WorldWideScience

Sample records for 4-year post-secondary institutions

  1. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lust Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  2. 22 CFR 196.3 - Grants to post-secondary education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants to post-secondary education institutions...-secondary education institutions. The Department of State may make a grant to a post-secondary education institution for the purpose of increasing the level of knowledge and awareness of and interest in...

  3. Government, Coercive Power and the Perceived Legitimacy of Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.; Kondra, Alex Z.; Lamertz, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Governments regulate and control organizations, yet their role in determining organizational legitimacy is largely unexamined. In the changing Canadian post-secondary landscape, legitimacy is an increasingly important issue for post-secondary institutions as they compete amongst themselves for access to ever-shrinking resources. Using an…

  4. Supporting Successful Transitions to Post-Secondary Education for Indigenous Students: Lessons from an Institutional Ethnography in Ontario, Canada

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    Jean-Paul Restoule

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines some of the ways institutional policies and practices can support or hinder the successful transition to post-secondary education for Indigenous people. Tracing the path from Indigenous high school student to post-secondary education applicant and utilizing knowledge gained from interviews, focus groups, and online surveys as part of an institutional ethnography approach, we offer recommendations for institutions and applicants to help increase enrollment and enhance the success of Indigenous post-secondary students. We share implications for institutions and post-secondary education applicants utilizing self-identification or cultural identity tracking.

  5. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  6. Sustainability in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: The Interrelationships among Sustainability Initiatives and Geographic and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Dan; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip; Wright, Tarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a census of high-level sustainability initiatives at all accredited post-secondary institutions in Canada by documenting the institutions that have undertaken sustainability assessments, have signed one or more sustainability declarations, have sustainability offices or officers or have sustainability…

  7. Quality Education Management in self-funded Post Secondary Education Institutions in Hong Kong

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    Wong Edwin K. P.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the management of external validation exercises (academic audit. Such exercises are now seen as providing an important means for assessing the quality of education in self-funded Post Secondary Education Institutions in Hong Kong, and therefore careful preparation for them is essential. Relevant individual's implicit/tacit knowledge has been converted to explicit knowledge for organizational formal transfer. Ten implementation strategies for the achievement of key performance results are proposed, and a check list of twenty tasks is formulated, against which institutions might assess their level of achievement and evaluate their readiness for external validation.

  8. Integration of the concepts of sustainability into teaching at post-secondary institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sara Allison

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incorporation of the concepts of sustainability into teaching at two post-secondary public education residential institutions, Northern Arizona University (NAU) and the University of South Carolina (USC). A total of 17 faculty members, six administrators, and 31 students were interviewed in the study. An individual case record for each participating institution was developed. The two case records were then qualitatively cross-case analyzed to derive crosscutting themes and patterns at the two participating institutions. Based on the findings of this study, several major themes emerged across the two post-secondary public institutions. Sustainability was consistently viewed by faculty members, administrators, and students as a very broad term. While faculty members and administrators differentiated between the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of sustainability, students commonly associated sustainability more narrowly with an ecological meaning. Several common factors that influenced faculty members' and administrators' understanding of sustainability included literature, campus-wide training, personal influences, and professional networking. Common methods used by faculty to incorporate the concepts of sustainability into teaching included assigned readings, class discussions, and class projects. Key benefits of incorporating the concepts of sustainability into teaching included increased student awareness, collaboration, vision development, and social implications, while key challenges included time, support, assessment, student understanding, and more realistic classroom experiences. Key driving forces for faculty members and administrators for incorporating the concepts of sustainability into teaching were the initiatives specifically developed at the institutions. Based on the common themes at the two institutions studied, it is recommended that post-secondary institutions desiring to deploy the concepts

  9. Reducing Energy Waste in Post-secondary Educational Institutions using Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta Cabrera, David Francisco

    This thesis focuses on computer-related and lighting energy consumption in post-secondary educational institutions. In this respect, artificial intelligence and data association mining are proposed as tools to identify and reduce energy waste. First, an artificial intelligence-based method for forecasting computer usage is proposed. Based on the models' forecast, workstations can be turned on and off, in order to strike a balance between energy savings and user comfort. The models are evaluated on different datasets and their results compared to commercially available alternatives. Second, a data association mining-based approach is proposed to uncover possible relationships between occupancy patterns and lighting-related energy waste in classrooms. A wireless data collection system is used to log data from both lighting consumption and occupancy states during a year. Next, energy savings results of using the proposed approach are compared to those of an occupancy-activated lighting control system for classrooms.

  10. Connecting the Dots...: Information Sharing by Post-Secondary Educational Institutions under the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard; Hall, Richard; Gilmer, W. Gerry

    2008-01-01

    Misunderstanding of privacy laws and regulations impedes appropriate information sharing by post-secondary educational institutions under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 ("FERPA"). Post-Virginia Tech regulatory amendments allow institutions to "connect the dots" regarding a student's behavior and to be proactive in problem…

  11. Student Services/One Stop Centers: A Qualitative Examination of Implementation at Three Post-Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Janine M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates Student Services/One Stop Centers at three post-secondary institutions, looking at the origination of the centers and success through the lens of behavioral theories. Comparing the 3-stage Group Dynamics Theory of Lewin (1947), Social Learning Theory of Bandura (1977), and the 8-stage Change Management Model of Kotter…

  12. Following Their Footsteps: What Happens to Students Who Move from Research Universities to Other BC Public Post-Secondary Institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    British Columbia has a differentiated post-secondary system in which different kinds of institutions provide students with a wide range of educational program options and numerous opportunities for credential completion. As a result of the many education choices and pathways available to students in BC, they tend to navigate their way through the…

  13. Orchestrating Organizational Change in One Traditional Post-Secondary Institution in the Midst of Trying Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    American higher education finds itself in a veritable upheaval as it attempts to respond to shifting social, economic, and political times. Raising tuition, cutting or consolidating programs, furloughing staff and faculty, drawing down endowments, and capping enrollments are common responses by public and private institutions. This qualitative…

  14. The Impact of Self Beliefs on Post-Secondary Transitions: The Moderating Effects of Institutional Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane Cardenas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between self beliefs, institutional characteristics, and college student persistence. More specifically, this study sought to understand whether self-efficacy beliefs, both academic self-efficacy and social self-efficacy, play a role in college persistence. Further, the possible moderating…

  15. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using the School as an Organization and Social Institution as a Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges. The research concentrates upon programs in tourism and information technology delivered by the two following Polish schools: "Policealne Studium Zawodowe" (Cracow, Poland), Cracow School of Information Technology; and three Canadian…

  16. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Acceptance of Disability: Understanding Intentions to Request Instructional Accommodations in Post-Secondary Institutions

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    Rivas, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    Graduating high-school students with disabilities are making the decision to pursue a post-secondary education in greater numbers. While many students with disabilities self-identify at enrollment as having a disability and thereby qualify for instructional accommodations, few of them request accommodations to assist with meeting course…

  17. Preparing the Workforce: Early Childhood Teacher Preparation at 2- and 4-year Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Diane M.; Winton, Pamela J.

    2001-01-01

    Details investigation of characteristics of early childhood teacher preparation programs at 2- and 4-year institutions through a survey of program chairs or directors. Presents findings on faculty characteristics, including racial makeup; course and practica requirements; comparisons between early childhood programs and the institutions as whole…

  18. Undergraduate public health at 4-year institutions: it's here to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegelman, Richard K; Albertine, Susan

    2011-02-01

    Undergraduate public health education at 4-year institutions, those with and without graduate public health education, has grown rapidly during the first decade of the 21st century since the IOM recommended that "all undergraduates have access to education in public health." Much of this growth has been guided by the Educated Citizen and Public Health initiative, a collaboration of arts and sciences and public health educators that encourages introductory course work in public health, epidemiology, and global health plus undergraduate minors and majors in public health. The Educated Citizen and Public Health model, as opposed to existing professional models, envisions core public health education based on the Association of American Colleges and Universities' Liberal Education and America's Promise essential learning outcomes that encourage experiential learning, evidence-based thinking, a global and community focus, plus integration and synthesis. Public health education in this model provides solid generalist grounding for graduate education in public health as well as a range of graduate disciplines from the health professions to international affairs and from law to business. In addition, it helps ensure a broad range of college graduates who understand and support public health approaches. The Healthy People 2020 objective to increase the proportion of 4-year colleges and universities that offer minor or major in public health should help propel additional growth, especially in 4-year colleges without graduate public health education. Integrative curricula designed as part of the reform of undergraduate education provide opportunities to make evidence-based public health approaches available to a large number of undergraduates. PMID:21238873

  19. From community college to 4-year institutions: Latinas' successful completion of STEM baccalaureate degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Rocio

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the narrative of Latina graduates who successfully navigated through community college and 4-year institutions in the STEM fields. Rather than focus on what these students lack as much of the current research does, the study explored what assets these students bring that supports their success in STEM fields. Utilizing an ethnographic interview approach, participants who attained STEM baccalaureates in California were interviewed. Qualitative findings revealed various experiences, attitudes, and cultural influences that led to successful completion of a STEM degree. First, the study found that successful community college Latina STEM graduates exhibit grit, are resilient, determined, and have positive attitudes about their underrepresentation in STEM. Second, participants sought after peer, faculty, and staff relationships that helped them be successful. Lastly, participants had the support of their families and reported a high level of connectedness to their culture. Implications, recommendations for practice, and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Leading Indicators: Increasing Statewide Bachelor's Degree Completion Rates at 4-Year Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jeffrey Cody

    2014-01-01

    For the United States to maintain national and global economic stability, colleges must graduate more students. Four-year completion rates have declined and less than one-third of full-time, degree-seeking students graduate in 4 years. Some researchers and policymakers have suggested "leading indicators" to track postsecondary…

  1. Perceptions of Student Affairs and Services Practitioners in Ontario's Post-Secondary Institutions: An Examination of Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Tricia A.; Burrow, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Student affairs and services divisions and the partnerships and collaborations in which they engage with faculty, students, and the community form the structural centre of institutions' approaches to student support. Although past research has identified areas typically associated with the student affairs and services portfolio and factors…

  2. Student Grade Expectations at Technical College, 2-, and 4-Year Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Lee I.; Immel, Kathy R.; Kadah-Ammeter, Tammy L.; Priniski, Stacy J.

    2013-01-01

    Although students' final course grade expectations have been the focus of several studies, none have looked systematically at students' expectations for grade distributions for the whole class across institutional types, student year in school, and course levels. This study examined such differences as a function of gender, course level,…

  3. Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia terminology in practice: 4-year experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sarah E; Hecht, Jonathan L

    2012-03-01

    An alternative WHO classification system for endometrial precancers and hyperplasia separates a lesion called endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) from diffuse hormonal effects and cancer, resulting in a 3-category system. EIN is a localized lesion with objective histologic criteria, characterized by monoclonal growth of mutated cells, and associated with a 45-fold elevated cancer risk. This study summarizes our department's experience with EIN diagnoses in the 4 years since conversion to the new terminology. We identified all reports from endometrial samples diagnosed as EIN or including the terms "gland crowding" or "atypia" since conversion and obtained follow-up information from subsequent pathology specimens or clinic notes (82%). The diagnoses were reported by a mixture of pathologists, the majority of whom are not subspecialized to gynecologic pathology and the slides were not reviewed. Overall, 17.1% of women with EIN had carcinoma and 34.9% had either carcinoma or persistent EIN. The proportion of women with EIN or cancer on follow-up did not trend with years since adoption of EIN terminology. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 55 years in an overall population of women who underwent sampling at a median age of 47 years. The median follow-up time was 4 months. All cancers were of endometrioid histology; all but 2 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1. In comparison with a previous reproducibility study among expert pathologists on a comparable population from our department, these results for general pathologists show a higher false positive rate for subsequent cancer. PMID:22317874

  4. Here To Stay? Women, Counselling, Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Mairi St. John

    1978-01-01

    As the number of adult students, particulary women, attending post-secondary institutions continues to increase, it is important for counselors and teachers to be aware of the needs, problems, and conflicts that these students have. This article examines some of these needs and conflicts and ways that counselors can help. (Author/JEL)

  5. Post-Secondary Educators' Perceptions of Students' Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, Hannah A.; Rash, Joshua A.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bramble, Beverly; Landine, Jeff; Gerwing, Travis G.

    2016-01-01

    Student test anxiety (TA) is a far-reaching concern in many post-secondary institutions as it can have a negative impact on student performance and retention. Educator perceptions of TA may influence the incidence of TA as well as treatment success. As such, we surveyed educators at a medium-sized Canadian university about their perceptions and…

  6. Directory of Post-Secondary Retailing and Marketing Vocational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This directory lists 357 general and 135 special retailing and marketing vocational programs at the post secondary level. Institutions vary somewhat in the identification of general programs; for example, they may be called retailing, merchandising, marketing, mid-management, or distributive education programs. Specialized programs offered by…

  7. Transitioning Roles of Post-Secondary Education and Community Colleges Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Chase-Mayoral, Audree

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Research in Comparative and International Education investigates the spread and development of two-year and community college institutions worldwide. While not all post-secondary education falls within the scope or definition of community colleges, both post-secondary and community college education tend to serve the needs of…

  8. Post-Secondary Students' Views on Health: Support for Individual and Social Health Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyleyko, Robert; Godley, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how post-secondary students understand health, and whether opinions about health are correlated with area of study. We present results from an online survey administered in 2011 to 287 students at one post-secondary institution in Western Canada. Overall, the survey students are more likely to adopt an individualistic, rather…

  9. Post-Secondary Students' Purposes for Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Paul; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the study was to explore post-secondary students' purposes for blogging with particular attention to the social and instructional purposes. The sample of blogs came from an all-women's college in the United Arab Emirates. Content analysis was conducted on eight blogs using previously tested instruments to identify social presence and…

  10. Post-Secondary Educators’ Perceptions of Students’ Test Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah A. Connon; Rash, Joshua A; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Beverly Bramble; Jeff Landine; Gerwing, Travis G.

    2016-01-01

    Student test anxiety (TA) is a far-reaching concern in many post-secondary institutions as it can have a negative impact on student performance and retention. Educator perceptions of TA may influence the incidence of TA as well as treatment success. As such, we surveyed educators at a medium-sized Canadian university about their perceptions and experiences with TA. In total, 90% of surveyed educators (n=50) were willing to accommodate students with TA, and 69% of educators were aware of TA su...

  11. Academic Transfer Shock and Social Integration: A Comparison of Outcomes for Traditional and Nontraditional Students Transferring from 2-Year to 4-Year Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahn-Koller, Brooke Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether traditional and nontraditional students who transferred from 2-year to 4-year institutions experienced differences in transfer shock, academic integration, and social integration. A substantial body of knowledge comparing transfer students to native students on transfer shock exists, while only a…

  12. Exploring the Academic and Social Experiences of Latino Engineering Community College Transfer Students at a 4-Year Institution: A Qualitative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, LaTesha R.

    As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.

  13. Post-Secondary Students' Purposes For Blogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Henry Leslie

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to explore post-secondary students’ purposes for blogging with particular attention to the social and instructional purposes. The sample of blogs came from an all-women’s college in the United Arab Emirates. Content analysis was conducted on eight blogs using previously tested instruments to identify social presence and knowledge construction. Authors of the blogs participated in a focus group discussion about the purposes for blogging. Findings revealed that the primary use of blogging was for social purposes. Self-disclosure was the most notable purpose for blogging, in addition to sharing emotional responses to learning. The lack of teaching presence may have influenced students’ use of blogging for social rather than instructional purposes.

  14. Post secondary project-based learning in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel A Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning (PjBL - to distinguish from problem-based learning - PBL) has become a recurrent practice in K-12 classroom environments. As PjBL has become prominent in K-12 classrooms, it has also surfaced in post-secondary institutions.  The purpose of this paper is to examine the research that has studied a variety of science, technology, engineering and mathematic subjects using PjBL in post-secondary classrooms. Eleven articles (including qualitative, quantitative and mixed metho...

  15. Instructors' Use of Technology in Post-Secondary Undergraduate Mathematics Teaching: A Local Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesso, A. T.; Kondratieva, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, instructors of undergraduate mathematics from post-secondary institutions in Newfoundland were surveyed (N = 13) and interviewed (N = 8) about their use of, experiences with, and views on, technologically assisted teaching. It was found that the majority of them regularly use technologies for organizational and communication…

  16. Exploring Motivational and Learning Differences with Mature Students in Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William C.; Smith, Leslie; Nielson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences that exist among various age cohorts attending a post-secondary educational institution. Respondents were from the New Brunswick Community College's six separate campuses (n = 251). Significant differences were found to exist predominantly around social and family issues. Although differences did appear based on…

  17. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  18. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: 2005-06 Transfer Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  19. Post-Secondary Distance Education in a Contemporary Colonial Context: Experiences of Students in a Rural First Nation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Burton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-secondary distance education gives students and their families living in remote and rural regions the option to stay in their communities while they study instead of moving closer to the universities in cities. Post-secondary distance education is an option in many rural and remote First Nation (Indigenous communities in Canada; however there are many challenges to successful adoption in these communities. There are also many opportunities for post-secondary institutions to expand their abilities and capacity in developing and delivering appropriate content supporting these unique, self-governing environments in Canada. We explore the experiences of students from a rural First Nation in Canada with post-secondary distance education, focusing on how different delivery methods offer both opportunities and challenges for community-based students. The study is situated in the context of contemporary colonialism in Canada.

  20. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions

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    L.R. Kogan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution. Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than

  1. Students with disabilities: Post-secondary voices and universal design for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Coomber, Shirley Ann

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human rights legislation has supported the provision of disability support services for twenty years within the public post-secondary system in British Columbia. However, most institutions and their students with disabilities have faced the challenge of disparate views regarding access to learning. The purposes of this study are rooted in a discourse of equality and social justice: how can the educational community maximize academic access for students with disabilities so that they ...

  2. The public role in private post-secondary education : a review of issues and options

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, Ake; Jimenez, Emmanuel

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers whether private educational institutions can play an expanded role in helping attain society's objective with respect to the efficiency and equity of the system of post-secondary education. The authors focus on how public subsidies can be used to meet the social objectives of private education. In recent years there hasbeen increasing evidence of a growing problem of graduate unemployment. Higher education has also been perceived as a socially unproductive but privately p...

  3. Transitional Challenges Faced by Post-Secondary International Students and Approaches for Their Successful Inclusion in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lichan

    2015-01-01

    As the number of international students in post-secondary education institutions in Canada and the United States continues to increase substantially, much scholarly attention is being paid to the wide variety of transitional challenges that international students face. At the same time frequent controversial conversations are occurring about…

  4. International Perspectives: Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    This study compares Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges using an information technology conceptual framework. The research concentrated upon programs in information technology delivered by one Polish school Cracow School of Information Technology and two Canadian community colleges Durham (Oshawa,…

  5. Post-Secondary (Grammar) Vocational Schools in Poland and Canadian Community Colleges: A Summary of the Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard

    2006-01-01

    This article compares Polish post-secondary vocational (grammar) schools with Canadian community colleges. Accessibility, governance and programs are discussed. The theoretical framework for this comparison was supplied by the notion of the school as an organization and social institution. We found that it is necessary for educators in both Canada…

  6. Towards 3000: The Dynamics of Future Post-Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jaan

    This document presents a systems theory approach to post-secondary education. Terms such as entropy, energy, and "essergy" together with the laws of thermodynamics are applied to educational concepts. A philosophical approach with interspersed quotations from Hegel, Korzybski, and Adelman is used to design a new educational paradigm based upon…

  7. Quality Assurance in Post-Secondary Education: The Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Dennis Chung Sea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A major focus of the recent research into the quality of post-secondary education is the centrality of the student experience. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on studies addressing such a focus to shed light on how quality assurance (QA) practices can be improved. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews some…

  8. Post secondary project-based learning in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Ralph

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Project-based learning (PjBL - to distinguish from problem-based learning - PBL has become a recurrent practice in K-12 classroom environments. As PjBL has become prominent in K-12 classrooms, it has also surfaced in post-secondary institutions.  The purpose of this paper is to examine the research that has studied a variety of science, technology, engineering and mathematic subjects using PjBL in post-secondary classrooms. Eleven articles (including qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods were included.  The format includes: an introduction and background (which defines PjBL and STEM, research methods, quality appraisal used, results, and a discussion, future research and a conclusion.  Two tables and two figures are included. In this paper, theoretical backgrounds and key terms were identified, followed by a literature review discussing four themes: content knowledge, interdisciplinary skills, collaboration and skill development for future education and careers.  Results suggested that there is a positive connection between content knowledge learning and PjBL in collaborative settings.  Additionally, some negative perceptions arose regarding teamwork situations.  Interdisciplinary skills were achieved, but quite limited in post-secondary classrooms.  PjBL and STEM were perceived to be important for future education and careers.  Future research needs to be completed and institutional curriculum changes informed by the results of this research need to occur to further explore interdisciplinary courses and the use of PjBL.

  9. Post-Secondary Partnership : BCcampus Library Services, Learning Objects, and Virtual Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Rosseel, Trish

    2006-01-01

    Describes the BCcampus Library Services Gateway, chat reference pilot project and planning for a provincial post-secondary virtual reference service. The rationale, vision, models, and challenges for a post-secondary virtual reference service are discussed.

  10. Instructors' use of technology in post-secondary undergraduate mathematics teaching: a local study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesso, A. T.; Kondratieva, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, instructors of undergraduate mathematics from post-secondary institutions in Newfoundland were surveyed (N = 13) and interviewed (N = 8) about their use of, experiences with, and views on, technologically assisted teaching. It was found that the majority of them regularly use technologies for organizational and communication purposes. However, the use of math-specific technology such as computer algebra systems, or dynamic geometry software for instructional, exploratory, and creative activities with students takes place mostly on an individual basis, only occasionally, and is very much topic specific. This was even the case for those instructors who use technology proficiently in their research. The data also suggested that familiarity with and discussions of examples of technology implementation in teaching at regular and field-oriented professional development seminars within mathematics departments could potentially increase the use of math-specific technology by instructors.

  11. Recommendations for Tobacco Control on Post-Secondary Campuses that are Geographically Isolated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain P. Gauthier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many Ontarians continue to report exposure to second-hand smoke in public spaces. Completely smoke-free environments are the preferred and socially responsible option for non-smoking policies; however, when considering the variety of landscapes in which post-secondary institutions are located, „a one size fits all‟ smoking policy is unrealistic to implement and en-force. The purpose of the study was to: 1 gain a better sense of the prevalence of smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke in a post-secondary context that is geographically isolated; 2 assess the awareness of existing non-smoking initiatives; and 3 identify preferred approaches for tobacco control. Methods: An online survey was distributed in 2012 to all members of the Laurentian University community. Descriptive statistics are presented, using frequency distributions, and group comparisons are reported, using Chi-Square analyses. Results: A total of 1282 persons completed the survey. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that they had been exposed to second-hand smoke in the past month on campus and the majority of respondents felt that smoking should only be allowed in Designated Outdoor Smoking Areas (51.5%; including 37.3% of daily smokers and occasional smokers. Conclusion: Institutions with a geographically isolated campus, which limit options to divert smokers from public entrances, should consider the use of Designated Outdoor Smoking Areas. Implementation will create immediate reductions in the prevalence of smoking at building entrances and in high traffic locations and will therefore protect non-smokers from the dangers of environmental tobacco smoke.

  12. Breaking the Cycle: A Phenomenological Approach to Broadening Access to Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefai, Carmel; Downes, Paul; Cavioni, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a substantial increase in post-secondary education participation in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Union countries. This increase, however, does not necessarily reflect a parallel equitable growth in post-secondary education, and early school leaving is still an…

  13. Individualized Mathematics Instruction: How Effective Has It Been in Secondary and Post Secondary Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harold L.

    A review of studies comparing self-paced individualized programs with other teaching approaches at the secondary and post secondary level is presented in this paper. First, the teaching approaches used and the statistical design employed in the studies are described. Then, the studies are classified as secondary or post secondary, and the results…

  14. Academic Motivation in Post-Secondary Students: Effects of Career Outcome Expectations and Type of Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, Jose F.; Socholotiuk, Krista D.; Woitowicz, Lyndsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a social cognitive theory framework, we examined the effects of career outcome expectations (COE) and aspiration to enter a science, technology, or math (STM) career on post-secondary academic motivation. Data were collected online from a sample of 380 post-secondary students in Canada and the United States. Analysis of covariance revealed…

  15. The Politics of Access: Measuring the Social Returns on Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the most recent data on the cost and financing of a post-secondary education. It also examines the burgeoning debate in Canada about the relationship between tuition fees and access to post-secondary education. In recent years longitudinal data collection has improved and there is now a relatively wide body of research…

  16. Part I - A case study in post-secondary mathematics: the importance of mental health awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Resch, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Due to the shift of civilization from the Industrial Age to the Information Age, mathematical literacy has become a necessity in the twenty-first century. However, in order to learn and contribute to the mathematical community, one has to be in a state of good mental health. When I say 'good mental health,' I mean one has to develop a set of healthy coping strategies, be in a positive learning environment, and have a social support system. Traditionally, universities have been the venue of such higher learning. If these institutions want to remain as thriving grounds for higher education and engines of research, post-secondary institutions need to be aware of these factors and actively contribute to the well-being of its students and faulty. Unfortunately, students do not always receive the support necessary to be mentally healthy. The purpose of this paper is to examine how social awareness and sensitivity of mental health in a university setting is a key component for individuals to flourish academically an...

  17. Increasing the participation of rural Canadians in post-secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Jeffrey John

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the rural-urban post-secondary education participation gap in Canada. Using data collected in the Access and Support for Education and Training Survey (ASETS) released in 2009, this research investigates the barriers to post-secondary education faced by rural students, and whether these barriers differ from those experienced by other Canadians. A literature review, crosstab analysis, and logistic regression are used to help assess four policy alternatives and the status...

  18. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities Regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Fahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the residents of remote, Northern areas of the province, many of them Aboriginal. The literature shows that while Aboriginal people are underrepresented in Canada in university enrollments, they are no longer underrepresented in college or other institutions, suggesting that gains have been made for some residents of rural and remote parts of Canada. Further, when Northern residents (especially Aboriginal males complete advanced training, Statistics Canada reports they are highly successful in employment and income. Access is the pivotal issue, however: leaving the local community to attend training programs elsewhere is often disruptive and unsuccessful. As will be seen, the issue of access arose in this study’s findings with direct implications for distance delivery and support.This study was conducted as part of Athabasca University’s Learning Communities Project (LCP, which sought information about the views and experiences of a broad range of northern Alberta residents concerning their present post-secondary training and education opportunities. The study addresses an acknowledged gap in such information in relation to Canada in comparison with other OECD countries.Results are based on input from 165 individuals, obtained through written surveys (some completed by the researchers in face-to-face exchanges with the respondents, interviews, discussions, and observations, conducted with full-time or part-time residents of the study communities during 2007 and 2008. The four northern Alberta communities studied were Wabasca, Fox Lake, Ft. McKay (sometimes MacKay, and Ft. Chipewyan, totaling just over 6

  19. Under-Represented Groups in Post-Secondary Education in Ontario and the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Hoy, April

    2012-01-01

    Increasing access to and participation in post-secondary education (PSE) for students with disabilities, from low-income families, and with parents who do not have any PSE are common issues that Ontario and the Republic of Ireland are currently facing. The barriers confronted by these under-represented groups in both PSE systems are often complex,…

  20. The Impact of Guided Notes on Post-Secondary Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The common practice of using of guided notes in the post-secondary classroom is not fully appreciated or understood. In an effort to add to the existing research about this phenomenon, the current investigation expands on previously published research and one previously published meta-analysis that examined the impact of guided notes on…

  1. An Approach to Improvisation Pedagogy in Post-Secondary Jazz Programmes Based on Negative Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louth, Joseph Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that an approach to jazz improvisation pedagogy based on negative dialectics may provide a viable solution to the threat of codification of the jazz language as a result of the academisation of improvisation studies at the post-secondary level. Some tentative means of incorporating such an approach into the design of university…

  2. Visualizing the Future of Research on Post Secondary Correctional Education: Designs, Data, and Deliverables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2011-01-01

    Providing post-secondary education in correctional settings has emerged as one of the best ways to reduce recidivism, save taxpayer dollars, and promote post release employment and community reintegration. While a number of studies exist, this paper argues persistent challenges connected to research design, data collection, and the communication…

  3. Response to the Report of the Commission on Post-Secondary Education in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This document written by the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) is a response to the Report of the Commission on Post-Secondary Education in Ontario. The general introduction presents two principles that are considered important in discussing the report: social responsiveness and quality. The best form of social responsiveness is to ensure the…

  4. The Effects of Student Financial Contributions toward Their Post-Secondary Educational Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Eva Marie

    2016-01-01

    The college student population in USA is predicted to increase from 13 million to 21 million between 2003-2015 (Strom & Storm, 2004). This increase along with the exponentially increasing cost of post-secondary education has caused an increase in the financial burden placed on students. Between 2000 and 2012, the two major post-secondary…

  5. Lost in the Lifeworld: Technology Help Seeking and Giving on Diverse, Post-Secondary Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannis, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) is integrated throughout a student's lived experience in their post-secondary learning environment. In order for students with limited or no background with ICT to achieve their academic goals, a central part of their adaptation involves an intensive period of ICT help seeking. Using anecdotes from…

  6. Similarities and Differences: Post-Secondary (Grammar) Vocational Schools in Poland and Canadian Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article compares Polish post-secondary vocational (grammar) schools with Canadian community colleges. Recent changes in Polish schooling and Canadian government initiatives drive this work. Accessibility, governance and programs are discussed. The theoretical framework for this comparison was supplied by the notion of the school as an…

  7. Post-Secondary Educational Experiences in the Acculturation of Resettled Refugees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Tara W.

    2013-01-01

    A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…

  8. An Analysis of Foster Care Placement History and Post-Secondary Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Angelique; Dworsky, Amy; Feng, Wenning

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has document significant disparities in post-secondary educational attainment between young adults who had been in foster care and their peers in the general population. This study uses survival analysis to compare the four-year college graduation rate of students who had been in foster care to the graduation rate of first…

  9. Enhancing Student Learning and Critical Thinking through Academic Controversy in Post Secondary Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicola, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of student learning and critical thinking skills in post-secondary macroeconomics courses. The literature indicates that the lack of learning outcomes can be attributed to the reliance on traditional lecture and the failure to adopt innovative instructional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the student…

  10. Special Consideration in Post-Secondary Institutions: Trends at a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Joelle; Kamenetsky, Stuart B.; Pongracic, Syb

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in the practice of granting special consideration for missed tests and late papers in colleges and universities. We analyzed a database of 4,183 special consideration requests at a large Canadian university between 1998 and 2008. Results show a growing rate of requests per enrolment between 2001 and 2007. Although…

  11. Course Modality Choice and Student Performance in Business Statistics Courses in Post Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radners, Richard Harry, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the role of course modality choice (face-to-face [FTF] or online [OL]) on course grades. At the study site, an independent college, the research problem was the lack of research on the proportions of undergraduate students who completed a statistics course as part of their academic program, in either OL or…

  12. Who Gets What? The Distribution of Government Subsidies for Post-Secondary Education in Canada. Canadian Higher Education Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alex

    2004-01-01

    This study is one part of a two-part inquiry into subsidies for post-secondary education in Canada. Governments in Canada spend over $4 billion each year in transfers to individuals for the purpose of post-secondary education. Roughly half of this money goes out in need-based loans and grants, while the other half goes in "universal" benefits to…

  13. Post-Secondary Distance Education in a Contemporary Colonial Context: Experiences of Students in a Rural First Nation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jesse; Burton, Kevin; Lockhart, Emily; O'Donnell, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Post-secondary distance education gives students and their families living in remote and rural regions the option to stay in their communities while they study instead of moving closer to the universities in cities. Post-secondary distance education is an option in many rural and remote First Nation (Indigenous) communities in Canada; however…

  14. Faculty Employment at 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xiangmin

    2010-01-01

    We examine the variation in employment levels of part-time faculty, full-time teaching faculty, and full-time professorial faculty across 4-year colleges and universities in the United States. Employment structures and practices in higher education institutions are determined by a variety of economic and institutional factors. For example, a 1%…

  15. (The Evolution of) Post-Secondary Education: A Computational Model and Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Ortmann; : Sergey Slobodyan

    2008-01-01

    We propose a computational model to study (the evolution of) post-secondary education. “Consumers” who differ in quality shop around for desirable colleges or universities. “Firms” that differ in quality signal the availability of their services to desirable students. As long as they have capacity, colleges and universities make offers to students, who apply and qualify. Our model generalizes an earlier literature (namely, Vriend 1995) in an important dimension: quality, the model confirms ke...

  16. (The Evolution of) Post-Secondary Education: A Computational Model and Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Ortmann; : Sergey Slobodyan; Nordberg, Samuel S.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a computational model to study (the evolution of) post-secondary education. "Consumer" who differ in quality shop around for desirable colleges or universities. "Firm" that differ in quality signal the availability of their services to desirable students. Colleges and universities, as long as they have capacity, make offers to students who apply and qualify. We study the dynamics and asymptotics for three nested variants of this matching model: the first variant replicates the Vrie...

  17. Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

  18. Exploring the Alignment between Post-Secondary Education Programs and Earnings: An Examination of 2005 Ontario Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Kristyn; Walters, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence that field of study and level of post-secondary education have on the earnings of recent graduates in Ontario. Graduates of trades, community college, and university programs are compared. Results suggest that graduates of applied and technical programs obtain higher earnings within two years of graduation than…

  19. Post-Secondary Foreign Language Teachers' Belief Systems about Language Teaching/Learning and Technology/Teaching with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kazue

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have demonstrated the advantages of using computer technology in foreign language classrooms, many post-secondary foreign language (FL) teachers still remain reluctant to use technology in instruction. Even when teachers do use technology, critiques have indicated that it is oftentimes used merely to replicate traditional…

  20. The Story behind the Science: Bringing Science and Scientists to Life in Post-Secondary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    With funding from the United States National Science Foundation, 30 historical short stories designed to teach science content and draw students' attention to the nature of science (NOS) have been created for post-secondary introductory astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics courses. The project rationale, story development and…

  1. Perceived Factors Influencing Post-Secondary Enrollment and Economic Stability of Single and Married Mothers in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Rosenthal, Angelina M.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the perceived factors that influenced the decisions of single and married mothers to enroll or not enroll in post-secondary education. The study then investigated the relationship between educational level and income for single mothers in Utah. From a survey of 1197 Utah mothers, this study concluded that mothers enroll in…

  2. Post-Secondary Students' Relationship to People They Consider to Be Scientific Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2011-03-01

    This article is situated in contemporary debates about the ways to achieve a scientific literacy that encourages a greater lay participation in public debates and political decision making. Drawing on the notion of "relationship to scientific experts" (in French, "rapport aux experts scientifiques"), I explore the ways in which a group of 3 Quebec post-secondary students describe the relationships they hold toward people whom they consider to be scientific experts, as revealed during a project in which they investigated the controversy surrounding cellular telephone use. To this end, I scrutinize how the members of the group go about describing scientific experts and picture a prospective face-to-face discussion with a scientific expert. The data come from a case study (conducted over a 15-week period). The findings show that the group maintains a relationship of intimidation by scientific experts, in which the latter are depicted in terms of their knowledge and qualifications. Accordingly, the group was overawed not only by the accumulation of knowledge held and produced by scientific experts but also by the latter's research experience and the high social recognition they occasionally enjoyed. Similarly, the group describes a prospective face-to-face discussion with a doctor or a researcher in terms of an impersonal, intimidating encounter during which its members' learning and comprehension in relation to the controversy are assumed to be unequal to the task. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed.

  3. Science dual enrollment: An examination of high school students' post-secondary aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Chelsia

    The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in science dual enrollment courses influenced African American high school students' post-secondary aspirations that will lead to college attendance. The investigation examined the relationship between African American students' learning experiences and how their self-efficacy and outcome expectations impact their goal setting. The goal was to determine the impact of the following variables on African American students' plan to pursue a bachelor's or advanced degree: (a) STEM exposure, (b) Algebra 1 achievement, (c) level of science class, and (d) receiving science college credit for dual enrollment course. The social cognitive career theory framed this body of research to explore how career and academic interests mature, are developed, and are translated into action. Science dual enrollment participation is a strategy for addressing the lack of African American presence in the STEM fields. The causal comparative ex post facto research design was used in this quantitative study. The researcher performed the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric analysis of variance and Pearson's chi-square tests to analyze secondary data from the High School Longitudinal Study first follow-up student questionnaire. The results indicate that STEM exposure and early success in Algebra 1 have a statistically significant impact on African American students' ambition to pursue a bachelor's or advanced degree. According to the Pearson's chi-square and independent sample Kruskal-Wallis analyses, level of students' science class and receiving college credit for dual enrollment do not significantly influence African American students' postsecondary aspirations.

  4. Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: What Role for Financial Aid Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Belley, Philippe; Frenette, Marc; Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income - post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Youth in Transition Survey. We estimate substantially smaller PS attendance gaps by parental income in Cana...

  5. Teaching, Learning, and Collaborating in the Cloud: Applications of Cloud Computing for Educators in Post-Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lynn S.; Roche, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing" refers to the use of computing resources on the Internet instead of on individual personal computers. The field is expanding and has significant potential value for educators. This is discussed with a focus on four main functions: file storage, file synchronization, document creation, and collaboration--each of which has…

  6. Social Inequalities of Post-Secondary Educational Aspirations: Influence of Social Background, School Composition and Institutional Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupriez, Vincent; Monseur, Christian; van Campenhoudt, Maud; Lafontaine, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    The first goal of this article is to assess, for each country belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the influence of pupils' sociocultural background on educational aspirations. The second goal is to explore whether, after controlling for educational achievement, the residual influence of sociocultural…

  7. Girls in Science and Technology in Secondary and Post-Secondary Education: The Case of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Based on surveys undertaken by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (France's National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies) and by the Direction de l'évaluation de la prospective et de la performance (Directorate of Evaluation, Forecasting and Performance), this article examines the evolution of…

  8. Transfer Credit Assessment: A Survey of Institutional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Assessing credits that transfer students bring to an institution may require a significant amount of institutional resources. The increased mobility of students among post-secondary institutions in British Columbia (BC), and the need to ensure efficient admission processes for both the student and the institution, makes transfer credit assessment…

  9. The Copyright Modernization Act: A Guide for Post-Secondary Instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Soper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In November 2012, the educational provisions of the Copyright Modernization Act were proclaimed in force,thereby introducing a number of significant changes to the Canadian Copyright Act. These changes includethe expansion of fair dealing to include the purpose of education, the addition of new educational exceptionsfor the online transmission of lessons and the use of work freely available through the internet, and a numberof amendments that make existing educational exceptions more technologically accommodating. This paperconsiders the significance of these changes for post-secondary instructors, first contextualizing the changes inrelation to recent fair dealing jurisprudence, and then considering their significance for everyday instructionalpractice. Drawing on influential court decisions and the commentary of academics and lawyers, the paper notonly describes how the changes to the Copyright Act have expanded the rights and exceptions available toinstructors, but also identifies a number of unresolved questions about how the changes should be applied inpractice. Despite these areas of uncertainty, the paper concludes that the changes bode well for post-secondaryinstructors, as they relax many long-standing restrictions around the use of copyrighted works for educationalpurposes.En novembre 2012, les dispositions éducatives de la Loi sur la modernisation du droit d’auteur ont étéproclamées avec force. Elles apportaient un certain nombre de changements significatifs à la Loi du Canadasur le droit d’auteur. Ces changements comprennent l’élargissement de l’utilisation équitable pour y inclure lebut de l’éducation, l’addition de nouvelles exceptions éducatives pour la transmission de leçons en ligne etl’utilisation de travaux disponibles à volonté sur internet, ainsi qu’un certain nombre de modifications auxexceptions éducatives existantes qui tiennent davantage compte de la technologie. Cet article examine

  10. Investing for the Future: Post-Secondary Education Issues and the Canadian Federal Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Policy Institute (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    On October 14, 2008, Canadians will travel to the polls for the 40th Canadian General Election--only two years since the 2006 election which brought the Conservative Government to power. In preparation for the election, the Educational Policy Institute (EPI) is publishing a series of election-related papers, including an overview of the top…

  11. An Investigation of Academic Writing in International Students in Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causarano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Writing and the power of the written word is a very important aspect of our literate society and writing is integrated into all aspects of our daily life. Good writing skills are paramount in social and educational institutions where textual production and related writing activities represent the main framework for knowledge production and…

  12. Minnesota's Post-Secondary Education Enrollment Data. Basic Data Series, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Higher Education Services Office, St. Paul.

    This report provides data on enrollments in Minnesota postsecondary institutions. It has four parts: (1) five-year summaries, which includes total headcount, full-time and part-time, male and female, and new entering student enrollments; (2) residence, including county, state, and foreign country; (3) distribution by year of high school…

  13. Preferential Policies and Ethnic Differences in Post-Secondary Education in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Peng Liew, Hui

    2005-01-01

    In this study we use the second wave of the Malaysian family life survey conducted in 1988-1989 to examine the effects of the national economic policy (NEP) instituted by the Malaysian government in 1971 to promote educational opportunities of hitherto disadvantaged ethnic Malays. The analysis focuses on the probability of entering post-secondary…

  14. Three (Post-Secondary Agricultural Education and Training) Challenges and the Concept of "Workforce Education Systems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, William M.

    2008-01-01

    The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) of the Africa Union's New Partnership for Africa's Development (AU/NEPAD), the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), in collaboration with the University of KwaZulu-Natal, held in January 2008, a conference on the subject of "Convergence between Social Service…

  15. (ReInserting The Subjective “I” : Globalization, Neo-Liberalism & Student Agency In Post-Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah DesRoches

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, post-secondary education is being reduced to instrumental and economic ends; a significant effect of this is that student agency is undermined. Students are incited to perform neo-liberal values that subvert their willingness (and potentially their ability to think of their post-secondary experience as anything other than professional training. Neo-liberal values do inhibit individuality and agency within a post-secondary context; however, from a Foucaultian perspective, the dominant discourse can never squelch the possibility of alternative discourses from emerging, thereby unhinging the seemingly cemented reality described above. In the first section of this paper, I will provide a theoretical overview of globalization, its relationship to neo-liberalism and how these have impacted post-secondary education. This overview will enable me to consider a very specific example of how neo-liberal ideology is being manifested in post-secondary classrooms: namely, the reluctance of pre-service teachers to use the first person singular pronoun in their research papers.De plus en plus, l'éducation post-secondaire est réduite à une fin instrumentale et économique. Un effet important de cette instrumentalisation est que la capacité d'agent (agency des étudiants est compromise. Les élèves sont incités à adopter des valeurs néo-libérales qui mettent en échec leur volonté (et potentiellement leur capacité de penser leur expérience post-secondaire comme autre chose qu'une formation professionnelle. Dans ce contexte post-secondaire, les valeurs néo-libérales refoulent l'individualité et la capacité d'agent; mais dans une perspective foucaldienne, le discours dominant n’est jamais figé, les discours alternatifs permettant de lever l'emprise d'une réalité qui peut apparaître cimenté. Dans la première section de cet article, je vais brosser un aperçu théorique de la mondialisation et de sa relation

  16. Factors Students Use in Choosing to Attend Church of Christ Institutions of Higher Education when Students Have No Affiliation with the Church of Christ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Choosing a post-secondary institution to further one's education is a significant decision in a person's life. Throughout the past three decades, the issue of college choice has been researched. Much of this research has dealt with factors that influence student choice. While the research on how and why students choose a post-secondary institution…

  17. The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canadian Post-Secondary Mathematics: 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard S. Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Published accounts of pedagogical experience and pedagogical research are critical resources to postsecondarymathematics instructors, and yet the quantity and scope of this literature is rarely summarized orreviewed. In this contribution, we analyze recent peer-reviewed journal publications regarding post-secondarymathematics, published by Canadian scholars. We classified this scholarship by institution, publication year,type of pedagogical scholarship, and by topic. We highlight topics of continual interest, changing trends intime and newly emerging themes. This review therefore provides a benchmark of current scholarship in thisimportant area, as well as a point of comparison for similar data from other countries, and other disciplines.Les comptes rendus publiés sur les expériences pédagogiques et la recherche sur la pédagogie sont desressources essentielles pour les enseignants de mathématiques au niveau postsecondaire. Pourtant, la quantitéet la portée de cette documentation font rarement l’objet de résumés ou d’analyses. Dans cet article, nousanalysons les publications récentes de chercheurs canadiens sur les mathématiques au niveau postsecondaire,qui ont paru dans des revues révisées par les pairs. Nous avons classé ces publications par établissement, annéede publication, type de recherche et sujet. Nous mettons en lumière les sujets d’intérêt constant, les tendancesen évolution au fil du temps et les thèmes émergents. Cette recension constitue donc une référence sur lesrecherches universitaires actuelles dans ce domaine important ainsi qu’un point de comparaison pour desdonnées similaires provenant d’autres pays et d’autres disciplines.

  18. New Faculty Experience in Times of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Michelle; Bennett, Deb; McNichol, Jane Stoneman; Merkley, Cari

    2015-01-01

    Many post-secondary institutions in Canada over the past decade have made the transition from college to university status. The researchers on this team were hired in the midst of such a transition at one western Canadian institution. As new faculty we were navigating the normal tides of adjusting to a new faculty position, but our induction…

  19. Post-Secondary Education in the South Pacific: Present Patterns and Future Options. Educational Development in the Small States of the Commonwealth Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Ron; Crocombe, Marjorie Tuainekore

    This book contains the results of a study examining post-secondary education in the South Pacific by surveying the number of educational opportunities currently offered, by analyzing key trends, and by comparing developments in the Cook Islands and the Solomon Islands. Following an introductory section on terminology and the region, the first main…

  20. Making the connection: The role of social and academic school experiences in students' emotional engagement with school in post-secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Elffers; F.J. Oort; S. Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the emotional engagement with school of a diverse sample of 909 students in post-secondary vocational education in the Netherlands. Using multilevel regression analysis, we assess the role of students' background characteristics and school experiences, and their interaction, in s

  1. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  2. Crossing the Special-General Education Divide at the Post-Secondary Level: Observations and Outcomes of Co-Teaching across Curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Talya

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONCrossing the Special-General Education Divide at the Post-Secondary Level:Observations and Outcomes of Co-Teaching across CurriculaByTalya Louise DrescherDoctor of Philosophy in Special EducationUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2015California State University, Los Angeles, 2015Professor Sandra Graham, ChairThis dissertation contains two case studies aimed at expanding the body of literature on the topic of collaborative teaching in pre-service education progr...

  3. The Effectiveness of Alcohol Policies in 4-Year Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Gayle T.

    2010-01-01

    A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public…

  4. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  5. Developing an Empirical Test of the Impact of Vouchers on Elasticity of Demand for Post-Secondary Education and on the Financing of Higher Education; and Economic Efficiency in Post-Secondary Education. Final Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jan N.; And Others

    Two separate NIE research projects in higher education, closely related in substance and complementary, were undertaken in Oregon in 1973-75. During the first year, the objectives were to: (1) compute and analyze various configurations of student schooling costs and financial resources according to institutional type and to student sex and…

  6. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling Zhu; Feng Li; Junli Wang; Lixiao Shen; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-...

  7. Effects of Diversity Experiences on Critical Thinking Skills over 4 Years of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Martin, Georgianna L.; Hanson, Jana M.; Trolian, Teniell L.; Gillig, Benjamin; Blaich, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of student engagement in diversity experiences on a range of college outcomes have been well documented. However, the potential influence of involvement in diversity experiences during college on the cognitive and intellectual outcomes of post-secondary education is only beginning to be understood. Gurin et al. (2002) made a…

  8. Perlite exposure and 4-year change in lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatli, M; Erdinç, M; Erdinç, E; Okyay, E

    2001-07-01

    Perlite is a volcanic glass or amorphous aluminium silicate composed of 71-75% SiO(2). When heated to 800-1100 degrees C, it expands to form processed perlite, which has a low density, high surface area, and a low thermal conductivity. The objective was to determine the effect of perlite exposure on pulmonary function tests. Pulmonary function tests in conjunction with chest radiogram were carried out in 36 perlite-exposed workers and 22 unexposed office workers in 1992 and 1996. Respirable dust level exceeded permissible dust levels in work places in the 4 years under study. Transfer coefficient (K(CO)) decline was significant in nonsmoker perlite-exposed workers (n=9), and found to be 5.28+/-0.71 (predicted 4.32+/-0.11) and 3.84+/-0.96 (predicted 4.18+/-0.18) 1/min/mmHg, in 1992 and 1996, respectively (Pperlite workers and office workers showed significant obstruction to airflow in small airways with respect to predicted values and 4-year change in transfer factor (T(L), CO) was significant. Although predicted, 12-year perlite exposure did not lead to a decrease in mean pulmonary function test parameters, there was a tendency to a decline in T(L), CO in the 4-year study period, which may be due to high perlite dust levels. As early effects of perlite dust exposure may not be detected by spirometric measurements alone, the transfer coefficient should be added to spirometry.

  9. The Sociolinguistic Competence of Former Immersion Students at the Post-Secondary Level: The Case of Lexical Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehner, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines two sociolinguistic lexical variables, "work" and "to dwell," in the spoken French of former immersion students in their first or fourth year at a bilingual university in Ontario, Canada. Their patterns of use are compared to those of non-immersion graduates in the same institution, to Ontario high school immersion students, to…

  10. A's for Everyone: The Effect of Student Consumerism in the Post-Secondary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    With millennial students as the primary population in many higher education institutions today, many instructors are experiencing a paradigm shift of behaviors they are observing in their classroom. Many educators are observing today's students failing to take personal responsibility for their educational endeavors and in turn viewing their…

  11. A Multi-Institutional Study of the Impact of Open Textbook Adoption on the Learning Outcomes of Post-Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lane; Hilton, John, III; Robinson, T. Jared; Wiley, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In some educational settings, the cost of textbooks approaches or even exceeds the cost of tuition. Given limited resources, it is important to better understand the impacts of free open educational resources (OER) on student outcomes. Utilizing digital resources such as OER can substantially reduce costs for students. The purpose of this study…

  12. 美国中等后教育学分转换:政策、制度和保障机制%Credit Transfer of Post-secondary Education in the USA: Policy, System and Assurance Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉静; 程宇

    2015-01-01

    The USA has established a convenient and flexible credit transfer system for students characterized by smooth mobility of leaners. The system was guided by relative laws, policies and financial assistance for students of the Federal Government, and it also has the system carriers of statewide articulation policies, common course numbering system, common prerequisites, general education requirements and the articulation agreements among post-secondary education institutes. Optimal higher education quality evaluation mechanism, students advising and service system and the coordinating institutes widely participated by stakeholders are the key assurance mechanism of the system.%经过多年的改革发展,美国建立了以学习者无障碍流动为特征的便捷、灵活的学生学分转换体系.这一体系以美国联邦政府的法律、政策支持和学生经费资助为引导,以州政府的衔接政策(通常是州衔接协议)、共同课程编码体系、共同课业要求、通识教育要求和院校间的合作协议等为制度载体.完善的高等教育质量评估认证机制、学生咨询和服务体系以及利益相关者广泛参与的协调机构又为其实施提供了有效保障.

  13. Higher Education Institutional and Program Evaluations in Taiwan and the Emerging Roles of Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Wei, Yen-Shun; Wang, Li-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Post-secondary education institutions in Taiwan are divided into two tracks, general higher education (HE) and technological and vocational education (TVE). The evaluation of all universities/colleges is mandated by the University Act. Higher education institutions receive mandated institutional evaluation every six years and program evaluation…

  14. Deciphering Primary and Popular Literature: An Interactive Approach for Promoting Students’ Development of Scientific, Digital, and Information Literacy in Post-Secondary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy M. Cleveland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an era of unprecedented scientific and technological advancement, it is imperative that individuals possess the ability to interpret and make meaning of current scientific phenomena, including those of both national and global importance.  Despite this necessity, research suggests that less than 30% of Americans are able to understand the science section of the New York Times or other popular media resources.  In this paper, we present an interactive approach utilizing primary and popular literature that is designed to: a enhance students’ understanding of science content; b promote students’ ability to make use of evidence to support or reject claims regarding controversial science topics; and c improve students’ oral and written communication skills.  Applications for use in post-secondary classrooms are discussed.

  15. The National Practitioner Data Bank: the first 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshel, R E; Croft, T; Rodak, J

    1995-01-01

    The National Practitioner Data Bank became operational September 1, 1990, as a flagging system to identify health care practitioners who may have been involved in incidents of medical incompetence. Query volumes have grown substantially over the Data Bank's first 4 years of operation. The greatest increase has come in the number of voluntary queries. By the end of 1994, the Data Bank had processed more than 4.5 million requests for information on practitioners, more than 1.5 million of which were received in 1994 alone. The proportion of queries for which the Data Bank contains information on the practitioner in question has grown as the Data Bank has come to contain more reports. During 1994, 7.9 percent of queries were matched. The Data Bank contained more than 97,500 reports at the end of 1994. More than 82 percent of the reports concerned malpractice payments. Licensure reports made up the bulk of the rest. Physicians predominate in reports, accounting for slightly more than 76 percent of the total. The remainder are related to dentists (16 percent) and all other types of practitioners (8 percent). Since reporting of adverse actions is mandatory only for physicians and dentists, the proportion of reports attributable to these types of practitioners is higher than it would be if adverse action reporting requirements were uniform for all practitioners. State malpractice payment rates and adverse action rates vary widely, but a State's rate in any given year is highly correlated with its rate in any other year. State malpractice rates are not strongly correlated with adverse action rates, neither are the rates for physicians strongly correlated with those for dentists. There is a weak tendency for States with smaller physician populations to have higher levels of licensure and privileging actions.

  16. An Analysis of Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education Vocational Technical Education Framework for Culinary Arts and Its Effectiveness on Students Enrolled in Post-Secondary Culinary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Albert S.

    2011-01-01

    This field-based action research practicum investigated how students who have completed culinary training programs in Massachusetts public secondary schools perform in post-secondary coursework. The Department of Elementary and Secondary Education has developed the Vocational Technical Education (VTE) Framework for Culinary Arts that outlines…

  17. Effects of single-gender mathematics classrooms on self-perception of mathematical ability and post secondary engineering paths: an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, D.; Jacobs, B.

    2010-08-01

    This study focused on a population of female engineering students, probing the influences of their secondary school experience on their choice to pursue an engineering course of study at university. The motivating question is: Do unique opportunities exist in an all-female secondary school mathematics classroom, which impact a young woman's self-perception of her mathematics ability as well as promote a positive path towards an engineering-based university major? Using both qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments, this study examined a sample of Australian engineering students enrolled at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). Demographic statistics show that 40% of UTS' female engineering student population attended a single-gender secondary school, indicating a potential influence of school type (single-gender) on engineering enrolment patterns. Female students were primarily motivated to pursue a post secondary engineering path because of a self-belief that they are good at mathematics. In contrast, male students were more influenced by positive male role models of family members who are practising engineers. In measures of self- perception of mathematical skill and ability, female students from single-gender schools outscored their male engineering counterparts. Additionally, female students seem to benefit from verbal encouragement, contextualisation, same gender problem-solving groups and same gender classroom dynamics.

  18. Cosmetology. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Michael D.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to offer guidelines along with supporting resources and teaching ideas from which the local postsecondary instructor can extract a cosmetology curriculum that meets local needs. Following an outline of the philosophy and goals underlying state and local vocational education programs in Georgia, the purpose and…

  19. Qualitative Insights from a Canadian Multi-Institutional Research Study: In Search of Meaningful E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine M.; Salyers, Vince; Myers, Sue; Hipfner, Carol; Hoffart, Caroline; MacLean, Christa; White, Kathy; Matus, Theresa; Forssman, Vivian; Barrett, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the qualitative findings of a mixed methods research study conducted at three Canadian post-secondary institutions. Called the Meaningful E-learning or MEL project, the study was an exploration of the teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students as well as their perceptions of the benefits and challenges of…

  20. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Collegiate Cognitive Gains: A Multilevel Analysis of Institutional Influences on Learning and Its Equitable Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, Heather; Ready, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous studies have examined racial/ethnic inequalities in collegiate student outcomes, serious attention to disparities in post-secondary student learning has emerged only recently. Using a national sample of 35,000 college seniors and 250 diverse institutions from the Collegiate Learning Assessment, this study investigates the role of…

  1. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  2. Measuring post-secondary stem majors' engagement in sustainability: The creation, assessment, and validation of an instrument for sustainability curricula evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David L., II

    Ongoing changes in values, pedagogy, and curriculum concerning sustainability education necessitate that strong curricular elements are identified in sustainability education. However, quantitative research in sustainability education is largely undeveloped or relies on outdated instruments. In part, this is because no widespread quantitative instrument for measuring related educational outcomes has been developed for the field, though their development is pivotal for future efforts in sustainability education related to STEM majors. This research study details the creation, evaluation, and validation of an instrument -- the STEM Sustainability Engagement Instrument (STEMSEI) -- designed to measure sustainability engagement in post-secondary STEM majors. The study was conducted in three phases, using qualitative methods in phase 1, a concurrent mixed methods design in phase 2, and a sequential mixed methods design in phase 3. The STEMSEI was able to successfully predict statistically significant differences in the sample (n= 1017) that were predicted by prior research in environmental education. The STEMSEI also revealed statistically significant differences between STEM majors' sustainability engagement with a large effect size (.203 ≤ eta2 ≤ .211). As hypothesized, statistically significant differences were found on the environmental scales across gender and present religion. With respect to gender, self-perceived measures of emotional engagement with environmental sustainability was higher with females while males had higher measures in cognitive engagement with respect to knowing information related to environmental sustainability. With respect to present religion, self-perceived measures of general engagement and emotional engagement in environmental sustainability were higher for non-Christians as compared to Christians. On the economic scales, statistically significant differences were found across gender. Specifically, measures of males' self

  3. International whole body counter intercomparison based on BOMAB phantom simulating 4 years old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1993 a whole body counter intercomparison campaign, The 1993 Intercomparison/Intercalibration, started. The campaign has been organized by The Canadian National Reference Centre for In-Vivo Monitoring of Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada and The United States Department of Energy and it was based on measurements on a BOMAB type phantom simulating a 4 years old child. The phantom was filled with radioactive tissue substitute resin and an unknown quantity of radioactivity. Each facility was asked to determine the identity and amount of the radionuclide(s), knowing that the specific activity in the 10 BOMAB's sections was the same. Each facility was also asked to calculate the minimum detectable activity of all the radionuclides detected in the phantom. 35 Facilities from 20 different Countries took part in the initiative. The Institute for Radiation Protection of the Environment Department of ENEA (ENEA AMB IRP) represented Italy. Intercomparison results supplied by ENEA AMB IRP as radionuclides identification, activity data and associated precision, minimum detectable activity levels, can be considered satisfactory and comparable with results supplied by similar-facilities

  4. Facial esthetics in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate 3 years after alveolar bonegrafting combined with rhinoplasty between 2 and 4 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offert, B.; Janiszewska-Olszowska, J.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Brudnicki, A.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate facial esthetics in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) after alveolar bone grafting combined with rhinoplasty between 2 and 4 years of age. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: The Department of Pediatric Surgery, Institute of Mother and Child,

  5. Facial esthetics in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate 3 years after alveolar bonegrafting combined with rhinoplasty between 2 and 4 years of age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offert, B.; Janiszewska-Olszowska, J.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Brudnicki, A.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate facial esthetics in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) after alveolar bone grafting combined with rhinoplasty between 2 and 4 years of age. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: The Department of Pediatric Surgery, Institute of Mother and Child,

  6. Faculty Perceptions of Factors Affecting Faculty Attrition and Retention at 4-Year Public Colleges and Universities in One Southern North American State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, Denton W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of faculty at selected 4-year public colleges and universities in the state of Georgia regarding factors that would influence them to leave or remain at their respective institutions. This study uses a quantitative descriptive design, utilizing an online survey with 20 intrinsic and…

  7. Inverse Planned High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Cervical Cancer: 4-Year Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinkle, Christopher L.; Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chen, Lee-May [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Littell, Ramey [Gynecologic Oncology, The Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, California (United States); Cunha, J. Adam M.; Sethi, Rajni A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chan, John K. [Gynecologic Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I-Chow, E-mail: ichow.hsu@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of image guided brachytherapy using inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From December 2003 through September 2009, 111 patients with primary cervical cancer were treated definitively with IPSA-planned HDRB boost (28 Gy in 4 fractions) after external radiation at our institution. We performed a retrospective review of our experience using image guided brachytherapy. Of the patients, 70% had a tumor size >4 cm, 38% had regional nodal disease, and 15% had clinically evident distant metastasis, including nonregional nodal disease, at the time of diagnosis. Surgical staging involving pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 15% of patients, and 93% received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Toxicities are reported according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 guidelines. Results: With a median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 3-84 months), no acute or late toxicities of grade 4 or higher were observed, and grade 3 toxicities (both acute and late) developed in 8 patients (1 constitutional, 1 hematologic, 2 genitourinary, 4 gastrointestinal). The 4-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of late grade 3 toxicity was 8%. Local recurrence developed in 5 patients (4 to 9 months after HDRB), regional recurrence in 3 (6, 16, and 72 months after HDRB), and locoregional recurrence in 1 (4 months after HDR boost). The 4-year estimates of local, locoregional, and distant control of disease were 94.0%, 91.9%, and 69.1%, respectively. The overall and disease-free survival rates at 4 years were 64.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] of 54%-73%) and 61.0% (95% CI, 51%-70%), respectively. Conclusions: Definitive radiation by use of inverse planned HDRB boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is well tolerated and achieves excellent local control of disease. However, overall

  8. Shifting gears higher - digital slides in graduate education - 4 years experience at Semmelweis University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnár Béla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spreading of whole slide imaging or digital slide systems in pathology as an innovative technique seems to be unstoppable. Successful introduction of digital slides in education has played a crucial role to reach this level of acceptance. Practically speaking there is no university institute where digital materials are not built into pathology education. At the 1st. Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University optical microscopes have been replaced and for four years only digital slides have been used in education. The aim of this paper is to summarize our experiences gathered with the installation of a fully digitized histology lab for graduate education. Methods We have installed a digital histology lab with 40 PCs, two slide servers - one for internal use and one with external internet access. We have digitized hundreds of slides and after 4 years we use a set of 126 slides during the pathology course. A Student satisfaction questionnaire and a Tutor satisfaction questionnaire have been designed, both to be completed voluntarily to have feed back from the users. The page load statistics of the external slide server were evaluated. Results The digital histology lab served ~900 students and ~1600 hours of histology practice. The questionnaires revealed high satisfaction with digital slides. The results also emphasize the importance of the tutors' attitude towards digital microscopy as a factor influencing the students' satisfaction. The constantly growing number of page downloads from the external server confirms this satisfaction and the acceptance of digital slides. Conclusions We are confident, and have showed as well, that digital slides have got numerous advantages over optical slides and are more suitable in education.

  9. An Examination of the Influence of Institutional Context on Student Persistence at 4-Year Colleges and Universities: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.

    2004-01-01

    Using constructs from Bean's (1990) [In: D. Hossler and J. P. Bean (Eds.), The strategic management of college enrollments. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass] student attrition model and the Berger and Milem (2000) [In: J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. XV, pp. 268?338). New York: Agathon Press] college impact…

  10. The Importance and Interest of Introductory Psychology Textbook Topics: Student Opinions at Technical College, 2-, and 4-Year Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Lee I.; Immel, Kathy R.; Kadah-Ammeter, Tammy L.; Adelson, Sarah K.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory psychology students at a technical college, 2-year community college, and a regional university rated how important textbook chapters or topics were to them now and in the future and how interesting they were. Importance and interest ratings were highly correlated, and the whole course was rated of greater importance and interest than…

  11. [A continuous 4-year evaluation of medical informatics education in a graduate school of health sciences using a questionnaire survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzen, Satoru; Matsutani, Hideya; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of awareness among undergraduate students regarding medical informatics and to ascertain whether educational training has progressed with time in the Department of Health Sciences at Hirosaki University, Japan, which is a co-medical staff training institution that conducts a 4-year university course in medical informatics. The university accepts students who have completed the 3rd grade of medical licensing tests and who have attended the medical informatics lectures for 4 years (2007-2010). The ratio of first sight terminology percentage in any given fiscal year in all the 30 terminology categories varied widely from 0% to 80%, but the trend in various categories did not vary between fiscal years. The terminology of informatics under medical technology students obtained high scores of 52.5-77.3% after attending courses, which was higher compared with students from other classes. On the other hand, student nurses and occupational therapy students obtained 0-44.2%. Each class scored a high percentage of correct answers in the medical information-related terminology. Among the radiology students who attended the classes, the percentage of correct answers in categories of "digital imaging and communication in medicine" and "picture archiving and communication system" were lower than other medical terminology categories. These results reflect the gaps in educational curriculum of 1st and 2nd grades of medical licensing tests.

  12. [A continuous 4-year evaluation of medical informatics education in a graduate school of health sciences using a questionnaire survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzen, Satoru; Matsutani, Hideya; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of awareness among undergraduate students regarding medical informatics and to ascertain whether educational training has progressed with time in the Department of Health Sciences at Hirosaki University, Japan, which is a co-medical staff training institution that conducts a 4-year university course in medical informatics. The university accepts students who have completed the 3rd grade of medical licensing tests and who have attended the medical informatics lectures for 4 years (2007-2010). The ratio of first sight terminology percentage in any given fiscal year in all the 30 terminology categories varied widely from 0% to 80%, but the trend in various categories did not vary between fiscal years. The terminology of informatics under medical technology students obtained high scores of 52.5-77.3% after attending courses, which was higher compared with students from other classes. On the other hand, student nurses and occupational therapy students obtained 0-44.2%. Each class scored a high percentage of correct answers in the medical information-related terminology. Among the radiology students who attended the classes, the percentage of correct answers in categories of "digital imaging and communication in medicine" and "picture archiving and communication system" were lower than other medical terminology categories. These results reflect the gaps in educational curriculum of 1st and 2nd grades of medical licensing tests. PMID:23358336

  13. Government Letter of Expectations between the Minister of Advanced Education (as Representative of the Government of British Columbia) and the Chair of the Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design, April 1, 2008-March 31, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Every year, the ministry writes to the public post-secondary institutions outlining operating budget allocations, service delivery targets and priority issues. The letters are a component of ministry planning, as identified in the accountability framework. Goals and objectives are identified in the annual ministry service plan. Each institution…

  14. It unfolded quite wonderfully: a history of the Certificate in Conflict Resolution at the Justice Institute of British Columbia 1983–1993

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Nym Annie-Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The Certificate in Conflict Resolution based at the Justice Institute of British Columbia was a manifestation of a North American conflict resolution movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Its location in a justice and public safety training institution facilitated its emergence and its first decade was marked by exponential growth. This study makes visible the theoretical and contextual bases of this first Canadian post-secondary conflict resolution educational program. A narrative research approa...

  15. Improving Student Interest, Mathematical Skills, and Future Success through Implementation of Novel Mathematics Bridge Course for High School Seniors and Post-secondary Students

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Derek; Richgels, Glen; Wolf, Marty J.; Frauenholtz, Todd; Hougen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    We present a new course titled “Introduction to the Mathematical Sciences.” The course content is 1/3 algebra, 1/3 statistics, and 1/3 computer science and is taught in a laboratory environment on computers. The course pedagogy departs radically from traditional mathematics courses taught in the U.S. and makes extensive use of spreadsheet software to teach algebraic and statistical concepts. The course is currently offered in area high schools and two-year postsecondary institutions with fina...

  16. Preventing and Responding to Bullying: An Elementary School's 4-Year Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormac, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a pervasive problem in schools and requires a schoolwide approach. This article describes the action research process used to examine the impact of a 4-year, K-5 school bullying prevention and intervention. The school counselors collaborated with students, staff, and parents to implement the program, and collected and…

  17. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J R; Van Oven, M W; Helder-Woolderink, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years afte

  18. Vowel Confusion Patterns in Adults during Initial 4 Years of Implant Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaalimaa, Taina T.; Sorri, Martti J.; Laitakari, Jaakko; Sivonen, Ville; Muhli, Arto

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated adult cochlear implant users' (n == 39) vowel recognition and confusions by an open-set syllable test during 4 years of implant use, in a prospective repeated-measures design. Subjects' responses were coded for phoneme errors and estimated by the generalized mixed model. Improvement in overall vowel recognition was highest…

  19. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 4-year-old girl associated with alimemazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maldegem, Bianca T; Smit, Leo M E; Touw, Daan J; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2002-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but serious disorder caused by antipsychotic medication including phenothiazines. For sedative purposes, increasing doses of alimemazine were administered to a 4-year-old multiple handicapped girl, with cerebral damage of the basal ganglia.

  20. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  1. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  2. [Multiloculated mesenteric and retroperitoneal tumour - lymphatic malformation - in a 4-year-old girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowicz, Anna; Łoboda, Magdalena; Madziara, Wojciech; Jarecka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare and mostly benign abdominal tumours in children. Majority of them are lymphangiomas (lymphatic malformations). We diagnosed a broad, multiloculated mesenteric and retroperitoneal cyst, associated with intensive inflammation, in a 4-year-old girl. Surgical therapy was fully successful.

  3. Psychosocial health of 4-year-old boys and girls, as observed by parents and teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    Both parents and teachers assessed the psychosocial health of 228 4-year-old children at the start of elementary school in the Netherlands. Assessments were conducted using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL; ages 1 1/2-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF; ages 1 1/2-5). Results were co

  4. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: 4-Year Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coelho Okida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is one of the main causes of dental erosion. The aim of this case presented is to describe the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with GERD after 4 years of followup. A 33-year-old male patient complained about tooth sensitivity. The lingual surface of the maxillary anterior teeth and the cusps of the upper and lower posterior teeth presented wear. It was suspected that the feeling of heartburn reported by the patient associated with the intake of sports supplements (isotonics was causing gastroesophageal changes. The patient was referred to a gastroenterologist and was diagnosed with GERD. Dental treatment was performed with metal-free crowns and porcelain veneers after medical treatment of the disease. With the change in eating habits, the treatment of GERD and lithium disilicate ceramics provided excellent cosmetic results after 4 years and the patient reported satisfaction with the treatment.

  5. Fixed prosthetics over implant-tooth support – survival rate over 4 years of follow up

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovski, Bruno; Cvetanovska-Stojchevska, Daniela; Bundalevska-Aleksandrovska, Ana; Minovska, Ana; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Long – term survival rate of bridges over implants is the goal of the implant therapy. Often fixed bridges are supported by combination of natural teeth and implants. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to check the survival rate of the prosthetics over combination of natural teeth and implants comparing to fixed prosthetics over natural teeth within 4 years of follow up. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The patients were divided into 2 groups. The implant group of 20 patients with 32 implants were pla...

  6. Predicting reading and spelling disorders: a 4-year prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the ch...

  7. Intrathyroidal thymic tissue mimicking a malignant thyroid nodule in a 4-year-old child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Woo; Kim, Gou Young; Shim, Kye Shik [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intrathyroidal thymic tissue is rare and may be confused with a malignant thyroid nodule because of hyperechoic dots mimicking calcifications. We report the case of a thyroid nodule with malignant ultrasonographic findings in a 4-year-old child, which was confirmed cytologically as ectopic thymic tissue. The sonographic findings of ectopic thymus were similar to those of the thymus; therefore, clinicians should be familiar with ultrasonography findings of normal thymic tissue.

  8. Hyperlexia in a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, K; Lorch, Marjorie P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and a mental age of approximately 1:5 who demonstrates precocious oral-reading behaviour in the absence of spontaneous speech. Tests of reading regular and irregular words, pseudowords, homographic heterophones, single sentences and texts were carried out. Performance on a variety of reading tasks suggests the ability to use grapheme–phoneme correspondences and whole word reading for decoding...

  9. Changes in Health Care Spending and Quality 4 Years into Global Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Rose, Sherri; Safran, Dana G.; Landon, Bruce E.; Day, Matthew P.; Chernew, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spending and quality under global budgets remain unknown beyond 2 years. We evaluated spending and quality measures during the first 4 years of the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Alternative Quality Contract (AQC). METHODS We compared spending and quality among enrollees whose physician organizations entered the AQC from 2009 through 2012 with those among persons in control states. We studied spending changes according to year, category of service, site of care, experience managing risk contracts, and price versus utilization. We evaluated process and outcome quality. RESULTS In the 2009 AQC cohort, medical spending on claims grew an average of $62.21 per enrollee per quarter less than it did in the control cohort over the 4-year period (P<0.001). This amount is equivalent to a 6.8% savings when calculated as a proportion of the average post-AQC spending level in the 2009 AQC cohort. Analogously, the 2010, 2011, and 2012 cohorts had average savings of 8.8% (P<0.001), 9.1% (P<0.001), and 5.8% (P = 0.04), respectively, by the end of 2012. Claims savings were concentrated in the outpatient-facility setting and in procedures, imaging, and tests, explained by both reduced prices and reduced utilization. Claims savings were exceeded by incentive payments to providers during the period from 2009 through 2011 but exceeded incentive payments in 2012, generating net savings. Improvements in quality among AQC cohorts generally exceeded those seen elsewhere in New England and nationally. CONCLUSIONS As compared with similar populations in other states, Massachusetts AQC enrollees had lower spending growth and generally greater quality improvements after 4 years. Although other factors in Massachusetts may have contributed, particularly in the later part of the study period, global budget contracts with quality incentives may encourage changes in practice patterns that help reduce spending and improve quality. (Funded by the Commonwealth Fund and others

  10. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis.

  11. A 4-year-old boy with post-traumatic winging of the scapula

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Arani; Parepalli, Srinivas; Pande, Suchandra

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 4-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with acute post-traumatic winging of right scapula following a fall onto his back. The x-ray of his right shoulder showed no fracture. An MRI Scan of cervical spine and brachial plexus did not reveal any abnormalities. He was managed conservatively with regular physiotherapy. At 2 years follow-up, there was no improvement in the winging of his right scapula. He was asymptomatic at rest but complains of p...

  12. Pubic louse (Pthirus pubis) infestation of the scalp in a 4-years old infant

    OpenAIRE

    Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARYThe pubic or crab louse (Pthirus pubis), is a parasitic insect spending its entire life on human hair and feeding exclusively on blood. Humans are the only known host of this parasite. Pubic lice usually infest a new host by close contact between individuals, making sexual contacts among adults and parent child interactions the more likely routes of infestation. We report the case of a 4-year old male child, who was complaining from pruritus on the head area and around the eyes for sev...

  13. A pelvic mass with obstructive uropathy in a 4-year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Malaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic Echinococcosis is endemic in middle- East it may present in different sites mostly liver, but children show atypical signs in uncommon sites. A 4 years old boy presents with urinary retention, his imaging demonstrates a 6cm cystic mass displaced and compressed bladder outlet during survey another asymptomatic cyst found in chest but his liver was not involved. Retroperitoneal Cystic Echinococcosis is a rare event especially in children if present with urinary obstruction it may be due to rectum penetration and dislodged to lymphatic drainage head to chest. Cyst growth rapidity rate is 2-3 cm/year as our study.

  14. The effectiveness of physical education of the military academy cadets during a 4-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Lela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The main role of physical education is health and educational practices of cadets and all-round personality development. Instruction executing is successful only when the set requirements are realized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of physical education in order to rise physical capabilities of the Military Academy cadets during a 4-year education. Methods. The study was conducted in the Military Academy, Belgrade. A total of 120 cadets who at the beginning of the study were 19 years ± 6 months and at the end 23 years ± 6 months were included in this study. The study used the following tests for verification and assessment of physical fitness: pull-ups, lifting the trunk from the ground, standing long jump seats, running at 1,600 m and overcoming the infantry obstacles. The data were analyzed using statistical programs to calculate the central and dispersion parameters. The difference in the achieved results in the individual variables were evaluated by the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA, while the differences in the system variables by region were identified by the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and discriminant analysis. The group membership was determined using profile analysis. Results. There were statistically significant differences in all the tests to evaluate the effectiveness of physical education during a 4-year study, except in the standing long jump test. The best average results in motor capabilities tests, were achieved after two years of study, while in the endurance tests showed the best results achieved at the end of a 4-years studying. Conclusion. The results of overcoming specific tests for the physical abilities of the Military Academy cadets show that the physical education curriculum only slightly improves the development of physical skills of cadets during a 4-year study. The existing program shows the best results in the pull-ups test of the ground troops, and

  15. Nocardia brasiliensis infection mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a 4-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Nitin; Adib, Navid; Grimwood, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes that cause pneumonia and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. They can also cause localized cutaneous and soft tissue infections in healthy people after direct percutaneous inoculation. Nocardia arthritis is rare in both forms of the disease. Here we present the first published case of a child with septic arthritis caused by N brasiliensis. Importantly, this otherwise well 4-year-old girl had no known history of trauma but presented with transient cutaneous lesions and a 6-week history of arthritis involving the right fourth digit proximal interphalangeal joint without accompanying fever or raised systemic inflammatory markers. She received a diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and underwent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant therapy. After 2 months she developed frank septic arthritis, which necessitated a surgical joint washout, from which an intraoperative swab grew N brasiliensis. The patient received 6 months of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and remains well more than 4 years after treatment. This unusual case highlights the importance of considering an indolent infection from slow-growing organisms, including Nocardia, when diagnosing the oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is especially relevant when a single joint is involved and response to antiinflammatory therapy is suboptimal because antiinflammatory agents may mask evolving signs of infection.

  16. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  17. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  18. The 4 year stability of psychopathic traits in non-referred youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Kimonis, Eva R; Dandreaux, Danielle M; Farell, Jamie M

    2003-01-01

    One significant limitation in research extending the construct of psychopathy to youth has been the absence of longitudinal studies testing the stability of psychopathic traits prior to adulthood. To begin to address this limitation, the current study estimated the stability of psychopathic traits over a 4 year period in a sample of non-referred children in the third, fourth, sixth, and seventh grades at the first assessment. For parent ratings of psychopathic traits, stability estimates using intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.80 to 0.88 across 2-4 years, with a stability estimate of 0.93 across all four assessments. There were also distinct trends in the patterns of stability found in the sample. Specifically, children rated as being initially high on these traits were more likely to be rated lower at later assessments than was the case for children rated initially low on these traits. Finally, the child's level of conduct problems, the socioeconomic status of the child's family, and the quality of parenting the child received were the most consistent predictors of stability of psychopathic traits. PMID:14696028

  19. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children's early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children's responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children's awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children's DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children's early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  20. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eKristen-Antonow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness towards social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self recognition (MSR and delayed self recognition (DSR. Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze towards social partners during the still-face task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness towards a social partner in the still-face task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness towards being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness towards the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self.

  1. Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matet A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Matet,1,2 Nawel Amar,1,2 Saddek Mohand-Said,1–4 José-Alain Sahel,1–7 Pierre-Olivier Barale1,2 1INSERM and DHOS, CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, 2Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6, Institut de la Vision, 3INSERM, 4CNRS, Paris, France; 5Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK; 6Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 7Académie des Sciences, Institut de France, Paris, France Introduction: The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case. Methods: The purpose of this study is to describe the 4-year outcomes of this modified procedure in three subjects who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation. Clinical data consisting of intraocular pressure measurements and tolerance in terms of conjunctival erosion or inflammation were retrospectively assessed over a 4-year postoperative follow-up. Results: None of the three patients implanted with the modified technique developed ocular hypotony over 4 years. A normal, transient conjunctival inflammation occurred during the first postoperative month but conjunctival erosion was not observed in any of the three patients over 4 years. Four years after implantation, the autogenous temporalis fascia graft remained well tolerated and the retinal prosthesis was functional in all three patients. Conclusion: The combination of an

  2. Electronic Technology. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappe, Hoyt; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides a model for a postsecondary electronic technology program. It is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 overviews the philosophy, purpose, and goals for vocational education in Georgia. Contents of section 2 include a definition of the guide's purpose and program objective. Section 3 describes the occupational field,…

  3. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145

  4. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications. PMID:24736219

  5. LOCAL RECURRENCE OF TUBULOCYSTIC CARCINOMA 4 YEARS AFTER RENAL RESECTION (A CLINICAL OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Peters

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of a local recurrence of tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC in a 46-year-old man, a relatively good course (the relapse occurred after 4 years, who has been successfully operated on and is being followed up. This disease is a rare renal malignancy and, until recently, it has been referred to as collecting tubular carcinoma. However, this disease has come to be regarded as an independent nosological entity, by taking into account its certain morphological, immunohistohemical, and cytogenetic characteristics, as well as the nature of its course. About 80 TCC cases have been described to date. Further study of this disease and other rare renal malignancies will allow the more accurate elaboration of management tactics for such patients in terms of certain prognostic factors, which calls for a larger number of cases of this disease.

  6. A Review and Report of Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a 4-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Nekouei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral giant cell granuloma is a common benign and reactive gingival epulis in oral cavity. It is often difficult to make a clinical diagnosis; thereby definitive diagnosis depends on histopathologic features. We report a case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy presenting with a five-month history a 20 × 15 × 12 mm pedunculated, lobular soft tissue mass of the left anterior maxilla gingiva which was misdiagnosed and maltreated before his referral. An excisional biopsy of the lesion followed by histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen revealed distinctive features of peripheral giant cell granuloma. Early detection and excision of this hyperplastic nodule especially in children are important to minimize potential dentoalveolar complications.

  7. Cerebral candidiasis in a 4-year-old boy after intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral candidiasis is a devastating disease which contributes to a high mortality. Most of the cerebral candidiasis are never microbiologically or radiologically confirmed. In this case, a 4-year-old boy who developed cerebral candidiasis was successfully rescued and presented. The diagnosis of cerebral candidiasis was established based on both microbiologic and radiologic examinations. The pathogen was revealed to be Candida albicans by cerebrospinal fluid and central venous catheter cultures, and the cerebral involvement was recorded by series head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an appearance of special encephalitis demonstrated. The imaging studies played a critical role throughout the diagnosis and treatment. Familiarity with the imaging findings in the appropriate clinical setting may result in a heightened level of awareness of this infection and, consequently, in earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiane Cestari Fagundes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found.

  9. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications.

  10. Conjunctival lymphangioma in a 4-year-old girl revealed tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiberg, Florentina Joyce

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To present a case of conjunctival lymphangioma in a girl with tuberous sclerosis complex.Methods/results: A 4-year-old girl presented with a relapsing cystic lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva in the right eye with string-of-pearl-like dilation of lymphatic vessels and right-sided facial swelling with mild pain. Best-corrected vision was not impaired. Examination of the skin revealed three hypomelanotic macules and a lumbal Shagreen patch. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings displayed minimal enhancement of buccal fat on the right side. Cranial and orbital MRI showed signal enhancement in the right cortical and subcortical areas. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous deletion encompassing exon 1 and 2 of the gene (tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene, confirming the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex.Conclusion: In conjunctival lymphangioma, tuberous sclerosis complex should be considered as the primary disease.

  11. Microperimetric Assessment after Epiretinal Membrane Surgery: 4-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dal Vecchio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate retinal function using microperimetry in patients affected by idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM and cataract who underwent combined surgery: 4-year follow-up. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. 30 eyes of 30 consecutive patients with iERM and age-related cataract underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. At baseline, 90 and 180 days, and 1 and 4 years, we examined retinal mean sensitivity (MS, retinal mean defect (MD, fixation stability, and frequency of microscotomas using MP1 microperimetry. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT were also performed. Results. All patients completed 1-year follow-up, while 23 patients reached last follow-up. Baseline MS and MD (10.48 ± 4.17 and −9.18 ± 4.40 dB significantly changed at one year (12.33 ± 3.66 and −7.49 ± 3.31 dB, p<0.01, at four years (14.18 ± 3.46 and −4.66 ± 2.85, p<0.01, and between one and four years (p<0.01 after surgery. Compared to baseline, CRT and BCVA significantly changed at one year and remained stable at four years. No variations were observed in fixation stability and frequency of microscotomas compared to baseline. Conclusions. Long-term follow-up using microperimetry seems useful to evaluate patients after iERM surgery: retinal sensitivity changes even when BCVA and CRT remain stable.

  12. Microperimetric Assessment after Epiretinal Membrane Surgery: 4-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Vecchio, Marco; Lavia, Carlo; Nassisi, Marco; Grignolo, Federico M; Fea, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate retinal function using microperimetry in patients affected by idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) and cataract who underwent combined surgery: 4-year follow-up. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. 30 eyes of 30 consecutive patients with iERM and age-related cataract underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. At baseline, 90 and 180 days, and 1 and 4 years, we examined retinal mean sensitivity (MS), retinal mean defect (MD), fixation stability, and frequency of microscotomas using MP1 microperimetry. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were also performed. Results. All patients completed 1-year follow-up, while 23 patients reached last follow-up. Baseline MS and MD (10.48 ± 4.17 and -9.18 ± 4.40 dB) significantly changed at one year (12.33 ± 3.66 and -7.49 ± 3.31 dB, p < 0.01), at four years (14.18 ± 3.46 and -4.66 ± 2.85, p < 0.01), and between one and four years (p < 0.01) after surgery. Compared to baseline, CRT and BCVA significantly changed at one year and remained stable at four years. No variations were observed in fixation stability and frequency of microscotomas compared to baseline. Conclusions. Long-term follow-up using microperimetry seems useful to evaluate patients after iERM surgery: retinal sensitivity changes even when BCVA and CRT remain stable. PMID:27088008

  13. Long-term exercise in older adults: 4-year outcomes of music-based multitask training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hars, Mélany; Herrmann, François R; Fielding, Roger A; Reid, Kieran F; Rizzoli, René; Trombetti, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Prospective controlled evidence supporting the efficacy of long-term exercise to prevent physical decline and reduce falls in old age is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the effects of long-term music-based multitask exercise (i.e., Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics) on physical function and fall risk in older adults. A 3-year follow-up extension of a 1-year randomized controlled trial (NCT01107288) was conducted in Geneva (Switzerland), in which 134 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years at increased risk of falls received a 6-month music-based multitask exercise program. Four years following original trial enrolment, 52 subjects (baseline mean ± SD age, 75 ± 8 years) who (i) have maintained exercise program participation through the 4-year follow-up visit ("long-term intervention group", n = 23) or (ii) have discontinued participation following original trial completion ("control group", n = 29) were studied. They were reassessed in a blind fashion, using the same procedures as at baseline. At 4 years, linear mixed-effects models showed significant gait (gait speed, P = 0.006) and balance (one-legged stance time, P = 0.015) improvements in the long-term intervention group, compared with the control group. Also, long-term intervention subjects did better on Timed Up & Go, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand and handgrip strength tests, than controls (P music-based multitask exercise program is a promising strategy to prevent age-related physical decline in older adults. They also highlight the efficacy of sustained long-term adherence to exercise for falls prevention. PMID:25148876

  14. Survival and psychosocial adjustment to stoma surgery and nonstoma bowel resection: a 4-year follow-up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Knippenberg, F.C.E. van; Dulmen, A.M. van; Borne, H.W. van den; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van

    1997-01-01

    A prospective 4-year follow-up study was conducted to compare the psychosocial adjustment process and survival rate of 59 stoma patients with 64 bowel-resected nonstoma patients. Adjustment was assessed at 4 months, 1 year, and 4 years after surgery by the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale

  15. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Prins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years after a laparoscopic hysterectomy using a morcellation device. Postoperative histological analysis, compromised by morcellated tissue, showed benign myoma. Because of the benign tumour no follow-up was performed. The patient presented now with an abdominal tumour, and she was scheduled for surgical removal of the tumour. During abdominal surgery the tumour appeared malignant and biopsies were taken. Histological analysis showed leiomyosarcoma, and the patient was referred to a third care centre for further treatment. The patient recovered quickly after abdominal removal of the tumour; however, after 7 months the patient had complaints and a CT scan showed a large intra-abdominal tumour with possible lung metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy and died after 10 months. Conclusion. This case shows that although unexpected after a hysterectomy, a leiomyosarcoma has to be considered in case of a suspect tumour in the lower abdomen.

  16. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, J R; Van Oven, M W; Helder-Woolderink, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years after a laparoscopic hysterectomy using a morcellation device. Postoperative histological analysis, compromised by morcellated tissue, showed benign myoma. Because of the benign tumour no follow-up was performed. The patient presented now with an abdominal tumour, and she was scheduled for surgical removal of the tumour. During abdominal surgery the tumour appeared malignant and biopsies were taken. Histological analysis showed leiomyosarcoma, and the patient was referred to a third care centre for further treatment. The patient recovered quickly after abdominal removal of the tumour; however, after 7 months the patient had complaints and a CT scan showed a large intra-abdominal tumour with possible lung metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy and died after 10 months. Conclusion. This case shows that although unexpected after a hysterectomy, a leiomyosarcoma has to be considered in case of a suspect tumour in the lower abdomen. PMID:26491585

  17. A 4-year study of invasive and native spider populations in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Elizabeth M.; Porter, Adam H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Bednarski, Julie V.; Houser, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Invasive spiders pose potential threats to native spiders. In 2002, the European spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) was discovered in all but one county in Maine. At Acadia National Park, we conducted a 4-year study of L. triangularis and three native linyphiid species of a similar size (Frontinella communis (Hentz, 1850), Pityohyphantes subarcticus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1943, and Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1842)). Using line-transect surveys, we measured population densities in coastal and forest habitat. The density of L. triangularis varied across years but was always significantly higher on the coast than in the forest. In contrast, only one native species was present on the coast and at very low numbers. Coastal L. triangularis were larger and in better condition than those in the forest, and numbers and biomass of insect prey were also higher on the coast. In 2 years, we also conducted transects at a second coastal location in Maine where the invader was at low density. At that site, native densities were substantially higher than at either Acadia site. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that L. triangularis is reducing populations of native spiders. Companion studies suggest that L. triangularis negatively impacts natives by usurping both web sites and webs.

  18. Dietary Patterns in Children Aged 2-4 years and Its Impact on Dietary Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeida Alejo Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of nutritional status in children is essential since this stage is characterized by rapid growth and development and acquisition of eating habits that will last for a lifetime. Objective: to determine the dietary patterns in children aged 2-4 years from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos and their impact on the nutritional status and dietary adequacy. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 87 patients from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos, who underwent a nutritional assessment using anthropometric variables: weight for height and height for age. A survey of eating behaviors and another of 24 hours dietary recall were administered and processed through the CERES program. Results: all patients showed normal height, 82.75 % of children were classified as eutrophic, 4.60 % were obese and 3.45 % malnourished. Fried foods and bad eating habits in relation to consumption of vegetables predominated in the diet; most of the children received an excess of the recommended nutrients. Conclusion: there are deficiencies in eating behaviours. Diet is a matter of concern due to the high intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; iron intake was critical in most children.

  19. Traumatic ventricular septal defect in a 4-year-old boy after blunt chest injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD resulting from blunt chest injury is a very rare event. The mechanisms of traumatic VSD have been of little concern to dateuntil now, but two dominant theories have been described. In one, the rupture occurs due to acute compression of the heart; in the other, it is due to myocardial infarction of the septum. The clinical symptoms and timing of presentation are variable, so appropriate diagnosis can be difficult or delayed. Closure of traumatic VSD has been based on a combination of heart failure symptoms, hemodynamics, and defect size. Here, we present a case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with a traumatic VSD following a car accident. He showed normal cardiac structure at the time of injury, but after 8 days, his repeated echocardiography revealed a VSD. He was successfully treated by surgical closure of the VSD, and has been doing well up to the present. This report suggests that the clinician should pay great close attention to the patients injured by blunt chest trauma, keeping in mind the possibility of cardiac injury.

  20. Performance of the SCUBA-2 dry dilution refrigerator: 4 years of operation at the JCMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintley, Dan; Kuroda, John T.; Starman, Erik G.; Craig, Simon; Holland, Wayne S.

    2012-09-01

    Cryogen free or ‘dry’ dilution refrigerators that integrate a cryocooler such as a two stage pulse tube to replace the conventional liquid helium bath and 1K pot, have become a practical alternative for cooling astronomical detectors to mK temperatures and offer many advantages. SCUBA-2, the new submillimetre camera in operation at the JCMT, on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, was one of the first instruments to use such a fridge design. The dry dilution fridge for SCUBA-2 has now been in service for almost 4 years during commissioning at JCMT. In the most recent astronomical commissioning phase, the dilution fridge was in continuous operation for 10 months with no loss of base temperature or cooling power, cooling the SCUBA-2 detector arrays to below 100mK while maintaining a further 100Kg of enclosure, shields and SQUID amplifiers at 1K. In this paper we review some of the lessons from operating a dry dilution fridge at the JCMT and the necessary changes that have been incorporated. We present the performance of the fridge and discus its role in ensuring the success of SCUBA-2.

  1. Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 4-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghandehari-Motlagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO is defined as a benign odontogenic tumor with slow growing behavior. Its prevalence is rare. AFO is characterized by histologic features of ameloblastic fibroma (AF with the formation of enamel and dentine. Case Presentation This is a case report of AFO accompanied with a number of impacted deciduous teeth and its management in a 4-year old boy. Examination of oral cavity revealed an extensive swelling from midline to left deciduous maxillary first molar, covered with normal mucosa. Radiographic examination showed a well-defined mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion that extended horizontally from midline to mesial border of the left maxillary primary first molar and vertically from alveolar crest to the floor of nose. The differential diagnosis was odontoma (ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, complex odontoma. Surgical enucleation and curettage was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic sections show bone trabeculae in marrow spaces. There was myxoid matrix in some spaces which contained odontogenic epithelial cells. These findings led to diagnosis of AFO. No sign of recurrence has been observed during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion Although AFO is a rare tumor, it is more prevalent in childrenʼs jaw. Conservative surgical treatment allowed the normal development of teeth.

  2. Occasional detection of thymic epithelial tumor 4 years after diagnosis of adult onset Still disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Caruso, Andrea; Valli, Riccardo; Ricchetti, Tommaso; Sgarbi, Giorgio; Salvarani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Thymoma is a T cell neoplasm arising from the thymic epithelium that due to its immunological role, frequently undercover derangements of immunity such a tumors and autoimmune diseases. Methods: Herein, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of an association between thymoma and adult onset Still disease (AOSD) in a 47-year-old man. The first one was occasionally detected 4 years later the diagnosis of AOSD, and surgically removed via right lateral thoracotomy. Histology confirmed an encapsulated thymic tumor (type AB sec. WHO-classification). Results: The AOSD was particularly resistant to the therapy, requiring a combination of immunosuppressant followed by anti-IL1R, that was the only steroids-sparing treatment capable to induce and maintain the remission. The differential diagnosis was particularly challenging because of the severe myasthenic-like symptoms that, with normal laboratory tests, were initially misinterpreted as fibromyalgia. The pathogenic link of this association could be a thymus escape of autoreactive T lymphocytes causing autoimmunity. Conclusion: Clinicians should be always include the possibility of a thymoma in the differential diagnosis of an unusual new onset of weakness and normal laboratories data, in particular once autoimmune disease is present in the medical history. PMID:27603335

  3. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue--past reliability--the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access--was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony.

  4. Nordic Nuclear Safety Research 1994 - 2008: From standardized 4-year classics to customized R and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a presentation of NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), its work and achievements in the years 1994 - 2008, during which the author served as Nordic secretary and (later) as coordinator. NKS and the Nordic perspective are briefly introduced together with the NKS support structure, organization and administration: Owners, Board, Nordic secretary, Bureau and Secretariat. The author then embarks on a journey through the modern history of NKS work. The last two of the six fixed 4-year programs are described as regards planning, contents, project work, administration, dissemination of results, evaluations and conclusions. The trip continues to the land of R and B and the present (2011) structure of two general frameworks, namely, NKS-R: reactor safety, and NKS-B: emergency preparedness; each consisting of a set of flexible activities; hence, R and B. The reasoning behind this makeover is touched upon together with the new organization and simpler administration that developed. Major activities and the produced results are introduced and the evaluations summarized. The author's own conclusions and recommendations are followed by a short and subjective list of references. In a number of appendices some important background material has been compiled: bullet point versions of minutes of Owners Group and Board meetings; economic contributions and budgets; the NKS policy document; an overview of all NKS programs and evaluations; lists of R and B activities and funding; the author's personal remarks; a list of some NKS documents (other than technical reports and minutes); and a list of acronyms used in this report. (Author)

  5. The psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Feitosa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The clinical examination was conducted by a single examiner in order to select children with severe caries and caries-free (kappa = 1. Of the 861 children examined, 77 (8.1% had severe caries and 225 (23.6% were caries-free. Data were collected by applying validated questionnaires answered by the parents or guardians. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries reported that their children complained of toothache (72.7%, and a significant portion stated that their children had problems eating certain kinds of food (49.4% and missed school (26.0% because of their teeth. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries (68.8% stated that oral health affects their children's life, while the same was stated by 9.8% of the parents or guardians of the caries-free children. Severe caries was found to have a negative impact on children's oral health-related quality of life.

  6. Unbundling Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Daron Acemoglu; Simon Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the importance of property rights institutions', which protect citizens against expropriation by the government and powerful elites, and contracting institutions', which enable private contracts between citizens. We exploit exogenous variation in both types of institutions driven by colonial history, and document strong first-stage relationships between property rights institutions and the determinants of European colonization (settler mortality and population density bef...

  7. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  8. Confucius Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Confucius Institute(simplified Chinese:孔子学院;traditional Chinese:孔子學院;pinyin:kǒngzǐ xuéyuàn)is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes.

  9. Guide for the preparation of proposals for faculty development projects in energy education, 1980. I. Summer workshops: 4-year college, community college, and 2-year postsecondary technical education teachers. II. Summer workshops: high school teachers. III. In-service workshops: elementary teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A program announcement to support Faculty Development Projects in Energy is presented. The project supported will include summer or in-service workshops for groups of teachers conducted by the grantee institution and staffed by faculty or others selected for their appropriate expertise. Eligible organizations include any accredited 4-year college, university, community college, or 2-year postsecondary technical institution.

  10. [Correction of psychophysical development of preschool children 3-4 year old with movement disorders by means of Bobath therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhovets, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the definition of efficiency application means Bobath therapy as main correction psychophysical development method of preschool age 3 -4 years children, who have movement disorders.

  11. Evolution of T1 black holes in patients with multiple sclerosis imaged monthly for 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Francesca; Jeffries, Neal; Richert, Nancy D; Stone, Roger D; Ohayon, Joan M; McFarland, Henry F; Frank, Joseph A

    2003-08-01

    T1 black holes (BHs) on MRIs may represent either areas of oedema or axonal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. BHs begin as contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) and evolve differently from patient to patient, and within the same patient over time. We analysed BHs formation over a 4-year period. Forty-eight monthly MRIs of nine non-treated multiple sclerosis patients were evaluated for numbers of CELs and BHs. A BH was defined as a hypointense lesion on a T1 pre-contrast image that coincided with a region of high signal intensity on the T2-weighted images. A BH was considered as acute (ABH) when it occurred coincidently with the presence of enhancement and as persisting (PBH) when present after the cessation of enhancement. The present study aimed to analyse: (i) the incidence of CELs and new PBHs, and the accumulation of PBHs; (ii) the relationship between the quantity of the CELs in a given month and the likelihood of accumulating PBHs in the subsequent month; and (iii) the relationship between the duration of CELs and PBHs. Pitman's correlation test evaluated the effect of time on either the increase of CELs and new PBHs or the accumulation of PBHs, while a multiple logistic regression analysis evaluated the relationship between progression of time and CELs, and the increase of PBHs in a multivariate model. The relationship between the enhancing lesions duration and the PBHs duration, or the time to revert back to an isointense lesion was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival models. PBHs accumulated (P formation of new PBHs increased in four patients (P or =2 monthly MRIs. The formation of a new PBH was found to be related to CELs activity; however, duration of PBHs is most likely a consequence of the duration of the enhancement. PMID:12821527

  12. Nordic Nuclear Safety Research 1994 - 2008: From standardized 4-year classics to customized R and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennerstedt, T.N.O. (TeknoTelje HB, Torhamn (Sweden))

    2011-10-15

    This is a presentation of NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), its work and achievements in the years 1994 - 2008, during which the author served as Nordic secretary and (later) as coordinator. NKS and the Nordic perspective are briefly introduced together with the NKS support structure, organization and administration: Owners, Board, Nordic secretary, Bureau and Secretariat. The author then embarks on a journey through the modern history of NKS work. The last two of the six fixed 4-year programs are described as regards planning, contents, project work, administration, dissemination of results, evaluations and conclusions. The trip continues to the land of R and B and the present (2011) structure of two general frameworks, namely, NKS-R: reactor safety, and NKS-B: emergency preparedness; each consisting of a set of flexible activities; hence, R and B. The reasoning behind this makeover is touched upon together with the new organization and simpler administration that developed. Major activities and the produced results are introduced and the evaluations summarized. The author's own conclusions and recommendations are followed by a short and subjective list of references. In a number of appendices some important background material has been compiled: bullet point versions of minutes of Owners Group and Board meetings; economic contributions and budgets; the NKS policy document; an overview of all NKS programs and evaluations; lists of R and B activities and funding; the author's personal remarks; a list of some NKS documents (other than technical reports and minutes); and a list of acronyms used in this report. (Author)

  13. Foreign body ingestion in Iranian children: a 4 years observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amini-Ranjbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Foreign body ingestion is common in children due to playing with everything. This study was done to identify type, site, and complication, as well as knowledge about the state of foreign body ingestion in children in Kerman/Iran. Methods – In this prospective study, during 4 years, 85 children less than 14 years old presented to the Emergency Department of Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman were studied. All children, regardless of their clinical symptoms, underwent total radiography (from neck to Pelvic within the first hour of admission. In symptomatic patients, or sharp, long objects, and narcotic substances ingestion, prompt endoscopy was performed and in the case of foreign body lodging in the subglottic area, the patient was being referred to an ear, nose and throat specialist. For asymptomatic patients or far-access foreign body; lactulose, polyethylene glycol solution and high-fiber substances (for ingestion of diskette batteries, heroine and sharp objects respectively were administered as medical treatments. Asymptomatic subjects who had ingested sharp objects or narcotic substances were hospitalized and observed, but other cases were followed out patiently (by phone call or face to face observation. Results – Mean age of subjects was 3.7 years with no significant difference between the two sexes. Mean age was 3.7 year. The most frequent ingested foreign body was diskette battery (28.2% followed by coin (21.2%. The majority of subjects had no symptom (67%. the most frequent endoscopic location (21.8% was subglot. Most complications occurred after battery ingestion. Endoscopic intervention was required in 31.8% that mostly in cases with ingestion of organic substances (77.8% and coin (61.1%. There was a significant relationship between age and the type of foreign body (p=0.033 and its location (p= 0.012. Medical treatment was completely successful in 68.2%. There was no mortality. Conclusion – Manufacturing clockwork toys

  14. CO2 fluxes exchanged by a 4-year crop rotation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubinet, M.; Moureaux, C.; Bodson, B.; Dufranne, D.; Heinesch, B.; Suleau, M.; Vancutsem, F.; Vilret, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study analyses carbon fluxes exchanged by a production crop during a four year cycle. Between 2004 and 2008, the successive crops were sugar beet, winter wheat, potato and again winter wheat. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chamber, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Autotrophic Respiration, Heterotrophic Respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). The whole cycle budget showed that NEE was negative and the rotation behaved as a sink of 1.59 kgC m-2 over the 4-year rotation. However, if exports were deducted from the budget, the crop would become a small source of 0.22 (+/- 0.14) kgC m-2, which also suggests that the crop soil carbon content decreased. This could partly be explained by the crop management, as neither farmyard manure nor slurry had been applied to the crop for more than 10 years and as cereal straw had been systematically exported for livestock. This result is also strongly dependent on climate: the fluxes were subjected to a large inter-annual variability due to differences between crops but also to climate variability. In particular, the mild winter and the dry spring underwent in 2007 induced an increase of the biomass fraction that returned to the soil, at the expense of harvested biomass. If 2007 had been a ‘normal' year, the carbon emission by the crop rotation would have been twice as great. This is analysed more in detail in a companion presentation (Dufranne et al., this session). The impacts of some farmer interventions were quantified. In particular, the impact of ploughing was found to be limited both in intensity (1 to 2 micromol m-2 s-1) and duration (not more than 1 day). Seasonal budgets showed that, during cropping periods, the TER/GPP ratio varied between 40 and 60% and that TER was dominated mainly by the

  15. Forging Links for the Future: Secondary, Post-Secondary, and Business/Industry Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Northwest Regional Articulation Conference (Farmington, New Mexico, November 8-10, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan Coll., Farmington, NM.

    This report is a summary of presentations and recommendations made by representatives of area public school districts, postsecondary institutions, and businesses who met at San Juan College to engage in an extended discussion about the articulation of mathematics and language arts instruction at secondary and postsecondary institutions in…

  16. [4 years of Microbiología SEM (1994-1997)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Castellà, J

    1997-12-01

    Different aspects of Microbiología SEM editorial process over the years 1994-1997 are analyzed: number of originals received, the process leading to their publication, rates of accepted and refused papers, time needed for each step of the editorial process--which comprises scientific, language editing, if needed--, as well as some characteristics that can define the patterns of the articles, such as number of authors, institutions where the authors work and mean number of references. The contents of the different sections (editorial, research and review articles, perspectives, opinion, books review) are commented on, as well as the role played by some of them as forums for the discussion of topics of current scientific interest, especially the editorials focusing on the state-of-the-art of microbiological research in Latin American countries. Characteristics and frequency of monographic issues are also presented. The information is complemented with data about the circulation and distribution of the journal, its inclusion in international indexes and its current electronic publication on the world wide web.

  17. Collective Bargaining: Its Impact for Institutional Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Raymond N.

    Central Michigan University was the first single campus, 4-year institution of higher education in the United States to enter into a collective bargaining agreement with its faculty. This first agreement in 1969 was followed by a multiyear contract for the year 1971-74 which represented the first instance of a second successful contract in a…

  18. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  19. Cigarette Use among Young Adults: Comparisons between 2-Year College Students, 4-Year College Students, and Those Not in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen; Rode, Peter; Fabian, Lindsey; Bernat, Debra; Klein, Elizabeth; Forster, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine cigarette smoking among young adults based on education status. Participants: Community-based sample of 2,694 young adults in the United States Methods: The authors compared 3 groups--those not in college with no college degree, 2-year college students/graduates, 4-year college students/graduates--on various smoking measures:…

  20. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  1. Intradiscal injection of oxygen-ozone and intraforaminal steroid for the treatment of prolapsed intervertebral disc: 4 years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Karnalkar

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Intradiscal injection of O2-O3 and intraforaminal steroid is highly effective in relieving lower back pain in patients with lumbar disc herniation not responding to conservative therapy. There was significant clinical outcome even after 4 years. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3848-3852

  2. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples - association with IVF?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Derk B.; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Heineman, Maas J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle IVF/IC

  3. Different Executive Functions Support Different Kinds of Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Emma; Visser, Ingmar; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in cognitive flexibility during the preschool years have been linked to developments in both working memory and inhibitory control, though the precise contribution of each remains unclear. In the current study, one hundred and twenty 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds completed two rule-switching tasks. In one version, children switched rules in…

  4. Obesity and Developmental Functioning among Children Aged 2-4 Years. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #08-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, obesity tends to be associated with worse labor market outcomes. One possible reason is that obesity leads to less human capital formation early in life. This paper investigates the association between obesity and the developmental functioning of children at younger ages (2-4 years) than ever previously examined. Data from…

  5. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded wit

  6. Weaning initiation patterns and subsequent linear growth progression among children aged 2-4 years in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, S.S.; Hutter, I.; Willekens, F.J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Background Reliance on full breastfeeding alone for a longer time could have deleterious nutritional and health implications at later stages of children's lives. About 47% of children are weaned at age greater than or equal to6 months and more than 50% of children in India under 4 years are stunted.

  7. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  8. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  9. Institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiaud, Sylvain; Locatelli, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of institutional economics has gained increasing prominence in recent years, because standard economic explanations can often not come to grips with major contemporary policy issues, such as economic reform in affluent, but dysfunctional economies, the transformation of the failed socialist command economies and the governance problems of the new industrial economies. Institutional economists point out that rule systems matter greatly to explaining these problems and that insti...

  10. Determining the Effects of Pre-College STEM Contexts on STEM Major Choices in 4-Year Postsecondary Institutions Using Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahlam

    2013-01-01

    Many STEM studies have focused on traditional learning contexts, such as math- and science-related learning factors, as pre-college learning predictors for STEM major choices in colleges. Few studies have considered a progressive learning activity embedded within STEM contexts. This study chose computer-based learning activities in K-12 math…

  11. Changing trends of in vitro antimicrobial resistance patterns in blood isolates in a tertiary care hospital over a period of 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Multidrug-resistant organisms continue to be a problem for clinicians worldwide. AIMS: To analyze the changing trend of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in the blood isolates over a period of 4 years in our hospital. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study done in tertiary care cardiac institute over a period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed blood culture positive isolates and studied the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of microorganisms during the period starting from January 2007 to December 2010. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS for windows version 13.0. Fisher exact test or chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical variables. P values less than .05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The rate of blood culture positivity was 3.72%. Gram-negative bacteria were more common than Gram-positive bacteria. There was a gradual increase in Gram-negative bacteria especially Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter species. Klebsiella pneumoniae showed a significant increase of resistance to cefoperazone sulbactam (P = .023, piperacillin tazobactam (P < 0.001, imipenem (P < 0.001, and meropenem (P < 0.001 between the first (2007-2008 and second period (2009-2010 of study. The carbapenems resistance is on rise in Gram-negative bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a definite increase in the multidrug resistant organisms. The data on the changing trends in antibiotic resistance, we believe is an important pillar in our efforts at improving infection control practices.

  12. Retsmedicinsk Institut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers

    1996-01-01

    Retsmedicinsk Institut hører under Aarhus Universitet og har pligt til at undervise og forske, men adskiller sig fra andre institutter ved at have en omfattende virksomhed med rekvireret arbejde, idet Statsobducenturet for Nørrejylland er henlagt til instituttet. Professoren, som også er statsobd......Retsmedicinsk Institut hører under Aarhus Universitet og har pligt til at undervise og forske, men adskiller sig fra andre institutter ved at have en omfattende virksomhed med rekvireret arbejde, idet Statsobducenturet for Nørrejylland er henlagt til instituttet. Professoren, som også er...... institut. De bygningsmæssige forhold er utidssvarende og medfører arbejdsmæssige og retssikkerhedsmæssige problemer, En snarlig udflytning er derfor nødvendig....

  13. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples--association with IVF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Derk B; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L; Roseboom, Tessa J; Heineman, Maas J; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle IVF/ICSI; and (iii) natural conception in subfertile couples. The rate of asthma medication was higher in the ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI than in the subfertile group (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 1.96 [1.00-3.84]). Time to pregnancy, a proxy for the severity of subfertility, was not associated with asthma and asthma medication. In conclusion, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI is associated with the use of asthma medication in 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples.

  14. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  15. Unimagined Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, Mikkel Bruun

    2007-01-01

    and methodology. Accordingly, it is suggested that scholars from the humanities in particular aggressively seek to develop new types of research institutions and methods in order to deal with the manifold forms of overlap between warfare and aesthetics. In empirical terms, focus is limited to the current......In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment...

  16. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately......, as such a setup transfers power from the board to the owners. Presumably, this reduces the impact of free rider and collective action problems, and increases the shareholders’ inclination to make proposals, which is also what we find. Theoretical/Academic Implications: We contribute to literature by investigating...

  17. Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Tobey; Dunkley, David M; Moroz, Molly

    2015-10-01

    This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists' vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term. PMID:26191980

  18. Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Tobey; Dunkley, David M; Moroz, Molly

    2015-10-01

    This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists' vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term.

  19. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  20. INSTITUTIONS MATTER

    OpenAIRE

    .

    1994-01-01

    Successful development policy entails an understanding of the dynamics of economic change if the policies pursued are to have the desired consequences. And a dynamic model of economic change entails as an integral part of that model analysis of the polity since it is the polity that specifies and enforces the formal rules. While we are still some distance from having such a model the structure that is evolving in the new institutional economics, even though incomplete, suggests radically diff...

  1. Refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity at 3-4 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Li-Juan; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xin-Ke; Liu, Qin; Fang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Shi, Hui; Tang, Ling; Pi, Lian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3-4 years old, and to explore the influence of prematurity and ROP on the refractive status and optical components. Methods: Premature babies receiving fundus examination were recruited into ROP group and non-ROP group, with age-matched full-term babies as controls. Results: The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP (3/59, 5.08%). The incidence of a...

  2. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P.; Barros, Fernando C; Cesar G Victora

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (63...

  3. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Prados, Concepcion [University Hospital La Paz, La Paz Hospital Research Institute, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Albi, Gustavo [Nino de Jesus Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Rayon-Aledo, Jose Carlos; Caballero, Paloma [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Giron, Rosa [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1} %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV{sub 1} and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  4. Dental pain and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Goiânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Galvão Chaves Lemes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of dental pain and associated factors in 2-4-year-old children in Goiânia (GO. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using home interviews with parents or guardians and anthropometric measures. The sample consisted of 385 children from 2 to 4 years old. The variables analyzed were: dental pain sometime in their lives, and demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors (health condition, diet, nutritional status and behavior. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were performed, based on a hierarchical model for risk assessment, considering the sample weights. RESULTS: Dental pain prevalence was 9.9% (95%CI 7.4 - 13.1. After adjustment for other variables, children whose mothers had low education level and those who regularly consumed artificial powder juice containing sugar were more likely to have dental pain (OR = 3.03 and 2.15, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that one in ten children had dental pain, and the prevalence was associated with low education level of the mother and the regular consumption of artificial powder juice.

  5. Medication compliance and comorbid substance abuse in schizophrenia: impact on community survival 4 years after a relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Glenn E; Bergen, Jenny; Bashir, Marie

    2002-04-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of medication compliance and substance abuse on 4 year outcome in 99 patients following a relapse of schizophrenia. Univariate survival analysis revealed longer community tenure in patients if they were over the age of 35 years, not admitted 2 years prior to the index episode, remained medication compliant and did not abuse substances during the follow-up interval. Comparisons between patients grouped according to medication compliance and current substance abuse indicated that those patients who regularly took their medication but also abused substances were readmitted to hospital sooner (median survival, 10 months) compared to compliant patients who did not use substances (37 months). For noncompliant patients, time to first readmission was shorter for patients with a dual diagnosis (5 months) compared to patients with a singular diagnosis of schizophrenia (10 months). Over the 4 year period, noncompliant patients with a dual diagnosis (n=28) accounted for 57% of all hospital readmissions for the cohort and averaged 1.5 admissions per patient year. These data indicate that much of the benefit that antipsychotic medication has on increasing community survival is reduced by substance abuse. This interval is further reduced in patients who are both substance abusers and noncompliant with medication resulting in a revolving door situation of frequent hospital admissions. Integrated treatment programs which address these issues are likely to reduce the need for hospital readmission in patients with a dual diagnosis. PMID:11950550

  6. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV1 and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  7. On the Cutting Edge: Movements and Institutional Examples of Technological Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Marjorie Roth; Price, Todd Alan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes technological disruptions in higher education that pose challenges and offer opportunities to college and university students, faculty, and administrators. It provides examples of innovative responses being explored by 2-year and 4-year higher education institutions.

  8. Institutional Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  9. Effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids on prevalence ofallergic diseases among 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Houman; Miyashita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Chen, Chi-Jen; Ito, Sachiko; Araki, Atsuko; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Ito, Yoichi M; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous chemicals extremely resistant and widespread throughout the environment, frequently being detected in human blood samples. Animal studies have revealed that exposure to PFAAs results in immunotoxicity. However, the association between PFAAs, especially long-chain PFAAs, and allergies in humans is not well established. We examined whether prenatal exposure to PFAAs is associated with allergic diseases among 4-year-old children in a large-scale prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan. In total, 1558 mother-child pairs were included in this study and prenatal levels of eleven PFAAs were measured in maternal plasma samples obtained between 28 and 32weeks of pregnancy by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Participant demographic and characteristic information were obtained from self-administered pre- and postnatal questionnaires and medical birth records. Infant allergies were assessed using the Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three questionnaire, which was administered 4years post-delivery. Symptoms included eczema, wheezing and rhinoconjunctivitis with a prevalence of 19.0%, 18.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. Associations of PFAA quartiles with allergic outcomes were examined using logistic models. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile (Q4 vs. Q1) for total allergic diseases (including at least one allergic outcome) significantly decreased for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDa) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.621; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.454, 0.847) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.712; 95% CI: 0.524, 0.966) in all children. We obtained similar results when examining the association between PFAAs and eczema. The adjusted OR (Q4 vs. Q1) for wheezing in relation to higher maternal PFHxS levels was 0.728 (95% CI: 0.497, 1.06) in all children. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to long

  10. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  11. Occlusal relationships and spacing or crowding of teeth in the dentitions of 3-4-year-old Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuyemi, O D; Sote, E O; Isiekwe, M C; Jones, S P

    1997-09-01

    A study of 525 3-4-year-old children in nursery schools and day-care centres was carried out to assess occlusal relationships and the presence of spacing or crowding of teeth. No significant differences in occlusal relationships were found between boys and girls (P > 0.05). Bilateral straight terminal planes of molars and class 1 canine relationship were the most prevalent features (74.5% and 73.3% respectively). Most of the children had 'normal' vertical and transverse occlusal relationships. The most common sites of spacing were mesial to maxillary canines and distal to mandibular canines. 32% of the children were found to have generalized anterior segment spacing, 4% showed exclusively anthropoid spaces, and 18% had either contact between all the teeth or crowding in the anterior region.

  12. Mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy in autotransplanted immature mandibular third molar with a 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Umesh; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Kaur Dharmani, Charan Kamal; Devi, Takhellambam Premlata

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation is the surgical transposition of a tooth from its original site to another, replacing a lost or a compromised tooth by another tooth, usually the third molar in the same individual. This technique is considered a viable method due to its high success rate, well-grounded treatment option, provided the case selection and the procedure followed is within the acceptable limits. Autotransplantation is considered as an alternative approach of oral rehabilitations in a conservative manner mainly in young patients with compromised financial conditions to perform a high cost treatment. It is a fast way to recover function and aesthetic properties without interfering with the orofacial growth. This report describes a successful 4-year follow-up of a case of immediately performed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomy in autotransplantated mandibular left immature third molar to replace the mandibular left first molar that was extracted due to extensive carious lesion.

  13. Mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy in autotransplanted immature mandibular third molar with a 4-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Dharmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation is the surgical transposition of a tooth from its original site to another, replacing a lost or a compromised tooth by another tooth, usually the third molar in the same individual. This technique is considered a viable method due to its high success rate, well-grounded treatment option, provided the case selection and the procedure followed is within the acceptable limits. Autotransplantation is considered as an alternative approach of oral rehabilitations in a conservative manner mainly in young patients with compromised financial conditions to perform a high cost treatment. It is a fast way to recover function and aesthetic properties without interfering with the orofacial growth. This report describes a successful 4-year follow-up of a case of immediately performed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA pulpotomy in autotransplantated mandibular left immature third molar to replace the mandibular left first molar that was extracted due to extensive carious lesion.

  14. First Pregnancy, Somatic and Psychological Status of a 4-Year-Old Child Born following Annexin V TESA Sperm Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lukaszuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Sperm DNA integrity is a crucial paternal factor affecting fertilization and pregnancy rates, as well as embryo development. Case - The present case report describes the successful pregnancy after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI (TESA-ICSI in a couple where the male presented high sperm DNA fragmentation. In order to sort damaged sperm presenting DNA fragmentation, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS with annexin V microbeads (MACS Miltenyi Biotec, Teterow, Germany was used. Conclusion - The authors present the first description of a successful medical case using TESA-ICSI annexin V sperm sorting. Additionally, a follow-up of the child at the age of 4 years old was done.

  15. Mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy in autotransplanted immature mandibular third molar with a 4-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Umesh; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Kaur Dharmani, Charan Kamal; Devi, Takhellambam Premlata

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation is the surgical transposition of a tooth from its original site to another, replacing a lost or a compromised tooth by another tooth, usually the third molar in the same individual. This technique is considered a viable method due to its high success rate, well-grounded treatment option, provided the case selection and the procedure followed is within the acceptable limits. Autotransplantation is considered as an alternative approach of oral rehabilitations in a conservative manner mainly in young patients with compromised financial conditions to perform a high cost treatment. It is a fast way to recover function and aesthetic properties without interfering with the orofacial growth. This report describes a successful 4-year follow-up of a case of immediately performed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomy in autotransplantated mandibular left immature third molar to replace the mandibular left first molar that was extracted due to extensive carious lesion. PMID:27217648

  16. Quantitative Effects on Proximal Joints of Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Gastrocnemius Spasticity: A 4-Year-Old Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Cimolin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin A (BTA is a recognized treatment for the early management of spasticity in children with Cerebral Palsy. This study quantified with Gait Analysis (GA the gait pattern of a 4-year-old diplegic child with calf contracture before, 5 days, and 3 months after BTA injections into gastrocnemius. Kinematic and kinetic data of main lower limb joints were investigated. After only 5 days, ankle dorsi-plantarflexion and knee flex-extension improved, but hip joint worsened, increasing its excessive flexion, to compensate the improvement in knee position of the treated limb and to obtain better stability. A worsening of hip power happened. After 3 months, all joints generally improved their position during gait cycle. Hip and knee joints increased their range of movement and improvements occurred at ankle kinematics and kinetisc, too; a better ankle position and an increase of its capacity of propulsion during terminal stance were evident.

  17. Creation of security engineering programs by the Southwest Surety Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Van D.; Rogers, Bradley; Winfree, Tim; Walsh, Dan; Garcia, Mary Lynn

    1998-12-01

    The Southwest Surety Institute includes Arizona State University (ASU), Louisiana State University (LSU), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech), New Mexico State University (NMSU), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The universities currently offer a full spectrum of post-secondary programs in security system design and evaluation, including an undergraduate minor, a graduate program, and continuing education programs. The programs are based on the methodology developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the past 25 years to protect critical nuclear assets. The programs combine basic concepts and principles from business, criminal justice, and technology to create an integrated performance-based approach to security system design and analysis. Existing university capabilities in criminal justice (NMSU), explosives testing and technology (NM Tech and LSU), and engineering technology (ASU) are leveraged to provide unique science-based programs that will emphasize the use of performance measures and computer analysis tools to prove the effectiveness of proposed systems in the design phase. Facility managers may then balance increased protection against the cost of implementation and risk mitigation, thereby enabling effective business decisions. Applications expected to benefit from these programs include corrections, law enforcement, counter-terrorism, critical infrastructure protection, financial and medical care fraud, industrial security, and border security.

  18. Monitoring dioxins and furans in subjects living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator after 4 years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Domingo, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Schuhmacher, M.; Llobet, J.M. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    In 1996, construction of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) was initiated in Constanti, Tarragona, Spain. Because this facility was the first, and up to date, the only HWI in Spain, the concern about its potential environmental impact and health risks has been considerable in the public opinion. Regular operations in the facility started in 1999. In order to establish the potential health risks of PCDD/PCDF exposure on the general population living near the new HWI, a biological monitoring program was designed. Samples of blood, breast milk and adipose tissue were obtained during the construction period of the HWI from subjects living in the neighborhood of the facility and analyzed for baseline levels of PCDD/PCDF. Moreover, taking into account that food is the main route of exposure to PCDD/Fs, the assessment of the dietary intake of these pollutants by the population living in the area under potential influence of the HWI was also included in the monitoring program. Approximately 4 years after the new HWI began regular operations (2003), biological samples from individuals living in the same area were again collected, and PCDD/PCDF concentrations determined. The update of PCDD/PCDF intake from food is essential in order to establish clearly if any potential increase in the levels of these compounds in biological tissues of individuals living in the area under influence of the HWI could be due to environmental emissions of PCDD/PCDF by the facility or to increases of the levels of these pollutants in food. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in biological human samples from subjects living in the vicinity of the HWI. The dietary intake of these compounds by the population in this area, after 4 years of regular operations, is also shown. Results were compared with baseline PCDD/PCDF levels obtained in 1999.

  19. The survey of serum retinol of the children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Lingling

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A can have a positive impact on growth and development of children, but vitamin A deficiency (VAD was found to be a public health problem in Zhejiang Province, China in 1998. There have been no studies on this topic in Zhejiang Province recently. This study was designed to evaluate the serum retinol levels of children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, southeast China. This epidemiological data will help design supplementation strategies for vitamin A in high-risk groups and improve their vitamin A status. Methods Children were randomly recruited for this study using a stratified sampling method. A blood sample was collected from each child. Assessment included C-reactive protein (CRP, serum retinol measured with HPLC and a questionnaire completed providing for family information and nutritional status. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for VAD in children. Results A group of 357 subjects aged 1 day to 4 years were recruited. The mean plasma retinol concentration was 1.653 (sd 0.47 μmol/L. There were 3.08% (11/357 of children affected with VAD, and 7.28% (26/357 of children had low vitamin A status, but none of the children showed any clinical symptoms of VAD. There was no significant difference in the levels of plasma retinol and the incidence rate of VAD between male and female children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living in urban region, having parents with good education and taking vitamin A capsule regularly prevented children from VAD, whereas being young (less than 2 years old was a risk factor. Conclusion Low vitamin A status remains a nutritional problem in Zhejiang Province. The high-risk group in this study were young, dwelled in rural regions, had parents with poor education and did not take a regular vitamin A containing supplement.

  20. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI. PMID:27235850

  1. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI.

  2. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhai

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years than normal girls (9.2 years and lean girls (9.3 years. The prevalence (% of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1. None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5% and lean girls (8.1%. The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05.Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  3. Caries experience in the primary dentition and presence of plaque in 7-year-old Chinese children: A 4-year time-lag study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Fan, M.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dental caries prevalence and caries experience in primary dentitions has increased over 4 years and to compare the presence of plaque on permanent teeth in child cohorts over 4 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A time-lag study des

  4. Development of a distance education program by a Land-Grant University augments the 2-year to 4-year STEM pipeline and increases diversity in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Jennifer C; Oli, Monika W; Rice, Kelly C; Ardissone, Alexandria N; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Sacasa, Pablo R; Belmont, Heather J; Wysocki, Allen F; Rieger, Mark; Triplett, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Although initial interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is high, recruitment and retention remains a challenge, and some populations are disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. To address these challenges, the Microbiology and Cell Science Department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida has developed an innovative 2+2 degree program. Typical 2+2 programs begin with a student earning an associate's degree at a local community college and then transferring to a 4-year institution to complete a bachelor's degree. However, many universities in the United States, particularly land-grant universities, are located in rural regions that are distantly located from their respective states' highly populated urban centers. This geographical and cultural distance could be an impediment to recruiting otherwise highly qualified and diverse students. Here, a new model of a 2+2 program is described that uses distance education as the vehicle to bring a research-intensive university's life sciences curriculum to students rather than the oft-tried model of a university attempting to recruit underrepresented minority students to its location. In this paradigm, community college graduates transfer into the Microbiology and Cell Science program as distance education students to complete their Bachelor of Science degree. The distance education students' experiences are similar to the on-campus students' experiences in that both groups of students take the same department courses taught by the same instructors, take required laboratory courses in a face-to-face format, take only proctored exams, and have the same availability to instructors. Data suggests that a hybrid online transfer program may be a viable approach to increasing STEM participation (as defined by enrollment) and diversity. This approach is particularly compelling as the distance education cohort has comparable grade point averages and

  5. Development of a distance education program by a Land-Grant University augments the 2-year to 4-year STEM pipeline and increases diversity in STEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Drew

    Full Text Available Although initial interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM is high, recruitment and retention remains a challenge, and some populations are disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. To address these challenges, the Microbiology and Cell Science Department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida has developed an innovative 2+2 degree program. Typical 2+2 programs begin with a student earning an associate's degree at a local community college and then transferring to a 4-year institution to complete a bachelor's degree. However, many universities in the United States, particularly land-grant universities, are located in rural regions that are distantly located from their respective states' highly populated urban centers. This geographical and cultural distance could be an impediment to recruiting otherwise highly qualified and diverse students. Here, a new model of a 2+2 program is described that uses distance education as the vehicle to bring a research-intensive university's life sciences curriculum to students rather than the oft-tried model of a university attempting to recruit underrepresented minority students to its location. In this paradigm, community college graduates transfer into the Microbiology and Cell Science program as distance education students to complete their Bachelor of Science degree. The distance education students' experiences are similar to the on-campus students' experiences in that both groups of students take the same department courses taught by the same instructors, take required laboratory courses in a face-to-face format, take only proctored exams, and have the same availability to instructors. Data suggests that a hybrid online transfer program may be a viable approach to increasing STEM participation (as defined by enrollment and diversity. This approach is particularly compelling as the distance education cohort has comparable grade point

  6. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  7. The Education and Public Outreach Plan for UCLA's Institute for Planets and Exoplanets (iPLEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Jewitt, D. C.; Curren, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing the number and diversity of students pursuing and completing STEM education is a crucial part of UCLA's Institute for Planets and Exoplanets (iPLEX)'s goal of promoting research on planetary systems around the sun and other stars. Cultivating students' interest and success in STEM subject areas from K-12 to the bachelor's degree is an important factor in student retention. As they pursue a bachelor's degree in a STEM major, many become discouraged and decide not to finish with this type of degree; women, underrepresented minorities (URM), and students of low socioeconomic status (SES) have the highest attrition rates (Bayer 2010). Focusing primarily on students at the high school and community college levels, our education and public outreach plan utilizes the multidisciplinary science of astrobiology as a resource for building stronger learning environments in STEM education. By implementing formal education programs that encourage and foster student learning in STEM fields, we intend to (1) increase the efficiency with which students move from high school into STEM-related undergraduate programs, (2) improve the corresponding transfer rate from community colleges to advanced degree programs in STEM at the 4-year university level, and (3) create more opportunities for students to become involved in meaningful research as they progress in their studies. To ensure the success of these programs, we will partner with teachers from local high schools and community colleges, and UCLA's Center X. By being geographically located in Los Angeles County, having one of the highest URM populations in the United States (US Census Bureau, 2007), and partnering with Hampton University (HU) in Virginia, whose student body is 91% African American, we are in a position to make a large impact on diversity. To further ensure the success of our EPO, an independent evaluator will measure and track the following program objectives: increase (1) post-secondary STEM enrollment

  8. Influence of different approaches to training of main movements on physical fitness of 4 years boys with various motor asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galamandjuk L. L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of effectiveness of different training main movements’ methods in physical fitness improvement of boys with different manual motor asymmetry. Material: 50 boys with ambidexterity (4 years old age took part in the research. There was used the following: oral questioning, dynamometry and methodic by M.M. Bezrukikh. Results: usage of one of variants of “symmetric” approach determines specificities of motor qualities’ development: among boys with ambidexterity in motor asymmetry variant “first with passive hand, then with active one” and variant “first with active and then with passive hand” ensure improvement of all tested qualities (except flexibility and quickness. Boys with right orientation of manual motor asymmetry demonstrated improvement of all qualities (except coordination in ballistic movements for accuracy, fulfilled by right arm in the first variant. In the second variant all qualities (except already mentioned quickness are improved. Conclusions: with any orientation of manual motor asymmetry the necessary condition of high activity and successful child’s training is development of interaction between cerebral semi-spheres. Coordinated movements by left and right arms strengthen such interaction. That is why it is purposeful to consequently fulfill every movement by every arm and by two arms simultaneously.

  9. Integrating research-informed teaching within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum: Results from a level 4 (year 1) student cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Previously we reported on focus group research which explored the level 4 (year 1) student experience of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe). This article discusses follow up research with a new student cohort. Method: An online questionnaire was used to explore the level 4 student cohort experience of RiTe. A Multi-method approach was taken to analyse the data, identify themes and link questionnaire findings with those from the focus group research. Results: A 54% (27/50) response rate was achieved. Students found RiTe to be a positive experience and there was strong agreement that it had increased their knowledge of research methods and understanding of key areas of practice. Conclusions: Results from the questionnaire supported the focus group findings. One of the key factors in the success of RiTe was that of collaborative learning. This was achieved by the students undertaking an inquiry and situated approach to learning within small groups

  10. Towards a research informed teaching experience within a diagnostic radiography curriculum: The level 4 (year 1) student holistic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: This article discusses the level 4 (year 1) diagnostic radiography student holistic experience of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) at the University of Salford, UK. The purpose of RiTe is to expose undergraduate radiography students to more formal research, as part of their normal teaching and learning experience. Method: A grounded theory approach was adopted and a focus group with eight level 4 students was used to explore and evaluate the student experience and perception of RiTe. Results: Open coding defined categories and sub-categories, with axial and selective coding used to interrogate and explore the relationships between the focus group data. A number of insights were gained into the student holistic experience of RiTe. The issue of leadership for level 4 students was also identified. Discussion: The focus group participants found RiTe to be an extremely positive learning experience. RiTe also facilitated their translation of learnt theory into clinical skills knowledge alongside their understanding of and desire to participate in more research as undergraduates. The article also highlights areas for future research.

  11. A retrospective study of central nervous system shunt infections diagnosed in a university hospital during a 4-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Erdal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunts are used for intracranial pressure management and temporary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF drainage. Infection of the central nervous system (CNS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CSF shunts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical features, pathogens, and outcomes of 22 patients with CSF shunt infections collected over 4 years. Methods The patients with shunt insertions were evaluated using; age, sex, etiology of hydrocephalus, shunt infection numbers, biochemical and microbiological parameters, prognosis, clinical infection features and clinical outcome. Results The most common causes of the etiology of hydrocephalus in shunt infected patients were congenital hydrocephalus-myelomeningocele (32% and meningitis (23%. The commonest causative microorganism identified was Staphylococcus (S. aureus, followed by Acinetobacter spp., and S. epidermidis. Conclusion In a case of a shunt infection the timely usage of appropriate antibiotics, according to the antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the removal of the shunt apparatus is essential for successful treatment.

  12. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T

    2016-05-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen-D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:27069035

  13. First Report of Psoriatic-Like Dermatitis and Arthritis in a 4-Year-Old Female Spayed Pug Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Regan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis manifests as chronic dermatitis and arthritis (PsA in people. Psoriasis with concurrent PsA is characterized by erythematous, silvery, scaly plaques, especially on the extremities, and concurrent arthritis with enthesitis, tenosynovitis, and dactylitis. To date, no such disease has spontaneously occurred in domestic animals. This case report aims to describe the clinical, radiographic, and histologic appearance of a psoriasis-like dermatitis and psoriatic-like arthritis in a dog. A 4-year-old female spayed pug mix presented for the evaluation of chronic history of hyperkeratotic footpads and deforming arthritis. After ruling out other differential diagnoses and based on the similarity of clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings to human psoriasis and PsA, a tentative diagnosis of psoriasis-like disease was made. Treatment was begun to control pain (tramadol, gabapentin, and carprofen and psoriatic dermatitis (clobetasol propionate 0.05%, calcipotriene 0.005%, and urea 40% ointment twice daily. Dramatic positive response to treatment was achieved confirming the tentative diagnosis. This case may provide preliminary evidence for the existence of a psoriasis-like condition in dogs and may elucidate treatment options in otherwise refractory cases of chronic dermatitis and polyarthropathy in dogs.

  14. Impact of routine real-time PCR testing of imported malaria over 4 years of implementation in a clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoples, Sandra; Mukhi, Shamir N; Scott, Allison N; Yanow, Stephanie K

    2013-06-01

    In clinical laboratories, diagnosis of imported malaria is commonly performed by microscopy. However, the volume of specimens is generally low and maintaining proficiency in reading blood smears, particularly at the species level, is challenging in this setting. To address this problem, the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab) in Alberta, Canada, implemented real-time PCR for routine confirmation of all smear-positive samples in the province. Here we report our experience over a 4-year period (2008 to 2012) with this new diagnostic algorithm. While detection of Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy alone was accurate, real-time PCR served as an important adjunct to microscopy for the identification of non-falciparum species. In 18% of cases, the result was reported as non-falciparum or the species could not be identified by microscopy alone, and in all cases, the species was resolved by real-time PCR. In another 4% of cases, the species was misidentified by microscopy. To enhance surveillance for malaria, we integrated our demographic, clinical, and laboratory data into a new system developed by the Canadian Network for Public Health Intelligence, called the Malaria System for Online Surveillance (SOS). Using this application, we characterized our patient populations and travel history to identify risk factors associated with malaria infection abroad.

  15. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children. Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76 for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17 for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions.

  16. Criterion validity of a competency-based assessment center in medical education – a 4-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rotthoff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Core competencies have progressively gained importance in medical education. In other contexts, especially personnel selection and development, assessment centers (ACs are used to assess competencies, but there is only a limited number of studies on competency-based ACs in medical education. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first data on the criterion-related validity of a competency-based AC in medical education. Methods: We developed an AC tailored to measure core competencies relevant to medical education (social-ethical, communicative, self, and teaching and tested its validity in n=30 first-year medical students using 3- to 4-year follow-up measures such as (a objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE on basic clinical skills (n=26, (b OSCE on communication skills (n=21, and (c peer feedback (n=18. The AC contained three elements: interview, group discussion, and role play. Additionally, a self-report questionnaire was provided as a basis for the interview. Results: Baseline AC average score and teaching competency correlated moderately with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.41, p=0.03, and r=0.38, p=0.04, respectively. Social-ethical competency in the AC showed a very strong convergent association with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.60, p0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that competency-based ACs can be used at a very early stage of medical training to successfully predict future performance in core competencies.

  17. Identification of an obese eating style in 4-year-old children born at high and low risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Robert I; Moore, Renee' H; Faith, Myles S; Stallings, Virginia A; Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-03-01

    This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI = 30.4 kg/m(2)) and 29 LR children (maternal BMI = 19.6 kg/m(2)) consumed a test meal in which their eating behavior was assessed, including rate of caloric consumption, mouthfuls/min, and requests for food. Parental prompts for the child to eat also were measured at year 4, and child body composition was measured at ages 4 and 6 years. T-tests, and logistic and multiple regression analyses tested study aims. Results indicated that HR and LR children did not differ in eating rate or parental feeding prompts. Greater maternal BMI, child mouthfuls of food/min, and total caloric intake/min during the test meal predicted an increased risk of being overweight or obese at age 6, whereas greater active mealtime was associated with a reduced risk of being overweight or obese. Regression analyses indicated that only mouthfuls of food/min predicted changes in BMI from 4 to 6 years, and mouthfuls of food/min and gender predicted 2-year changes in sum of skinfolds and total body fat. Thus, a rapid eating style, characterized by increased mouthfuls of food/min, may be a behavioral marker for the development of childhood obesity. PMID:19779474

  18. Vertebroplasty as treatment of aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas: up to 4 years of follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarnieri, G.; Ambrosanio, G.; Vassallo, P.; Galasso, R.; Lavanga, A.; Izzo, R.; Muto, M. [AORNA Cardarelli, Neuroradiology Service, Naples (Italy); Pezzullo, M.G. [Seconda Universita degli studi di Napoli - SUN, Radiology Service, Naples (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    This study aimed to illustrate the validity of the treatment with vertebroplasty (VP) in patients with aggressive or symptomatic vertebral hemangioma (VH) with or without epidural extension. From January 2003 to December 2007, 24 consecutive patients have been treated with VP, for a total of 36 vertebral bodies affected by VH: two cervical, ten dorsal, 24 lumbar. All the patients complained of a pain syndrome resistant to continuous medical medication; four of 24 patients also presented aggressive magnetic resonance features of the vertebral lesion and two patients showed also epidural extension. A unipedicular approach has been performed in 16 patients; a bipedicular approach has been performed in six, while for the cervical spine an anterior-lateral approach with manual dislocation of the carotid axis has always been performed. Bone biopsy was never done. All procedures have been carried out with local anesthesia, except for the treatment of the cervical hemangiomas which has always been performed under general anesthesia. Four vertebral bodies in the same session have been treated in one case. Results have been evaluated with the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index methods. In all the patients, in the following 24-72 h, a successful outcome has been observed with a complete resolution of pain symptom. Extravertebral vascular or discal cement leakage has been observed in four patients, without any onset of clinical radicular syndrome due to epidural diffusion. Clinical and radiological follow-up until 4 years has been performed in 12 patients and it showed stability of the treatment and absence of pain. Percutaneous treatment with VP for aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas even with epidural extension is a valuable, mini-invasive, and quick method that allows a complete and enduring resolution of the painful vertebral symptoms without findings of fracture of a vertebral body adjacent or distant to the one treated. (orig.)

  19. Incidence of malaria and efficacy of combination antimalarial therapies over 4 years in an urban cohort of Ugandan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara D Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination therapies are now recommended to treat uncomplicated malaria. We used a longitudinal design to assess the incidence of malaria and compare the efficacies of 3 combination regimens in Kampala, Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children aged 1-10 years were enrolled from randomly selected households in 2004-05 and 2007, and were followed at least monthly through 2008. Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs were provided in 2006. Children were randomized upon their first episode, and then treated for all episodes of uncomplicated malaria with amodiaquine/sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ/SP, artesunate/amodiaquine (AS/AQ, or artemether/lumefantrine (AL. Risks of parasitological failure were determined for each episode of uncomplicated malaria and clinical parameters were followed. A total of 690 children experienced 1464 episodes of malaria. 96% of these episodes were uncomplicated malaria and treated with study drugs; 94% were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The rank order of treatment efficacy was AL > AS/AQ > AQ/SP. Failure rates increased over time for AQ/SP, but not the artemisinin-based regimens. Over the 4-year course of the study the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia decreased from 11.8% to 1.4%, the incidence of malaria decreased from 1.55 to 0.32 per person year, and the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <10 gm/dL decreased from 5.9% to 1.0%. No episodes of severe malaria (based on WHO criteria and no deaths were seen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With ready access to combination therapies and distribution of ITNs, responses were excellent for artemisinin-containing regimens, severe malaria was not seen, and the incidence of malaria and prevalence of parasitemia and anemia decreased steadily over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: isrctn.org ISRCTN37517549.

  20. Changing patterns and trends of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at referral centre in Northern India: A 4-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: India has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB, although there is little data on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Although MDR-TB has existed for long time in India, very few diagnostic laboratories are well-equipped to test drug sensitivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB, first-line drug resistance patterns and its changing trends in northern India in the 4 years. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study from July 2007 to December 2010. Microscopy, culture by Bactec460 and p-nitro-α-acetylamino-β-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP test was performed to isolate and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb complex (MTBC. Drug sensitivity testing (DST was performed by 1% proportional method (Bactec460 for four drugs: Rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin. Various clinical and demographical profiles were evaluated to analyse risk factors for development of drug resistance. Results: We found the overall prevalence rate of MDR-TB to be 38.8%, increasing from 36.4% in 2007 to 40.8% in 2010. we found that the prevalence of MDR-TB in new and previously treated cases was 29.1% and 43.3% ( P < 0.05; CI 95%. The increasing trend of MDR-TB was more likely in pulmonary TB when compared with extra-pulmonary TB ( P < 0.05; CI 95%. Conclusions: we found a high prevalence (38.8% of MDR-TB both in new cases (29.1% and previously treated cases (43.3%.This study strongly highlights the need to make strategies for testing, surveillance, monitoring and management of such drug-resistant cases.

  1. Identity of Institution and Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bahar Ülker Kaya

    2006-01-01

    Corporate identity is planning and reşecting memorable, personal, characteristic pecularities of an institution and the ability that separates it from others. Corporate identity is in interaction with the corporate culture and corporate image. It is an entity formed by the philosophy of the institution, institutional communication, behavior and planning. Institutional planning formed by the planning of production and communication and architectural/ interior architectural planning, is the mos...

  2. Entrepreneurs, institutional entrepreneurship and institutional change

    OpenAIRE

    Koene, B.A.S.; Ansari, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The intersection of entrepreneurship research and institutional theory has begun to attract increasing scholarly attention. While much recent research has studied "institutional entrepreneurs" credited with creating new or transforming existing institutions to support their projects, less attention has been paid to the institutions that constitute the menus from which choices are made, and delineate resources for entrepreneurial or other agentic activities. While models of institutionalizatio...

  3. The Search for Meaningful e-Learning at Canadian Universities: A Multi-Institutional Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Salyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While e-learning is now characterized by a past and trends within that past, there continues to be uncertainty about how e-learning is defined and conceptualized, whether or not we like e-learning, and whether or not it is as meaningful to us as face to face learning. The purpose of this study was to document the e-learning perceptions of students at three Canadian post-secondary institutions. Key components of e-learning courses including ease of navigation, course design, resource availability, and adequacy of e-learning supports and their impact on the student learning experience were also evaluated. Based on a survey of students (n= 1,377 as well as their participation in focus groups, the following are presented as important findings: the majority of students studying in e-learning courses at the three institutions represented in the study were women; ease of navigation, course design, and previous experience with e-learning consistently demonstrated a statistically significant predictive capacity for positive e-learning experiences; and students expressed less preference for e-learning instructional strategies than their faculty. Study findings hold implications for e-learning faculty, instructional designers, and administrators at institutions of higher education in Canada and elsewhere where e-learning is part of the institutional mandate. Additionally, further research into student perceptions of and experiences with e-learning is recommended.

  4. Evaluation of 4 years of continuous δ13C(CO2) data using a moving Keeling plot method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardag, Sanam Noreen; Hammer, Samuel; Levin, Ingeborg

    2016-07-01

    Different carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters can be distinguished by their carbon isotope ratios. Therefore measurements of atmospheric δ13C(CO2) and CO2 concentration contain information on the CO2 source mix in the catchment area of an atmospheric measurement site. This information may be illustratively presented as the mean isotopic source signature. Recently an increasing number of continuous measurements of δ13C(CO2) and CO2 have become available, opening the door to the quantification of CO2 shares from different sources at high temporal resolution. Here, we present a method to compute the CO2 source signature (δS) continuously and evaluate our result using model data from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model. Only when we restrict the analysis to situations which fulfill the basic assumptions of the Keeling plot method does our approach provide correct results with minimal biases in δS. On average, this bias is 0.2 ‰ with an interquartile range of about 1.2 ‰ for hourly model data. As a consequence of applying the required strict filter criteria, 85 % of the data points - mainly daytime values - need to be discarded. Applying the method to a 4-year dataset of CO2 and δ13C(CO2) measured in Heidelberg, Germany, yields a distinct seasonal cycle of δS. Disentangling this seasonal source signature into shares of source components is, however, only possible if the isotopic end members of these sources - i.e., the biosphere, δbio, and the fuel mix, δF - are known. From the mean source signature record in 2012, δbio could be reliably estimated only for summer to (-25.0 ± 1.0) ‰ and δF only for winter to (-32.5 ± 2.5) ‰. As the isotopic end members δbio and δF were shown to change over the season, no year-round estimation of the fossil fuel or biosphere share is possible from the measured mean source signature record without additional information from emission inventories or other tracer measurements.

  5. Triple pelvic osteotomy in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease using a single anterolateral incision: a 4-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conroy, Eimear

    2010-07-01

    Femoral head incongruency at skeletal maturity is associated with the development of osteoarthritis in early adulthood. Containment of the femoral head provides a larger surface area for remodelling of the collapsed femoral head and the development of spherical congruency. Triple pelvic osteotomy has a role to play in Legg-Calve-Perthes\\' disease by improving femoral head containment and preventing subluxation. This is traditionally a two-incision approach with significant associated morbidity. In our unit we perform triple osteotomies through a single anterolateral incision. To retrospectively review the clinical and radiographic outcome of children who had triple osteotomies performed through a single incision over a 4-year period. In our unit from 2003 to 2006 we performed eight triple osteotomies through a single incision in children aged between 6 and 12 years with Legg-Calve-Perthes\\' disease. The procedure was performed through a single anterolateral incision made beneath the middle of the iliac crest and carried forward according to Salter\\'s osteotomy. Image intensification was used to confirm iliac, pubic and ischial cuts. After performing a standard Salter\\'s osteotomy the acetabular fragment was free to rotate anteriorly and laterally. None of the children were casted and all were allowed immediate mobilization nonweight bearing with crutches for 6 weeks. Clinical results and hip function were measured preoperatively and postoperatively using the modified Harris hip score. The average length of hospital stay was 4.7 days. None of the children had a nonunion. The centre edge angle of Wiberg was measured on all preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. In all our patients there was an improvement in the centre edge angle of Wiberg and in the modified Harris hip score. The preoperative modified Harris hip scores ranged from 38 to 60 and postoperatively ranged from 77 to 92. The preoperative centre edge angle of Wiberg ranged

  6. False belief understanding and “cool” inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, “cool” aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and “hot,” affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds’ performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day–Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children’s receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children’s performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children’s performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that “cool” aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an

  7. Dynamics of CO2-exchange and C-budgets due to soil erosion: Insights from a 4 years observation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Garcia Alba, Juana; Augustin, Jürgen; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE-Germany is characterized by an increase in energy crop cultivation, like maize or sorghum. Both enhance lateral C fluxes by erosion and induce feedbacks on C dynamics of agroecosystems as a result of reduced wintertime plant cover and vigorous crop growth during summer. However, the actual impact of these phenomena on the CO2-sink/-source function of agricultural landscapes, is still not clear. Therefore, the interdisciplinary project "CarboZALF" was established in Dedelow/Prenzlau (NE-Germany) in 2009. Within the field experiment CarboZALF-D, CO2 fluxes for the soil-plant systems were monitored, covering typical landscape relevant soil states in respect to erosion and deposition, like Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol. Automated chamber systems, each consisting of four transparent chambers (2.5 m height, basal area 2.25 m2), were placed along gradients at both measurement sites. Monitored CO2 fluxes were gap-filled on a high-temporal resolution by modelling ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on parallel and continuous measurements of the CO2 exchange, soil and air temperatures as well as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Gap-filling was e.g. needed in case of chamber malfunctions and abrupt disturbances by farming practice. The monitored crop rotation was corn-winter wheat (2 a), sorghum-winter triticale and alfalfa (1.5 a). In our presentation we would like to show insights from a 4 years observation period, with prounounced differences between the eroded and the colluvial soil: The Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol showed higher flux rates for Reco, GPP and NEE compared to the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol. Site-specific NEE and C-balances were positively related to soil C-stocks as well as biomass production, and generated a minor C-sink in case of the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and a highly variable C-source in case of the

  8. Identity of Institution and Institutional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bahar Ülker Kaya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate identity is planning and reşecting memorable, personal, characteristic pecularities of an institution and the ability that separates it from others. Corporate identity is in interaction with the corporate culture and corporate image. It is an entity formed by the philosophy of the institution, institutional communication, behavior and planning. Institutional planning formed by the planning of production and communication and architectural/ interior architectural planning, is the most significant element that constitutes the visual identity of an institution. While forming architectural and interior architectural planning of institutions, establishing places that will clearly reşect the corporate identity is gaining importance. In the perception of visual identity of institutions, planning elements such as; colour, texture, material and form are more significant than others.

  9. Learning to perceive English /d/ versus /edh/: A comparison of French, English, and English-French bilingual 4-year-olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Campisi, Lisa; Genesee, Fred; Marcoux, Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Recent findings show that discrimination of the English /d-edh/ does not differ for English and French infants (6-8-month-olds and 10-12-month-olds), although English adults clearly outperform French adults on this contrast, which is not phonemic in French. With respect to age effects, English listeners' perception of /d-edh/ improves between infancy and adulthood, whereas French listeners' perception remains unchanged [Polka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2190-2200 (2001)]. In the present study, we tested monolingual English, monolingual French, and early English-French bilingual 4-year-olds on the same contrast using the same stimuli and procedures to clarify when facilitative effects of language experience emerge and whether they are affected by bilingualism. Four findings are reported. First, a language effect (English>French) is evident by 4 years of age. Second, among native (English) listeners facilitative effects are evident by 4-years of age (infantsage groups tested (infants=4-year-olds=adults). Fourth, bilingual 4-year-olds' performance is virtually identical to that of their French-speaking peers, revealing a strong effect of bilingualism on the perception of this contrast. Several factors contributing to these findings will be discussed.

  10. Trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital: a 4-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Conceição

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the past two decades members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. This study prospectively analyzed the distribution of species and trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital from 2006-2009. METHODS: Enterococcal species were identified by conventional biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was performed by disk diffusion in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. A screening test for vancomycin was also performed. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for vancomycin was determined using the broth dilution method. Molecular assays were used to confirm speciation and genotype of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE. RESULTS: A total of 324 non-repetitive enterococcal isolates were recovered, of which 87% were E. faecalis and 10.8% E. faecium. The incidence of E. faecium per 1,000 admissions increased significantly (p 256µg/ mL and harbored vanA genes. The majority (89.5% of VRE belonged to E. faecium species, which were characteristically resistant to ampicillin and quinolones. Overall, ampicillin resistance rate increased significantly from 2.5% to 21.4% from 2006-2009. Resistance rates for gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin significantly decreased over time, although they remained high. Quinolones resistance rates were high and did not change significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained show a significant increasing trend in the incidence of E. faecium resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin.

  11. [An evaluation of the 4 years of the Oral Rehydration Service of the Hospital Infantil de Monterrey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraira-Gutiérrez, A; Méndez-Jara, A; Ruiz-Villalpando, G

    1992-06-01

    At four years of being founded the Service of Oral Hydration from Hospital Infantil de Monterrey, we carried out this investigation to know its productivity, to determine costs of internments, death rates due to diarrhea and dehydration in the hospital and at a State level. The statistics from the hospital were revised in the previous and subsequent years to the institution of the Service in September of 1986, so as the statistics of death due to diarrhea from the State Health Department. The cases attended were 12,139, from which 9,024 belonged to plan A, 2,983 to plan B and 72 to plan C. Three hundred (300) doctors were trained and nine (9) research studies were accomplished. A decrease was achieved from the hospital rate admission by diarrhea and dehydration, throw the oral dehydration therapy in a 66%, the mortality rate was reduced 72% and an expenditure of $619,243,480.00 pesos in drugs and auxiliary examinations of diagnostic was avoided. At a State level the general death rate due to diarrhea got a cutdown of 13.1 to 5.8, and in infants under a year old decreased from 275 to 122.3. The oral hydration therapy applied in the State seems to be the main reason in that results.

  12. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-B. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the third of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for 10 of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 247 tasks included in these 10 duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  13. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-A. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the second of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for two of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 197 tasks included in these two duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  14. Industrial Maintenance, Volume III. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the fourth of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains three sections and appendixes. Section 4 provides suggested methods of structuring the curriculum. Suggested ways of recording and documenting student progress are presented in section 5. Section 6 contains…

  15. Industrial Maintenance, Volume I. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the first of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains two sections. Section 1 overviews the philosophies, purposes, and goals for vocational education in Georgia. Contents of section 2 include a discussion of employability skills, description of the occupational…

  16. Distributed Leadership and Shared Governance in Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Leadership in education and traditional management theory face the challenges of advancing a theory and practice for twenty-first century organization. This article approaches the potential for new frames of reference on leadership through the correlations between the emergent theory of distributed leadership and the philosophy of shared…

  17. Epistemological Development and Critical Thinking in Post-Secondary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Using Kegan's constructive-developmental theory, this study explores to what extent epistemological development is a factor in critical thinking performance and learning in reading and writing among a diverse group of six adult learners. Analysis of a developmental interview, a summative assessment and participant surveys indicated that learners…

  18. Impediments to Increasing Diversity in Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carol Siri

    2007-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity in the financial aid process and the movement of available financial aid up the economic scale, poor people and minorities have less access to college, including engineering programs. Some impediments are lack of access to knowledge about college, increasing complexity and up-front costs in the application process…

  19. Refrigeration, Heating & Air Conditioning. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary refrigeration, heating and air conditioning education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for the development of entry level skills in refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning in the areas of air conditioning knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability,…

  20. Emotional Intelligence: Impact on Post-Secondary Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rashmi; Levin, Elizabeth; Tremblay, Line

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the simultaneous influences of emotional intelligence, adjustment to university, authoritative versus other parenting style, and high school average on first year university students' grade point average (GPA) via structural equation modeling. The participants were 299 first year students from the social science faculty at…

  1. Post-Secondary Educational Attainment of Immigrant and Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ursula; Tillman, Kathryn Harker

    2008-01-01

    We examine immigrant generation differences in college attendance and college type among youth ages 18 through 26 who have graduated from a U.S. high school. Results indicate that first- and second-generation immigrants are significantly more likely to attend college than their third-plus generation counterparts of similar race/ethnicity,…

  2. Planning Post Secondary Education for Nebraska through Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. State Univ. of Nebraska.

    The planning and implementation of a multimedia college program for Nebraska are described. In addition to providing background information on the State University of Nebraska (SUN) project and the staff involved, the July 1971 proposal and a position paper outlining a plan for evaluating experiences other than formal credit courses are included.…

  3. Measurement and Evaluation in Post-Secondary ESL

    CERN Document Server

    Ekbatani, Glayol V

    2010-01-01

    Practical and concise, this introductory text for language teaching professionals is a guide to ESL assessment and to fulfilling the testing component of TESOL programs in the U.S. and around the world

  4. What are Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...

  5. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... by forming firms capable of expanding internationally. At the level of subsidiaries as providing institutional back up for these firms' abilities to fight for survival and growth within the frame of rivalling subsidiaries of the MNC. The article discusses at these two levels the comparative institutional...

  6. Elites and institutional persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Particular sets of institutions, once they become established in a society, have a strong tendency to persist. In this paper I argue that understanding how elites form and reproduce is key to understanding the persistence of institutions over time. I illustrate this idea with a simple political economy theory of institutions and through examples from Liberia, the US, South Africa and Germany I show how elites influence institutions. To change institutions requires having an understanding of h...

  7. Increased time to pregnancy is associated with less optimal neurological condition in 4-year-old singletons, in vitro fertilization itself is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelaar, P.; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Heineman, M. J.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, S.; Middelburg, K. J.; Seggers, Jorien; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedures required for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection or the combination of both, affect the neurological outcome of 4-year-old singletons? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure and

  8. A Latent Class Analysis of Weight-Related Health Behaviors among 2-and 4-Year College Students and Associated Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the complex patterning of weight-related health behaviors in 2-and 4-year college students. The objective of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of weight-related health behaviors among college students. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogenous, mutually exclusive classes of nine health…

  9. Screening for Type 2 Diabetes in a High-Risk Population : Effects of a Negative Screening Test After 4 Years Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Julie I.; Otto, Suzie J.; Klijs, Bart; de Koning, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    A negative diabetes screening test may unintentionally provide reassurance, resulting in reduced incentive to follow a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study is to assess negative test result effects on lifestyle and risk perception at 4 years follow-up. Risk perception and changes in smoking,

  10. Acid-base status at birth, spontaneous motor behaviour at term and 3 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 4 years in full-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J; Feron, FJM; Hendriksen, JGM; van Hall, M; Gavilanes-Jiminez, DWD; Hadders-Algra, M; Vles, JSH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between acid-base status and quality and quantity of General Movements (GMs) at birth and quality of GMs at age 3 months and motor, cognitive and behavioural functioning at the age of 4 years. Methods: From a cohort of 84 term children w

  11. Where Did They Go? Market Share Trends of Business Student Enrollment at Public, Not-for-Profit, and For-Profit Institutions from 1996 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Garrity, Bonnie Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The author presents the trends in market share of business student enrollment at public, not-for-profit, and for-profit 4-year-and-above institutions from 1996 to 2008. Although each sector of the institutions has experienced growth in overall enrollments, the relative market share of public and not-for-profit institutions has dropped, whereas the…

  12. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Education October 4, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  13. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  14. Contracting institutions and development

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The quality of contracting institutions has been thought to be of second-order importance next to the impact that good property rights institutions can have on long- run growth. Using a large range of proxies for each type of institution, we find a robust $negative$ link between the quality of contracting institutions and long-run growth when we condition on property rights and a number of additional macroeconomic variables. Although the result remains something of a puzzle, we present eviden...

  15. Furthering critical institutionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleaver, Frances; Koning, De Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI) is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focus

  16. Mapping Hispanic-Serving Institutions: A Typology of Institutional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria; Elizondo, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs), institutions that enroll at least 25% Hispanic students, are institutionally diverse, including a much wider array of institutional types than other Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs). Furthermore, they have distinctive institutional characteristics from those typically emphasized in institutional typologies…

  17. Increased plasma DPP4 activity predicts new-onset hypertension in Chinese over a 4-year period: possible associations with inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T; Chen, T; Liu, Y; Gao, Y; Tian, H

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether increased dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity predicts new-onset hypertension in Chinese patients. A prospective study was conducted for 1884 adults (804 men/1080 women) aged 18-70 years without hypertension. Participants were examined in 2007 (baseline) and 2011 (follow-up) and circulating DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R) concentration, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress parameters were measured. After a 4-year follow-up, 296 individuals developed hypertension with an incidence of 39 per 1000 patient years. In multiple linear regression analyses, baseline DPP4 activity was an independent predictor of an increase in M6P-R, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress parameters over a 4-year period (all P Chinese individuals. This finding may have important implications for understanding the effects of DPP4 in promoting inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  18. Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Dorothy VM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average. The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29% met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI at 4 years of age, and a further two (8% had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14% met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8% had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.

  19. Women's satisfaction with body image before pregnancy and body mass index 4 years after delivery in the mothers of generation XXI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Henriques

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body image satisfaction (BIS influences body weight regulation and may contribute to long-term healthier lifestyle after pregnancy. Thus, we aimed to assess the association between BIS before pregnancy and body mass index (BMI 4 years after the index pregnancy. METHODS: As part of the follow-up of a birth cohort, 3612 women with prepregnancy BMI >18.5 kg/m(2 were reevaluated 4 years after the birth of a child. BIS was defined as the difference between perceived and ideal body size before pregnancy, assessed by Stunkard Silhouettes after birth. The associations of BIS with BMI change (continuous and BMI classes at 4 years, based on measured weight and height, were estimated using linear and multinomial regression, respectively. RESULTS: Among women with normal prepregnancy BMI, those who felt too small, regarding their ideal, had a 0.25 kg/m(2 smaller increase in BMI within 4 years and a lower likelihood of becoming overweight or obese [multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.63; 95% confidence interval (95%CI: 0.44-0.91 and OR = 0.21; 95%CI: 0.05-0.91, respectively than those satisfied with body image. Feeling too large was associated with a 0.41 kg/m(2 larger increase in BMI and a higher risk of becoming overweight or obese (OR = 2.12; 95%CI:1.73-2.59 and OR = 3.42; 95%CI:2.02-5.79, respectively. A similar, non-significant, trend was observed for overweight women. Obese women who felt too large had a non-significant decrease in BMI. CONCLUSIONS: BIS plays a role in maternal body weight after delivery. Realistic body size goals may promote the motivation to lose weight and contribute to higher success in attaining them.

  20. Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matet, Alexandre; Amar, Nawel; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Barale, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case. Methods The purpose of this study is to describe the 4-year outcomes of this modified procedure in three subjects who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation. Clinical data consisting of intraocular pressure measurements and tolerance in terms of conjunctival erosion or inflammation were retrospectively assessed over a 4-year postoperative follow-up. Results None of the three patients implanted with the modified technique developed ocular hypotony over 4 years. A normal, transient conjunctival inflammation occurred during the first postoperative month but conjunctival erosion was not observed in any of the three patients over 4 years. Four years after implantation, the autogenous temporalis fascia graft remained well tolerated and the retinal prosthesis was functional in all three patients. Conclusion The combination of an autograft of superficial temporalis fascia and a scleral flap efficiently prevented leakage through the sclerotomy site, ocular hypotony, and conjunctival erosion by the extrascleral electronics case. This modified technique is suitable for the implantation of existing and forthcoming retinal prostheses. Superficial temporalis fascia may also be used as alternative to commercial tectonic tissues for scleral wound repair in clinical settings where they

  1. Exploring the Impact of using Stories and ICT to teach English to 3- and 4- year-old Spanish children: Motivation and Development.

    OpenAIRE

    Recio, A

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of a study involving 3-4 year-old English language learners enrolled in a course where electronic stories were used. The study aimed to explore two main areas: 1. teachers and children use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the language classroom and 2. the influence of electronic stories on the development of emergent literacy skills. Results of the study showed that teachers found the use of ICT a positive strategy to enhance young children's...

  2. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Kapur; Chawla, H S.; Gauba, K.; Goyal, A; Bhardwaj, N

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. Methodology: A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and ...

  3. Furthering critical institutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Dalton Cleaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focuses on the complexity of institutions entwined in everyday social life, their historical formation, the interplay between formal and informal, traditional and modern arrangements, and the power relations that animate them. In such perspectives a social justice lens is often used to scrutinise the outcomes of institutional processes. We argue here that critical institutional approaches have potentially much to offer commons scholarship, particularly through the explanatory power of the concept of bricolage for better understanding institutional change.  Critical institutional approaches, gathering momentum over the past 15 years or so, have excited considerable interest but the insights generated from different disciplinary perspectives remain insufficiently synthesised. Analyses emphasising complexity can be relatively illegible to policy-makers, a fact which lessens their reach. This special issue therefore aims to synthesise critical institutional ideas and so to lay the foundation for moving beyond the emergent stage to make meaningful academic and policy impact. In bringing together papers here we define and synthesise key themes of critical institutionalism, outline the concept of institutional bricolage and identity some key challenges facing this school of thought.

  4. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Amigud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public safety. With the growing scope of distance education programs that permeate critical areas such as healthcare, airspace, water management, and food solutions, universities have a moral obligation to employ secure measures to verify learning outcomes. This study examines the measures universities with large distance education programs employ to align identity of learners with the academic work they do, as well as the effectiveness of and challenges and barriers to their implementation. The research was undertaken using a multiple case approach and examined survey responses from five academic administrators at five officially accredited post secondary institutions in three countries. The cases examined in the study include: Athabasca University, Open University UK, Penn State University World Campus, University of Maryland University College, and eConcordia, Concordia University’s distance learning facility. This study is not an exhaustive attempt to examine all aspects of academic integrity, but rather to create awareness about various learner authentication strategies. This study confirms that secure learner authentication in the distance education environment is possible. However, with greater pressure to enhance security of learner authentication, the openness of open learning is challenged and may change as we know it.

  5. International whole body counter intercomparison based on bomab phantom simulating 4 years old child; Partecipazione dell`ENEA alla campagna internazionale di interconfronto wholebody counter con fantoccio simulante un bambino di 4 anni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``E. Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1995-11-01

    In April 1993 a whole body counter intercomparison campaign, The 1993 Intercomparison/Intercalibration, started. The campaign has been organized by The Canadian National Reference Centre for In-Vivo Monitoring of Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada and The United States Department of Energy and it was based on measurements on a BOMAB type phantom simulating a 4 years old child. The phantom was filled with radioactive tissue substitute resin and an unknown quantity of radioactivity. Each facility was asked to determine the identity and amount of the radionuclide(s), knowing that the specific activity in the 10 BOMAB`s sections was the same. Each facility was also asked to calculate the minimum detectable activity of all the radionuclides detected in the phantom. 35 Facilities from 20 different Countries took part in the initiative. The Institute for Radiation Protection of the Environment Department of ENEA (ENEA AMB IRP) represented Italy. Intercomparison results supplied by ENEA AMB IRP as radionuclides identification, activity data and associated precision, minimum detectable activity levels, can be considered satisfactory and comparable with results supplied by similar-facilities.

  6. Healthcare Consulting: Institutional Psychotherapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Nancy H.; Covvey, H. Dominic

    1984-01-01

    Health care computing consultants are often brought in to assist institutions in solving their computing problems. Not unlike the disturbed client seeking psychotherapy, the problems the institution has with the introduction of computers are symptoms of deeper problems. Consultants and institutions must learn to identify and address underlying disorders first, before attacking the computing problems, or the outcome will more likely be failure - if not in the short term, then certainly in the ...

  7. Institutions and growth accelerations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of institutions on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1995-2007. We follow Henderson, Storeygard, and Weil (American Economic Review 102(2): 994-1028, 2012) in combining Penn World Tables GDP data with satellite-based data on nightlights in order to arrive at a more accurate measure of economic growth. We find that countries with good institutions grew faster than countries with poor institutions. Using external instruments, 2SLS regressions ...

  8. Institutions and offshoring decision

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolini, Marcella

    2007-01-01

    Several papers have proven that the institutional environment of the receiving country can influence the choice to establish an FDI. Property rights theory suggests that contract enforcement matters differentially across sectors. This paper is the first attempt to test whether institutions matter differentially across different sectors in FDI decision. Using data on U.S. Direct Investment Abroad, I find that institutional characteristics of the country and the industry positively affect the v...

  9. Creating an institutional repository

    OpenAIRE

    Grozdanić, Marija; Macan, Bojan; Vodopijevec, Alen

    2006-01-01

    Institutional repository is a digital collection that capture, mantain, save, index, preserve and redistribute entire output of an institution in digital format. They adhere to open access modell and they are OAI – compliant. Building of insitutional repository is essential to the library whose mission is to provide access to wide range of information sources including open access sources and to promote them, as well. Intellectual output of the Institute might contain: pre-prints, post-...

  10. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  11. Institutional pressures and HRM: developing institutional fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.; Paauwe, J.; Boselie, J.P.P.E.F.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Research in strategic human resource management (HRM) has focused mainly on the effects of HRM practices or systems on organizational effectiveness. However, institutional theory argues that besides being financially successful, organizations also need legitimacy to survive. Owing to the t

  12. Annual rates of change in pre- vs. post- bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC over 4 years in moderate to very severe COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, Donald P.; Ning LI; Halpin, David; Kleerup, Eric; Decramer, Marc; Celli, Bartolome; Elashoff, Robert

    2013-01-01

    While the slope of decline in FEV1 has traditionally been calculated from the post- rather than the pre-bronchodilator measurement in COPD interventional trials, it is not clear whether and to what extent these two slopes differ in symptomatic patients with COPD. Therefore, we used data from the 4-year UPLIFT trial of tiotropium 18 mcg QD vs. placebo to compare annual rates of change in pre- vs. post-bronchodilator FEV1 in 5041 patients with moderate to very severe COPD (mean FEV1 48% pred) i...

  13. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children’s rule learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhidan eWang; Rebecca eWilliamson; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people’s acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children’s learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property—the object’s weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than...

  14. Antibody persistence and immune memory 4 years post-vaccination with combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in adults aged over 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlibek, Roman; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Van Damme, Pierre; Smetana, Jan; Tichy, Petr; Gunapalaiah, Bhavyashree; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of immune response was assessed in adults aged >40 years (N = 596) following primary vaccination with combined hepatitis A/B vaccine or concomitant monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Anti-hepatitis A virus antibody responses persisted for at least 4 years regardless of the vaccine used, with anti-hepatitis B surface antibody responses higher and more sustained in subjects who received the combined hepatitis A/B vaccine. Response rates to an additional dose of the same vaccine(s) used for priming were high.

  15. Metabolic profile in early pregnancy is associated with offspring adiposity at 4 years of age: the Rhea pregnancy cohort Crete, Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Daraki

    Full Text Available Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may increase the risk of childhood obesity but it is unknown whether other metabolic factors in early pregnancy such as lipid profile and hypertension are associated with offspring cardiometabolic traits.Our objective was to investigate whether fasting lipid, glucose, and insulin levels during early pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy weight status, are associated with offspring adiposity measures, lipid levels and blood pressure at preschool age.The study included 618 mother-child pairs of the pregnancy cohort "Rhea" study in Crete, Greece. Pregnant women were recruited at the first prenatal visit (mean: 12 weeks, SD: 0.7. A subset of 348 women provided fasting serum samples for glucose and lipid measurements. Outcomes measures were body mass index, abdominal circumference, sum of skinfold thickness, and blood pressure measurements at 4 years of age. A subsample of 525 children provided non-fasting blood samples for lipid measurements.Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with greater risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.81, central adiposity (RR: 1.97, 95%CI: 1.11, 3.49, and greater fat mass by 5.10 mm (95%CI: 2.49, 7.71 at 4 years of age. These associations were more pronounced in girls. An increase of 40 mg/dl in fasting serum cholesterol levels in early pregnancy was associated with greater skinfold thickness by 3.30 mm (95%CI: 1.41, 5.20 at 4 years of age after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and several other confounders. An increase of 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure in early pregnancy was associated with increased risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.45, and greater skinfold thickness by 1.71 mm (95% CI: 0.57, 2.86 at 4 years of age.Metabolic dysregulation in early pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity at preschool age.

  16. An institutional review of antimicrobial stewardship interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Henry; Phe, Kady; Laine, Gregory A; Russo, Hannah R; Putney, Kimberly S; Tam, Vincent H

    2016-09-01

    In order to combat increasing rates of bacterial resistance, many institutions have implemented antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) to improve antibiotic use. To ascertain the potential impact of our stewardship programme at Baylor St Luke's Medical Center (Houston, TX), antimicrobial-related interventions were analysed over a 4-year period. ASP recommendations related to antimicrobial therapy from 2009 to 2012 were retrieved from the hospital electronic database and were retrospectively reviewed. The number of interventions for each time period was adjusted to the hospital census data. The interventions were randomly assessed and categorised for clinical significance based on established institutional guidelines. In total, 14654 non-duplicate antimicrobial therapy interventions were retrieved, of which 11874 (81.0%) were audited for accuracy. Approximately 13 interventions were made per 1000 patient-days, but there were no significant patterns observed regarding the number of interventions performed from month to month (range 8-21). The most frequent types of interventions were related to inappropriate dosing (39.0%), antimicrobial selection (20.5%) and drug allergy (13.0%). Serious adverse drug events (ADEs) were potentially avoided in 20.7% of all interventions. Cumulative potential cost avoidance was more than US$6.5 million. In our institution, proper drug and dose selection were the major components of the ASP. Without focusing solely on reduction of drug acquisition costs, implementation of an ASP could still be cost effective by improving the quality of patient care and avoiding ADEs with serious consequences. PMID:27530844

  17. Institutional Characteristics and College Student Dropout Risks: A Multilevel Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, although access to higher education for American students has improved, student persistence in 4-year institutions is far from assured. There have been a number of research studies on student persistence/dropout in higher education, but most have focused on the characteristics and behavior of students as illustrated by the…

  18. Assessing Diversity Awareness in University Business Students at a Hispanic Serving Liberal Arts Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Angelina I. T.; Scobey, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Globalization and shifts in demographics are creating highly diverse workplaces, and managers must understand the importance of managing a diverse workforce. Students taking business management courses at a 4-year private Hispanic serving institution were asked to voluntarily participate in a study in which the researchers sought to explore the…

  19. Institutional Long Range Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell Community Coll. and Technical Inst., Lenoir, NC.

    Long-range institutional planning has been in effect at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute since 1973. The first step in the process was the identification of planning areas: administration, organization, educational programs, learning resources, student services, faculty, facilities, maintenance/operation, and finances. The major…

  20. Engagement and Institutional Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

  1. Institutionalism "Old" and "New."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selznick, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Explores the new institutionalism's ethos and direction. Drawing a sharp line between old and new inhibits the contribution of institutional theory to major issues of bureaucracy and social policy. Problems of accountability and responsiveness, public and private bureaucracy, regulation and self-regulation, and management and governance will…

  2. On educational institutions evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Tafur Puente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a view on the importance of institutional evaluations in educational programs that strive for continuous improvement. Furthermore, the article analyzes the concept of evaluation, explores some quality management models, and suggests the measures required for the design and implementation of an institutional evaluation process within the organization or one of its areas.

  3. Political institutions since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foldvari, Peter; Buzasi, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Political institutions determine the degree of freedom people enjoy and their capacity to influence their social and political environment. This chapter provides historical evidence on the evolution of political institutions drawing upon two major research projects: the PolityIV dataset and the Vanh

  4. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...

  5. Lymphatic microsurgical preventing healing approach (LYMPHA) for primary surgical prevention of breast cancer-related lymphedema: over 4 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, Francesco; Casabona, Federico; De Cian, Franco; DeCian, Franco; Friedman, Daniele; Murelli, Federica; Puglisi, Maria; Campisi, Corrado C; Molinari, Lidia; Spinaci, Stefano; Dessalvi, Sara; Campisi, Corradino

    2014-09-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) represents an important morbidity that jeopardizes breast cancer patients' quality of life. Different attempts to prevent LE brought about improvements in the incidence of the pathology but LE still represents a frequent occurrence in breast cancer survivors. Over 4 years ago, Lymphatic Microsurgical Preventing Healing Approach (LYMPHA) was proposed and long-term results are reported in this study. From July 2008 to December 2012, 74 patients underwent axillary nodal dissection for breast cancer treatment together with LYMPHA procedure. Volumetry was performed preoperatively in all patients and after 1, 3, 6, 12 months, and once a year. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 45 patients preoperatively and in 30 also postoperatively after at least over 1 year. Seventy one patients had no sign of LE, and volumetry was coincident to preoperative condition. In three patients, LE occurred after 8-12 months postoperatively. Lymphoscintigraphy showed the patency of lymphatic-venous anastomoses at 1-4 years after operation. LYMPHA technique represents a successful surgical procedure for primary prevention of arm LE in breast cancer patients.

  6. Content Validity of Tavana: a Test for Evaluation of Auditory Skills of 3-4 Year-Old Hearing-Impaired Persian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush Jarollahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Evaluation of hearing-impaired children's auditory skills by a valid test is very important before starting auditory training. There are many different tests available for languages other than Persian, and some limited Persian tests for children above 5 year of age as well. Accordingly considering the importance of early intervention, we aimed to design a test for evaluating auditory skills of 3-4 year-old hearing-impaired Persian (Farsi children, which is not available to date.Methods: The study method was test (scale construction. The test named Tavana includes four subtests: detection, discrimination, identification and sentence comprehension. For determining content validity of the test, the vocabulary of 3-4 year-old normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children and also the comments of seven specialists were applied. We classified 10,10,8 and 6 sub skills for 1st to 4th subtests, respectively.Results: The content validity of Tavana test's subskills were 100%, 83%, 96% and 95%, respectively (mean=94%. Mean time for test performance was 82 minutes.Conclusion: Content validity of Tavana test was 94% which was statistically valid compared to Modarres test (97% and Mazaheryazdi test (88%.

  7. An Assessment of the Consumption of Energy and Selected Minerals and Their Content in the Hair of Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Wójciak, Rafał Wojciech; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Stanisławska-Kubiak, Maia

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the consumption of energy and selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu) and their content in the hair of children aged 1-4 years. Seventy-five children were divided into three age subgroups: 12-24-month-olds, 25-36-month-olds and 37-48-month-olds. The data on energy intake and consumption of nutrients were obtained by means of a nutritional interview. The content of elements in the hair was measured by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with an AAS-3 spectrophotometer (Zeiss). The daily food rations of children aged 12-36 months were characterised by adequate energy value, but the values of Ca and K were too low, whereas the content of Mg, Zn and Cu was high. On the other hand, the daily food rations of children aged 37-48 months provided sufficient amounts of Mg and Zn, but the value of Cu was too high, whereas energy, Ca, K and Fe were too low. About 42.7% of the children under study were characterised by an abnormal state of nutrition. An inadequately balanced diet needs to be corrected by educating parents or guardians in appropriate nutrition. There are significant correlations (r > 0.9) between the supply of Ca in the diet of children aged 1-4 years and the content of this element in their hair.

  8. Compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation of French [u]: an acoustic and perceptual study of 4-year-old children

    CERN Document Server

    Ménard, Lucie; Aubin, Jérôme; Savariaux, Christophe; Thibeault, Mélanie

    2008-01-01

    The relations between production and perception in 4-year-old children were examined in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic and perceptual analyses of the rounded vowel [u] produced by twelve 4-year-old French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a 15-mm-diameter tube inserted between the lips. Recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation (N1), immediately upon insertion of the tube and for the next 19 trials in this perturbed condition, with (P2) or without articulatory instructions (P1), and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials (N2). The results of the acoustic analyses reveal speaker-dependent alterations of F1, F2, and/or F0 in the perturbed conditions and after the removal of the tube. For some subjects, the presence of the tube resulted in very little change; for others, an increase in F2 was observed in P1, which was generally reduced in some of the 20 repetitions, but not systematical...

  9. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities.

  10. From Institutional Change to Experimentalist Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    the stable and planned and predominantly national models of economic organization supported by the Keynesian state, which dominated in the 30 years after 1945, to the uncertain and high-risk environment of the current period in which globalization has opened up the possibility of new forms of firms...... and institutions. In this paper, we emphasize that in the current context of globalization, firms and actors within firms are continuously developing the way in which they organize work and employment to produce goods and services that are competitive in global markets. The paper argues that new market conditions...... lead firms to constant experimentation in work organization as they seek to position themselves within systems of production and innovation that are global in nature. This creates a pressure for institutional change to facilitate the process of firm-level experimentation; it also tends to create...

  11. Reforming Institutions: Where to Begin?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Idrees Khawaja; Sajawal Khan

    2009-01-01

    No society is devoid of institutions but many live with poor institutions. Institutions promote growth. This is a view now held firmly and widely. The task then is to ‘engineer’ growth-promoting institutions. Endogeneity characterises institutions; for example, groups enjoying political power influence economic institutions, but political power itself is a function of wealth. Given endogeneity, if the task is to design institutional reforms, the question then arises, as to what to reform firs...

  12. Mathematical learning instruction and teacher motivation factors affecting science technology engineering and math (STEM) major choices in 4-year colleges and universities: Multilevel structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahlam

    2011-12-01

    Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/06, this study examined the effects of the selected mathematical learning and teacher motivation factors on graduates' science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related major choices in 4-year colleges and universities, as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, I analyzed: (1) the association between mathematical learning instruction factors (i.e., computer, individual, and lecture-based learning activities in mathematics) and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy and (2) the association between school factor, teacher motivation and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities via mediators of math performance and math self-efficacy. The results revealed that among the selected learning experience factors, computer-based learning activities in math classrooms yielded the most positive effects on math self-efficacy, which significantly predicted the increase in the proportion of students' STEM major choice as mediated by math self-efficacy. Further, when controlling for base-year math Item Response Theory (IRT) scores, a positive relationship between individual-based learning activities in math classrooms and the first follow-up math IRT scores emerged, which related to the high proportion of students' STEM major choices. The results also indicated that individual and lecture-based learning activities in math yielded positive effects on math self-efficacy, which related to STEM major choice. Concerning between-school levels, teacher motivation yielded positive effects on the first follow up math IRT score, when controlling for base year IRT score. The results from this study inform educators, parents, and policy makers on how mathematics instruction can improve student math performance and encourage more students to prepare for STEM careers. Students

  13. Discipline as Institutional Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Hommel, Ulrich; Cornuel, Eric

    Drawing on the case of business school rankings, we study how institutions are maintained and remain persistent despite their contested nature. We argue that rankings as institutions can be maintained through subtle disciplinary practices that freeze power relations in recipient organizations. Our...... analysis rests on a Foucauldian understanding of control emphasizing that rankings discipline (1) by enhancing the visibility of individuals’ performance, (2) by defining ‘normal’ behavior, and (3) by shaping how people understand themselves and the world around them. We show that these three disciplining...... of disciplinary effects within business schools which help to stabilize and diffuse the institution....

  14. SMEs, Institutions and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Low, Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    for combining the resource-based theory with an institutions-based approach towards constructing a more practical and empirical oriented analytical framework. After the preliminary discussion and introduction to the different theories used, the authors then take a focus on the analytical framework used to study......This chapter addresses at the outset the topic of SMEs and economic development from an institutions perspective. The authors argue that the transaction cost theory is not helpful towards understanding the role that institutions play for SME performance for several reasons. Instead, they argue...

  15. International Institutions and GHG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jiyong

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is pushing public health crises beyond traditional national boundaries. It has also transformed international health governance into global health governance. Health security is one aspect of global public welfare. International institutions, such as the WHO, the WTO, the World Bank, and the BWC, are main providers of global public welfare for health. However, those institutions' role in global health governance is not optimized. An analysis of the shortcomings of the international institutions concerned with global heath can contribute to better global health governance. Some tentative solutions to such problems are put forward in this paper.

  16. Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for cardiogenic shock due to left main coronary artery obstruction caused by Kawasaki disease in a 4-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Wataru; Tsuda, Etsuko; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Shiono, Junko

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 4-year-old boy whose clinical course after Kawasaki disease resulted in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causing cardiogenic shock. He had developed an ischemic cardiomyopathy due to severe localized stenosis of the left main coronary artery (LCA) and went into cardiogenic shock due to AMI on the day before a scheduled operation. He underwent successful emergency CABG within 4 h of MI. Postoperatively his neurological status was intact. This is the first report of a successful emergency CABG in a small child with cardiogenic shock due to LCA occlusion. CABG should be undertaken in small patients when appropriate indications exist, if bodyweight is >10 kg. PMID:24730632

  17. Association between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated compounds and symptoms of infections at age 1-4years among 359 children in the Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsager, Louise; Christensen, Nikolas; Husby, Steffen;

    2016-01-01

    , educational level, parity and child age. RESULTS: On average, the children experienced symptoms of infection 23% of the time during one year. PFOS exposure in the high tertile compared to the low tertile was associated with a statistically significant increased proportion of days with fever (IRR: 1.65 (95% CI...... on childhood infectious disease is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between prenatal exposure to PFAS and symptoms of infections at age 1-4years. METHODS: The Odense Child Cohort is an on-going prospective study on children's health, where serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic......: 1.24, 2.18), P-trendfever above the median (OR: 2.35 (95% CI: 1.31, 4.11). The latter tendency was also apparent for PFOA (OR: 1.97 (95% CI: 1.07, 3.62). Further, higher concentrations of PFOS and PFOA tended to increase the number of episodes...

  18. [The effect of selected prophylactic-educational programs on oral hygiene, periodontium and caries in school children during a 4-year observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocholewicz, K

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work was the continuation of the evaluation of the efficacy of three prophylactic-educational programs in the field of oral cavity hygiene, status of periodontium and dental caries, and their influence on the forming of pro-health awareness and correct hygiene habits among school children. The work under discussion is the second stage of observations of the above-mentioned programs as well as the complete evaluation of 4-years examinations. The clinical and questionnaire studies were carried out in two elementary schools in Szczecin. Two hundred and twenty-three pupils were randomly allocated to three test groups: I (45 children), II (71 children), III (60 children) and control group K (47 children). In both schools mentioned above the examinations started when children were 7-8 years old and all of them were receiving planned stomatological treatment and contact fluoridation. All programs of the second stage of studies were the same as those of the first stage [49], only with the modified frequency of meetings with children. Program I, carried out in group I, was based on individual, motivating instructions of oral cavity hygiene (total 10 meetings during second stage of research). Programs II and III (group II and III accordingly) were expanded by educational activity among children and their parents. Additionally program III was enriched by professional mechanical tooth-cleaning, the use of fissure sealants, intensive dental care and proximal surface cleaning with dental floss (Tab. 1). The above-mentioned programs were carried out in co-operation with school dentists, teachers, fifth year dentistry students and students from Medical College--Oral Hygienist Faculty. After 4-years-long studies the evaluation of the three above-mentioned programs in oral cavity hygiene was achieved by using OHI-S and PI(QH). The status of periodontium was evaluated by GI and the intensity of dental caries by DMFT and DMFS. The increase of caries during the second

  19. Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for cardiogenic shock due to left main coronary artery obstruction caused by Kawasaki disease in a 4-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Wataru; Tsuda, Etsuko; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Shiono, Junko

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 4-year-old boy whose clinical course after Kawasaki disease resulted in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causing cardiogenic shock. He had developed an ischemic cardiomyopathy due to severe localized stenosis of the left main coronary artery (LCA) and went into cardiogenic shock due to AMI on the day before a scheduled operation. He underwent successful emergency CABG within 4 h of MI. Postoperatively his neurological status was intact. This is the first report of a successful emergency CABG in a small child with cardiogenic shock due to LCA occlusion. CABG should be undertaken in small patients when appropriate indications exist, if bodyweight is >10 kg.

  20. Repeatability of methacholine challenges in 2- to 4-year-old children with asthma, using a new technique for quantitative delivery of aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    To determine the repeatability of bronchial responsiveness in awake young children, two methacholine challenge tests were performed on separate days in 16 children with stable asthma (mean age, 3 3/4 years). Methacholine was administered using a new method for quantitative delivery of aerosol...... that eliminates the effect of dilution of the aerosol by entrainment of air and enables quantitative delivery of aerosol according to body weight. Respiratory function was monitored by measurement of respiratory resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint), respiratory resistance and reactance at 5 Hz (Rrs5......, respectively. Rint PD30 and Rrs5 PD30 proved to be less reproducible: [1.2 (1)] and [1.6 (0.9)] doubling doses, respectively. The new method of aerosol delivery offers a means of standardizing the bronchoconstrictor stimulus, and the results show that estimates of bronchial responsiveness in young children can...

  1. Reduced prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV 4 years after bivalent HPV vaccination in a randomized clinical trial in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Herrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 7,466 women 18-25 years old were randomized (1∶1 to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%. Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%. Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI = 63% to 79% (p versus oral VE = 0·04. There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. CONCLUSIONS: HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661.

  2. Long-term effects following 4 years of randomized treatment with atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Vera; Schmidt, Kay-Renke; Gutjahr-Lengsfeld, Lena J; Mann, Johannes F E; März, Winfried; Swoboda, Florian; Wanner, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    The 4D (Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse) Study was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing 4 years of treatment with atorvastatin to placebo in 1255 hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary end point of cardiovascular events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) was non-significantly reduced by 8%. However, long-term effects remained uncertain. Therefore, surviving patients were invited to a follow-up survey done by questionnaire. Post-trial statin therapy was at nephrologist discretion, and outcomes were centrally adjudicated and analyzed by intention to treat and time to first event in the original treatment groups. Median overall follow-up was 11.5 years. Post-trial statin use and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not differ between groups. Statin treatment non-significantly affected the former primary outcome (relative risk, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.07). The risk of all cardiac events combined and the risk of cardiac death were significantly lower in the original statin group compared to placebo (0.83, 0.70-0.97, and 0.80, 0.66-0.97). No significant effect was detected on cerebrovascular events, fatal stroke, fatal cancer, non-vascular, or all-cause death. No rhabdomyolysis was reported. Thus, after 4 years of atorvastatin treatment in diabetic hemodialysis patients, similar effects on outcomes were found after 11.5 years of follow-up as were found at the end of the original study. There was no evidence of emerging hazards in the long term, confirming current clinical practice guidelines. PMID:26924051

  3. Contributions to institutional matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers included in this document deal with the institutional aspects and the legal framework of spent fuel management. The international management and storage of plutonium and spent fuel is addressed. Licensing procedures are discussed

  4. Rescaling or Institutional Flexibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2010-01-01

    -border integration has given rise? Does a process exist whereby the ‘problem' and its solution are readily identified and absorbed by existing institutional structures with actions carried out through ‘selective competence delegation'? Based on two case studies, the integration of the labour market and the creation......ABSTRACT This article is based on the experience of the cross-border integration processes across the Øresund strait which separates Denmark from Sweden, and the related institutional and spatial interaction processes. The role of ‘space of flows' and that of ‘space of place', or territory......, will be examined in relation to this cross-border integration. Several related questions will be addressed: has there been a re-scaling in the form of new cross-border institutions or have existing national and regional institutional structures been able to adapt to the new landscape to which the cross...

  5. Joint Quantum Institute

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  6. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  7. On pragmatist institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Yefimov, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    The movement of New Institutional Economics (NIE), born in the seventies, followed the Institutional Economics of John R. Commons by putting the notion of ‘transaction’ in the centre of its study. The seventies were a period of appearance of an absolute authority of neoclassical economics with its hypothetic-deductive (Cartesian and positivist) methodology and the NIE followed this methodology. The NIE was assimilated by many of the members of its community with ‘transaction costs economics’....

  8. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-28

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  9. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  10. Trade Policy, Openness, Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood Mamoon; Mansoob Murshed, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of institutions vis-à-vis openness and trade policies in determining per capita income differences across countries. Recent literature has tried to demonstrate that more open economies grow faster. On the other hand, it has also been asserted that it is not openness per se but institutions and good governance that matter in promoting growth. This paper attempts to test this hypothesis across a crosssection of nations. Unlike other papers in the field, we hav...

  11. Blogs in cultural institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kaczyński

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses examples of three blogs of the National Library, both in terms of their structure and content as highlighting elements that impact on the promotion of both the blog and the institutions they lead. Discussed the advantages of one of Poland’s most popular blogging platforms WordPress. It also presents a short briefings to customize the look of your blog based on WordPress platform needs to actuate the institution.

  12. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  13. Antecedents of institutional process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Díez de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to advance the understanding of why organizations are responsive to the institutionalization process. To this end, we describe key elements that help explain the origin of this process. Furthermore, this research has followed a qualitative research methodology, using the ‘concept mapping’ technique, and grouping the different constructs items that act as motivating factors in the transformation of organizations to institutions. Methodologically we have tried to overlook the differentiation between old and new institutionalism, this approach follows the ideas of those researchers that question the suitability of drawing a line between the “old” and the “new” theory. We consider that the role of the CEO is essential in driving the institutionalization process, though usually their decisions are supported or have passed through the filter of the organization governance staff or the board of directors. Any progress that the organization makes depends fundamentally on the capabilities, perceptions, training and mindset of the CEO. The research results reinforce several key topics suggested in the literature on institutional theory. Particularly, we have proposed a classification with the motives that give rise to institutional initiatives: institutional authority; advantage in management; and, social involvement. This classification is consistent, to a larger extend, to the pillars of institutionalization that have been defined in the institutional theory literature, helping to understand, in more detail, the origin of the business processes and the background or motivations that generates and guide them.

  14. Shaping behaviour: How institutions evolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodhill, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Any form of development and social change requires institutional innovation. Societies have become much better at technological innovation than institutional innovation. Institutional innovation requires nonlinear, complex and evolutionary processes of change. Coping with the complex crises of our t

  15. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  16. A Microeconomic Analysis of Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Ola

    2000-01-01

    This survey paper has three themes; a microeconomic analysis of institutions, an institutional analysis of microeconomics, and a discussion on the scope for an "institutional microeconomics" that takes insights from psychology and older institutional theory into account. Institutions are defined as the long-run rules of the economy that have the character of public goods and whose main function is the reduction of transaction costs. The institutional requirements for the Walrasian equilibrium...

  17. Micronutrient fortified milk improves iron status, anemia and growth among children 1-4 years: a double masked, randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sazawal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent among preschool children and often lead to anemia and growth faltering. Given the limited success of supplementation and health education programs, fortification of foods could be a viable and sustainable option. We report results from a community based double-masked, randomized trial among children 1-4 years evaluating the effects of micronutrients (especially of zinc and iron delivered through fortified milk on growth, anemia and iron status markers as part of a four group study design, running two studies simultaneously. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Enrolled children (n = 633 were randomly allocated to receive either micronutrients fortified milk (MN = 316 or control milk (Co = 317. Intervention of MN milk provided additional 7.8 mg zinc, 9.6 mg iron, 4.2 microg selenium, 0.27 mg copper, 156 microg vitamin A, 40.2 mg vitamin C, and 7.5 mg vitamin E per day (three serves for one year. Anthropometry was recorded at baseline, mid- and end-study. Hematological parameters were estimated at baseline and end-study. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Compliance was over 85% and did not vary between groups. Compared to children consuming Co milk, children consuming MN milk showed significant improvement in weight gain (difference of mean: 0.21 kg/year; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12 to 0.31, p<0.001 and height gain (difference of mean: 0.51 cm/year; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.75, p<0.001. Mean hemoglobin (Hb (difference of 13.6 g/L; 95% CI 11.1 to 16.0, p<0.001 and serum ferritin levels (difference of 7.9 microg/L; 95% CI 5.4 to 10.5, p<0.001 also improved. Children in MN group had 88% (odds ratio = 0.12, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20, p<0.001 lower risk of iron deficiency anemia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Milk provides an acceptable and effective vehicle for delivery of specific micronutrients, especially zinc and iron. Micronutrient bundle improved growth and iron status and reduced anemia in

  18. Effects of a Specialist-Led, School Physical Education Program on Bone Mass, Structure, and Strength in Primary School Children: A 4-Year Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Rohan M; Eser, Prisca; Naughton, Geraldine; Seibel, Markus J; Telford, Richard D

    2016-02-01

    This 4-year cluster randomized controlled trial of 365 boys and 362 girls (mean age 8.1 ± 0.3 years) from grade 2 in 29 primary schools investigated the effects of a specialist-taught physical education (PE) program on bone strength and body composition. All children received 150 min/week of common practice (CP) PE from general classroom teachers but in 13 schools 100 min/week of CP PE was replaced by specialized-led PE (SPE) by teachers who emphasized more vigorous exercise/games combined with static and dynamic postural activities involving muscle strength. Outcome measures assessed in grades 2, 4, and 6 included: total body bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) by DXA, and radius and tibia (4% and 66% sites) bone structure, volumetric density and strength, and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by pQCT. After 4-years, gains in total body BMC, FM, and muscle CSA were similar between the groups in both sexes, but girls in the SPE group experienced a greater gain in total body LM (mean 1.0 kg; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.9 kg). Compared to CP, girls in the SPE group also had greater gains in cortical area (CoA) and cortical thickness (CoTh) at the mid-tibia (CoA, 5.0% [95% CI, 0.2% to 1.9%]; CoTh, 7.5% [95% CI, 2.4% to 12.6%]) and mid-radius (CoA, 9.3% [95% CI, 3.5% to 15.1%]; CoTh, 14.4% [95% CI, 6.1% to 22.7%]), whereas SPE boys had a 5.2% (95% CI, 0.4% to 10.0%) greater gain in mid-tibia CoTh. These benefits were due to reduced endocortical expansion. There were no significant benefits of SPE on total bone area, cortical density or bone strength at the mid-shaft sites, nor any appreciable effects at the distal skeletal sites. This study indicates that a specialist-led school-based PE program improves cortical bone structure, due to reduced endocortical expansion. This finding challenges the notion that periosteal apposition is the predominant response of bone to loading during the prepubertal and early-pubertal period.

  19. Alimentos industrializados en la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos Contribution of processed foods to the energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes of Mexican children aged 1 to 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah González-Castell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Clasificar los alimentos consumidos por preescolares mexicanos, en relación con su proceso de elaboración y temporalidad: a industrializados modernos (IM, b industrializados tradicionales (IT y c no industrializados (NI. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con base en información del recordatorio de 24 horas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 en niños de 1-4 años (n=1 070 se analizó la contribución de cada categoría de alimentos en energía, macronutrimentos y fibra. RESULTADOS: La contribución de energía a partir de IM e IT, respectivamente, fue: energía, 17 y 31%; proteína total, 14 y 25%; proteína vegetal, 10 y 10%; proteína animal, 17 y 34%; carbohidratos, 18 y 26%; fibra, 4 y 5%; grasa total, 15 y 41%; grasa saturada, 16 y 52%; y colesterol, 7 y 7 por ciento. CONCLUSIONES: Los alimentos industrializados aportan más de 39% de la energía, proteína animal, carbohidratos y grasas a la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos. Se recomienda la participación de la industria alimentaria para prevenir la mala nutrición infantil en México.OBJECTIVE: To classify the foods consumed by Mexican children 1-4 years in three food categories according to the preparation process and temporality: a Processed Modern Foods (PMF, b Processed Traditional Foods (PTF and c Non-Processed Foods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 in children 1-4 years (n =1070. The contribution of each food category to the total energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes was analyzed. RESULTS: The contribution of PMF and PTF was as follows, respectively: Energy: 17%, 31%; total protein: 14%, 25%; non-animal protein: 10%, 10%; animal protein: 17%, 34%; carbohydrates: 18%, 26%; fiber: 4%, 5%; total fat 15%, 41%; saturated fat 16%, 52%; and cholesterol 7%, 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of PF to the diets of Mexican children accounts for >39% of energy, total protein, animal protein

  20. Effects of a Specialist-Led, School Physical Education Program on Bone Mass, Structure, and Strength in Primary School Children: A 4-Year Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Rohan M; Eser, Prisca; Naughton, Geraldine; Seibel, Markus J; Telford, Richard D

    2016-02-01

    This 4-year cluster randomized controlled trial of 365 boys and 362 girls (mean age 8.1 ± 0.3 years) from grade 2 in 29 primary schools investigated the effects of a specialist-taught physical education (PE) program on bone strength and body composition. All children received 150 min/week of common practice (CP) PE from general classroom teachers but in 13 schools 100 min/week of CP PE was replaced by specialized-led PE (SPE) by teachers who emphasized more vigorous exercise/games combined with static and dynamic postural activities involving muscle strength. Outcome measures assessed in grades 2, 4, and 6 included: total body bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) by DXA, and radius and tibia (4% and 66% sites) bone structure, volumetric density and strength, and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by pQCT. After 4-years, gains in total body BMC, FM, and muscle CSA were similar between the groups in both sexes, but girls in the SPE group experienced a greater gain in total body LM (mean 1.0 kg; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.9 kg). Compared to CP, girls in the SPE group also had greater gains in cortical area (CoA) and cortical thickness (CoTh) at the mid-tibia (CoA, 5.0% [95% CI, 0.2% to 1.9%]; CoTh, 7.5% [95% CI, 2.4% to 12.6%]) and mid-radius (CoA, 9.3% [95% CI, 3.5% to 15.1%]; CoTh, 14.4% [95% CI, 6.1% to 22.7%]), whereas SPE boys had a 5.2% (95% CI, 0.4% to 10.0%) greater gain in mid-tibia CoTh. These benefits were due to reduced endocortical expansion. There were no significant benefits of SPE on total bone area, cortical density or bone strength at the mid-shaft sites, nor any appreciable effects at the distal skeletal sites. This study indicates that a specialist-led school-based PE program improves cortical bone structure, due to reduced endocortical expansion. This finding challenges the notion that periosteal apposition is the predominant response of bone to loading during the prepubertal and early-pubertal period. PMID:26260216

  1. Institutional social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijić-Samaržija Snježana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I am referring to social engagement as a value-based choice to actively intervene in social reality in order to modify existing collective identities and social practices with the goal of realizing the public good. The very term ‘engagement’, necessarily involves the starting awareness of a social deficit or flaw and presupposes a critical attitude towards social reality. In this article, I will attempt to provide arguments in favour of the thesis about the possibility (and, later, necessity of institutional engagement, critical action and even institutional protest, basing this view on the thesis that institutions are fundamentally collective or social agents whose actions must be guided by ethical and epistemic virtues.

  2. The Physics Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Dalibard, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The Collège de France’s Physics Institute is a new research centre set up on the historical Marcelin-Berthelot site. Its establishment follows a long tradition that was recently illustrated by that of Louis Leprince-Ringuet’s, Marcel Froissart’s and Pierre-Gilles de Gennes’s laboratories. The Institute is comprised of three physics Chairs and a junior research team incubator, surrounded by efficient technical and administrative services. In total, about one hundred researchers, engineers, tec...

  3. Institutionalism and "psychosomatic" diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberakis, E A

    In a review of 324 long stay psychiatric patients, 37 per cent of them were found to suffer also from physical disorders. A little over half of them (18% of the total) suffered from "psychosomatic" disorder. While in the total populations 38.5 per cent of the patients were free from institutionalism, in the "psychosomatic" patients the percentage was only 25.8 per cent (p less than 0.05). It is possible that "psychosomatic" diseases are a biological inferiority predisposing to institutionalism.

  4. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  5. [Loeys-Dietz syndrome (TGFβR2 mutation) in a 4-year-old child with thoracic aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Potter, M-J; Edouard, T; Amadieu, R; Plaisancié, J; Julia, S; Hadeed, K; Hascoët, S; Acar, P; Dulac, Y

    2016-05-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a rare form of connective tissue disorder, whose clinical features can resemble those of Marfan syndrome, but with a more unpolished appearance. Recently brought out, this pathology remains little known; however, its consequences may be dramatic. We report on the case of a 4-year-old girl followed for a congenital hip dislocation, in which a systematic exam found increased cutaneous elasticity and a bifid uvula, suggesting a connective tissue disorder. Symptoms were unpolished, as the child's height was normal, without any positive cardiac, rheumatological, or ophthalmological family history. Cardiovascular tests found a thoracic aortic aneurysm at the Valsalva sinus (26mm, Z-score=+4.24). A genetic investigation found a TGFβR2 gene mutation, leading to the diagnosis of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 2. Skeletal damage associated with bifid uvula and/or hypertelorism and an aneurysm of the ascending aorta should guide the genetic investigation to the search for TGF-β vasculopathy such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome. PMID:27017362

  6. Reading faces: differential lateral gaze bias in processing canine and human facial expressions in dogs and 4-year-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Racca

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to the emotions of others provides clear biological advantages. However, in the case of heterospecific relationships, such as that existing between dogs and humans, there are additional challenges since some elements of the expression of emotions are species-specific. Given that faces provide important visual cues for communicating emotional state in both humans and dogs, and that processing of emotions is subject to brain lateralisation, we investigated lateral gaze bias in adult dogs when presented with pictures of expressive human and dog faces. Our analysis revealed clear differences in laterality of eye movements in dogs towards conspecific faces according to the emotional valence of the expressions. Differences were also found towards human faces, but to a lesser extent. For comparative purpose, a similar experiment was also run with 4-year-old children and it was observed that they showed differential processing of facial expressions compared to dogs, suggesting a species-dependent engagement of the right or left hemisphere in processing emotions.

  7. Long-Term Outcome of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Naturalistic Case Series of 1 to 4 Years After a Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Anson, Martin

    2015-11-01

    There is some evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) after 1 to 6months but none in the long term. The aim of this study was to follow up the participants in a randomized controlled trial of CBT versus anxiety management to determine whether or not the treatment gains were maintained over time. Thirty of the original 39 participants who had CBT were followed up over 1 to 4years and assessed using a number of clinician and self-report measures, which included the primary outcome measure of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for BDD. Outcome scores generally maintained over time from end of treatment to long-term follow-up. There was a slight deterioration from n=20 (51.3%) to n=18 (46.2%) who met improvement criteria at long-term follow-up. Eleven (28.2%) were in full remission and 22 (56.4%) were in partial remission. The gains made were generally maintained at long-term follow-up. However, there were a significant number of participants who maintained chronic symptoms after treatment and may need a longer-term or more complex intervention and active medication management. PMID:26520220

  8. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children’s rule learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidan eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people’s acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children’s learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property—the object’s weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than were children who saw control actions using the same objects and the same bins. Crucially, children also generalized to a novel set of objects with no further demonstration, suggesting rule learning. We also report that high-fidelity imitation of the adult’s hefting acts may give children crucial experience with the objects’ weights, which could then be used to infer the more abstract rule. The connection of perception, action, and cognition was found in children from both cultures, which leads to broad implications for how the imitation of adults’ acts functions as a lever in cognitive development.

  9. The successful treatment of rapidly progressive idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulo-nephritis Type 1 in a 4-year-old male pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaga, S; Ohtomo, Y; Hirano, D; Nishizaki, N; Someya, T; Ohtsuka, Y; Kaneko, K; Shimizu, T

    2010-10-01

    A multivariate analysis [4] revealed that the presence of crescent formation on initial biopsy irrespective of type of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) was independently associated not only with end-stage renal disease but also with post-transplantation recurrence. In this study, we reported on a 4-year-old male pediatric patient requiring hemodialysis due to rapidly progressive idiopathic MPGN Type 1 with severe nephrotic syndrome and extensive cellular crescent formation on initial biopsy. The patient had been treated intravenously (i.v.) with 9 pulses of methylprednisolone, followed by daily prednisolone, resulting in the withdrawal of dialysis within 1 month. However, since active lesions in the second renal biopsy such as cellular crescents still remained and nephrotic range proteinuria had persisted for more than 2 months, the patient received additional 3 i.v. pulses of methylprednisolone, followed by combinations of alternate-day prednisolone, mizoribine, dipyridamole and warfarin, which lead to complete remission in a short-period of time. The patient has been off the combination therapy for 10 months because the third biopsy prior to the termination of this regimen showed decreased inflammatory activity. There is currently no established protocol for children with crescentic MPGN due to a rarity of its clinicopathological presentation. This case report indicates that early treatment with multiple pulses of methylprednisolone followed by the short-term combination therapy may be of benefit for children with rapidly progressive idiopathic MPGN Type 1, even when both diffuse crescentic changes and nephrotic syndrome are present at onset.

  10. Role of atmospheric heat source/sink over the Qinghai- Xizang Plateau in quasi-4- year oscillation of atmosphere- land-ocean interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using 1961-1995 monthly atmospheric apparent heat source/sink over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QXP) and reanalysis data of NCEP/NCAR, and 1961-1994 monthly SST of UK/GISST2, the statistical study is undertaken on the QXP heat source/sink in relation to both atmospheric circulation in Asia and El Ni?o/La Ni?a events. It is discovered that there exists noticeable interaction in a quasi-4-year period among the of the QXP, low-level me-ridional winds east of the QXP, low-level zonal winds in the equatorial Pacific, SST in the equatorial eastern Pacific, and the circulation at mid and high latitudes north of the QXP. They have difference in phase. The cold source intensity of the QXP in winter favours a low-level meridional wind anomaly to prevail in the mainland of China and its coast east of the QXP and to last until the subsequent autumn. The wind anomaly can induce a low-level zonal wind anomaly of the tropic Pacific that finally affects an El Ni?o/La Ni?a event in the autumn and subsequent winter. The event in autumn/winter has effect on the deep trough position and cold air track of East Asia in next winter that influences the intensity of the QXP winter cold source.

  11. Ventriculo-bipleural shunt as last resort in a 4-year-old child in whom a VP and VA shunt failed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Miriam; Unterberg, Andreas; Bächli, Heidi

    2016-03-01

    The authors present the unusual case of a 4-year-old boy who had a complex history of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and who underwent more than 40 surgeries related to this condition. In the course of trying to treat his condition, ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculoatrial, and ventriculopleural shunts were inserted and failed. The child presented with a dysfunction of his shunt system. A ventriculopleural shunt was inserted, but within days the patient developed dyspnea as a clinical symptom of pleural effusion that required repeated thoracentesis. A bipleural drainage system was inserted, and no relevant pleural effusions developed during the follow-up period. Although the authors' experience is based on a single case, they do suggest bipleural drainage in patients with clinically relevant pleural effusions when the more common alternatives are not a good choice. Bipleural drainage might particularly be an option in children, who are prone to pleural effusion because of the smaller absorbing pleural surface. The authors reviewed the English-language literature on PubMed dating back to 1952. To their knowledge, this is the only published case in which a patient was treated with a ventriculo-bipleural shunt.

  12. Chronic Candida albicans Meningitis in a 4-Year-Old Girl with a Homozygous Mutation in the CARD9 Gene (Q295X).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Martin; Gazendam, Roel; Reimnitz, Denise; Sawalle-Belohradsky, Julie; Groll, Andreas; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Belohradsky, Bernd; Renner, Ellen; Klepper, Jörg; Grimbacher, Bodo; Kuijpers, Taco; Liese, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    A 4-year-old Turkish girl of consanguineous parents was hospitalized for the evaluation of headaches and recurrent febrile episodes of unknown origin. Her medical history was unremarkable except for a few episodes of uncomplicated oral thrush. Meningitis was diagnosed, and Candida albicans was the only pathogen identified by polymerase chain reaction and culture. Despite systemic antifungal multidrug therapy, a prolonged course of 16 months of therapy was necessary to clear C. albicans from the cerebrospinal fluid. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) mutation (Q295X), which was reported to predispose to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Immunologic workup excluded predisposing B-cell and T-cell defects. In addition, T cells producing interleukin-17 were repeatedly measured within the normal range. Analyses of neutrophils demonstrated normal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity in response to various stimuli including Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans. Additional neutrophilic functional testing, however, showed a decreased cytotoxicity to nonopsonized C. albicans, indicating an impaired killing mechanism against Candida spp. independent from the production of reactive oxygen species by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase system. Because this defect was only demonstrated in the absence of opsonins, it might especially predispose to chronic C. albicans infections in the central nervous system where opsonin concentrations are usually low. We, therefore, suggest that due to an additional neutrophil dependent defect CARD9 deficiency predisposes not only to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but also to invasive chronic Candida infections, especially of the central nervous system.

  13. Compensation for a lip-tube perturbation in 4-year-olds: Articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual data analyzed in comparison with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Lucie; Perrier, Pascal; Aubin, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the speech goal in children was investigated in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic, articulatory, and perceptual analyses of the vowels /y/ and /u/ produced by ten 4-year-old French speakers and ten adult French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a large tube inserted between the lips. Ultrasound and acoustic recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation, for each of the trials in the perturbed condition, and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials. Data revealed that adult participants moved their tongues in the perturbed condition more than children did. The perturbation was generally at least partly compensated for during the perturbed trials in adults, but children did not show a typical learning effect. In particular, unsystematic improvements were observed during the sequence of perturbed trials, and after-effects were not clear in the articulatory domain. This suggests that children may establish associative links between multisensory phonemic representations and articulatory maneuvers, but those links may mainly rely on trial-to-trial, error-based feedback correction mechanisms rather than on the internal model of the speech production apparatus, as they are in adults. PMID:27250147

  14. [A case of non-resectable pancreatic cancer surviving more than 4 years by intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy with angiotensin-II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Y; Ohigashi, H; Ishikawa, O; Yasuda, T; Nakano, H; Nakamori, S; Kameyama, M; Hiratsuka, M; Sasaki, Y; Kabuto, T; Furukawa, H; Imaoka, S; Iwanaga, T

    1996-09-01

    This is a report of a 62-year-old woman whose non-resectable pancreatic cancer had been treated effectively by a new method of intra-arterial regional chemotherapy for more than 4 years. A catheter was placed into the celiac artery during laparotomy, and an intra -arterial chemotherapy (methotrexate (50 mg) and Angiotensin-II (AT-II, 5 micrograms)) has been repeated every other week (108 times) in addition to the external beam therapy (50 Gy). Both pain relief and "partial response" in the size of tumor have been obtained, with no hepatic metastasis or adverse effect. She died of brain metastasis at 51 postoperative months. Autopsy revealed that the pancreatic tumor was mostly replaced by fibrous connective tissues. Scintigraphic study indicated that the intra-arterial infusion of AT-II increased the blood flow in the tumor but decreased it in the surrounding non-cancerous tissues. This seemed to explain the effective loco-regional control in the present case. PMID:8854821

  15. Is sexual abuse a part of war? A 4-year retrospective study on cases of sexual abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Kuria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009. Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363 form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict.

  16. Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: a 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Dennison, Meg; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of effortful control (EC), a temperamental measure of self-regulation, and concurrent development of three regions of the prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dlPFC; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, vlPFC) between early- and mid-adolescence. It also examined whether development of EC mediated the relationship between cortical maturation and emotional and behavioral symptoms. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline assessments when they were approximately 12 years old and follow-up assessments approximately 4 years later. At each assessment, participants had MRI scans and completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, as well as measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, and aggressive and risk taking behavior. Cortical thicknesses of the ACC, dlPFC and vlPFC, estimated using the FreeSurfer software, were found to decrease over time. EC also decreased over time in females. Greater thinning of the left ACC was associated with less reduction in EC. Furthermore, change in effortful control mediated the relationship between greater thinning of the left ACC and improvements in socioemotional functioning, including reductions in psychopathological symptoms. These findings highlight the dynamic association between EC and the maturation of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the importance of this relationship for socioemotional functioning during adolescence.

  17. Opening a Can of Worms: The Schools/ Math/Science/ 2-4 year Colleges and the Job Market - Are We just 'Fishing' for Solutions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Yukech

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper confronts some of the biggest problems educators face in the teaching of math and science. The article focuses on a grass roots method called the Algebra project. The Algebra project has improved algebra skills among groups of students who are either steered away from upper level math or who may not ever have the chance to take an advanced math course. According to the data by the department of labor and statistics many jobs are going unfilled. This paper discusses where the jobs are, the courses that are the gateway to employment and the skill sets students need to fill the jobs. Math and science courses need to be used as a tool for liberation of such a problem. We have to ask ourselves why we have a society where only a small group of students are prepared for their future. We need to determine where the knowledge gap is and provide courses that prepare students for the job market and transfer credit from the 2 year to 4 year colleges. This paper also looks at factors that effect change, who the change agents are and what mind set implement solutions.

  18. Chronic Candida albicans Meningitis in a 4-Year-Old Girl with a Homozygous Mutation in the CARD9 Gene (Q295X).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Martin; Gazendam, Roel; Reimnitz, Denise; Sawalle-Belohradsky, Julie; Groll, Andreas; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Belohradsky, Bernd; Renner, Ellen; Klepper, Jörg; Grimbacher, Bodo; Kuijpers, Taco; Liese, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    A 4-year-old Turkish girl of consanguineous parents was hospitalized for the evaluation of headaches and recurrent febrile episodes of unknown origin. Her medical history was unremarkable except for a few episodes of uncomplicated oral thrush. Meningitis was diagnosed, and Candida albicans was the only pathogen identified by polymerase chain reaction and culture. Despite systemic antifungal multidrug therapy, a prolonged course of 16 months of therapy was necessary to clear C. albicans from the cerebrospinal fluid. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) mutation (Q295X), which was reported to predispose to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Immunologic workup excluded predisposing B-cell and T-cell defects. In addition, T cells producing interleukin-17 were repeatedly measured within the normal range. Analyses of neutrophils demonstrated normal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity in response to various stimuli including Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans. Additional neutrophilic functional testing, however, showed a decreased cytotoxicity to nonopsonized C. albicans, indicating an impaired killing mechanism against Candida spp. independent from the production of reactive oxygen species by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase system. Because this defect was only demonstrated in the absence of opsonins, it might especially predispose to chronic C. albicans infections in the central nervous system where opsonin concentrations are usually low. We, therefore, suggest that due to an additional neutrophil dependent defect CARD9 deficiency predisposes not only to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but also to invasive chronic Candida infections, especially of the central nervous system. PMID:25933095

  19. The Gesell Institute Responds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Responding to Dr. Meisels' article concerning the uses and abuses of the Gesell readiness tests, the Gesell Institute of Child development maintains that the Gesell series of assessments are used by schools to gain a fuller developmental understanding of the child and have been predictive of school success. (BB)

  20. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  1. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  2. Institute for Nuclear Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly discussion the following programs of the Institute for Nuclear Theory: fundamental interactions in nuclei; strangeness in hadrons and nuclei; microscopic nuclear structure theory; nuclear physics in atoms and molecules; phenomenology and lattice QCD; and large amplitude collective motion

  3. Leadership in Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunko, Esmeralda

    2012-01-01

    Many questions concerning quality of functioning and effectiveness are connected with the management of education as a professional field in educational organizations. The role of educational leadership in an educational organization raises many questions related to legislative regulations of activities, issues of institutional placement,…

  4. Marketingour institution internationally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2008-01-01

    Quality assurance is quickly taking on a vital role when it comes to managing the increasingly complex internationalisation process. Not only is it essential in reaching institutional goals in a controlled manner, it is also becoming an integral part of maintaining and improving every institution’s

  5. Individ, institution og samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    I denne antologi giver en række førende fagpersoner deres bud på det nye fag "Individ, institution & samfund"'s indholdselementer. Emnerne tæller bl.a. styreformer- og styringslogikker, dannelse, institutionalisering, tværinstitutionelt arbejde, etik, social ulighed, globalisering og forvaltning af...

  6. Asian Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  7. The branding of institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S

    1991-02-20

    Institutional operations capitalizing on national foodservice brands have seen sales increase as much as 40%, operators say. But what if operators choose to stay independent and develop their own brands? Our feature presents both business strategies and the concepts that are winning customers. PMID:10109711

  8. Summer Youth Forestry Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Youth Forestry Institute (SYFI) was developed to inspire youth through experiential learning opportunities and early work experience in the field of natural resources. Declining enrollments in forestry and other natural resource careers has made it necessary to actively engage youth and provide them with exposure to careers in these…

  9. Shaping behaviour: How institutions evolve

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhill, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Any form of development and social change requires institutional innovation. Societies have become much better at technological innovation than institutional innovation. Institutional innovation requires nonlinear, complex and evolutionary processes of change. Coping with the complex crises of our times will require new forms of social learning and political engagement that dramatically enhance capacities for institutional innovation.

  10. Empirical Analysis of Informal Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Min

    2013-01-01

    The New Institutional Economics has established itself as widely accepted extension to the standard neoclassical paradigm. Here, institutions are defined as commonly known rules that structure recurring interaction situations and the corresponding sanctioning mechanism. For-mal institutions describe rules with a sanction mechanism that is organized by the state. In-formal institutions describe rules with a sanction mechanism that ...

  11. How (not) to measure institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The statement “institutions matter” has become commonplace. A precondition for it to be supported by empirical evidence, is, however, that institutions are measurable. Glaeser et al. (2004) attacks many studies claiming to prove the relevance of institutions for economic development as being based on flawed measures of institutions, or not even on institutions at all. This paper shows that their criticism deserves to be taken seriously, but that it is somewhat overblown. Some of the difficult...

  12. Results of 4-year analysis of conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to mTOR inhibitors in renal transplant patients: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Mehmet; Celik, Ali; Kural, Kemal; Ersan, Sibel; Ataca, Pinar; Atila, Koray; Cavdar, Caner; Sifil, Aykut; Bora, Seymen; Gulay, Hüseyin; Camsari, Taner

    2011-01-01

    In this retrospective study, 83 patients were accepted. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) group consisting of 37 patients were converted from calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), and the control group included 46 patients (initially CNI-receiving patients). As a control-match of each mTOR inhibitor patient, the succeeding patient with transplantation who continued CNI therapy was chosen. All patients received CNI, MMF, and prednisolone as an immunosuppressive therapy initially. In comparison of two groups, there was no significant difference between sex, donor organ source, donor organ ischemia time, or mismatches. However, mean age between groups was significantly different (mTOR group: 48.3 ± 12, CNI group: 38.6 ± 11, p < 0.001). Decision of conversion to mTOR inhibitors in 30 patients was made by biopsy. The reasons for conversion were determined as CNI nephrotoxicity in 15 patients, chronic allograft nephropathy in 15 patients, malignancy in 6 patients, and renal artery stenosis in 1 patient. Basal glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) were markedly lower in mTOR group than in CNI group (38.8 mL/min vs. 72.7 mL/min). At the end of 48-month follow-ups, GFR increased from 38 mL/min to 54 mL/min in mTOR group; however, it decreased to 53 mL/min from 72 mL/min in CNI group. There was no difference left between the two groups in GFR after 4-year follow-up. Hyperlipidemia was higher in mTOR group. Acute rejection rates were similar. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was more prevalent in CNI group. Graft failure developed due to secondary reasons, causing mortality in both groups. We suggest that conversion to mTOR inhibitors maintains and improves graft functions well. PMID:21787153

  13. LISK-BROOM: Clearing near-Earth space debris in 4 years using a 20-kW, 530-nm repetitively pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Michaelis, M.M. [Natal Univ., Pietermaritzburg (South Africa). Faculty of Science

    1994-10-01

    When space debris forced a change of plan for a recent US Space Shuttle mission, it finally reached the point of broad awareness. Almost a million pieces of debris have been generated by 35 years of spaceflight, and now threaten some long-term space missions. This problem can best a be solved by causing space debris items to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory. Illumination of the objects by a repetitively-pulsed laser will easily produce a laser-ablation jet providing the impulse to de-orbit the object. For reasons we will discuss, we propose the use of a ground-based laser system, atmospheric-turbulence compensating beam director, computer and high resolution detection system to solve this problem. A laser of just 2OkW average power and state-of-the-art detection capabilities could clear near-Earth space below 1100km altitude of all space debris larger than 1 cm but less massive than 100kg in about 4 years. The LISK-BROOM laser would be located near the Equator above 5km elevation [e.g., the Uhuru site on Kilimanjarol, minimizing turbulence correction and absorption of the 530-nm wavelength laser beam. LISK-BROOM is a special case of Laser Impulse Space Propulsion (LISP), by which objects are propelled in space by the ablation jet due to a distant laser. We will also discuss active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and the object detection system which are necessary.

  14. Mobility and phytoavailability of Cu, Cr, Zn, and As in a contaminated soil at a wood preservation site after 4 years of aided phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattab, Nour; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Bourrat, Xavier; Mench, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The remediation of copper-contaminated soils by aided phytostabilisation in 16 field plots at a wood preservation site was investigated. The mobility and bioavailability of four potentially toxic trace elements (PTTE), i.e., Cu, Zn, Cr, and As, were investigated in these soils 4 years after the incorporation of compost (OM, 5 % w/w) and dolomite limestone (DL, 0.2 % w/w), singly and in combination (OMDL), and the transplantation of mycorrhizal poplar and willows. Topsoil samples were collected in all field plots and potted in the laboratory. Total PTTE concentrations were determined in soil pore water (SPW) collected by Rhizon soil moisture samplers. Soil exposure intensity was assessed by Chelex100-DGT (diffusive gradient in thin films) probes. The PTTE phytoavailability was characterized by growing dwarf beans on potted soils and analyzing their foliar PTTE concentrations. OM and DL, singly and in combination (OMDL), were effective to decrease foliar Cu, Cr, Zn, and As concentrations of beans, the lowest values being numerically for the OM plants. The soil treatments did not reduce the Cu and Zn mineral masses of the bean primary leaves, but those of Cr and As decreased for the OM and DL plants. The Cu concentration in SPW was increased in the OM soil and remained unchanged in the DL and OMDL soils. The available Cu measured by DGT used to assess the soil exposure intensity correlated with the foliar Cu concentration. The Zn concentrations in SPW were reduced in the DL soil. All amendments increased As in the SPW. Based on DGT data, Cu availability was reduced in both OM and OMDL soils, while DL was the most effective to decrease soil Zn availability.

  15. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Kapur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. Methodology: A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and control groups comprising of 20 children each. The children in the experimental group (Group I received 0.5 mg/kg body weight of midazolam mixed in strawberry syrup and those in the control group (Group II received the same syrup mixed in saline, 15 min prior to the restorative procedure. Routine nonpharmacological behavior management techniques were used in both groups. The anxiety levels were recorded using Venham′s anxiety scale at the start and end of each procedural step. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the anxiety levels of children in the experimental group on entry into the operatory compared with the control group. Introduction of each fear evoking stimuli showed a somewhat similar increase in anxiety levels in the two groups. In spite of a similar trend, the anxiety levels remained much lower in Group I than in Group II. Conclusion: Midazolam in conjunction with behavior management is more helpful in relaxing the child initially than behavior management alone, thus increasing the chances of successful and easy accomplishment of further treatment steps.

  16. Immunogenicity of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in young children less than 4 years of age, with a focus on age and baseline antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugitani, Ayumi; Ito, Kazuya; Irie, Shin; Eto, Takashi; Ishibashi, Motoki; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the effects of the prevaccination titer and age on the immunogenicity of a low dose of influenza vaccine in children less than 4 years of age. A total of 259 children received two vaccine doses (0.1 ml for 0-year-olds and 0.2 ml for children 1 year of age or older) 4 weeks apart during the 2005/2006 season. The hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were measured before vaccination and 4 weeks after the first and second doses. The geometric mean titer, mean fold rise, seroresponse proportion (≥4-fold rise in titer), and seroprotection proportion (titer ≥1:40) were calculated for the prevaccination titer and age categories. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using the seroresponse and seroprotection proportions as dependent variables and the prevaccination titer and age as explanatory variables. As for the seroresponse against the H1 antigen after the first dose, the adjusted odds ratios of the prevaccination titers (versus year-olds and 0.17 (0.08 to 0.34) for the 1-year-olds compared with the 2- to 3-year-olds (Ptrend < 0.001). Similar results were also obtained for the H3 and B strains. Significantly elevated odds ratios for seroprotection were observed with greater prevaccination titers and older ages for all strains. The prevaccination titer and age were independently associated with the antibody response in young children. The immune response was weaker in the younger children and those without preexisting immunity.

  17. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law establishes the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in accordance with the Basic Act on Atomic Energy as a government corporation for the purpose of promoting R and D and utilizations of atomic energy (first chapter). The second chapter concerns the directors, advisers and personnel of the institute, namely a chairman of the board of directors, a vice-chairman, directors not more than seven persons, and auditors not more than two persons. The chairman represents and supervises the intitute, whom the prime minister appoints with the agreement of Atomic Energy Commission. The vice-chairman and other directors are nominated by the chairman with the approval of the prime minister, while the auditors are appointed by the prime minister with the advice of the Atomic Energy Commission. Their terms of office are 4 years for directors and 2 years for auditors. The third chapter defines the scope of activities of the institute as follows: basic and applied researches on atomic energy; design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors; training of researchers and technicians; and import, production and distribution of radioisotopes. Those activities should be done in accordance with the basic development and utilization plans of atomic energy established by the prime minister with the determination of Atomic Energy Commission. The fourth chapter provides for the finance and accounting of the institute, and the fifth chapter requires the supervision of the institute by the prime minister. (Matsushima, A.)

  18. Exploring How Perceptions of Blog Authenticity Shape Students' Conceptions about and Interactions with Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Jean Kelso

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to recruit digitally native high school students, admission professionals at colleges and universities are incorporating blogs on their websites in an effort to render authenticity in their marketing materials. Of 4-year accredited colleges and universities, 66% have a blog; 85% percent of institutions with blogs reported that their…

  19. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level......Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  20. Institute for safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the area of nuclear reactor safety studies, the Institute for Safety Technology (STI) concentrated its efforts in analysing experimentally and numerically phenomena which characterize highly-improbable but very severe accidents either for light water or for sodium cooled reactors. In the STI nuclear isle, three new laboratories for waste (PETRA), fusion (ETHEL) and safeguards, (PERLA) activities are approaching completion and have made substantial progress in their licensing procedure. The Institute started activities in the non-nuclear safety research area only a few years ago and has been able this year to present its first significant experimental and theoretical results in the areas of runaway reactions, accidental release of products and their deflagration/detonation. Concerning Reference Methods for the Evaluation of Structure Reliability a better understanding was gained of the nonlinear cyclic and dynamic behaviour of materials and structures by performing experiments and developing constitutive and structural member models leading to the computer simulation of complete structures

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Petrovna POPOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern linguistics attributes analysis of discourse to a most actual scientific problem. The paper considers different approaches to study of discourse, gives its short characteristics, describes its linguistic and extra linguistic features, and provides definitions of discourse. The article also describes several models of institutional discourse, the main features of which are normativeness, conventionality, hierarchy, appellate character, integrity, consistency etc. The author of the article carries out comparative analysis of the terms ―text‖ and ―discourse‖, taking into account various frames of reference of scholars dealing with this problem, considers some kinds of institutional discourse (e.g. electronic, pedagogical. Special attention is paid to academic discourse defined as a complex of all possible texts, which reflect scientific knowledge and have a high degree of inter-textuality. 

  2. Identity and total institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić Milana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a psychiatric institution resident’s identity (self- construction processes. Our quest was grounded on constructivist theoretical paradigm that sees identity as a manner a person defines oneself in accordance with offered social repertoire. In other words, the total institution milieu offers limited range of identities to its residents. On the other hand, the latter are not just passive subjects that identity is imposed upon. They are able to use a number of adjustment mechanisms to the knowledge about themselves - ranging from symbolic escape to open resistance against the imposed image about them; to obedience, and we were interested to understand the (supposed complex dynamic of identity (re-building in, so-called, special or forensic patients. In order to understand this process and attempting to discover, besides the manifest also the latent layer of the story about self, the local, or personal, identity understanding was examined.

  3. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  4. Literature and Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Olher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Literature and Institution. The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts and beliefs about what is understood by “literature”. Based, at first, on post-modern views of some literary critics and philosophers such as: Terry Eagleton and Jacques Derrida, this work does not intend to define literature precisely, but, mainly, put in doubt or raise questions which are highly relevant to the reflection of the professionals who work with Brazilian and Foreign Literature, as well as for the theoreticians and literary critics, who contribute to the continuity of prescriptive and pre-conceived thoughts and, at the same time, restrain the thinking of a different and more critical view of institutionalized, established values. Keywords: literature; literary text; values; institution.

  5. Changing institutions of knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    In order to reach the EU 2020 goals for the climate, Danish vocational training units are currently in a process of institutional change triggered by the need of providing energy, and new process competences for the skilled and semiskilled workforce active in construction. The aim of the present...... and interviews with seven companies come to focus on competences of interdisciplinary collaboration and sustainable innovation in SME. The anticipation of future building regulation of 2015 and 2020 creates an institutional pressure in education for change including handling differentiated demands of customers...... companies and results from innovative building projects. The education committees in Denmark can have a leading role in this development and set high and motivational standards for the improvements. The analysis sees however a lot more barriers than enablers....

  6. Institutions and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution.

  7. Jakartans, Institutionally Volatile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki OKAMOTO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta recently has gained even more central political attention in Indonesia since Joko Widodo (Jokowi and Basuki Purnama (Ahok became, respectively, the province’s governor and vice-governor in 2012. They started a series of eye-catching and populist programmes, drawing popular support from not only the people of Jakarta, but also among Indonesians in general. Jokowi is now even the most popular candidate for the presidential election in 2014. Their rise is phenomenal in this sense, but it is understandable if we look at Jakartan voters’ behaviour and the institutional arrangement that leads to it. Jakarta, as the national capital, has a unique arrangement in that the province has no autonomous regency or city. This paper argues that this arrangement causes Jakartans to be more politically volatile and describes how this institutional arrangement was created by analysing the minutes of the meeting to discuss the laws concerning Jakarta Province.

  8. Crime, Corruption and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ishita Chatterjee; Ranjan Ray

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the link between crime and corruption, compares their magnitudes, determinants and their effects on growth rates. The study uses a large cross country data set containing individual responses to questions on crime and corruption along with information on the respondents’ characteristics. This data set is supplemented by country level indicators from a variety of sources on a range of macro variables and on institutions in the respondent’s country of residence. A methodolog...

  9. Norwegian Fashion Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Heggli, Karolina; Soraas, Nina Cathrine; Thorstensen, Nina Fredrikke; Thorso, Mia

    2010-01-01

    This report has been conducted in cooperation with Norwegian Fashion Institute (hereinafter NFI). NFI is a non-profit organisation that represents the participants within the Norwegian fashion Industry. It seeks to make Norwegian fashion brands recognized at home and overseas. There are 90 members in the organisation that represents the wide spectrum of Norwegian fashion. Obtaining knowledge of the market will help NFI promote Norwegian fashion brands in the UK and identify the...

  10. Institute of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the personnel and activities of the Institute of Physics. Research by staff of the Nuclear Physics Group includes mainly work on heavy ion reactions and investigations of rare earth nuclei. The Elementary Particle Group has studied antineutron and antiproton annihilations, neutral current pions minus and has used the CERN ISRs. The Cosmic Physics Group has used rockets, satellite data and balloons to study the electron and proton precipitation in the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere, and aurorae. (JIW)

  11. Institutions, Technology, and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller; Carol H. Shiue

    2008-01-01

    We study the importance of technology and institutions in determining the size of markets in five different countries and fifteen different German states. The setting of 19th century Europe presents a unique opportunity to address this issue, since it witnessed fundamental change in both dimensions. At the beginning of the century, numerous customs borders, separate currencies with different monetary systems, and poor transportation facilities were major obstacles that held back trade. Import...

  12. Institutions and Labour Reallocation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertola, Giuseppe; Rogerson, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Despite stringent dismissal restrictions in most European countries, rates of job creation and destruction are remarkably similar across European and North American labour markets. This paper shows that relative-wage compression is conducive to higher employer-initiated job turnover, and argues that wage-setting institutions and job security provisions differ across countries in ways that are both consistent with rough uniformity of job turnover statistics and readily explained by intuitive t...

  13. Institutions and Labor Reallocation

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Bertola; Richard Rogerson

    1996-01-01

    Despite stringent dismissal restrictions in most European countries, rates of job creation and destruction are remarkably similar across European and North American labor markets. This paper shows that relative-wage compression is conducive to higher employer-initiated job turnover, and argues that wagesetting institutions and job-security provisions differ across countries in ways that are both consistent with rough uniformity of job turnover statistics and readily explained by intuitive the...

  14. INSTITUTIONS AND FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Shanna

    2010-01-01

    As budgetary commitments outpace current revenues and long-term liabilities balloon, the fiscal sustainability of state and local governments is a matter of mounting concern. Over the years, these governments have experimented with a wide variety of political and fiscal institutions, ranging from direct democracy to balanced budget rules, with the goal of slowing the growth of government and increasing financial responsibility. This article synthesizes the related empirical literature, summar...

  15. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    E. Stam; Nooteboom, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of entrepreneurship and its relation to innovation along a cycle in which exploration and exploration follow upon each other. We place the roles of entrepreneurship in innovation policy within this cycle of innovation. Different types of innovation along the cycle of innovation are realized with different forms of entrepreneurship, which are constrained or enabled by different legal institutions. One of the key roles of governments is to design, change or destr...

  16. HOLIDAY AS SOCIAL INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaktionova Nelli Anatolyevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with holiday as social institute, stages of its institutionalization, such as emergence of need; formation of general objects and ideology proving them; development of social norms and rules;practical adoption of rules and procedures; establishment sanction system; creation of statuses and role system. On the example of Russian festive tradition the general institutional signs of a holiday are described, it is specified that the majority of holidays are at a stage of cultural symbol search having the behavior code; system of ideas; utilitarian and cultural lines; installations and examples of behavior. Taking into consideration the view of Nelli Galaktionova, we can say, that these principles explain the popularity of the Victory Day Holiday and not stable Russian holiday on the 12-th of June- day of Russia. It is stated that the absence of the ritual prevents the popularity of holiday in society. In the article obvious and latent functions of a holiday as social institute are described - regulatory function, integrative, broadcasting, function of reproduction of the social relations, socializing, educational, guarding, forming the culture, communicative, sociocultural, actable, function of leisure and rest organization, adaptive and compensatory, function of removal of ethical regulations. According to the author of article, the holiday is a basis of formation of national and state and civil identity.

  17. Blood component use in a sub-Saharan African country: results of a 4-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, John P; Wilkinson, Robert; Liu, Yang; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th; Lowrance, David W; Marfin, Anthony A; Postma, Maarten J; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

    2015-01-01

    National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. Although malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and noncommunicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood use in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a 4-year period (August 1, 2007-July 31, 2011). Variables included blood component type, recipient age and sex, and diagnosis. Diagnoses reported by clinicians were reclassified into International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision categories. Multiple imputation methods were used to complete a data set missing age, sex or diagnosis data. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe indications for transfusions and use of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma. A total of 39,313 records accounting for 91,207 blood component units were analyzed. The median age of Namibian transfusion recipients was 45 years (SD, ±19). A total of 78,660 RBC units were issued in Namibia during the study period. Red blood cells transfused for "unspecified anemia" accounted for the single largest category of blood issued (24,798 units). Of the overall total, 38.9% were for diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (D50-D89). Infectious disease (A00-B99), pregnancy (O00-O99), and gastrointestinal (K20-K93) accounted for 14.8%, 11.1%, and 6.1% of RBC units issued, respectively. Although a specific diagnosis of malaria accounted for only 2.7% of pediatric transfusions, an unknown number of additional transfusions for malaria may have been categorized by requesting physicians as unspecified anemia and counted under diseases of blood forming organs. During the study period, 9751 units of fresh

  18. Does Institutional Theory Need Redirecting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Höllerer, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Greenwood, Hinings and Whetten (2014) present two major criticisms of current institutional scholarship, and see need for a broad redirection: institutional organization theory, they argue, has lost sight of the claim to study organizations and, with its overwhelming focus on isomorphism and simi......Greenwood, Hinings and Whetten (2014) present two major criticisms of current institutional scholarship, and see need for a broad redirection: institutional organization theory, they argue, has lost sight of the claim to study organizations and, with its overwhelming focus on isomorphism...... of similarities in favour of differences, institutional theory may eventually lose sight of its pivotal quest: to study institutions....

  19. Institutions, innovation and growth / Institutions, innovation et croissance

    OpenAIRE

    Spinesi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    The general argument of this dissertation focuses on the relationship and interplay between institutions, both private and public, the innovation process, and growth. The first essay focuses on institutional quality, inequality and growth. The results show that bad institutional quality widens income inequality and reduces the per-capita output growth rate. Moreover, bad institutional quality increases inequality in consumption level between unskilled and skilled workers. With a full informat...

  20. Institutional and Non-Institutional Explanations of Economic Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley L. Engerman; Sokoloff, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Although we cannot conceive of processes of economic growth that do not involve institutional change, in this essay we outline some reasons why one should be cautious about grounding a theory of growth on institutions. We emphasize how very different institutional structures have often been found to be reasonable substitutes for each other, both in dissimilar as well as similar contexts. The historical record, therefore, does not seem to support the notion that any particular institution, nar...

  1. Institutional Repositories in Indian Universities and Research Institutes: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M.; Kemparaju, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the institutional repositories (IRs) in use in Indian universities and research institutes. Design/methodology/approach: Repositories in various institutions in India were accessed and described in a standardised way. Findings: The 20 repositories studied covered collections of diverse…

  2. Institutional Repositories at Small Institutions in America: Some Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykanen, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this article was undertaken to determine the level of implementation of institutional repositories (IRs) at small institutions enrolling fewer than 10,000 students. The study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from IRs at a number of small institutions with the aim of observing relevant patterns and trends that may…

  3. Institutional Repositories: The Experience of Master's and Baccalaureate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; St. Jean, Beth; Soo, Young Rieh; Yakel, Elizabeth; Kim, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, MIRACLE Project investigators censused library directors at all U.S. academic institutions about their activities planning, pilot testing, and implementing the institutional repositories on their campuses. Out of 446 respondents, 289 (64.8 percent) were from master's and baccalaureate institutions (M&BIs) where few operational…

  4. International Security Institutions, Domestic Politics, and Institutional Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Terrence L.

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have devoted considerable attention to the informational role of international institutions. However, several questions about the informational aspects of institutional behavior remain underexplored: What determines how audiences respond to institutional decisions? Through what channels does information provision affect foreign policy? To…

  5. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken

    2012-01-01

    the relationships between culture and institutions and how they are connected. Finally, the article points at the influence of globalization challenging the national origin of many institutions when relating to a world of organizations, which increasingly are becoming global. For some companies, organizational......This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...... influence on the formation and construction of institutions. The four relationships are defined as 1) cultural filtering of institutional pressure from isomorphism, 2) organizational culture as a source of new institutional elements, 3) organizational culture as a source of positioning towards institutions...

  6. National Human Genome Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Director Organization Reports & Publications Español The National Human Genome Research Institute conducts genetic and genomic research, funds ... study, led by researchers at the National Human Genome Research Institute and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National ...

  7. Solar Technology Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past three years, Ken Olson and Johnny Weiss and their staff have been quietly delivering the tools of sustainable development to people in places as diverse (or similar) as Manhattan and the jungles of Colombia. Their delivery vehicle is the Solar Technology Institute, officially launched in May of 1991. Founded on thirty years of combined experience and inspired by Johnny and Ken's most recent work in developing countries, STI reflects its founders' evolving abilities to tackle environmental energy and development challenges on a global scale. This article describes the STI and highlights some of its global activities in education and application of solar technology

  8. Institute annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  9. Spaceborne Photonics Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.

  10. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...

  11. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  12. Institutional Repository Bibliography, Version 1

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Jr., Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The Institutional Repository Bibliography (IRB) presents selected English-language articles, books, and other scholarly textual sources that are useful in understanding institutional repositories. Although institutional repositories intersect with a number of open access and scholarly communication topics, this bibliography only includes works that are primarily about institutional repositories. For example, an article dealing with the NIH open access policy would not be included, but one dea...

  13. Emerging Institutions: Pyramids or Anthills?

    OpenAIRE

    Czarniawska, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In the present text, an institution is understood to be an (observable) pattern of collective action, justified by a corresponding social norm. By this definition, an institution emerges slowly, although it may be helped or hindered by various specific acts. From this perspective, an institutional entrepreneur is an oxymoron, at least in principle. In practice, however, there are and always have been people trying to create institutions. This paper describes the emergence of London School of ...

  14. Institutions matter, but which ones?

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab K. Bardhan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to go beyond the narrow focus of the current institutional economics literature in development on the institutions protecting individual property rights, and to look at the economic effects of some other aspects of institutional quality on the development process (like democratic participation rights and institutions to address coordination failures). Another purpose is to suggest an alternative instrumental variable in quantifying the effects of property rights i...

  15. EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAG ANALYSIS OF A 4 YEAR-OLD CHINESE STURGEON PITUITARY%4龄中华鲟垂体的EST分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宏; 周莉; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis is an efficient tool for gene discovery and for profiling gene expression. In order to isolate specific functional genes involved in reproduction and endocrine regulation and to reveal their evolutionary mechanisms in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gray) , a chondrostean fish with a history of 140 million years, we constructed its pituitary cDNA library from a 4 year-old male. A total of 944 random clones were sequenced and compared with sequences in GenBank database. Among all the 944 EST clones, 802 (84.96%) clones were identified as 461 known genes, and additional 142 (15.04%) as unknown genes. Functional categorization indicated that the most abundantly expressed functional gene was the proopiomelanocortin (POMC), which accounted for almost 10. 17% of the overall expression, indicating its important function in the pituitary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of 7 unknown genes were analyzed in various tissues, such as heart, liver, spleen, kidney, muscle, testes, ovary and pituitary. Three different categories of expression patterns were observed from them. Several unknown ESTs, such as EG009334, EG009337, EG009338 and EG009340, were detected to be pituitary-specific, or pituitary and ovary-specific genes. Further studies on their functions will be very useful for better understanding the mechanisms of sturgeon reproduction biology and endocrinology.%表达序列标签(Expressed sequence tag,EST)是鉴定基因表达规律和发现新基因的一种有效的分子生物学手段.为了能在中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis Gray)中发现与生长和生殖内分泌调控相关的基因,我们构建了中华鲟垂体的SMART cDNA质粒文库.垂体是调节生长和生殖内分泌的重要器官.在本研究中,通过测序筛选得到了944个EST克隆,将所得EST与GenBank数据库中的序列进行比对,结果表明,802(84.96%)个克隆可以找到同源序列,共代表461个基因,其中含132

  16. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  17. Analgesia caudal continua guiada por ultrasonido en una paciente de 4 años Caudal anesthesia ultrasound-guided continuos flow in patient 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beltrán Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La epidural caudal es la técnica más popular en anestesia y analgesia regional pediátrica. El empleo de una guía ecográfica en este procedimiento, aunque aún no es un estándar, podría disminuir los riesgos inherentes a la técnica tradicional y ofrecer algunas ventajas. Nosotros describimos el caso de una niña de 4 años sometida a una resección de un rabdomiosarcoma en muslo izquierdo con metástasis ganglionar inguinal e implantación de catéteres para braquiterapia; a quien se le colocó un catéter caudal para analgesia postoperatoria continua, usando la ultrasonografía (US como método para guiar la colocación de dicho catéter. Después de inducir anestesia general, se realizó un escaneo ecográfico previo de la zona sacra identificando la anatomía, posteriormente después de implementar las medidas antisépticas y asépticas se colocó un catéter caudal guiado por US en tiempo real y con modo Doppler color se confirmó la posición en el espacio epidural caudal al inyectar una dosis en bolo de mezcla anestésica. Se presentó un adecuado control del dolor postoperatorio. El uso de US es una excelente alternativa a las técnicas clásicas fundamentadas en anatomía para la inserción de catéteres epidurales continuos en pediatría y permite ciertas ventajas que las técnicas a ciegas no pueden brindar.Caudal epidural is the most popular regional analgesia and anesthesia technique in pediatrics. The use of ultrasound (US guidance in this procedure, is not yet the standard, but could reduce the risks related with the traditional approach and offer some advantages. We described a case of a 4-years-old patient undergoing a resection of a rabdomyosarcome on the left thigh plus inguinal metastatic nodes and implantation of brachitherapy catheters, in whom a continous caudal epidural catheter was placed under US guidance. After general anesthesia induction, a scout scanning identified the anatomy and afterwards, using strict

  18. HISTORY OF THE LINGUISTIC INSTITUTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILL, ARCHIBALD A.

    THIS HISTORY, CONTAINED IN THE 1964 BULLETIN OF THE INDIANA UNIVERSITY LINGUISTIC INSTITUTE, GIVES AN ACCOUNT OF THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTITUTE FROM ITS FOUNDATION (IN 1928) AND EARLY SESSIONS UNDER THE DIRECTORSHIP OF EDGAR H. STURTEVANT. IT OFFERS A CONDENSED, YEAR-BY-YEAR DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTITUTE'S ACTIVITIES, MAKING NOTE OF…

  19. The Adolescence of Institutional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. Richard

    1987-01-01

    A review of both institutional theories and recent empirical studies employing institutional arguments reveals great diversity. Different definitions and explanations for organizations and their structures are employed and various causal arguments subsumed under this general perspective. Two primary actors and shapers of institutional environments…

  20. Gaining independence through institutional repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Buckholtz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    The author presents SPARC's Initiative about open archives and its relationship with the OAI. Institutional repositories are institutionally defined as a content generated by institutional community, have a scholarly content: preprints and working papers, published articles, enduring teaching materials, student theses, etc. And also are cumulative and perpetual (preserve ongoing access to material) and interoperable and open access: free, online, global.

  1. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE: ESSENCE AND CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "institutional infrastructure" and clarifies its essential content in relation to market cars. In terms of the industry market the main purpose of the institutional infrastructure is achieving the maximum economic benefit within limited resources. The main tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal were formulated. We have developed and proved structurally-logical chart of the elements of the institutional infrastructure. The content of the institutional infrastructure of the car are presented and justified. The analysis condition of the car market’s institutional infrastructure showed the problems associated with the state of institutions which have an impact on the functioning of the car market. Measures to stimulate the car market does not cover entire sector as a whole, and imported institutions do not give the expected effect because of inconsistency formal and informal elements of the institutional infrastructure. Presented assessment of the institutional infrastructure of the car market confirms the dependence of the state of the industry market cars from institutional infrastructure. Only reforming the institutions at all levels of the industry, from production to car sales can have a positive effect on the industry. Changes in the institutional infrastructure should be focused on improving the competitiveness, stability and independence from external factors

  2. Improving Institutional Report Card Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Institutional report cards are increasingly being used by higher educational institutions to present academic outcomes to external audiences of prospective students and parents, as well as program and institutional evaluators. While some prospective students are served by national transparency measures most users mine information from the…

  3. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in expl

  4. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  7. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries......A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  8. 10-month angiographic and 4-year clinical outcome of everolimus-eluting versus sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in patients with diabetes mellitus (the DiabeDES IV randomized angiography trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeng, Michael; Baranauskas, Arvydas; Christiansen, Evald H J;

    2015-01-01

    randomized 213 patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease to EES (n = 108) or SES (n = 105) implantation. Angiographic follow-up was performed 10 months after the index procedure and all patients were followed clinically for 4 years. The primary endpoint was angiographic in-stent late luminal loss...... at 10-month follow-up. Secondary endpoints included angiographic restenosis rate, the need for target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE; defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, or TLR) at 4-year follow-up. RESULTS: At 10-month...... and coronary artery disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  9. Association of compliance of ventilator bundle with incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator utilization among critical patients over 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid S Al-Thaqafy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies showed that the implementation of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI ventilator bundle alone or with other preventive measures are associated with reducing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP rates. However, the association with ventilator utilization was rarely examined and the findings were conflicting. The objectives were to validate the bundle association with VAP rate in a traditionally high VAP environment and to examine its association with ventilator utilization. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the adult medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Arabia, between 2010 and 2013. VAP data were collected by a prospective targeted surveillance as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN methodology while bundle data were collected by a cross-sectional design as per IHI methodology. Results: Ventilator bundle compliance significantly increased from 90% in 2010 to 97% in 2013 (P for trend < 0.001. On the other hand, VAP rate decreased from 3.6 (per 1000 ventilator days in 2010 to 1.0 in 2013 (P for trend = 0.054 and ventilator utilization ratio decreased from 0.73 in 2010 to 0.59 in 2013 (P for trend < 0.001. There were negative significant correlations between the trends of ventilator bundle compliance and VAP rate (cross-correlation coefficients −0.63 to 0.07 and ventilator utilization (cross-correlation coefficients −0.18 to −0.63. Conclusion: More than 70% improvement of VAP rates and approximately 20% improvement of ventilator utilization were observed during IHI ventilator bundle implementation among adult critical patients in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Replicating the current finding in multicenter randomized trials is required before establishing any causal link.

  10. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  11. Digitalization of daycare institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    The digitalization of Danish daycare institutions is not only affecting the ways staff is documenting and reporting on its pedagogical work. It also appears to be redefining what pedagogical work itself is about, given the drastic increase in deployment of digital (mobile) media devices...... meaningful for the respective pedagogical practice. Against this background, the presentation will in particular explore what this digitalization process may entail for the aim of promoting reciprocal intergenerational communication and practice. It draws on recent work in childhood geography as well...... as on situated sociomaterial approaches to critical psychological practice research in order to inquire into possible specificities of digital media device usage: How is this usage similar to and different from interacting via other material-communicative devices in a pedagogical practice? How do digital media...

  12. The Groningen ART cohort study: Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure or a combination of both influence cognitive and behavioural development of 4-year-old IVF-offspring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelaar, P.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, S.; Heineman, M.J.; Middelburg, K.J.; Seggers, J.; Van Den Heuvel, E.R.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2014-01-01

    Study question: Evaluating the effects and underlying causal relationships of ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure and the combination of both on cognitive and behavioural development in 4-year-olds. Summary answer: Our preliminary results suggest that ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vi

  13. Teacher Enhancement Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Bradley, Tina

    1994-01-01

    During the 1980's, a period of intense concern over educational quality in the United States, few indicators of U.S. student achievement garnered the interest of policy makers and pundits as successfully as the results of international testing in mathematics and science. This concern was so great that as a part of the Goals 2000 initiative, President George Bush indicated that 'By the year 2000, U.S. students should be first in the world in mathematics and science.' The Clinton Administration is placing a major emphasis, not only on rigorous academic standards and creating a new system for assessing students' progress, but also including professional development as a major focus. The argument being that teachers need more sustained, intensive training to prepare them to teach to higher standards. Executive order 12821 mandates that national laboratories 'assist in the mathematics and science education of our Nation's students, teachers, parents and the public by establishing programs at their agency to provide for training elementary and secondary school teachers to improve their knowledge of mathematics and science'. These and other issues led to the development of ideas for a project that addresses the need for excellence in mathematics, science and technology instruction. In response to these initiatives the NASA/LaRC Teacher Enhancement Institute was proposed. The TEI incorporated systemic reform perspectives, enhanced content knowledge for teachers, and teacher preparation. Emphasis was also placed on recruiting those educators who teach in impoverished urban school districts with at-risk student populations who have been traditionally under represented in science, mathematics, technology and engineering. Participants in the Teacher Enhancement Institute were 37 teachers from grades K-8, teaching in Region 2 in the state of Virginia, as well as 2 preservice teachers from Norfolk State University and one teacher from Dublin, Virginia, where a Science

  14. Studying institutional work in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke

    2011-01-01

    in studying the institutional work of people in organizations. Design/methodology/approach – Methodological insights from the ways in which theories of human agency in institutional contexts have co-evolved with field study methodologies are analyzed in related fields of research, particularly in sociology...... and anthropology. Findings – The ways have been analyzed in which social theories of human agency in institutional contexts and field methodology have co-evolved in an inter-disciplinary perspective. The analysis shows how field methodologies may provide inspirations to theory and method in studying institutional...... work. Research limitations/implications – The findings suggest that institutional organization research may prosper by grounding the study of institutional work on ethnographic methodologies. Originality/value – This paper contributes methodological inspirations to studying organizational actors’ work...

  15. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  16. Effects of Montessori education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years%蒙氏教育法对2~4岁儿童智力发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宏灵; 颜虹; 左玲; 刘灵; 张西萍

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过蒙氏教育法和传统教育法模式下儿童智力发育状况的对比研究,评价蒙氏教育法对2~4岁儿童智力发育的影响.方法 选择西安市某幼儿园于2006年9月新入园的2~3岁儿童进行观察研究.新生入园时随机分为蒙氏班和普通班.蒙氏组除接受常规传统教育内容外,每日参加2 h的蒙氏教育活动.普通组仅接受常规传统教育.智力测试采用首都儿科研究所编制"0~6岁小儿神经心理发育量表"分别于儿童入园时和1年后测定其智力发育.结果 干预前蒙氏组和普通组儿童智力各能区发育水平和发育商水平差异均无显著性.干预后蒙氏组和普通组儿童精细动作、适应能力、语言、社交行为发育,两组差异均有显著性(P<0.05或0.01);干预后智力发育增长水平中大运动、精细动作、语言、社交行为4个能区和发育商的增长值蒙氏组均高于普通组(P<0.05或0.01).结论 蒙氏教育法可较显著促进儿童的大运动、精细动作、语言和社交行为能力发育,从而有益于儿童的智力发育.%Objective To compare the effects of Montessori education and traditional education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years. Methods Children aged between 2 to 3 years who were enrolled in a kindergarten in September 2006 were randomly assigned to the Montessori education and the traditional education groups. In addition to receiving the traditional education, the Montessori education group participated in the two-hour Montessori pedagogical activities every day. The intellectual development was evaluated by the Neuropsychological Development Examination Format for Children Aged 0 ~ 6 years published by Capital Pediatrics Research Institute at enrollment and one year after the trial. Results There were no significant differences in the intelligence growth level between the Montessori education and the traditional education groups at enrollment. After

  17. Institutional PLEs. Paradise or paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Hugh; White, Su

    2011-01-01

    Is it possible to create an institutional personal learning environment? This question has recently triggered considerable debate amongst those concerned with implementing learning and teaching technologies within higher education, For some the argument lies in the fundamental (linguistic) paradox of claiming that the institutional can be personal. Others would derive from this a pedagogic perspective and argue that reliance and use of any institutional initiative and infrastructure would nec...

  18. Developing a sustainable institutional repository

    OpenAIRE

    White, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide an assessment of the factors involved in the development of sustainable platforms and processes for institutional repositories, drawing on the experience of the team at the University of Southampton and from project initiatives in the UK. It will look at the fundamental integration of repositories into the cultural, financial and technical structures of institutions to promote healthy repository growth. How do we effectively link repository development to institutional...

  19. Asset Prices and Institutional Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Suleyman; Pavlova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that trades by institutional investors have sizable effects on asset prices, generating phenomena such as index effects, asset-class effects and others. It is difficult to explain such phenomena within standard representative-agent asset pricing models. In this paper, we consider an economy populated by institutional investors alongside standard retail investors. Institutions care about their performance relative to a certain index. Our framework is tractable, adm...

  20. What institutions help immigrants Integrate?

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 77, 38 pages I analyse the importance of national migration policy and labour market institutions for immigrants’ labour market integration. Results indicate that the sending country structure of immigrants to a country, its ethnic diversity and its wage bargaining institutions as well as product market regulation are the most important national institutions impacting immigrants’ labour market integration. Variables related to the generosity of the welfare state...

  1. Marketing of an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Šijan, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the area of marketing for educational institutions. First part is focused on general theoretical aspects of marketing of services, specificity of marketing for educational institutions and marketing communication. The operative part attends to a selection of an educational institution, an execution of an analysis of internal and external environment of the school, an implementation of a marketing research recognizing image of the school and based on that des...

  2. Integrative Bioengineering Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddington, David; Magin,L,Richard; Hetling, John; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-09

    Microfabrication enables many exciting experimental possibilities for medicine and biology that are not attainable through traditional methods. However, in order for microfabricated devices to have an impact they must not only provide a robust solution to a current unmet need, but also be simple enough to seamlessly integrate into standard protocols. Broad dissemination of bioMEMS has been stymied by the common aim of replacing established and well accepted protocols with equally or more complex devices, methods, or materials. The marriage of a complex, difficult to fabricate bioMEMS device with a highly variable biological system is rarely successful. Instead, the design philosophy of my lab aims to leverage a beneficial microscale phenomena (e.g. fast diffusion at the microscale) within a bioMEMS device and adapt to established methods (e.g. multiwell plate cell culture) and demonstrate a new paradigm for the field (adapt instead of replace). In order for the field of bioMEMS to mature beyond novel proof-of-concept demonstrations, researchers must focus on developing systems leveraging these phenomena and integrating into standard labs, which have largely been ignored. Towards this aim, the Integrative Bioengineering Institute has been established.

  3. INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Adriana MATEESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review previous developed studies regarding the institutional investors’ issue, as the influence they exert in the companies they invest in is growing in importance. In the first part, the paper tries to review the existing literature regarding the institutional investors’ research theme, especially regarding their attitude towards investment, while the second main part will try to describe the presence of institutional investors in Romanian listed companies. Also, the paper aims to review previous studies regarding the influence of institutional investors over corporate governance mechanisms (especially board’s members’ independence and composition and financial and non-financial disclosure practices.

  4. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  5. Leadership in Islamic Education Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Supriadi Supriadi

    2014-01-01

    Education institution may not be separated by social system. It can be formal and informal education. A formal education institution such as school, Islamic school or Islamic boarding school is in social environment and bringing a basic value and law from its institution. Meanwhile, Islamic education institution is believed as tool to reach the aim of education. The aim of education is hard to reach if there is no leadership in it. Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  6. 42 CFR 93.310 - Institutional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allegation or inquiry stages, take all reasonable and practical steps to obtain custody of all the research... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional Investigation § 93.310 Institutional investigation. Institutions conducting research misconduct investigations must: (a) Time. Begin...

  7. Fostering Institutional Creativity at Multiple Levels: Towards Facilitated Institutional Bricolage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Merrey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems occur when institutional arrangements for collective management of food and water systems fail to meet demands. Many of the problems characterising river basins and other collectively managed water resource systems can be ascribed largely to the failure of institutions to enable problems beyond the individual to be managed collectively. The nature of these demands, and the institutional responses to them, vary widely and are not amenable to simple definitions and prescriptions. We begin with a brief review of conventional approaches to analysing institutions and organisations, focused largely, but not exclusively, on river basins. We observe that attempts to reduce the institutional landscape of river basins to over-simplistic formulas introduces more problems than solutions, because the reality is that institutions evolve through complex creative processes that adopt and adapt diverse ingredients – rather like making a stew. Despite such intricacies, institutions are clearly non-random, so we continue a search for a means of describing them. We adopt the concept of bricolage, as proposed by Cleaver and others, and use it to show the value of promoting and facilitating an organic creative approach to building and strengthening river basin and other water management institutions.

  8. A Sweeping Reshuffle at CAS Institutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Reorganization of CAS institutes was conducted over the past four years. For example, with the merger of the former Institute of Mathematics,Institute of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Systems Science and Institute of Computational Mathematics & Scientific/Engineering Computing, an Academy of Mathematics & System Sciences was formed. In the Shanghai area, the eight former biological institutes was regrouped into four institutes and one center,which formed the newly established Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences.

  9. NEWS: Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    When Mary took up her appointment in the Institute's Education Department in June 1997, she indicated that she wished to return to teaching in two or three years. We have just heard that in September she will be joining the staff of the Science Department at Camden Girls' School, London. Mary's departure from the Institute is a great loss to the Department, where she has worked tirelessly, and with great imagination, to support those who teach physics at all secondary levels - and at primary level too when the opportunity presented itself. She has made tremendous contributions to the careers side of the Department's work, supporting careers events, providing informal training for others willing to do the same, helping to develop new careers materials and identifying people whom the Institute could use as role models or as the subject of case studies in print or electronic publications. Mary has been equally happy and willing to support pupils, students and teachers, and has been a wonderful role model herself, coming from an industrial research background, training for teaching after a career break and willing and able to teach biology, chemistry and design technology as well as physics. Mary has also written and edited Phases virtually single-handed. We are delighted to hear that Mary will continue to support the department's work as one of its teacher `volunteers'. Ilya Eigenbrot We are pleased to report that Ilya Eigenbrot, who will be known to some through his work at the Royal Institution and his appearances at the Christmas Lectures in a technical support role, has agreed to give the IOP Schools (touring) Lecture next year. The subject will be Lasers and this will follow nicely on to Zbig's lecture this year. Resources (print) Physics on Course The tenth issue of the Institute's popular guide to higher education, Physics on Course 2001, will be published early in July and distributed to all schools and colleges in the United Kingdom and the Republic of

  10. Executive Compensation Concentration and Institutional Ownership Power

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Tingting Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether institutional shareholders prefer concentrated or dispersed executive compensation structure. To address this question, we study the relationship between executive compensation concentration and institutional ownership power because institutional investors can influence executive compensation more when they have more power. We measure institutional ownership power using institutional ownership level and institutional ownership concentration. We find a signifi...

  11. NEWS: Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Recognition for teachers The Institute of Physics has continued its programme of recognition for inspiring teachers with nine Teachers Awards in 2000, one at primary level and eight at secondary. The quality and quantity of nominations for secondary awards was very encouraging, especially those nominations made by students, but the number of nominations for teachers in the primary sector was disappointing. The award winners are: Teacher of Primary Science Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Gill Stafford, Greens Norton Church of England Primary School, Towcester, Northants Teachers of Physics (Secondary) John Allen, All Hallows High School, Penwortham, Preston Tim Gamble, Lings Upper School, Northampton Denise Gault, Dalriada School, Ballymoney, Co Antrim Ian Lovat, Ampleforth College, North Yorkshire David Smith, Highgate School, North London Clive Thomas, Newcastle Emlyn Comprehensive School Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Mark Travis, Cape Cornwall School, St Just, Cornwall If you know a teacher in a local primary school who is doing an exceptional job in motivating youngsters and colleagues in the teaching and learning of science, why not consider nominating them for an award? Further details can be obtained from the Institute's Education Department (Steven Chapman) by post or e-mail (schools.education@iop.org .) Annual Congress More details are now available on the various activities at this event taking place on 27 - 30 March 2000 at the Brighton Conference Centre. Among those organized by the Education Department are general science and technology hands-on activities for pupils aged 10 to 12 and more specific physics activities on Static Electricity for older students: * A series of short talks with hands-on demonstrations of music and musical instruments given by musicians, manufacturers and physicists. * A chance for students in years 9 to 13 to experience music making from the professionals' perspective. Mornings, 28 to 30 March

  12. The Lipman Papers: Appropriate Programs for Four-Year-Olds. Barbara K. Lipman Early Childhood Research Institute Symposium (1st, Memphis, Tennessee, May 22-23, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolner, Rosestelle B., Ed.

    Speakers at the Lipman Research Institute's inaugural symposium examined research and issues related to appropriate programs for 4-year-olds. David Weikart described the Perry Preschool Project, an ongoing study begun in 1962 of 123 black youths at risk of failing, and the High/Scope Preschool Curriculum Study. Jane Stallings covered short-term…

  13. Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI), established in 1963, is the first professional pesticide institute in China. After being approved by the Science & Technology Committee of PRC, it became the base for Shanghai Branch of National Pesticide R&D South center.

  14. INSTITUTION vs. ORGANIZATION. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sveda ANGEL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Both organizations and institutions are social structures. On the basis of the institutions arethe formal rules and at the basis of the organizations are the interactions between peoples withcommon aims. The evolution of the institutions is explained by the institutionalism with its twoorientations: the new institutionalism and the old institutionalism. The last one was preoccupied bythe transformation of the economy and by the evolution of the technology and the newinstitutionalism explains the existence of the institutions from the individual’s point of view.Organizations were and are studied in present days from different point of views: organizationalstructure and culture, organizational change and development. The organization was classifiedaccording to several factors: aim, size, legal form, or their operational domain. Thecharacterization of the organization through metaphors such as machines, culture, brain, ororganism proves their complexity and diversity. Regarding to the relations between institution andorganization, the relationship could be characterised as interdependence because the organizationscan determine instituional changes, by offering a framework for the application of the rules.

  15. Managing Enrollments for Institutional Vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Don

    1985-01-01

    The concept of enrollment management is gaining acceptance as a means of ensuring institutional vitality. Those responsible for enrollment management must have direct responsibility for: student marketing and recruitment, pricing and financial aid, academic and career advising, academic assistance programs, institutional research, orientation,…

  16. Lotka's Law and Institutional Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Praveen; Garg, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Lotka's Law, negative binomial distribution, and lognormal distribution for institutional productivity in the same way as it is to authors and their productivity. Results indicate that none of the distributions are applicable for institutional productivity in engineering sciences. (Author/LRW)

  17. Distributed Learning and Institutional Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the following challenges institutions must consider as they enter the new marketplace of distributed learning: library access, faculty workload, faculty incentives, faculty-support structures, intellectual property, articulation agreements, financial aid, pricing, cross-subsidization of programs, institutional loyalty and philanthropy,…

  18. Institute enriching students in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).

  19. The Uranium Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Uranium Institute has run a World Wide Web site since July 1995 and has seen user sessions reach around 5600 per week. The site comprises some 700 pages of news and information and has attracted a good deal of favourable comment. The site is intended as an information resource to augment the service provided by the UI Information Service and is aimed at both industry and non-industry web users. The actual user community includes UI members and others from the industry, mining and financial analysts, lots of students and school children, journalists and a large number of unknown individuals. Hopefully the workshop can be used to examine user reactions to industry sites and get some idea of the extent to which we are talking to ourselves over the net rather than talking to our 'publics'. Although the Ul was quite early on the web scene by nuclear standards, development of the UI site has proceeded fairly slowly and the accent has always been on good quality information. With 170,000 visitors per year site use indicates that there is a demand for nuclear information while responses indicate that there is a substantial body of quiet nuclear support which welcomes the opportunity to communicate with the industry. Does the web help to pull the industry and its supporters together? The WWW has often been portrayed as a vehicle which allows good news and information to be communicated direct to the 'public' but attempts to realise this opportunity have not always met with success. The UI has had a generally positive experience with its web site but this is not universally the case. I would like to explore the background to this both in my presentation and in the subsequent discussion. My general theme is to ask the question 'What do users want from a nuclear related web site and are we providing it?'. Conversely it is pertinent to ask the question, 'does what the users seem to want coincide with what we wish to supply?'. I will seek to address these

  20. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  1. Performance Assessment Institute-NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Joesph [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment’s intention is to purchase a multi-purpose computer cluster in support of the Performance Assessment Institute (PA Institute). The PA Institute will serve as a research consortium located in Las Vegas Nevada with membership that includes: national laboratories, universities, industry partners, and domestic and international governments. This center will provide a one-of-a-kind centralized facility for the accumulation of information for use by Institutions of Higher Learning, the U.S. Government, and Regulatory Agencies and approved users. This initiative will enhance and extend High Performance Computing (HPC) resources in Nevada to support critical national and international needs in "scientific confirmation". The PA Institute will be promoted as the leading Modeling, Learning and Research Center worldwide. The program proposes to utilize the existing supercomputing capabilities and alliances of the University of Nevada Las Vegas as a base, and to extend these resource and capabilities through a collaborative relationship with its membership. The PA Institute will provide an academic setting for interactive sharing, learning, mentoring and monitoring of multi-disciplinary performance assessment and performance confirmation information. The role of the PA Institute is to facilitate research, knowledge-increase, and knowledge-sharing among users.

  2. Institutional computing (IC) information session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Kenneth R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lally, Bryan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19

    The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.

  3. Organizational responses to institutional contradictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Jonasson, Charlotte

    to the stabilization and maintenance of its institutional opposite. The reported findings are based on an ethnographic field study of the institutional change processes that occurred in a South Korean credit card company in the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis in 1997 during the IMF intervention. The development...... that emerge in such fields cannot easily be predicted. They are effects of indeterminate social processes of regularizations and breakings of co-existing logics. We illuminate the under-explored role of group strategies in moderating organizational response to conflicts in institutional prescriptions...

  4. Cultural synergy in information institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Smiraglia, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Cultural forces govern a synergistic relationship among information institutions that shapes their roles collectively and individually. Cultural synergy is the combination of perception- and behavior-shaping knowledge within, between, and among groups. Our hyperlinked era makes information-sharing among institutions critically important for scholarship as well as for the advancement of humankind. Information institutions are those that have, or share in, the mission to preserve, conserve, and disseminate information objects and their informative content. A central idea is the notion of social

  5. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent cross......-country studies on the institutions-happiness association. Our findings suggest that the conclusions reached by previous studies are fairly sensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used. In addition, the results indicate that the welfare effects of policies may differ across phases of a country's economic...... development. This bears important policy implications which we discuss in the concluding section of the paper....

  6. Institutional conditions of corporate citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Exploring the concept of citizenship from the history of political philosophy provides suggestions about what corporate citizenship could mean. The metaphor of corporate citizenship suggests an institutional approach to corporate social responsibility. Citizenship is a social role, characterized by

  7. Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yizhong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology (HIPG) is not only the center of petroleum geological research & information, but also the technical supporter of the Exploration Department for frontier areas in South China, subordinate to CNPC.

  8. Institutional change on the frontlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke

    2011-01-01

    institutional demands, organizational actors respond by developing diverging institutional orders of appropriate organizational conduct. This research examines how middle managers and frontline staff in two similar Danish social care organizations respond to demands to adopt a New Public Management (NPM......)-based logic of individualized service delivery. Findings – The study shows how institutional diversity may underlie apparently similar organizational structures and responses. NPM-style modernization efforts partly converged with diverse professional motives and rationales around, on the surface, similar...... organizational changes. The findings illustrate how differential institutional orders are maintained by middle managers and frontline staff despite exposure to the same demands. Research limitations/implications – There are different limitations to this ethnographic field study due to the character...

  9. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Newsroom | Contact Us The American Institute of Biological Sciences is the national scientific organization that promotes the ... Education Research AIBS Education is dedicated to improving biological science literacy at all levels of formal and informal ...

  10. Institutional Evolution and Corporate Boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Victor Zitian; Hobdari, Bersant; Sun, Pei;

    2014-01-01

    We argue that corporate boards are a dynamic repository of human- and social capital in response to external institutional evolution. Theoretically, integrating institutional economics, agency theory and resource dependence theory, we explain that evolution of market-, legal- and political...... institutions restructures the particular context in which board members play their two primary roles: monitoring the CEO on behalf of the shareholders, suggested by the agency theory, and supporting the CEO by providing resources, knowledge and information, suggested by the resource dependence theory......, since the board changes are typically proposed by the block shareholders, whose motivation for doing so is closely associated with a corporation’s financial performance, we further argue that financial performance is a key moderator of the relationships between institutional evolution and changes...

  11. Book Review: The Institutional Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the future nature of scholarly communication and publishing are being debated this book serves as a useful reference guide for one of the key aspects- the institutional repository. Institutional repositories are a popular recent development for distributing and communicating research. They are a useful academic tool for administrating and publishing electronic resources produced by university members in order to increase access to these, both at an institutional and global level. However, there is still no general concensus about the characteristics of an institutional repository. What types of material are deposited? Who is responsible for building and maintaing a repository, how will copyright be managed, who will cover installation and maintenance costs? How will quality, integrity and preservation of the materials be assured?

  12. Goddard Institute for Space Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) emphasizes a broad study of global change, which is an interdisciplinary initiative addressing...

  13. THE OLD INSTITUTIONALISM – REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    Robert-Ștefan SABOTICI

    2016-01-01

    The distinctions with a meta-theoretical character about the old and the new institutionalism are, as it is normal, the preservation of new institutionalists, those who are representatives of a school of thought, mature and capable of producing reflections on his own domain. For this reason, the analysis of what they have in common and what is different, concern two moments of institutionalism that are first found in the works of new institutionalists. Old institutionalists usually respond to...

  14. Managerial Methodology in Public Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ion VERBONCU; Marius PROFIROIU; Nicoleta VĂRUICU

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important ways of making public institutions more efficient is by applying managerial methodology, embodied in the promotion of management tools, modern and sophisticated methodologies, as well as operation of designing/redesigning and maintenance of the management process and its components. Their implementation abides the imprint of constructive and functional particularities of public institutions, decentralized and devolved, and, of course, the managers’ expertise of these...

  15. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  16. Entrepreneurial Entry: Which Institutions Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aidis, Ruta; Estrin, Saul; Mickiewicz, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the relationship between the individual decision to become an entrepreneur and the institutional context. We pinpoint the critical roles of property rights and the size of the state sector for entrepreneurial activity and test the relationships empirically by combining country-level institutional indicators for 44 countries with working age population survey data taken from the Global Enterprise Monitor. A methodological contribution is the use of factor analysis to r...

  17. The Future of Learning Institute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    this article describes Harvard University’s learning institute, which focuses on several fundamental issues on the future of learning. Specific focus is given to the effect og globalising, digitalising and brain research on learning and education.......this article describes Harvard University’s learning institute, which focuses on several fundamental issues on the future of learning. Specific focus is given to the effect og globalising, digitalising and brain research on learning and education....

  18. A Basic Classification of Legal Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Dick W.P.

    1997-01-01

    The author offers a general definition of legal institutions. A distinction between institutional legal concepts, legal institutions and social institutions makes it possible to define legal institutions as systems of valid presentations of what must occur in social reality in order that the former

  19. 42 CFR 93.213 - Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Institution. 93.213 Section 93.213 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.213 Institution. Institution means any individual or person that applies for or... or other research institutes, small research institutions, and independent researchers....

  20. Effects of Tuition Price, Grant Aid, and Institutional Revenue on Low-Income Student Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Nathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of greater economic stratification brings challenges to higher education's enrollment of low-income students. With a growing proportion of potential college students coming from low-income households, increasing their post-secondary participation rate is vital in developing and growing the pool of educated individuals for the labor force…