certain powers other than physical strength. Fables are found which characterize them as being astute, intelligent, crafty, loyal and, above all, capable of giving sound advice and good leadership when the situation requires it of them. The celebrated Fable of the Tortoise and the Hare, although it was not specifically interpreted in this way in ancient times, best sums up the general attitude: that dogged persistence (the characteristic of the elderly) will ultimately prove superior to all the erratic bursts of youthful speed anytime. Hence Cicero: "Old age is more spirited than youth, and stronger!"

  8. Autophagy in ageing and ageing-associated diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-qiang HE; Jia-hong LU; Zhen-yu YUE

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a cell self-digestion process via lysosomes that clears "cellular waste",including aberrantly modified proteins or protein aggregates and damaged organelles.Therefore,autophagy is considered a protein and organelle quality control mechanism that maintains normal cellular homeostasis.Dysfunctional autophagy has been observed in ageing tissues and several ageing-associated diseases.Lifespan of model organisms such as yeast,worms,flies,and mice can be extended through promoting autophagy,either by genetic manipulations such as over-expression of Sirtuin 1,or by administrations of rapamycin,resveratrol or spermidine.The evidence supports that autophagy may play an important role in delaying ageing or extending lifespan.In this review,we summarize the current knowledge about autophagy and its regulation,outline recent developments ie the genetic and pharmacological manipulations of autophagy that affects the lifespan,and discuss the role of autophagy in the ageing-related diseases.ow in Center for Neurodegenerative and Neuroimmunologic Diseases,Department of Neurology,University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School,Piscataway,NJ 08854,USA

  9. Update on the oxidative stress theory of aging: does oxidative stress play a role in aging or healthy aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Adam B; Richardson, Arlan; Pérez, Viviana I

    2010-03-01

    The oxidative stress theory of aging predicts that manipulations that alter oxidative stress/damage will alter aging. The gold standard for determining whether aging is altered is life span, i.e., does altering oxidative stress/damage change life span? Mice with genetic manipulations in their antioxidant defense system designed to directly address this prediction have, with few exceptions, shown no change in life span. However, when these transgenic/knockout mice are tested using models that develop various types of age-related pathology, they show alterations in progression and/or severity of pathology as predicted by the oxidative stress theory: increased oxidative stress accelerates pathology and reduced oxidative stress retards pathology. These contradictory observations might mean that (a) oxidative stress plays a very limited, if any, role in aging but a major role in health span and/or (b) the role that oxidative stress plays in aging depends on environment. In environments with minimal stress, as expected under optimal husbandry, oxidative damage plays little role in aging. However, under chronic stress, including pathological phenotypes that diminish optimal health, oxidative stress/damage plays a major role in aging. Under these conditions, enhanced antioxidant defenses exert an "antiaging" action, leading to changes in life span, age-related pathology, and physiological function as predicted by the oxidative stress theory of aging.

  10. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  11. The aging lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  12. Singapore: An Aging Society

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Minsol; Lu, Phillip I Fan

    2015-01-01

    This project is a case study on Singapore and will investigate the issue of an aging population. This project draws upon the general theory of population aging and preference theory. The first part of our analysis is to investigate empirical data of Singapore’s population, fertility rates, mortality, and life expectancy. This is investigated through the use of the general theory of population aging. The second part of our project analyzes policymaking related to population and fertility in Si...

  13. Can ageing be slowed?

    OpenAIRE

    Gaman, L; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2011-01-01

    Redox metabolism has long been considered to play important roles in aging and the development of age-related diseases. Both dietary and pharmacological manipulations of redox metabolism have been associated with the extension of lifespan. Increasing new evidence s also suggests that the process of aging may derive from imperfect clearance of oxidatively damaged material. The accumulation of this molecular “garbage”, relatively indigestible, further hinders cellular functions, induces progres...

  14. Sexuality in old age

    OpenAIRE

    KOSOVÁ, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Age and sex are two terms that are not frequently associated with each other. Sexuality is a natural part of human nature, accompanying people throughout their whole lives, still in old age. The elderly are often considered asexual by society, and therefore they feel too shy to speak out about problems they are facing in their sexual lives. In this paper, physiological and psychosocial changes the old age brings about, ailments and sexual dysfunctions that may affect seniors´ sexuality, and m...

  15. Observer Use of Standardized Observation Protocols in Consequential Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Courtney A.; Yi, Qi; Jones, Nathan D.; Lewis, Jennifer M.; McLeod, Monica; Liu, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from a handful of large-scale studies suggests that although observers can be trained to score reliably using observation protocols, there are concerns related to initial training and calibration activities designed to keep observers scoring accurately over time (e.g., Bell, et al, 2012; BMGF, 2012). Studies offer little insight into how…

  16. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients.

  17. Anorexia of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, Renuka

    2015-08-01

    The anorexia of aging is common, leading to adverse health consequences. As populations age, the impacts from anorexia in the older population are set to increase. Only greater awareness will allow for prevention or early intervention. This article discusses the physiologic anorexia of aging, highlights contributing factors, and proposes management strategies, including screening, especially in primary care. Many neuroendocrine factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology; it is clear that further human research is necessary if there is to be a pharmacologic breakthrough. There are currently no approved pharmacologic treatment strategies to prevent or treat the anorexia of aging.

  18. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... ‘sites of active aging’ in Denmark. By presenting three technologies of active aging (billiards at an activity center for elderly persons, dancing tiles for rehabilitation after falls and an online fitness community for elderly persons) the paper suggests that active aging is more than regimes...

  19. Observational features of pulsar glitches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Pulsar glitches are sudden increases in the rotation rate which probably result from angular momentum transfer within the neutron star. We review the observational features of the 39 glitches detected at Nanshan from 2000 to 2008, including several events which appear to be slow glitches. A wide variety of post-glitch behavior is observed with very little recovery in some pulsars and over-recovery in others. Analysis of the whole sample of known glitches shows that fractional glitch amplitudes are correlated with characteristic age with a peak at about 105 years, but there is a spread of two or three orders of magnitude at all ages. For individual pulsars with many glitches, the time until the next glitch is sometimes proportional to the fractional glitch amplitude.

  20. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  1. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  2. Selected Issues on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ruby D.

    Aging is a continuum which begins at birth and ends at death. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to the study of aging as a part of developmental psychology. The individual is a biological organism as well as a member of society. Biological adjustments to life are affected by physical changes which influence motives and emotions. Some of…

  3. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Karlin PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  4. Aging, longevity and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.;

    2011-01-01

    Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School...

  5. Biology of ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Living systems owe their survival and health to a series of complex biochemical pathways of maintenance and repair. These defense systems create the homeodynamic space of an individual, which is characterized by stress tolerance, molecular damage control and continuous remodeling. Ageing, age...

  6. Myocontrol in aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Fimbel

    Full Text Available Myoelectric (EMG signals are used in assistive technology for prostheses, computer and domestic control. An experimental study previously conducted with young participants was replicated with elderly persons in order to assess the effect of age on the ability to control myoelectric amplitude (or myocontrol. Participants performed pointing tasks as the myoelectric amplitude was captured by a surface electrode in two modalities (sustained: stabilize the amplitude after reaching the desired level; impulsion: return immediately to resting amplitude. There was a significant decrease of performance with Age. However, the patterns of performance of young and aged were noticeably similar. The Impulsion modality was difficult (high rates of failure and the speed-accuracy trade-offs predicted by Fitts' law were absent (bow-shaped patterns as function of target amplitude instead of logarithmic increase. Conversely, the reach phase of the Sustained modality followed the predictions of Fitts' law. However, the slope of the regression line with Fitts' index of difficulty was quite steeper in aged than in young participants. These findings suggest that 1 all participants, young and aged, adapt their reaching strategies to the anticipated state (sustained amplitude or not and/or to the difficulty of the task, 2 myocontrol in aged persons is more fragile, i.e., performance is markedly degraded as the difficulty of the task increases. However, when individual performance was examined, some aged individuals were found to perform as well as the young participants, congruently with the literature on good aging.

  7. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same pace

  8. The Culture of Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2009-01-01

    Dissimilarities between the Chinese and Western cultures are vast.Aging significantly points to these differences.The great Chinese thinker Confucius expressed very definite thoughts about his own aging process.In many ways his words contrast with the verses of the famous Western playwright,

  9. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... years. He spoke with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about oral health issues common in older adults. What has been ...

  10. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2016-01-01

    Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes that can influence the performance of tasks. We are faced with an important challe

  11. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2016-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes that can influence the performance of tasks. We are faced with an impor

  12. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2015-01-01

    Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes which can influence performance of tasks. We are faced with an important challenge

  13. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  14. Epigenetics of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Marta I.; Fernández, Agustín F.; Fraga, Mario F.

    2015-01-01

    The best-known phenomenon exemplifying epigenetic drift (the alteration of epigenetic patterns during aging) is the gradual decrease of global DNA methylation. Aging cells, different tissue types, as well as a variety of human diseases possess their own distinct DNA methylation profiles, although the functional impact of these is not always clear. DNA methylation appears to be a dynamic tool of transcriptional regulation, with an extra layer of complexity due to the recent discovery of the conversion of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. This age-related DNA demethylation is associated with changes in histone modification patterns and, furthermore, we now know that ncRNAs have evolved in eukaryotes as epigenetic regulators of gene expression. In this review, we will discuss current knowledge on how all these epigenetic phenomena are implicated in human aging, and their links with external, internal and stochastic factors which can affect human age-related diseases onset. PMID:27019618

  15. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  16. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  17. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  18. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  19. Ageing and Health: A Health Profile of Inmates of Old Age Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu M Bhatt, Shivani Vyas, Janak P Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It is observed that majority of inmates were suffering from health problems associated with ageing. The elderly comprise a very important vulnerable group is ignored but needs urgent attention.

  20. Ageing of the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, D F

    1995-01-01

    The various hypothalamic nuclei show very different patterns of change in ageing. These patterns are a basis for changes in biological rhythms, hormones, autonomous functions or behavior. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) coordinates circadian and circannual rhythms. A marked seasonal and circadian variation in the vasopressin (AVP) cell number of the SCN was observed in relation to the variation in photoperiod. During normal ageing, the circadian variation and number of AVP-expressing neurons in the SCN decreases. The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN), intermediate nucleus or INAH-1 is localized between the supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In adult men the SDN is twice as large as in adult women. In girls, the SDN shows a first period of decreasing cell numbers during prepubertal development, leading to sexual dimorphism. During ageing a decrease in cell number is found in both sexes. The cells of the supraoptic nucleus and PVN produce AVP or oxytocin and coexpress tyrosine hydroxylase. These nuclei are examples of neuron populations that seem to stay perfectly intact in ageing. Parvicellular corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-containing neurons are found throughout the PVN. CRH neurons in the PVN are activated in the course of ageing, as indicated by their increase in number and AVP coexpression. Part of the infundibular (or arcuate) nucleus, the subventricular nucleus, contains hypertrophic neurons in postmenopausal women. The hypertrophied neurons contain neurokinin-B (NKB), substance P and estrogen receptors and probably act on LHRH neurons as interneurons. The NKB neurons may also be involved in the initiation of menopausal flushes. The nucleus tuberalis lateralis might be involved in feeding behavior and metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The aging heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, S C; Schwartz, A B

    1985-02-01

    Pathologic studies of the myocardium and valvular structures have failed to provide convincing evidence of gross or microscopic changes that can be ascribed to aging alone. Lipofuscin accumulation and basophilic degeneration in cardiac muscle cells appear to be the most consistent findings associated with aging, but they are found in other conditions. Without doubt, pathologic changes in the myocardium, valves, and coronary arteries are found more frequently in the hearts of elderly persons, but those changes are caused by disease processes associated with an aging population rather than the aging process itself. Both the sinus and atrioventricular nodes decrease in size with age owing to a loss of cellularity. These structures become infiltrated with collagen, elastic tissue, and reticular fibers. Some have found infiltration also with fat. Amyloid deposition, basophilic degeneration of cells, and lipofuscin accumulation occur but probably do not cause functional abnormalities. Similar but less dramatic changes occur in the bundle of His and individual bundle branches. Most of the data suggests that these aging changes are not due to vascular insufficiency. Age-related changes in intrinsic mechanical function have been identified as a prolongation of contraction duration, decreased inotropic responses to catecholamines and cardiac glycosides, and an increase in mechanical refractoriness. Other possible age-related changes include alterations in relaxation, which may or may not be independent of the prolongation of contraction, and changes in the viscoelastic properties of cardiac muscle. When examined in the context of the components of a model of excitation-contraction coupling, changes in action potential duration and the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum emerge as the most likely bases for the changes. The electrical characteristics of sinus, atrioventricular, and His-Purkinje cells as well as atrial and ventricular muscle cells change with age. The sinus

  2. Experimental evolution of aging in a bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stearns Stephen C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging refers to a decline in reproduction and survival with increasing age. According to evolutionary theory, aging evolves because selection late in life is weak and mutations exist whose deleterious effects manifest only late in life. Whether the assumptions behind this theory are fulfilled in all organisms, and whether all organisms age, has not been clear. We tested the generality of this theory by experimental evolution with Caulobacter crescentus, a bacterium whose asymmetric division allows mother and daughter to be distinguished. Results We evolved three populations for 2000 generations in the laboratory under conditions where selection was strong early in life, but very weak later in life. All populations evolved faster growth rates, mostly by decreasing the age at first division. Evolutionary changes in aging were inconsistent. The predominant response was the unexpected evolution of slower aging, revealing the limits of theoretical predictions if mutations have unanticipated phenotypic effects. However, we also observed the spread of a mutation causing earlier aging of mothers whose negative effect was reset in the daughters. Conclusion Our results confirm that late-acting deleterious mutations do occur in bacteria and that they can invade populations when selection late in life is weak. They suggest that very few organisms – perhaps none- can avoid the accumulation of such mutations over evolutionary time, and thus that aging is probably a fundamental property of all cellular organisms.

  3. Protein oxidation and ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linton, S; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T

    2001-01-01

    of redox-active metal ions that could catalyse oxidant formation. As a result of this decrease in antioxidant defences, and increased rate of ROS formation, it is possible that the impact of ROS increases with age. ROS are known to oxidise biological macromolecules, with proteins an important target....... If the argument that the impact of ROS increases with age is true, then proteins would be expected to accumulate oxidised materials with age, and the rate of such accumulation should increase with time, reflecting impaired inefficiency of homeostasis. Here we review the evidence for the accumulation of oxidised......, or modified, extra- and intra-cellular proteins in vivo....

  4. Growth hormone and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  5. Finitude, Aging and Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Rodrigues Correa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship of man with death and its deployment in subjectivity and in aging. With this intent, we first present a brief history of the vision of death over time and after an analysis of the process of aging and dying according to the logic of biopolitical management. With death and old age increasingly distant from the horizons of life, subjectivity has been weakened. Thus, incorporating these aspects as part of existence constitutes one of the challenges to the thought as well as to the building of the self.  

  6. Envy, politics, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.

  7. Envy, Politics and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Harris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 5 years, the phrase politics of envy has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357. Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.

  8. Clinical Observation of Kangai Injection in Treating 40 cases of Advanced NSCLC in Middle-aged and Elderly Patients%康艾注射液治疗中老年晚期非小细胞肺癌40例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄毅

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价康艾注射液治疗中老年晚期非小细胞肺癌的临床疗效。方法:40例中老年晚期非小细胞肺癌患者随机分为治疗组20例和对照组20例,2组均采用常规对症及营养支持治疗,治疗组在对照组的用药基础上加用康艾注射液60 mL 稀释后静滴1次/d,每周期14 d,观察4个周期后肿瘤客观疗效、生活质量、中医临床症状、不良反应方面。结果:治疗组和对照组的肿瘤稳定率分别为70%、55%,但差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);4个周期后治疗组的体力状况明显优于对照组(P <0.05);2组患者的中医临床症状疗效比较,治疗组优于对照组,但无统计学意义(P >0.05);2组患者均未出现明显血液学及消化道毒性。结论:康艾注射液可能会提高中老年晚期非小细胞肺癌患者的体力状况,且无明显不良反应,在这类患者的辅助治疗中存在一定程度的优势。%Objective:To observe the clinical effect of Kangai injection in treating middle-aged or elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).Methods:To randomly divided 40 cases of advanced NSCLC patients into treatment group(20 cases) and control group(20 cases).Both of the two groups were given conventional treatment and nutritional support.Treatment group was also given 60ml of Kangai injection intravenous infusion after diluted,once /d,14d /period.After 4 periods of treatment,to observe the objective effect,living quality,Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM)clinical symptoms and adverse reaction.Results:The carcinoma stable rate of treatment group is 70% and control group 55%,without statistical significance(P >0.05).After 4 periods of treatment,the physical strength of treatment group is obviously superior to control group(P 0.05).Both of the two groups have no obvious hematologic and archenteric virulence.Conclusion:Kangai injection can improve the physical strength of middle-aged

  9. The Economic Promise of Delayed Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana

    2015-12-18

    Biomedicine has made enormous progress in the last half century in treating common diseases. However, we are becoming victims of our own success. Causes of death strongly associated with biological aging, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke-cluster within individuals as they grow older. These conditions increase frailty and limit the benefits of continued, disease-specific improvements. Here, we show that a "delayed-aging" scenario, modeled on the biological benefits observed in the most promising animal models, could solve this problem of competing risks. The economic value of delayed aging is estimated to be $7.1 trillion over 50 years. Total government costs, including Social Security, rise substantially with delayed aging--mainly caused by longevity increases--but we show that these can be offset by modest policy changes. Expanded biomedical research to delay aging appears to be a highly efficient way to forestall disease and extend healthy life.

  10. [Epidermal aging and anti-aging strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrab, J; Hilpert, K; Wolff, L

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial senescence is a complex process depending on intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors (e.g., UV or IR light, tobacco smoke) and must be seen in the context of the aging process especially of the corium and the subcutis. Morphological alterations become apparent in the form of epithelial atrophy, structural changes within the basal membrane, and a decrease in cell count of melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Signs of cellular senescence are reduced proliferation of keratinocytes, cumulation of dysplastic keratinocytes, various mutations (e.g., c-Fos/c-Jun, STAT3, FoxO1), as well as multiple lipid or amino acid metabolic aberrations (e.g., production of advanced glycation endproducts). This causes functional changes within the physical (lipid deficiency, water distribution dysfunction, lack of hygroscopic substances), chemical (pH conditions, oxygen radicals), and immunological barrier. Prophylactically, barrier-protective care products, antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, B3, E, polyphenols, flavonoids), sunscreen products/measurements, and retinoids are used. For correcting alterations in aged epidermis, chemical peelings (fruit acids, β-hydroxy acid, trichloroacetic acid, phenolic compounds), non-ablative (IPL, PDL, Nd:YAG) as well as ablative (CO2, Erbium-YAG) light-assisted methods are used.

  11. Facial age affects emotional expression decoding

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and fo...

  12. The common biology of cancer and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Toren; Serrano, Manuel; Blasco, Maria A

    2007-08-16

    At first glance, cancer and ageing would seem to be unlikely bedfellows. Yet the origins for this improbable union can actually be traced back to a sequence of tragic--and some say unethical--events that unfolded more than half a century ago. Here we review the series of key observations that has led to a complex but growing convergence between our understanding of the biology of ageing and the mechanisms that underlie cancer.

  13. Dynamic strain aging in magnesium oxide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Stoebe, T. G.

    1973-01-01

    Strain rate change transients are considered together with aspects of serrated flow, questions of flow stress and work hardening during dynamic strain aging, and time, temperature, and prestrain dependence of strain aging. On continuing the deformation process after aging for certain periods of time for a particular strain, a subsidiary load drop is sometimes observed in addition to the main yield drops.

  14. Cancer and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Engholm, Gerda; Skytthe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    studies of cancer epidemiology and minimized the challenges often faced in many countries, such as uncertain identification of the study base, age misreporting, and low validity of the cancer diagnoses. However, methodological challenges still remain to be addressed, especially in cancer epidemiology...... studies among the elderly and the oldest-old. For example, a characteristic pattern for many cancer types is that the incidence increases up to a maximum at about ages 75-90 years and is then followed by a decline or a leveling off at the oldest ages. It has been suggested that the oldest individuals may...... be asymptomatic, or even insusceptible to cancer. An alternative interpretation is that this pattern is an artifact due to lower diagnostic intensity among the elderly and oldest-old caused by higher levels of co-morbidities in this age group. Currently, the available cancer epidemiology data are not able...

  15. Forest Stand Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  16. Myths of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Historical and contemporary images of ageing have generally reinforced negative stereotypes of old age. An examination of sculpture, painting, poetry, literature and film, as well as television, advertising, newspaper stories, birthday cards and road signs reveals that old age is often shown as being a time of loneliness, depression and physical decline. These conditions do occur but their prevalence and severity have been exaggerated. There are many myths of ageing that have been influenced by these representations: that old people with physical or cognitive decline are social problems; that families no longer care for their elders; that geriatric medicine is an unglamorous specialty. Low expectations of old people and ageist thinking can adversely affect how we speak of disadvantaged old people. The challenge is to question inaccurate assumptions. Key to the improvement of medical care of older people is to extend the teaching of geriatric medicine and improve and coordinate research.

  17. Sleep and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging About Sleep We all look forward to a good night's ... health and quality of life. Two Types of Sleep There are two types of sleep: non-rapid ...

  18. Cellular aging -Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadrao Zavalela, Luis; Catedrático de patología General y Estomatológica UNMSM. Fac. Odontología.

    2014-01-01

    Histoncally, The term illness of Alzheimer was used if the suffering began befare the 65 years of age, and senile insanity if he/she made it la ter. Nevertheless at the present time, illness of Alzheimer refers to insanity related with the independent changes characteristic anatomopatológics of the principle age. The . macroscopic exam of the brain Shows expansion of the cerebral furrows, in general more marked in the regions frontal and storm. The important microscopic characteristics of th...

  19. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  20. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population.

  1. Asphalts’ aging phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Xiomara Vargas; Freddy Reyes

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a state of the art revision of the results from studies of asphalt aging found by researchers aimed at deepening understanding of this complex phenomenon. The background shows the evolution of asphalt aging, initially considering it as physical hardening and progressively ecognizing it as a complex phenomenon having repercussions on asphalt durability and physical-chemical properties. This document aims to be a guide for understanding future investigations for developing ne...

  2. Succesful Aging at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    As the context of work and the age composition of the workforce are changing, this raises several issues to the work capacity and participation of the older age groups in the workforce. With the growth of positive psychology researchers have begun to focus not only on the problems that mature workers encounter in the workplace, such as cognitive loss and discrimination deriving from stereotypes, but also on the potential strengths and resources. Despite the attention paid to this subject, the...

  3. Envy, Politics, and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase politics of envy has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger pe...

  4. Aging and sexuality.

    OpenAIRE

    Holzapfel, S.

    1997-01-01

    Recent research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. In men, greater physical stimulation is required to attain and maintain erections, and orgasms are less intense. In women, menopause terminates fertility and produces changes ste...

  5. Career age peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polozov Andrey Anatolievich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Most researchers seem career as translational motion the steps to the top. However, very similar to that on the ladder just two steps – in 25 and 39 years. At age 25, the largest value reaches the value of the index of intelligence, and at the age of 39 years – management experience. Best results have revealed 6 years after the beginning of its profile.

  6. Age-Related Effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages) in Bone Matrix on Osteoclastic Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gandhi, Chintan; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2015-12-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Previous studies have shown controversial results regarding the role of in situ AGEs accumulation in osteoclastic resorption. To address this issue, this study cultured human osteoclast cells directly on human cadaveric bone slices from different age groups (young and elderly) to warrant its relevance to in vivo conditions. The cell culture was terminated on the 3rd, 7th, and 10th day, respectively, to assess temporal changes in the number of differentiated osteoclasts, the number and size of osteoclastic resorption pits, the amount of bone resorbed, as well as the amount of matrix AGEs released in the medium by resorption. In addition, the in situ concentration of matrix AGEs at each resorption pit was also estimated based on its AGEs autofluorescent intensity. The results indicated that (1) osteoclastic resorption activities were significantly correlated with the donor age, showing larger but shallower resorption pits on the elderly bone substrates than on the younger ones; (2) osteoclast resorption activities were not significantly dependent on the in situ AGEs concentration in bone matrix, and (3) a correlation was observed between osteoclast activities and the concentration of AGEs released by the resorption. These results suggest that osteoclasts tend to migrate away from initial anchoring sites on elderly bone substrate during resorption compared to younger bone substrates. However, such behavior is not directly related to the in situ concentration of AGEs in bone matrix at the resorption sites.

  7. Genetics of aging, progeria and lamin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shrestha; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2014-06-01

    Premature aging disorders, like Werner syndrome, Bloom's syndrome, and Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), have been the subjects of immense interest as they recapitulate many of the phenotypes observed in physiological aging. They, therefore, not only provide model systems to study normal aging processes but also give valuable insights into the intricate mechanisms underlying senescence. Recent works on HGPS have revealed alterations in a spectrum of cellular and molecular pathways involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity, thus suggesting a profound impact of the nuclear lamina in nuclear organization, chromatin dynamics, regulation of gene expression and epigenetics.

  8. Magnesium and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Zanforlini, Bruno Micael; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is relatively stable in the intracellular compartment, although decreases linearly with advancing age. This begs the question as to whether Mg could be used as biomarker of aging. A biomarker of aging is a biological parameter of an organism that, in the absence of disease, better predicts functional capability at a later age than the chronological age. Bone and muscle Mg content might be useful biomarkers, but the need for biopsies and the heterogeneous distribution of Mg in bones and muscles strongly limit the application of these methods in clinical practice. Similar considerations can be made for urinary Mg assessment, particularly after a loading test. Markers of Mg in blood seem fairly unreliable as biomarkers of aging since they are strongly dependent upon renal function, do not reflect the intracellular Mg status, and, in some investigations, are within normal ranges although other Mg parameters are not. Other investigations (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance with fluorescent probes) seem to be promising, but their availability remains limited.

  9. [Salutogenesis in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, U; Rölker, S; Hannich, H-J

    2004-10-01

    In this contribution, the significance of the salutogenic model (Antonovsky) and its core concept-the sense of coherence-for research into "successful aging" is explicated on the background of a gerodynamic perspective (Schroots). Common to both approaches is the idea that the basic principle of life is based on imbalance, disease, and suffering (heterostasis). According to this pessimistic view, aging is considered as the individual time dimension on which these inevitable impairments in biological, behavioral, and social respects take place. The continuous increase in entropy (disorder) will finally result in the death of the organism. In the face of gerontological research showing variability and individual plasticity in aging processes-especially for the third age-, the salutogenic question is why some people generally become (very) old and stay healthy. According to the salutogenic model, the sense of coherence determines the (re-)production of order over the life span and mediates the relationship between resources/stressors and health outcome. Considering activity/disengagement theory and the selective optimization with compensation model as an example, the integrative potential of the salutogenic model is shown. Finally, the value of the salutogenic model for the fourth age is discussed. Healthy aging is one chance of human existence, but in no way a collective duty that should be imposed on the individual.

  10. Aging of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation.

  11. Adipose tissue, diet and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Mauro; Rossi, Andrea P; Fantin, Francesco; Zamboni, Giulia; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Zoico, Elena; Mazzali, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Age related increase in body fat mass, visceral adipose tissue (AT), and ectopic fat deposition are strongly related to worse health conditions in the elderly. Moreover, with aging higher inflammation in adipose tissue may be observed and may contribute to inflammaging. Aging may significantly affect AT function by modifying the profile of adipokines produced by adipose cells, reducing preadipocytes number and their function and increasing AT macrophages infiltration. The initiating events of the inflammatory cascade promoting a greater AT inflammatory profile are not completely understood. Nutrients may determine changes in the amount of body fat, in its distribution as well as in AT function with some nutrients showing a pro-inflammatory effect on AT. Evidences are sparse and quite controversial with only a few studies performed in older subjects. Different dietary patterns are the result of the complex interaction of foods and nutrients, thus more studies are needed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and changes in adipose tissue structure, distribution and function in the elderly.

  12. Memory abilities during normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Jaime, R M; Ardila, A

    1998-02-01

    One hundred and five normal subjects from 20 to 89 years old, and with a minimum of six years of formal education were selected. Subjects were divided into seven age ranges, with 15 subjects in each group. The following tests were individually administered: (1) Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (Wechsler, 1945); (2) Serial Verbal Learning (Ardila, Rosselli & Puente, 1994; Ardila & Ostrosky, 1991); (3) The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) (Osterrieth, 1944) (copy, immediate, and delayed reproduction); (4) Corsi's blocks (Milner, 1971) (forwards and backwards); and (5) Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (Wilson, Cockburn, & Baddeley, 1985). This last test may be considered as a functional or ecological memory test. All test scores declined across ages between 4.1% and 76.6%. In all the tests, excepting Digits, standard deviations increased with age. It was observed that the youngest subjects could retain about three-fourths of the information presented, whereas the oldest retained around one-third of this information. About half of the test significantly correlated with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test. A factor analysis revealed four different factors accounting for 63.3% of the variance. A single nonverbal memory factor accounted for over 40% of the variance.

  13. The Sciences and Aging. Adding to the Knowledge about Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Dean

    The Social Sciences, as they relate to the aged and the aging, are discussed. Social gerontology seeks to discover the role of the social environment as a determinant of aging and of the behavior and position of older people in society. In the United States, some 20 million people are over 65 years of age, and the median age of the elderly has…

  14. The age of menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, M

    1995-01-01

    In females, the first menstrual period, menarche, signals the beginning of the capacity to reproduce and is associated with the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Menarche is one of the most significant milestones in a woman's life. The first cycles tend to be anovulatory and vary widely in length. They are usually painless and occur without warning. Menarche occurs between the ages of 10 and 16 years in most girls in developed countries. Although the precise determinants of menarcheal age remain to be understood, genetic influences, socioeconomic conditions, general health and well-being, nutritional status, certain types of exercise, seasonality, and family size possibly play a role. Over the past century the age at menarche has fallen in industrialized countries, but that trend has stopped and may even be reversing. The average age at menarche in 1840 was 16.5 years, now it is 13. The age at menopause, however, has remained relatively constant at approximately 50 years. The length of time during which women are exposed to endogenous estrogen has therefore been increasing. Reasons for the fall in menarcheal age remain unclear, but one interpretation considers it to be a reflection of the improvement in health and environmental conditions. The decline in menarcheal age appears to be leveling off in many countries such as Britain, Iceland, Italy, Poland, and Sweden, but continues in Germany and some other countries. Late menarche is associated with a decreased risk of developing breast cancer in later life, a decreased frequency of coronary heart disease, later first pregnancy, and reduction in teen pregnancy. Late menarche may, however, be positively associated with the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Isothermal aging effects on PMR-15 resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of PMR-15 polyimide neat resin were aged in air at temperatures of 288, 316, and 343 C. Weight losses and dimensional changes were monitored during the course of the exposure time. Physical changes were also observed by optical and electron microscopy. It was found that polyimide polymer degradation occurred within a thin surface layer that developed and grew during thermal aging. The cores of the polymer specimens were protected from oxidative degradation, and they were relatively unchanged by the thermal treatment. Surface cracking was observed at 343 C and was probably due to an interaction between voids and stresses that developed in the surface layer.

  16. Facial age affects emotional expression decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Werheid, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces.

  17. Age differences in mental health literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The community's knowledge and beliefs about mental health problems, their risk factors, treatments and sources of help may vary as a function of age. Methods Data were taken from an epidemiological survey conducted during 2003–2004 with a national clustered sample of Australian adults aged 18 years and over. Following the presentation of a vignette describing depression (n = 1001 or schizophrenia (n = 997, respondents were asked a series of questions relating to their knowledge and recognition of the disorder, beliefs about the helpfulness of treating professionals and medical, psychological and lifestyle treatments, and likely causes. Results Participant age was coded into five categories and cross-tabulated with mental health literacy variables. Comparisons between age groups revealed that although older adults (70+ years were poorer than younger age groups at correctly recognising depression and schizophrenia, young adults (18–24 years were more likely to misidentify schizophrenia as depression. Differences were also observed between younger and older age groups in terms of beliefs about the helpfulness of certain treating professionals and medical and lifestyle treatments for depression and schizophrenia, and older respondents were more likely to believe that schizophrenia could be caused by character weakness. Conclusion Differences in mental health literacy across the adult lifespan suggest that more specific, age appropriate messages about mental health are required for younger and older age groups. The tendency for young adults to 'over-identify' depression signals the need for awareness campaigns to focus on differentiation between mental disorders.

  18. Age, hypertension and arterial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Avolio, Albert P

    2007-07-01

    1. Ageing exerts a marked effect on the cardiovascular system and, in particular, the large arteries. Using a variety of techniques to assess arterial stiffness, many cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between age and aortic stiffness, although the age-related changes observed in peripheral arteries appear to be less marked. 2. The relationship between arterial stiffness and hypertension is more complex. The distending, or mean arterial, pressure is an important confounder of measurements of arterial stiffness and, therefore, must be taken into consideration when assessing arterial stiffness in hypertensive subjects or investigating the effect of antihypertensive agents. Current methods for correcting for differences in distending pressure involve pharmacological manipulation, statistical correction or mathematical manipulation of stiffness indices. 3. Many studies have provided evidence that both peripheral (muscular) and central (elastic) arteries are stiffer in subjects with mixed (systolic/diastolic) hypertension compared with normotensive subjects. However, it is unclear to what extent differences in mean arterial pressure explain the observed differences in hypertensive subjects. In contrast, isolated systolic hypertension is associated with increased aortic, but not peripheral artery, stiffness, although the underlying mechanisms are somewhat unclear. 4. Traditional antihypertensive agents appear to reduce arterial stiffness, but mostly via an indirect effect of lowering mean pressure. Therefore, therapies that target the large arteries to reduce stiffness directly are urgently required. Agents such as nitric oxide donors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors may be useful in reducing stiffness via functional mechanisms. In addition, inhibitors or breakers of advanced glycation end-product cross-links between proteins, such as collagen and elastin, hold substantial promise.

  19. Embodied Cognition of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume T Vallet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment is revolutionizing the way we consider cognition by incorporating the influence of our body and of the current context within cognitive processing. A growing number of studies which support this view of cognition in young adults stands in stark contrast with the lack of evidence in favor of this view in the field of normal aging and neurocognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the validation of embodiment assumptions on the whole spectrum of cognition is a mandatory step in order for embodied cognition theories to become theories of human cognition. More pragmatically, aging populations represent a perfect target to test embodied cognition theories due to concomitant changes in sensory, motor and cognitive functioning that occur in aging (these theories predict direct interactions between them. Finally, the new perspectives on cognition provided by these theories might also open new research avenues and new clinical applications in the field of aging. The present article aims at showing the value and interest to explore embodiment in normal and abnormal aging as well as introducing some potential theoretical and clinical applications.

  20. Cognitive aging in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related impairments in cognitive functions represent a growing clinical and social issue. Genetic and behavioral characterization of animal models can provide critical information on the intrinsic and environmental factors that determine the deterioration or preservation of cognitive abilities throughout life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Behavior of wild-type, mutant and gamma-irradiated zebrafish (Danio rerio was documented using image-analysis technique. Conditioned responses to spatial, visual and temporal cues were investigated in young, middle-aged and old animals. The results demonstrate that zebrafish aging is associated with changes in cognitive responses to emotionally positive and negative experiences, reduced generalization of adaptive associations, increased stereotypic and reduced exploratory behavior and altered temporal entrainment. Genetic upregulation of cholinergic transmission attenuates cognitive decline in middle-aged achesb55/+ mutants, compared to wild-type siblings. In contrast, the genotoxic stress of gamma-irradiation accelerates the onset of cognitive impairment in young zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings would allow the use of powerful molecular biological resources accumulated in the zebrafish field to address the mechanisms of cognitive senescence, and promote the search for therapeutic strategies which may attenuate age-related cognitive decline.

  1. Hormesis in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis in aging is represented by mild stress-induced stimulation of protective mechanisms in cells and organisms resulting in biologically beneficial effects. Single or multiple exposure to low doses of otherwise harmful agents, such as irradiation, food limitation, heat stress, hypergravity, reactive oxygen species and other free radicals have a variety of anti-aging and longevity-extending hormetic effects. Detailed molecular mechanisms that bring about the hormetic effects are being increasingly understood, and comprise a cascade of stress response and other pathways of maintenance and repair. Although the extent of immediate hormetic effects after exposure to a particular stress may only be moderate, the chain of events following initial hormesis leads to biologically amplified effects that are much larger, synergistic and pleiotropic. A consequence of hormetic amplification is an increase in the homeodynamic space of a living system in terms of increased defence capacity and reduced load of damaged macromolecules. Hormetic strengthening of the homeodynamic space provides wider margins for metabolic fluctuation, stress tolerance, adaptation and survival. Hormesis thus counter-balances the progressive shrinkage of the homeodynamic space, which is the ultimate cause of aging, diseases and death. Healthy aging may be achieved by hormesis through mild and periodic, but not severe or chronic, physical and mental challenges, and by the use of nutritional hormesis incorporating mild stress-inducing molecules called hormetins. The established scientific foundations of hormesis are ready to pave the way for new and effective approaches in aging research and intervention.

  2. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies.

  3. Active Ageing: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Cristina Nuta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of ageing is a highly topical for Romania and for European Union. In this framework, to create and implement some strategies for active ageing is an important objective. The international and regional forums set (supported by official statistics that the number of older people growing rapidly. Romania needs some programmes (with labour, social, economic, health care aspects to deal with the demographic changes, programs that will reform the existing working life structures and legislation. Despite the actual pension reform, which tries to close the opportunity of early retirement (by penalizing the total pension flows, or increasing the retirement age, etc., the labour system does not sets some important targets for this area.

  4. Asteroid family ages

    CERN Document Server

    Spoto, Federica; Knezevic, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with $\\sim 384,000$ numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. For the $45$ dynamical families with $>250$ members identified in this classification, we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing ages for $37$ collisional families. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. The results are presented separately for the families originated in fragmentation or cratering events, for the young, compact families and for the truncated, one-sided families. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are pro...

  5. Signatures of aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Garwin, R.; Hammer, D.; Happer, W.; Lewis, N.; Schwitters, R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.

    1998-01-06

    The Department of Energy and its three weapons laboratories (LANL, LLNL, and SNL) have developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP) in response to their designated mission of maintaining an effective, i.e. reliable and safe, nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear tests (UGTs). The need to ensure the effectiveness of an aging stockpile presents new challenges of major importance. In this study we review what is known about the aging of critical constituents, particularly the high explosives, polymers, and metals in the enduring stockpile. We discuss data that are required to provide a fuller understanding of aging, and how to obtain that data as a basis for anticipating and addressing potential stockpile problems. Our particular concern is problems that may arise in the short term, i.e. within the next 5 to 10 years, and their implied requirements for preventive maintenance and remanufacture.

  6. Redox theory of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P

    2015-08-01

    Metazoan genomes encode exposure memory systems to enhance survival and reproductive potential by providing mechanisms for an individual to adjust during lifespan to environmental resources and challenges. These systems are inherently redox networks, arising during evolution of complex systems with O2 as a major determinant of bioenergetics, metabolic and structural organization, defense, and reproduction. The network structure decreases flexibility from conception onward due to differentiation and cumulative responses to environment (exposome). The redox theory of aging is that aging is a decline in plasticity of genome-exposome interaction that occurs as a consequence of execution of differentiation and exposure memory systems. This includes compromised mitochondrial and bioenergetic flexibility, impaired food utilization and metabolic homeostasis, decreased barrier and defense capabilities and loss of reproductive fidelity and fecundity. This theory accounts for hallmarks of aging, including failure to maintain oxidative or xenobiotic defenses, mitochondrial integrity, proteostasis, barrier structures, DNA repair, telomeres, immune function, metabolic regulation and regenerative capacity.

  7. Redox theory of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean P. Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan genomes encode exposure memory systems to enhance survival and reproductive potential by providing mechanisms for an individual to adjust during lifespan to environmental resources and challenges. These systems are inherently redox networks, arising during evolution of complex systems with O2 as a major determinant of bioenergetics, metabolic and structural organization, defense, and reproduction. The network structure decreases flexibility from conception onward due to differentiation and cumulative responses to environment (exposome. The redox theory of aging is that aging is a decline in plasticity of genome–exposome interaction that occurs as a consequence of execution of differentiation and exposure memory systems. This includes compromised mitochondrial and bioenergetic flexibility, impaired food utilization and metabolic homeostasis, decreased barrier and defense capabilities and loss of reproductive fidelity and fecundity. This theory accounts for hallmarks of aging, including failure to maintain oxidative or xenobiotic defenses, mitochondrial integrity, proteostasis, barrier structures, DNA repair, telomeres, immune function, metabolic regulation and regenerative capacity.

  8. Aspects of cutaneous ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, K L

    1991-09-01

    'Ageing is a multistep, multifaceted, time-dependent phenomenon characterized by the decreased ability of a system to respond to exogenous and endogenous stress from either physical, chemical or biologic agents'. Cutaneous ageing provides a visible model of the interaction between endogenous (intrinsic) factors and exogenous (extrinsic) factors. In skin, the principal extrinsic-factor is ultraviolet light (UV) which is responsible for the constellation of changes termed photoageing. In recent years, much interest has been directed towards defining the ageing processes in skin and excellent comprehensive reviews have been compiled. This review aims to highlight several areas of developing knowledge, and focuses on the potential importance of environmental changes as they influence skin ageing and carcinogenesis. Repeated reference to the effects of UV on the skin are inevitable in any review of skin ageing and this is scarcely surprising as the skin contains many cells as well as subcellular and extracellular chromophores which are capable of absorbing energy within the UV spectrum. Cellular chromophores include among others keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, dermal fibroblasts and mast cells. Subcellular chromophores include keratin, melanin, collagen, elastin and a number of proteins, lipids and steroids (such as vitamin D). Urocanic acid, a photoisomerization product of the amino-acid histidine, may provide some limited photoprotection and some believe it to be important in UV induced immunosuppression. Understanding events at the molecular and biochemical level has unfortunately not been paralleled by clinical advances and the common, troublesome skin-problems of old age such as cancer, xerosis and pruritus remain a major cause of morbidity and yet are poorly explained.

  9. Nutrition and Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, Andrea; Patrone, Vania; Giuberti, Gianluca; Spigno, Giorgia; Pietri, Amedeo; Battilani, Paola; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The world elderly population is rapidly increasing. This demographic change represents a new challenge for the society and demands for a multisectorial intervention to promote a long, healthy, and active life span. Between the factors that contribute in fostering a long healthy life, the nutritional regime plays a central role and is recognized as a major factor in the onset of chronic diseases. A better understanding of the interaction between nutrition and ageing is essential to unravel the mechanisms responsible for these positive/negative effects and to identify diet components promoting the quality of life in the old age and to contribute to the prevention of late-life disabilities. At Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, the research activity in food science is focusing on four main objectives: food quality, food safety, functional foods and diet balancing. These objectives are the target of multidisciplinary ongoing and future research activities for a better understanding of the link between diet and ageing. Briefly, the different activities are addressed to the study of the following subjects: the most relevant factors affecting food choices and habits of old aged persons; the effects of long term low dose supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in mouse; the use of low glycemic index and high resistant starch foods to prevent diabetes and obesity; the adjuvant effect of food bacteria for vaccination; the role of food ingredients in disease; the immunosuppression effect of mycotoxins, and its relevance in ageing people; the production of sustainable and natural antioxidant ingredients to encourage a healthy diet. Our research projects emphasize an holistic and integrated approach that, by bringing together complementary research groups, can combine the collective expertise and thus provide a comprehensive assessment of the role of nutrition in healthy ageing people.

  10. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  11. Fertility and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing social scenario together with economic growth and an increase in job opportunities has to a great extent reduced gender inequality and has resulted in more and more older women seeking help from infertility clinics. Fertility and aging have always been closely linked and the age of the female partner remains the single most important factor in predicting success with treatment. Although tests for the ovarian reserve are an important informative tool and are helpful in selecting treatment options, they are poor predictors of the outcome.

  12. Modulating aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic....... This book provides the most up-to-date information and a critical evaluation of a variety of approaches being tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress...

  13. The aging raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristan, Tim

    2010-01-01

    There is little information available in the literature regarding geriatric raptor medicine. Estimating the life span of birds of prey and evaluating factors that influence longevity are continuing to be explored. Identifying disease conditions that arise with advancing age may involve various body systems including the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and others. Falconry, exhibit, and wildlife raptors are reviewed with regard to factors that affect their mortality, life expectancy, and age evaluation. In addition, medical conditions that are frequently seen in geriatric raptors are covered in this article.

  14. Asphalts’ aging phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Vargas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a state of the art revision of the results from studies of asphalt aging found by researchers aimed at deepening understanding of this complex phenomenon. The background shows the evolution of asphalt aging, initially considering it as physical hardening and progressively ecognizing it as a complex phenomenon having repercussions on asphalt durability and physical-chemical properties. This document aims to be a guide for understanding future investigations for developing new types and mixtures of asphalt having improved properties.

  15. Exaptation, serendipity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Pierpaolo

    2017-01-12

    The paper shows the importance of serendipity and exaptation in selected key moments of ageing research and argue that rationalistic dominant models in scientific research have masked the importance of reverse models of discovery based on serendipity and exaptation. I ask why this is the case and analyze three contributing factors: unprestatability of the functions of technologies, multidimensionality and astronomical complexity of the space over which biological reactions occurs and role of scientific paradigms in channeling research toward incrementalism. Empirical evidence of the limits of the rationalistic models are presented next. I close the paper by discussing the implications for aging research.

  16. [Stroke and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, J; Maquet, P

    2014-01-01

    Stroke risk increases with aging and one third of ischemic strokes occurs in very elderly (> or = 80 years). These are responsible of two thirds of the overall stroke-related morbi-mortality. Stroke in very elderly differs from younger individuals by sex ratio (more women), risk factors (more atrial fibrillation and hypertension) and usually a worse functional outcome. Very elderly are likely to benefit from stroke unit care and early revascularisation treatments although they have historically been excluded from this urgent management. These issues are likely to worsen in the future with the increasing impact of stroke on our aging societies.

  17. [Trends in population aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovics, E

    1990-11-01

    The age structure of the world population between 1950 and 1985 is analyzed according to changes in fertility, mortality, and international migration in developing and developed countries. "Relying on the results of the medium scenario of the population forecasts prepared by the U.N. Division of International Economic and Social Affairs, the author demonstrates that aging of the world population will become a global phenomenon, characteristic of every region and county of the world, between 1985 and 2025." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  18. SMM Observations of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopper, Herbert; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the past year I have participated in a series of team telecons to I plan our observation of Saturn with SMM. The observation, scheduled for this month (September), was canceled and a new observation is being planned for 2002.

  19. AGEMAP: a gene expression database for aging in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Zahn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the AGEMAP (Atlas of Gene Expression in Mouse Aging Project gene expression database, which is a resource that catalogs changes in gene expression as a function of age in mice. The AGEMAP database includes expression changes for 8,932 genes in 16 tissues as a function of age. We found great heterogeneity in the amount of transcriptional changes with age in different tissues. Some tissues displayed large transcriptional differences in old mice, suggesting that these tissues may contribute strongly to organismal decline. Other tissues showed few or no changes in expression with age, indicating strong levels of homeostasis throughout life. Based on the pattern of age-related transcriptional changes, we found that tissues could be classified into one of three aging processes: (1 a pattern common to neural tissues, (2 a pattern for vascular tissues, and (3 a pattern for steroid-responsive tissues. We observed that different tissues age in a coordinated fashion in individual mice, such that certain mice exhibit rapid aging, whereas others exhibit slow aging for multiple tissues. Finally, we compared the transcriptional profiles for aging in mice to those from humans, flies, and worms. We found that genes involved in the electron transport chain show common age regulation in all four species, indicating that these genes may be exceptionally good markers of aging. However, we saw no overall correlation of age regulation between mice and humans, suggesting that aging processes in mice and humans may be fundamentally different.

  20. Sleep, ageing and night work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.N. Pires

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the frequency or worsening of sleep disorders tends to increase with age and that the ability to perform circadian adjustments tends to decrease in individuals who work the night shift. This condition can cause consequences such as excessive sleepiness, which are often a factor in accidents that occur at work. The present study investigated the effects of age on the daytime and nighttime sleep patterns using polysomnography (PSG of long-haul bus drivers working fixed night or day shifts. A total of 124 drivers, free of sleep disorders and grouped according to age (<45 years, N = 85, and ≥45 years, N = 39 and PSG timing (daytime (D PSG, N = 60; nighttime (N PSG, N = 64 participated in the study. We observed a significant effect of bedtime (D vs N and found that the length of daytime sleep was shorter [D: <45 years (336.10 ± 73.75 min vs N: <45 years (398 ± 78.79 min and D: ≥45 years (346.57 ± 43.17 min vs N: ≥45 years (386.44 ± 52.92 min; P ≤ 0.05]. Daytime sleep was less efficient compared to nighttime sleep [D: <45 years (78.86 ± 13.30% vs N: <45 years (86.45 ± 9.77% and D: ≥45 years (79.89 ± 9.45% and N: ≥45 years (83.13 ± 9.13%; P ≤ 0.05]. An effect of age was observed for rapid eye movement sleep [D: <45 years (18.05 ± 6.12% vs D: ≥45 years (15.48 ± 7.11% and N: <45 years (23.88 ± 6.75% vs N: ≥45 years (20.77 ± 5.64%; P ≤ 0.05], which was greater in younger drivers. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that older night workers are more adversely affected than younger night workers by the challenge of attempting to rest during the day.

  1. Numerical solution of the Penna model of biological aging with age-modified mutation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present results of numerical calculation of the Penna bit-string model of biological aging, modified for the case of a -dependent mutation rate m(a) , where a is the parent’s age. The mutation rate m(a) is the probability per bit of an extra bad mutation introduced in offspring inherited genome. We assume that m(a) increases with age a . As compared with the reference case of the standard Penna model based on a constant mutation rate m , the dynamics of the population growth shows distinct changes in age distribution of the population. Here we concentrate on mortality q(a) , a fraction of items eliminated from the population when we go from age (a) to (a+1) in simulated transition from time (t) to next time (t+1) . The experimentally observed q(a) dependence essentially follows the Gompertz exponential law for a above the minimum reproduction age. Deviation from the Gompertz law is however observed for the very old items, close to the maximal age. This effect may also result from an increase in mutation rate m with age a discussed in this paper. The numerical calculations are based on analytical solution of the Penna model, presented in a series of papers by Coe [J. B. Coe, Y. Mao, and M. E. Cates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288103 (2002)]. Results of the numerical calculations are supported by the data obtained from computer simulation based on the solution by Coe

  2. IGBT accelerated aging data set.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Preliminary data from thermal overstress accelerated aging using the aging and characterization system. The data set contains aging data from 6 devices, one device...

  3. College-Age & Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Related Topics » College-Age & Young Adults College-Age & Young Adults Email Facebook Twitter Daily marijuana use ... the country. Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2015 Infographic View Full Infographic Monitoring ...

  4. Design for the Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Given the differences in social, emotional, and physiological development among elementary, middle, and high school students, it should come as no surprise that collaborative spaces should be designed differently for each age group. The needs of younger students do not necessarily mirror those of their older peers. Architect and educator Peter…

  5. Dignity in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Drew

    1978-01-01

    Some of the tactics elderly people use to sustain an honorable self-image, some ways in which society deprives aging people of dignity, and some suggestions for augmenting the dignity accorded old people in American society are discussed here. (Author)

  6. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temp

  7. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  8. Bioethics and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Castillo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.

  9. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  10. Nutritional hormesis and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel P

    2009-11-16

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  11. Confrontation: Aging in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, George

    This publication contains two activities on aging for use with secondary students. The activities are designed to challenge the prevailing myths about growing old, to provide students with better information, and to foster more positive attitudes about older people. In the first activity, which will take about five class periods, students clarify…

  12. Depression and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  13. Anthropocene Age Wicked Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Wu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Grand global challenges, including wicked human caused or influenced ones key to sustainability, characterize the Anthropocene Age. Among these are climate change driven by increased methane and CO2 in the atmosphere; consequent global warming and increasing intensity and incidence of extreme...

  14. A Bittersweet Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    They are the first generation bom under the one-child policy that came into eifect about 30 years ago. Today this post-80s generation are mostly aged between 20-28 and lead independent lives. Their unique family environment is a far cry from that of their parents’ generation, and has helped shape a personality of

  15. Clinical observation of low-dose domestic type for S-1 capsules combined with three dimentional conformal radiation in the treatment of aged patients with cardiac cancer%低剂量国产替吉奥胶囊联合三维适型放疗治疗老年贲门癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 陈公安; 刘旭; 苗旺; 朱眉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect and safety of the domestic type for S-1 capsule combined the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-DCT) in the treatment of aged patients with cardiac cancer.Methods Forty-six elderly patients with cardia cancer were studied from January 2009 to September 2011.After ruling out the contraindications of chemotherapy and radiotherapy,the patients were given oral chemotherapy with the domestic S-1 capsules (Weikangda),40 mg,2 times/day,d1-14,21 days for one circle,combined with synchronous three dimentional conformal radiation on local primay lessions and metastatic nudes.It' s dose was 1.8 Gy/time,five times a week,DT 39.6-54 Gy.It took 4-5.5 weeks to complete the radiation,following with a total 3-6 cycles of chemotherapy.The gastrointestinal side effects and bone marrow suppression were observed,and the treatment tolerance were researched during the treatment.The recent curative effect and follow-up of 1,2 year survival rate were studied.Results The patients' digestive tract symptoms were improved after radiation over 2 months and 4 months.The objective response rate (CR + PR) was 82.6%,1 year survival rate was 84.7% and 2 year survival rate was 65.2%.Conclusions The domestic type for S-1 capsule combined the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-DCT) in the treatment of aged patients with cardiac cancer is practicable and safe,the clinical currative effect is better and the further clinical research is recommend.%目的 观察国产替吉奥胶囊联合三维适型放疗治疗老年责门癌的疗效及安全性.方法 2009年1月至2011年9月收治46例老年贲门癌患者,排除放化疗禁忌证后,第1周期化疗开始口服国产替吉奥胶囊(维康达)40 mg,2次/d,第1~14天,21 d为1个周期,同步贲门原发病灶及周围淋巴结行三维适型放疗,1.8 Gy/次,每周5次,DT39.6 ~ 54.0 Gy,4~5.5周完成放疗,继续完成共3~6个周期的化疗.治疗过程中观察患者的消化

  16. Biology of cancer and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, F F; Wilson, J; Blesch, K S; Kaesberg, P R; Miller, R; Sprott, R

    1991-12-01

    The greatest risk factor for cancer is aging. Human cancer incidence increases exponentially with advancing age. Cancer growth rate and potential for metastatic spread may be influenced by age-specific change in host response. Because cancer and aging are, thus, inextricably linked, the American Cancer Society should encourage submission of research proposals that address the mechanisms of aging and how aging alters cancer development.

  17. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  18. Age and occupational well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, P

    1992-03-01

    Two questions are examined through an investigation of 1,686 people employed in a wide range of jobs. First, is there a U-shaped relationship between age and occupational well-being, such that medium-aged workers report lower well-being than do both younger and older people? That pattern is found, in relationship to both job anxiety-contentment and job depression-enthusiasm. Second, can the observed associations between age and well-being be accounted for by 13 potentially explanatory factors, covering job position, job characteristics, work values, demographic factors, and family life cycle? After introducing these variables into stepwise regression equations, age remains significantly predictive of job well-being. Possible additional explanations of this positive association include other characteristics, an increasingly retrospective focus, and nonoccupational experiences.

  19. Let me guess how old you are: effects of age, gender, and facial expression on perceptions of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C; Ebner, Natalie C; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2012-06-01

    Perceptions of age influence how we evaluate, approach, and interact with other people. Based on a paramorphic human judgment model, the present study investigates possible determinants of accuracy and bias in age estimation across the adult life span. For this purpose, 154 young, middle-aged, and older participants of both genders estimated the age of 171 faces of young, middle-aged, and older men and women, portrayed on a total of 2,052 photographs. Each face displayed either an angry, fearful, disgusted, happy, sad, or neutral expression (FACES database; Ebner, Riediger, & Lindenberger, 2010). We found that age estimation ability decreased with age. Older and young adults, however, were more accurate and less biased in estimating the age of members of their own as compared with those of the other age group. In contrast, no reliable own-gender advantage was observed. Generally, the age of older faces was more difficult to estimate than the age of younger faces. Furthermore, facial expressions had a substantial impact on accuracy and bias of age estimation. Relative to other facial expressions, the age of neutral faces was estimated most accurately, while the age of faces displaying happy expressions was most likely underestimated. Results are discussed in terms of methodological and practical implications for research on age estimation.

  20. The Shapes and Ages of Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    De Jong, R S; Jong, Roelof S. de; Davies, Roger L.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relation between the detailed isophotal shape of elliptical galaxies and the strength of the H beta absorption in their spectra. We find that disky galaxies have higher H beta indices. Stellar population synthesis models show that the H beta line is a good age indicator, hence disky galaxies tend to have younger mean ages than boxy galaxies. We show that the observed trend can be brought about by a contaminating young population, which we associate with the disky component. This population need only account for a small fraction of the total mass, for example if a contaminating population of age of 2 Gyrs is superimposed on an old (12 Gyr) elliptical galaxy, then the observed trend can be explained if it contributes only 10% to the total mass. The size of this effect is consistent with the estimates of disk-to-total light ratios from surface photometry.

  1. Violence in the Dark Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, R J

    2002-01-01

    A wide range of observational and theoretical arguments suggest that the universe experienced a period of heating and metal enrichment, most likely from starbursting dwarf galaxies. Using a hydrodynamic simulation we have conducted a uniquely detailed theoretical investigation of this epoch at the end of the cosmological ``dark ages''. Outflows strip baryons from pre-viralized halos with total masses $\\lesssim10{}^{10}$ M${}_\\odot$, reducing their number density and the overall star formation rate, while pushing these quantities toward their observed values. We show that the metallicity of $\\lesssim10{}^{10}$ M${}_\\odot$ objects increases with size, but with a large scatter, reproducing the metallicity-luminosity relation of dwarf galaxies. Galaxies $\\gtrsim10{}^{10}$ M${}_\\odot$ form with a roughly constant initial metallicity of 10% solar, explaining the observed lack of metal-poor disk stars in these objects. Outflows enrich roughly 20% of the simulation volume, yielding a mean metallicity of 0.3% solar, i...

  2. AAO Observer - August 2011 Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Brough, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This edition of the Australian Astronomical Observatory Observer contains articles on the commissioning of the new SAMI instrument giving the first hexabundle galaxy spectra; galaxy parameter variations across and through the 6dFGS Fundamental Plane; an introduction to the new Dragonfly stellar interferometer; an update on the RAdial VElocity (RAVE) survey at half a million spectra; the Magellanic Quasars Survey; the Integrated Photonic Spectrograph's first look at the heart of the Scorpion; using AAOMega to measure the age of the young open cluster IC2602; making MANIFEST fibres for the Giant Magellan Telescope and a Voyage through Filaments of Galaxies. The Observer also contains thoughts on diversity in the astronomy community and reports on the recent Supernovae and their Host Galaxies conference and the 2011 Science Meets Parliament. In addition there are the usual features of the AUSGO Corner, Epping News and Letter from Coona.

  3. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  4. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  5. Age Estimation from Faces and Voices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Moyse

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Age estimation is a skill that we use in everyday life and that is also important in more specific settings such as police testimony. Researchers investigated age estimation either from faces or voices but a direct comparison between voices and faces was rather infrequently performed. This paper reviews the literature on age estimation from faces and voices and highlights some similarities and differences. Data from a series of experiments suggest that age estimation from faces and voices can be fairly accurate, but in some cases, a superiority of faces is observed. The age of participants and stimuli both seem to affect age estimation from faces and voices in the same way: (1 age estimation is more accurate for young stimuli than for older stimuli, (2 younger participants are more accurate than older participants irrespective of the age of stimuli, and (3 an own-age bias affects age estimation. By contrast, the influence of ethnicity and gender has been less documented. Available data support that ethnicity influence age estimation from faces but not clearly age estimation from voices. Regarding the effect of stimuli gender, results were opposite: in age estimation from faces, an advantage for male faces was reported whereas in age estimation from voices, the advantage is in favor of female voices.

  6. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    attribute, making them especially interesting for light generation in OLEDs and for light-harvesting devices such as solar cells. Functionalization of the molecules allows the customization of optical and electrical properties. However, aging of the wires might lead to a considerable decrease in device......Organic semiconductors formed by epitaxial growth from small molecules such as the para-phenylenes or squaraines promise a vast application potential as the active ingredient in electric and optoelectronic devices. Their self-organization into organic nanowires or "nanofibers" adds a peculiar...... performance over time. In this study the morphological stability of organic nanoclusters and nanowires from the methoxy functionalized quaterphenylene, 4,4'''dimethoxy-1,1':4',1''4'',1'''-quaterphenylene (MOP4), is investigated in detail. Aging experiments conducted by atomic force microscopy under ambient...

  7. Constipation in old age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of constipation increases with age. However, constipation is not a physiological consequence of normal ageing. Indeed, the aetiology of constipation in older people is often multifactorial with co-morbid diseases, impaired mobility, reduced dietary fibre intake and prescription medications contributing significantly to constipation in many instances. A detailed clinical history and physical examination including digital rectal examination is usually sufficient to uncover the causes of constipation in older people; more specialized tests of anorectal physiology and colonic transit are rarely required. The scientific evidence base from which to develop specific treatment recommendations for constipation in older people is, for the most part, slim. Constipation can be complicated by faecal impaction and incontinence, particularly in frail older people with reduced mobility and cognitive impairment; preventative strategies are important in those at risk.

  8. Classifier in Age classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Face is the important feature of the human beings. We can derive various properties of a human by analyzing the face. The objective of the study is to design a classifier for age using facial images. Age classification is essential in many applications like crime detection, employment and face detection. The proposed algorithm contains four phases: preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The classification employs two class labels namely child and Old. This study addresses the limitations in the existing classifiers, as it uses the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM for feature extraction and Support Vector Machine (SVM for classification. This improves the accuracy of the classification as it outperforms the existing methods.

  9. Age determination of mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.; Dane, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for distinguishing adult from yearling wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), from late winter through the nesting season, was developed by applying discriminant analysis procedures to selected wing feather characters of 126 yearlings and 76 adults (2-year-olds) hand-reared from wild eggs during 1974, 1975, and 1977. Average values for feather characters generally increased as the birds advanced from yearlings to adults. Black-white surface area of greater secondary covert 2 was the single most reliable aging character identified during the study. The error rate was lowest in females (3%) when discriminant functions were used with measurements of primary 1 weight and black-white area of greater secondary covert 2 and in males (9%) when the functions were used with black-white area of greater secondary coverts 1, 2, and 3. Methodology precludes aging of birds in the field during capture operations.

  10. Old Age Stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Rapolienė

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly, the discourse on ageism hardly profits from stigma research despite their common denominator—discrimination. The goal of this article is to discuss the stigma concept developed on micro-level interactions and apply it to ageism research on the macro level, i.e. using Round 4 data of the representative international European Social Survey (2008. The data analysis is focused on dominant opinions of the Lithuanian population (N=2002 and usual behavior toward older people, while international comparison is used for interpretation of results. The results show that old age in the Lithuanian society is an “open secret” type of stigma: verbal praise of older people, high assessment of their morals and polite declaration of respect conceal intolerance, disregard and discrimination on the behavioral level. The old age stigma is widespread in Lithuania and stronger than in advanced European countries. Its level is close to discrimination particular to other post-communist and Mediterranean countries.

  11. Blood rheology and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz K. Başkurt; Simmonds, Michael J. ; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (2013) 10: 291301 ©2013 JGC All rights reserved; www.jgc301.com http://www.jgc301.com; | Journal of Geriatric Cardiology Review  Open Access  Blood rheology and aging Michael J. Simmonds1, Herbert J. Meiselman2, Oguz K. Baskurt3 1Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of S...

  12. Aging and space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  13. Space age. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Space age had its world premiere at the large-screen Spaceport Theater at Cape Canaveral/Kennedy Spaceport. The first program was screened for invited guests who, that morning, also witnessed a launch of the Space Shuttle. Since that mission carried the first Japanese astronaut, it was a nice tie-in to the substantial co-production participation of space age by NHK Japan. A special press conference for the series and a twenty-minute preview reel was screened for journalists who were also at the Cape for the shuttle launch. Numerous first-hand newspaper articles were generated. CNN ran part of the preview reel. The first episode in the series, `The Quest for Planet Mars,` then ran twice a day for a week, prior to the Public Broadcasting Service broadcast on an Imax format screen at the Spaceport theater. The program was seen by thousands of visitors. Space age also had a special premier at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC with some 400 special guests, including scientists and government agency representatives.

  14. Old age and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Drenka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of demographic changes in Serbia is followed by discussions on the need to provide safety at old age and solve the problems of poverty and social exclusion of older citizens. In the current state there are no mechanisms that guarantee an adequate life standard at old age, the consequence of which is a high poverty rate, deteriorating health and limited access to social programs. The results of the Survey on life standard from 2002 and 2007 show that poverty among population in general and pensioners has decreased, while the poverty risk among people older than 65 has increased twice. The restrictive methods of the reforms cause a change in the relation between the pensions and the earnings, so that more and more pensioners receive below average, i.e. minimal pensions. Not all old people are covered by pension insurance so that a significant number (around 400.000 does not have a safe monthly income at all. The state program of financial aid is of modest size and does not provide help to all of the poor. Welfare aid decreases the risk of poverty, but it do not guarantee an adequate level of material security at old age. The low level of minimal and average pensions, the decline of participation in the average earnings and the strict criteria of the social security system have brought to awareness the necessity of 'social pensions' and various help and support programs for the elderly. .

  15. Aging, immunity, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Kotb, Rami; de Angelis, Flavia; Pawelec, Graham

    2011-06-01

    Age is the most important risk factor for tumorigenesis. More than 60% of new cancers and more than 70% of cancer deaths occur in elderly subjects >65 years. The immune system plays an important role in the battle of the host against cancer development. Deleterious alterations occur to the immune response with aging, termed immunosenescence. It is tempting to speculate that this waning immune response contributes to the higher incidence of cancer, but robust data on this important topic are few and far between. This review is devoted to discussing state of the art knowledge on the relationship between immunosenescence and cancer. Emerging understanding of the aging process at the molecular level is viewed from the perspective of this increased tumorigenesis. We also consider some of the most recent means to intervene in the modulation of immunosenescence to increase the ability of the immune system to fight against tumors. Future research will unravel new aspects of the immune response against tumors which will be modulable to decrease the burden of cancer in elderly individuals.

  16. Dominance and Age in Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

  17. Age aspects of habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  18. Progeria syndromes and ageing: what is the connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtner, Christopher R; Kennedy, Brian K

    2010-08-01

    One of the many debated topics in ageing research is whether progeroid syndromes are really accelerated forms of human ageing. The answer requires a better understanding of the normal ageing process and the molecular pathology underlying these rare diseases. Exciting recent findings regarding a severe human progeria, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, have implicated molecular changes that are also linked to normal ageing, such as genome instability, telomere attrition, premature senescence and defective stem cell homeostasis in disease development. These observations, coupled with genetic studies of longevity, lead to a hypothesis whereby progeria syndromes accelerate a subset of the pathological changes that together drive the normal ageing process.

  19. Quantifying the shape of aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrycza, Tomasz F; Missov, Trifon I; Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    of aging rates, suggest the shape of aging as a novel and valuable alternative concept for comparative aging research. The concept of shape captures the direction and degree of change in the force of mortality over age, which—on a demographic level—reflects aging. We 1) provide a list of shape properties...... suggested here aim to provide a general means to classify aging patterns independent of any particular mortality model and independent of any species-specific time-scale. Thereby they support systematic comparative aging research across different species or between populations of the same species under......In Biodemography, aging is typically measured and compared based on aging rates. We argue that this approach may be misleading, because it confounds the time aspect with the mere change aspect of aging. To disentangle these aspects, here we utilize a time-standardized framework and, instead...

  20. Sirt3, Mitochondrial ROS, Ageing, and Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gius

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations in mitochondrial metabolism, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, are observed in both aging and cancer. In this regard, genes that impact upon longevity have recently been characterized in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, and the human homologs include the Sirtuin family of protein deacetylases. Interestingly, three of the seven sirtuin proteins are localized into the mitochondria suggesting a connection between the mitochondrial sirtuins, the free radical theory of aging, and carcinogenesis. Based on these results it has been hypothesized that Sirt3 functions as a mitochondrial fidelity protein whose function governs both aging and carcinogenesis by modulating ROS metabolism. Sirt3 has also now been identified as a genomically expressed, mitochondrial localized tumor suppressor and this review will outline potential relationships between mitochondrial ROS/superoxide levels, aging, and cell phenotypes permissive for estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast carcinogenesis.

  1. Spectral Ages of CSOs and CSS Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Murgia, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the spectral ageing study of a representative sample of compact symmetric objects (CSOs) and compact steep spectrum (CSS) sources. Observations reveal a distinctive high-frequency steepening of the radio spectra of many of these sources. The existence of such a spectral feature is expected or may be naturally interpreted in terms of radiative ageing of synchrotron emitting electrons. The small angular size of CSS sources makes it relatively easy to measure their integrated spectra over a wide frequency range for a conspicuous number of objects. For those sources whose emission is dominated by the mini-lobes, the integrated spectra can be used to constrain the source age. Assuming equipartition magnetic fields, the spectral ages we found are in the range from 10^2 to 10^5 yr. Multifrequency VLBA observations allow us to study the spectral properties of two CSOs: B1323+321 and B1943+546. The case of B1943+546 is particularly interesting since for this source a kinematic age has been derive...

  2. Evolutionary theories of aging can explain why we age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging explain why we age. These theories take into account the fact that, in the wild, mean lifespan of many species is usually shorter than it could be in protected environments. In such conditions, because most of animals die before reaching old age, there is no selection in favor or against alleles with effects at old age. Alleles with negative effects at this age can thus accumulate in successive generations, particularly if they also have positive effects at young age and are thus retained by selection. This chapter describes the evolutionary theories of aging and their consequences for the understanding of the biology of aging as well as the challenges to these theories. It is argued that these theories offer a reasonable explanation to the existence of the aging process even if they can surely be refined.

  3. Dominant perceptions on the age

    OpenAIRE

    Komatina Slavica

    2003-01-01

    Contemporary developed society, despite the fact that it is constantly and intensively ageing, is characterized by deeply rooted numerous negative stereotypes on old people and old age as a life period. The study of dominant perceptions on the age of Belgrade population takes not only the universal character of negative connotation of old age into consideration, but also the concrete unfavorable social context. The delicate problematic of stereotypes on old age and old people has been analyze...

  4. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  5. Unmaking old age: political and cognitive formats of active ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Aske Juul; Moreira, Tiago

    2014-08-01

    Active ageing is a policy tool that dominates the way the ageing society has been constituted during the last decades. The authors argue that active ageing is an attempt at unmaking the concept of old age, by engaging in the plasticity of ageing in various ways. Through a document study of the different epistemes, models and forms used in the constitution of active ageing policies, the authors show how active ageing is not one coordinated set of policy instruments, but comes in different formats. In the WHO, active ageing configures individual lifestyle in order to expand the plasticity of ageing, based on epidemiological and public health conventions. In the EU, active ageing reforms the retirement behaviour of populations in order to integrate the plasticity of ageing into the institutions, based on social gerontological and demographic conventions. These conventional arrangements are cognitive and political in the way they aim at unmaking both the structures and the expectations that has made old age and format a new ideal of the 'good late life'. The paper examines the role of knowledge in policy and questions whether the formats of active ageing should be made to co-exist, or whether the diversity and comprehensiveness enable a local adaptation and translation of active ageing policies.

  6. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  7. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  8. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  9. Bottomfish Observer Database - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data collected by at sea observers in the Bottomfish Observer Program in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from October 2003 - April 2006.

  10. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  11. JAPANSE LONGLINE OBSERVER JPLL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data that were collected by trained observers aboard Japanese pelagic longline vessels operating in the US EEZ. Observers collected...

  12. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  13. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  14. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  15. Clasroom Observation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Akbayrak, Burcu

    1999-01-01

    In this article observation techniques as a data collecting tool used in social and educational research are examined and discussed. First the concepts and purposes of the observation technique are explained and later systematic and non-systematic observation techniques are described. Two research projects conducted in the classroom are then summarized. These are ‘ORACLE’ (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation Project), and ‘PRINDEP’ (Primary Needs Independent Evaluation Pr...

  16. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  17. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  18. Aging of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, M F

    2009-04-22

    crystalline surface irregularities may cause a decrease in surface area over time due to smoothing of contact points and sintering. PETN has been found to contain a number of impurities, including homologues, pentaerythryl ethers with a mixture of hydroxyl and nitrate functional groups, and organic salts, that can alter its physical and chemical properties. (5) The processes of sublimation/recrystallization and surface diffusion are important processes that can cause changes in PETN crystal morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. Sublimation feeds a process called Ostwald ripening, which involves the spontaneous growth of larger crystals from those of smaller size. This process proceeds with age regardless of storage conditions unless the crystals are treated to retard growth. The coarsening mechanisms include Ostwald ripening, 'sintering', and surface diffusion. The latter has not been experimentally observed, but a molecular modeling approach has attempted to investigate this phenomenon theoretically. (6) Threshold test fire, particle size distribution, specific surface area, thermal analysis, chemical analysis, powder compact specific surface area and density are approaches that have been used in the attempt to assess changes attributable to aging of PETN, with varying results. The biggest problem lies in the aging mechanism itself, which likely influences small changes in morphology, both internal and external, and particle size distribution changes on a scale too small to reliably monitor. Other aspects, such as subtle changes in density profiles within pressed powder compacts, may be beyond the capability of current technology to assess. Crystal growth significant enough to affect the PETN particle size distribution is expected to impact detonator performance. (7) Factors relevant to stabilizing particle size growth include crystal morphology, powder surface area and particle size distribution; crystal density and internal defects

  19. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  20. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-29

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  1. Unmaking old age: political and cognitive formats of active ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul; Moreira, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    of the different epistemes, models and forms used in the constitution of active ageing policies, the authors show how active ageing is not one coordinated set of policy instruments, but comes in different formats. In the WHO, active ageing configures individual lifestyle in order to expand the plasticity of ageing......, based on epidemiological and public health conventions. In the EU, active ageing reforms the retirement behaviour of populations in order to integrate the plasticity of ageing into the institutions, based on social gerontological and demographic conventions. These conventional arrangements are cognitive...

  2. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...... to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes...

  3. Anti-Ageing Cultures, Biopolitics and Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In March 2004, the author attended the Inaugural International Conference on Longevity at the Sydney Exhibition and Convention Centre in Darling Harbour. As a cultural researcher interested in the interactions between demographic shifts, capitalist globalisation and changing forms of political power, the prospect of a direct encounter with the debates and practices surrounding the burgeoning field of anti-ageing medicine promised a means to observe the complex cultural dynamics of population ageing at play. This article explores the discord the atuhor witnessed; a quarrel that, despite the march of technological advance, attests the ongoing conflict in the nexus where politics meets life.

  4. [Heart surgery in the aged patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinner, W; Bernheim, C; Laiacker, H

    1985-10-31

    107 patients at the age of 80 years or more were operated for coronary or valvular heart disease between 1978 and 1984. The indication for surgery was instable angina in coronary patients and intractable heart failure in such with valvular lesions. 9 coronary and 5 valvular patients died postoperatively, 7 were early postoperative deaths, mainly due to myocardial failure. The majority of cases could be improved for 1 to 2 stages according to NYHA-classification. In this group pulmonary complications were predominant. According to this observation heart operations can also be indicated in the older age patient group without very much more risk than in younger ones.

  5. Ageing and digital games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Sara Mosberg

    2016-01-01

    Digital games are still to a great degree considered a medium mainly for young boys. However, available statistics on Western media use show that this is far from the case. Increasingly, people of all ages and genders play digital games, also older adults in their early 60s and beyond. The aim...... of the book is to examine, analyse and discuss: 1) What older adults do with digital games and what meanings the use of digital games take on in the everyday life of older adults; 2) How older adults are perceived by society in relation to digital games; 3) How play and games can be used both...

  6. The new electricity age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhold, Michael; Willnow, Klaus

    2010-09-15

    A sustainable energy system requires optimal integration of all components resulting in an integrated energy system. To setup the integrated energy system three steps have to be completed: 1. Optimal selection and allocation of the Energy Mix 2. Efficiency increase along all steps of the energy conversion chain 3. Holistic optimization across infrastructures and across regions using Smart Grid Technologies Due to greater complexity caused by growing demand for electricity and decentralized generation only end-to-end intelligence from power plants via networks to end-use applications, so-called smart grid technologies will enable the integrated energy system and thus the New Electricity Age.

  7. Biodemography comes of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Wachter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodemography has emerged and grown over the last fifteen years, with loyal and farsighted support from its patrons. As it enters what might be called its adolescence as a field, it faces challenges along with abounding opportunities. One challenge is to continue to generate knowledge that contributes to human health and well-being. A second is to insist on high standards of quality control within its cross-disciplinary environment. Opportunities appear in a variety of directions, including mathematical modeling, genomic analyses, and field studies of aging in the wild.

  8. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola Davalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS. Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging.

  9. Human dental age estimation combining third molar(s) development and tooth morphological age predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Galiti, D; Willems, G

    2012-11-01

    In the subadult age group, third molar development, as well as age-related morphological tooth information can be observed on panoramic radiographs. The aim of present study was to combine, in subadults, panoramic radiographic data based on developmental stages of third molar(s) and morphological measurements from permanent teeth, in order to evaluate its added age-predicting performances. In the age range between 15 and 23 years, 25 gender-specific radiographs were collected within each age category of 1 year. Third molar development was classified and registered according the 10-point staging and scoring technique proposed by Gleiser and Hunt (1955), modified by Köhler (1994). The Kvaal (1995) measuring technique was applied on the indicated teeth from the individuals' left side. Linear regression models with age as response and third molar-scored stages as explanatory variables were developed, and morphological measurements from permanent teeth were added. From the models, determination coefficients (R (2)) and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated. Maximal-added age information was reported as a 6 % R² increase and a 0.10-year decrease of RMSE. Forensic dental age estimations on panoramic radiographic data in the subadult group (15-23 year) should only be based on third molar development.

  10. Age estimation from physiological changes of teeth: A reliable age marker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age is an essential factor in establishing the identity of a person. Teeth are one of the most durable and resilient part of skeleton. Gustafson (1950 suggested the use of six retrogressive dental changes that are seen with increasing age. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the results and to check the reliability of modified Gustafson′s method for determining the age of an individual. Materials and Methods: Total 70 patients in the age group of 20-65 years, undergoing extraction were included in this present work. The ground sections of extracted teeth were prepared and examined under the microscope. Modified Gustafson′s criteria were used for the estimation of age. Degree of attrition, root translucency, secondary dentin deposition, cementum apposition, and root resorption were measured. A linear regression formula was obtained using different statistical equations in a sample of 70 patients. Results: The mean age difference of total 70 cases studied was ±2.64 years. Difference of actual and calculated age was significant and was observed at 5% level of significance, that is, t-cal > t-tab (t-cal = 7.72. P < 0.05, indicates that the results were statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study concludes that Gustafson′s method is a reliable method for age estimation with some proposed modifications.

  11. Discours oraux--discours ecrits: quelles relations? Actes du 4eme colloque d'orthophoine/logopedie (Neuchatel, 3-4 octobre, 1996) (Oral Discourse--Written Discourse: What Is the Relationship? Proceedings of the Colloquium on Speech Therapy (4th, Neuchatel, Switzerland, October 3-4, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Bernard, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Research papers on the relationship between oral and written language include: "Une distinction bien fragile: oral/ecrit" ("A Fragile Distinction: Oral/Written") (Francoise Gadet); "Oral et ecrit dans les representations des enseignants et dans les pratiques quotidiennes de la classe de francais" ("Oral and Written Language in Teachers'…

  12. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  13. The observation of the immunization effect of hepatitis B vaccine on children aged between 0 and 4 in Suzhou City%苏州市0~4岁儿童乙肝疫苗免疫效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱轶姮; 栾琳; 佟伟军; 詹亚惠; 许元根; 金芳; 田润芳; 沈强; 雅雪蓉

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to assess the immunization effect of hepatitis B vaccine on children aged between 0 and 4,so to explore the feasibility of an enhanced hepatitis B vaccination strategy.Methods Children aged between 0 and 4 who had received hepatitis B vaccination from some cities and districts in Suzhou were selected by multi-level and random cluster sampling as the research subjects,and 5 serological markers for hepatitis B virus in sera of the subjects were examined.Results The study surveyed 877 children between the age of 0-4 in Suzhou,among which the immunization coverage of full-course hepatitis B vaccines was 93.16% and the positive rates of HBsAg,HBsAb,HBeAg,HBeAb,and HBcAb were 0.11%,74.57%,0,2.17%,and 1.25%,respectively.Differences in positive rate of HBsAb were statistically significant between different age groups (x2=134.33,P<0.01),and the positive rate of HBsAb declined with age over the years (trend test x2=108.24,P<0.01).The positive rate of HBsAb was correlated with age,time of immunization,and whether the full-course vaccination was received timely.Conclusion The immunization coverage of full-course hepatitis B vaccines among the children in Suzhou is high,and the positive rate of HBsAb decreased with age over the years,suggesting the necessity of the promotion of booster immunizations for children over the age of 4 in the area.%目的 评价0~4岁儿童接种乙肝疫苗的免疫效果,探讨乙肝疫苗加强免疫可行性.方法 采用多级、随机整群抽样方法,抽取苏州市部分市、区0~4岁已接种乙肝疫苗的儿童为研究对象,检测血清中乙肝病毒5项血清学标志物.结果 本次调查苏州市的877名儿童,乙肝疫苗全程接种率93.16%,0~4岁儿童HBsAg阳性率为0.11%,HBsAb阻性率为74.57%,HBeAg阳性率为0,HBeAb阳性率为2.17%,HBcAb为1.25%.不同年龄组间HBsAb阳性率差异有统计学意义(x2=134.33,P<0.01),HBsAb阳性率随着年龄的增

  14. The aging skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, G S; Genant, H K

    1985-02-01

    The importance of bone loss with aging increases year by year. When Bismarck set the age of retirement at 65, it did not cost Prussia much because few lived to receive pensions. At the turn of the century, only 4.1 per cent of our population was 65 or older. But the present change in demography, called "The Graying of America," means that we now have 13 per cent of the population 65 or older: 35 million people, 20 million women and 15 million men. For the women who are now passing through menopause or who have had oophorectomies, the predictable deformities caused by fractures of the vertebrae, wrists, and hips will make up the single largest cause of hospitalization unless prophylaxis against postmenopausal bone loss is instituted. The best established prophylaxis is now low-dose estrogen-gestagen replacement therapy. Very promising is the combination of very-low-dose estrogen and high-dose oral calcium supplements (Fig. 17). For women who cannot or will not take estrogens, certain progestational agents offer equal protection to bone, though, of course, these agents do not protect against atrophy of the other target organs, most notably the vaginal mucosa.

  15. [Feeding and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zaplana, Isabel; Maestre González, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Aging is characterized by an increase in relative population of 65 years and older, and can say that, in our country, it is a phenomenon demographic, political, social and health. Several studies have shown that the nutritional status of the general population and the elderly, in particular, is a valid indicator to predict longevity and quality of life of this group of people. The World Health Organization (who) pointed out that the elderly population is a group nutritionally very vulnerable as a result of anatomical and physiological changes associated with aging. Between 35-40 of the elderly has some kind of altered nutrition or malnutrition: protein or protein-energy malnutrition, selective deficiency of vitamins and minerals, inadequate water intake, obesity, etc. The best way to promote the quality of life and prevent disease is a proper diet, also called healthy eating, adapted to the special circumstances which older persons may present without forgetting gastronomy is not incompatible with health. In this article, some tips are also available for preparing and cooking food, as well as culinary strategies to introduce them in the daily menu.

  16. [Age related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayen, Alexandra; Hubert, Isabelle; Berrod, Jean-Paul

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a multifactorial disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is the first cause of blindness in patients over 50 in the western world. The disease has been traditionally classified into early and late stages with dry (atrophic) and wet (neovascular) forms: neovascular form is characterized by new blood vessels development under the macula (choroidal neovascularisation) which lead to a rapid decline of vision associated with metamorphopsia and requiring an urgent ophtalmological examination. Optical coherence tomography is now one of the most important part of the examination for diagnosis and treatment. Patient with age related maculopathy should consider taking a dietary supplement such that used in AREDS. The treatment of the wet ARMD has largely beneficied since year 2006 of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) molecules such as ranibizumab or bevacizumab given as repeated intravitreal injections. A systematic follow up each 4 to 8 week in required for several years. There is no effective treatment at the moment for dry AMD. For patients with binocular visual acuity under 60/200 rehabilitation includes low vision specialist, vision aids and psychological support.

  17. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  18. Graduation at age 50+: Contested efforts to construct "third age" identities and negotiate cultural age stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-12-01

    The cultural and social contexts of aging have changed a great deal during the last two decades and aging experiences have become more differentiated. However, pervasive age stereotypes still exist that limit the agency and self-perception of older people, and part of the experience of new aging is to actively combat such negative stereotypes. The purpose of this study is to explore how lifelong learning and a degree attainment in midlife become embedded into new aging practices. The study will focus on a specific group of aging workers who attained a Master's degree from Finnish universities in their fifties. In order to better understand the aging experiences of these older graduates, this study seeks to address how they construct the meaning of aging in relation to their own educational and professional status. The data consist of 14 life-history interviews, which were analyzed as narrative identity performances. Differentiating oneself from the stereotype of physical and mental decline and positioning oneself in a favorable way in inter-generational relations were common ways of approaching aging. Age-negotiation and ambivalence about aging were expressed by structuring narratives around clear oppositions and contradictions. University studies at age 50+ became a talking point in countering cultural age-stereotypes, because it showed that aging workers could still accomplish significant goals and "renew" oneself intellectually. University studies also enabled collaboration with the younger generation and the breaking of narrow age boundaries.

  19. Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived age correlates with survival and important age related phenotypes. DESIGN: Follow-up study, with survival of twins determined up to January 2008, by which time 675 (37%) had died. SETTING: Population based twin cohort in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 20 nurses, 10...... was significantly associated with survival, even after adjustment for chronological age, sex, and rearing environment. Perceived age was still significantly associated with survival after further adjustment for physical and cognitive functioning. The likelihood that the older looking twin of the pair died first...... age, controlled for chronological age and sex, also correlated significantly with physical and cognitive functioning as well as with leucocyte telomere length. CONCLUSION: Perceived age-which is widely used by clinicians as a general indication of a patient's health-is a robust biomarker of ageing...

  20. Mitochondrial aging and age-related dysfunction of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Sobenin, Igor A; Revin, Victor V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in mitochondria are associated with decline in mitochondrial function. With advanced age, mitochondrial DNA volume, integrity and functionality decrease due to accumulation of mutations and oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In aged subjects, mitochondria are characterized by impaired function such as lowered oxidative capacity, reduced oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, significant increase in ROS generation, and diminished antioxidant defense. Mitochondrial biogenesis declines with age due to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and inhibition of mitophagy, an autophagy process that removes dysfunctional mitochondria. Age-dependent abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control further weaken and impair mitochondrial function. In aged tissues, enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis contributes to an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. However, implementation of strategies such as caloric restriction and regular physical training may delay mitochondrial aging and attenuate the age-related phenotype in humans.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations

  2. The observation of follow-up and application of the prolene hernia system in inguinal hernioplasty of aged patients%普理灵三合一疝修补装置在老年腹股沟疝修补术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐诗彬; 陈小伍; 吴路杨; 冯家立

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore applied characteristics of the prolene hernia system(PHS) in inguinal hernioplasty, and management during and after operation, and long-term effect of this kind of hemioplasty in aged patients. Methods 69 aged patients using PHS were followed and analyzed retrospectively. Results Tension-free inguinal hernioplasty with the PHS were performed in 69 aged patients of groin hernia. Operative time ranged from 45min to 160min. Post-operatively, 3 patients developed gentle scrotal swelling, and 20 patients had been adminis- tered anodyne for pain of incision, and 12 cases experienced retention of urine, 1 case developed pneumonia, and 2 cases oeeurred incisional infection and gore. 68 cases of them recovered daily life about 2 to 3 weeks after operation. During follow-up period from 6 months to 77 months,there was no recurrence of inguinal hernia and no pain in in-guinal region, but 2 patients feel discomfort sporadically. Conclusion The PHS strengthens the myopectineal orifice and seals up-area of it,so the system is especially preferred in treating aged patients of groin hernias who have some defectsof anatomic structure in inguinal region. The local anaesthesia is also suitable for this kind of hernioplasty in aged patients.%目的 了解普理灵三合一疝修补装置(PHS)在老年腹股沟疝患者修补术中的应用特点、围手术期管理及效果.方法 对应用PHS进行无张力修补术的69例老年腹股沟疝患者进行回顾性分析.结果 手术时间45~160 min,术后使用止痛剂20例,伴发尿潴留12例,阴囊水肿3例,肺部感染1例,切口感染及淤血2例.68例术后2~3周后均能从事13常活动.随访时间6~77个月,死亡6例,无复发,2例偶有患侧不适感,无异物感及疼痛.结论 PHS对腹股沟区解剖结构松弛、薄弱以及缺损范围大的老年腹股沟疝患者的疝修补效果确切,手术安全易行.

  3. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  4. Changing Attitudes towards Ageing and the Aged amongst Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Antonio; Goncalves, Daniela; Martin, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Society is ageing. In Europe, the ageing of the population is a recurrent and discussed theme. The impact of the ageing of the population is varied and transversal in different fields. The increase in the number of elderly people implies an increase in the levels of dependence and, consequently, more sanitary, physical, and human resources. Also,…

  5. HST Observations of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, A. D.; Garner, C. J.; McIntosh, C. M.; Landis, R. R.; Schultz, A. B.

    2005-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observed the Moon in August 2005, using the High Resolution Camera (HRC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) (proposal ID 10719, PI Garvin). Three sites were observed: the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites, and Aristarchus crater. Four filters were used: the F658N in the red, the F502N in the visible, the F344N in the UV, and the F250W in the vacuum UV. HST affords spatial resolution of about 100m on the Moon, as well as access to the vacuum UV, which are impossible from ground based observations. Tracking was necessarily done under gyro control and so some image drift occurred between and during exposures. We present HST data that has been processed to remove instrumental distortion and drift during the exposures. We use the MISTRAL image restoration algorithm (Mugnier et al. 2004) and a trailed point spread function to minimize the effects of image motion. We will make mosaics of data in individual filters and where there is spatial overlap between the mosaics, present maps showing both the relative age of the surface material, as well as its overall composition. Mugnier et al. (2004): "MISTRAL: a myopic edge-preserving image restoration method, with application to astronomical adaptive-optics-corrected long-exposure images", JOSA A, vol 21 no. 10, pp. 1841-1854

  6. Correlation of dental age, skeletal age, and chronological age among children aged 9-14 years: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Palanisamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth can be one of the most uncertain variations, but understanding the same is very important for diagnosis and treatment planning. Skeletal age and dental age have been used to determine a child′s developmental age. Several researchers have evaluated the association between dental and skeletal maturity with chronologic age on different population. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether dental age estimation can be replaced for skeletal age estimation in the Dakshina Kannada population. Methods: A total of 104 samples equally distributed among both genders in the age group of 9-14 years were selected. Skeletal age was estimated using hand-wrist radiographs and Fishman′s skeletal maturation index and dental age was measured using Demirjian′s method. Results: Spearman′s rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between the skeletal maturity and dental maturity. The mean ages of male and female samples were determined as 11.89 ± 1.867 years and 12.21 ± 1.473 years, respectively. Chronological age was found to be positively correlated to dental age and skeletal age and found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01. The correlation between dental age and skeletal age was also found to be statistically significant with P < 0.001 and correlation coefficient of 0.683 and 0.704 for males and females. Conclusion: The present study showed a strong relation between the developmental ages in mixed dentition population; hence, dental age can be considered as a replacement in the study population.

  7. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  8. The Observer Strikes Back

    CERN Document Server

    Hartle, James

    2015-01-01

    In the modern quantum mechanics of cosmology observers are physical systems within the universe. They have no preferred role in the formulation of the theory nor in its predictions of third person probabilities of what occurs. However, observers return to importance for the prediction of first person probabilities for what we observe of the universe: What is most probable to be observed is not necessarily what is most probable to occur. This essay reviews the basic framework for the computation of first person probabilities in quantum cosmology starting with an analysis of very simple models. It is shown that anthropic selection is automatic in this framework, because there is no probability for us to observe what is where we cannot exist. First person probabilities generally favor larger universes resulting from inflation where there are more places for us to be. In very large universes it is probable that our observational situation is duplicated elsewhere. The calculation of first person probabilities then...

  9. Observer dependent geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Hohmann, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    From general relativity we have learned the principles of general covariance and local Lorentz invariance, which follow from the fact that we consider observables as tensors on a spacetime manifold whose geometry is modeled by a Lorentzian metric. Approaches to quantum gravity, however, hint towards a breaking of these symmetries and the possible existence of more general, non-tensorial geometric structures. Possible implications of these approaches are non-tensorial transformation laws between different observers and an observer-dependent notion of geometry. In this work we review two different frameworks for observer dependent geometries, which may provide hints towards a quantization of gravity and possible explanations for so far unexplained phenomena: Finsler spacetimes and Cartan geometry on observer space. We discuss their definitions, properties and applications to observers, field theories and gravity.

  10. Lysosomal cell death mechanisms in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sintes, Raquel; Ledesma, María Dolores; Boya, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Lysosomes are degradative organelles essential for cell homeostasis that regulate a variety of processes, from calcium signaling and nutrient responses to autophagic degradation of intracellular components. Lysosomal cell death is mediated by the lethal effects of cathepsins, which are released into the cytoplasm following lysosomal damage. This process of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin release is observed in several physiopathological conditions and plays a role in tissue remodeling, the immune response to intracellular pathogens and neurodegenerative diseases. Many evidences indicate that aging strongly influences lysosomal activity by altering the physical and chemical properties of these organelles, rendering them more sensitive to stress. In this review we focus on how aging alters lysosomal function and increases cell sensitivity to lysosomal membrane permeabilization and lysosomal cell death, both in physiological conditions and age-related pathologies.

  11. Satiety and the anorexia of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelam, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    The 'anorexia of aging' refers to reduced appetite and energy intakes observed in some older adults. Satiation (the process that leads to the termination of eating, which may be accompanied by a feeling of satisfaction) and satiety (the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, potentially suppressing further energy intake until hunger returns) are important factors in the control of appetite and energy intake, and there is evidence that some aspects of satiation and satiety are altered in older adults. Factors affected include gastric emptying, which could affect satiation, and levels of gut hormones which could affect satiety. Sensory specific satiety also appears to be reduced in older subjects. This might be important in the anorexia of aging and dietary strategies could be used to reduce satiety and encourage an increased energy intake. However, many other factors may affect the anorexia of aging and it is important to understand these in order to help those at risk of malnutrition.

  12. Ageing, Health and Life Satisfaction of the Oldest Old: An Analysis for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to assess the effect of ageing and health on the life satisfaction of the oldest old (defined as 75 and older). We observe a U-shaped relationship between age and levels of life satisfaction for individuals aged between 16 and 65.…

  13. How old do you feel? The role of age discrimination and biological aging in subjective age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Stephan

    Full Text Available Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68 from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214. Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age.

  14. Longitudinal evidence for diminished frontal cortex function in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Lars; Salami, Alireza; Andersson, Mikael; Eriksson, Johan; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Kauppi, Karolina; Lind, Johanna; Pudas, Sara; Persson, Jonas; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional estimates of age-related changes in brain structure and function were compared with 6-y longitudinal estimates. The results indicated increased sensitivity of the longitudinal approach as well as qualitative differences. Critically, the cross-sectional analyses were suggestive of age-related frontal overrecruitment, whereas the longitudinal analyses revealed frontal underrecruitment with advancing age. The cross-sectional observation of overrecruitment reflected a select elderly sample. However, when followed over time, this sample showed reduced frontal recruitment. These findings dispute inferences of true age changes on the basis of age differences, hence challenging some contemporary models of neurocognitive aging, and demonstrate age-related decline in frontal brain volume as well as functional response. PMID:21156826

  15. Forensic age estimation of living individuals: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Valeria; De Donno, Antonio; Marrone, Maricla; Campobasso, Carlo Pietro; Introna, Francesco

    2009-12-15

    In recent years, skeletal age determination has become increasingly important in criminal investigations for determining the age of living individuals. To increase diagnostic accuracy, a physical examination, an X-ray examination of the left hand, as well as a dental examination including the determination of the dental status and an X-ray of the dentition should always be performed. In this work, the authors analyze a sample of 52 illegal immigrants who came under their observation in the period from May 1989 to September 2007. A statistical analysis of the results of dental and skeletal age estimations was performed as well as an analysis between the reported and assessed ages. The results showed a significant difference between reported age and assessed biological age (p<0.001); however, no statistical difference was shown between skeletal and assessed dental age (p=0.431).

  16. [Aging and work capability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, B

    1993-06-01

    With the average life duration becoming longer there is an increasing number of old people in the population. In the literature the problem of old people is still neglected. The most visible changes in old people occur in physical characteristics and functions; at first a change in psychological functions was also reported to take place. However, it was shown that results depended to a great extent on the method used: the longitudinal method (following up one and the same generation) frequently gave rather different and much better results than the cross-sectional method. The question of old age and working abilities is an important one. Certain positive personality traits seem to compensate for a drop in certain abilities. In the modern automated industry time pressure and adaptation to new working conditions are a handicap for the elderly, but the application of different ergonomic principles can greatly improve the situation.

  17. Reconditioning aging muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, H

    1978-06-01

    Weakness or stiffness of key posture muscles can cause much of the disability seen in elderly patients. Too much tension and too little exercise greatly increase the natural loss of muscular fitness with age. A systematic program of exercise, stressing relaxation and stretching of tight muscles and strenghthening of weak muscles, can improve physical fitness. The program must be tailored to the patient, starting with relaxation and gentle limbering exercises and proceeding ultimately to vigorous muscle-stretching exercises. Muscle aches and pain from tension and muscle imbalance are to be expected. Relaxation relieves tension pain, and strengthening weak muscles and stretching tight muscles will correct muscle imbalance. To prevent acute muscle spasm, the patient should avoid excessive exertion and increase exercise intensity gradually.

  18. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  19. Impairment of age estimation from faces in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyse, Evelyne; Bastin, Christine; Salmon, Eric; Brédart, Serge

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite for any function in social cognition is the perception and processing of social cues. Age estimation is a skill that is used in everyday life and is fundamental in social interactions. This study evaluated whether facial age estimation is impaired in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current age of faces is known to have an impact on age estimation, and therefore stimuli belonging to different age groups (young, middle-aged, and older adults' faces) were used. As expected, an impairment of age estimation from faces was observed in mild to moderate AD patients. However, the profile of impairment depended on the age of faces and stage of the disease. Mild AD patients presented difficulties mainly in assessing the age of middle-aged adults. In moderate disease stage, these difficulties also affected the age estimation of young adult faces. Interestingly, AD patients remained relatively good at estimating the age of older adults' faces, compared to healthy controls.

  20. Jupiter System Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, Dave; Kwok, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed mission for the Jupiter System Observer. The presentation also includes overviews of the mission timeline, science goals, and spacecraftspecifications for the satellite.

  1. Aerosol Observation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The aerosol observation system (AOS) is the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform for in situ aerosol measurements at the surface. The principal...

  2. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  3. Age-related differences in women's foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansuategui Echeita, Jone; Hijmans, Juha M.; Smits, Sharon; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Postema, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Describe age-related differences in women's foot shape using a wide range of measurements and ages. Study design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Main outcome measurements: Six foot-shape measurements of each foot: foot lengths, ball widths, ball circumferences, low instep circumferen

  4. Individual Differences in Phonological Development: Ages One and Three Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May; Greenlee, Mel

    1987-01-01

    The persistence of individual differences in phonological development of 10 normally developing children observed at age one and again at age three was studied. The children differed considerably in rate of vocabulary acquisition and relative phonological maturity and also in their general approach to learning. (Author/JDD)

  5. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  6. Low vigorous physical activity at ages 15, 19 and 27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Camilla Hiul; Due, Pernille; Henriksen, Pia Elena Wichmann

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines (i) if the level of vigorous physical activity (VPA) at age 15 predicts low VPA at ages 19 and 27 and (ii) whether the observed prediction pattern differs by childhood socio-economic position (SEP). In this way, prediction analyses are applied to study tracking behaviour....

  7. Effect of cholecystokinin on experimental neuronal aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Sun; Qin-Chi Lu; Yan Cai

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) on lipofusin value, neuronal dendrite and spine ultrastructure, and total cellular protein during the process of experimental neuronal aging.METHODS: Experimental neuronal aging study model was established by NBA2cellular serum-free culture method. By using single irtracellular lipofusin value from microspectrophotometry,morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines from the scanner electron microscopy, and total cellular protein as the indexes of experimental neuronal aging, we observed the effect of CCK8 on the process of experimental neuronal aging.RESULTS: Under the condition of serum-free culture,intracellular fluorescence value (%) increased with the extension of culture time (1 d 8.51±3.43; 5 d 10.12±3.03;10 d 20.54±10.3; 15 d 36.88±10.49; bP<0.01). When CCK was added to serum-free culture medium, intracellular lipofusin value (%) decreased remarkably after consecutive CCK reaction for 10 and 15 d (control 36.88±10.49; 5 d 32.03±10.01; 10 d 14.37±5.55; 15 d 17.31±4.80; bP<0.01).As the time of serum-free culturing was prolonged, the number of neuronal dendrite and spine cells decreased.The later increased in number when CCK8 was added. CCK8 could improve the total cellular protein in the process of experimental neuronal aging.CONCLUSION: CCK8 may prolong the process of experimental neuronal aging by maintaining the structure and the number of neuronal dendrite and spine cells and changing the total cellular protein.

  8. Cognition and brain functional aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-jie LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest population of elderly adults. Meanwhile, it is one of the countries showing fastest aging speed in the world. Aging processing is always companied with a series of brain structural and functional changes, which result in the decline of processing speed, working memory, long-term memory and executive function, etc. The studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI found certain aging effects on brain function activation, spontaneous activity and functional connectivity in old people. However, few studies have explored the brain functional curve during the aging process while most previous studies explored the differences in the brain function between young people and old people. Delineation of the human brain functional aging curve will promote the understanding of brain aging mechanisms and support the normal aging monitoring and early detection of abnormal aging changes. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.005

  9. [Reflexions about aging and work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rosangela Ferreira; Matias, Hernani Aparecido; Brêtas, Ana Cristina Passarella

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative research has the aim to know the meaning of the aging process in the work market referring to the aged people. Six aged persons have participated in this research. The data were collected through an interview and were analyzed using the technique of thematically analyze. Three analytical categories emerged: the meaning of aging/to be aged; the meaning of work; the meaning of aging in the work. Concluding, this paper reinforces the theory that the capitalist societies attach excessive value to the work in the human being life. When it isn't into the life--because of the retirement or the unemployment--it compromises the quality of aging/to be aged of the person, mainly if skills and (individual, social and economical) conditions will lack participation and priority to others activities and values in her/his life.

  10. Aging changes in the senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004013.htm Aging changes in the senses To use the sharing ... minimum level of sensation is called the threshold. Aging raises this threshold. You need more stimulation to ...

  11. Aging changes in the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004011.htm Aging changes in the lungs To use the sharing ... out (exhaled). Watch this video about: Gas exchange AGING CHANGES IN YOUR BODY AND THEIR AFFECTS ON ...

  12. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  13. Aging changes in the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003999.htm Aging changes in the breast To use the sharing ... chap 198. Walston JD. Common clinical sequelae of aging. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  14. Aging changes in the kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004010.htm Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder To use ... in the reproductive system can affect bladder control. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE KIDNEYS AND ...

  15. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  16. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Nutrition and the Aging Eye Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Steps to Keep Your Sight / Nutrition and the Aging Eye / Leading Causes of Blindness / Understanding Your Vision: ...

  17. Aging changes in body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003998.htm Aging changes in body shape To use the sharing ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ...

  18. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  19. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work.

  20. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Age-related Macular Degeneration About AMD Click for more ... a leading cause of vision loss among people age 60 and older. It causes damage to the ...

  1. Effect of ageing on survival of benthic diatom propagules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Mitbavkar, S.; DeSilva, M.S.; Hegde, S.; DeCosta, P.M.; Meher, S.S.; Banerjee, D.

    an apparently longer lag phase. Although diatoms belonging to the genera Amphora, Navicula and Thalassiosira were dominant during immediate observation, only Amphora and Navicula survived the ageing process. The non-viability of Thalassiosira indicates...

  2. Value of color Doppler ultrasonography to observe normal fetal arterial blood flow of different gestational ages%彩色多普勒超声观察不同孕周正常胎儿动脉血流的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东平; 雷琳; 杨波

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不同孕周胎儿肾动脉(RA)、脐动脉(UA)、大脑中动脉(MCA)血流参数的变化情况,确定正常胎儿RA、UA、MCA血流参考值,并分析RA、UA、MCA血流参数与孕龄的关系。方法选取2013年1~12月在该院行产前检查的185例孕周为4~41周的正常单胎孕妇为研究对象,采用彩色多普勒超声测量胎儿 RA、UA、MCA的阻力指数(RI)、搏动指数(PI)、收缩期峰值流速(PS)及收缩期峰值流速与舒张末期流速比值(S/D)。结果随着孕周的增加,胎儿RA、UA、MCA中PS值显著增加,而RA、UA中RI、PI、S/D值显著减少。经相关性分析可知,RA、UA、MCA中RI、PI、S/D与孕周呈负相关性(P<0.05),而RA、UA、MCA中PS与孕周呈正相关性(P<0.05)。结论应用彩色多普勒测量不同孕周胎儿RA、UA、MCA血流动力学参数能有效了解胎儿颅脑循环、胎盘循环及全身血流循环状态。通过建立正常胎儿血流参数参考范围可为超声预测胎儿宫内生长情况提供参考依据。%Objective To explore the changes of blood flow parameters of different gestational ages fetus renal artery (RA) ,changes in the umbilical artery (UA) ,middle cerebral artery (MCA) .To determine the blood flow ref-erence value of normal fetal RA ,UA ,MCA ,and to analyze the relationship between RA ,UA ,MCA blood flow pa-rameters and gestational age .Methods 185 cases of prenatal gestational of 4 to 41 weeks were selected from January 2013 to December 2013 .The resistance index (RI) ,pulsatility index (PI) ,peak systolic velocity (PS) and peak sys-tolic velocity and end diastolic velocity ratio (S/D) of RA ,UA ,MCA were measured with color Doppler ultrasound from January 2013 to December 2013 .Results The value of PS of RA ,UA ,MCA were increased with increasing ges-tational age .The values of RI ,PI ,S/D of RA ,UA ,MCA were significantly reduced .The values of RI ,PI ,S/D of RA , UA ,MCA

  3. Barred Galaxies: an Observer's Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gadotti, Dimitri A

    2008-01-01

    I review both well established and more recent findings on the properties of bars, and their host galaxies, stemming from photometric and spectroscopic observations, and discuss how these findings can be understood in terms of a global picture of the formation and evolution of bars, keeping a connection with theoretical developments. In particular, I show the results of a detailed structural analysis of ~ 300 barred galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, providing physical quantities, such as bar length, ellipticity and boxyness, and bar-to-total luminosity ratio, that can either be used as a solid basis on which realistic models can be built, or be compared against more fundamental theoretical results. I also show correlations that indicate that bars grow longer, thinner and stronger with dynamical age, and that the growth of bars and bulges is connected. Finally, I briefly discuss open questions and possible directions for future research.

  4. Clinical Observation of Young, Middle and Old Aged Patients with Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypop-nea Syndrome (OSAHS)%青年和中老年原发性高血压病伴阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者的临床特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋倩倩; 周晓欢; 陈玉岚; 张向阳; 徐新娟; 珠勒皮亚·司马义; 叶红

    2014-01-01

    固酮活性、采用无创气道正压通气治疗改善病情。%O bjective To discuss the clinical features of young , middle and old aged patients with essential hyperten -sion and OSAHS.Methods The retrospective analysis was conducted of the clinical data of 353 patients with essential hyperten-sion and OSAHS diagnosed by the Hypertension Department of the First Teaching Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from January 2011 to July 2013.The patients were divided into young group (136 patients) and the middle and old aged group (217 patients) by age and then the differences of general clinical data , sleep apnea monitoring indexes , 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity between the young group and the middle and old aged group were ana -lyzed.Results (1) The differences of sex composition ratio , drinking composition ratio, fasting blood-glucose (FBG), tria-cylglycerol ( TG) , total cholesterol ( TC) , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) and lipoprotein a 〔LP (α)〕 of the young group and middle and old aged group were not statistically significant ( P>0.05); the smoking composition ratio and body mass index ( BMI) of the young group were higher than that of the middle and old aged group and the high -density lipoprotein cholesterol( HDL-C) of the young group was lower than that of the middle and old aged group , and the differences were statisti-cally significant (P0.05); the difference of the 24-hour mean pulse pressure (24 hPP) between the young group and the middle and old aged group was not statistically significant (P>0.05); (4) the levels of angiotensin A1 and A2 of the young group in supine and standing was higher than that of the middle and old aged group and the level of aldosterone of the young group in supine was lower than that of the middle and old aged group , the differences were statistically significant ( P0.05) .Conclusion During the pre-ventive treatment of the young , middle and old aged patients with

  5. Genotypic expression at different ages: II. Wool traits of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okut, H; Bromley, C M; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D

    1999-09-01

    Genetic parameters for wool traits for Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee breeds of sheep were estimated with single- and multiple-trait analyses using REML with animal models. Traits considered were fleece grade, fleece weight, and staple length. Total number of observations ranged from 11,673 to 34,746 for fleece grade and fleece weight and from 3,500 to 11,641 for staple length for the four breeds. For single-trait analyses, data were divided by age of ewe: young ages (age of 1 yr), middle ages (ages of 2 and 3 yr), and older ages (age greater than 3 yr). Heritability estimates averaged over breeds for fleece grade decreased from .42 at a young age to .37 for older ages. For fleece weight, heritability estimates averaged .52, .57, and .55 within the successively older groups. Heritability estimates for staple length averaged .54 for young and middle age classes. Few older ewes had staple length measurements. After single-trait analyses, new data sets were created for three-trait analyses with traits defined by three age classes when animals were measured. Heritability estimates with three-trait analyses, except for a few cases, were somewhat greater than those from single-trait analyses. For fleece grade, the genetic correlations averaged over breeds were .72 for young with middle, .42 for young with older, and .86 for middle with older age classes. For fleece weight, the average genetic correlations were .81, .83, and .98. For staple length, the average genetic correlation for young with middle age classes was .82. Estimates of genetic correlations across ages varied considerably among breeds. The average estimates of correlations suggest that fleece grade may need to be defined by age, especially for the Columbia and Rambouillet breeds. For fleece weight and staple length, however, the average correlations suggest no need to define those traits by age.

  6. Increased brain-predicted aging in treated HIV disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jonathan; Caan, Matthan W.A.; De Francesco, Davide; van Zoest, Rosan A.; Leech, Robert; Wit, Ferdinand W.N.M.; Portegies, Peter; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Schmand, Ben A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sabin, Caroline A.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Sharp, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. Methods: A large sample of virologically suppressed HIV-positive adults (n = 162, age 45–82 years) and highly comparable HIV-negative controls (n = 105) were recruited as part of the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) collaboration. Using T1-weighted MRI scans, a machine-learning model of healthy brain aging was defined in an independent cohort (n = 2,001, aged 18–90 years). Neuroimaging data from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals were then used to estimate brain-predicted age; then brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD = brain-predicted brain age − chronological age) scores were calculated. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were also carried out. Results: HIV-positive individuals had greater brain-PAD score (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 7.79 years) compared to HIV-negative individuals (−0.87 ± 8.40 years; b = 3.48, p < 0.01). Increased brain-PAD score was associated with decreased performance in multiple cognitive domains (information processing speed, executive function, memory) and general cognitive performance across all participants. Brain-PAD score was not associated with age, duration of HIV infection, or other HIV-related measures. Conclusion: Increased apparent brain aging, predicted using neuroimaging, was observed in HIV-positive adults, despite effective viral suppression. Furthermore, the magnitude of increased apparent brain aging related to cognitive deficits. However, predicted brain age difference did not correlate with chronological age or duration of HIV infection, suggesting that HIV disease may accentuate rather than accelerate brain aging. PMID:28258081

  7. Age-dependent xylogenesis in timberline conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Carrer, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Neither anatomical change nor physiological abnormalities have been observed in the cambia of older trees. However, different sensitivity and period of significant responses to climate suggest the existence of some age-related change in the patterns of cambial activity and/or wood cell formation. Here, weekly cambial activity and timing and duration of xylem cell enlargement and wall thickening were compared in adult (50-80 yr) and old (200-350 yr) trees of Larix decidua, Pinus cembra and Picea abies at the Alpine timberline during 2004 and 2005. Timings and durations of xylogenesis differed between adult and old trees, with 2-3 wk shorter cambial activity found in the latter. The delayed onset of cambium division and lower cell production in old trees, with respect to adult trees, led to reductions of 15-20% in the overall duration of xylem differentiation. These results demonstrate that cambial dynamics change during the tree lifespan and that the time window of tree-ring production shortens with age. Variations in the period of xylem growth may be the cause of age-dependent responses to climate. The observed shorter xylogenesis in older plants at the Alpine timberline could be related to a size effect and not just to age per se.

  8. Education in an Aging Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harold R.

    1982-01-01

    As society ages, changes in education will include: the development of educational services for older people; the preparation of qualified personnel to serve the elderly; the education of the public about the processes of aging; and the acceleration of efforts to expand and deepen the knowledge base about aging. (MLW)

  9. Aging, telomeres and heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Liza S. M.; van der Harst, Pim; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Huzen, Jardi; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    During normal aging, the heart undergoes functional, morphological and cellular changes. Although aging per se does not lead to the expression of heart failure, it is likely that age-associated changes lower the threshold for the manifestation of signs and symptoms of heart failure. In patients, the

  10. Age and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the age factor in second language learning. Sketches some of the relevant research findings that have emerged in the last three decades and hones in on the results recently published on age-related research. Concludes with a discussion of whether there is an age factor in second language learning. (Author/VWL)

  11. Is the Age Problem Resolved?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Akbar Navabi; Nematollah Riazi

    2003-03-01

    The cosmological, astrophysical, and nucleocosmochronological methods for estimating the age of the universe and the corresponding uncertainties are comparatively studied in the present paper.We are led to the conclusion that the newmeasurements of cosmological parameters, and the recent estimates of the age of globular clusters have led to the gradual disappearance of the age problem from the arena of modern cosmology.

  12. Aging changes in the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gray or light blue eyes. Images Changes in face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, Rockword K, Young J, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook ... management of the aging face. In: Robinson JK, Hanke CW, Siegel DM, Fratila ...

  13. Expression-Invariant Age Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alnajar, F.; Lou, Z.; Alvarez, J.; Gevers, T.; Valstar, M.; French, A.; Pridmore, T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate and exploit the influence of facial expressions on automatic age estimation. Different from existing approaches, our method jointly learns the age and expression by introducing a new graphical model with a latent layer between the age/expression labels and the features.

  14. Food for the ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, M.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The world’s ageing population is increasing and food professionals will have to address the needs of older generations more closely in the future. This unique volume reviews the characteristics of the ageing population as food consumers, the role of nutrition in healthy ageing and the design of food

  15. Healthy Bones at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Healthy Bones at Every Age Page ( 1 ) Bone health is important at every age and stage of life. The skeleton is our body’s storage bank for ... are many things we can do at every age to keep our bones strong and healthy. Peak ...

  16. Functional interrelationship of brain aging and delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapazzini, Piero

    2016-02-01

    Theories on the development of delirium are complementary rather than competing and they may relate to each other. Here, we highlight that similar alterations in functional brain connectivity underlie both the observed age-related deficits and episodes of delirium. The default mode network (DMN) is a group of brain regions showing a greater level of activity at rest than during attention-based tasks. These regions include the posteromedial-anteromedial cortices and temporoparietal junctions. Evidence suggests that awareness is subserved through higher order neurons associated with the DMN. By using functional MRI disruption of DMN, connectivity and weaker task-induced deactivations of these regions are observed both in age-related cognitive impairment and during episodes of delirium. We can assume that an acute up-regulation of inhibitory tone within the brain acts to further disrupt network connectivity in vulnerable patients, who are predisposed by a reduced baseline connectivity, and triggers the delirium.

  17. Observation of online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten

    2011-01-01

    of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...

  18. Observing Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Classroom observation is a crucial aspect of any system of teacher evaluation. No matter how skilled a teacher is in other aspects of teaching--such as careful planning, working well with colleagues, and communicating with parents--if classroom practice is deficient, that individual cannot be considered a good teacher. Classroom observations can…

  19. Becoming a Scientific Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Greg MacDonald leaves no stone unturned as he places the complexity of second-plane observation into one coherent vision that includes the fundamentals of self-construction, the essential field of observation (freedom of work within the prepared environment), the role of the human tendencies, the construction of developmental facets, and the…

  20. Connecting Participant Observation Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCurdy, Patrick; Uldam, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue for the importance of considering participant observation roles in relation to both insider/outsider and overt/covert roles. Through combining key academic debates on participant observation, which have separately considered insider/outsider and overt/covert participant...

  1. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  2. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  3. Participation beyond observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    , however, the researchers typically uphold the notion that all they methodically engage in is participant observation. The paper argues that important aspects of children’s living and understanding may be lost when considering them mere objects of one’s visual and verbal research practices. First I delve...... on investigating children’s perspectives through participant observation, but also ontological and political ones....

  4. Precise age estimation from different ageing structures in the striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch,1793, collected from the river Ganga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Channa striata (N=156; TL=17-60cm sampled from the river Ganga, the annuli laid on different ageing structures such as otoliths (whole and sectioned, scales, opercular bone and vertebrae were observed for age estimation. Standard procedures were followed to prepare and study the age structures. Age estimates obtained from different hard structures were analysed to calculate the parameters for precise age estimation viz., APE, CV and PA. The sectioned otoliths showed the highest (89.9% percentage of agreement between readers while least average percent error (1.20% and coefficient of variation (3.81% values between two readers. Thus sectioned otoliths were considered to be the most suitable method for estimating age in C. striata. When sectioned otoliths were compared with other bony structures, the highest percent agreement and lowest average percent error and coefficient of variation values were found between sectioned otoliths and whole otoliths age estimates.

  5. Aging of perennial cells and organ parts according to the programmed aging paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Giacinto; Ferrara, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    If aging is a physiological phenomenon-as maintained by the programmed aging paradigm-it must be caused by specific genetically determined and regulated mechanisms, which must be confirmed by evidence. Within the programmed aging paradigm, a complete proposal starts from the observation that cells, tissues, and organs show continuous turnover: As telomere shortening determines both limits to cell replication and a progressive impairment of cellular functions, a progressive decline in age-related fitness decline (i.e., aging) is a clear consequence. Against this hypothesis, a critic might argue that there are cells (most types of neurons) and organ parts (crystalline core and tooth enamel) that have no turnover and are subject to wear or manifest alterations similar to those of cells with turnover. In this review, it is shown how cell types without turnover appear to be strictly dependent on cells subjected to turnover. The loss or weakening of the functions fulfilled by these cells with turnover, due to telomere shortening and turnover slowing, compromises the vitality of the served cells without turnover. This determines well-known clinical manifestations, which in their early forms are described as distinct diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, age-related macular degeneration, etc.). Moreover, for the two organ parts (crystalline core and tooth enamel) without viable cells or any cell turnover, it is discussed how this is entirely compatible with the programmed aging paradigm.

  6. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain.

  7. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández del Río

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the “hallmarks of aging”, which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid, but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  8. The temporal scaling of Caenorhabditis elegans ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroustrup, Nicholas; Anthony, Winston E.; Nash, Zachary M.; Gowda, Vivek; Gomez, Adam; López-Moyado, Isaac F.; Apfeld, Javier; Fontana, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The process of ageing makes death increasingly likely, involving a random aspect that produces a wide distribution of lifespan even in homogeneous populations. The study of this stochastic behaviour may link molecular mechanisms to the ageing process that determines lifespan. Here, by collecting high-precision mortality statistics from large populations, we observe that interventions as diverse as changes in diet, temperature, exposure to oxidative stress, and disruption of genes including the heat shock factor hsf-1, the hypoxia-inducible factor hif-1, and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway components daf-2, age-1, and daf-16 all alter lifespan distributions by an apparent stretching or shrinking of time. To produce such temporal scaling, each intervention must alter to the same extent throughout adult life all physiological determinants of the risk of death. Organismic ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans therefore appears to involve aspects of physiology that respond in concert to a diverse set of interventions. In this way, temporal scaling identifies a novel state variable, r(t), that governs the risk of death and whose average decay dynamics involves a single effective rate constant of ageing, kr. Interventions that produce temporal scaling influence lifespan exclusively by altering kr. Such interventions, when applied transiently even in early adulthood, temporarily alter kr with an attendant transient increase or decrease in the rate of change in r and a permanent effect on remaining lifespan. The existence of an organismal ageing dynamics that is invariant across genetic and environmental contexts provides the basis for a new, quantitative framework for evaluating the manner and extent to which specific molecular processes contribute to the aspect of ageing that determines lifespan.

  9. Special Observance Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Day o Email/broadcast/installation newspaper o Installation marquee/kiosk • Art exhibit • Musical concert • Film festival at installation theater...from which to choose. Guest speakers can include military or government employees, civic leaders, academics , historical figures, individuals of...which may prevent certain pitfalls and misstatements. Pitfalls Many things can affect a speaker’s performance (e.g., illness, age, mental lapses

  10. Calibration of Models Using Groundwater Age (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water-resource managers are frequently concerned with the long-term ability of a groundwater system to deliver volumes of water for both humans and ecosystems under natural and anthropogenic stresses. Analysis of how a groundwater system responds to such stresses usually involves the construction and calibration of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The calibration procedure usually involves the use of both groundwater-level and flux observations. Water-level data are often more abundant, and thus the availability of flux data can be critical, with well discharge and base flow to streams being most often available. Lack of good flux data however is a common occurrence, especially in more arid climates where the sustainability of the water supply may be even more in question. Environmental tracers are frequently being used to estimate the “age” of a water sample, which represents the time the water has been in the subsurface since its arrival at the water table. Groundwater ages provide flux-related information and can be used successfully to help calibrate groundwater models if porosity is well constrained, especially when there is a paucity of other flux data. As several different methods of simulating groundwater age and tracer movement are possible, a review is presented here of the advantages, disadvantages, and potential pitfalls of the various numerical and tracer methods used in model calibration. The usefulness of groundwater ages for model calibration depends on the ability both to interpret a tracer so as to obtain an apparent observed age, and to use a numerical model to obtain an equivalent simulated age observation. Different levels of simplicity and assumptions accompany different methods for calculating the equivalent simulated age observation. The advantages of computational efficiency in certain methods can be offset by error associated with the underlying assumptions. Advective travel-time calculation using path-line tracking in finite

  11. Asteroseismic age determination for dwarfs and giants

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, V Silva

    2015-01-01

    Asteroseismology can make a substantial contribution to our understanding of the formation history and evolution of our Galaxy by providing precisely determined stellar properties for thousands of stars in different regions of the Milky Way. We present here the different sets of observables used in determining asteroseismic stellar properties, the typical level of precision obtained, the current status of results for ages of dwarfs and giants and the improvements than can be expected in the near future in the context of Galactic archaeology.

  12. Functional MRI observation of the aging selective degradation mode of large-scale brain functional networks%功能磁共振观察老年人大尺度脑功能网络选择性的退化模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晶涛; 陈文新; 张洪英; 田彤彤; 杨海山

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨功能磁共振大尺度脑网络在脑衰老进程中的变化特征和内在机制. 方法 招募健康青年人和老年人受试者,老年组20例,平均年龄(72.4±4.6)岁;青年人18例,平均年龄(23.9±1.8)岁.受试者接受血氧水平依赖的静息功能磁共振检查,采用种子区方法及双回归处理功能数据,提取默认网络、注意网络、执行控制网络、突显网络,视觉网络,进行统计学比较. 结果 相对于青年组,老年组的网络连接性损害呈现了明显不同的变化模式,执行控制网络受损最重,其次是注意网络,默认网络和突显网络轻度受影响,这些高级认知功能相关网络受损,而较低级的视觉感觉网络未见明显变化. 结论 健康人的脑衰老表现为在网络水平上呈现有组织性的变化;老年期大尺度的脑网络呈现选择性的损害,高级认知网络较低级脑功能网络退变更突出.%Objective To investigate the degradation characteristics of the large-scale brain functional networks during aging by functional magnetic resonance imaging measurement and explore its intrinsic mechanism.Methods 40 healthy subjects including 20 elderly persons [mean aged(72.4 ±4.6)years] and 18 young persons [mean aged(23.9± 1.8) years] were enrolled in this study.All subjects underwent functional MRI scanning at blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast resting state.Four canonical resting-state networks,including the default mode network (DMN),dorsal attention network (DAN),executive control network (ECN),salience network,and visual network,were extracted by the seed zone and double regression methods.The functional connectivities in these canonical networks were compared between the young and elderly persons.Results Compared with young persons,the elderly showed the distinct and disruptive alterations in the large-scale aging-related resting brain networks.The impairment of ECN was the most serious,followed by the impairment of DAN

  13. The pedagogicalization of ageing societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2011-01-01

    ' a' social' pedagogical' problem' involving' a' focus' on' social' pedagogical' interventions' throughout' the' life' course.'In'order'to'shape'the'future'of'society,'the'perspective'on' ageing'and'old'age'has'shifted'from'being'a'determined'process'to' becoming' a'modifiable' process' focusing' on......' the' processes' of' opti) mizing'and'realizing'people’s'potentials'lifelong.'Active'and'healthy' ageing' unfolds' the' cure' to' the' social' problem' of' contemporary' ageing'societies'in'order'to'make'tomorrows'life'in'old'age'better' than' it' is' today.' The' pedagogical' issues' relate' to' the...

  14. WARFARE IN THE INFORMATION AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian GHERMAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on changes occurred in military organizations in Information Age. During Industrial Age the military structure of forces evolved according with principles of decomposition, specialization, hierarchy, optimization, deconfliction, centralized planning, and decentralized execution. But now the solutions based upon Industrial Age assumptions and practices will break down and fail in the Information Age. This will happen no matter how well intentioned, hardworking, or dedicated the leadership and the force are. Two key force capabilities needed by Information Age militaries are interoperability and agility. Both interoperability and agility are provided by Network centric warfare theory of war.

  15. Galileo's Observations of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, E. M.

    2001-11-01

    In 1979, Stillman Drake and Charles Kowal found that the astronomer Galileo actually observed the planet Neptune in the years 1612 and 1613. Galileo's observing notebooks still exist and are preserved in the National Central Library in Florence, Italy. In them, one can see the discovery of the four large moons of Jupiter, and one can follow the subsequent work of Galileo as he improved his telescopes, charted the nightly positions of the satellites, and refined his ability to predict their future configurations. One sees his observing innovations and improving accuracies which seem to reach a crescendo just at the time of his observations of Neptune. Further scrutiny of Galileo's notebooks has revealed other intriguing observations. One is a probable fourth observation of Neptune which has a direct bearing upon present-day ephemerides. There are also observations of two other objects which, to this day, despite some effort, remain unidentified - possibly asteroids, comets, novae, or supernovae. More than of just historical interest, Galileo's work still has important implications for present-day astronomy. The research described in this talk was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. Telomere length variations in aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and repeated cell replication on it, and thus forming an association between telomere length and chronological aging and related diseases. Thus, decrease in telomere length was found to be important in determining both, the variations in longevity and age-related diseases in an individual. Ongoing and progressive research in the field of telomere length dynamics has proved that aging and age-related diseases apart from having a synergistic effect on telomere length were also found to effect telomere length independently also. Here a short description about telomere length variations and its association with human aging and age-related diseases is reviewed.

  17. Understanding the golden age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Nowicka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The body of the discussion is devoted to two books, critical editions of Polish translations of the works of Spanish Baroque period, that are related to theatre. The first title in question is the annotated bi-lingual edition of El principe contante by Calderon de la Barca, the drama piece known in Poland as Książe niezłomny [The Constant Prince] and brilliantly translated by Juliusz Słowacki. The other book is the annotated translation of Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo [New art of writing plays] by Lope de Vega. Both publications not only evaluate the complex and fascinating picture of Spanish theatrical culture of the Golden Age to the Polish reader, but also substantially widen our understanding of the dependence between the type of the stage and the vision of the world constructed by a playwright and the theatre. They may also provide substantial support, and important inspiration, to theoreticians of theatre and drama, comparatists, historians of ideas, historians of mentality, etc.

  18. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  19. Wisdom comes with age?

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    ‘A relativistic generalization of the Navier-Stokes equations to quark-gluon plasmas’ – the work of a CERN physicist perhaps? No, actually it is the title of a high school student’s project! Thirteen of the world’s brightest young scientific minds were recently treated to a tour of CERN. The Bulletin finds out more. The Intel ISEF students during their visit to CERN.Thirteen science wunderkinds came to CERN for a three-day visit on 29 June. The high school students, aged between 16 and 18, were all winners of this year’s Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (Intel ISEF), the world’s largest pre-college science competition. As part of their prize they won a visit to CERN organized by the CERN openlab collaboration (see box). "The whole trip has been incredible, and this is my first time in Europe as well so that makes it even more exciting," said Ryan Alexander, just 16 years old, who won in the Energy and Tr...

  20. Longevity pathways and memory ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias eGkikas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ageing process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of ageing. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviours. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain ageing. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of ageing and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both ageing and memory formation and consolidation.