WorldWideScience

Sample records for 4-month infant temperament

  1. Perceptual transparency in 3- to 4-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2006-01-01

    We examined perceptual transparency in infants. In a previous study, Johnson and Aslin (2000 Developmental Psychology 36 808 - 816) found that 4-month-olds could perceive transparency in a moving chromatic display, but not in an achromatic display. In this study, we further examined perceptual transparency in infants using a static achromatic display. Considering the development of figural organisation and contrast sensitivity, we assumed that 3- to 4-month-olds would perceive transparency even in a static achromatic display. We created a transparency and a non-transparent display composed of a partially overlapping circle and square, by switching the colours. Infants aged 3 to 4 months (n = 24) were familiarised with the transparency display (experiment 1) or with the non-transparent display (experiment 2). Then, they were confronted with a uniform colour and a two-colour figure. Infants showed novelty preference for the two-colour figure after they had been familiarised with the transparency display (experiment 1), but not after they had been familiarised with the non-transparent display (experiment 2). These results suggest that 3- to 4-month-old infants can perceive transparency in a static achromatic display.

  2. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on infant temperament vary by context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Robin L; Lagasse, Linda L; Seifer, Ronald; Lester, Barry M; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    This was a prospective longitudinal multisite study of the effects of prenatal cocaine and/or opiate exposure on temperament in 4-month-olds of the Maternal Lifestyle Study (N = 958: 366 cocaine exposed, 37 opiate exposed, 33 exposed to both drugs, 522 matched comparison). The study evaluated positivity and negativity during The Behavior Assessment of Infant Temperament (Garcia Coll et al., 1988). Parents rated temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire; Rothbart, 1981). Cocaine-exposed infants showed less positivity overall, mainly during activity and threshold items, more negativity during sociability items, and less negativity during irritability and threshold items. Latent profile analysis indicated individual temperament patterns were best described by three groups: low/moderate overall reactivity, high social negative reactivity, and high nonsocial negative reactivity. Infants with heavy cocaine exposure were more likely in high social negative reactivity profile, were less negative during threshold items, and required longer soothing intervention. Cocaine- and opiate-exposed infants scored lower on Infant Behavior Questionnaire smiling and laughter and duration of orienting scales. Opiate-exposed infants were rated as less respondent to soothing. By including a multitask measure of temperament we were able to show context-specific behavioral dysregulation in prenatally cocaine-exposed infants. The findings indicate flatter temperament may be specific to nonsocial contexts, whereas social interactions may be more distressing for cocaine-exposed infants.

  3. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  4. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and weight gain at 4 months.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.; Pasker-de Jong, P.C.M.; Wouwe, JP van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%).

  5. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  6. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and weight gain at 4 months.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.; Pasker-de Jong, P.C.M.; Wouwe, JP van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  7. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%).

  8. Experimental manipulation of infant temperament affects amygdala functional connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riem, Madelon M E; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Parsons, Christine E

    2017-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we examined neural processing of infant faces associated with a happy or a sad temperament in nulliparous women. We experimentally manipulated adult perception of infant temperament in a probabilistic learning task. In this task, particip......In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we examined neural processing of infant faces associated with a happy or a sad temperament in nulliparous women. We experimentally manipulated adult perception of infant temperament in a probabilistic learning task. In this task...

  9. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  10. Family dynamics and infant temperament in Danish families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M.E.; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.; White, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    temperament. A sample of 99 families in Odense, Denmark, completed the Family Dynamics Measure in the third trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 8-9 months old. At this second time, the mothers also completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Overall we found small changes...

  11. Teleological reasoning in 4-month-old infants: pupil dilations and contextual constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Gredebäck

    Full Text Available Four-month-old infants were presented with feeding actions performed in a rational or irrational manner. Infants reacted to the irrational feeding actions by dilating their pupils, but only in the presence of rich contextual constraints. The study demonstrates that teleological processes are online at 4 months of age and illustrates the usefulness of pupil dilations as a measure of social cognitive processes early in infancy.

  12. Rotary Motion Impairs Attention to Color Change in 4-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavsek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Continuous color changes of an array of elements appear to stop changing if the array undergoes a coherent motion. This "silencing" illusion was demonstrated for adults by Suchow and Alvarez ("Current Biology", 2011, vol. 21, pp. 140-143). The current forced-choice preferential looking study examined 4-month-old infants' sensitivity to the…

  13. Breastfeeding and infant temperament at age three months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & METHODS: To examine the relationship between breastfeeding and maternally-rated infant temperament at age 3 months, 316 infants in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study, UK had infant temperament assessed at age 3 months by mothers using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire, which produces scores for three main dimensions of temperament derived from 14 subscales. Infant temperament scores were related to mode of infant milk feeding at age 3 months (breast only; formula milk only; or mixed with adjustment for infant's age at assessment and an index of deprivation. RESULTS: Infant temperament dimension scores differed across the three infant feeding groups, but appeared to be comparable between exclusive breast-fed and mixed-fed infants. Compared to formula milk-fed infants, exclusive breast-fed and mixed-fed infants were rated as having lower impulsivity and positive responses to stimulation (adjusted mean [95% CI] "Surgency/Extraversion" in formula-fed vs. mixed-fed vs. breast-fed groups: 4.3 [4.2-4.5] vs. 4.0 [3.8-4.1] vs. 4.0 [3.9-4.1]; p-heterogeneity = 0.0006, lower ability to regulate their own emotions ("Orienting/Regulation": 5.1 [5.0-5.2], vs. 4.9 [4.8-5.1] vs. 4.9 [4.8-5.0]; p = 0.01, and higher emotional instability ("Negative affectivity": 2.8 [2.6-2.9] vs. 3.0 [2.8-3.1] vs. 3.0 [2.9-3.1]; p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Breast and mixed-fed infants were rated by their mothers as having more challenging temperaments in all three dimensions; particular subscales included greater distress, less smiling, laughing, and vocalisation, and lower soothability. Increased awareness of the behavioural dynamics of breastfeeding, a better expectation of normal infant temperament and support to cope with difficult infant temperament could potentially help to promote successful breastfeeding.

  14. Family dynamics and infant temperament in Danish families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M.E.; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.; White, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Transition to parenthood involves the fine balance of family dynamics which both affect, and are affected by, the infant's temperament. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in family dynamics over the transition to parenthood and the relationship of family dynamics to infant...... temperament. A sample of 99 families in Odense, Denmark, completed the Family Dynamics Measure in the third trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 8-9 months old. At this second time, the mothers also completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Overall we found small changes......, although always in a negative direction, in family dynamics over this transition. The largest change was an increase in perceived role conflict reported by both mothers and fathers. Mothers reported more role conflict than fathers. Positive family dynamics were related to infant rhythmicity....

  15. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Sebastián-Gallés, N

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the capacity of 4-month-old infants to identify their maternal language when phonologically similar languages are contrasted, using a visual orientation procedure with a reaction time measure. Infants from monolingual and bilingual environments were compared in order to analyze whether differences in linguistic background affect this behavioral response. In experiment 1 the validity of the procedure was assessed with a pair of phonologically dissimilar languages (Catalan or Spanish vs. English). In experiment 2, 20 infants from monolingual environments tested in a similar language contrast (Catalan vs. Spanish) indicated that discrimination is already possible at that age. Results from experiment 3, using low-pass filtered utterances, suggested that infants can rely on information about supra-segmental features to make this distinction. For the infants growing up in bilingual environments no preference for either of the familiar languages was found. Moreover, when their maternal language was contrasted either with English or with Italian, in both cases the bilingual group showed a similar pattern, consisting of significantly longer latencies for the familiar language. Possible interpretations of this unexpected pattern of results are discussed and its implications for bilingual language acquisition are considered.

  16. Cortical plasticity in 4-month-old infants: specific effects of experience with musical timbres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Lee, Kathleen; Bosnyak, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Animal models suggest that the brain is particularly neuroplastic early in development, but previous studies have not systematically controlled the auditory environment in human infants and observed the effects on auditory cortical representations. We exposed 4-month-old infants to melodies in either guitar or marimba timbre (infants were randomly assigned to exposure group) for a total of ~160 min over the course of a week, after which we measured electroencephalogram (EEG) responses to guitar and marimba tones at pitches not previously heard during the exposure phase. A frontally negative response with a topography consistent with generation in auditory areas, peaking around 450 ms, was significantly larger for guitar than marimba tones in the guitar-exposed group but significantly larger for marimba than guitar tones in the marimba-exposed group. This indicates that experience with tones in a particular timbre affects representations for that timbre, and that this effect generalizes to tones not previously experienced during exposure. Furthermore, mismatch responses to occasional small 3% changes in pitch were larger for tones in guitar than marimba timbre only for infants exposed to guitar tones. Together these results indicate that a relatively small amount of passive exposure to a particular timbre in infancy enhances representations of that timbre and leads to more precise pitch processing for that timbre.

  17. Infant shy temperament predicts preschoolers Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Daniela; Henning, Anne; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relation between infant temperament at 18 months and early Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities at 3 years of age. Temperament was assessed with the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) and ToM by assessing children's understanding of divergent desires and beliefs, and of knowledge access. Our results are in line with a social-emotional reactivity perspective postulating more sophisticated ToM abilities for children with less reactive more observant temperament. Children with shy temperament at 18 months and at 3 years were better in reasoning about others' mental states at age 3. Language, siblings and parental education had no effect on ToM. Findings indicate that temperament is related to ToM earlier in development than previously found, and that this relation is thus not unique to false-belief understanding.

  18. Precursors to natural grammar learning: preliminary evidence from 4-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine

    2011-03-22

    When learning a new language, grammar--although difficult--is very important, as grammatical rules determine the relations between the words in a sentence. There is evidence that very young infants can detect rules determining the relation between neighbouring syllables in short syllable sequences. A critical feature of all natural languages, however, is that many grammatical rules concern the dependency relation between non-neighbouring words or elements in a sentence i.e. between an auxiliary and verb inflection as in is singing. Thus, the issue of when and how children begin to recognize such non-adjacent dependencies is fundamental to our understanding of language acquisition. Here, we use brain potential measures to demonstrate that the ability to recognize dependencies between non-adjacent elements in a novel natural language is observable by the age of 4 months. Brain responses indicate that 4-month-old German infants discriminate between grammatical and ungrammatical dependencies in auditorily presented Italian sentences after only brief exposure to correct sentences of the same type. As the grammatical dependencies are realized by phonologically distinct syllables the present data most likely reflect phonologically based implicit learning mechanisms which can serve as a precursor to later grammar learning.

  19. Head and Eye Movements Affect Object Processing in 4-Month-Old Infants More than an Artificial Orientation Cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Sebastian; Michel, Christine; Pauen, Sabina; Hoehl, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of attention-guiding stimuli on 4-month-old infants' object processing. In the human head condition, infants saw a person turning her head and eye gaze towards or away from objects. When presented with the objects again, infants showed increased attention in terms of longer looking time measured by eye…

  20. More than maternal sensitivity shapes attachment: infant coping and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Santos, Pedro Lopes Dos; Beeghly, Marjorie; Tronick, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a set of factors from multiple levels of influence: infant temperament, infant regulatory behavior, and maternal sensitivity on infant's attachment. Our sample consisted of 48 infants born prematurely and their mothers. At 1 and 3 months of age, mothers described their infants' behavior using the Escala de Temperamento do Bebé. At 3 months of age, infants' capacity to regulate stress was evaluated during Tronick's Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. At 9 months of age, mothers' sensitivity was evaluated during free play using the CARE-Index. At 12 months of age, infants' attachment security was assessed during Ainsworth's Strange Situation. A total of 16 infants were classified as securely attached, 17 as insecure-avoidant, and 15 as insecure-resistant. Mothers of securely attached infants were more likely than mothers of insecure infants to describe their infants as less difficult and to be more sensitive to their infants in free play. In turn, secure infants exhibited more positive responses during the Still-Face. Infants classified as insecure-avoidant were more likely to self-comfort during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more controlling during free play. Insecure-resistant exhibited higher levels of negative arousal during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more unresponsive in free play. These findings show that attachment quality is influenced by multiple factors, including infant temperament, coping behavior, and maternal sensitivity.

  1. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan M; Adair, Linda; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months), we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level) and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) and skin fold (SF) measures) in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206). Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight. PMID:19656377

  2. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  3. Temperament Measures of African-American Infants: Change and Convergence with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Islas-Lopez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Studies of infant temperament are inconsistent with regard to convergence across measurement sources. In addition, little published work is available that describes temperament in minority infants. In this study, measures of temperament at three and six months were made for 24 African-American infants. Although maternal ratings of activity and…

  4. Infants' Temperament and Mothers', and Fathers' Depression Predict Infants' Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts.

  5. Longitudinal study on infants' temperament and physical development in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu-hua; Ji, Cheng-ye; Shan, Jin-ping

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this longitudinal study is to explore the relationship between temperament and physical development among infants in Beijing, China. A total of 1117 term, normal and singleton infants were followed regularly for 12 months. Body weight and horizontal length were measured at 42 days and monthly from the third to twelfth month of their lives. Infants' temperament was assessed using the revised Chinese infants' temperament scale when the infants were 6 months. There was a significant difference on temperament dimensions between infants' genders (P temperaments (easy and intermediate) were heavier than those with negative temperaments (difficult and slow to warm up) (P temperament categories (P temperament category and parents' weight and height.

  6. Right-Left Approach and Reaching Arm Movements of 4-Month Infants in Free and Constrained Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange-Majoux, Francoise; Dellatolas, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Recent theories on the evolution of language (e.g. Corballis, 2009) emphazise the interest of early manifestations of manual laterality and manual specialization in human infants. In the present study, left- and right-hand movements towards a midline object were observed in 24 infants aged 4 months in a constrained condition, in which the hands…

  7. Right-Left Approach and Reaching Arm Movements of 4-Month Infants in Free and Constrained Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange-Majoux, Francoise; Dellatolas, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Recent theories on the evolution of language (e.g. Corballis, 2009) emphazise the interest of early manifestations of manual laterality and manual specialization in human infants. In the present study, left- and right-hand movements towards a midline object were observed in 24 infants aged 4 months in a constrained condition, in which the hands…

  8. Infant Temperament, Maternal Personality, and Parenting Stress as Contributors to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; White, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined contributions of maternal personality and infant temperament to infant vocabulary and cognitive development both directly and indirectly through parental stress. Participants were recruited at birth and included 63 infant twin pairs and their mothers. Assessments were completed at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age and included…

  9. The relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and perceptions of infant eating behaviours at 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Sullivan, Serena E; de Jersey, Susan J; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-10-01

    Parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours are inter-related and both have been implicated in the development of childhood obesity. However, research on the parent-child feeding relationship during the first few months of life is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours in a community sample. Mothers (N = 413) of 4 month old infants recruited during pregnancy for the New Beginnings: Healthy Mothers and Babies study self-reported feeding beliefs/practices and eating behaviours of their infants on established tools. Data on a comprehensive range of maternal and infant characteristics were also collected. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the associations between five feeding beliefs and practices and four eating behaviours, adjusting for key maternal and infant covariates. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming underweight rated the infant higher on satiety responsiveness and lower on enjoyment of food. Higher awareness of infant feeding cues was associated with higher infant enjoyment of food. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming overweight and those who used food to calm their baby rated the infant as higher on food responsiveness. Feeding to a schedule (vs on demand) was not associated with any of the infant eating behaviours. A relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours is apparent early in life, therefore longitudinal investigation to establish the directions of this relationship is warranted.

  10. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  11. Infant Temperament Characteristics Related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Its Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioral…

  12. Influence of Additional Ankle Weights on Kinematic Variables of Late Preterm Infants Aged 3-4 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Jadiane; Santos, Gabriela Lopes Dos; Tudella, Eloisa

    2017-01-01

    The authors analyzed and compared the effect of additional weight on the spatiotemporal parameters of the kicking movement of late preterm and full-term infants. The experiment was divided into 4 conditions: training, baseline, weight, and postweight. In the W condition, a weight of one third the lower limb mass was added to the infant's ankle. During the baseline and postweight conditions, the ankle weight was removed. Late preterm infants do not differ from full-term infants in relation to spatiotemporal variables at 3 and 4 months. However, during the weight condition, the straightness index and the hip-ankle and knee-ankle correlations decreased in the preterm infants at both ages. In contrast, the straightness index increased in the postweight condition compared to the baseline values at both ages.

  13. The temperament of preterm infant in preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales M Regina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study deals with the characteristics of temperament of preterm infants during their preschool age in order to not only investigate likely "difficult or problematic profiles", guided by impairments driven by their preterm birth, but also to provide guidelines for the activation of interventions of prevention, functional to improve the quality of preterm infant's life. Methods The study involved a group of 105 children where 50 preterm children at the average age of 5 years and 2 months, enrolled in preschools of Palermo. The research planned the child reference teachers to be administered a specific questionnaire, the QUIT, made up of 60 items investigating six specific typical dimensions of temperament (Motor control activity - related to the ability of practicing motor control activity; Attention - related to the ability of guiding and keeping the focus of attention on a certain stimulus; Inhibition to novelty - regarding with emotional reactivity in front of environmental stimuli; Social orientation - meant in terms of attention and interest towards social stimuli; Positive and negative emotionality - regarding the tendency to mainly express positive or negative emotions. Results The results show in general how preschool-aged preterm infants, identified by such a study, compared with full-term children, are characterized by "normal" temperament based on a strong inclination and orientation in mainly expressing positive feelings. Yet, an impairment of the areas most relating to attention and motor control activity seems to emerge. Conclusions The data suggest specific interventions for preterm infant development and their reference systems and, at the same time, can guide paediatrician and neonatologist dealing with preterm infants, in focalizing and monitoring, even since health status assessments, specific areas of development that, since preschool age, can highlight the presence of real forerunners of maladjustments

  14. Object Recognition and Attention to Object Components by Preschool Children and 4-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated attention to and recognition of components in compound stimuli among infants and preschoolers. Oddity tasks with preschoolers and familiarization/novelty-preference tasks with infants demonstrated successful discrimination among stimuli components on basis of edge property information. Matching tasks with preschoolers and…

  15. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tees, Michael T; Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-07-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n = 288) in 2006-2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother's experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, 2 months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and "difficult temperament" was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with three or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15-2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at 1 year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22-8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81-5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother's mental health.

  16. Early Manifestations of Childhood Depression: Influences of Infant Temperament and Parental Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bateman, Alison E.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, 83 parents of infants between 3 and 12 months completed questionnaires assessing demographic information, infant temperament, and maternal depression. When these children were at least 18 months of age, parents completed follow-up questionnaires assessing toddler temperament and depression-like symptoms. We were…

  17. Infant Temperament Moderates Relations between Maternal Parenting in Early Childhood and Children's Adjustment in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the…

  18. Parent-Reported Temperament Trajectories among Infant Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario, Mithi; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Temperament atypicalities have been documented in infancy and early development in children who develop autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigates whether there are differences in developmental trajectories of temperament between infants and toddlers with and without ASD. Parents of infant siblings of children with autism…

  19. Infant Temperament Moderates Relations between Maternal Parenting in Early Childhood and Children's Adjustment in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the…

  20. Increasing Magnitude "Counts" More: Asymmetrical Processing of Ordinality in 4-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Picozzi, Marta; Girelli, Luisa; de Hevia, Maria Dolores

    2012-01-01

    While infants' ability to discriminate quantities has been extensively studied, showing that this competence is present even in neonates, the ability to compute ordinal relations between magnitudes has received much less attention. Here we show that the ability to represent ordinal information embedded in size-based sequences is apparent at 4…

  1. Eye-catching odors: olfaction elicits sustained gazing to faces and eyes in 4-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Karine; Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Lewkowicz, David J; Goubet, Nathalie; Schaal, Benoist

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an odor can affect infants' attention to visually presented objects and whether it can selectively direct visual gaze at visual targets as a function of their meaning. Four-month-old infants (n = 48) were exposed to their mother's body odors while their visual exploration was recorded with an eye-movement tracking system. Two groups of infants, who were assigned to either an odor condition or a control condition, looked at a scene composed of still pictures of faces and cars. As expected, infants looked longer at the faces than at the cars but this spontaneous preference for faces was significantly enhanced in presence of the odor. As expected also, when looking at the face, the infants looked longer at the eyes than at any other facial regions, but, again, they looked at the eyes significantly longer in the presence of the odor. Thus, 4-month-old infants are sensitive to the contextual effects of odors while looking at faces. This suggests that early social attention to faces is mediated by visual as well as non-visual cues.

  2. Face Orientation and Motion Differently Affect the Deployment of Visual Attention in Newborns and 4-Month-Old Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Valenza

    Full Text Available Orienting visual attention allows us to properly select relevant visual information from a noisy environment. Despite extensive investigation of the orienting of visual attention in infancy, it is unknown whether and how stimulus characteristics modulate the deployment of attention from birth to 4 months of age, a period in which the efficiency in orienting of attention improves dramatically. The aim of the present study was to compare 4-month-old infants' and newborns' ability to orient attention from central to peripheral stimuli that have the same or different attributes. In Experiment 1, all the stimuli were dynamic and the only attribute of the central and peripheral stimuli to be manipulated was face orientation. In Experiment 2, both face orientation and motion of the central and peripheral stimuli were contrasted. The number of valid trials and saccadic latency were measured at both ages. Our results demonstrated that the deployment of attention is mainly influenced by motion at birth, while it is also influenced by face orientation at 4-month of age. These findings provide insight into the development of the orienting visual attention in the first few months of life and suggest that maturation may be not the only factor that determines the developmental change in orienting visual attention from birth to 4 months.

  3. Enhanced Neural Processing of Goal-directed Actions After Active Training in 4-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marta; Sommerville, Jessica A; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-03-01

    The current study explores the neural correlates of action perception and its relation to infants' active experience performing goal-directed actions. Study 1 provided active training with sticky mittens that enables grasping and object manipulation in prereaching 4-month-olds. After training, EEG was recorded while infants observed images of hands grasping toward (congruent) or away from (incongruent) objects. We demonstrate that brief active training facilitates social perception as indexed by larger amplitude of the P400 ERP component to congruent compared with incongruent trials. Study 2 presented 4-month-old infants with passive training in which they observed an experimenter perform goal-directed reaching actions, followed by an identical ERP session to that used in Study 1. The second study did not demonstrate any differentiation between congruent and incongruent trials. These results suggest that (1) active experience alters the brains' response to goal-directed actions performed by others and (2) visual exposure alone is not sufficient in developing the neural networks subserving goal processing during action observation in infancy.

  4. The effects of maternal stress and illness during pregnancy on infant temperament: Project Ice Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, David P; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether disaster-related prenatal maternal stress and maternal illness during pregnancy predict maternal-rated temperament status in 6-mo-old infants. The temperamental status of 121 infants (60 boys and 61 girls) exposed in utero to varying degrees of maternal stress and/or illness during either first (n = 40), second (n = 43), or third (n = 38) trimester of pregnancy was assessed using the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire. Higher levels of maternal subjective distress and illness were primarily independently associated with poorer temperamental status in the infants. Maternal subjective distress explained 3.4, 3.1, and 9.8% and early pregnancy illness explained 4.3, 5.8, and 2.9% of the variance of the infants' fussy/difficult, dullness, and needs attention temperament dimensions, respectively. This is the first study to assess whether temperament status is influenced by disaster-related prenatal maternal stress. Moreover, this is the first study to assess whether maternal stress and illness during pregnancy interact to determine infant temperament status. The findings suggest that while both factors predict temperament status at 6 mo, they do so primarily in an independent manner. These results suggest that pathways through which maternal stress and illness during pregnancy influence temperament status differ.

  5. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tees, Michael T.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n=288) in 2006–2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother’s experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, two months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and “difficult temperament” was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with 3 or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15–2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at one year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61–5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22–8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81–5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother’s mental health. PMID:19554438

  6. 足月小样儿气质的研究%Study on temperament of full-term small for gestational age infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹红梅; 宋燕燕; 李桦; 刘倩筠; 董海鹏; 吴志华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究足月小样儿在气质维度及分型方面的特征.探讨足月小样儿对婴儿气质特征的影响,为足月小样儿的早期医疗干预提供理论依据.方法 应用Carey的RITQ对39名1~4个月的足月小样儿及40名正常婴儿进行测试比较.结果 足月小样儿组仅在活动水平1个维度分值显著低于正常组(χ2=7.607,P0.05).结论 足月小样儿具有一定的气质特征,在一定程度上对婴儿的心理行为发育产生了不良影响,应引起重视,并根据其气质特征进行早期干预.%Objective To study the temperament dimensionality and classification of full-term small for gestational age infants and explore the influence of full-term small for gestational age infants on temperament of infants, so as to provide some theoretical basis for early medical intervention for them. Methods RITQ developed by Carey was administered to 39 full-term small for gestational age infants aged 1-4 months and 40 normal infants. Results Full-term small for gestational age infants were significantly poorer in active level than normal infants (^ -1. 607, P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Full-term small for gestational age infants have certain temperament characteristics, which has negative effects on psychological and behavioral development of infants to a certain extent. Attention should be paid to that and early intervention is needed according to their temperament characteristics.

  7. Maternal anxiety following delivery, early infant temperament and mother's confidence in caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Manuel; Colomer, Julia; Carot, Jose Miguel; Larsson, Christina; Bobes, Maria Teresa; Ivorra, Jose Luis; Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-12-22

    A mother's emotional state is a well-known environmental factor that relates to the development of infant temperament. However, some relevant issues have not yet been fully explored. The current study examines the influence of determined maternal, contextual and perinatal variables on infant temperament and the mother's confidence in caregiving during the first weeks of life. A prospective study was carried out in three-hundred and seventeen newborns and their mothers. Perinatal and socio-demographic variables were recorded. The mother's anxiety and mood were measured in the first days after childbirth and again at 8 weeks. Infant temperament and the mother's confidence in caregiving were measured at 8 weeks. A mother's postpartum anxiety following delivery was the best predictor for most of the variables of infant temperament, including infant irritability (p = .001), and other child variables like infant sleep (p = .0003) and nursing difficulty (p = .001). Contextual-family variables, such as the number of people at home (p = .0024) and whether they were primiparous (p = .001), were the best predictors for a mother's confidence in caregiving. Support was found for an early effect of maternal anxiety on infant temperament. The results have clinical implications for postnatal psychological interventions.

  8. Temperaments of premature infants%早产儿气质研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2011-01-01

    Temperament is the first distinct and stable personality after infants' birth. The development and type of the temperament is mainly associated with genetics factors, premature birth, low birth weight and clinical complications. This article describes the domestic and abroad researches and progress on premature infants' temperament in recent years, including research methods, temperament characteristic and influence factors of temperament types, and emphersizes the importance of the study on the premature infants' temperament. We raise the point that analyzing the temperament of premature children in early stage could discover temperament disorders earlier, and guide targeted training or behavior education based on different temperaments, which do good to intelligence and psychological development of premature infants.%气质是婴儿出生后最早表现出来的较为明显而稳定的人格特征,遗传、早产、低出生体质量以及与早产相关的临床并发症对气质的发展和类型有重要影响.该文通过总结近年来国内外早产儿气质研究的成果和进展,综述了早产儿气质研究的研究方法、早产儿气质特点及气质类型的影响因素,强调早产儿气质研究的重要性,提出对早产儿进行气质分析可以早期发现问题,循序渐进地对不同气质儿童进行针对性培养和行为教育,有助于早产儿智能和心理的健康发育.

  9. Infant Temperament and High Risk Environment Relate to Behavior Problems and Language in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derauf, Chris; LaGasse, Linda; Smith, Lynne; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the role that easy infant temperament and cumulative environmental risk play in predicting cognitive, language and behavioral outcomes in 3 year-old children at high social risk. Methods Subjects were 412 mother-infant dyads, recruited at birth, participating in a longitudinal study examining the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) on child development. This analysis includes a subsample (n=290) of the study with a completed 3 year visit. Temperament was assessed by the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 12 mos. Factor analysis from well-validated measures generated “easy” and “difficult” temperament profiles, and a profile for high risk environment. Caretaker receptive vocabulary served as a proxy for IQ. Outcomes at 3 years included motor and mental development, behavior problems, and language. Linear regression and hierarchical linear modeling examined the effects of temperament, high risk environment and caregiver receptive language on outcomes adjusting for maternal drug use, demographic, and socioeconomic covariates. Results Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were lower in children with easy temperament and higher with increased environmental risk. Easy temperament attenuated behavioral problems only in the setting of lower environmental risk. Caregiver receptive language was associated with lower internalizing scores High risk environment and temperament factors were not related to cognitive or motor outcomes. Prenatal MA exposure was not associated with 3 year-old outcomes, nor did it alter the protective effects of an easier temperament on child behavior. Conclusions Children growing up in adverse social environments had increased behavioral problems and compromised language development. Conversely, an easy temperament acts as a protective factor for social-emotional development and could be related to resilience. PMID:21200329

  10. Dopamine D4 receptor and serotonin transporter gene effects on the longitudinal development of infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, K; Nemoda, Z; Fearon, R M P; Sasvari-Szekely, M; Johnson, M H

    2011-07-01

    Existing studies of the effect on infant temperament of the 48 base pair variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine D4 receptor gene, DRD4 VNTR, and the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region, 5-HTTLPR, have provided contradictory results, and age seems to be an important factor. The present study investigated the effect of these two polymorphisms on the stability of infant temperament between 4 and 9 months of age. Furthermore, the effect of a recently discovered single nucleotide polymorphism which modulates the 5-HTTLPR (rs25531) was investigated in relation to infant temperament. The study sample consisted of 90 infants, who were assessed by parental report at the two ages under consideration using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire. It was found that infants carrying the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 VNTR had higher levels of Negative Affect. Furthermore, there was an interaction between DRD4 VNTR and 5-HTTLPR genotype such that infants with the DRD4 VNTR 7-repeat allele and the highest expressing 5-HTTLPR genotype (L(A) L(A) ) had the highest level of Negative Affect. These effects were largely driven by scores on the Falling Reactivity scale. Genetic effects were stable across age. The results emphasize the need for developmental studies of genetic effects on temperament.

  11. Effect of mother's dominance rank on offspring temperament in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Hathaway, Amanda; Waters, Carlos; Vaughan, Kelli; Suomi, Stephen J; Noble, Pamela L; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2013-01-01

    In humans, temperament plays an important role in socialization and personality. Some temperaments, such as behavioral inhibition are associated with an increased risk for psychopathology. Nonhuman primates can serve as a model for neurobiological and developmental contributions to emotional development and several recent studies have begun to investigate temperament in nonhuman primates. In rhesus monkeys, dominance rank is inherited from the mother and is associated with social and emotional tendencies that resemble differences in temperament. The current study assessed differences in temperament in infant rhesus monkeys as a function of maternal dominance rank. Temperament was assessed in 26 infants (13 males) from birth until 6 months of age with a battery that included Brazelton test, human intruder test, human intruder-startle, cortisol stress reactivity, and home cage observations of interactions with peers and the mother. Throughout testing, infants lived with their mothers and a small group of other monkeys in indoor/outdoor runs. Dominance rank of the mothers within each run was rated as either low/middle (N = 18, 9 male) or high/alpha (N = 8, 4 female). Infants of high-ranking mothers displayed more intruder-directed aggression and reduced startle potentiation in the human intruder tests. Dominant offspring also had reduced levels cortisol and startle across development and spent more time away from mothers in the interaction tests. These results suggest that dominance of the mother may be reflected in behavioral reactivity of infants early in life. These findings set up future studies, which may focus on contributing factors to both dominance and temperament such as genetics, rearing, and socialization. Such factors are likely to interact across development in meaningful ways. These results also suggest future human-based studies of a similar relationship may be warranted, although social dominance is clearly more complex in human than macaque societies.

  12. Temperament of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate- for-Gestational-Age Infants across the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Leslie F.; Coll, Cynthia T. Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Temperament development was studied in 39 full-term small-for-gestational-age infants and 30 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Temperament was measured at 4, 8, and 12 months of age using a behavioral assessment procedure and questionnaire ratings. Findings indicated that restricted fetal growth negatively affects infant…

  13. Infant Pain Regulation as an Early Indicator of Childhood Temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Stevens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is considerable variability in infants’ responses to painful stimuli, including facial and vocal expressions. This variability in pain-related distress response may be an indicator of temperament styles in childhood.

  14. On the Origins of Disorganized Attachment and Internal Working Models: Paper II. An Empirical Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Lachmann, Frank; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen A; Bahrick, Lorraine E; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley; Jaffe, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication predicted 12-month infant disorganized (vs. secure) attachment outcomes in an urban community sample. We documented a dyadic systems view of the roles of both partners, the roles of both self- and interactive contingency, and the importance of attention, orientation and touch, and as well as facial and vocal affect, in the co-construction of attachment disorganization. The analysis of different communication modalities identified striking intrapersonal and interpersonal intermodal discordance or conflict, in the context of intensely distressed infants, as the central feature of future disorganized dyads at 4 months. Lowered maternal contingent coordination, and failures of maternal affective correspondence, constituted maternal emotional withdrawal from distressed infants. This maternal withdrawal compromises infant interactive agency and emotional coherence. We characterize of the nature of emerging internal working models of future disorganized infants as follows: Future disorganized infants represent states of not being sensed and known by their mothers, particularly in moments of distress; they represent confusion about both their own and their mothers' basic emotional organization, and about their mothers' response to their distress. This internal working model sets a trajectory in development which may disturb the fundamental integration of the person. The remarkable specificity of our findings has the potential to lead to more finely-focused clinical interventions.

  15. Dropout in looking time studies: The role of infants' temperament and cognitive developmental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Radukic, Sarah; Zmyj, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    Dropout of infants in looking time studies sometimes occurs at high rates, raising concerns that the representativeness of the final sample might be reduced in comparison to the originally obtained sample. The current study investigated which infant characteristics play a role in dropout. Infants were presented with a preferential looking task at 6 and 9 months of age. At 9 months of age, an additional habituation task and a subsequent novelty preference task were conducted. In addition, temperament was assessed via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised (IBQ-R, Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003), and cognitive developmental status was assessed via the Cognitive Scale of the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III, Bayley, 2006). Dropout was positively related to the IBQ-R temperament scales Distress to Limitations and Approach, and negatively related to the scales Falling Reactivity and Cuddliness. The representativeness of the final sample regarding situation-specific temperament dimensions is affected by dropout. Dropout was not related to cognitive developmental status as measured via the BSID-III, habituation speed and novelty preference. Dropout at 6 months of age was associated with dropout at 9 months of age. We concluded that in looking time studies, the representativeness of the final sample regarding performance-relevant temperament dimensions or cognitive developmental status is not affected by dropout.

  16. Maternal and Infant Temperament Characteristics as Contributors to Parenting Stress in the First Year Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Kate B.; Murdock, Kyle W.; Vadnais, Sarah; Bridgett, David J.; Gartstein, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Although prominent models emphasize that maternal, child, and situational variables are associated with parenting stress, previous research has often neglected to examine associations between maternal and infant temperament characteristics and stress experienced in the parenting role. Additionally, while predictors of global parenting stress have…

  17. Developmental Trends in Mother-Infant Interaction from 4-Months to 42-Months: Using an Observation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masatoshi; Namba, Kumiko; Yato, Yuko; Negayama, Koichi; Sogon, Shunya; Yamamoto, Hatsumi

    2010-01-01

    Background It is clear that early social interaction follows from mother-infant interaction after pregnancy. Many researchers have illuminated this interaction in the first years of life. Most common mother-infant interaction is the attachment behavior of an infant. The Japan Children’s Study (JCS) development psychology group hypothesis is that the early mother-infant interaction will predict later social behaviors. But the method applied to evaluate this interaction mainly comes from the evaluation of the whole observation situation and is dependent upon the coder. We applied a new observational method that checked the on/off status of behavior and recorded sequentially. Methods Using a semi-structured observation setting as our method, we analyzed the developmental change of mother-infant interaction within a toy situation. Results The result indicated that mother-infant interaction with a toy altered at around 9-months and is salient to the usual developmental change of joint attention. Additionally cluster analysis suggested that the developmental pattern is divided into two clusters. This is the first report on a developmental pattern of joint attention. Conclusions These results indicated that the developmental trend of gaze direction and vocalization is one candidate of measure for evaluating the mother infant social interaction from the point of joint attention. PMID:20179367

  18. Recognition of Faces and Greebles in 3-Month-Old Infants: Influence of Temperament and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Vierhaus, Marc; Teubert, Manuel; Lamm, Bettina; Kolling, Thorsten; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Fassbender, Ina; Lohaus, Arnold; Knopf, Monika; Keller, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether temperament and cognitive abilities are related to recognition performance of Caucasian and African faces and of a nonfacial stimulus class, Greebles. Seventy Caucasian infants were tested at 3 months with a habituation/dishabituation paradigm and their temperament and cognitive abilities…

  19. Fragmented maternal sleep is more strongly correlated with depressive symptoms than infant temperament at three months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepika; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn

    2009-08-01

    To determine the contribution of infant temperament to the relationship between maternal sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a repeated measures design, 112 couples recruited from childbirth education classes were assessed in third trimester and postpartum. Instruments included Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, General Sleep Disturbance Scale, wrist actigraphy, and an investigator-developed tool to assess infant temperament completed by mothers and fathers. Regardless of infant temperament, mothers who slept Infant temperament was associated with maternal sleep but was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms after controlling for other contextual factors. Postpartum clinical visits should include questions about maternal sleep so interventions can be directed toward sufficient sleep to minimize risk of postpartum depression.

  20. Fragmented maternal sleep is more strongly correlated with depressive symptoms than infant temperament at three months postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Deepika; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    To determine the contribution of infant temperament to the relationship between maternal sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a repeated measures design, 112 couples recruited from childbirth education classes were assessed in third trimester and postpartum. Instruments included Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, General Sleep Disturbance Scale, wrist actigraphy, and an investigator-developed tool to assess infant temperament completed by mothers and fathers. R...

  1. Cortisol in mother's milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Katie; Skibiel, Amy L; Foster, Alison B; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P; Capitanio, John P

    2015-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother's milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother's milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, but studies have been handicapped by not simultaneously evaluating milk energy density and yield. This is problematic as milk glucocorticoids and nutrients likely have simultaneous effects on offspring phenotype. We investigated mother's milk and infant temperament and growth in a cohort of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mother-infant dyads at the California National Primate Research Center (N = 108). Glucocorticoids in mother's milk, independent of available milk energy, predicted a more Nervous, less Confident temperament in both sons and daughters. We additionally found sex differences in the windows of sensitivity and the magnitude of sensitivity to maternal-origin glucocorticoids. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Lastly, higher cortisol concentrations in milk were associated with greater infant weight gain across time. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be "programming" through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. Glucocorticoids ingested through milk may importantly contribute to the assimilation of available milk energy, development of temperament, and orchestrate, in part, the allocation of maternal milk energy between growth and behavioral phenotype.

  2. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, but studies have been handicapped by not simultaneously evaluating milk energy density and yield. This is problematic as milk glucocorticoids and nutrients likely have simultaneous effects on offspring phenotype. We investigated mother’s milk and infant temperament and growth in a cohort of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mother–infant dyads at the California National Primate Research Center (N = 108). Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk, independent of available milk energy, predicted a more Nervous, less Confident temperament in both sons and daughters. We additionally found sex differences in the windows of sensitivity and the magnitude of sensitivity to maternal-origin glucocorticoids. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Lastly, higher cortisol concentrations in milk were associated with greater infant weight gain across time. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be “programming” through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. Glucocorticoids ingested through milk may importantly contribute to the assimilation of available milk energy, development of temperament, and orchestrate, in part, the allocation of maternal milk energy between growth and behavioral phenotype. PMID:25713475

  3. Mitochondrial Gene Expression Profiles Are Associated with Maternal Psychosocial Stress in Pregnancy and Infant Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Luca; Chen, Jia; Nomura, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions mediate through the placenta and shape the fetal brain development. Between the environmental determinants of the fetal brain, maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy has been shown to negatively influence the infant temperament development. This in turn may have adverse consequences on the infant neurodevelopment extending throughout the entire life-span. However little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms of the effects of maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy on infant temperament. Environmental stressors such as maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy activate the stress response cascade that in turn drives the increase in the cellular energy demand of vital organs with high metabolic rates such as, in pregnancy, the placenta. Key players of the stress response cascade are the mitochondria. Here, we tested the expression of all 13 protein-coding genes encoded by the mitochondria in 108 placenta samples from the Stress in Pregnancy birth cohort, a study that aims at determining the influence of in utero exposure to maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy on infant temperament. We showed that the expression of the protein-coding mitochondrial-encoded gene MT-ND2 was positively associated with indices of maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy including Prenatal Perceived Stress (β = 0.259; p-regression = 0.004; r2-regression = 0.120), State Anxiety (β = 0.218; p-regression = 0.003; r2-regression = 0.153), Trait Anxiety (β = 0.262; p-regression = 0.003; r2-regression = 0.129) and Pregnancy Anxiety Total (β = 0.208; p-regression = 0.010; r2-regression = 0.103). In the meantime MT-ND2 was negatively associated with the infant temperament indices of Activity Level (β = -0.257; p-regression = 0.008; r2-regression = 0.165) and Smile and Laughter (β = -0.286; p-regression = 0.036; r2-regression = 0.082). Additionally, MT-ND6 was associated with the maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy index of Prenatal

  4. Attachment Classification from the Perspective of Infant-Caregiver Relationships and Infant Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    1985-01-01

    Temperament and attachment, as defined by Bowlby and his followers, are fundamentally different constructs, and research guided by the attachment perspective cannot meaningfully be assimilated to the temperament construct. Qualitative aspects of relationships simply cannot be reduced to individual behavioral dimensions. (RH)

  5. The Contributions of Infant Temperament and Child Care to Infant Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathans, Laura L.; Meece, Darrell; Kossek, Ellen; Barratt, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has documented associations between young children's social development and both temperament and child care quality. The preponderance of research in this area has focused on preschool-age and older children, resulting in few studies focusing on these variables during infancy. In the current investigation, temperament and child…

  6. Behavioral measurement of temperament in male nursery-raised infant macaques and baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath-Lange, S; Ha, J C; Sackett, G P

    1999-01-01

    We define temperament as an individual's set of characteristic behavioral responses to novel or challenging stimuli. This study adapted a temperament scale used with rhesus macaques by Schneider and colleagues [American Journal of Primatology 25:137-155, 1991] for use with male pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina, n = 7), longtailed macaque (M. fascicularis, n = 3), and baboon infants (Papio cynocephalus anubis, n = 4). Subjects were evaluated twice weekly for the first 5 months of age during routine removal from their cages for weighing. Behavioral measures were based on the subject's interactions with a familiar human caretaker and included predominant state before capture, response to capture, contact latency, resistance to tester's hold, degree of clinging, attention to environment, defecation/urination, consolability, facial expression, vocalizations, and irritability. Species differences indicated that baboons were more active than macaques in establishing or terminating contact with the tester. Temperament scores decreased over time for the variables Response to Capture and Contact Latency, indicating that as they grew older, subjects became less reactive and more bold in their interactions with the tester. Temperament scores changed slowly with age, with greater change occurring at younger ages. The retention of variability in reactivity between and within species may be advantageous for primates, reflecting the flexibility necessary to survive in a changing environment.

  7. Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Kazmierczak, Maria; Michalek, Justyna; Preis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes.

  8. Maternal Characteristics Measured Prenatally Are Predictive of Ratings of Temperamental "Difficulty" on the Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brian E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Data from four studies answer Carey's (1982, 1983) critical questions about the validity of the original Infant Temperament Questionnaire (ITQ). Discussion illuminates the complexity of establishing the construct validity of psychological assessments used with infants. Data suggest that both the original and revised Carey ITQs fail discriminant…

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  10. Prevalence of Self-Reported Shaking and Smothering and Their Associations with Co-Sleeping among 4-Month-Old Infants in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiko Yamada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the prevalence of shaking and smothering and whether they are associated with co-sleeping. In Japan, co-sleeping is common during infancy and early childhood. This study investigates the prevalence of shaking and smothering and their associations with co-sleeping among 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to mothers who participated in a 4-month health checkup program in Kamagaya City in Japan (n = 1307; valid response rate, 82%. The questionnaire investigated the frequency of self-reported shaking and smothering during the past one month, co-sleeping status, and living arrangements with grandparents, in addition to traditional risk factors such as stress due to crying. Associations between co-sleeping and self-reported shaking or smothering were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of self-reported shaking and smothering at least one time during the past one month was 3.4% (95% confidence interval (CI, 2.4%–4.3% and 2.4% (95% CI, 1.5%–3.2%, respectively. Co-sleeping was marginally associated with the amount of crying and not associated with stress due to crying. Further, co-sleeping was not associated with either self-reported shaking or smothering, although stress due to crying showed strong association with shaking and smothering. Co-sleeping was not a risk factor for shaking and smothering.

  11. 早产与足月婴儿气质特点对照研究%Study on temperament features between preterm infants and full-term infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 廖捷; 赖雪芳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To compare preterms temperament dimensions and types with full-terms , in order to offer reference for raising children correctly. [Method] The temperament were assessed in 80 preterm infants and 80 full-term infants by Carey Infant Temperament Scale Standardized in China. [Results] The constituent ratio of difficult nurturing type in preterm infants was higher than in full-term infants, when nine temperament dimensions was considered, the preterms were significantly less persistence, less attentive, more withdrawal and lower in threshold to respond than the controls. There was no difference among activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, intensity and mood. [Conclusion] The temperament features is different between preterm infants and full-term infants; It suggests that preterm infants should be raised contrapuntally according to their temperament features.%[目的]对早产儿与足月儿气质维度及类型进行比较,为早产儿的科学教养提供参考. [方法]采用国内标化的Carey婴儿气质问卷,对80名早产儿及80名足月儿进行气质评价. [结果]早产儿中难养型气质比例多于足月儿,在气质的九维度中,早产儿坚持性差、注意分散度高、易回避及反应阈低下,而活动水平、节律性、适应性、反应强度和情绪本质无差异. [结论]早产儿气质类型及特点与足月儿存在差异,应根据早产儿气质特点,采用更加有针对性的教养方式.

  12. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau Yun Chong

    Full Text Available Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044. Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85 for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32 when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53 but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53 when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament.

  13. 106例高危儿气质研究%The study on the temperament of 106 high risk infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁沂; 俞倩; 张蕾; 池霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of temperament dimensionality and classification on high risk infants. Methods: Infants temperament questionnaire developed by Carey was administered in 106 high risk infants and 50 normal infants aged 5 ~ 7 months. Results: No difference was found in temperament type between the two groups (P > 0. 05 ) . Activity level, rhythmicity, apporoach and withdrawal of high risk infants were significantly different with those of normal infants ( P < 0. 05 ) . It prompted that high risk infants were leas activity, excessive regularity, difficult approach. Conclusion: The temperament of high risk infants has special character. In order to improve their development, measures should be adopted according to its qualities.%目的:研究高危儿在气质维度及分型方面的特点.方法:应用Carey婴儿气质问卷对5~7个月,106例的高危儿及50例正常要儿进行测试与比较.结果:气质类型两组相近,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).高危儿组在活动水平,节律性,趋避性维度分值与正常组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),提示高危儿活动量小,节律性过强,易退缩.结论:高危儿有其独特的气质特点,应结合其特点,促进其更好的发育.

  14. Effects of prenatal factors and temperament on infant cortisol regulation in low-income Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P; Jewell, Shannon L; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal psychosocial exposures can significantly affect infant health and development. Infants with higher temperamental negativity are theorized to be more susceptible to environmental exposures. We evaluated the interaction of prenatal maternal exposures and infant temperamental negativity to predict infant cortisol response to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks. Participants included 322 Mexican American mother-infant dyads (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000). Mothers reported depressive symptoms and social support prenatally and infant temperamental negativity at 6 weeks postpartum. Salivary cortisol was collected from infants before and after mother-infant interaction tasks at 12 weeks. Higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and lower social support predicted higher cortisol among infants with higher temperamental negativity. Higher infant temperamental negativity predicted an increase in maternal distress and a decrease in social support from prenatal to 12 weeks postpartum. Interactive influences of maternal social-contextual factors and infant temperament may influence the development of infant neurobiological regulation and promote or strain maternal and infant adaptation over time.

  15. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress.

  16. Cortisol levels of infants in center care across the first year of life: links with quality of care and infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Esther M; Beijers, Roseriet; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; Sweep, Fred C G J; de Weerth, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations of older children in childcare centers have been found to be higher than at home. This study focuses on infant cortisol in childcare centers throughout the first year of life, and aims to investigate whether inter-individual differences can be explained by temperament, the quality of maternal behavior, and the quality of center care. Sixty-four infants were followed for 9 months after entering care at 3 months of age. Salivary samples were taken at 10.00 h and 16.00 h in center care (in post-entry weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 36) and at home (in post-entry weeks 1, 24, and 36). Prior to entry, mothers completed a temperament questionnaire and the quality of maternal behavior (sensitivity and cooperation) was observed during routine bathing sessions. Subsequently, the infants were visited three times at center care to observe the quality of infant's interactive experiences with their professional caregiver. Longitudinal regression models showed that both morning and afternoon cortisol were higher in center care compared to home. Longitudinal regression models showed that infants receiving higher quality of maternal behavior displayed higher morning cortisol in center care, compared to infants receiving lower quality of maternal behavior. Higher quality of maternal behavior was also related to higher afternoon cortisol in center care, but only in infants high in negative emotionality. Center care quality was not related to cortisol. In sum, young infants show higher cortisol concentrations in center care that are related to infant temperament and quality of maternal behavior at home.

  17. Effects of infant formula containing a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides or viable Bifidobacterium animalis on the intestinal microflora during the first 4 months of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.M.; Alles, M.S.; Knol, J.; Kok, F.J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Bindels, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Adding prebiotics or probiotics to infant formula to improve the intestinal flora of formula-fed infants is considered to be a major innovation. Several companies have brought relevant formulations onto the market. However, comparative data on the effects of pre- and probiotics on the intestinal

  18. Effects of infant formula containing a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides or viable Bifidobacterium animalis on the intestinal microflora during the first 4 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.; Alles, M.S.; Knol, J.; Kok, F.J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Bindels, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Adding prebiotics or probiotics to infant formula to improve the intestinal flora of formula-fed infants is considered to be a major innovation. Several companies have brought relevant formulations onto the market. However, comparative data on the effects of pre- and probiotics on the intestinal mic

  19. Infant, maternal, and familial predictors and correlates of regulatory problems in early infancy: The differential role of infant temperament and maternal anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Julia; Petzoldt, Johanna; Knappe, Susanne; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems are likely to emerge from the complex interplay of various factors. To investigate the role of infant (e.g., temperament), maternal (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders), and familial (e.g., social support) factors as potential precursors of infant regulatory problems. Prospective-longitudinal study. 286 mother-infant dyads were investigated from early pregnancy until 16 months postpartum via questionnaires and interviews. Regulatory problems at 2, 4 and 16 months postpartum assessed by standardized diagnostic interviews. Fussy infant temperament and maternal anxiety disorders were associated with excessive infant crying (OR=1.16, 95%CI:1.05-1.29, OR=3.28, 95%CI:1.16-9.26) and feeding problems (OR=1.05, 95%CI:1.01-1.11, OR=2.27, 95%CI:1.36-3.80) whereas maternal depressive disorders were associated with infant sleeping problems (OR=2.55, 95%CI:1.06-6.11). Moreover, high maternal age (OR=0.86, 95%CI:0.75-0.98) was associated with a lower risk for excessive crying and being a single mother (OR=0.16, 95%CI:0.03-0.73) and cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions (OR: 0.59, 95%CI:0.36-0.96) was associated with a lower risk for sleeping problems. Excessive infant crying and feeding problems may be related to interactional deficits of anxious mothers who perceive their infants as "difficult" during soothing or feeding situations. Sleeping problems may be transmitted already during pregnancy by an altered sleep-wake-rhythm of mothers with a history of depression or by a genetic predisposition. Therapeutic interventions should focus on maternal anxiety and depression, behavior management techniques to cope with difficult situations with "fussy" infants and potential protective factors (e.g. favorable maternal emotion regulation) to address crying, feeding and sleeping problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 早期干预对早产儿气质特征的影响研究%Effects of early intervention on temperament characteristic in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯琰; 魏晟; 罗佳美; 王丽

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对无脑损伤的早产儿按照不同的气质类型进行早期干预,探讨其效果,以促进儿童身心健康发展.[方法]选择无异常分娩史、头颅检查除外脑损伤的早产儿49例(早产儿组),设正常足月儿48例为对照组.应用小婴儿气质问卷和幼儿气质评估表对早产儿组和对照组进行气质测评.早产儿组儿童进行早期教育和气质干预,干预1年后与对照组儿童进行气质比较. [结果]干预前两组气质分类结构比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).早产儿组干预后E及I-E型气质儿童增多,干预前后气质类型比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=3.88,P<0.05). [结论]早期教育和气质干预可以促进早产儿气质良好发展,不同气质特点婴幼儿应采取不同的教养方式.%[Objective] To approach the effect according to doing early intervention on different temperament types in preterm infants without brain injury. [Methods] There were 49 preterm infants without abnormal birth history as premature group which diagnosed without brain lesion. 48 normal full-term infants were selected as control group. Temperament evaluation was carried out by infant temperament questionnaires. Early education and temperament intervention were undertake for children in group of premature. Then temperament was compared between two groups after 1 year. [Results] Children of E and I-E type were increased in preterm infant group after intervention, there was significantly different before and after intervention of temperament types(x2 =3. 88,P<0. 05). [Conclusions] Early education and temperament intervention can promote the temperament development of preterm infants, different rearing should be taken to infants with different temperament characteristics.

  1. Parental Relationship with Twins from Pregnancy to Three Months: the Relation Among Parenting Stress, Infant Temperament, and Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elvira Prino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The transition to parenthood, from pregnancy to postpartum period, is a critical process, particularly for couples expecting twins. There is very little literature regarding the links between anxiety, depression, dyadic adjustment, parental stress, and infant temperament spanning from pregnancy to postpartum. This study has two aims: first, to examine whether mothers’ and fathers’ anxiety, depression, and dyadic adjustment, assessed at the sixth month of pregnancy and three months postpartum, are associated with infants' negative affectivity and parenting stress; second, to examine whether there is any difference between fathers’ and mothers’ levels of parenting stress and perception of the twins’ temperament, as well as to evaluate, separately for mothers and fathers, whether the levels of parenting stress and perception of child temperament differ for each twin.Method: The study participants were 58 parents (29 couples and their healthy 58 twin babies (51.7% boys, 48.3% girls. Mothers’ ages ranged from 30 to 44 years, (MAge = 36.3 years, SD = 3.2 years, and fathers’ ages ranged from 32 to 52 years, (MAge = 38.2 years, SD = 4.4 years. The parents, during the pregnancy period and three months after delivery, filled out the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Three months after delivery they also filled out the Parenting Stress Index—Short Form and the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised. Results: The analyses showed a significant correlation between parental anxiety/depression symptoms and infants’ negative affectivity and parenting stress (in both mothers and fathers. Moreover, compared to fathers, mothers reported higher scores on specific dimensions of the infants’ negative affectivity, (t (28 = -2.62 and p < .05; t (28 = 2.09 and p < .05, and parenting stress, (t (28 = 2.19 and p < .05; t (28 = 2.23 and p < .05, but only for Twin 2. Finally

  2. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam.

  3. Serotonin Transporter Gene ("SLC6A4") Methylation Associates with Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay and 3-month-old Temperament in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Provenzi, Livio; Fumagalli, Monica; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Giorda, Roberto; Pozzoli, Uberto; Beri, Silvana; Menozzi, Giorgia; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Mosca, Fabio; Borgatti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay are early adverse stressful experiences, which may result in an altered temperamental profile. The serotonin transporter gene ("SLC6A4"), which has been linked to infant temperament, is susceptible to epigenetic regulation associated with early stressful experience. This study…

  4. Self-reported maternal parenting style and confidence and infant temperament in a multi-ethnic community: results from the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prady, Stephanie L; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wilson, Sarah; Wright, John

    2014-03-01

    Ethnic minority children in the United Kingdom often experience health disadvantage. Parenting influences children's current and future health, but little is known about whether parenting behaviours and mother's perception of her infant vary by ethnicity. Using the Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort, which is located in an ethnically diverse and economically deprived UK city, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of mother's self-reported parenting confidence, self-efficacy, hostility and warmth, and infant temperament at six months of age. We examined responses from women of Pakistani (N = 554) and White British (N = 439) origin. Pakistani mothers reported feeling more confident about their abilities as a parent. Significantly fewer Pakistani women adopted a hostile approach to parenting, an effect that was attenuated after adjustment for socioeconomic status and mental health. Overall, women with more self-efficacious, warm and less hostile parenting styles reported significantly fewer problems with their infant's temperaments. Of women with higher self-efficacy parenting styles, Pakistani mothers were significantly more likely than White British mothers to report more problematic infant temperaments, although absolute differences were small. It is unlikely that the ethnic variation seen in children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes in childhood is attributable to differences in parenting or infant characteristics reported at six months.

  5. Study on Temperament Characteristics of Premature Infants and Relative Influencing Factors%早产儿的气质特征及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫红; 王慧文; 汪颖烨

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解衢州市早产儿气质特征以及气质维度和气质类型的相关影响因素.方法 选择衢州市接受儿童系统管理的早产儿170人和正常足月儿154人,应用《5 ~11月要儿气质问卷》,以及自行设计的出生和家庭养育环境调查表,进行气质评定和相关因素调查.结果 早产儿气质类型以中间型为主,其次是困难型.不同胎龄早产儿气质维度中适应性和持久性得分有差异.家庭经济水平影响早产儿气质的节律性、心境、适应性和反应阈等多个维度,母亲文化程度影响活动水平和持久性,胎龄和出生窒息影响趋避性,出生体重影响节律性,母亲年龄、喂养方式和出生时肺发育异常影响注意分散.早产儿困难型气质类型的影响因素有胎龄、分娩方式和出生后放保温箱.结论 早产胎龄越小适应性越慢,且持久性短暂.胎龄小、难产且出生后需要放保温箱的早产儿容易出现困难型气质.母亲文化程度高,家庭经济条件比较好,重视孕期保健,有利于儿童形成良好的气质.%Objective To investigate the temperament characteristics, dimensions and types of premature infants and relative factors in Quzhou. Methods Subjects including 170 premature infants and 154 term infants who were managed in Quzhou children system, accepted temperament assessment and investigation of influencing factors with the "5-11 Month Old Infant Temperament Questionnaire" and the self - designed questionnaire about birth and family nurture environment. Results We found that the most predominant temperament characteristic of premature infant was intermediate type, which was followed by difficult type. The adaptability and persistence scores of temperament dimension were various across different gestational age groups. And It was found that family economic level effected several aspects of temperament dimensions; mothers' educational level was related to the degrees of activity and

  6. Stress reactivity in 15-month-old infants: links with infant temperament, cognitive competence, and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne

    2004-04-01

    In a sample of eighty-five 15-month-old infants, salivary cortisol was obtained prior to and following a potentially stressful episode in which the child was confronted with a stranger and with a frightening robot. Infant characteristics such as anger proneness, cognitive competence, and attachment security were expected to be related to cortisol reactivity during the stressful event. The results showed higher cortisol reactivity in more anger-prone infants and in infants with higher levels of cognitive development as assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (N. Bayley, 1969). Attachment security, assessed with the Attachment Q-Set (AQS; E. Waters, 1995), was found to moderate the relation between cognitive level and cortisol reactivity; the positive relation between cognitive development and cortisol response was found in only infants with low AQS security scores. The findings may have important implications for research in the development of self-regulation in humans as well as in studies with animals.

  7. Maternal and contextual influences and the effect of temperament development during infancy on parenting in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Gartstein, Maria A; Putnam, Samuel P; McKay, Talia; Iddins, Erin; Robertson, Christopher; Ramsay, Kristin; Rittmueller, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, latent growth modeling (LGM) was used to: (1) identify the developmental trajectories of infant negative emotions (NE) and regulatory capacity (RC) from 4 to 12 months of age, (2) examine maternal and family factors that may affect NE and RC trajectories, (3) examine transactional associations between developing NE and RC, and (4) examine the effect of infant temperament trajectories on negative parenting when toddlers reached 18 months of age. Mothers from 156 families completed a measure of infant temperament when infants were 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age and completed maternal relationship stress, depression, and family demographics measures when infants were 4 months of age. Information regarding negative parenting was collected when toddlers reached 18 months of age. LGM results suggest that maternal relationship stress and depression influence infant NE development, that high NE early in infancy may compromise the development of infant regulation, and that steeper decreases of infant RC contribute the greatest amount of variance to negative parenting in toddlerhood. The implications for models of early emotion regulation and incorporating changes in temperament over time into developmentally sensitive models (e.g., emerging parenting practices and developmental psychopathology) are discussed.

  8. 早产儿早期睡眠/觉醒模式与气质的相关性%Relationship between the sleep/wake-up patterns and temperament in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张风华; 许茜; 乔秀英; 廖灿辉; 傅平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationships between the sleep/wake-up patterns and temperament in preterm infants.Methods The developmental characteristics of sleep/wake-up patterns and temperament in preterm infants aged 4 months at corrected gestational age in their own home environments were described.The 23 relatively low-risk preterm infants were enrolled in this study.The sleep/wake-up data was collected with actigraphy.The temperament was assessed by Chinese Infant Temperament Questionnaire.Results Among the 23 infants,there were 13 coordinated difficult(D) type and 10 coordinated easy(E) type.The number of night wake-up in the coordinated D-type preterm infants[(2.78 ±0.01) times] were significantly more than that of coordinated E-type ones[(2.60 ± 0.03) times] (t =3.285,P =0.001).The longest continuous sleep time of coordinated D-type preterm infants [(4.20 ± 1.21) h] was significantly less than that of coordinated E-type ones[(4.41 ± 1.14) h] (t =3.374,P =0.001).There were no significant differences in daytime sleep duration,the number of naps,bedtime,sleep latency,nighttime sleep duration,the 24 hour sleep duration and morning awaking time between the two groups (all P > 0.05).After the sex factor was controlled,there was a positive correlation between emotional nature and sleep latency at night (r =0.599,P =0.032).There was also positive correlation between persistence and the number of naps in daytime (r =0.439,P =0.035).Conclusions Preterm infants with different temperament types have different number of night wake-ups and the longest continuous sleep time.The emotional nature and persistence are associated with sleep latency at night and number of naps in daytime respectively.The parents of preterm infants should change their child rearing behaviors to improve sleep quality of the preterm infants.%目的 探讨早产儿早期睡眠/觉醒模式与气质的相关性.方法 在家庭自然环境下,对纠正胎龄4个月早产儿的睡眠/觉醒模

  9. Taking stress response out of the box: stability, discontinuity, and temperament effects on HPA and SNS across social stressors in mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as were associations with infant temperament. Primiparous mothers and their 18-month-old infants (n = 86 dyads) completed an attachment stressor--Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978)--at Session 1 and challenge stressors--cleanup task and emotion task battery--at Session 2. Mother and infant saliva samples collected to index pre-stress, stress, and post-stress response during each session were assayed for cortisol (HPA marker) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA; SNS marker). Multilevel modeling of cortisol/sAA trajectories across sessions revealed rank-order stability in mother/infant stress measures but discontinuity in absolute levels; cortisol trajectories were higher during attachment stress, and sAA trajectories were higher during challenge stress. Varying degrees of mother-infant attunement were found across sessions/systems. Infant surgency predicted higher stress measures, and negative affect and effortful control predicted lower stress measures, though associations depended on session/system. Findings are discussed in terms of advancing a multisystemic, contextual definition of developing stress responsiveness.

  10. Infant Temperament and Maternal Parenting Self-efficacy Predict Child Weight Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Paul, Ian M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between infant negative reactivity and self-regulation, parenting self-efficacy, and child weight outcomes were examined. Greater observed negative reactivity predicted more child weight gain when mothers had lower parenting self-efficacy. Lower mother-reported self-regulation predicted a greater child weight status. Results highlight potential early risk/protective factors.

  11. Relationships between regulatory temperament dimensions and self-regulatory behaviors at 4 and 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Tiziana; Coppola, Gabrielle; Picconi, Laura; Grazia, Annalisa; Ponzetti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The present study focused on relationships between temperament and behavior in early regulation development. Unlike most studies on the topic, we observed infant behavior in a naturalistic playful situation rather than in experimental stressful procedure, and employed temperament measures uniquely reflecting regulatory dispositions rather than a global measure of reactivity. The infant's self-regulatory behaviors were observed at 4 and 6 months during face-to-face interactions and regulatory dimensions were assessed at 4 months. We found that low intensity pleasure and soothability dimensions, related to the infant physical and social experience, respectively, significantly affected regulatory behavior and their influence showed to depend on the infant's age, with the former dimension being influential at the earlier age and the latter being influential when the behavior was observed at the later age. Results are interpreted on the light of a dynamic view of regulation development.

  12. Analysis of iron deficiency anemia of 4 months-3 years old infants in Jinan City%济南市4个月至3岁婴幼儿缺铁性贫血调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑赟; 刘淑珍; 鞠丽娜; 孙燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解济南市药山社区婴幼儿缺铁性贫血现状,探讨影响济南市儿童缺铁性贫血的影响因素,促进小儿健康成长.方法 对2007年10月至2010年12月来山东黄河医院儿保门诊健康查体的1 094例4个月至3岁健康足月婴幼儿进行研究,查末梢血血常规,分析各年龄段贫血患病率,进一步分析贫血与6个月内喂养方式、母亲文化程度、喂养习惯与缺铁性贫血的关系.结果 药山社区4个月至3岁婴幼儿缺铁性贫血总患病率为37.9%(415/1 094),其中轻度贫血占88.2%(366/415),中度贫血占11.8%(49/415).贫血的患病率与月龄、母亲文化程度、6个月内喂养方式、是否合理添加辅食有关,6个月~<12月婴儿患病率明显高于其他组(χ2=14.95~31.93,P<0.01);母亲文化程度高者贫血的患病率低(χ2=10.86~47.02,P<0.01);人工喂养者的患病率明显高于母乳和混合喂养者(χ2=15.26~23.38,P<0.01);合理添加辅食者贫血的患病率明显下降(χ2=31.18,P<0.01).结论 药山社区婴幼儿贫血总患病率仍较高,贫血现状不容乐观,应采取有效措施大力改善婴幼儿营养性缺铁性贫血.%Objective To understand the current situation of iron deficiency anemia ( IDA ) in infants and young children in Yaoshan Community of Jinan City and to explore the influencing factors of IDA in the studied community, so as to promote the healthy growth of them. Methods From October 2007 to December 2010, 1 094 cases of 4 months to 3 years old healthy full-term infants and young children visiting child health outpatient for health examination were studied. Their peripheral blood samples were taken to analyze the prevalence of anemia at different ages. Further relationship between IDA and feeding patterns in the first 6 months, and the maternal education, and feeding was analyzed. Results The total prevalence rate of IDA was 37. 9% ( 415/1 094 ) in the studied children in Yaoshan Community, including 88.2% ( 366

  13. Study on intellectual development and temperament behavior of premature infants in their infant period%早产儿在婴幼儿时期智能发育和气质行为的队列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静; 毛萌; 杨慧明; 康琳敏; 杨凡; 唐章慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the differences among the intellectual development and temperament behavior of premature infants and those of normal full-term infants in their infant period, so as to explore the law to promote the health growth of the intelligence and temperament behavioral of premature infants. Methods 68 cases of premature infants appropriate for gestational age and 102 cases of normal full-term infants were randomly selected for the establishment of cohort as the research subjects. The data of their developmental screening test (DST) at 12 months old were reviewed; and they respectively received Gesell infant intellectual development check at 18, 24, 30 months old, and their parents also received Carey infant temperament questionnaire (RITQ), and received Achenbach infant behavior checklist at 30 months old of the infants. A longitudinal analysis was performed on the differences among the results of the intellectual developments in 5 functional areas(applicability, large motion, fine motion, language, personal-social competence) with the increase in ages and the results of temperament checklist and dimension. The Student's t test, variance analysis, SNK-q test was used as statistical methods, and χ2 analysis was used for the comparison among the constituent ratios of segmental information. Results Compared with the full-term infants, the developmental quotient(DQ) and mental index(MI) at 12-month-old, as well as the DQ of five major functional areas at 18-month-old, 24-month-old and 30-month-old of the premature infants were lower; for the premature infants with corrected gestational age, their adaptability, large motion, fine motor and language at 18-month-old was statistically significant (P<0.05); their adaptability and language at 24-month-old were weaker than those of the full-term infants (P<0.05);and their language and personal social ability were weaker than those of the full-term infants (P<0.05). On aspect of temperament, each temperament

  14. 1至4个月龄正常婴幼儿结膜囊菌群分布特征分析%Normal conjunctival flora in healthy infants aged from 1 to 4 months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华宁; 马文江; 汪建涛; 石婷; 李筱荣

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨1至4个月龄正常婴幼儿结膜囊的菌群分布及其相关影响因素.方法 横断面研究方法.2009年1至3月天津医科大学眼科中心与天津市妇女儿童保健中心合作,采取简单随机抽样研究方法选择109例接受眼病筛查的1至4个月龄的健康小儿,进行双眼结膜囊分泌物取材并做细菌培养和鉴定.应用卡方检验、t检验和回归分析方法对数据进行统计学处理,分析结膜囊细菌种类和分布以及相关影响因素.结果 结膜囊分泌物培养阳性的小儿26例(36只眼),占23.9%.共检出7种44株细菌,包括革兰阳性球菌25株,革兰阳性杆菌18株,革兰阴性杆菌1株.其中类白喉棒状杆菌17株(17/44,38.6%),表皮葡萄球菌16株(16/44,36.4%),金黄色葡萄球菌6株(6/44,13.6%).单眼分离出2种细菌者8只眼(8/36,22.2%),均为葡萄球菌和类白喉棒状杆菌.不同月龄、性别及喂养方式的细菌培养结果差异无统计学意义(X2=0.351,X2=0.001,X2=1.182,P值均大于0.05).结膜囊培养阳性者26例(36只眼),培养阴性者83例(166只眼),两组小儿的出生体重、胎龄及受检周龄比较差异无统计学意义(t=0.078,t=0.940,t=0.686,P值均大于0.05).本研究中性别、年龄、出生体重、胎龄及喂养方式不影响结膜囊带菌状态(Wald X2=0.001,Wald X2=0.003,Wald X2=0.117,Wald X2=1.307,Wald X2=1.490,P值均大于0.05).结论 婴儿期结膜囊正常菌群已经建立,以表皮葡萄球菌和类白喉棒状杆菌为主要菌种.葡萄球菌与类白喉棒状杆菌有共生现象.小儿结膜囊带菌状态相关影响因素仍需进一步研究.%Objective To investigate the normal conjunetival bacterial flora isolated from healthy infants aged from 1 to 4 months and to analyze its correlated factors.Methods This was a cross-sectional study.From January to March 2009,109 cases of healthy babies aged from 1 to 4 months were selected throulgh simple random sampling when they accepted health examination

  15. Similarity in temperament between mother and offspring rhesus monkeys: sex differences and the role of monoamine oxidase-a and serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Erin C; Mendoza, Sally P; Capitanio, John P

    2011-09-01

    Temperament is usually considered biologically based and largely inherited, however, the environment can shape the development of temperament. Allelic variation may confer differential sensitivity to early environment resulting in variations in temperament. Here we explore the relationship between measures of temperament in mothers and their first-born offspring and the role of genetic sensitivity in establishing the strength of these associations. Temperament ratings were conducted on 3- to 4-month-old rhesus monkeys after a 25-hr biobehavioral assessment. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure of temperament. Females assessed as infants have reproduced and their offspring have also been evaluated through the standardized testing paradigm. Canonical correlation analysis revealed statistically significant associations between factor scores of mothers and sons, but not mothers and daughters. Further, offspring possessing the high activity, "low risk," alleles of the rhMAOA-LPR or rh5-HTTLPR showed statistically significant canonical correlations, whereas those possessing other alleles did not, suggesting differential genetic sensitivity to the normative early experience of maternal temperament.

  16. Effects of early intervention on intelligence development and temperament in high-risk infants%早期干预对高危儿智能和气质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于爱萍; 杨珍珍; 李培培; 郭锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the temperament characteristics of high-risk infants and the effects of early intervention on the intelligence development and temperament in high-risk infants. Methods Test method of infant intelligence development ( CDCC ) was used to assess the intelligence development and revised inffant temperament questionnaire ( RITQ ) by Carey was used to assess the temperament of highrisk infants with intervention group ( 50 subjects ), high-risk infants without intervention group ( 49 subjects ) and control group ( 51 subjects ), and the results were analyzed. Results Early intervention could promote the intelligence development, but it had little effect on distribution of temperament type and temperament dimensions. Different temperament types didn' t have obvious effect on intelligence development. Approach or withdrawal, quality of mood, persistence were negative to MDI9( r= -0. 163, -0. 191, -0.230 respectively,all P < 0.05 ), while activity level was conrelated positively to PDI( r= 0. 246, P < 0.01 ). Conclusion Early intervention on high-risk infants can promote their intelligence development, but can not change their temperament. Temperament dimensions affect the intelligence development of infants to some extent, so parents' guidance should comply with the temperament characteristics of infants and education them individually.%目的 探讨高危儿的气质特点及早期干预对高危儿智能和气质的影响.方法 分别采用婴幼儿智能发育测验方法 和Carey的婴儿气质修订问卷对50名高危儿干预组、49名高危儿未干预组、51名健康对照组儿童进行智能发育和气质测评,并对结果 进行分析.结果 早期干预可以促进智能发育,对气质类型分布和气质维度影响不大;不同的气质类型对智能发育无明显影响;趋避性、情绪本质、坚持性与智能发育指数呈负相关(r值分别为-0.163、-0.191、-0.230,均P<0.05),活动水平与运

  17. Analysis of temperament characteristics of 206 infants aged 5~ 11 months%5~11个月婴儿气质特点206例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate temperament characteristics of infants and guide parents to rear the infants and develop a good emotional response. [Method] 206 infants were surveyed with Carey's Temperament Questionnaire Scale. [Results] The proportion of infants with different temperament types in this district was 36. 2% for easy type and 41. 4% intermediate low child type,8. 6% for difficult type and 6. 7% for intermediate high child type and 7. 1 % for slow-to-warm up type of temperament. There were significant the cesarean section group and the spontaneous delivery group in distribution of all temperament types(x2 = 10. 391 ,P = 0. 034). There were no significant differences in gender dimensions of infant tem-perament(all P>0. 05). There were no significant gender differences in distribution of all temperament types(x2 = 5. 002,P = 0. 287). [Conclusion] To carry out the work of early childhood development, more attention should be paied to earlychildhood temperament characteristics.%[目的]了解婴儿气质特征,指导家长科学养育,培养婴儿良好的情绪、情感反应. [方法]采用《Carey5~11月婴儿气质问卷》,对西城区社区保健科206名5~11月婴儿进行调查分析. [结果]婴儿的主要气质类型分别为:易养型(36.2%)、中间偏易养型(41.4%)、困难型(8.6%)、启动缓慢型(7.1%)、中间偏难养型(6.7%).剖宫产婴儿与自然分娩婴儿气质特点的比较,差异有统计学意义(x2=10.391,P=0.034);不同性别婴儿气质维度中,男童与女童无显著性差异(P均>0.05);不同气质类型分布之间性别比较差异无统计学意义(x2=5.002,P=0.287). [结论]开展儿童早期综合发展工作,应重视早期儿童的气质特点.

  18. 孕期父母心理因素对1个月婴儿气质影响的追踪研究%Impacts of parents psychological factors during pregnancy on temperament of 1-month infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海宁; 史慧静; 章煜; 李丹

    2012-01-01

    [目的]追踪调查孕期父母的心理因素对出生后1个月婴儿气质的影响,促进婴儿身心健康成长. [方法]募集在上海某中心城区医院定期产前检查的孕28周孕妇,通过问卷、访谈等方式了解孕期父母的心理因素,追踪出生后1个月的婴儿气质特征,分析两者间的相关性. [结果]小婴儿的气质维度中仅适应性有性别差异;准爸爸在妻子孕期的状态焦虑和特质焦虑程度、准妈妈的心理健康状态、准父母的婚姻满意度在一定程度上影响了1个月龄小婴儿的气质特征. [结论]孕期父母的心理因素能够影响婴儿气质,应注意加强孕期准父母的心理健康保健,以促进儿童的身心健康成长.%[Objective] To examine impacts of parents'psychological factors during pregnancy on temperament of 1 month infants. [Methods] A follow-up study was conducted in urban Shanghai. Parents' pregnant pressure,general status of mental health,anxiety,and marriage satisfaction during pregnancy were measured by structural questionnaire in a prenatal care visit of the 28th week. And temperament questionnaire of 1-month infant was filled by parents in postnatal care visit. [Results] Among 9 dimensions of temperament, gender difference was only found for adjustability among those 1-month infants. Characteristics of the infants' temperament were significantly related to anxiety of fathers,mentatal status of mothers, and perceptions of marital satisfaction of both parents,even after controlling for some key covariants. [Conclusions] Psychological factors during pregnancy can have impacts on temperament of 1-month infants. Strengthening mental health care for pregnant women and their husband may optimize the temperament of infants.

  19. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  20. The Limits of Genetic Influence: A Behavior-Genetic Analysis of Infant-Caregiver Relationship Quality and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2006-01-01

    This report presents data on 9-month-old twin pairs (n[MZ]=172; n[DZ]=333) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, demonstrating that the role of genetic variation among infants is trivial and the shared and nonshared environment is substantial in accounting for the observed quality of infant-caregiver relationships. In contrast, maternal…

  1. Infant Temperament in Russia, United States of America, and Israel: Differences and Similarities between Russian-Speaking Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Peleg, Yana; Young, Brandi N.; Slobodskaya, Helena R.

    2009-01-01

    The present study addresses cross-cultural differences between infants born to families of Russian immigrants in USA and Israel, as well as Russian families residing in Russia, with the emphasis on evaluating the impact of immigration and acculturation. Community samples of primary caregivers of infants between 3 and 12 months of age were…

  2. 吊带治疗婴幼儿发育性髋关节发育不良%Pavlik harness treatment for infant aged in 4 months with development dysplasia of hip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐校光; 胡士琪; 李永智; 李赫; 金芝学; 戚秀丽; 姜胜宇; 胡涛; 金晓光

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨Pavlik吊带治疗6个月内婴幼儿发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)的治疗方案和效果。方法:回顾性总结我院2014年6月~2016年6月收治的42例(44髋)年龄为6个月内的发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)的婴儿,其中男性7例,女性35例,单侧40例,双侧2例,年龄6~24周。根据Graf超声诊断发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)的病理分型,7髋为Ⅱa(-)型,18髋为Ⅱb型,12髋为Ⅱc型,6髋为Ⅲ型,1髋为Ⅳ型。患儿体检发现发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)患儿存在双侧臀纹不对称,或伴有患侧髋关节屈曲外展受限,经Graf 静态超声技术明确诊断。均采用Pavlik 吊带治疗,间隔1周复诊1次,3周后超声检查观察髋关节发育变化。吊带治疗时间4~24周,随访时间1~20个月,平均10个月。结果:39例(40髋)经Pavlik吊带治疗后,经超声和X线片检查,相关指标达到正常,确认治愈。3例(4髋)在经Pavlik治疗过程中,经超声检查后,相关指标改善明显,58°<α角<60°。全部患儿均无股骨头无菌性坏死等并发症。结论:Pavlik 吊带对于Graf Ⅱ型患儿治愈率高,而对于GrafⅢ、Ⅳ型患儿,Pavlik 吊带治愈率降低,部分患儿需要进一步的后续治疗。超声检查可达到动态观察Pavlik 吊带治疗效果的目的。早期超声检查为发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)能早期得到 Pavlik 吊带治疗提供了可能,对减少患儿远期遗留畸形和降低治疗过程中并发症发生率有重要意义。%To investigate the effective treatment method of the Pavlik harness for aged in 4 month baby with developmental dysplasia of the hip ( DDH) ,the value on high frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of DDH.Me thods:From 2014 to 2016,42( 44 hips) affected baby aged in 4 months were treated,male in 7,female in 35,one side in 40,two sides in 2.The patients were 6

  3. Study on the temperament of cognitive development for high risk infants aged 0~3 years old%O~3岁智能发育迟缓儿童气质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蓉; 洪琴; 苏恺; 张敏; 俞倩; 徐亚琴; 童梅玲; 池霞

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To study the temperament of cognitive development for high risk infants,and provide a reference for effective clinical early intervention. [Method] 204 cognitive development for high risk infants and 112 normal infants aged 0~3 years old were tested by two specific questionnaires chosen from the Carey infants' Temperament Questionnaire. [Results] Significant difference was found between difficult nurturing types and slow startup types. Significant difference were found in rhythm,aversion,adaptation,persistence and attention between the cognitive development for high risk infants and normal infants(P<0. 05). There was no statistical difference for temperament types between different genders. Significant difference were found in activity and pcrsistence(P<0. 05). [Conclusions] The temperament of cognitive development for high risk infants has special character. In order to improve their development, measures should be a-dopted according to its qualities.%[目的]探索智能发育迟缓儿童的气质特征,为临床进行有效的早期干预提供参考依据. [方法]采用Carry儿童气质问卷对204例0~3岁智能发育迟缓儿童及112例正常儿童进行测试与比较. [结果]智能发育迟缓儿童气质类型中难养型与启动缓慢型偏多,在节律性、趋避性、适应性、坚持性、注意力维度分值与正常组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).智能迟缓儿男女气质类型相近,但两组在活动水平和坚持性两个维度分值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). [结论]智能发育迟缓儿童有其独特的气质特点,应结合其特点,进行早期干预,促进其智力.

  4. 延迟断脐对足月母乳喂养婴儿4月龄时铁营养状况及生长发育的影响%The effects of iron stores and growth of delayed umbilical cord clamp timing on term breast-fed infants at 4-month-old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 杨丽琛; 马建荣; 吴芹; 韩翠存; 王磊; 荣利; 杨晓光; 张巍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore whether delayed umbilical cord clamp timing of newborn can improve iron stores of infant period and growth and development.Methods Mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned to early clamping (94 cases, < 15 s after delivery) and delayed clamping (64 cases,1min after delivery) by draw lots,and followed up until 4 months postpartum.Infant hematological status,iron status,the level of growth and development of infants after 4 months were measured respectively.Transculaneous bilirubin at the third day after delivery was also measured.Results At 4 months age,the median of serum ferritin and mean of corpuscular volume value in delaycd group were 87.30 μg/L and (79.62 ±4.13) fl,significantly higher than the values in early group(64.3 μg/L,(78.06 ±4.38) fl),respectively ( Z =- 2.36,t =2.23,both P values < 0.05 ).The hematocrit value was ( 33.59 ± 2.48 ) %,higher than that in early group ( 32.76 ± 2.69 ) % ( t =1.95,P =0.05 ).There was no statistically significant difference at other iron nutrition indicators and infants' weight and body length at 4 months (P >0.05).Under the different cut-off valucs (hemoglobin (Hb) < 105 g/L and Hb < 110 g/L,respectively ),the prevalence of anemia in delay and early clamping group were 6.25% (4/64),21.86% (14/64),and 12.77% ( 12/94),34.04% ( 32/94 ),respectively ( both P values > 0.05 ).Conclusion Delayed umbilical cord clamp timing uutil 1 min can improve iron stores of breastfed infants at 4 months;there is no significant adverse effects to growth.%目的 研究出生时延长新生儿的断脐时间对婴儿4月龄时铁营养状况和生长发育的影响.方法 选取孕期健康的孕妇,按照抽签法随机分为常规断脐组(94名,产后15 s内断脐)和晚断脐组(64名,产后1 min断脐).追踪至4月龄,分别检测4月龄时婴儿静脉血铁营养状况及生长发育各项指标,监测婴儿早期胆红素水平.结果 在4月龄时,晚断脐组婴儿

  5. 哮喘婴幼儿的气质类型及其母亲人格因素分析%Temperament Types of Infants with Asthma and Personality Factors of Their Mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星东; 江瑞芬; 谢辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore temperament features of infants with asthma and personality characteristics of their mothers, and to provide a basis for clinical comprehensive treatment and early intervention. Methods Forty-five infants with asthma were enrolled between March and May 2010 as asthma group. In addition, 45 normal subjects were selected as control group. Temperament features of infants were assessed with Carry Temperament Scale and personality characteristics of their mothers were evaluated with Carter's 16 personality factor questionnaire. Results Scores of emotional nature dimension in asthma group were higher than those in control group (3. 03 ± 0. 65 vs 2. 65 ± 0. 58,P0. 05). Scores of sensitivity, anxiety and tension of mothers of asthma infants were higher than those of mothers of normal infants (6. 19 ± 1. 57 vs 5. 52± 1. 12, 5. 06 ± 1. 51 vs 3. 95 ± 1. 81, and 5. 60 ± 1. 64 vs 4. 43 ±1. 72, respectively; P0.05).哮喘组母亲敏感性、忧虑性、紧张性分值均高于对照组[(6.19±1.57)分比(5.52±1.12)分、(5.06±1.51)分比(3.95±1.81)分、(5.60±1.64)分比(4.43±1.72)分,均P<0.05];而心理健康因素分值低于对照组[(22.20±5.31)分比(24.75±5.29),P<0.05].结论 在加强哮喘患儿情绪本质的管理,从人格因素入手,加强对哮喘婴幼儿母亲的健康教育有利于疾病的综合防治.

  6. 婴儿早期睡眠/觉醒状况与气质相关性的研究%Relationship between the early sleep/wake and temperament of infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张风华; 廖灿辉; 王绘新; 傅平

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the relationships between the sleep/wake and temperament of infants aged 6 months in the natural environment of family.Methods The 39 normal infants were enrolled in this study. The sleep/wake data was collected by actigraphy. The temperament were assessed by Chinese Infant Temperament Questionnaire.ResultsAmong the 39 infants, there were 9 coordinated Difficult type and 30 coordinated Easy type. After all sleep parameters comparison, no statistical significance between two groups. There was positive correlation between approachability and the number of night waking, there was negative correlation between approachability and the longest nocturnal sleep duration. There were also positive correlation between mood and the sleep efficiency.Conclusions Infants with different temperament types had no significant difference between all of sleep parameters in the study. The emotional nature and persistence were associated with sleep efficiency, the number of night waking and the longest nocturnal sleep duration respectively. The parents of infants should change their child rearing behaviors to promote the formation of children's healthy sleep and the development of body and mind.%目的:在家庭自然环境下,对6个月婴儿的睡眠/觉醒状况率先进行客观监测和气质分析,揭示婴儿早期睡眠与气质的相关性。方法采用腕表式睡眠活动记录仪,对39例健康足月婴儿的睡眠/觉醒状况进行连续监测,采用婴儿气质问卷(CITQ)评估气质类型和气质维度。结果39例健康足月中,合并麻烦型气质9例,合并平易型气质30例。两组婴儿间各项睡眠参数分别进行统计分析,其结果无显著性差异(P>0.05)。在控制性别因素后,足月儿气质维度中的趋避性与夜间觉醒次数正相关(r=0.439,P=0.005),与夜间最长连续睡眠时间负相关(r=-0.324,P=0.044);情绪本质与睡眠效率正相关(r=0.347

  7. Studying Cross-Cultural Differences in the Development of Infant Temperament: People's Republic of China, the United States of America, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Gonzalez, Carmen; Carranza, Jose A.; Ahadi, Stephan A.; Ye, Renmin; Rothbart, Mary K.; Yang, Suh Wen

    2006-01-01

    Investigated early development of temperament across three cultures: People's Republic of China (PRC), United States of America (US), and Spain, utilizing a longitudinal design (assessments at 3, 6, and 9 months of age). Selection of these countries presented an opportunity to conduct Eastern-Western/Individualistic-Collectivistic comparisons. The…

  8. Correlates of diurnal sleep patterns in infants of adolescent and adult single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P T; Chang, A; Kameshima, S; Bloch, M

    1991-04-01

    Sleep behavior has been related to both child and environmental factors, but the relative importance of these factors is not yet clear. This study was an examination of the relation of diurnal sleep patterns to perinatal risk, infant temperament, home environment, parenting stress, emotional support, and social class. Twenty-three adolescent and 23 single adult mothers and infants were assessed in the home at 4 and 12 months. Percent sleep during the night was most strongly related to parenting stress and variability of night sleep to emotional support. Emotional support mediated effects of stress at 4 months. Results support the value of clinical assessment of sleep behavior.

  9. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  10. Severe neonatal hypercalcemia in 4-month-old, presented with respiratory distress and chest wall deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Aljahdali

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) is a rare disease affecting calcium metabolism and results in severe life-treating hypocalcemia of the neonates. Diagnosis can be challenging due to variable and nonspecific symptomatology. We are reporting on a 4-month-old female infant presenting with respiratory distress and chest wall deformity. We are trying to highlight different surgical options for this rare disease and importance of close collaboration with the pediatric endocrinologist in ...

  11. Severe neonatal hypercalcemia in 4-month-old, presented with respiratory distress and chest wall deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Aljahdali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT is a rare disease affecting calcium metabolism and results in severe life-treating hypocalcemia of the neonates. Diagnosis can be challenging due to variable and nonspecific symptomatology. We are reporting on a 4-month-old female infant presenting with respiratory distress and chest wall deformity. We are trying to highlight different surgical options for this rare disease and importance of close collaboration with the pediatric endocrinologist in the treatment plan for those patients.

  12. Evidence for Interplay between Genes and Parenting on Infant Temperament in the First Year of Life: Monoamine Oxidase a Polymorphism Moderates Effects of Maternal Sensitivity on Infant Anger Proneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Hill, Jonathan; Breen, Gerome; Quinn, John; Abbott, Kate; Jones, Helen; Sharp, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The low expression polymorphism of the MAOA gene in interaction with adverse environments (G × E) is associated with antisocial behaviour disorders. These have their origins in early life, but it is not known whether MAOA G × E occurs in infants. We therefore examined whether MAOA G × E predicts infant anger proneness, a temperamental…

  13. Early Life Stress and Child Temperament Style as Predictors of Childhood Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms: Findings from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. Both infant temperament and stress exposures are independent and notable predictors of later anxiety and depressive problems in childhood. The risk relationship between stress exposure in infancy and childhood emotion problems did not vary as a function of infant temperament. Implications for preventive intervention and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Temperament profiles of children with vein of Galen malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, R; Melnick, J; Berenstein, A

    1998-08-01

    Unlike many brain injured children who are often rather difficult, toddlers and school-aged children with congenital vein of Galen malformations (n = 20; age range, 4 months to 12 years with a mean of 4 years) evidence a relatively positive temperament profile (based on the Temperament Scales of Carey, McDevitt, Fullard, Hegvik, Medoff-Cooper). They do not, however, differ from normal children with regard to the frequency of easy, difficult, slow to warm up, and intermediate temperament clusters. The temperament profile of children with vein of Galen malformations appears unaffected by additional neurologic abnormalities (hydrocephalus, abnormal developmental quotient, seizure disorder, focal cortical lesions) or other factors including age at testing, sex, or socioeconomic status. Contrary to the findings in adults of right hemisphere dominance for attention, presence of additional right-sided focal cortical pathology was not associated with greater activity level, distractibility, or impersistence. In contrast to the findings in adults and children of right hemisphere dominance for emotions in general, children with vein of Galen malformations and additional right hemisphere cortical damage are not more difficult than those with additional left cortical pathology or no additional focal cortical pathology. The fact that the pathology in vein of Galen malformations is subcortical may explain their relatively easier temperament and the absence of lateralization effects.

  15. Transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis surgically replaced 4 months after implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Hans Gustav; Lund, Jens Teglgaard; Engstrøm, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a new and rapidly evolving treatment option for high-risk surgical patients with degenerative aortic valve stenosis. Long-term results with these new valve prostheses are lacking, and potential valve dysfunction and failure would require valve replacement....... We report the first case of surgical valve replacement in a patient with a dysfunctional transcatheter-implanted aortic valve prosthesis 4 months after implantation....

  16. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  17. Intrauterine Growth and Infant Temperamental Difficulties: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Sabine J.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Moll, Henriette A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2008-01-01

    The Generation R Study a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life to young adulthood is conducted to explore the possibility of an association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories. Results concluded little indication of any association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories.

  18. Fear and Anger Reactivity Trajectories from 4 to 16 Months: The Roles of Temperament, Regulation, and Maternal Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.; Karrass, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Two goals guided this study: (a) describe changes in infant fear and anger reactivity from 4 to 16 months and (b) examine the degree to which infant temperament, attentional regulation, and maternal sensitivity predict reactivity trajectories. Participants included 143 mothers and infants (57% male) who visited the laboratory at 4, 8, 12, and 16…

  19. Early Temperament and Attachment Security with Mothers and Fathers as Predictors of Toddler Compliance and Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Oshio, Toko; Planalp, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study (n?=?106) examined associations between temperament, attachment, and styles of compliance and noncompliance. Infant negative temperamental reactivity was reported by mothers at 3, 5 and 7?months. Infant attachment was assessed (Strange Situation) at 12 (mothers) and 14?months (fathers). Toddlers' styles of…

  20. Dietary iron intake in the first 4 months of infancy and the development of type 1 diabetes: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ambika P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To investigate the impact of iron intake on the development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM. Methods Case-control study with self-administered questionnaire among families of children with T1DM who were less than 10 years old at the time of the survey and developed diabetes between age 1 and 6 years. Data on the types of infant feeding in the first 4 months of life was collected from parents of children with T1DM (n = 128 and controls (n = 67 Results The median (min, max total iron intake in the first 4 months of life was 1159 (50, 2399 mg in T1DM cases and 466 (50, 1224 mg among controls (P Conclusion In this pilot study, high iron intake in the first 4 months of infancy is associated with T1DM. Whether iron intake is causal or a marker of another risk factor warrants further investigation.

  1. The relationship between temperament, gender, and behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: behavioural problems; gender; preschool children; temperament ... social and emotional development of children (Barnard, 2001; Burger, 2010; Draper,. Archmat ..... The interaction between child sex and temperament in predicting.

  2. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; John D E Gabrieli

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion ...

  3. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION DURING PREGNANCY AND TEMPERAMENT IN EARLY INFANCY: FINDINGS FROM A MULTI-ETHNIC, ASIAN, PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shang-Chee; Broekman, Birit Fp; Qiu, Anqi; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chan, Yiong Huak; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Law, Evelyn; Chee, Cornelia Yin Ing; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Chen, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Maternal antenatal mood is associated with negative infant temperament. This link has not been substantiated in Asian populations. We evaluated the association between antenatal maternal mood and infant temperament among Asian mother-infant pairs. Antenatal maternal depression and anxiety were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (J. Cox, J. Holden, & R. Sagovsky, 1987) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C. Spielberger, R. Gorsuch, R. Lushene, P. Vagg, & G. Jacobs, 1983), respectively, at 26 weeks of pregnancy and 3 months' postnatally. Infant temperament was evaluated with the Early Infant Temperament Questionnaire (B. Medoff-Cooper, W.B. Carey, & S.C. McDevitt, 1993) at 3 months. Factor analysis was performed to extract culturally relevant categories of temperamental traits. Linear regression was performed to examine the influences of antenatal maternal mood on the factor-model-derived infant temperament. Of the 609 mothers, 11% met risk criteria for depression, 17% for state-anxiety, and 19% for trait-anxiety during pregnancy. Factor analysis yielded three infant temperament factors: Emotionality and Attentional Regulation, Sensory Reactivity, and Regularity and Motor Expression, Cronbach's αs = 0.613, 0.712, and 0.752, respectively. Maternal antenatal state-anxiety, p < .001, and trait anxiety, p = .005, were associated with negative emotionality and poor attentional regulation, especially among Chinese, whereas depression was not, p = .090. There was an association between maternal antenatal anxiety and negative infant temperamental traits in this Asian sample. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Work Temperament Inventory and Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Brian; Brookings, Jeffrey

    This manual is a guide to the Work Temperament Inventory (WTI), a self-report measure of 12 work temperaments that were originally identified and defined by the U.S. Department of Labor. The WTI consists of 134 items requiring a simple "like" or "dislike" response and a reading level of seventh grade. It can be completed in 15…

  5. Revising the Musical Equal Temperament

    CERN Document Server

    Hinrichsen, Haye

    2015-01-01

    Western music is predominantly based on the equal temperament with a constant semitone frequency ratio of $2^{1/12}$. Although this temperament has been in use since the 19th century and in spite of its high degree of symmetry, various musicians have repeatedly expressed their discomfort with the harmonicity of certain intervals. Recently it was suggested that this problem can be overcome by introducing a modified temperament with a constant but slightly increased frequency ratio. In this paper we confirm this conjecture quantitatively. Using entropy as a measure for harmonicity, we show numerically that the harmonic optimum is in fact obtained for frequency ratios larger than $2^{1/12}$. This suggests that the equal temperament should be replaced by a harmonized temperament as a new standard.

  6. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  7. Human morality and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical

  8. Temperament, Emotion and Childhood Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The trait-like nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more state-like and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter (CWNS). Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

  9. Personality development and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M

    1982-01-01

    This paper identifies a number of problems that emerge in our attempts to trace a developmental linkage between early-appearing individual differences in temperament and later personality. It is suggested that the major problem is that of inadequate theory, from which it follows that there will be problems of definition and methodology. Attention is also drawn to difficulties associated with the concept of 'development'. Certain early-appearing individual difference are identified, for which there is accumulating evidence of a genetic or constitutional basis. Further, these appear to show some stability and are accorded an important role in a number of theories, especially that of Eysenck. It is suggested that his approach, despite its many limitations, is worth further exploration.

  10. Temperament, emotion, and childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

    2014-05-01

    Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The traitlike nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more statelike and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter. Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome.

  11. Effect of delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping on neonatal outcomes and iron status at 4 months: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ola; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Andersson, Dan; Domellöf, Magnus

    2011-11-15

    To investigate the effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping, compared with early clamping, on infant iron status at 4 months of age in a European setting. Randomised controlled trial. Swedish county hospital. 400 full term infants born after a low risk pregnancy. Infants were randomised to delayed umbilical cord clamping (≥ 180 seconds after delivery) or early clamping (≤ 10 seconds after delivery). Haemoglobin and iron status at 4 months of age with the power estimate based on serum ferritin levels. Secondary outcomes included neonatal anaemia, early respiratory symptoms, polycythaemia, and need for phototherapy. At 4 months of age, infants showed no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration between the groups, but infants subjected to delayed cord clamping had 45% (95% confidence interval 23% to 71%) higher mean ferritin concentration (117 μg/L v 81 μg/L, P cord clamping group had lower prevalence of neonatal anaemia at 2 days of age (2 (1.2%) v 10 (6.3%), P = 0.02, relative risk reduction 0.80, number needed to treat 20 (15 to 111)). There were no significant differences between groups in postnatal respiratory symptoms, polycythaemia, or hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy. Delayed cord clamping, compared with early clamping, resulted in improved iron status and reduced prevalence of iron deficiency at 4 months of age, and reduced prevalence of neonatal anaemia, without demonstrable adverse effects. As iron deficiency in infants even without anaemia has been associated with impaired development, delayed cord clamping seems to benefit full term infants even in regions with a relatively low prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01245296.

  12. Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Réale, D.; Reader, S.M.; Sol, D.; McDougall, P.T.; Dingemanse, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Temperament describes the idea that individual behavioural differences are repeatable over time and across situations. This common phenomenon covers numerous traits, such as aggressiveness, avoidance of novelty, willingness to take risks, exploration, and sociality. The study of temperament is

  13. Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reale, Denis; Reader, Simon M.; Sol, Daniel; McDougall, Peter T.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    Temperament describes the idea that individual behavioural differences are repeatable over time and across situations. This common phenomenon covers numerous traits, such as aggressiveness, avoidance of novelty, willingness to take risks, exploration, and sociality. The study of temperament is

  14. A Two-Factor Model of Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David E.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    The higher order structure of temperament was examined in two studies using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Because previous research showed robust levels of convergence between Rothbart’s constructs of temperament and the Big Five factors, we hypothesized a higher order two-factor model of temperament based on Digman’s higher order two-factor model of personality traits derived from factor analysis of the Big Five factors. Study 1 included 258 undergraduates. Digman’s model did not fit ...

  15. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  16. Infants’ neural responses to facial emotion in the prefrontal cortex are correlated with temperament: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda M Ravicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate decoding of facial expressions is critical for human communication, particularly during infancy, before formal language has developed. Different facial emotions elicit distinct neural responses within the first months of life. However, there are broad individual differences in such responses, such that the same emotion can elicit different brain responses in different infants. In this study we sought to investigate such differences in the processing of emotional faces by analyzing infants’ cortical metabolic responses to face stimuli and examining whether individual differences in these responses might vary as a function of infant temperament.Seven-month-old infants (N = 24 were shown photographs of women portraying happy expressions, and neural activity was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Temperament data were collected using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire Short Form, which assesses the broad temperament factors of Surgency/Extraversion (S/E, Negative Emotionality (NE, and Orienting/Regulation (O/R. We observed that oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb responses to happy face stimuli were negatively correlated with infant temperament factors in channels over the left prefrontal cortex (uncorrected for multiple comparisons. To investigate the brain activity underlying this association, and to explore the use of fNIRS in measuring cortical asymmetry, we analyzed hemispheric asymmetry with respect to temperament groups. Results showed preferential activation of the left hemisphere in low-NE infants in response to smiling faces.These results suggest that individual differences in temperament are associated with differential prefrontal oxyHb responses to faces. Overall, these analyses contribute to our current understanding of face processing during infancy, demonstrate the use of fNIRS in measuring prefrontal asymmetry, and illuminate the neural correlates of face processing as modulated by temperament.

  17. Physiological pulmonary branch stenosis in newborns: 2D-echocardiographic and Doppler characteristics and 4 months follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Yazdanparast

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient systolic murmurs in neonates and premature infants due to mild left (LPA and right (RPA pulmonary branch stenosis is recognized but follow up studies are lacking. A total of 32 neonates with murmur and 32 controls were evaluated echocardiographically at baseline and in four months follow up. Diameters of LPA and RPA were smaller in patients with murmur. Colour-coded Doppler showed turbulent flow in LPA and RPA in 93% of patients and flow velocities of both pulmonary branches were significantly higher than in controls. The follow up study at 4 months showed absent (23% or decreased murmur (76%. Echocardiographically, absolute and relative diameters of LPA and RPA increased whereas the ratio of main pulmonary artery/aorta did not change suggesting accelerated growth or dilatation of the pulmonary branches. Thus, transient systolic murmurs in neonates are associated with temporary relative hypoplasia of the pulmonary branches which showed increased growth leading to disappearance of the murmur in most cases within 4 months of life.

  18. Sound symbolism in infancy: evidence for sound-shape cross-modal correspondences in 4-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ozge; Krehm, Madelaine; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-02-01

    Perceptual experiences in one modality are often dependent on activity from other sensory modalities. These cross-modal correspondences are also evident in language. Adults and toddlers spontaneously and consistently map particular words (e.g., 'kiki') to particular shapes (e.g., angular shapes). However, the origins of these systematic mappings are unknown. Because adults and toddlers have had significant experience with the language mappings that exist in their environment, it is unclear whether the pairings are the result of language exposure or the product of an initial proclivity. We examined whether 4-month-old infants make the same sound-shape mappings as adults and toddlers. Four month-olds consistently distinguished between congruent and incongruent sound-shape mappings in a looking time task (Experiment 1). Furthermore, mapping was based on the combination of consonants and vowels in the words given that neither consonants (Experiment 2) nor vowels (Experiment 3) alone sufficed for mapping. Finally, we confirmed that adults also made systematic sound-shape mappings (Experiment 4); however, for adults, vowels or consonants alone sufficed. These results suggest that some sound-shape mappings precede language learning, and may in fact aid in language learning by establishing a basis for matching labels to referents and narrowing the hypothesis space for young infants.

  19. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  20. Longitudinal associations between temperament and socioemotional outcomes in young children: the moderating role of RSA and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Santiago; Beekman, Charles; Blandon, Alysia Y; Stifter, Cynthia A; Buss, Kristin A

    2015-01-01

    Temperament is an important predictor of socioemotional adjustment, such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms. However, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between temperamental predispositions and these outcomes, implying that other factors also contribute to the development of internalizing and externalizing problems. Self-regulation is believed to interact with temperament, and has been studied as a predictor for later socioemotional outcomes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a psychophysiological measure of self-regulation that has been studied as a moderator of risk. The primary aim of the present study was to test if RSA baseline and RSA reactivity would moderate the link between temperament and socioemotional outcomes. Mothers reported the temperament of their infants (20 months; N = 154), RSA was collected at 24- and 42-months, and mothers reported externalizing and internalizing behaviors at kindergarten entry. RSA baseline and RSA reactivity moderated the relation between exuberant temperament and externalizing behaviors. However, these results were only significant for girls, such that high RSA baseline and greater RSA suppression predicted more externalizing behaviors when exuberance was high. Fearful temperament predicted later internalizing behaviors, but no moderation was present. These results are discussed in light of recent evidence regarding gender differences in the role of RSA as a protective factor for risk.

  1. Temperament of Children and Adolescents Presenting with Unexplained Physcial Symtoms

    OpenAIRE

    Raghutaman, G.; Cherian, Alice

    2003-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) To analyse the temperament of children and adolescents presenting with Somatoform disorder and Dissociative (conversion) disorder and (2) To evaluate the nosological status of conversion disorder from the angle of temperament. Temperament of 30 children and adolescents having the diagnosis of either Dissociative (Conversion) disorder or Somatoform disorder were compared with temperament of 30 matched normal control groupTemperament was assessed by using Temperam...

  2. Does temperament influence language development? Evidence from preterm and full-term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Fernández, Pilar; Resches, Mariela; Gómez-Taibo, María Luisa

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) to describe language and temperament characteristics of one group of low risk preterm (PR) children and a group of full-term (FT) children and (2) to identify those factors which can predict language outcomes at 30 months of age, with special attention on temperament. There is evidence of differences between very or extremely PR and FT children in relation to characteristics of temperament and language development. However, not many studies have been carried out with healthy PR children. The participants were 142 low risk PR children (mean gestational age (GA): 32.60 weeks) and 49 FT children (mean GA 39.84 weeks). The temperament of the children was assessed at 10 months of age through the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R). At 22 months of age the cognitive development of the children was assessed through the Spanish adaptation of the Batelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). In order to assess the children's language development the Galician adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI was applied at 30 months of age. In addition, socio-demographic information about the children and their families was gathered at birth. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the language measures of interest (word production, MLU3, and sentence complexity) between groups. The only differences found between the PR and the FT children in the IBQ-R were restricted to the smiling and laughter and the fear subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses performed indicate that GA did not have any predictive effect on language measures taken at 30 months. Cognitive scores were an important predictor of language measures, although certain temperament subscales contributed in a significant way to the variance of language measures, particularly low intensity pleasure, approach, high intensity pleasure, sadness, and vocal reactivity. Therefore, extroverted (positive affectivity) temperament seems to be beneficial for language

  3. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2015-01-01

    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare....... on learning variables, and these were proposed to reflect feed motivation and working speed. A single correlation was found between temperament and learning PC scores: high activity was associated with low feed motivation. This preliminary exploratory study suggests that temperament, as assessed during...

  4. The stability of mastery motivation and its relationship with home environment in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Jung; Hwang, Ai-Wen; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun

    2011-06-01

    Mastery motivation (intrinsic drives to explore and master one's environment) is a key developmental element. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the stability of mastery motivation between 2 and 3 years of age for two genders; and (2) the associations between early home environment and toddlers' mastery motivation in children with typical development. Data of 102 children developing typically from a birth cohort study at Northern Taiwan were analyzed in two parts: (1) stability part: mastery motivation of children were measured at 2 and 3 years of age; (2) environment part: child-parent dyads were assessed from birth, 4 months, 6 months, and 2-3 years of age. Outcomes variables were measured at ages 2 and 3 years by the Dimension of Mastery Questionnaire-17th version. Main predictive variables were measured by Home Observation for Measuring Environment Inventory (HOME) to collect data of the qualities of home environment at 6 months and 2 years; by the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire to obtain 4-month activity levels; and by the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers to obtain 2-year developmental quotient (DQ). There was moderate stability of mastery motivation from 2 to 3 years, and girls' stability was higher than boys'. 6-Month HOME rather than 2-year HOME measures were positively and significantly correlated with instrumental mastery motivation even when controlling for gender, activity level, and DQ. Mastery motivation had moderate stability during the toddler period. The quality of home environment in infancy appeared to have a significant impact on toddler's mastery motivation. To promote mastery motivation, caregivers should provide better quality of home environment for infants/toddlers during the very early years. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoo Rha; Park, Jae Sun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, self-reliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children's temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.

  6. Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Rha Hong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, selfreliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children’s temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.

  7. Vaginal bleeding in a 4-month-old preterm girl : extreme minipuberty mimicking central precocious puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de lange, Aafke H. M.; Bocca, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    We present a 4-month-old girl who showed vaginal bleeding and breast development. She was born preterm at 25 weeks and 4 days of gestation. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were extremely elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion of unknown nature in the pituita

  8. Classification of Mental Disorders Based on Temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadi Sakhvidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Different paradoxical theories are available regarding psychiatric disorders. The current study aimed to establish a more comprehensive overall approach. Evidence Acquisition This basic study examined ancient medical books. “The Canon” by Avicenna and “Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry” by Kaplan and Sadock were the most important and frequently consulted books in this study. Results Four groups of temperaments were identified: high active, high flexible; high active, low flexible; low active, low flexible; and low active, high flexible. When temperament deteriorates personality, non-psychotic, and psychotic psychiatric disorders can develop. Conclusions Temperaments can provide a basis to classify psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders can be placed in a spectrum based on temperaments.

  9. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  10. Temperament in infancy and behavioral and emotional problems at age 5.5: The EDEN mother-child cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Xian; Pryor, Laura; Michel, Grégory; Melchior, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early temperamental characteristics may influence children’s developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child’s sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression. Method 1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003–2011), were followed from 24–28 weeks of pregnancy to the child’s fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS) questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children’s overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001), emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001), conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001) and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01) at 5.5 years. Infants’ active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02), while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04). The association between the child’s temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children’s own or family characteristics. Conclusion An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways. PMID:28199415

  11. Trajectories of children's social interactions with their infant sibling in the first year: a multidimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Wonjung; Volling, Brenda L; Gonzalez, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Individual differences in longitudinal trajectories of children's social behaviors toward their infant sibling were examined simultaneously across multiple social dimensions: Positive engagement (moving toward), antagonism (moving against), and avoidance (moving away). Three distinct social patterns were identified: (C1) positively-engaged (n = 107, 50%); (C2) escalating-antagonism (n = 90, 42%); and (C3) early-onset antagonism (n = 16, 8%). Children in the positively-engaged class had high levels of positive engagement with their infant siblings, coupled with low levels of antagonism and avoidance. The escalating-antagonism class was positively-engaged in sibling interaction with a steep escalation in antagonistic behavior and avoidance from 4 to 12 months. Children in the early-onset antagonism class displayed the highest level of antagonistic behavior starting as early as 4 months, and became increasingly avoidant over time. A path model, guided by a Process × Person × Context × Time model, revealed that low parental self-efficacy heightened by parenting stress and children's dysregulated temperament was directly related to the escalating-antagonism pattern. Punitive parenting in response to children's antagonistic behavior increased the likelihood of being in the early-onset antagonism class. Together, the results highlighted heterogeneity in the earliest emergence of sibling interaction patterns and the interplay of child and parent factors in predicting distinct sibling interaction trajectory patterns.

  12. The impact of infant temperament, responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence / O impacto do temperamento infantil, da responsividade e das práticas educativas maternas nos problemas de externalização e na competência social da criança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alvarenga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the impact of children temperament, maternal responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads from different socio-economical backgrounds. In the baby's third month after birth, child temperament and maternal responsiveness were evaluated. In the child's thirteenth month after birth, maternal childrearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence were investigated. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only maternal childrearing practices were significant to explain the variance in the externalizing behaviors and social competence. The work discusses the relevance of parental practices and the limitations of the evaluation of temperament and maternal responsiveness as predictors for the comprehension of social development.

  13. Correlates of contraceptive use 4 months postabortion: findings from a prospective study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Erin; Biswas, Kamal Kanti; Andersen, Kathryn L; Moreau, Caroline; Chowdhury, Rezwana; Sultana, Sharmin; Shahidullah, S M; Surkan, Pamela J; Decker, Michele R

    2017-03-01

    Using the social determinants framework as a guide, this study sought to understand correlates of postabortion contraceptive use at the individual, family and abortion service delivery levels. This prospective study assessed correlates of contraceptive use 4 months postabortion and timing of initiation using a facility-based sample of 398 abortion clients who selected pills, condoms, injectables or no method immediately following the procedure. We measured potential correlates immediately following abortion, inclusive of spontaneous or induced abortion, and assessed contraceptive use outcomes 4 months postabortion. Multivariable logistic regression models identified correlates at each level. Potential individual level correlates included contraceptive and abortion history and fertility intentions; family correlates included intimate partner violence (IPV), discordance in fertility intentions and household decision-making; and service delivery correlates included procedure type and postabortion contraceptive counseling. Reported contraceptive use 4 months postabortion was high (85.4%). Contraceptive use at the index pregnancy (resulting in abortion) was the primary correlate of contraceptive use 4 months postabortion (adjusted odds ratio=2.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-5.9). Delayed contraceptive initiation was more common among women who reported past year IPV (36.8% vs. 19.5%; p=.03) particularly with spousal accompaniment for abortion, those in relationships with discordant fertility intentions (44.4% vs. 21.9%; p=.04) and those receiving medication abortion (56.7%) or dilation and curettage (57.1%), compared to manual vacuum aspiration (12.6%; p<.01). Contraceptive use at the index pregnancy was the primary correlate of contraceptive use 4 months postabortion. Abortion procedure type and relationship dynamics were correlated with delayed postabortion contraceptive initiation. Women who reported IPV delayed initiation when accompanied by their spouse for

  14. Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher lev...

  15. A test of the vulnerability model : Temperament and temperament change as predictors of future mental disorders - The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Van Aken, Marcel A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081831218; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to test the vulnerability model of the relationship between temperament and mental disorders using a large sample of adolescents from the TRacking Adolescents Individual Lives' Survey (TRAILS). The vulnerability model argues that particular temperaments can place

  16. Temperament Dimensions in Stuttering and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children who stutter (CWS) and typically developing children (TDC) differ from each other on composite temperament factors or on individual temperament scales. Methods: Participants consisted of 116 age and gender-matched CWS and TDC (3.04-8.11). Temperament was assessed with a Dutch…

  17. Reliability of serum metabolite concentrations over a 4-month period using a targeted metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Floegel

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is a promising tool for discovery of novel biomarkers of chronic disease risk in prospective epidemiologic studies. We investigated the between- and within-person variation of the concentrations of 163 serum metabolites over a period of 4 months to evaluate the metabolite reliability expressed by the intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC: the ratio of between-person variance and total variance. The analyses were performed with the BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQ™ targeted metabolomics technology, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and hexose in 100 healthy individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam study who had provided two fasting blood samples 4 months apart. Overall, serum reliability of metabolites over a 4-month period was good. The median ICC of the 163 metabolites was 0.57. The highest ICC was observed for hydroxysphingomyelin C14:1 (ICC = 0.85 and the lowest was found for acylcarnitine C3:1 (ICC = 0. Reliability was high for hexose (ICC = 0.76, sphingolipids (median ICC = 0.66; range: 0.24-0.85, amino acids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.41-0.72 and glycerophospholipids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.03-0.81. Among acylcarnitines, reliability of short and medium chain saturated compounds was good to excellent (ICC range: 0.50-0.81. Serum reliability was lower for most hydroxyacylcarnitines and monounsaturated acylcarnitines (ICC range: 0.11-0.45 and 0.00-0.63, respectively. For most of the metabolites a single measurement may be sufficient for risk assessment in epidemiologic studies with healthy subjects.

  18. Hemophagocytosis in the Acute Phase of Fatal Kawasaki Disease in a 4 Month-Old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Vehbi; Karaaslan, Erhan; Özer, Samet; Gümüşer, Rüveyda; Yılmaz, Resul

    2016-07-01

    Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis predominately affecting coronary arteries. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis can complicate the course of Kawasaki disease. Rare cases of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis occurring during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease have been reported. We report here a 4 month-old girl with diffuse coronary ectasia and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis occurring during the acute phase of incomplete Kawasaki disease. Due to the large overlap in clinical symptoms, the presence of atypical findings for Kawasaki disease should suggest the possible diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in these patients.

  19. The psychology and physiology of temperament: pragmatism in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, F

    2001-01-01

    This paper traces William James's famous "temperament thesis" according to which the philosophical stance that individuals take depends on their "temperaments." It seeks to understand James's conception of temperament by locating James within a set of contemporary investigations that linked the sources of mental, and even higher, intellectual processes to the physiological and organic constitution of the individual. The paper argues that James understood temperament along the reflex-arc model and discusses the implications of that physiological account of temperament for James's overall conception of philosophy.

  20. 早期健全人格培养对儿童气质变化影响的研究%Study on the change in children's temperament by early cultivation of healthy personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎宁真; 李红辉; 刘萍; 温源

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the influence of early cultivation of healthy personality on children's temperament, and to learn about the gap in children's temperament dimension between the treatment group and control group and thus provide a scientific basis for guiding Children's early integrated development. [Methods] 192 parent-child members with age from 0 to 3 years old from the early integrated development of Children's Health Department during 2009-2011 were selected as the treatment group for the study on the early cultivation of healthy personality. 212 children from the outpatient physical examination were selected randomly as the control group. Analysis had been carried out with the testing software for children's temperament by dividing them into 1 - 4 months,5~ 11 months and 1~3 years old group according to ages. [Results] There was a slight difference in children's temperament type between the treatment and control group in the 1 - 4 months and from the 5-11 months, while there was a great difference from 1~3 years old, with the treatment group tending to be raised easily. As for the difference in the temperament dimension of different ages between the treatment and control group,there was a difference in rhythmicity,phobotaxis,adaptability and quality of mood with increase in age,while with the extension in intervening time, temperament characteristics appeared after the intervention, such as low activity level, good rhythmicity, active mood, undispersed attention, low adaptability, decreasing perseverance and high reaction threshold. [Conclusions] Though temperament is a relatively stable individual mental characteristic,it will be changed in some degree under the influence from the later living environment and education. There is a great significance in cultivating infants' healthy personality from learning about the variability in the development of temperament.%[目的] 探讨早期健全人格培养对儿童气质变化的影响,了解干预组与对

  1. Antenatal betamethasone and fetal growth in prematurely born children: implications for temperament traits at the age of 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Lano, Aulikki; Peltoniemi, Outi; Hallman, Mikko; Kari, M Anneli

    2009-01-01

    We explored whether repeated dose of antenatal betamethasone and variation in intrauterine growth of prematurely born children predict temperament characteristics at the age of 2 years. The patients (n = 142) were prematurely born children (mean gestational age: 31.0 weeks; range: 24.6-35.0 weeks) who participated in a randomized and blinded trial testing the effects of a repeated dose of antenatal betamethasone in imminent preterm birth. Fetal growth was estimated as weight, length, and head circumference in SDs according to Finnish growth charts. Parents assessed their toddlers' temperament with 201 items of the Early Childhood Temperament Questionnaire (mean child corrected age: 2.1 years). No significant main effects of repeated betamethasone on toddler temperament existed. However, a significant interaction between study group and duration of exposure to betamethasone emerged; those exposed to a repeated dose for >24 hours before delivery were more impulsive. One-SD increases in weight, length, and head circumference at birth were associated with 0.14- to 0.19-SD lower levels of negative affectivity (fearfulness, anger proneness, and sadness); 1-SD increases in length, weight, and head circumference at birth were associated with 0.14- to 0.18-SD higher levels of effortful control (self-regulation). Repeated antenatal betamethasone did not induce alterations in toddler temperament. The results, however, suggest that a longer duration of exposure is associated with higher impulsivity scores. Regardless of betamethasone exposure, slower fetal growth exerted influences on temperament. Our findings indicate prenatal programming of psychological development and imply that more attention is needed to support the development of infants born at the lower end of the fetal growth distribution.

  2. Maintenance and improvement of interobserver reliability of osteopathic palpatory tests over a 4-month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Brian F; Johnson, Jane C; Snider, Karen T; Snider, Eric J

    2010-10-01

    Few studies have shown that diagnostic palpation is reliable. No studies have shown that the reliability of diagnostic palpatory skills can be maintained and improved over time. To investigate whether the reliability of selected palpatory tests used to identify lumbar somatic dysfunction was maintained during a 4-month period as part of a clinical observational study. Participants with low back pain and participants without low back pain, recruited from a rural Midwestern community, were examined during 6 separate sessions over a 4-month period. During each data collection session, two blinded examiners, who had previously completed comprehensive consensus training, evaluated the lumbar region with four tests: static segmental positional asymmetry of the transverse processes in the horizontal plane, tissue texture abnormalities, resistance to anterior springing on the spinous processes, and tenderness induced by pressure on the spinous processes. Detailed protocols for each test were defined during a previous comprehensive consensus training period and were not revised during the current study. To verify that established interobserver reliability was maintained throughout the clinical study, quality control sampling was performed on all data. When findings were inconsistent between the two examiners, focused consensus training was performed as a means of recalibration to understand why assessments were inconsistent. Interobserver reliability for determining the presence or absence of somatic dysfunction was assessed using kappa coefficients. The study enrolled 64 participants, and 14 to 33 participants were examined per session. All four tests had acceptable interobserver reliability by the final data collection session. The test for static segmental positional asymmetry of the transverse processes in the horizontal plane had moderate to substantial reliability in all 6 sessions. The test for tissue texture abnormalities had moderate reliability in 5 of the 6

  3. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling.

  4. Craniopharyngioma causing bilateral vision loss 4 months after unremarkable magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainy Betts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man developed bilateral vision loss 4 months after magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no lesion in the vicinity of the optic chiasm, hypothalamus, and suprasellar tissues. Repeat computed tomography 3 months later showed a predominantly cystic mass of the suprasellar cistern with extension into the anterior third ventricle, which histologically was a craniopharyngioma. The clinical course of this case fuels the controversy whether craniopharyngiomas arise from embryonic rests or can be acquired. From a clinical perspective, it raises questions about when to obtain imaging studies dedicated to the chiasm and the appropriate interval in which a scan should be repeated to exclude structural causes of bilateral vision loss.

  5. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  6. Face Shape and Behavior: Implications of Similarities in Infants and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G; Boshyan, Jasmine

    2015-11-01

    We investigated conceptual overlap between literature demonstrating links between adult facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) and behavior and that demonstrating links between infant FWHR and temperament by investigating whether babyfaceness is associated with FWHR and behavior at both ages. Babyfaceness was positively correlated with FWHR in both infants and adults. Babyfaceness also was correlated with an infant temperament that is a precursor of bolder behavior in childhood and adulthood, just as a broader infant FWHR was previously shown to be. These results call into question existing explanations for relationships between facial appearance and adult assertive or aggressive behavior. Previously, behavioral correlates of adult FWHR have been attributed to influences of pubertal testosterone, and correlates of adult babyfaceness have been attributed to compensation for undesirable stereotypes. Our findings indicate that the pre-natal developmental influences required to explain appearance-temperament relationships in infancy also should be considered as explanations for appearance-behavior relationships in adulthood.

  7. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Reenen, van C.G.; Jensen, M.B.; Schmitt, O.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves.Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests:novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolationwith a novel environmental cue (

  8. Early Stuttering, Temperament and Anxiety: Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…

  9. Early Stuttering, Temperament and Anxiety: Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…

  10. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  11. Temperament, Speech and Language: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss definitional and measurement issues as well as empirical evidence regarding temperament, especially with regard to children's (a)typical speech and language development. Although all ages are considered, there is a predominant focus on children. Evidence from considerable empirical research lends support…

  12. Length of Maternity Leave and Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roseanne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Assessed association between length of maternity leave and quality of mother-infant interaction. Found a direct association between shorter leave and more negative affect and behavior; mothers with more depressive symptoms or who perceived their infant as having a difficult temperament, and with shorter leaves expressed less positive affect,…

  13. Social Referencing at Ten Months: A Second-Order Effect on Infants' Responses to Strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul; Lewis, Michael

    1983-01-01

    A total of 87 infants 10 months of age received, either directly or indirectly, a positive nonverbal message, a neutral nonverbal message, or no message about a stranger. Infants, especially those with easy temperaments, were friendlier to the stranger when mothers had spoken positively, but only when the message was directly communicated.…

  14. Infants' Social-Emotional Adjustment within a Childcare Context of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hee; Moon, Hyukjun

    2011-01-01

    In a child day-care setting, the naturally occurring social-emotional behaviours and play interaction of 51 infants were observed and recorded. Individual differences in gender, age, temperament, and maternal parenting behaviours were examined to understand how these variables might be related to social-emotional adjustment of infants. The…

  15. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N=56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants' learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old…

  16. Pathological narcissism and the depressive temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritt, Shona M; Ryder, Andrew G; Ring, Angela J; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-05-01

    Although relations between depressive and narcissistic pathologies have been proposed in both psychoanalytic and phenomenological literatures, empirical research generally fails to confirm this link. Common measures of narcissism, however, emphasize grandiose rather than vulnerable traits, and include both adaptive and maladaptive features. We therefore assessed the relation between narcissistic personality and depressive temperament (DT) using a recently developed measure designed to assess a wide range of pathological narcissistic (PN) traits. We also examined the distinctiveness of the association between DT and PN controlling other temperaments. The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009), the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A; Akiskal et al., 2005), and a modified Schedule of Fatigue and Anergia (SOFA; Hadzi-Pavlovic et al., 2000), were administered to 228 university students. Principal component analyses yielded two components of PN: Component 1 items reflect narcissistic vulnerability-negative affect when narcissistic needs are not met; Component 2 items reflect narcissistic grandiosity-positive affect related to self-enhancement. Component 1 significantly predicted DT, an effect that remained after controlling for Component 2 and other temperaments in the TEMPS-A and SOFA. A similar effect was observed for the anxious temperament. Our study is limited by the use of a homogenous, non-clinical university student sample unscreened for clinical depression, and by reliance on self-report questionnaires. Contrary to past research, DT is associated with narcissistic disturbance, in particular with the avoidance of narcissistic injury, when the PNI is used. Clinical intervention targeting this avoidance might help patients with a DT develop self-esteem that is not overly dependant upon recognition from others. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 {+-} 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 {+-} 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses.

  18. Affective temperament and executive functions in emergency medicine professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaracz, Marcin; Paciorek, Przemysław; Buciński, Adam; Borkowska, Alina

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that choice of profession is related to differences in affective temperament, which is probably due to various predispositions needed to efficiently perform particular professions. The aim of the present study was to assess affective temperament and executive functions in a sample of emergency medicine professionals. 75 emergency medicine professionals were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament was assessed by means of TEMPS-A. Executive functions were assessed by means of Trail Making Test and Stroop Color Word Interference Test. Subjects showed significantly higher rates of hyperthymic, compared to depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments. The principal component analysis revealed that hyperthymic temperament contributes to a different factor, than the remaining ones. Higher rates of depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments were related to poorer performance in Trail Making Test, whereas hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effect. Due to the size of the sample, results of the present study may have lacked power to show all the relationships between tested variables. Hyperthymic temperament promotes efficient performance of complex tasks under time pressure. Depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments have the opposite effect. This makes hyperthymic temperament a desirable trait in emergency medicine professionals, performing complex medical tasks under extreme conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Theoretical and clinical overview of affective temperaments in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Gonda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperaments are imperturbable variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting to the environment that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several different situations. Temperaments usually play a central role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models have attempted to establish the potential relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to Hagop Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were exclusively developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, later extrapolated to capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the current model of affective temperaments was developed on classical traditions and mainly based on the observation of subjects with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may represent a latent state of the staging model, playing a pathoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this overview.

  20. Early environment and neurobehavioral development predict adult temperament clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Congdon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. RESULTS: Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family's location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes.

  1. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.

  2. Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-05-01

    The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.

  3. From Enneagram to Nine Types Temperament Model: A Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Enver Demirel; Gençer, Ali Görkem; Ünal, Özge; Aydemir, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, character and personality concepts are addressed by many disciplines that study interpersonal differences. Although each of these concepts is related with each other, they are different and often used instead of one another. Nine Types Temperament Model (NTTM), a new temperament model formulated with the interpretation of Enneagram System, explains the definition, limit, scope and interrelations of these concepts, as well as presents a new perspective on studying the differences ...

  4. RARE CASE OF SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS IN A CHILD AGED 4 MONTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Postnikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a clinical and morphologic description of a rare case of systemic sclerosis along with the beginning of the diseases during the infancy. In the clinical picture, the researchers identified occurrences of the systemic vasculitis: abundant cyanotic and red spotty rash with atrophy in the middle, thick edemas of legs and ankles, necrosis of the nail bone of the left little finger, banti's syndrome. In the histological picture, most characteristic peculiarities were: 3 stages of systemic sclerosis process development — inflammation, hardening and atrophy; disorganization of collagenous corium fibers; nidi of calcification along the borderline of corium and hypoderm; multiple ulcers of small and large intestines, perforation of one of which caused peritonitis and fatal outcome of the patient.Key words: infants, vasculitis, systemic sclerosis.

  5. Affective temperament profile in ankylosing spondylitis patients using TEMPS-A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yildirim, Tulay; Solmaz, Dilek; Emul, Murat; Akgol, Gurkan; Yalvac, Dilek; Ersoy, Yuksel

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the most common dominant affective temperaments in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients and investigate the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and pain...

  6. The Characteristics of Temperament and its Influence on Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Venâncio Luiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the existence of significant differences between groups of people who share similar temperaments, in order to clarify that characterstics of temperament influence people’s consumer behavior. To reach this goal, a sample of 167 people took the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II questionnaire for identifying the characteristics of an individual’s temperament, and a questionnaire containing 30 questions related to the constructs of rationality, materialism, compulsiveness, symbolism and emotion. Following this survey, the technique of factor analysis was applied to reduce the number of variables and to confirm the constructs. By means of the factors created from this analysis, four groups of individuals with similar temperaments were defined. The mean was calculated for each of these groups according to the constructs, and was used to analyze the differences between the groups in relation to characteristics of temperament and consumer behavior. It was found that groups with rational temperament characteristics are less emotional in their decisions and less compulsive in the buying process, while groups with more emotional temperament characteristics are more compulsive in the buying process. Thus, it can be concluded that temperament exerts a significant influence on the buying behavior of individuals. 

  7. Temperament and the psychobiology of childhood stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, W T; Barr, R G; Zeltzer, L K

    1992-09-01

    This paper provides a conceptual overview of recent research on the developmental psychobiology of childhood stress. We propose that the construct of temperament can be regarded as an organizing principle in children's responses to environmental adversity, and we review three physiologic "windows" through which such responses can be usefully examined. It is concluded that individual differences between children in their psychobiologic reactivity to stressors may constitute an important and novel point of departure for future studies of stress and childhood morbidity.

  8. The relationship between temperament and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerim, Laura D; de Carvalho, Hudson W; Lara, Diogo R

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between temperament and sexual orientation has been poorly characterized. We have used the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament (AFECT) model to evaluate this association in a large population sample. Data from 16,571 subjects between 21 and 45 years old (mean age=29.1±6.3 yrs, 69.4% females) was collected anonymously through Internet in Brazil. Regarding affective temperaments, male cyclothymics and dysphorics had the lowest percentage of people with heterosexual orientation and the highest percentages of people with bisexual and homosexual orientations. The opposite profile was observed in hyperthymic and euthymic types. Among females, the volatile, cyclothymic, apathetic, disinhibited and euphoric types were less often observed in people with "pure" heterosexual orientation and more often in people with bisexual orientation. In men only, homosexuality was more common among the depressive, cyclothymic and dyphorics temperaments. Emotional trait analysis showed that heterosexual subjects differed statistically from all other groups by having higher scores of coping and stability and lower scores of sensitivity and desire. Overall, the effect sizes were small to moderate, with the largest differences between "pure" heterosexuals and people with bisexual orientation, particularly in women. Subjects with heterosexual orientation who have had homosexual experience and those with homosexual orientation presented intermediate scores. Cross-sectional design, lack of potentially important covariates (e.g., maltreatment) and data collected by Internet only. Externalized and unstable traits were associated mainly with bisexuality. The group of heterosexuals with homosexual fantasies or experiences offers a new approach for the study of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperament and character in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Hilaire, Zara; Straub, Judith; Pelissolo, Antoine

    2005-03-01

    Recent studies by Cloninger suggest that the temperament dimension of harm avoidance might be related to serotonergic activity. Since serotonergic mechanisms equally play a major role in sleep regulation, we decided to use Cloninger's psychobiological model of temperament and character to assess whether there is a link between psychophysiologic insomnia and specific personality traits. Chronic insomnia is a common complaint in modern society, and it is still controversial whether insomniacs share specific personality traits. Thirty-two chronic insomniacs (Anxiety and Depression scale. (1) Harm avoidance for all subscores was significantly higher in insomniac patients when compared with controls; (2) self-directedness scores were lower in insomniacs; (3) sleep latency was positively correlated to harm avoidance; (4) HA1 (anticipatory worry) was negatively correlated to REM latency. Temperament and Character Inventory is a useful tool in the investigation of chronic insomnia. Serotonergic mechanisms might explain the high incidence of harm avoidance as personality trait in psychophysiologic insomniac patients. Further studies are needed to see whether harm avoidance could be a psychological vulnerability marker for primary insomnia and be used as predictor of SSRI treatment responders.

  10. Temperament Style and Substance Abuse Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Melinda J.; Galen, Luke W.; DeLuca, John W.

    1998-06-01

    The relationship of temperament to different patterns and types of alcohol abuse has received much attention over the last decade in order to provide clues to matching patients optimally to treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of temperament with a number of relevant substance abuse characteristics in a substance abusing population. One hundred forty-five male veterans were interviewed on their lifetime use of substances and on their psychiatric symptoms, problems associated with use, context, and family history of substance abuse. Subjects filled out the TPQ and the MPQ, which were subjected to factor analysis and revealed four factors: (1) Negative Affectivity/Impulsivity, (2) Positive Affectivity/Sociability, (3) Persistence/Achievement, and (4) Constraint. There was partial support for the hypotheses. Impulsivity was negatively correlated with age of onset and positively correlated with substance-related problems and a family history of substance abuse. Subjects with a history of depression scored significantly lower on the Positive Affectivity/Sociability factor than those who had not experienced a significant depression. Individuals who used alone scored lower on this factor than those who used in social contexts. The temperament factors of Persistence/Achievement and Constraint were, for the most part, unrelated to substance abuse.

  11. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  12. Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Infant Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kitts, Robert L.; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants’ temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeate...

  13. Temperament and sensory features of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M E; Freuler, A; Baranek, G T; Watson, L R; Poe, M D; Sabatino, A

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3-7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt and Carey in Manual for the behavioral style questionnaire, Behavioral-Developmental Initiatives, Scottsdale, AZ, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (McDevitt and Carey in J Child Psychol Psychiatr 19(3):245-253, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three sensory constructs (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally

  14. Preterm Infants Who Are Prone to Distress: Differential Effects of Parenting on 36-Month Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Maleck, Sarah; Hamburger, Elizabeth; Shah, Prachi E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The differential susceptibility (DS) model suggests that temperamentally prone-to-distress infants may exhibit adverse outcomes in negative environments but optimal outcomes in positive environments. This study explored temperament, parenting, and 36-month cognition and behavior in preterm infants using the DS model. We hypothesized…

  15. Preterm Infants Who Are Prone to Distress: Differential Effects of Parenting on 36-Month Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Maleck, Sarah; Hamburger, Elizabeth; Shah, Prachi E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The differential susceptibility (DS) model suggests that temperamentally prone-to-distress infants may exhibit adverse outcomes in negative environments but optimal outcomes in positive environments. This study explored temperament, parenting, and 36-month cognition and behavior in preterm infants using the DS model. We hypothesized…

  16. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  17. Temperament and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of three components of temperament (activity level, impulsivity, and soothability) on children's friendships was investigated. Children (40 girls, 35 boys) aged 43 to 69 months responded to a sociometric interview and teachers provided temperament ratings. The probability of children choosing particular classmates as friends was…

  18. Metabolic differences in cattle with excitable temperaments can influence productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates, and carcass weight. Three research studies are summarized which indicate the potential influence of temperament on metabolism. In Brahman heifers, (n=12) the 6 most temperamental and 6 mos...

  19. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory-of-mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament…

  20. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  1. Associations between Early Childhood Temperament Clusters and Later Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Ann; Letcher, Primrose; Smart, Diana; Prior, Margot; Toumbourou, John W.; Oberklaid, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The study adopted a person-centered approach to examine whether clusters of children could be identified on the basis of temperament profiles assessed on four occasions from infancy to early childhood, and if so whether differing temperament clusters were associated with subsequent differences in behavior problems, social skills, and school…

  2. Correlates of Kindergarten Adjustment: Temperament and Communicative Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarpness, Lorie R.; Carson, David K.

    1987-01-01

    The kindergarten adjustment of 217 Caucasian children was measured in relation to their temperament and communicative competence. Both communicative competence and various dimensions of temperament accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in kindergarten adjustment among the children. (Author/BB)

  3. Conceptual Relations between Anxiety Disorder and Fearful Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Fearful temperaments have been identified as a major risk factor for anxiety disorders. However, descriptions of fearful temperament and several forms of anxiety disorder show strong similarities. This raises the question whether these terms may simply refer to different aspects of the same underlying construct. The current review examines…

  4. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory-of-mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament…

  5. A Latent Growth-Curve Approach to Difficult Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ty; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    2007-01-01

    A purported hallmark of temperament characteristics is that they appear very early in the course of development and are persistent across time and situation. There is, however, a small, but growing cadre of research findings that question this traditional view. It may be that temperament characteristics are not necessarily established during the…

  6. Temperament profiles associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in preadolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how temperament factors are linked to internalizing and externalizing problems in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents (N = 2230). Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report and temperament was evalu

  7. Emotion Regulation Profiles, Temperament, and Adjustment Problems in Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…

  8. Conceptual Relations between Anxiety Disorder and Fearful Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Fearful temperaments have been identified as a major risk factor for anxiety disorders. However, descriptions of fearful temperament and several forms of anxiety disorder show strong similarities. This raises the question whether these terms may simply refer to different aspects of the same underlying construct. The current review examines…

  9. Nature and Nurturing: Parenting in the Context of Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear,…

  10. Predicting Preschool Effortful Control from Toddler Temperament and Parenting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed whether maternal behavior and emotional tone moderated the relationship between toddler temperament and preschooler's effortful control. Maternal behavior and emotional tone were observed during a parent-child competing demands task when children were 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at 2 years…

  11. A test of the vulnerability model : Temperament and temperament change as predictors of future mental disorders - The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to test the vulnerability model of the relationship between temperament and mental disorders using a large sample of adolescents from the TRacking Adolescents Individual Lives' Survey (TRAILS). The vulnerability model argues that particular temperaments can place individu

  12. Temperament vs. chronic fatigue in police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stępka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801

  13. Change and predictors of symptom distress in breast cancer patients following the first 4 months after diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Nan Liao

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Change in symptom distress following the first 4 months after diagnosis was predicted by state anxiety, health professional support, and time. Patients should receive social support and be trained in problem-solving skills to relieve distressful symptoms from diagnosis through treatment.

  14. O impacto do temperamento infantil, da responsividade e das práticas educativas maternas nos problemas de externalização e na competência social da criança The impact of infant temperament, responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alvarenga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investigou o impacto do temperamento infantil, da responsividade materna e das práticas educativas maternas, nos problemas de externalização e na competência social de crianças. Participaram 23 díades mãe-criança de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. No 3º mês de vida do bebê avaliou-se o temperamento da criança e a responsividade materna. No 30º mês de vida da criança foram investigadas as práticas educativas maternas, os problemas de externalização e a competência social das crianças. Análise de regressão linear múltipla revelou que somente as práticas educativas foram fatores significativos para explicar a variância nos problemas de externalização e na competência social. Discute-se a relevância das práticas parentais e as limitações da avaliação do temperamento e responsividade materna como preditores para a compreensão do desenvolvimento social.The study aimed at investigating the impact of children temperament, maternal responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads from different socio-economical backgrounds. In the baby's third month after birth, child temperament and maternal responsiveness were evaluated. In the child's thirteenth month after birth, maternal childrearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence were investigated. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only maternal childrearing practices were significant to explain the variance in the externalizing behaviors and social competence. The work discusses the relevance of parental practices and the limitations of the evaluation of temperament and maternal responsiveness as predictors for the comprehension of social development.

  15. Interactions between Temperament, Stress, and Immune Function in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Burdick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects caused by stressors encountered by animals during routine handling can pose economic problems for the livestock industry due to increased costs ultimately borne by the producer and the consumer. Stress adversely affects key physiological processes of the reproductive and immune systems. In recent years stress responsiveness has been associated with cattle behavior, specifically temperament. Cattle with more excitable temperaments, as measured by chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (flight speed, exhibit greater basal concentrations of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. Similar to stressed cattle, more temperamental cattle (i.e., cattle exhibiting greater exit velocity or pen and chute scores have poorer growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune responses. Thus, understanding the interrelationship of stress and temperament can help in the development of selection and management practices that reduce the negative influence of temperament on growth and productivity of cattle. This paper discusses the relationship between stress and temperament and the developing evidence of an effect of temperament on immune function of cattle that have been handled or restrained. Specifically, the paper discusses different methodologies used to measure temperament, including chute score, pen score, and exit velocity, and discusses the reaction of cattle to different stressors including handling and restraint.

  16. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children’s temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  17. [Temperament and affective disorders--historical basis of current discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrt, U; Brieger, P; Marneros, A

    2003-06-01

    The history of the temperament concept begins in ancient Greece. The humoral theory remained influential over the centuries. At the beginning of the 20 th century, both Wilhelm Wundt and his pupil Emil Kraepelin formulated new aspects. Wundt described two dimensions: "speed of variability of emotions" and "intensity of emotions". Kraepelin observed four fundamental states (depressive, manic, irritable and cyclothymic), which he linked to manic-depressive illness. Since then different lines of temperament research have evolved: (1) psychiatric-psychopathological theories (e. g. Ewald, Kretschmer and Sheldon), which tend to see temperament as a dilution of full-blown affective disorders; (2) neurobiological theories (e. g. Pavlov, Eysenck and Gray), which understand temperament as determined by underlying neurobiological processes - especially levels of arousal; and (3) developmental theories (e. g. Chess & Thomas, Rothbart and Kagan), which derived their temperament concept from early childhood observations. Recent theories (e. g. those of Cloninger or Akiskal) combine different aspects. After reviewing the historical temperament concepts we present underlying factors which are linked to affective disorders (such as emotional reactivity, cyclicity or trait affectivity). Finally, we illustrate the importance of temperament concepts for research in affective disorders.

  18. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.

  19. Temperament-based learning styles as moderators of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, C B; Oakland, T

    1997-01-01

    Considerable interest in applications of temperament theory has led to proposals of four temperament-related learning styles. The hypothesis that achievement is higher when instructional strategies utilize methods consistent with students' preferred learning styles was tested using 417 seventh graders, the majority of whom were from minority and low SES families. The hypothesis was not supported; instead, student achievement was significantly higher with instructional strategies designed to promote personalized learning. The need to extend temperament-based learning styles by considering additional qualities that are important to learning is discussed.

  20. Observant, nonaggressive temperament predicts theory of mind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M; Lane, Jonathan D; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L

    2011-03-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory of mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament characteristics (at age 3)--lack of aggressiveness, a shy-withdrawn stance to social interaction, and social-perceptual sensitivity--predict children's more advanced theory-of-mind understanding two years later. The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind.

  1. Temperament and Personality in Bariatric Surgery-Resisting Temptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Temperament and personality traits can serve as both risk factors as well as protective factors in the development of morbid obesity. In the present review, we present an overview of studies focusing on the relationship between temperament/personality and morbid obesity in pre-operative and postoperative bariatric surgery patients. We consider studies that focus on both a categorical and dimensional point of view on temperament/personality, as well as studies based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Finally, we will integrate the research findings, discuss the implications for assessment and treatment and formulate suggestions for future research.

  2. Motivation for alcohol becomes resistant to quinine adulteration after 3 to 4 months of intermittent alcohol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Frederic Woodward; Chang, Shao-Ju; Sparta, Dennis R; Bowers, Michael S; Bonci, Antonello

    2010-09-01

    Continued consumption of alcohol despite deleterious consequences is a hallmark of alcoholism and represents a critical challenge to therapeutic intervention. Previous rat studies showed that enduring alcohol self-administration despite pairing alcohol with normally aversive stimuli was only observed after very long-term intake (>8 months). Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been previously interpreted to indicate pathological or compulsive motivation to consume alcohol. However, given the time required to model compulsive alcohol seeking in previous studies, there is considerable interest in developing more efficient and quantitative rodent models of aversion-resistant alcohol self-administration. Outbred Wistar rats underwent 3 to 4 months or approximately 1.5 months of intermittent, home-cage, two-bottle access (IAA) to 20% alcohol (v/v) or water. Then, after brief operant training, the effect of the bitter-tasting quinine (0.1 g/l) on the motivation to seek alcohol was quantified via progressive ratio (PR). Motivation for quinine-adulterated 2% sucrose under PR was assayed in a separate cohort of 3 to 4 months IAA rats. The effects of quinine on home-cage alcohol consumption in IAA rats and rats with continuous access to alcohol were also examined. Finally, a dose-response for quinine taste preference in IAA and continuous-access animals was determined. Motivation for alcohol after 3 to 4 months IAA, measured using an operant PR procedure, was not altered by adulteration of alcohol with 0.1 g/l quinine. In contrast, after 3 to 4 months of IAA, motivation for sucrose under PR was significantly reduced by adulteration of sucrose with 0.1 g/l quinine. In addition, motivation for alcohol after only approximately 1.5 months IAA was significantly reduced by adulteration of alcohol with 0.1 g/l quinine. Furthermore, home-cage alcohol intake by IAA rats was insensitive to quinine at concentrations (0.01, 0.03 g/l) that significantly reduced alcohol drinking in

  3. Recognition of Moving and Static Faces by Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Konishi, Yukuo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Abdi, Herve; O'Toole, Alice J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared 3- to 4-month-olds' recognition of previously unfamiliar faces learned in a moving or a static condition. Infants in the moving condition showed successful recognition with only 30 s familiarization, even when different images of a face were used in the familiarization and test phase (Experiment 1). In contrast, infants in the…

  4. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.

  5. Behavior of Mothers and Infants with and without Down Syndrome during the Still-Face Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Derek G.; Oates, John M.; Goodwin, Julia; Hobson, R. Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been limited study of how the constitutional characteristics of infants with Down syndrome (DS) influence the patterning of their relations with caregivers. To assess natural and perturbed interactions between infants with DS and their mothers, we tested ten 6-month-old infants with DS and 20 typically developing (TD) 4-month-old of…

  6. Experience and Distribution of Attention: Pet Exposure and Infants' Scanning of Animal Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Karinna B.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Although infants' cognitions about the world must be influenced by experience, little research has directly assessed the relation between everyday experience and infants' visual cognition in the laboratory. Eye-tracking procedures were used to measure 4-month-old infants' eye movements as they visually investigated a series of…

  7. Behavior of Mothers and Infants with and without Down Syndrome during the Still-Face Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Derek G.; Oates, John M.; Goodwin, Julia; Hobson, R. Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been limited study of how the constitutional characteristics of infants with Down syndrome (DS) influence the patterning of their relations with caregivers. To assess natural and perturbed interactions between infants with DS and their mothers, we tested ten 6-month-old infants with DS and 20 typically developing (TD) 4-month-old of…

  8. Paternal postnatal depressive symptoms, infant sleeping and feeding behaviors, and rigid parental regulation: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockshaw, Wendell D; Muscat, Tracey; Obst, Patricia L; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Paternal postnatal depression (PND) is now recognized as a serious and prevalent problem, associated with poorer well-being and functioning of all family members. Aspects of infant temperament, sleeping and feeding perceived by parents as problematic are associated with maternal PND, however, less is known about paternal PND. This study investigated depressive symptoms (Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS)) in 219 fathers of infants aged from 1 to 24 weeks (median 7.0 weeks). Infant predictor variables were sleeping problems, feeding problems and both mother and father reported temperament. Control variables were partner's support, other support and life events. Rigidity of parenting beliefs regarding infant regulation was also measured as a potential moderating factor. Infant feeding difficulties were associated with paternal depressive symptoms, subsuming the variance associated with both sleep problems and temperament. This relationship was not moderated by regulation beliefs. It was concluded that infant feeding is important to fathers. Fathers of infants with feeding difficulties may not be able to fulfill their idealized construction of involved fatherhood. Role incongruence may have an etiological role in paternal PND.

  9. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...

  10. Exploring the Physics of Music with Temperament Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Dallin; Colton, John

    2016-03-01

    The physics of waves, resonance, harmonics, and beats has determined how musical instruments are tuned, and has even affected the kinds of music written in different time periods. The laws of physics make it impossible for any fixed scale to have perfect consonance for all chords in all keys, and as a result, various musical scales, or temperaments, have been developed and used throughout history. The study of musical temperament is a rich application of wave physics. It ties several principles together in a context which can be very motivating for students. Furthermore, the topic is accessible to students in introductory classes. We have developed an open source application called Temperament Studio which allows students to explore musical temperament and to hear and measure the effects predicted by wave physics.

  11. Cluster Analysis of Childhood Temperament Data on Adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Ralph; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results concur with the Thomas-Chess findings in identifying three main temperament groups: difficult, easy, and slow to warm up. Membership in the difficult group predicted later childhood behavior disorder in both sexes. (Author)

  12. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

  13. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Marie J; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  14. Personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in young adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; van den Hout, Mari F. C. M.; Wessels, Sylvia; Franken, Ingmar; Rassin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children, as well as scales for measuring sensitivity of the behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation systems (BIS-BAS), and various reactive and regulative temperament traits. Results de...

  15. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Haskell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  16. TEMPERAMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT AND CONVERSION DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY In a comparative study of temperament profiles of groups of 30 children each diagnosed as conduct disorders, conversion disorder, emotional disorders (according to DSM-III) and normal control, it was found that the children diagnosed as conduct disorders showed high activity and intensity of emotional response as well as negative mood, those diagnosed as conversion disorder exhibited low distractibility. The significance of various temperament variables in differing clinical outcomes ...

  17. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  18. Temperament and Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Małgorzata; Dragan, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines a simple model for the relationship between temperament, anxiety and maladaptive metacognition. A clinical sample of patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders (n = 216) completed a set of self-reported questionnaires measuring temperament dimensions, state anxiety and metacognitions. Three temperament traits were included in the hypothesized model: emotional reactivity, perseveration and briskness. A structural equation modeling analysis supported a model in which the relationship between the three temperament traits and anxiety were fully mediated by metacognition. Dissimilar models were identified for the male and female subgroups, and also with reference to individual categories of maladaptive metacognition. The findings support the significance of metacognition as a factor influencing the temperament-anxiety relationship. Moreover, they confirm the roles both of emotional reactivity and of perseveration, being major traits related to anxiety which also turned out to be strongly associated with metacognition. In case of the models for the categories of metacognition, emotional reactivity was associated with negative beliefs, perseveration with negative and positive beliefs, while briskness predicted anxiety independently of metacognition. These results suggest the existence of more specific associations between temperament traits, anxiety, and various types of metacognition.

  19. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. SCHOOL RATING AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TEENAGER TEMPERAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokin V.F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In puberty the active process of a formation of basic psychophysiological characteristics of temperament takes place. The investigation of this process has high priority because the teaching during this period is quite difficult and in this work the fundamental psychophysiological characteristics of process of education are studied. It is known that the development of temperament affects the significant characteristics of brain activity and interhemispheric relationships, and our hypothesis connects a formation of temperament and education progress. We examined 118 adolescents of both sexes (11-15 years old and 58 students of both sexes (mean age 23,5+/-1,2 years old. Analysis of temperament in Eysenk model (introversion – neurotism showed that the characteristics undergo significant changes in puberty. It has been shown that the increase of the emotional instability (neurotism in the girls, which leads to a change in the distribution of types of temperament in the period of 11 to 15 years, persists among young women. Education progress, measured by the level of school rating, is depended on the types of temperament. Extraverts and adolescents with high emotional stability have better school ratings. Emotional stability is connected with interhemispheric relationships. Adolescents with high level of DC potential in the left hemisphere are more stable.

  1. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N = 56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants’ learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old infants (N = 84) involved the still face procedure where infants’ reactions to their mothers’ lack of responsivity were not effective in reestabl...

  2. Motivation for alcohol becomes resistant to quinine adulteration after 3-4 months of intermittent alcohol self-administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, F. Woodward; Chang, Shao-Ju; Sparta, Dennis R.; Bowers, M. Scott; Bonci, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    Background Continued consumption of alcohol despite deleterious consequences is a hallmark of alcoholism and represents a critical challenge to therapeutic intervention. Previous rat studies showed that enduring alcohol self-administration despite pairing alcohol with normally aversive stimuli was only observed after very long-term intake (> 8 months). Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been previously interpreted to indicate pathological or compulsive motivation to consume alcohol. However, given the time required to model compulsive alcohol seeking in previous studies, there is considerable interest in developing more efficient and quantitative rodent models of aversion-resistant alcohol self-administration. Methods Outbred Wistar rats underwent 3-4 months or ∼1.5 months of intermittent, home-cage, two-bottle access (IAA) to 20% alcohol (v/v) or water. Then, after brief operant training, the effect of the bitter-tasting quinine (0.1 g/L) on the motivation of to seek alcohol was quantified via progressive ratio (PR). Motivation for quinine-adulterated 2% sucrose under PR was assayed in a separate cohort of 3-4 months IAA rats. The effects of quinine on home-cage alcohol consumption in IAA rats and rats with continuous access to alcohol were also examined. Finally, a dose-response for quinine taste preference in IAA and continuous-access animals was determined. Results Motivation for alcohol after 3-4 months IAA, measured using an operant PR procedure, was not altered by adulteration of alcohol with 0.1 g/L quinine. In contrast, after 3-4 month of IAA, motivation for sucrose under PR was significantly reduced by adulteration of sucrose with 0.1 g/L quinine. In addition, motivation for alcohol after only ∼1.5 months IAA was significantly reduced by adulteration of alcohol with 0.1 g/L quinine. Furthermore, home-cage alcohol intake by IAA rats was insensitive to quinine at concentrations (0.01, 0.03 g/L) that significantly reduced alcohol drinking in animals

  3. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  4. Temperament traits and personality disorders. Predictors for personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Martinova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is related to the hypothetical assumption that there are biologically set predispositions as predictors of behavioural and personality disorders. The present work focused on identification of specific inherent predispositions as predictors of behavioural and personality deviations. The examined population of 901 subjects was provided with a battery of self-rating questionnaires: Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A for assessment and diagnosis of the temperament, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ for the assessment and diagnosis of relatively constant personality characteristics, International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE-s screening autoquestionnaire for the assessment and diagnosis of personality disorders and State Trait Anxiety Inventory – Form Y (STAI-Y autoquestionnaire for the assessment and diagnosis of personality and situational anxiety. The results for the represented population showed statistically significant relationships, ranging from weak to strong positive correlation between the types of temperament in TEMPS-A and the personality disorders identified in screening IPDE, with the exception of the hyperthymic temperament scale in which very low non-significant negative relationships were observed. The analysis did not show significant correlations between personality disorders and the hyperthymic temperament type according to TEMPS-A. This temperament type showed weak statistically significant correlations with personality disorders from different clusters. Based on the high values of the linear correlation coefficients, some conclusions could be made on the causal correlation between the presence of a certain type of temperamental predispositions and the registered manifestations of possible personality disorders, namely, which personality disorder is most likely to occur in the prevalence of which temperament.

  5. Trajectory Perception and Object Continuity: Effects of Shape and Color Change on 4-Month-Olds' Perception of Object Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Mason, Uschi C.; Spring, Jo; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infants use object trajectory continuity as a cue to the constant identity of an object, but results are equivocal regarding the role of object features, with some work suggesting that a change in the appearance of an object does not cue a change in identity. In an experiment involving 72 participants, we…

  6. Mobility and mobility-related participation outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfqvist, C; Pettersson, C; Iwarsson, S; Brandt, A

    2012-05-01

    The aim was to investigate outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use regarding need for assistance when moving around, frequency of mobility-related participation, easiness/difficulty in mobility during participation, and number of participation aspects performed in everyday life. The study was a prospective cohort study, using an instrument focusing on mobility-related participation outcomes of mobility device interventions (NOMO 1.0), at baseline, after 4-months and 1-year use. The results show that the outcomes in terms of participation frequency and easiness in mobility occur in a short time perspective, and that the effects remained stable at 1-year follow-up. The frequency of going for a walk increased most prominently (26%). Even though the majority of the participation aspects were not performed, more often they became easier to perform: 56-91% found that shopping, walking and visiting family/friends were easier. Moreover, independence outdoors and indoors increased. This small study provides knowledge about the outcomes of powered wheelchairs and scooters in terms of mobility and mobility-related participation in real-life situations. The study supports results from former studies, but even so, larger studies are required in order to provide evidence for the effectiveness of powered wheelchairs and scooters. [Box: see text].

  7. Four broad temperament dimensions: Description, convergent validation correlations, and comparison with the Big Five

    OpenAIRE

    Helen eFisher; Heide D. Island; Jonathan eRich; Daniel eMarchalik; Brown, Lucy L.

    2015-01-01

    A new temperament construct based on recent brain physiology literature has been investigated using the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI). Four collections of behaviors emerged, each associated with a specific neural system: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone and estrogen/oxytocin system. These four temperament suites have been designated: 1) Curious/Energetic, 2) Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, 3) Analytical/Tough-minded, and 4) Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions. Two functional...

  8. Mother-child and father-child interaction with their 24-month-old children during feeding, considering paternal involvement and the child's temperament in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Lateral bias and temperament in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Louise J; Wells, Deborah L; Hepper, Peter G; Dempster, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. The present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. Thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. The animals' temperament was subsequently assessed using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). Cats' owners also completed a purpose-designed cat temperament (CAT) scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between lateral bias and FTP and CAT scale scores. Ambilateral cats had lower positive (FTP+) scores, and were perceived as less affectionate, obedient, friendly, and more aggressive, than left or right-pawed animals. Left and right pawed cats differed significantly on 1 trait on the CAT scale, namely playfulness. The strength of the cats' paw preferences was related to the animals' FTP and CAT scores. Cats with a greater strength of paw preference had higher FTP+ scores than those with a weaker strength of paw preference. Animals with stronger paw preferences were perceived as more confident, affectionate, active, and friendly than those with weaker paw preferences. Results suggest that motor laterality in the cat is strongly related to temperament and that the presence or absence of lateralization has greater implications for the expression of emotion in this species than the direction of the lateralized bias. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emine; Kalkan; Akcay; Fatih; Canan; Huseyin; Simavli; Derya; Dal; Hacer; Yalniz; Nagihan; Ugurlu; Omer; Gecici; Nurullah; Cagil

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality.METHODS: Using the Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors(17 with myopia,12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants.Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness,cooperativeness, and self-transcendence.RESULTS: Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness,cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion(P <0.05, P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.05, and P <0.01,respectively).CONCLUSION: Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.

  11. The Relation among Temperament, Age, and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    Research on preschoolers' friendships has focused on superficial similarities but has not examined whether similarities exist between friends in personality characteristics such as temperament. This study examined the hypothesis that friends would have similar temperaments and that the relationship between temperament and friendship would be…

  12. Affective temperaments in nicotine-dependent and non-nicotine-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Oniszczenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the smoking risk factors influencing nicotine dependency may be human personality; however, few studies have examined the association between Akiskal’s affective temperaments and smoking in adults. Our study aims to evaluate the associations between nicotine dependence and affective temperaments using the TEMPS-A. Participants and procedure The sample in this study consisted of 678 healthy Caucasian adults aged from 17 to 69 years, including 134 self-declared nicotine-dependent subjects (89 females and 45 males and 544 self-declared non-nicotine-dependent subjects (352 females and 192 males. The Polish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A was used to assess affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious. Results Nicotine-dependent individuals scored higher on cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments than non-nicotine-dependents (no significant differences with regard to depressive and hyperthymic temperaments. Among the nicotine-dependent individuals, females scored higher on anxious temperaments than males (no differences with regard to the other affective temperaments, and among the non-nicotine-dependent individuals, females exhibited more depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments than males, while males exhibited more hyperthymic temperaments than females. Conclusions The results suggest that affective, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments in both genders and anxious temperaments in females may be predictors of nicotine dependence in adults.

  13. Temperament: Theory and Practice. Brunner/Mazel Basic Principles into Practice Series, Volume 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Stella; Thomas, Alexander

    This book outlines the basic tenets and applications of the theory of temperament based on the findings of the New York Longitudinal Study begun in 1956. It describes the concept and definition of temperament, reviews studies that support and expand on the definition, and explores temperament and its impact across various practice settings and…

  14. Temperament, Stress Reactivity, and Coping: Implications for Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in…

  15. Cross-National Study of Children's Temperament: Structural Validity of the Student Styles Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callueng, Carmelo M.

    2012-01-01

    Temperament has a long history of scholarship dating back as early as 350 BC when Hippocrates (1984) associated body fluids or temperament with behavior. Temperament is broadly described as stylistic and relatively stable traits that subsume intrinsic tendencies to act and react in somewhat predictable ways to people, events, and other stimuli.…

  16. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  17. Cross-National Study of Children's Temperament: Structural Validity of the Student Styles Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callueng, Carmelo M.

    2012-01-01

    Temperament has a long history of scholarship dating back as early as 350 BC when Hippocrates (1984) associated body fluids or temperament with behavior. Temperament is broadly described as stylistic and relatively stable traits that subsume intrinsic tendencies to act and react in somewhat predictable ways to people, events, and other stimuli.…

  18. Temperament, Personality and Developmental Psychopathology: A Review Based on the Conceptual Dimensions Underlying Childhood Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The numerous temperament and personality constructs in childhood impede the systematic integration of findings on how these individual differences relate to developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews the main temperament and personality theories and proposes a theoretical taxonomy representing the common structure of both temperament and…

  19. Preschoolers' Observed Temperament and Psychiatric Disorders Assessed with a Parent Diagnostic Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year-old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured…

  20. Understanding and Supporting Differences in Child Temperament: Strategies for Early Childhood Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelco, Lynn E.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the role of temperament in the development of young children with disabilities and the five dimensions of temperament: activity level, intensity, mood, persistence, and reaction to new experiences. Types of behavioral tendencies that exemplify each temperament dimension are described, along with interaction adaptation…

  1. Development and Validation of the Preschool Temperament Classification System for Use with Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munis, Pelin; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Henderson, Heather A.; George, J'Lene

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the development and validation of a new measure of temperament, the Preschool Temperament Classification System (PTCS). The PTCS was developed as a typological measure that identifies children's temperament styles as undercontrolled, resilient, or overcontrolled. The PTCS is a time efficient…

  2. Temperament and the Development of Conscience: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Cipriano, Elizabeth; Conway, Anne; Kelleher, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined whether two components of effortful control, behavioral control, and executive function moderated the relation between temperament and conscience development. Temperament was assessed when participants were two years of age, and three temperament groups were formed: inhibited, exuberant, and low reactive. At…

  3. Structure of personality, temperament and mental speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bucik

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Pavlov there are two mechanisms that express the nature of the central nervous system (CNS: strength of excitation and strength of inhibition of the nerve cells. They play an important role in the basic temperament traits. Namely, the weaker the stimulus that elicits a perceptible response and the weaker the stimulus that starts lower efficiency, the higher is one's reactivity. In two different studies we tried to examine how different expressions of effectiveness of the CNS (excitation, inhibition and mobility of the CNS relate to speed of information processing and some dimensions of personality, with general intelligence as a covariate. The most challenging was the insight to relations with the dimensions, which are expected to be in line with alertness and arousal. We found some interesting links between strength of excitation and mobility on one side and extraversion (which is in accordance with Eysenck's arousal theory and openness on the other side, but also positive, albeit moderate, correlation with speed of information processing. Some relations between CNS properties and other constructs showed to be far from linear, which should be seriously considered in the following research of this phenomenon.

  4. Four-Month-Old Infants' Visual Investigation of Cats and Dogs: Relations with Pet Experience and Attentional Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; McMurray, Bob; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the eye-movements of 4-month-old infants (N = 38) as they visually inspected pairs of images of cats or dogs. In general, infants who had previous experience with pets exhibited more sophisticated inspection than did infants without pet experience, both directing more visual attention to the informative head regions of the animals,…

  5. The effects of extraverted temperament on agoraphobia in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Lawrence, Amy E; Meyer, Joseph F; Brown, Timothy A

    2010-05-01

    Although situational avoidance is viewed as the most disabling aspect of panic disorder, few studies have evaluated how dimensions of neurotic (i.e., neuroticism, behavioral inhibition) and extraverted (i.e., extraversion, behavioral activation) temperament may influence the presence and severity of agoraphobia. Using logistic regression and structural equation modeling, we examined the unique effects of extraverted temperament on situational avoidance in a sample of 274 outpatients with a diagnosis of panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Results showed low extraverted temperament (i.e., introversion) to be associated with both the presence and the severity of situational avoidance. Findings are discussed in regard to conceptualizations of conditioned avoidance, activity levels, sociability, and positive emotions within the context of panic disorder with agoraphobia.

  6. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children’s approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children’s social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory of mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament characteristics (at age 3) – lack of aggressiveness, a shy-withdrawn stance to social interaction, and social-perceptual sensitivity – predict children’s more advanced theory-of-mind understanding two years later. The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind. PMID:21499499

  7. A meta-analysis of temperament in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiye, Minna; Miettunen, Jouko; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu

    2015-03-01

    Although suggested as an important contributor to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, temperament has not previously been studied adopting a meta-analytical approach. We therefore pooled data (N = 14 studies; N = 3315 cases, N = 3395 controls) on Cloninger's temperament traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence and persistence) in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Persistence was significantly higher than in the controls in all eating disorders except for BED the highest levels being observed in AN. Correspondingly, the highest effect sizes for harm avoidance were seen in AN. Novelty seeking was significantly elevated relative to the controls only in BN. Harm avoidance was significantly lower, and reward dependence was significantly higher in individuals who had recovered from AN than in those who remained ill. Future studies with a longitudinal design are needed to explore the temporal relationships between eating disorders and temperament traits.

  8. Maternal accuracy in predicting toddlers' behaviors and associations with toddlers' fearful temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2006-01-01

    Past research provides associations between maternal parenting behaviors and characteristics such as depression and toddlers' fearful temperament. Less is known about how maternal cognitive characteristics and normal personality relate to fearful temperament. This study examined associations among the maternal cognitive characteristic of accuracy, maternal personality, toddler gender, context, and 24-month-old toddlers' fearful temperament. Mothers were more accurate in predicting their daughters' emotional reactions in fear-eliciting contexts. High maternal approach personality was related to increased maternal accuracy for boys. High maternal approach personality, in conjunction with lower accuracy, however, was associated with higher levels of toddlers' fearful temperament. Results suggest implications for the current understanding of toddlers' fearful temperament.

  9. Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Infant Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kitts, Robert L.; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants’ temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R) when the infants were 6 months old, and infant affective states were coded for each SFP-R episode. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing infant trauma exposure history and infant current emotional and behavioral symptoms when the infants were 13 months old. Maternal PTSD symptoms predicted infants’ emotion regulation at 6 months as assessed by (a) infant ability to recover from distress during the SFP-R and (b) maternal report of infant rate of recovery from distress/arousal in daily life. Maternal PTSD symptoms also predicted maternal report of infant externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation symptoms at 13 months. Maternal PTSD was not associated with measures of infant emotional reactivity. Neither maternal depressive symptoms nor infant direct exposure to trauma accounted for the associations between maternal PTSD symptoms and infant outcomes. These findings suggest that maternal PTSD is associated with offspring emotion regulation difficulties as early as infancy. Such difficulties may contribute to increased risk of mental health problems among children of mothers with PTSD. PMID:21862136

  10. [Infant botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  11. Relationship between Temperament, Depression, Anxiety, and Hopelessness in Adolescents: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Iliceto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the validity of affective temperaments for predicting psychiatric morbidity and suicide risk, using a two-factor model to explain the relationships between temperament, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. We investigated 210 high school students, 103 males and 107 females, 18-19 years old, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A, depression (BDI-II, anxiety (STAI and hopelessness (BHS. The final structural model had a good fit with the data, with two factors significantly correlated, the first labeled unstable cyclothymic temperament including Dysthymic/Cyclothymic/Anxious temperament, Irritable temperament and Depression, and the second labeled Demoralization including Anxiety (State/Trait and Hopelessness. Depression, anxiety and hopelessness are in a complex relationship partly mediated by temperament.

  12. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  13. Predictive relationships between chronic pain and negative emotions: a 4-month daily process study using Therapeutic Interactive Voice Response (TIVR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Magdalena R; Krauthamer, G Michael; Naud, Shelly; Keefe, Francis J; Helzer, John E

    2011-01-01

    This article examines temporal relationships between negative emotions and pain in a cohort of 33 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain enrolled in a telephone-based relapse prevention program (Therapeutic Interactive Voice Response [TIVR]), after 11 weeks of group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Patients were asked to make daily reports to the TIVR system for 4 months after CBT. Patients' daily reports were analyzed with path analysis to examine temporal relationships between 3 emotion variables (anger, sadness, and stress) and 2 pain variables (pain and pain control). As expected, same-day correlations were significant between emotion variables and both pain and pain control. The lagged associations revealed unidirectional relationships between pain and next-day emotions: increased pain predicted higher reports of sadness the following day (P pain control predicted decreased sadness and anger the following day (P emotions predicted increased next-day pain. We speculate that CBT treatment followed by the relapse prevention program teaches patients how to modulate negative emotions such that they no longer have a negative impact on next-day pain perception. The clinical implications of our findings are discussed.

  14. Change in health-related quality of life amongst participants in a 4-month pedometer-based workplace health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jessica; Freak-Poli, Rosanne Laura Armida; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with a reduced risk for chronic health conditions and improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Efforts to increase PA have included workplace health promotion. Currently, little is known about the effect of these programs on overall HRQoL. To evaluate whether participation in a pedometer-based PA program in the workplace was associated with changes in HRQoL. 487 voluntary employees enrolled in a health program completed the SF-12 Health Survey at baseline and 4 months. Change in Physical and Mental component summary scores (PCS; MCS) was assessed with multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for covariates. Participation in the program was associated with an increase of 1.5 MCS units (95% CI: 0.76, -2.09). Greater improvements in MCS were observed in those reporting an increased level of PA during the program [1.9 (CI: 0.78, 2.92) versus 0.9 (CI: -0.12, 2.03)] and a lower baseline MCS score [6.3 (CI: 4.80, 7.62) versus -1.5 (CI: -2.21, -0.80)]. No change in PCS was observed. Participation in this workplace PA program was associated with improvements in the mental component of HRQoL. We recommend the use of a broad perspective of health be used in both the implementation and evaluation of workplace PA programs.

  15. Temperament Factors as Longitudinal Predictors of Young Adult Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, James E.; Halverson, Charles F., Jr.; Havill, Valerie; Martin, Roy P.

    2005-01-01

    While there is a general consensus that temperament forms the enduring, biologically based foundation of personality and that this biological basis should imply some continuity within the individual across time, there is a limited literature exploring linkages between these areas. The purpose of this article was to provide an initial assessment of…

  16. Temperament Factors as Longitudinal Predictors of Young Adult Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, James E.; Halverson, Charles F., Jr.; Havill, Valerie; Martin, Roy P.

    2005-01-01

    While there is a general consensus that temperament forms the enduring, biologically based foundation of personality and that this biological basis should imply some continuity within the individual across time, there is a limited literature exploring linkages between these areas. The purpose of this article was to provide an initial assessment of…

  17. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  18. Social Competence and Temperament in Children with Chronic Orthopaedic Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Yavuz, H. Melis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate social competence in children with orthopaedic disability and its concurrent relations to child's temperament, health condition, and maternal warmth. Participants were 68 Turkish children (mean = 5.94 years) with chronic orthopaedic disability and their mothers coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. Mother…

  19. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  20. Subtyping Stuttering II: Contributions from Language and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Carol Hubbard; Watkins, Ruth V.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two articles exploring subtypes of stuttering, and it addresses the question of whether and how language ability and temperament variables may be relevant to the study of subtypes within the larger population of children who stutter. Despite observations of varied profiles among young children who stutter,…

  1. Social Competence and Temperament in Children with Chronic Orthopaedic Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Yavuz, H. Melis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate social competence in children with orthopaedic disability and its concurrent relations to child's temperament, health condition, and maternal warmth. Participants were 68 Turkish children (mean = 5.94 years) with chronic orthopaedic disability and their mothers coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. Mother…

  2. Personality heterogeneity in PTSD: distinct temperament and interpersonal typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Wright, Aidan G C; Sanislow, Charles A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Markowitz, John C; Skodol, Andrew E; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD.

  3. Associations between Temperament and Social Responsiveness in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda; Miller, Angela; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that social responsiveness (comprised of social awareness, social information processing, reciprocal social communication, social motivation, and repetitive/restricted interests) is continuously distributed within the general population. In the present study, we consider temperament as a co-occurring source of…

  4. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  5. Temperament in the School Context: A Historical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vilar, Ma Angeles; Carranza, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The majority of studies on temperament in the educational context originate from the Anglo-Saxon culture, where there has been an increase in research in this field over the last four decades. The objective of this paper is to contribute towards systematizing of relevant findings that have been carried out in the educational context from the field…

  6. Paranormal belief, experience, and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J; Williams, C

    2000-06-01

    121 college students completed the Anomalous Experience Inventory and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter. Multiple regression analyses provided significant models predicting both Paranormal Experience and Belief; the main predictors were the other subscales of the Anomalous Experience Inventory with the Keirsey variables playing only a minor role.

  7. Personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); C.M.G. Meesters (Cor); M.F.C.M. Van Den Hout (Mari F. C. M.); S. Wessels (Sylvia); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); E.G.C. Rassin (Eric)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale f

  8. Temperament dictates endotoxin-induced metabolic changes in Brahman bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously reported that animal temperament influences the rectal temperature response, sickness behavior scores, serum concentrations of epinephrine (Burdick et al., 2011; Innate Immunity), and serum cytokine concentrations (Hulbert et al., 2009; J. Anim. Sci. 86 (Suppl 2):527) following a provo...

  9. Age, Emotion Regulation Strategies, Temperament, Creative Drama, and Preschoolers' Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Chu; Li, Me-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Based on Yeh's (2004) "Ecological Systems Model of Creativity Development", this study investigated the effects that age, the use of emotion regulation strategies, temperament, and exposure to creative drama instruction have on the development of creativity among preschool children. Participants were 116 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. This…

  10. Temperament in the School Context: A Historical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vilar, Ma Angeles; Carranza, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The majority of studies on temperament in the educational context originate from the Anglo-Saxon culture, where there has been an increase in research in this field over the last four decades. The objective of this paper is to contribute towards systematizing of relevant findings that have been carried out in the educational context from the field…

  11. Associations between Temperament and Social Responsiveness in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda; Miller, Angela; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that social responsiveness (comprised of social awareness, social information processing, reciprocal social communication, social motivation, and repetitive/restricted interests) is continuously distributed within the general population. In the present study, we consider temperament as a co-occurring source of…

  12. Social Competence and Temperament in Children with Chronic Orthopaedic Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Yavuz, H. Melis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate social competence in children with orthopaedic disability and its concurrent relations to child's temperament, health condition, and maternal warmth. Participants were 68 Turkish children (mean = 5.94 years) with chronic orthopaedic disability and their mothers coming from disadvantaged backgrounds.…

  13. Connections between Temperament and Social Development: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Ann; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Smart, Diana

    2004-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the literature on the links between temperament and social development in children and adolescents. Social development is broadly defined to include externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems, prosocial behaviour and social competence. It concludes that there are clear links between specific dimensions of…

  14. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  15. Predictors for early introduction of solid food among Danish mothers and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Væth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    introduced to solid food. Full breastfeeding at five weeks was the most influential predictor for later introduction of solid food (OR = 2.52 CI: 1.93-3.28). Among infant factors male gender, increased gestational age at birth, and higher birth weight were found to be statistically significant predictors...... of solid food. Supplementary analyses of interactions between the predictors showed that the association of maternal perceived infant temperament on early introduction was restricted to primiparae, that the mother's pre-pregnancy BMI had no impact if the infant was fully breastfed at week five...

  16. Morningness-eveningness and affective temperaments assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Tereszko, Anna; Dembinska-Krajewska, Daria; Arciszewska, Aleksandra; Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    Chronotype is a stable trait presenting one's circardian preference. Since chronotype disturbances are common in patients with affective disorders, our aim is to evaluate chronotypes related to affective temperaments, measured with the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The study included 618 subjects (151 men and 467 women) within the framework of web-based design. They all fulfilled a questionnaire, consisting of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), Sleep Wake Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SWPAQ), and the TEMPS-A scale. Multiple regression models revealed that after controlling for age and gender: irritable and cyclothymic temperaments were negatively associated with total CSM score, CSM morning affect and circadian preference components, Sleepability (S), Vigilance (V), Wakeability (W) and positively with Morningness (M) and Eveningness (E) subscales of SWPAQ; anxious temperament was negatively associated with total CSM scores, CSM morning affect and with S, V, W subscales of SWPAQ; depressive temperament was negatively associated with Falling asleep, S, V, W subscales of SWPAQ; hyperthymic temperament was positively associated with CSM morning affect and V, W and negatively with M subscales of SWPAQ. The results show distinctiveness of the associations between hyperthymic temperament and circadian preferences, compared to all other TEMPS-A temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious). In the CMS scale, only hyperthymic temperament was related to morning affect. In the SWPAQ scale, hyperthymic temperament was the only one associated with earlier morningness (earlier wake up time preference), increased parameters of vigor - wakeability, vigilance, and also the only one not associated with decreased plasticity of circadian rhythm (sleepability and falling asleep). Results also point to some similarities between cyclothymic and irritable temperaments in some aspects of the chronotype.

  17. Temperament and character properties of primary focal hyperhidrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ak Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a health problem, which has negative effects on the patient's quality of life and significantly affects the patients’ daily activities, social and business life. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperament and character properties of patients diagnosed with primary focal hyperhidrosis. Methods Fifty-six primary focal hyperhidrosis (22.42 ± 7.80 and 49 control subjects (24.48 ± 5.17 participated in the study. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for PFH were referred to psychiatry clinic where the subjects were evaluated through Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I and Temperament and Character Inventory. Results In order to examine the difference between the PFH and control group in terms of temperament and character properties, one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA was conducted. In terms of temperament properties, PFH group took significantly higher scores than control group in Fatigability and asthenia dimension. In terms of character properties, PFH group scored significantly lower than control group in Purposefulness , Resourcefulness , Self-Directedness and scored significantly higher than control group in Self-forgetfulness and Self-Transcendence. Conclusion Temperament and character features of PFH patients were different from healthy group and it was considered that these features were affected by many factors including genetic, biological, environmental, socio-cultural elements. During the follow-up of PFH cases, psychiatric evaluation is important and interventions, especially psychotherapeutic interventions can increase the chances of success of the dermatological treatments and can have a positive impact on the quality of life and social cohesion of chronic cases.

  18. Learning rate and temperament in a high predation risk environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, C.; Wagner, Tyler; Archard, G.A.; Ferguson, B.; Braithwaite, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration—collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.

  19. Physical Activity in Bariatric Surgery Patients: Does Temperament Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner-Labitzke, Kerstin; Claes, Laurence; Bartsch, Merle; Schulze, Mareike; Langenberg, Svenja; Köhler, Hinrich; Marschollek, Michael; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate if physical activity (PA) in bariatric surgery patients is related to temperament. Preoperative (n = 70) and post-operative (n = 73) patients were categorized as being physically 'active' versus 'inactive' on the basis of objective PA monitoring. Assessment included the behavioural inhibition system (BIS)/behavioural activation system (BAS) scales, the effortful control (EC) subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Short Form, a numeric pain rating scale and measures for depressive and eating disorder symptoms. 'Active' did not differ from 'inactive' patients with regard to temperament (BIS, BAS, and EC). Regressions with PA grouping as dependent variable (adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), depressive or eating disorder symptoms, or pain intensity) indicated an association between lower BMI and more PA in the preoperative and the post-operative group. In the post-operative group, in addition to lower BMI, also lower age and higher BIS reactivity contributed to more PA. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between BMI and BIS suggesting that low BMI was only associated with more PA in post-operative patients with high BIS. The results indicate that temperament per se does not contribute to the level of PA in bariatric surgery patients. However, in post-operative patients, lower BMI was associated with a higher likelihood of being physically active particularly in patients with anxious temperament. These preliminary findings need further investigation within longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. Learning rate and temperament in a high predation risk environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, C; Wagner, T; Archard, G A; Ferguson, B; Braithwaite, V A

    2014-11-01

    Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration-collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.

  1. Comparison of cytological parameters of exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in different temperament groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zendehboodi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temperament (Mizaj forms the basic concept of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM, and greatly influences the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, as well as maintains the ideal healthy state of an individual. In particular, temperament is presumed to affect the morphological, physiological, and psychological features of a person; however, its influence on biological features remains unclear in practical ITM. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the temperament and the cytological features of buccal mucosa in healthy people. Methods: The study sample included 75 healthy individuals from Fars province, southern Iran. The temperament was determined using a self-reported temperament identification scale. Based on the questionnaire, volunteers were classified in nine temperaments including one equilibrium, four simple temperaments (warm, cold, moist, and dry, and four combined temperaments (warm–moist, warm–dry, cold–moist, cold–dry. Smears collected from the buccal mucosa of participants were analyzed for biomarkers of DNA damage, cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential, and cell death using micronucleus (MN assay. Student’s t-test or Mann–Whitney U test was applied to identify the differences between groups. Results: DNA damage (nuclear buds and cell death biomarkers (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexic, pyknotic, and karyolitic cells reported significant differences between certain temperament groups. Conclusions: The present study reported that the aforementioned cytological parameters could be affected by the temperament; however, more studies with greater sample sizes are warranted.

  2. Perception of Object-Context Relations: Eye-Movement Analyses in Infants and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight 4-month-olds' and twenty-two 20-year-olds' attention to object-context relations was investigated using a common eye-movement paradigm. Infants and adults scanned both objects and contexts. Infants showed equivalent preferences for animals and vehicles and for congruent and incongruent object-context relations overall, more fixations…

  3. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  4. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  5. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, R A; Brown, L W

    1979-05-01

    Infant botulism is a unique neuromuscular disease affecting infants less than six months old. It is the result of intraintestinal toxin production by C. botulinum (toxi-infection). Characteristic symptoms include constipation, lethargy, and decreased feeding. Physical examination often reveals generalized hypotonia with cranial nerve impairment. Recovery is dependent on supportive care in an intensive care setting. The relationship of this disease to the sudden infant death syndrome requires further study.

  6. Dioxin exposure in breast milk and infant neurodevelopment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Pham The; Nishijo, Muneko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-09-01

    Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers residing near hot spots of dioxin contamination areas in South Vietnam remain much higher than in unsprayed areas, suggesting that fetuses and breast-fed infants may be exposed to high levels of dioxins. The present study investigated the association of infant neurodevelopment in early infancy and dioxin exposure during the perinatal period. The study involved 216 mother-infant pairs living near the Da Nang airbase, a dioxin contaminated area in Vietnam. Mothers and infants were followed from birth until infants were 4 months old. Dioxin levels in breast milk were measured to estimate the perinatal dioxin exposure, including the infant daily dioxin intake (DDI) via breastfeeding. Infant neurodevelopmental parameters, including cognitive, language and motor domains were assessed at approximately 4 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III). The level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents in breast milk and the infant DDI showed significant inverse correlations with neurodevelopmental scores. When the subjects were divided into four groups according to dioxin levels in breast milk, the moderate and high DDI groups had significantly lower cognitive, composite motor and fine motor scores, and the high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents group had significantly lower fine motor score than the low exposure group. For all domains, neurodevelopmental scores were decreased with increase in the level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The present study demonstrates a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment in 4-month-old infants living in contaminated areas in Vietnam.

  7. FS4, FS4-p, and FSP: a 4-month crossover study of 3 fine structure sound-coding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riss, Dominik; Hamzavi, Jafar-Sasan; Blineder, Michaela; Honeder, Clemens; Ehrenreich, Isabella; Kaider, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Arnoldner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare two novel fine structure strategies "FS4" and "FS4-p" with the established fine structure processing (FSP) strategy. FS4 provides fine structure information on the apical four-electrode channels. With FS4-p, these electrodes may be stimulated in a parallel manner. The authors evaluated speech perception, sound quality, and subjective preference. A longitudinal crossover study was done on postlingually deafened adults (N = 33) who were using FSP as their default strategy. Each participant was fitted with FS4, FS4-p, and FSP, for 4 months in a randomized and blinded order. After each run, an Adaptive Sentence test in noise (Oldenburger Sentence Test [OLSA]) and a Monosyllable test in quiet (Freiburger Monosyllables) were performed, and subjective sound quality was determined with a Visual Analogue Scale. At the end of the study the preferred strategy was noted. Scores of the OLSA did not reveal any significant differences among the three strategies, but the Freiburger test showed a statistically significant effect (p = 0.03) with slightly worse scores for FS4 (49.7%) compared with FSP (54.3%). Performance of FS4-p (51.8%) was comparable with the other strategies. Both audiometric tests depicted a high variability among subjects. The number of best-performing strategies for each participant individually was as follows: (a) for the OLSA: FSP, N = 10.5; FS4, N = 10.5; and FS4-p, N = 12; and (b) for the Freiburger test: FSP, N = 14; FS4, N = 9; and FS4-p, N = 10. A moderate agreement was found in the best-performing strategies of the Speech tests within the participants. For sound quality, speech in quiet, classical, and pop music were assessed. No significant effects of strategy were found for speech in quiet and classical music, but auditory impression of pop music was rated as more natural in FSP compared with FS4 (p = 0.04). It is interesting that at the end of the study, a majority of the participants favored the new

  8. TEMPERAMENT, FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH NEW-ONSET SEIZURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T.; Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Dunn, David W.; Bates, John E.; Austin, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with epilepsy, even those with new-onset seizures, exhibit relatively high rates of behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among early temperament, family adaptive resources, and behavior problems in children with new-onset seizures. Our major goal was to test whether family adaptive resources moderated the relationship between early temperament dimensions and current behavior problems in 287 children with new-onset seizures. Two of the three temperament dimensions (difficultness and resistance to control) were positively correlated with total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior problems (all p < 0.0001). The third temperament dimension, unadaptability, was positively correlated with total and internalizing problems (p < 0.01). Family adaptive resources moderated the relationships between temperament and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at school. Children with a difficult early temperament who live in a family environment with low family mastery are at the greatest risk for behavior problems. PMID:17267291

  9. Temperament and environmental contributions to stuttering severity in children: the role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo Kraft, Shelly; Ambrose, Nicoline; Chon, HeeCheong

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the contribution of temperament and external environment to the severity of children who stutter. Sixty-nine children who stutter, ages 2;4 to 5;9 (years; months), with a mean age of 3;7, were assessed for temperament, home environment, and significant life events. Temperament was assessed using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire. Home environment and life events were assessed using the Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale (CHAOS) scale and the Life Events Checklist. Results indicated mother (parent)-reported stuttering severity and clinician-reported stuttering severity to be correlated with child temperament scores in the domain of Effortful Control. When temperament, home environment, and life events were combined, no statistically predictive outcomes were evident in corresponding severity ratings. The current study suggests the temperament domain of Effortful Control in children who stutter is a significant underlying mechanism influencing stuttering severity. Clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Relationship between Temperament, Depression, Anxiety, and Hopelessness in Adolescents: A Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Iliceto; Maurizio Pompili; David Lester; Xenia Gonda; Cinzia Niolu; Nicoletta Girardi; Zoltán Rihmer; Gabriella Candilera; Paolo Girardi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of affective temperaments for predicting psychiatric morbidity and suicide risk, using a two-factor model to explain the relationships between temperament, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. We investigated 210 high school students, 103 males and 107 females, 18-19 years old, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A), depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI) and hopelessness (BHS). The final structural mo...

  11. If you do not know the child's temperament you do not know the child

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Current scholarship generally characterizes temperament as stylistic and relatively stable traits that subsume intrinsic tendencies to act and react in somewhat predictable ways to people, events, and other stimuli. An understanding of children's temperament preferences aids our understanding of the origins of behaviors as well as normal attitudes children display at home, school, and elsewhere. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to children's temperament along with a des...

  12. Temperament type specific metabolite profiles of the prefrontal cortex and serum in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Brand

    Full Text Available In the past decade the number of studies investigating temperament in farm animals has increased greatly because temperament has been shown not only to affect handling but also reproduction, health and economically important production traits. However, molecular pathways underlying temperament and molecular pathways linking temperament to production traits, health and reproduction have yet to be studied in full detail. Here we report the results of metabolite profiling of the prefrontal cortex and serum of cattle with distinct temperament types that were performed to further explore their molecular divergence in the response to the slaughter procedure and to identify new targets for further research of cattle temperament. By performing an untargeted comprehensive metabolite profiling, 627 and 1097 metabolite features comprising 235 and 328 metabolites could be detected in the prefrontal cortex and serum, respectively. In total, 54 prefrontal cortex and 51 serum metabolite features were indicated to have a high relevance in the classification of temperament types by a sparse partial least square discriminant analysis. A clear discrimination between fearful/neophobic-alert, interested-stressed, subdued/uninterested-calm and outgoing/neophilic-alert temperament types could be observed based on the abundance of the identified relevant prefrontal cortex and serum metabolites. Metabolites with high relevance in the classification of temperament types revealed that the main differences between temperament types in the response to the slaughter procedure were related to the abundance of glycerophospholipids, fatty acyls and sterol lipids. Differences in the abundance of metabolites related to C21 steroid metabolism and oxidative stress indicated that the differences in the metabolite profiles of the four extreme temperament types could be the result of a temperament type specific regulation of molecular pathways that are known to be involved in the

  13. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Rie; Taniguchi, Fumika; Sawada, Maiko; Hamaoka, Saeko; Shibasaki, Masayuki; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sawa, Teiji; Nakayama, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants.

  14. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Soeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants.

  15. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  16. Comparison of temperaments of children with and without baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, F; Wilson, S; Coury, D L; Preisch, J W

    1998-01-01

    Several demographic studies have been done to identify children at risk for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD). Discussions have described these children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay as strong tempered, cranky, restless, and fussy. The parents of these children have acknowledged these behaviors. To determine whether there were differences in temperament, children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay were compared with children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay by assessing the nine temperament components described by the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) questionnaire. Parents completed the temperament questionnaire and ninety-two children between twelve and thirty-six months old were studied. Scores for the nine temperament components were tabulated and temperament difficulty was determined as defined by the authors of the toddler Temperament Scale. At-test comparison between the two groups revealed no significant difference for the nine temperament components. There was also no difference when comparing clusters of the nine components. The conclusion is that there is no difference in the temperaments between the group of children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and the comparison group of children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay.

  17. Relationship of maternal parenting behaviors to preschool children's temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F

    1981-01-01

    Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.

  18. Temperament and Mood Detection Using Case-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Kolawole John

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Case-Based Reasoning (CBR is a branch of AI that is employed to solving problems which emphasizes the use of previous solutions in solving similar new problems. This work presents TAMDS, a Temperament and Mood Detection system which employs Case-Based Reasoning technique. The proposed system is adapted to the field of psychology to help psychologists solve part of the problems in their complex domain. We have designed TAMDS to detect temperament and moods of individuals. A major aim of our system is to help individuals who are out of reach of a professional psychologist to manage their personality and moods because as humans, moods affect our perceptions, personal health, the way we view the world around us and the way we react to it.

  19. Genetic and environmental structure of Cloninger's temperament and character dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Juko; Suzuki, Atsunobu; Yamagata, Shinji; Kijima, Nobuhiko; Maekawa, Hiroko; Ono, Yutaka; Jang, Kerry L

    2004-08-01

    The multivariate genetic and environmental structure of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was investigated in a sample of 617 pairs of adolescent and young adult twins from Japan. Additive genetic factors accounted for 22% to 49% of the variability on all TCI temperament scales. Although the theory predicts lower heritability for the character scales, all character subscales had a substantial genetic contribution, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for the remainder. Multivariate genetic analyses showed that several subscales used to define one dimension shared a common genetic basis with subscales defining others. Using the degree of shared genetic influence as the basis to rearrange the TCI subscales into new dimensions, it was possible to create genetically independent scales. The implications for personality measurement, theory, and molecular genetic research are discussed.

  20. Nature over nurture: temperament, personality, and life span development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T; Ostendorf, F; Angleitner, A; Hrebícková, M; Avia, M D; Sanz, J; Sánchez-Bernardos, M L; Kusdil, M E; Woodfield, R; Saunders, P R; Smith, P B

    2000-01-01

    Temperaments are often regarded as biologically based psychological tendencies with intrinsic paths of development. It is argued that this definition applies to the personality traits of the five-factor model. Evidence for the endogenous nature of traits is summarized from studies of behavior genetics, parent-child relations, personality structure, animal personality, and the longitudinal stability of individual differences. New evidence for intrinsic maturation is offered from analyses of NEO Five-Factor Inventory scores for men and women age 14 and over in German, British, Spanish, Czech, and Turkish samples (N = 5,085). These data support strong conceptual links to child temperament despite modest empirical associations. The intrinsic maturation of personality is complemented by the culturally conditioned development of characteristic adaptations that express personality; interventions in human development are best addressed to these.

  1. Culture and Expression in Mother-Infant Vocal Play: Do Vowels Regulate Intersubjectivity?

    OpenAIRE

    POWERS, Niki

    2008-01-01

    Three studies explored how vowel sounds are utilised by mothers and infants in the first year to regulate emotional expression. In Study 1, a cultural comparison was carried out. 6 English-speaking and 6 Japanese-speaking mother-infant dyads were filmed in their homes (3 male and 3 female infants in each country), when the infants were aged 4 months. Analysis was carried out of vowel sounds produced by mothers and infants and of bodily contact in 2 defined emotional situations ...

  2. Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela L. Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. METHOD: Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb, and post-weight. RESULTS: There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p<0.05, with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p<0.001 for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. CONCLUSIONS: The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks.

  3. Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gabriela L; Bueno, Thaís B; Tudella, Eloisa; Dionisio, Jadiane

    2014-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb), and post-weight. There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p<0.05), with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p<0.001) for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks.

  4. A temperament for learning: The limbic system and myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachha Behroze

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was the winner of the triennial Casey Holter Memorial Prize awarded by the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida, 2004. Abstract This essay explores the link between the limbic/hypothalamic systems within the complex conditions of hydrocephalus and myelomeningocele. Acknowledging the neuroanatomical and neuroendocrine risks inherent in the developing brains of these individuals, we focus on the converging components of temperament, cognition, and language.

  5. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen M.; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis; Bates, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph based records. The findings that parent reported and actigraph recorded sleep characteri...

  6. Cross Validated Temperament Scale Validities Computed Using Profile Similarity Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral & Social Sciences 6000 6TH Street (Bldg. 1464 / Mail...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral & Social Sciences 6000 6TH...temperament scales. The current analyses support these contentions by demonstrating the inclusion of shape-consensus scores were critical to boosting the

  7. EEG asymmetry at 10 months of age: are temperament trait predictors different for boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry patterns represent markers of individual differences in emotion reactivity and regulation, with right hemisphere activation linked with withdrawal behaviors/emotions (e.g., fear), and activation of the left hemisphere associated with approach (e.g., joy, anger). In the present study, gender was examined as a potential moderator of links between infant temperament at 5 months, and frontal EEG asymmetry patterns recorded during an Arm Restraint procedure at 10 months of age. Positive Affectivity/Surgency (PAS), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Orienting/Regulatory Capacity (ORC) were considered as predictors, with PAS emerging as significant for males; higher levels translating into greater right-frontal activation later in infancy. For females, ORC accounted for a significant portion of the frontal asymmetry scores, with higher ORC being associated with greater right-frontal activation. The moderating influence of gender noted in this study is discussed in the context of implications for discrepancies in rates/symptoms of psychopathology later in childhood.

  8. Nature and Nurturing: Parenting in the Context of Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear, self-regulation, and impulsivity was reviewed, and an overall model of children's individual differences in response to parenting is proposed. In general, children high in frustration, impulsivity and low in effortful control are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative parenting, while in turn, many negative parenting behaviors predict increases in these characteristics. Frustration, fearfulness, and effortful control also appear to elicit parenting behaviors that can predict increases in these characteristics. Irritability renders children more susceptible to negative parenting behaviors. Fearfulness operates in a very complex manner, sometimes increasing children's responses to parenting behaviors and sometimes mitigating them and apparently operating differently across gender. Important directions for future research include the use of study designs and analytic approaches that account for the direction of effects and for developmental changes in parenting and temperament over time. PMID:21461681

  9. Individual differences in emotionality: social temperament and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, John P

    2011-06-01

    Individual differences, the importance of which was identified by Darwin more than 150 years ago, are evident in multiple domains. This review discusses the role of temperament in health-related outcomes in rhesus monkeys. Temperament is proposed as affecting health outcomes via behavioral means, and also via physical means either through its direct association with variation in physiological systems (a "main effects" model), or through its impact on functioning when organisms are in stressful circumstances (an "interaction effects" model). The specific temperament factor described is Sociability, which reflects a tendency to affiliate, and which is associated with positive affect, and with differences in sensitivity of brain dopamine systems. Data are reviewed showing that individual differences in Sociability in rhesus monkeys are related to variation in sympathetic innervation of lymphoid tissue (a main effect), as well as to patterns of coping in socially stressful circumstances (an interaction effect). Results such as these have implications for studies in behavioral ecology, medicine, and even for management practices in captive colonies of nonhuman primates. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Temperament and character traits in female adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury disorder with and without comorbid borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tschan, Taru; Peter-Ruf, Claudia; Schmid, Marc; In-Albon, Tina

    2017-01-01

    ...), and 64 nonclinical controls (NC). Temperament and character traits were assessed with the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory, and impulsivity with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a Go/NoGo task...

  11. Affective Temperaments in Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Esra; Yürümez, Esra; Yazici, Ahmet Bülent; Gümüş, Yusuf Yasin; Erol, Atila

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate affective temperaments of parents of children with ADHD and the relationship between ADHD and affective temperaments. The children diagnosed with ADHD were evaluated with a structured interview and the Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S) was filled by parents. Then parents were evaluated by a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I), and those with no diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (in the past and at the time of the study) were included to the study. The Turkish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire was used to evaluate affective temperaments of parents. A control group of parents who has no children with ADHD was applied the same evaluation protocol. The study was conducted with 123 parents (66 mothers, 57 fathers) of 66 children with ADHD and 119 control parents (65 mothers, 54 fathers) of 71 children without ADHD. Affective temperament scores of parents of children with ADHD were significantly higher than those of the control group. When the scores of mothers and fathers were compared separately, mothers had higher scores in all temperaments except hyperthymic temperament, and fathers had higher scores in all temperaments except anxious temperament in the ADHD group. Additionally, the T-DSM-IV-S attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores of children were moderately correlated with most of the affective temperaments scores of their parents. There is a relationship between ADHD and affective temperaments. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, strength, and nature of this relationship.

  12. A three-year longitudinal study of affective temperaments and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-08-01

    Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable,

  14. The Usefulness of Assessing and Identifying Workers' Temperaments and Their Effects on Occupational Stress in the Workplace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Deguchi

    Full Text Available The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A. Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one's own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one's supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.

  15. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable, li

  16. The Usefulness of Assessing and Identifying Workers’ Temperaments and Their Effects on Occupational Stress in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Inoue, Koki

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one’s own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one’s supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support. PMID:27227771

  17. The Usefulness of Assessing and Identifying Workers' Temperaments and Their Effects on Occupational Stress in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Inoue, Koki

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one's own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one's supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.

  18. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  19. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only ... Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  20. Infant Curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication is one in a series that reviews tips parents can use to improve the relationships with their children and the learning that happens within the family. This publication deals in particular with infant development.

  1. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  2. The Cat Is out of the Bag: The Joint Influence of Previous Experience and Looking Behavior on Infant Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; Horst, Jessica S.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of 4-month-old infants' previous experience with dogs, cats, or both and their online looking behavior on their learning of the adult-defined category of "cat" in a visual familiarization task. Four-month-old infants' (N = 123) learning in the laboratory was jointly determined by whether or not they had experience…

  3. Stuttering, Temperament, and Anxiety: Data from a Community Cohort Ages 2-4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…

  4. Heterogeneous selection on a heritable temperament trait in a variable environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, John L.; Patrick, Samantha C.; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Wilkin, Teddy A.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2009-01-01

    P> Temperament traits increasingly provide a focus for investigating the evolutionary ecology of behavioural variation. Here, we examine the underlying causes and selective consequences of individual variation in the temperament trait 'exploration behaviour in a novel environment' (EB, based on an

  5. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  6. Relationship between temperament and transportation with rectal temperature and secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning with the 8...

  7. Commentary: Differentiated Measures of Temperament and Multiple Pathways to Childhood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…

  8. Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Development of a Multiple Pathway Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…

  9. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.

  10. Stuttering, Temperament, and Anxiety: Data from a Community Cohort Ages 2-4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…

  11. Temperament and Early Stuttering Development: Cross-Sectional Findings from a Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. Method: We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and…

  12. A Study on Social Competence and Temperament of Pre-School Children's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Kanak, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the social competence and temperament of 4-6 age group children attending pre-school education institutions, to identify whether their social competence levels vary by gender, and to show the relationship between the sub-dimensions of social competence and those of temperament. The study group consists of…

  13. The relationship between temperament and autistic traits in a non-clinical students sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available Since temperament affects the development of social behaviours and interpersonal relations, the possible links between autistic traits and temperament are of particular interest. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between autistic traits and temperamental characteristics in the framework of the Regulative Temperament Theory by Strelau, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability theory by Buss and Plomin, with particular emphasis on gender differences. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour--Temperament Inventory and Temperament Survey for Adults were administered. The participants were 593 university students, including 364 females and 229 males. Results showed positive correlations between autistic traits and Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress, Fear and Anger, and negative correlations with Activity, Briskness, Endurance and Sociability. The results of multiple regression analyses involving the Autism Spectrum Quotient score as a dependent measure were different for females and males. Results of exploratory PCA analysis showed that AQ score, Sociability and Activity loaded one factor (with AQ loading being opposite to two others. High AQ scorers demonstrated higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress and Anger, and lower Briskness, Endurance, Activity and Sociability as compared to norms for the general population. In this study we showed that temperament measures were able to identify items that correlated in parts with autistic traits, while other items were obverse. The relationships between temperament and autistic traits differ slightly between genders. We assume that with regard to the broader autism phenotype, temperaments might be helpful in characterizing healthy control samples.

  14. Parenting and Temperament Influence on School Success in 9-13 Year Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9-13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance.

  15. Using Carey Temperament Scales to Assess Behavioral Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have suggested that temperament information could be useful for understanding the behavioral variability within the autism spectrum. The purpose of this brief report is to examine temperament profiles of 110 children with ASD (ages 3-8 years, 61 with Autistic Disorder, 42 with PDD-NOS; and 7 with Asperger Disorder) via a commonly…

  16. Pre-adolescent gender differences in associations between temperament, coping and mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. de Boo; M. Spiering

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between temperament, coping, depressive and aggressive mood in 8-12-year-old boys (n = 185) and girls (n = 219) were investigated, with a focus on gender differences. Children completed two self-report questionnaires: the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised and Children'

  17. Associations between endotoxin-induced metabolic changes and temperament in Brahman bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of temperament on the alteration of metabolic parameters in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was investigated. Brahman bulls were selected for this study based on temperament score. Bulls were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters for serial sampling to evaluate peri...

  18. Affective temperaments and psychopathological dimensions of personality in bipolar and cyclothymic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnic, Désirée; Pompili, Maurizio; Mazza, Marianna; Innamorati, Marco; Di Nicola, Marco; Catalano, Valeria; Bruschi, Angelo; Del Bono, Diletta; Forte, Alberto; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to study possible associations between temperament, personality dimensions, and psychopathological variables in a clinical sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and cyclothymia; and (2) to assess how Cloninger's temperament and personality dimensions were associated with affective temperaments. Participants, consisting of 60 patients with BD (type I or II) and cyclothymia in the euthymic phase, completed Akiskal's Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A), and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory-revised version (TCI-R). The diagnostic groups differed in past hospitalization, for age at onset of the disorder, and on two affective temperaments: the TEMPS-A Hyperthymia, and the TEMPS-A Irritability. There were six significant associations between affective temperaments and Cloninger's personality dimensions, ranging from 0.26 to 0.54. The measures of Akiskal and of Cloninger tap common behavioral features in patients with bipolar disorder and cyclothymia, yet the differences indicate that the two measures are not redundant. BD and cyclothymic patients differed significantly in temperament and personality, differences that may have important implications for treatment.

  19. Heterogeneous selection on a heritable temperament trait in a variable environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, John L.; Patrick, Samantha C.; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Wilkin, Teddy A.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2009-01-01

    P> Temperament traits increasingly provide a focus for investigating the evolutionary ecology of behavioural variation. Here, we examine the underlying causes and selective consequences of individual variation in the temperament trait 'exploration behaviour in a novel environment' (EB, based on an 8

  20. Teacher-Child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…

  1. Stress-sensitivity and reciprocal associations between stressful events and adolescent temperament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan; Nederhof, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the longitudinal, bidirectional associations between stressful life events (SLEs) and adolescent temperament. Subsequently, the study investigated whether the effects of SLEs on future temperament were moderated by (a) a cumulative sensitivity gene index (b) the 5-HTTLP

  2. Maternal Accuracy in Predicting Toddlers' Behaviors and Associations with Toddlers' Fearful Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2006-01-01

    Past research provides associations between maternal parenting behaviors and characteristics such as depression and toddlers' fearful temperament. Less is known about how maternal cognitive characteristics and normal personality relate to fearful temperament. This study examined associations among the maternal cognitive characteristic of accuracy,…

  3. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E. Lindhout; M.T. Markus; T.H.G. Hoogendijk; F. de Boer

    2009-01-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether

  4. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-Eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…

  5. Stressful Events and Temperament Change during Early and Middle Adolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O. M.; Nederhof, E.; Karreman, A.; Ormel, J.; Van Aken, M. A. G.

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates how stressful events are related to deviations from normative temperament development during adolescence. Temperament traits were assessed at ages 11 and 16?years. Life-event data was captured using an interview (total n?=?1197). Normative changes were found in all traits.

  6. Educational Outcomes for Children At-Risk: The Influence of Individual Differences in Children's Temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hendawi, Maha; Reed, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in temperament can be protective or risk factors that may enhance or interfere with children's healthy development and educational success. This study examined the concurrent and predictive relationships between temperament, school adjustment, and academic achievement in children at-risk. Seventy-seven children at-risk, ages…

  7. Commentary: Differentiated Measures of Temperament and Multiple Pathways to Childhood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…

  8. The relationship between temperament and autistic traits in a non-clinical students sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Kawa, Rafał; Danielewicz, Dorota; Pisula, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Since temperament affects the development of social behaviours and interpersonal relations, the possible links between autistic traits and temperament are of particular interest. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between autistic traits and temperamental characteristics in the framework of the Regulative Temperament Theory by Strelau, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability theory by Buss and Plomin, with particular emphasis on gender differences. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Formal Characteristics of Behaviour--Temperament Inventory and Temperament Survey for Adults were administered. The participants were 593 university students, including 364 females and 229 males. Results showed positive correlations between autistic traits and Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress, Fear and Anger, and negative correlations with Activity, Briskness, Endurance and Sociability. The results of multiple regression analyses involving the Autism Spectrum Quotient score as a dependent measure were different for females and males. Results of exploratory PCA analysis showed that AQ score, Sociability and Activity loaded one factor (with AQ loading being opposite to two others). High AQ scorers demonstrated higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress and Anger, and lower Briskness, Endurance, Activity and Sociability as compared to norms for the general population. In this study we showed that temperament measures were able to identify items that correlated in parts with autistic traits, while other items were obverse. The relationships between temperament and autistic traits differ slightly between genders. We assume that with regard to the broader autism phenotype, temperaments might be helpful in characterizing healthy control samples.

  9. Teacher-child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YOLERİ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine how children’s temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher–child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational survey method was used in this study. The sample consisted of 195 preschool children. According to the results, a negative significant relationship was found between the teacher-child relationships scores and the reactivity sub-dimension of temperament. Also, there are positive significant relationships between teacher-child relationship scores and language skills. In addition, both the reactivity sub dimension of temperament and language skills demonstrate a predictor effect on the teacher-child relationships. Reactivity was the most important temperament trait factor affecting relationships.

  10. 早期干预对婴幼儿社会情绪发展的影响%Effects of early intervention on social emotion in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆凤霞; 于洋; 戴耀华; 彭雪飞; 杜文杰; 鲍秀兰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨早期综合干预对培养婴幼儿社会情绪能力发展及健全人格的影响.方法 选择2007年9月1日至12月31日出生于怀柔区并在怀柔区妇幼保健院进行定期体检的新生儿60人,随机分成干预组和对照组各30人.干预组除常规保健指导外,由经培训的专业人员负责进行健全人格培养的个体化指导,两组均定期随访.在婴儿1~4个月和2岁完成儿童气质量表,2.5~3岁时采用幼儿人格发展趋向量表、婴幼儿智能发育量表等标准化工具进行评估.结果 干预组幼儿人格发展趋向量表(t=5.393,P<0.001)、婴幼儿智能发育量表(智力发育指数:t=2.420、神经运动发育指数:t=2.176,均P<0.05)的各项平均分及气质特点(χ2=12.543,P=0.014)与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);干预组的结果 均显著优于对照组.结论 早期干预能显著促进婴幼儿社会情绪能力和健全人格的发展,0~2岁是培养婴幼儿健全人格的黄金时期.%Objective To explore the effects of early comprehensive intervention on social emotional competence and healthy personality development in infants. Methods Sixty newborns who were born from September 1 to December 31, 2007 in Huairou district and took periodic medical examinations in Huairou Maternal and Child Health Hospital were chosen and randomly assigned to early intervention group ( 30 cases ) and control group ( 30 cases ). In addition to common health guidance, individualized instructions of healthy personality were organized by well-trained professionals for early intervention group. Both groups were followed up regularly. The standard instruments including Temperament Questionnaire (1-4 months old and 2 years old ), Personality Tendency Scale for Children ( PTSC ) ( 2. 5-3 years old ) and CDCC Scale of infant development were used to assess the effects of intervention. Results The mean scores of PTSC ( t =5. 393 , P<0.001 ), CDCC ( MDI: t = 2. 420, P < 0

  11. Relationship between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kikuchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A casual relationship between temperament, job stress and depressive symptoms has not been established yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses at a Japanese general hospital. Material and Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among 706 nurses. We measured job stress, temperament, and depressive symptoms using the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire, the TEMPS-A and a screening scale of items from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. In order to examine the causal relationship between the measures the stepwise multiple regression and path analyses were used. Results: Depressive symptoms were modestly correlated with job stress (γ = -0.23-0.30. Except for hyperthymic temperament measures, the correlations between depressive symptoms and temperament types were significant and moderate (γ = 0.36-0.50. Overtime, job control as well as depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.15, p < 0.05; β = 0.19, p < 0.01; β = 0.26, p < 0.001; β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Path-analysis revealed that depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament influenced depressive symptoms both directly (β = 0.67, p < 0.001 and indirectly via job stress (β = 0.35, p < 0.001 from temperament to job stress; β = 0.20, p < 0.05 from job stress to depressive symptoms. Irritable and anxious types of temperament and quantitative job overload did not contri­bute to the path-analytic model. Conclusions: Health care professionals should consider temperament, especially depressive and cyclothymic types, in order to help employees cope better with job stress factors. We need further research about the effective intervention to help employees better cope with their job stress.

  12. Language acquisition in premature and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Marcela; Pittaluga, Enrica; Mehler, Jacques

    2010-02-23

    We tested healthy preterm (born near 28 +/- 2 weeks of gestational age) and full-term infants at various different ages. We compared the two populations on the development of a language acquisition landmark, namely, the ability to distinguish the native language from a rhythmically similar one. This ability is attained 4 months after birth in healthy full-term infants. We measured the induced gamma-band power associated with passive listening to (i) the infants' native language (Spanish), (ii) a rhythmically close language (Italian), and (iii) a rhythmically distant language (Japanese) as a marker of gains in language discrimination. Preterm and full-term infants were matched for neural maturation and duration of exposure to broadcast speech. We found that both full-term and preterm infants only display a response to native speech near 6 months after their term age. Neural maturation seems to constrain advances in speech discrimination at early stages of language acquisition.

  13. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gut microbiome composition is associated with temperament during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa M; Galley, Jeffrey D; Hade, Erinn M; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Kamp Dush, Claire; Bailey, Michael T

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the gut-brain axis has clinical implications for physical and mental health conditions, including obesity and anxiety. As such disorders have early life antecedents, it is of value to determine if associations between the gut microbiome and behavior are present in early life in humans. We used next generation pyrosequencing to examine associations between the community structure of the gut microbiome and maternal ratings of child temperament in 77 children at 18-27months of age. It was hypothesized that children would differ in their gut microbial structure, as indicated by measures of alpha and beta diversity, based on their temperamental characteristics. Among both boys and girls, greater Surgency/Extraversion was associated greater phylogenetic diversity. In addition, among boys only, subscales loading on this composite scale were associated with differences in phylogenetic diversity, the Shannon Diversity index (SDI), beta diversity, and differences in abundances of Dialister, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Parabacteroides. In girls only, higher Effortful Control was associated with a lower SDI score and differences in both beta diversity and Rikenellaceae were observed in relation to Fear. Some differences in dietary patterns were observed in relation to temperament, but these did not account for the observed differences in the microbiome. Differences in gut microbiome composition, including alpha diversity, beta diversity, and abundances of specific bacterial species, were observed in association with temperament in toddlers. This study was cross-sectional and observational and, therefore, does not permit determination of the causal direction of effects. However, if bidirectional brain-gut relationships are present in humans in early life, this may represent an opportunity for intervention relevant to physical as well as mental health disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between child temperament and early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinonez, R; Santos, R G; Wilson, S; Cross, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the potential risk factors associated with nursing caries/baby bottle tooth decay--a subset of Early Childhood Caries (ECC)--is a "strong-tempered" behavioral style in the child. However, the few empirical studies that have investigated this description remain controversial. The research goal of this study was to operationalize the "strong-tempered" profile and investigate its association to parental feeding practices and ECC levels. In an observational-correlational study design, 58 children (ASA I), ages 18 to 70 months (M = 43 months, SD = 17), were reliably assessed for ECC levels by a clinical evaluator. A second evaluator, blind to ECC status, interviewed parents using a demographic survey, a feeding practices measure, and the EAS Temperament Survey for Children. Multiple regression analyses indicated that none of the four temperament factors (Emotionality, Activity, Sociability, and Shyness) significantly predicted duration of feeding habit defined as the length of time in months that the child breast or bottle fed, whichever lasted the longest. However, the combination of greater duration of feeding habit and higher levels of Shyness predicted all three measures of ECC: the presence or absence of caries (r2 = .19, P < .001), the number of carious teeth (r2 = .23, P < .001) and the number of carious surfaces (r2 = .21, P < .001). Furthermore, the addition of Native status significantly increased the predictive value of all of three models (r2 = .37, r2 = .43, r2 = .29, respectively, Ps < .0001). Temperament did not predict the duration of feeding habit but together, shyness and duration of feeding habit was associated with ECC.

  16. Personality, temperament, organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior of volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Chwalibóg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to present the results of studies on the relationship of temperament, personality and organizational climate with the occurrence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB in the organization. The study was qualitative, and correlational. The study group consisted of 42 activists in voluntary organizations aged from 18 to 19 years old, 15 men and 27 women. The following questionnaires were used: The scale measuring Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB S. Retowski, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Questionnaire (FCZ-KT B. Zawadzki and J. Strelau, Personality Inventory NEO-PI-Costa Jr. and Mc'Crae Polish Adaptation and Organizational Climate Questionnaire by L. von Rosenstiel and R. Bögel – K. Durniat Adaptation. The study revealed a clear positive correlation with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a component of Agreeableness - Trust (A1, with Extraversion (E and its components: Warmth (E1, Excitement Seeking (E5 Activity (E4 and Gregariousness (E2 and the component of Conscientiousness – Self-Discipline (C5, component of Openness to Experience – Actions (O4, and also negative correlations with Neuroticism (N and its components: Vulnerability (N6, Self-Consciousness (N4 and Anxiety (N1. The study also revealed a clear positive correlations Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with Activity (AK, Endurance (WT and Briskness (ŻW and a clear negative correlation with Perseveration (PE, Emotional Reactivity (RE. In the group of volunteers there were also showed positive correlations of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a Career (Assessment and Promotion (OA and the Communication and Information (KI. Regression model developed using multiple regression (stepwise regression method takes into account the following variables: Activity (AK - Temperament, Agreeableness component of the Personality - Straightforwardness (A2, and the component of Neuroticism – Self

  17. [The concept of temperament and its contribution to the understanding of the bipolar spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, I; Polizoidou, V; Fountoulakis, K N

    2017-01-01

    The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,since its foundation by Polybos (4th century B.C.) and the school of Cos, its predominant role in theshaping of the anthropological and humanitarian sciences, until the modern theoretical formulations,such as those proposed by Robert Cloninger and Hagop Akiskal. Secondly, recent literature ispresented, which suggests a strong link of different temperament structures to mental health andpsychopathology. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) was the first psychologist to establish approaches topersonality differences and to distinguish three dimensions of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversionand Psychotisism. Eysenck was followed by McCrae and Costa who proposed that there are five basicdimensions of personality ("Big Five"). In the mid-1980s, Robert Cloninger developed a distinctivedimensional model of temperament and character traits. Hagop Akiskal emphasized on the affectivecomponents of temperament and their possible connections to mood disorders and creativity.Specifically, temperament assessment seems to help in differentiating between the relationship ofvarious temperaments and the clinical manifestations of bipolar illness. Within the area of mood disorders,specific affective temperaments might constitute vulnerability factors, as well as clinical pictureand illness course modifiers. Viewing mood disorders under this prism gives birth to the concept ofthe bipolar spectrum with major implications for all aspects of mental health research and providingof care. The hyperthymic and the depressive temperaments are related to the more 'classic' bipolarpicture (that is euphoria, grandiose and paranoid thinking, antisocial behavior, psychomotor accelerationand reduced sleep and depressive episodes respectively). On the contrary cyclothymic, anxiousand irritable temperaments are related

  18. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P temperament. Cows with aggressive temperament had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy and calving rate and tended to have reduced (P = 0.09) weaning rate compared with cows with adequate temperament. Hence, kilogram of calf born per cow was reduced (P = 0.05) and kilogram of calf weaned per cow tended to be reduced (P = 0.08) in aggressive cows. In Exp. 2, 88 Angus × Hereford heifers (initial age = 206 ± 2 d) were weighed (d 0 and 10) and evaluated for temperament score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0

  19. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Luong, Hoang Van; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  20. Parenting and toddler aggression in second-generation immigrant families: the moderating role of child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the influence of parenting practices in the prediction of child physical aggression in 94 second-generation Turkish immigrant families with 2-year-old toddlers, and the moderating role of child temperament. In a longitudinal study we tested both a dual-risk model and a differential susceptibility model. Observational data were obtained for mothers' positive parenting and authoritarian discipline, and maternal reports for child temperament and physical aggression. All measures were repeated 1 year later. Child temperament at age 2 years was a significant predictor of child aggression 1 year later. We found no main effects of positive parenting or of authoritarian discipline for the prediction of child aggression. However, we found support for the dual-risk hypothesis: Toddlers with difficult temperaments were more adversely affected by a lack of positive parenting than other children, but they did not benefit more from high levels of positive parenting than toddlers with more easy temperaments. We found no interaction effects with child temperament for authoritarian discipline. These findings provide support for the generalizability of the dual-risk model of parenting and temperament to non-Western immigrant families with young children. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction.

  2. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, E Kathalijne; Van Reenen, Cornelis G; Blokhuis, Mari Zetterqvist; Morgan, E Karin M; Hassmén, Peter; Rundgren, T Margareta M; Blokhuis, Harry J

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills, knowledge, and personality of the rider on one hand and the temperament, experience, and physical abilities of the horse on the other. A study with 16 riders and 16 warm-blood riding horses tested the effect of personality of riders and temperament of horses on cooperation between riders and horses. More emotionally reactive horses showed more evasive behavior during riding. Riders preferred to ride those horses who were assessed by the riders as being attentive to the rider's aid. The frequency of evasive behaviors during riding--as assessed by riders, in contrast to the assessments made by an external judge--influenced the cooperation between rider and horse. On average, a rider's personality did not affect the cooperation between rider and horse; however, it is suggested that a rider's personality does affect the cooperation with more emotionally reactive horses.

  3. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERAMENT AND ANXIETY ON ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug H. Han

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to conduct basic descriptions of temperamental traits and the level of state and trait anxiety of young male athletes, and to compare them by type of sports. Study participants were 277 athletes and 152 non-athletes who were all high school boys. The Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was used for checking temperamental traits while the Korean version of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI-KY was used to estimate anxiety levels. Harm Avoidance score of athletes was higher than that of non-athletes. Harm Avoidance score of golfers was lowest and that of swimmers was highest. The state anxiety score of baseball players was lowest and that of Taekwondo players was highest. The trait anxiety score of baseball players was also lowest and that of golfers was highest. Both trait and state anxieties of the 'winner' group were lower than those of the 'no winner' group. While prior research mainly focused on athletes' environment and phenotypic characteristics, we studied the pattern of temperaments in athletes along with its potential influence on athletic performance

  4. Temperament and Common Disruptive Behavior Problems in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Gremillion, Monica L; Roberts, Bethan

    2012-11-01

    The study evaluated trait associations with common Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), during an understudied developmental period: Preschool. Participants were 109 children ages 3 to 6 and their families. DBD symptoms were available via parent and teacher/caregiver report on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Traits were measured using observational coding paradigms, and parent and examiner report on the Child Behavior Questionnaire and the California Q-Sort. The DBD groups exhibited significantly higher negative affect, higher surgency, and lower effortful control. Negative affect was associated with most DBD symptom domains; surgency and reactive control were associated with hyperactivity-impulsivity; and effortful control was associated with ADHD and inattention. Interactive effects between effortful control and negative affect and curvilinear associations of reactive control with DBD symptoms were evident. Temperament trait associations with DBD during preschool are similar to those seen during middle childhood. Extreme levels of temperament traits are associated with DBD as early as preschool.

  5. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive (PA and negative affect (NA are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA. The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (=304 were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA, “high affective” (high PA, high NA, “low affective” (low PA, low NA, and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA. Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development.

  6. Cortisol in Neonatal Mother's Milk Predicts Later Infant Social and Cognitive Functioning in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Murphy, Ashley M; Guitarra, Denisse; Slonecker, Emily; Suomi, Stephen J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Hinde, Katie

    2017-03-29

    Milk provides not only the building blocks for somatic development but also the hormonal signals that contribute to the biopsychological organization of the infant. Among mammals, glucocorticoids (GCs) in mother's milk have been associated with infant temperament. This study extended prior work to investigate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) mother-infant dyads (N = 34) from birth through 8 months postpartum. Regression analysis revealed that cortisol concentrations in milk during the neonatal period predicted impulsivity on a cognitive task, but not global social behaviors, months later. During this time period, sex-differentiated social behavior emerged. For female infants, milk cortisol concentrations predicted total frequency of play. Collectively, these findings support and extend the "lactational programming" hypothesis on the impact of maternal-origin hormones ingested via milk. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. How Stable are Temperaments in the Clinical Setting: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G.; El Khoury, Elaine; Itani, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Background An essential point in evaluating the utility of measuring temperaments is the stability of the instrument used especially in the presence of mental disorders. One of the most commonly used instruments in the clinical setting is the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). To our knowledge, the TEMPS-A’s stability in an outpatient adult clinical setting has not been evaluated. Objective: To assess the stability of the effect of temperament, time and clinical intervention. Methods: A sample of 89 adult outpatients was assessed at baseline and follow-up on their TEMPS-A scores. Diagnoses of mental disorders were reached through clinical interviews, and the severity of the conditions was clinically assessed at baseline and follow-up on a Likert scale. Changes in scores were examined in terms of z-scores, and possible predictors of the change in scores were assessed. Results: Eighty-nine percent of all subjects’ temperaments scores did not change or changed less than one z-score, and specifically: 84.2% in the case of depressive, 89.9% for cyclothymic, 92.1% for hyperthymic, 92.2% for irritable, and 86.5% for anxious temperaments. For all of the five temperaments, age, gender, time difference between baseline and follow up, number of diagnoses, and percent improvement were not significantly associated with the change in temperament scores. Limitations: Well-established severity measures would add to the validity of any future findings. Conclusion: Shifts in temperament scores between baseline and follow-up were minor, thus proving the stability of temperaments and the TEMPS-A scale in a clinical setting. PMID:27733865

  8. Affective temperament profile in ankylosing spondylitis patients using TEMPS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tulay; Solmaz, Dilek; Emul, Murat; Akgol, Gurkan; Yalvac, Dilek; Ersoy, Yuksel

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the most common dominant affective temperaments in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients and investigate the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and pain levels, disease activity, quality of life, current depression, and anxiety level in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-one patients diagnosed with axial spondiloartropathy and forty-two age- and gender-matched control subjects were included in this study. Disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein, pain by the Visual Analog Scale, disease activity by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, functional status by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; psychological status by the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and overall health assessment by the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale were assessed in patients. The Turkish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto Questionnaire was used to determine the dominant affective temperament. [Results] There was no statistical difference in the distribution of temperament subtypes between patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and the controls. Depressive, anxious, and cyclothymic temperament scores were higher in patients with high values on the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and Visual Analog Scale. There was a correlation between anxious subtypes of affective temperament scores and the value of Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale. Correlation analysis also found depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperament and psychiatric symptoms to be significantly related. [Conclusion] Affective temperament may contribute to symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and may increase disease activity and may reduce their quality of life.

  9. Temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in the judiciary staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Orlak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper was to examine how temperament might moderate the health impact of psychosocial hazards at work and thus to attempt to identify the temperament risk factor in the judiciary staff. Material and Methods: The data were collected from 355 court employees, including judges, judicial assistants, court clerks and service workers from criminal, civil, commercial as well as from labor and social insurance divisions. The psychosocial work environment was measured with the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire by Cieślak and Widerszal-Bazyl, temperament with Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory adopted by Hornowska and employee health status was screened with Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire- 28 (GHQ-28 adopted by Makowska and Merecz. The health impact of job strain with moderating effects of temperament traits was estimated with logistic regression (forward stepwise selection based on the likelihood ratio for the model. Results: The analyses confirmed the moderating role of temperament in the health consequences of work-related stress. High score in novelty seeking was identified as independent temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in judiciary staff facing at least medium job demands. The job control was a protective factor while relative risk of negative health outcomes was also elevated due to female gender. Conclusions: Temperament may control sensitivity to the environmental exposure to psychosocial hazards at work and its health consequences. Further research is needed to explore and understand better the moderating role of temperament in the relation between job stress (strain and health in different vocational groups and workplaces. Med Pr 2017;68(3:375–390

  10. Affective temperament profile in ankylosing spondylitis patients using TEMPS-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tulay; Solmaz, Dilek; Emul, Murat; Akgol, Gurkan; Yalvac, Dilek; Ersoy, Yuksel

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the most common dominant affective temperaments in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients and investigate the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and pain levels, disease activity, quality of life, current depression, and anxiety level in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-one patients diagnosed with axial spondiloartropathy and forty-two age- and gender-matched control subjects were included in this study. Disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein, pain by the Visual Analog Scale, disease activity by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, functional status by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; psychological status by the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and overall health assessment by the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale were assessed in patients. The Turkish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto Questionnaire was used to determine the dominant affective temperament. [Results] There was no statistical difference in the distribution of temperament subtypes between patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and the controls. Depressive, anxious, and cyclothymic temperament scores were higher in patients with high values on the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and Visual Analog Scale. There was a correlation between anxious subtypes of affective temperament scores and the value of Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale. Correlation analysis also found depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperament and psychiatric symptoms to be significantly related. [Conclusion] Affective temperament may contribute to symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and may increase disease activity and may reduce their quality of life. PMID:28356618

  11. Rumination Mediates the Relationship between Infant Temperament and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. Mezulis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined prospective associations between negative emotionality, rumination, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 301 youths (158 females followed longitudinally from birth to adolescence. Mothers reported on youths' negative emotionality (NE at age 1, and youths self-reported rumination at age 13 and depressive symptoms at ages 13 and 15. Linear regression analyses indicated that greater NE in infancy was associated with more depressive symptoms at age 15, even after controlling for child gender and depressive symptoms at age 13. Moreover, analyses indicated that rumination significantly mediated the association between infancy NE and age 15 depressive symptoms in the full sample. When analyzed separately by gender, however, rumination mediated the relationship between NE and depressive symptoms for girls but not for boys. The results confirm and extend previous findings on the association between affective and cognitive vulnerability factors in predicting depressive symptoms and the gender difference in depression in adolescence, and suggest that clinical interventions designed to reduce negative emotionality may be useful supplements to traditional cognitive interventions for reducing cognitive vulnerability to depression.

  12. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Hinde, Katie; Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, ...

  13. Children's responses to mother-infant and father-infant interaction with a baby sibling: jealousy or joy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; Yu, Tianyi; Gonzalez, Richard; Kennedy, Denise E; Rosenberg, Lauren; Oh, Wonjung

    2014-10-01

    Firstborn children's reactions to mother-infant and father-infant interaction after a sibling's birth were examined in an investigation of 224 families. Triadic observations of parent-infant-sibling interaction were conducted at 1 month after the birth. Parents reported on children's problem behaviors at 1 and 4 months after the birth and completed the Attachment Q-sort before the birth. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 4 latent classes (behavioral profiles) for mother-infant and father-infant interactions: regulated-exploration, disruptive-dysregulated, approach-avoidant, and anxious-clingy. A fifth class, attention-seeking, was found with fathers. The regulated-exploration class was the normative pattern (60%), with few children in the disruptive class (2.7%). Approach-avoidant children had more behavior problems at 4 months than any other class, with the exception of the disruptive children, who were higher on aggression and attention problems. Before the birth, anxious-clingy children had less secure attachments to their fathers than approach avoidant children but more secure attachments to their mothers. Results underscore individual differences in firstborns' behavioral responses to parent-infant interaction and the importance of a person-centered approach for understanding children's jealousy.

  14. The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes of lactating mothers and their infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.H.; Nielsen, P.K.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in breastmilk, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important for infant brain development. Accretion of DHA in the infant brain is dependent on DHA-status, intake and metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe changes in maternal...... and infant erythrocyte (RBC) DHA-status during the first four months of lactation. We examined 17 mothers and their term infants at 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Milk samples and RBC from the mothers and infants were obtained and analysed for fatty acid composition. Comparative analysis of the results showed...... that the content of DHA in maternal RBC-phosphatidylcholine (PE) decreased over the four month period and this was not accompanied by a decrease in DHA in infant RBC-PE (P = 0.005). The ratio of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA increased over time in maternal RBC-PE, but not in infant RBC-PE (P

  15. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  16. Infant feeding practices in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S A; Ngo, T T; Knodel, J; Le, H; Tran, T T

    1995-12-01

    Data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey and the 1994 Demographic Survey are used to determine the trends in breast feeding and amenorrhea among ever married women of reproductive age. Life table procedures are used to calculate monthly probabilities of weaning. Then five month moving averages of equal weight are computed for observed monthly probabilities of weaning. The smoothed probabilities are used to calculate the cumulative proportion weaned at successive monthly ages. Breast feeding is universal in Vietnam. Infants are put to the breast earlier when delivery occurs at home. Almost all children are breast fed through the first six months, and 80% are breast fed for a year. The median duration was 15.3 months in the 1988 survey and 15.9 months in the 1994 survey based on life table methods. Calculations based on current status methods were slightly higher for both years. Rural women tended to breast feed longer than urban women. Children who had mothers working in agriculture were breast fed longer than children whose mothers had other occupations. Socioeconomic factors did not correlate well with breast feeding duration. Findings indicate that over 66% of breast fed infants aged under 3 months were given plain water, and over 90% of infants aged 3-5 months were given plain water. Fresh cow's milk is not given to Vietnamese infants. Juices were given to children aged older than 6 months. Sugar water was given to younger infants. The introduction of supplemental liquids was more common in urban areas. Few infants during the first few months of life were given solid or mushy foods. But by 4 months of age, 50% of infants were given solid or mushy foods, and the practice was more common in rural areas. The urban-rural gap closed by 6 months of age. Over 90% of infants received solids at 9 months. It is expected that modernization will negatively impact on breast feeding.

  17. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  18. A Study of the Coupling of FET Temperament Traits with Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Irina N; Sulis, William

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Temperament and mental illness have been linked to the same systems of behavioral regulation. A temperament model, carefully structured to respond to subtle differences within systems of behavior regulation, should exhibit distinct temperament patterns in the presence of mental illness. Previous comparisons of temperament profiles in mental disorders used mostly emotionality-related traits. In contrast, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, verbal, and mental aspects of behavior and maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to temperament traits as well as to symptoms of mental illnesses. This article reports on the coupling of sex, age, and temperament traits with Major Depression (MD) using the FET framework. Method: Intake records of 467 subjects, ages 17-24, 25-45, 46-65, 66-84 were examined, with temperament assessed by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (based on the FET). Results: The presence of MD was associated with changes in mean temperament scores on 9 of the 12 traits. The results were in line with the DSM-5 criteria of fatigue (patients with MD reported a significant decrease in three types of endurance - motor-physical, social-verbal, and mental), of psychomotor retardation (a significant decrease in physical and social-verbal tempo) and of worthlessness (as low Self-Confidence). The results also showed that three new symptoms, high Impulsivity, high Neuroticism, and diminished Plasticity, should be considered as depressive symptoms in future versions of the DSM. As a significant negative result, no interaction of age or sex (with the exception of the Self-Confidence scale) with MD was found for temperament traits. Conclusion: The value of differentiating between physical, social, and mental aspects of behavior is demonstrated in the differential effects of major depression and gender. The value of differentiating between

  19. A study of the coupling of FET temperament traits with Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N Trofimova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Temperament and mental illness have been linked to the same systems of behavioural regulation. A temperament model, carefully structured to respond to subtle differences within systems of behavior regulation, should exhibit distinct temperament patterns in the presence of mental illness. Previous comparisons of temperament profiles in mental disorders used mostly emotionality-related traits. In contrast, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, verbal and mental aspects of behavior and maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to temperament traits as well as to symptoms of mental illnesses. This article reports on the coupling of sex, age and temperament traits with Major Depression using the FET framework. Method: Intake records of 467, ages 17-24, 25-45, 46-65, 66-84 were examined, with temperament assessed by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (based on the FET. Results: The presence of Major Depression was associated with changes in mean temperament scores on 9 of the 12 traits. The results were in line with the DSM-5 criteria of fatigue (patients with MD reported a significant decrease in three types of endurance - motor-physical, social-verbal and mental, of psychomotor retardation (a significant decrease in physical and social-verbal tempo and of worthlessness (as low Self-Confidence. The results also showed that three new symptoms, high Impulsivity, high Neuroticism and diminished Plasticity, should be considered as depressive symptoms in future versions of the DSM. As a significant negative result, no interaction of age or sex (with the exception of the Self-Confidence scale with MD was found for temperament traits. Conclusions: The value of differentiating between physical, social and mental aspects of behaviour is demonstrated in the differential effects of major depression and gender. The value of

  20. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Self-esteem was assessed using child reports on the Self-Description Questionnaire II—Short (SDQII-S; Marsh et al., 2005) and temperament was assessed using child and mother reports on the revised Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire (Ellis & Rothbart, 2001). Findings show that: (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem show higher levels o...

  1. Iron intake and iron status in breastfed infants during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Katharina; Schwartz, Jana; Mueller, Manfred J; Kalhoff, Hermann; Kersting, Mathilde

    2010-12-01

    Breastfed infants may be at particular risk for iron deficiency because breast milk is low in iron. In a secondary analysis of data from a complementary feeding trial, indicators of iron status were examined, with particular focus on the development of iron status in those infants who were fully breastfed during the first 4 months of life. In this retrospective analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial infants were stratified according to their predominant milk diet during the first 4 months of life, a subgroup of breastfed infants (group BM, n=53) were compared with a subgroup of infants fed (iron-fortified) formula (group F, n=23). Dietary iron intake and indicators of iron status were analysed at 4 months of age (during the full milk feeding period), and during the complementary feeding period at 7 and 10 months of age. Iron intake was low in the BM group, ranging below the Dietary Reference Intakes throughout the complementary feeding period, with the (estimated) bioavailable iron intake only just achieving the reference requirements. At 4 months, iron deficiency (ID, Ferritin deficiency anaemia (IDA, ID and Hb complementary foods should be started early (4-6 months of age) in order to prevent iron deficiency during infancy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  3. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Montirosso

    Full Text Available Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition; the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37 were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks. Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  4. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 10. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  5. 4 months in 1 minute

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin & the CERN Visual Media Office

    2013-01-01

    In Bulletin 49-50/2012 we published an article entitled “Stopping the haemorrhage” (to read the article, click here) about the installation of the new cryogenic infrastructure in SM18, in the part of the hall devoted to the testing of radiofrequency (RF) cavities and beam accelerator cryomodules. From December 2012 to March 2013, we have been following the progress of the work. Ready? Action!  

  6. Infant Responsiveness, Alertness, Hemoglobin and Growth in Rural Sidama, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Thomas, David G.; Kennedy, Tay S.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have supported relations between infant behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and nutrition (e.g. Dempsey 2008, Wachs et al 2005) in addition to investigating infant behavior within the context of changes in iron status over time (e.g. Black et al. 2004, Murray-Kolb & Beard 2009). Existing research is typically limited to investigation of the effects of a single vitamin or mineral and no studies have been found that examined the influence that early alertness and responsiveness have on growth in early infancy, despite the fact that relations between behavior and nutritional status may be bidirectional (Hulthén 2003). The current study used a sample of Ethiopian infants and investigated anthropometrics, hemoglobin, the frequency of alertness, and the frequency of responsiveness at 6 and 9 months of age. Six-month weight-for-age predicted 9-month frequency of alertness, while 6-month hemoglobin predicted 9-month frequency of responsiveness. Compared to responsive infants, non-responsive infants at 6 months remained more non-responsive at 9 months, though weight-for-age for both groups converged at 9 months. Results support relations between nutrition and behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and provide evidence of a potentially useful tool (the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery [Lab-TAB]) that was adapted to evaluate these relations in Ethiopia. PMID:22233352

  7. An affective computing algorithm based on temperament type in E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Biyun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper extracts five emotional features according to the emotions that may affect in learning,and introduces psychological theory to generate emotional susceptibility matrix and to draw personalized emotion vector by different learners' temperament type vectors,which all reflect the emotional state of the learners more realistically.This paper also recommends learners of different emotions and emotional intensity to learn the knowledge of different levels of difficulty,making learning more humane.Temperament type is a temperament doctrine evolved based on the Hippocratic humoral theory and can be a good expression of human personality foundation.Temperament type has been introduced into affective computing in the E-Learning in this paper so that computer can be better on the classification of the learner's personality and learning state and realistically be individualized.

  8. State anxiety change after a parachute jump and its determinants: gender, experience, and temperament features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bołdak Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: To determine the role of gender and experience level as factors differentiating state anxiety before and after a parachute jump, and to ascertain relationships between state anxiety and temperament features.

  9. State anxiety change after a parachute jump and its determinants: gender, experience, and temperament features

    OpenAIRE

    Bołdak Agnieszka; Guszkowska Monika

    2014-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the role of gender and experience level as factors differentiating state anxiety before and after a parachute jump, and to ascertain relationships between state anxiety and temperament features.

  10. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K

    2007-06-01

    Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease.

  11. Persistently obese youth: interactions between parenting styles and feeding practices with child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H

    2013-12-01

    To assess the interaction of parent and child characteristics with feeding practices and mealtime functioning. Longitudinal, predictive study comparing baseline characteristics with follow-up assessments. The caregivers of 52 persistently obese youth and 32 nonoverweight comparison youth completed measurements of child temperament, parental feeding practices, parenting styles, and interactions during mealtimes. Adolescents with persistent obesity were significantly more likely to be parented using problematic feeding practices when parents also reported difficult child temperaments. Additionally, adolescents with persistent obesity and difficult temperaments were significantly more likely to have lower levels of positive mealtime interactions. Persistently obese youth are at increased risk for problematic parental feeding practices and mealtime functioning, particularly when youth are described as having difficult temperaments. These results indicate that further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms linking parent and child characteristics with health-related behaviors for adolescents with obesity.

  12. Temperament moderates the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B

    2016-01-01

    The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of

  13. Temperament moderates the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B

    2016-04-01

    The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of sleep duration with sustained attention, inhibition, and working memory in 123 children (42% boys) aged 9 to 11 years. Sleep duration was assessed using parental diaries, and temperament traits of extraversion and negative affectivity were assessed by child self-report (Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised). Computerized assessment of sustained attention (short-form Psychomotor Vigilance Task, PVT), inhibition (PVT Go/No-Go adaptation), and working memory (visual Digit Span) were performed at school. Our findings demonstrate that long-sleeping introverted and negatively affective children show worse sustained attention and working memory than short-sleeping children with these temperaments.

  14. The Development of Early Profiles of Temperament: Characterization, Continuity, and Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Charles; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Buss, Kristin A; Loken, Eric; Moore, Ginger A; Leve, Leslie D; Ganiban, Jody M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study used a data-driven, person-centered approach to examine the characterization, continuity, and etiology of child temperament from infancy to toddlerhood. Data from 561 families who participated in an ongoing prospective adoption study, the Early Growth and Development Study, were used to estimate latent profiles of temperament at 9, 18, and 27 months. Results indicated that four profiles of temperament best fit the data at all three points of assessment. The characterization of profiles was stable over time, while membership in profiles changed across age. Facets of adoptive parent and birth mother personality were predictive of children's profile membership at each age, providing preliminary evidence for specific environmental and genetic influences on patterns of temperament development from infancy to toddlerhood.

  15. Is sensory processing an issue for infants with colic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Tracy; Frederiksen, Nadine; Hill, Rebecca J

    2017-08-01

    To determine the association between sensory functioning, sleep, cry/fuss, and feeding behaviors of infants with colic younger than 4 months of age. Dunn's Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile™ and a modified Barr Baby Day Diary(©) were used to assess 44 breastfed infants with colic under four months of age. Colic was defined according to Wessel's criteria. Thirty-four of the 44 infants with colic (77%) scored as atypical for sensory processing. Of these, 56% scored atypical for sensory processing on quadrant one (Q1) (Low Registration), with 24%, 65%, and 18% scoring as atypical for sensory processing on Q2 (Sensory seeking), Q3 (Sensory sensitivity), and Q4 (Sensation avoiding), respectively. All infants demonstrating sensation avoiding also scored as Low Threshold. A moderate statistically significant correlation was found between sensation seeking and time spent sleeping (r=0.31; p=0.04). No other statistically significant associations between infant behaviors and their sensory functioning were demonstrated. Overall, infants demonstrating atypical sensory responses (in any quadrant) slept significantly more than infants demonstrating typical sensory responses (mean difference=-67.8min/day; 95% CI=-133.6 to -2.1; p=0.04). Very limited associations between infant behaviors and sensory functioning were demonstrated, suggesting that sensory functioning may not be a significant factor in the multifactorial nature of infant colic. Further well-designed studies using validated tools for infants with colic are required to determine whether associations between infant behaviors and sensory functioning exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Temperament in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei B. Malykh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a part of a Moscow longitudinal twin project, aims to explore genetic and environmental contributions to inter-individual variability of temperamental traits in adolescence on the basis of a Russian sample. 85 monozygotic (MZ and 64 same-sex dizygotic (DZ twin pairs aged 12 – 14 years completed the children version of Rusalov Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (C-STQ. The results of model-fitting analyses indicate considerable hereditary determination of individual differences in 3 out of the 8 C-STQ dimensions - social tempo, objectrelated emotional sensitivity, and social emotional sensitivity. Non-shared environmental effects explained the rest of the total variance in these dimensions. Individual differences in the other STQ dimensions were due to environmental factors.

  17. Development and Validation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Chmielewski, Michael; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Trait affect scales have been a mainstay of the assessment literature for more than 50 years. These scales have demonstrated impressive construct validity, including substantial relations with personality, satisfaction, and psychopathology. However, the accumulating evidence has exposed several limitations, including (a) problems associated with retrospective biases, (b) lower temporal stability because of enhanced susceptibility to transient error, and (c) reduced self-other agreement. These limitations motivated the creation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI), which uses a traditional personality format (i.e., full sentences rather than single words or short phrases). The 12 TAI scales were created based on factor analyses in two samples and validated in four additional samples. The scales are internally consistent, highly stable over time, and show strong convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity in relation to self-report and interview-based measures of personality and psychopathology. Thus, the TAI provides a promising new approach to assessing trait affectivity.

  18. Stress Modulates Instrumental Learning Performances in Horses (Equus caballus) in Interaction with Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Mathilde Valenchon; Frédéric Lévy; Armelle Prunier; Chantal Moussu; Ludovic Calandreau; Léa Lansade

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates how the temperament of the animal affects the influence of acute stress on the acquisition and reacquisition processes of a learning task. After temperament was assessed, horses were subjected to a stressor before or after the acquisition session of an instrumental task. Eight days later, horses were subjected to a reacquisition session without any stressor. Stress before acquisition tended to enhance the number of successes at the beginning of the acquisition s...

  19. Affective temperament profile in ankylosing spondylitis patients using TEMPS-A

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Tulay; Solmaz, Dilek; Emul, Murat; Akgol, Gurkan; Yalvac, Dilek; Ersoy, Yuksel

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the most common dominant affective temperaments in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients and investigate the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and pain levels, disease activity, quality of life, current depression, and anxiety level in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-one patients diagnosed with axial spondiloartropathy and forty-two age- and gender-matched control subjects were included in this study. Disease...

  20. Toward a four-factor theory of temperament and/or personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenda, P F

    1987-01-01

    This article makes a case for a four-factor theory of temperament/personality, tracing its origin to Hippocrates, who first postulated a four-factor theory of temperament in 400 B.C. Historical developments are discussed as they relate to the postulation of a four-factor mode, continuing from Galen in the 2nd century A.D. to the present day. Theoretical formulations are discussed along with considerations of applications in the field of personality assessment.

  1. Pediatric residents' learning styles and temperaments and their relationships to standardized test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Thompson, Lindsay A; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W; Ryan, Kathleen A; Kelly, Maria N; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S

    2011-12-01

    Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P  =  .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents.

  2. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  3. Temperament and stress coping styles in bronchial asthma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Piotr; Witusik, Andrzej; Wujcik, Radosław; Antczak, Adam; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Temperament, defined as the formal characteristics of behavior, is a personality trait which can influence the clinical presentation and course of bronchial asthma. It determines susceptibility to stress as well as stress coping styles. Aim The aim of the study was to assess whether healthy subjects differ from bronchial asthma patients with regard to temperamental variables and stress coping styles, and whether these factors may also differentiate patients with severe asthma from those with the milder form. The study also assesses whether the results of flow volume curve analysis correlate with temperamental traits and stress coping styles. Material and methods The study was conducted in a group of 65 asthma patients and 62 healthy controls. All underwent flow volume curve examination and psychological tests: Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI) and Coping in Stress Situations (CISS) questionnaire. Results Bronchial asthma patients were characterized by a lower level of briskness (“agility”) than healthy subjects (13.35 ±4.48 vs. 14.97 ±3.98, p = 0.031). The remaining temperamental traits and stress coping styles did not differ between the groups. Additionally, the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) value was found to correlate negatively with the intensity of the emotion-oriented stress coping style, whereas FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were found to positively correlate with briskness, emotional reactivity and endurance, while a negative correlation was found with activity. Conclusions Briskness differentiates healthy subjects from bronchial asthma patients. The values obtained in FEV1 and FVC pulmonary function tests were also found to correlate with some temperamental variables. PMID:28035226

  4. Asymmetrical septal hypertrophy in newborn infants of diabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Huerta, M M; Vargas-Origel, A; Olvera-López, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the frequency and outcome of asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH) in large-for-gestational-age infants (LGA) born to diabetic (DM) and nondiabetic mothers (NDM), and to establish the relationship between ASH and maternal diabetes control. A comparative study was design to assess ASH in infants born to DM and NDM. The study was conducted in the Departments of Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology of the "Hospital de Gineco-Pediatria 48", Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social from January to December 1997. Eighty-five full-term infants of DM (group A) and 85 LGA infants of NDM (group B) were included. As a control group (group C), we studied 85 healthy, full-term infants. In all cases a Doppler echocardiogram was obtained in the first 48 h after birth, and for the ASH infants, at 2 and 4 months. Chest X ray, electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests were performed as complementary studies. ASH was present in 38.8% of LGA infants of DM and in 7.1% of NDM. The difference was significant (p < 0.01). Interventricular septum (IVS) and IVS/ posterior wall of left ventricle ratio were significantly different between groups A and B with C. There was no correlation between Hb A1 level and the presence of ASH in group A. ASH is a common finding in infants of DM. We could not find a relationship between the degree of metabolic control during pregnancy and the incidence and severity of ASH.

  5. Is length of shelter stay and receipt of a protection order associated with less violence and better functioning for abused women? Outcome data 4 months after receiving services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Judith; Symes, Lene; Maddoux, John; Gilroy, Heidi; Koci, Anne

    2014-10-01

    To provide differential effectiveness on length of stay at a shelter and receipt versus non-receipt of a protection order (PO), and outcomes of violence, functioning, and resiliency, in 300 abused women (150 first-time users of a shelter and 150 first-time applicants for a PO) who participate in a 7-year study with outcomes measured every 4 months. Four months after a shelter stay or application for a PO, abused women staying 21 days or less at a shelter reported similar outcomes compared with women staying longer than 21 days. Similarly, women receiving and not receiving a PO reported overall equivalent outcomes. Seeking shelter or justice services results in similar improved outcomes for abused women 4 months later, regardless of length of stay at the shelter or receipt or no receipt of the PO. Contact with shelter and justice services results in positive outcomes for abused women and indicates the urgent need to increase availability, accessibility, and acceptability of shelter and justice services.

  6. Perceived partner support in pregnancy predicts lower maternal and infant distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Lynlee R Tanner; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Westling, Erika; Rini, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-06-01

    Maternal postpartum emotional distress is quite common and can pose significant risk to mothers and infants. The current study investigated mothers' relationships with their partners during pregnancy and tested the hypotheses that perception of prenatal partner support is a significant predictor of changes in maternal emotional distress from midpregnancy to postpartum, and contributes to maternal ratings of infant distress to novelty. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 272 adult pregnant women were interviewed regarding their partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security (attachment style and willingness to seek out support), and they completed standardized measures of prenatal symptoms of depression and anxiety (distress). At 6 to 8 weeks' postpartum, mothers reported these symptoms again and completed measures of their infants' temperament. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test direct and indirect contributions of partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security to maternal and infant postpartum distress. Mothers who perceived stronger social support from their partners midpregnancy had lower emotional distress postpartum after controlling for their distress in early pregnancy, and their infants were reported to be less distressed in response to novelty. Partner support mediated the effects of mothers' interpersonal security and relationship satisfaction on maternal and infant outcomes. A high-quality, supportive partner relationship during pregnancy may contribute to improved maternal and infant well-being postpartum, indicating a potential role for partner relationships in mental health interventions, with possible benefits for infants as well. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Sleep Hygiene Practices and Bedtime Resistance in Low-Income Preschoolers: Does Temperament Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine E; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Chen, Sophie Yu-Pu; LeBourgeois, Monique K; Chervin, Ronald D; Miller, Alison L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sleep hygiene practices and bedtime resistance and tested whether associations differed by child temperament. Parents of Head Start preschoolers (n = 374, 56% non-Hispanic white) completed the Going to Bed subscale of the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale (GTB; higher score reflects less bedtime resistance), Children's Sleep Hygiene Scale (CSHS; higher score reflects better sleep hygiene), and Child Behavior Questionnaire (Anger, Activity, Impulsivity subscales indicated difficult temperament). Monte Carlo simulation adjusted for demographic covariates tested associations of CSHS with GTB in children with more- vs. less-difficult temperaments. Children with more- vs. less-difficult temperaments experienced worse sleep hygiene (p sleep hygiene was linearly associated with less bedtime resistance (β = 1.28, 95% CI 0.77, 1.78). Among children with less difficult temperaments, the association followed a piecewise linear trend: sleep hygiene was not associated with bedtime resistance when CSHS scores were sleep hygiene is associated with less bedtime resistance and may be helpful in reducing bedtime resistance among children with more difficult temperaments.

  8. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in different affective temperament profiles in bipolar-I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursat Altinbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Temperament originates in the brain structure, and individual differences are attributable to neural and physiological function differences. It has been suggested that temperament is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS markers, which may be partly mediated by lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we aim to compare MetS prevalence between different affective temperamental profiles for each season in bipolar patients. Methods: Twenty-six bipolar type-I patients of a specialized outpatient mood disorder unit were evaluated for MetS according to new definition proposed by the International Diabetes Federation in the four seasons of a year. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A. Results: The proportions of MetS were 19.2, 23.1, 34.6, and 38.5% in the summer, fall, spring, and winter, respectively. Only depressive temperament scores were higher (p = 0.002 during the winter in patients with MetS. Conclusion: These data suggest that depressive temperament profiles may predispose an individual to the development of MetS in the winter.

  9. Infant metabolic screening: a total quality management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, S A

    1997-01-01

    The principles of total quality management (TQM) were used to improve the infant metabolic screening program in a large urban hospital. Three quality indicators needed improvement; unsatisfactory specimen quality, delayed delivery to the state laboratory for testing, and specimen slips missing the date of collection. A multidisciplinary team identified the root causes of the poor quality and implemented remedies. Dramatic improvement in three infant screening indicators occurred within a 4-month period. Evaluation of the three indicators continued for the following 3-year period. Quality improvement programs that involve a multidisciplinary approach benefit the patient and staff and may reduce costs.

  10. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice C; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-02-01

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child's behavioral patterns (i.e., Surgency, Negative Affectivity Effortful Control) using both scales. Psychometrics of the 36-item Children's Behavior Questionnaire were examined using classical test theory, principal factor analysis, and item response modeling. Classical test theory analysis demonstrated adequate internal consistency and factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Potential improvements to the measure were identified using item response modeling. A one-item (three response categories) temperament scale was validated against the three temperament factors of the 36-item scale. The temperament response categories correlated with the temperament factors of the 36-item scale, as expected. The one-item temperament scale may be applicable for clinical use.

  11. Perception of motion transparency in 5-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, So; Shirai, Nobu; Otsuka, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the perceptual development of motion transparency in 3- to 5-month-old infants. In two experiments we tested a total of 55 infants and examined their preferential looking behaviour. In experiment 1, we presented transparent motion as a target, and uniform motion as a non-target consisting of random-dot motions. We measured the time during which infants looked at the target and non-target stimuli. In experiment 2, we used paired-dot motions (Qian et al, 1994 Journal of Neuroscience 14 7357-7366) as non-targets and also measured target looking time. We calculated the ratio of the target looking time to the total target and no-target looking time. In both experiments we controlled the dot size, speed, the horizontal travel distance of the dots, and the motion pattern of the dots. The results demonstrated that 5-month-old infants showed a statistically significant preference for motion transparency in almost all stimulus conditions, whereas the preference in 3- and 4-month-old infants depended on stimulus conditions. These results suggest that the sensitivity to motion transparency was robust in 5-month-olds, but not in 3- and 4-month-olds.

  12. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  13. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child. Does using infant formula increase risk for dental fluorosis? Because most infant formulas contain low levels of ... I use affect my child’s chance of getting dental fluorosis? Three types of infant formula are available in ...

  14. Investigation of temperament types of nursing udergraduates%护理本科生气质类型的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓; 陆萍静; 彭宇阁; 代丽

    2010-01-01

    目的 对护理本科生的气质类型进行调查研究,有针对性地提出教育建议,为培养新型的合格护理人员提供科学依据.方法 采用邱章乐主持制定的QIUS在校学生气质量表(QTS)对某高校151名护理本科生进行问卷调查.结果 护理本科生的气质类型集中分布于一般胆汁质、一般黏液质、一般抑郁质、多血-胆汁质、多血-黏液质、黏液-抑郁质、胆汁-抑郁质、多项气质混合型,其中多项气质混合型较多(占总数的38.41%).结论 护理本科生的气质类型具有相对稳定性,并且具有一定的可塑性.%Objective To investigate the temperament types of college nursing students and put forward educational suggestions in order to provide scientific basis for developing qualified and new-type nurses.Methods A total of 151 college nursing students were recruited and were investigated with QTS questionnaire.Results Most commonly found temperament in college nursing students were general choleric temperament,general lymphatic temperament, general melancholic temperament, plethoric choleric temperament, plethoric lymphatic temperament, mucous melancholic temperament, bilious melancholic temperament and mixed temperament. Mixed temperament (38.41%) was relatively more than others. Conclusions The temperament types of college nursing students possessed relative stability and certain plasticity.

  15. Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shao J; Sullivan, Thomas; Gibson, Robert A; Lönnerdal, Bo; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne J; Makrides, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The safety and nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas have been questioned. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed a goat milk infant formula with those of infants fed a typical whey-based cow milk infant formula. The secondary aim was to examine a range of health- and allergy-related outcomes. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with 200 formula-fed term infants randomly assigned to receive either goat or cow milk formula from 2 weeks to at least 4 months of age was conducted. A cohort of 101 breast-fed infants was included for comparison. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Nutritional status was assessed from serum albumin, urea, creatinine, Hb, ferritin, and folate and plasma amino acid concentrations at 4 months. Z-scores for weight, length, head circumference and weight for length were not different between the two formula-fed groups. There were differences in the values of some amino acids and blood biomarkers between the formula-fed groups, but the mean values for biomarkers were within the normal reference range. There were no differences in the occurrence of serious adverse events, general health, and incidence of dermatitis or medically diagnosed food allergy. The incidence of parentally reported blood-stained stools was higher in the goat milk formula-fed group, although this was a secondary outcome and its importance is unclear. Goat milk formula provided growth and nutritional outcomes in infants that did not differ from those provided by a standard whey-based cow milk formula.

  16. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hoppe, Tine Ursula

    2013-01-01

    (P age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P = 0.001). Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract......Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared...... to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P = 0.56). At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants...

  17. Randomized clinical trial of thrice-weekly 4-month moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin containing regimens in the treatment of new sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohideen S Jawahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shortening tuberculosis (TB treatment duration is a research priority. This paper presents data from a prematurely terminated randomized clinical trial, of 4-month moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin regimens, in South India. METHODS: Newly diagnosed, sputum-positive HIV-negative pulmonary TB patients were randomly allocated to receive gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin, along with isoniazid and rifampicin for 4 months with pyrazinamide for first 2 months (G or M or isoniazid and rifampicin for 6 months with ethambutol and pyrazinamide for first 2 months (C. All regimens were administered thrice-weekly. Clinical and bacteriological assessments were done monthly during treatment and for 24 months post-treatment. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended termination of the trial due to high TB recurrence rates in the G and M regimens. RESULTS: Of 416 patients in intent-to-treat analysis, 6 (5% of 124, 2 (2% of 110 and 2 (2% of 137 patients with drug-susceptible TB in the G, M and C arms respectively had unfavorable response at the end of treatment; during the next 24 months, 17 (15% of 115, 11 (11% of 104 and 8 (6% of 132 patients respectively, had TB recurrence. Of 38 drug-resistant patients 1 of 8 and 3 of 26 in the G and C arms respectively had unfavourable response at the end of treatment; and TB recurrence occurred in 2 of 7 and 2 of 23 patients, respectively. The differences in TB recurrence rates between the G and C arms was statistically significant (p = 0.02. Gastro-intestinal symptoms occurred in 23%, 22% and 9% of patients in the G, M and C arms respectively, but most reactions were mild and manageable with symptomatic measures; 1% required regimen modification. CONCLUSIONS: 4-month thrice-weekly regimens of gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin with isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide, were inferior to standard 6-month treatment, in patients with newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary TB. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registry

  18. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ≤3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and tended ( = 0.06) to have reduced serum insulin

  19. The Shared Signal Hypothesis: Effects of Emotion-Gaze Congruency in Infant and Adult Visual Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigato, Silvia; Menon, Enrica; Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 4-month-old infants' and adults' spontaneous preferences for emotional and neutral displays with direct and averted gaze are investigated using visual preference paradigms. Specifically, by presenting two approach-oriented emotions (happiness and anger) and two avoidance-oriented emotions (fear and sadness), we asked whether the…

  20. Infants' Early Visual Attention and Social Engagement as Developmental Precursors to Joint Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Neal-Beevers, A. Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined infants' early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n = 325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at 4 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human…

  1. Effect Of Iron Supplementation In Breastfed Infants: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyma Kayali

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion Consumption of iron rich complementary foods together with routine iron supplementation of term, breast-fed infants from 4 months of age can improve their iron status. Receiving sufficient iron in diet is an effective way prevent iron-deficiency anemia. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 165-172

  2. Prevalence and risk of depressive symptoms 3-4 months post-surgery in a nationwide cohort study of Danish women treated for early stage breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2009-01-01

    breast cancer during the 2 1/2 year study period. Of these, 3343 women (68%) participated in a questionnaire study 12-16 weeks following surgery. Depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory II) and health-related behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group......BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are generally found among cancer patients, but results from existing studies vary considerably with respect to prevalence and proposed risk factors. PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression 3-4 months following...... surgery for breast cancer, and to identify clinical risk factors while adjusting for pre-cancer sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, and psychiatric history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort consists of 4917 Danish women, aged 18-70 years, receiving standardized treatment for early stage invasive...

  3. The effect of the deterioration of insulin sensitivity on beta-cell function in growth-hormone-deficient adults following 4-month growth hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Fisker, S; Hilsted, Jannik

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the combined effect of GH treatment on body composition and glucose metabolism, with special focus on beta-cell function in adult GHD patients. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 24 GHD adults (18M/6F), were randomized to 4 months treatment.......7 and after 14.6 +/- 16.1 pmol/l, Psensitivity index SI, estimated by Bergmans Minimal Model, decreased significantly [before GH 1.1 +/- 0.7 and after 0.4 +/- 0.2 10(-4)(min x pmol/l), P....07). One patient developed impaired glucose tolerance. Short-term GH replacement therapy in a dose of about 2 IU/m2 daily in GHD adults induces a reduction in insulin sensitivity, despite favourable changes in body composition, and an inadequate enhancement of insulin secretion....

  4. Changes in dietary pattern in 15 year old adolescents following a 4 month dietary intervention with school breakfast – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarek Ingebjørg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies on impact of meals served in school have been published. However, implications of school meals are an actual issue of both public and political concern in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate if breakfast served in a lower secondary school could improve dietary habits and school performance among the students. Methods All students in 10th grade in a lower secondary school, consisting of two school classes, were invited to participate in a controlled study. The students in one class were offered a free breakfast at the beginning of each school day for 4 months, while the students in the second class were controls. Both classes were educated in the importance of healthy eating, and a data program enabling them to evaluate dietary intake was introduced. The students answered two questionnaires, one on school performance and one short food frequency questionnaire, four weeks before study start and one week after. Body weight and height were measured by the school nurse at the beginning and end of the study. Because of few students in each group, non-parametrical statistic analyses were used. Results All students in the intervention group had breakfast at school during the intervention. One week after the intervention the students in the class who received breakfast had returned to their normal breakfast pattern. In the control group the frequency of a lunch intake had increase, as compared to before study start (p Conclusion In a lower secondary school class served breakfast for 4 months, dietary intake changed to a more healthy profile and weight gain was reduced.

  5. Characterization of patients with mood disorders for their prevalent temperament and level of hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Gonda, Xenia; Erbuto, Denise; Forte, Alberto; Ricci, Federica; Lester, David; Akiskal, Hagop S; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Mood disorders (MD) are disabling conditions throughout the world associated with significant psychosocial impairment. Affective temperaments, as well as hopelessness, may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of MD. The present study was designed to characterize patients with MD for their prevalent affective temperament and level of hopelessness. Five hundred fifty-nine (253 men and 306 women) consecutive adult inpatients were assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A), the Gotland Scale for Male Depression (GSMD), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Higher cyclothymia and irritable temperaments were found in bipolar disorder-I (BD-I) patients compared to those with other Axis I diagnoses. Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients had lower hyperthymia than BD-I and BD-II patients and higher anxiety than patients with other Axis I diagnoses. Severe "male" depression was more common in BD-II patients compared to BD-I and MDD patients. BD-I patients and those with other axis I diagnoses reported lower BHS ≥9 scores than those with BD-II and MDD. The study had the limitations of all naturalistic designs, that is, potentially relevant variables were not addressed. Furthermore, the cross-sectional nature of the study did not allow conclusions about causation, and the use of self-report measures could be potentially biased by social desirability. MDD patients were more likely to have higher anxious temperament, higher hopelessness and lower hyperthymic temperament scores, while BD-I patients more often had cyclothymic and irritable temperaments than patients with other Axis I diagnoses. The implications of the present results were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Four broad temperament dimensions: Description, convergent validation correlations, and comparison with the Big Five

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eFisher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new temperament construct based on recent brain physiology literature has been investigated using the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI. Four collections of behaviors emerged, each associated with a specific neural system: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone and estrogen/oxytocin system. These four temperament suites have been designated: 1 Curious/Energetic, 2 Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, 3 Analytical/Tough-minded, and 4 Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have suggested that the FTI can measure the influence of these neural systems. In this paper, to further the behavioral validation and characterization of the four proposed temperament dimensions, we measured correlations with five variables: 1 gender; 2 level of education; 3 religious preference; 4 political orientation; 5 the degree to which an individual regards sex as essential to a successful relationship. Subjects were 39,913 anonymous members of a US Internet dating site and 70,000+ members in six other countries. Correlations with the five variables characterize the Fisher Temperament Inventory and are consistent with mechanisms using the proposed neuromodulators. We also report on an analysis between the FTI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, using a college sample (n=215, which showed convergent validity. The results provide novel correlates not available in other questionnaires: religiosity, political orientation and attitudes about sex in a relationship. Also, an Eigen analysis replicated the four clusters of co-varying items. The FTI, with its broad systems and non-pathologic factors complements existing personality questionnaires. It provides an index of some brain systems that contribute to temperament, and may be useful in psychotherapy, business, medicine, and the legal community.

  7. Interrelationships among growth, endocrine, immune, and temperament variables in neonatal Brahman calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, N C; Banta, J P; Neuendorff, D A; White, J C; Vann, R C; Laurenz, J C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2009-10-01

    Interrelationships among growth, endocrine, immune, and temperament variables were assessed in neonatal Brahman calves. The velocity upon exiting a working chute (exit velocity) of an animal was measured and used as an objective indicator of temperament to classify calves as calm, intermediate, or temperamental. Calves (n = 116) were weighed weekly between d 0 and 21 to 24, and blood samples were collected for plasma and serum on d 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 to 24 after birth to measure concentrations of immunoglobulins, cortisol, and epinephrine (EPI). Body weight increased from d 0 through d 21 to 24 (P temperament (P = 0.89) or sex (P = 0.97). Concentrations of EPI were affected by time, with an increase in EPI concentrations in temperamental bulls between 2 and 14 d of age (P temperament (P = 0.44) or sex (P = 0.68). Serum immunoglobulin concentrations peaked on d 1 before declining (P temperament (P = 0.40 to 0.68). Of the stress hormones measured (cortisol and EPI), only cortisol was associated with the early performance of the calf. Calf BW at d 21 to 24 and BW gain were positively associated with serum immunoglobulin concentrations, yet negatively associated with concentrations of cortisol. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were negatively correlated with cortisol concentrations (r = -0.28; P = 0.003), yet positively associated with EPI concentrations (r = 0.51; P = 0.003). During the neonatal period in this study, there was no relationship of temperament with passive immunity or stress hormone concentrations; however, growth was positively associated with passive immunity and negatively associated with stress hormones. Measuring exit velocity as early in life as d 21 to 24 fails to accurately predict temperament at weaning in over 40% of Brahman calves. Our conclusion is that measurement of exit velocity should be done nearer to the time of weaning than to birth. These data can be beneficial in developing best management practices for young calves.

  8. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Judy A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male, age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28 participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99 and 8/38 obese (BMI >30. Five main themes were identified. These were a parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c rationalisation for infants' larger size; d parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need

  9. Implications of research on infant development for psychodynamic theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, C H; Anders, T F; Seifer, R; Stern, D N

    1989-09-01

    Recent research on infant development is reviewed to consider its implications for psychodynamic theory and practice. To address the question of the importance of early experiences for development, research on continuities and discontinuities in development, temperament, motivational systems in infancy, affect development and regulation, development of the sense of self, and infant-caregiver attachment are reviewed. Two major implications emerge, both emphasizing the need for more complexities in our conceptualizations. First, research on infant development underscores the importance of context in development and cautions about the limits of reductionistic thinking and theories. Second a major paradigmatic shift away from the fixation-regression model of psychopathology and development is indicated. A new model that better fits available data is proposed instead. In this continuous construction model, there is no need for regression, and ontogenetic origins of psychopathology are no longer necessarily tied to specific critical or sensitive periods in development. Implications for psychodynamic treatment are also described.

  10. Influence of Environmental and Genetic Factors Linked to Celiac Disease Risk on Infant Gut Colonization by Bacteroides Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ester; De Palma, Giada; Capilla, Amalia; Nova, Esther; Pozo, Tamara; Castillejo, Gemma; Varea, Vicente; Marcos, Ascensión; Garrote, José Antonio; Polanco, Isabel; López, Ana; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; García-Novo, Maria Dolores; Calvo, Carmen; Ortigosa, Luis; Palau, Francesc; Sanz, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy involving genetic and environmental factors whose interaction might influence disease risk. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of milk-feeding practices and the HLA-DQ genotype on intestinal colonization of Bacteroides species in infants at risk of CD development. This study included 75 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative suffering from CD. Infants were classified according to milk-feeding practice (breast-feeding or formula feeding) and HLA-DQ genotype (high or low genetic risk). Stools were analyzed at 7 days, 1 month, and 4 months by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The Bacteroides species diversity index was higher in formula-fed infants than in breast-fed infants. Breast-fed infants showed a higher prevalence of Bacteroides uniformis at 1 and 4 months of age, while formula-fed infants had a higher prevalence of B. intestinalis at all sampling times, of B. caccae at 7 days and 4 months, and of B. plebeius at 4 months. Infants with high genetic risk showed a higher prevalence of B. vulgatus, while those with low genetic risk showed a higher prevalence of B. ovatus, B. plebeius, and B. uniformis. Among breast-fed infants, the prevalence of B. uniformis was higher in those with low genetic risk than in those with high genetic risk. Among formula-fed infants, the prevalence of B. ovatus and B. plebeius was increased in those with low genetic risk, while the prevalence of B. vulgatus was higher in those with high genetic risk. The results indicate that both the type of milk feeding and the HLA-DQ genotype influence the colonization process of Bacteroides species, and possibly the disease risk. PMID:21642397

  11. Influence of environmental and genetic factors linked to celiac disease risk on infant gut colonization by Bacteroides species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ester; De Palma, Giada; Capilla, Amalia; Nova, Esther; Pozo, Tamara; Castillejo, Gemma; Varea, Vicente; Marcos, Ascensión; Garrote, José Antonio; Polanco, Isabel; López, Ana; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; García-Novo, Maria Dolores; Calvo, Carmen; Ortigosa, Luis; Palau, Francesc; Sanz, Yolanda

    2011-08-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy involving genetic and environmental factors whose interaction might influence disease risk. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of milk-feeding practices and the HLA-DQ genotype on intestinal colonization of Bacteroides species in infants at risk of CD development. This study included 75 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative suffering from CD. Infants were classified according to milk-feeding practice (breast-feeding or formula feeding) and HLA-DQ genotype (high or low genetic risk). Stools were analyzed at 7 days, 1 month, and 4 months by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The Bacteroides species diversity index was higher in formula-fed infants than in breast-fed infants. Breast-fed infants showed a higher prevalence of Bacteroides uniformis at 1 and 4 months of age, while formula-fed infants had a higher prevalence of B. intestinalis at all sampling times, of B. caccae at 7 days and 4 months, and of B. plebeius at 4 months. Infants with high genetic risk showed a higher prevalence of B. vulgatus, while those with low genetic risk showed a higher prevalence of B. ovatus, B. plebeius, and B. uniformis. Among breast-fed infants, the prevalence of B. uniformis was higher in those with low genetic risk than in those with high genetic risk. Among formula-fed infants, the prevalence of B. ovatus and B. plebeius was increased in those with low genetic risk, while the prevalence of B. vulgatus was higher in those with high genetic risk. The results indicate that both the type of milk feeding and the HLA-DQ genotype influence the colonization process of Bacteroides species, and possibly the disease risk.

  12. Brazilian infant motor and cognitive development: Longitudinal influence of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Keila Rg; Valentini, Nadia C; Saccani, Raquel

    2016-12-01

    Infant developmental delays have been associated with several risk factors, such as familial environmental, individual and demographic characteristics. The goal of this study was to longitudinally investigate the effects of maternal knowledge and practices, home environment and biological factors on infant motor and cognitive outcomes. This was a prospective cohort study with a sample of 49 infants from Southern Brazil. The infants were assessed three times over 4 months using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (Mental Development Scale). Parents completed the Daily Activities Scale of Infants, the Affordances in The Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory and a demographic questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation with Bonferroni method as the follow-up test and Spearman correlation and multivariate linear backward regression were used. Cognitive and motor scores were strongly associated longitudinally and increased over time. Associations between the home affordances, parental practices and knowledge, and motor and cognitive development over time were observed. This relationship explained more variability in motor and cognitive scores compared with biological factors. Variability in motor and cognitive development is better explained by environment and parental knowledge and practice. The investigation of factors associated with infant development allows the identification of infants at risk and the implementation of educational programs and parental training to minimize the effects of developmental delay. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Chlamydia and sudden infant death syndrome. A study of 166 SIDS and 30 control cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M;

    1990-01-01

    Chlamydia inclusions could be demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay in formalin-fixed lung sections in 32 of 166 cases (19.4%) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and in the lungs of only 1 of 30 infants with a known cause of death (3.3%). The difference is statistically significant (P = 0.......04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs...

  14. Four- and six-month-old infants' visual responses to joy, anger, and neutral expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarbera, J D; Izard, C E; Vietze, P; Parisi, S A

    1976-06-01

    24 infants, 12 4-month-olds and 12 6-month-olds, were repeatedly shown slides of 3 facial expressions. The expressions were previously judged by obervers to be indicators of joy, anger, and no emotion, respectively. The duration of the first visual fixation to each presentation of the slides was monitored for each subject. The data indicated that the infants looked at the joy expression significantly more than at either the anger or neutral expressions. The results suggest that infants are capable of discriminating emotion expressions earlier in their development than previous studies have implied.

  15. Growth of healthy term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschel, Marlene W; Choe, Yong S; Kajzer, Janice A

    2014-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHF) represent a significant percentage of the infant formula market. A new whey-based, palm olein oil (PO)-free pHF was developed and a masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed this formula or a commercially available whey-based pHF with PO. Infants between 0 and 8 days were to be enrolled and studied to 119 days of age. Growth and tolerance of infants were evaluated. Mean weight gain from 14 to 119 days of age was similar between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference (HC), or length or HC gains. Infants fed the new PO-free pHF had significantly softer stools than those fed the PO-containing formula except at 119 days of age. This study demonstrates that whereas growth of infants fed different formulas during the first 4 months of life may be similar, infants may tolerate individual formulas differently.

  16. Stress modulates instrumental learning performances in horses (Equus caballus in interaction with temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Valenchon

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how the temperament of the animal affects the influence of acute stress on the acquisition and reacquisition processes of a learning task. After temperament was assessed, horses were subjected to a stressor before or after the acquisition session of an instrumental task. Eight days later, horses were subjected to a reacquisition session without any stressor. Stress before acquisition tended to enhance the number of successes at the beginning of the acquisition session. Eight days later, during the reacquisition session, contrary to non-stressed animals, horses stressed after acquisition, and, to a lesser extent, horses stressed before acquisition, did not improve their performance between acquisition and reacquisition sessions. Temperament influenced learning performances in stressed horses only. Particularly, locomotor activity improved performances whereas fearfulness impaired them under stressful conditions. Results suggest that direct exposure to a stressor tended to increase acquisition performances, whereas a state of stress induced by the memory of a stressor, because it has been previously associated with the learning context, impaired reacquisition performances. The negative effect of a state of stress on reacquisition performances appeared to be stronger when exposure to the stressor occurred after rather than before the acquisition session. Temperament had an impact on both acquisition and reacquisition processes, but under stressful conditions only. These results suggest that stress is necessary to reveal the influence of temperament on cognitive performances.

  17. Stress modulates instrumental learning performances in horses (Equus caballus) in interaction with temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenchon, Mathilde; Lévy, Frédéric; Prunier, Armelle; Moussu, Chantal; Calandreau, Ludovic; Lansade, Léa

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates how the temperament of the animal affects the influence of acute stress on the acquisition and reacquisition processes of a learning task. After temperament was assessed, horses were subjected to a stressor before or after the acquisition session of an instrumental task. Eight days later, horses were subjected to a reacquisition session without any stressor. Stress before acquisition tended to enhance the number of successes at the beginning of the acquisition session. Eight days later, during the reacquisition session, contrary to non-stressed animals, horses stressed after acquisition, and, to a lesser extent, horses stressed before acquisition, did not improve their performance between acquisition and reacquisition sessions. Temperament influenced learning performances in stressed horses only. Particularly, locomotor activity improved performances whereas fearfulness impaired them under stressful conditions. Results suggest that direct exposure to a stressor tended to increase acquisition performances, whereas a state of stress induced by the memory of a stressor, because it has been previously associated with the learning context, impaired reacquisition performances. The negative effect of a state of stress on reacquisition performances appeared to be stronger when exposure to the stressor occurred after rather than before the acquisition session. Temperament had an impact on both acquisition and reacquisition processes, but under stressful conditions only. These results suggest that stress is necessary to reveal the influence of temperament on cognitive performances.

  18. The neurobiological basis of temperament: towards a better understanding of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat

    2006-01-01

    The ability to characterise psychopathologies on the basis of their underlying neurobiology is critical in improving our understanding of disorder etiology and making more effective diagnostic and treatment decisions. Given the well-documented relationship between temperament (i.e. core personality traits) and psychopathology, research investigating the neurobiological substrates that underlie temperament is potentially key to our understanding of the biological basis of mental disorder. We present evidence that specific areas of the prefrontal cortex (including the dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices) and limbic structures (including the amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens) are key regions associated with three fundamental dimensions of temperament: Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Constraint. Proposed relationships are based on two types of research: (a) research into the neurobiological correlates of affective and cognitive processes underlying these dimensions; and (b) research into the neurobiology of various psychopathologies, which have been correlated with these dimensions. A model is proposed detailing how these structures might comprise neural networks whose functioning underlies the three temperaments. Recommendations are made for future research into the neurobiology of temperament, including the need to focus on neural networks rather than individual structures, and the importance of prospective, longitudinal, multi-modal imaging studies in at-risk youth.

  19. Genetic associations between the ADHD symptom dimensions and Cloninger's temperament dimensions in adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwood, Andrew; Asherson, Philip; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have identified phenotypic associations between Cloninger's temperament dimensions and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. However the underlying aetiology of these associations remains unclear. We investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to the relationship between temperament and ADHD, examining the ADHD symptoms of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) separately. Participants were 886 adult twin pairs aged 19-20 years. ADHD symptoms of IA and HI were measured using a DSM-IV based rating scale. Temperament was measured using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), across four dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PS). The twin method was used to decompose phenotypic variance/covariance among these variables into genetic and environmental components. We found that NS was genetically associated with both ADHD symptom dimensions (IA and HI), but that HA was genetically associated with IA only. There was also some evidence of genetic association between PS, IA and HI. These findings suggest that unique profiles of temperament are genetically related to the two ADHD symptom dimensions in adults. Further work is now needed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie both the combined and separate symptom factor domains of ADHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between lead exposure from electronic waste recycling and child temperament alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junxiao; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Kusheng; Piao, Zhongxian; Huang, Jinrong; Guo, Yongyong; Li, Weiqiu; Zhang, Yuling; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of lead exposure on temperament alterations in children from a primitive e-waste (obsolete electrical and electronic devices) recycling area in Guiyu of China and a control area (Chendian, China). Blood lead levels (BLL) might be correlated with temperament, health, and relevant factors that were evaluated through Parent Temperament Questionnaire (PTQ), physical examination, and residential questionnaires. We collected venipuncture blood samples from 303 children (aged 3-7 years old) between January and February 2008. Child BLL were higher in Guiyu than in Chendian (median 13.2 μg/dL, range 4.0-48.5 μg/dL vs. 8.2 μg/dL, 0-21.3 μg/dL) (Pwaste were the risk factors related to child BLL, activity level, approach-withdrawal, adaptability, and mood. Child hand washing prior to food consumption was a protected factor for BLL and several dimensions. There are close relationships between BLL elevation, temperament alteration and the e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu. Primitive e-waste recycling may threaten the health of children by increasing BLL and altering children temperament, although the exposure to other toxicants needs to be examined in future studies.

  1. Early-but modest-gender differences in focal aspects of childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R; Miller, Michele M; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2013-07-01

    The best evidence for gender differences in child temperament is in the broad areas of effortful control and surgency, and to an extent negative affectivity, domains that encompass temperament dimensions of inhibitory control, activity level, and shyness. We examined the influence of child gender in a methodologically comprehensively assessed twin sample. We used mother, father, and Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB) ratings to assess temperament in 3 year-olds. Boys had higher levels of activity level and lower levels of shyness and inhibitory control than girls across all methods of assessment. Then, more rigorous testing showed that patterns of mean gender differences for opposite-sex twin pairs in our sample were very consistent with overall sample gender differences and the magnitude of these gender differences was consistent across assessment methodology. We then asked: are these more gendered dimensions of temperament associated with one another, and are associations different across gender? The answer to both questions is, yes. Shyer children have lower activity level and higher inhibitory control, and those with higher inhibitory control are less active. Gender differences did appear in the intercorrelations between parent ratings of shyness and inhibitory control with only girls showing significant associations within and across these dimensions.

  2. Unique Associations between Childhood Temperament Characteristics and Subsequent Psychopathology Symptom Trajectories from Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A

    2016-12-09

    Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.

  3. Toddler inhibited temperament, maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment, and intrusive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2013-06-01

    The relevance of parenting behavior to toddlers' development necessitates a better understanding of the influences on parents during parent-child interactions. Toddlers' inhibited temperament may relate to parenting behaviors, such as intrusiveness, that predict outcomes later in childhood. The conditions under which inhibited temperament relates to intrusiveness, however, remain understudied. A multimethod approach would acknowledge that several levels of processes determine mothers' experiences during situations in which they witness their toddlers interacting with novelty. As such, the current study examined maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment about shyness as moderators of the relation between toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusive behavior. Participants included 92 24-month-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusiveness were measured observationally in the laboratory. Mothers supplied saliva samples at the beginning of the laboratory visit and 20 minutes after observation. Maternal cortisol reactivity interacted with inhibited temperament in relation to intrusive behavior, such that mothers with higher levels of cortisol reactivity were observed to be more intrusive with more highly inhibited toddlers. Embarrassment related to intrusive behavior as a main effect. These results highlight the importance of considering child characteristics and psychobiological processes in relation to parenting behavior.

  4. Parental care-giving and home environment predicting offspring's temperament and character traits after 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Kim; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Merjonen, Päivi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-10-30

    Although many personality theories emphasize the role of parental behaviors in shaping personality development, empirical data from longitudinal studies remain scarce. It is also not known, if parental behaviors affect character development more strongly than temperament or vice versa. In a prospective study, 1083 volunteer participants of the Young Finns study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Parents of the participants had answered questions about parenting attitudes, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and role satisfaction 18 years before. We studied the univariate and the cumulative effects of parental care-giving and family environment on offspring's personality traits. Parental care-giving and home-environment were more strongly associated with offspring character traits reflecting personality maturity (Self-directedness and Cooperativeness) than with offspring temperament traits (Novelty seeking, Harm avoidance, Reward dependence and Persistence) reflecting emotional and behavioral tendencies. The differences were most evident in the cumulative effects model. Maternal variables were stronger predictors than paternal variables. The present findings suggest that not all personality traits are similarly predicted by parental care-giving and home-environment. In particular, character development is more strongly related to such measures than temperament. Parental care-giving and home-environment are more strongly related to psychological maturity (character) than emotional and behavioral tendencies (temperament).

  5. Temperament as a moderator of the effects of parenting on children's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitto, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the role of child temperament as moderator of the effect of parenting style on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. A series of structural equation models were fit to a representative sample of 2,631 Canadian children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. In addition to testing for the presence of Temperament × Parenting interactions, these models also examined the direct and indirect effects of a number of additional contextual factors such as neighborhood problems, neighborhood cohesion, social support, and maternal depression. The results indicate that exposure to more positive parenting reduces behavior problems in children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. No moderating effects of temperament on hostile parenting were found. Such results serve to highlight the pivotal role of positive features of the rearing environment as catalysts for the successful adaptation of children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. The results of this modeling work also serve to emphasize the importance of considering the ways in which more distal factors can affect children's behavioral adaptation by contributing to changes in proximal family processes.

  6. Cognitive, Emotional, Temperament, and Personality Trait Correlates of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Lucas; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; De La Vega, Diego; Courtet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to suicidal behavior such as cognitive, inflexibility, problem-solving, coping, rumination, thought suppression, decision-making, autobiographical memory, working memory, language fluency, burdensomeness, belongingness, fearless, pain insensitivity, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hopelessness. The personality correlates reported are mainly based on the personality theories of Cloninger, Costa and McCrae, and Eysenck. Moreover, it explores conceptual links to other new pathways in psychological factors, emptiness, and psychological pain as a possible origin and common end path for a portion of suicidal behaviors.

  7. Heritable temperament pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D; Hyde, Luke W

    2016-12-01

    Early callous-unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous-unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous-unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous-unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways. Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous-unemotional behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low affiliative behaviour predicted child callous-unemotional behaviours, although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous-unemotional behaviour pathway. Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits contribute to the development of callous-unemotional behaviours. Positive parenting can buffer these risky pathways. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  8. Temperament and emotional eating: a crucial relationship in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Godini, Lucia; Mannucci, Edoardo; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

    2015-02-28

    Specific personality traits are related to Eating Disorders (EDs) specific and general psychopathology. Recent studies suggested that Emotional Eating (EE) is a common dimension in all EDs, irrespective of binge eating. The present study was aimed to explore the relationship of temperamental features with EE and eating symptomatology in a sample of EDs patients, adjusting for general psychopathology. One hundred and sixty six female patients were enrolled at the Eating Disorders Outpatient Clinic of the Careggi Teaching-Hospital of Florence. Participants completed the emotional eating scale, the temperament and character inventory, the eating disorder examination questionnaire and the symptom checklist 90-revised. Novelty seeking and self directedness showed significant correlations with EE after adjustment for general psychopathology. Patients with binge eating displayed significant associations between EE and novelty seeking and self directedness. Among patients without binge eating, no significant correlation between EE and temperamental features was observed. Specific temperamental features are associated to EE in EDs. A clear, different pattern of association in patients with different eating attitudes and behavior was found. Considering that treatments of EDs are largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions, focused on emotions and cognitions, the present data provide some hints which could be helpful for the development of more appropriate psychotherapeutic strategies.

  9. Temperament and the structure of personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R T; Joyce, P R

    1997-01-01

    This paper attempts to construct a simplified system for the classification of personality disorders, and relates this system to normally distributed human personality characteristics. One hundred and forty-eight subjects with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the SCID-II structured clinical interview for personality disorders. A four-factor solution of personality disorder symptoms was obtained and we labelled these factors 'the four As': antisocial, asocial, asthenic and anankastic. The factors related to the four temperament dimensions of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), but less closely to Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) dimensions. The four factors were similar to those identified in a number of studies using a variety of assessment methods and this lends some credibility to our findings. It suggests that a more parsimonious set of trait descriptors could be used to provide simpler, less overlapping categories that retain links with current clinical practice. In addition, these factors can be seen as extremes of normally distributed behaviours obtained using the TPQ questionnaire.

  10. Is Good Fit Related to Good Behaviour? Goodness of Fit between Daycare Teacher-Child Relationships, Temperament, and Prosocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…

  11. Personality and Demographic Characteristics of Mothers and Their Ratings of Their 3- to 10-Year-Old Children's Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, Birgitte R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Association between maternal ratings of child temperament and 8 maternal personality and demographic factors was examined in 3 age-stratified samples with children ranging from 3 to 10 years old. Found that mothers' anxiety was related to negative temperament ratings in all three samples, as were lower levels of maternal adaptation in analyses of…

  12. Relationships Between Temperament and Transportation With Rectal Temperature and Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Epinephrine in Bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning wit...

  13. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy : The role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, H.; Hartman, C.A.; Hogendoorn, S.; de Haan, E.; Prins, P.J.M.; Reichart, C.G.; Moorlag, H.; Nauta, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants w

  14. The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry in patients with bipolar disorder: correlation with affective temperaments and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dopierala

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN, with affective temperaments and schizotypy. Methods: The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE, was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD and 54 healthy control (HC subjects. Results: The TEMPS-A cyclothymic temperament correlated positively and the hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with BRIAN scores in both the BD and HC groups, although the correlation was stronger in BD subjects. Depressive temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in BD but not in HC; conversely, the irritable temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in HC, but not in BD. Several positive correlations between BRIAN scores and the schizotypal dimensions of the O-LIFE were observed in both BD and HC subjects, especially with cognitive disorganization and less so with unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. A correlation with introversion/anhedonia was found only in BD subjects. Conclusion: Cyclothymic and depressive temperaments predispose to disturbances of biological rhythms in BD, while a hyperthymic temperament can be protective. Similar predispositions were also found for all schizotypal dimensions, mostly for cognitive disorganization.

  15. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  16. Maternal Accuracy and Behavior in Anticipating Children's Responses to Novelty: Relations to Fearful Temperament and Implications for Anxiety Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that mothers' behaviors may serve as a mechanism in the development from toddler fearful temperament to childhood anxiety. The current study examined the maternal characteristic of accuracy in predicting toddlers' distress reactions to novelty in relation to temperament, parenting, and anxiety development.…

  17. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  18. Goodness-of-Fit in Center Day Care: Relations of Temperament, Stability, and Quality of Care with the Child's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schipper, J. Clasien; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Zeijl, Jantien

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the concept of "goodness-of-fit" between the child's temperament and the environment, introduced by Thomas and Chess [Temperament and Development, Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1977], is applied within the setting of center day care. Mothers and primary professional caregivers of 186 children, aged 6-30 months, participated in this…

  19. Is Good Fit Related to Good Behaviour? Goodness of Fit between Daycare Teacher-Child Relationships, Temperament, and Prosocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…

  20. Children Changing in Context: Child Temperament and Personality Development as Interrelated with Parenting in the Etiology of Adjustment Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this dissertation was to examine how child temperament and personality change, what the role of parenting is in explaining these changes, and how child temperament/personality and parenting together predict child internalizing and externalizing problems. In this dissertation, we t

  1. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in infants by immune complex dissociation p24 assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M O; Toedter, G; Hofheinz, D; Tetali, S; Pelton, S; Marecki, M; Brena, A; Abrams, E J; Landesman, S; Pahwa, S

    1997-01-01

    Using immune complex dissociation (ICD), we retrospectively examined serum and plasma of 206 infants aged 0 to 4 months who were perinatally exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All samples were analyzed in a blinded manner. Infection status was determined based on the results of HIV culture and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classification. The overall diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 59% (93 samples, 73 infants), and specificity was 100% (160 samples, 133 infants). When the samples were analyzed according to age, sensitivity was highest at age 1 to 2 months (17 of 21 infants, 81%). Sensitivities at other ages were 53% at 80% at 1 to 2 months of age and 100% specificity, as evaluated, up to 4 months of age.

  2. It takes more than one for parenting: How do maternal temperament and child's conduct problems relate to maternal parenting behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined how individual differences in maternal temperament and child problem behaviors correlate with observed maternal positivity and negativity toward the child. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers reported their own temperament (surgency, orienting sensitivity, effortful control and negative affect) and their children's problem behaviors. Maternal behavior was videotaped in a set of structured interaction tasks with the child during a lab visit. Results indicated that children's problem behaviors were related to less maternal positivity and more negativity. In addition, observed maternal negativity was associated with less maternal effortful control and more negative affect. In contrast, maternal temperament was unrelated to observed maternal positivity toward the child. Furthermore, maternal temperament was related to mothers' positivity and negativity but only for children high in problem behaviors. The findings implicate that child problem behaviors may interact with maternal temperament in explaining variance in caregiving positivity and negativity.

  3. Apical root resorption in maxillary incisors when employing micro-implant and J-hook headgear anchorage: a 4-month radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Wenjing; Smales, Roger J; Peng, Hui; Hu, Xiaokun; Yin, Lu

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated, over a 4-month study period, the amount of apical root resorption occurring in maxillary central incisors following their retraction when employing either micro-implant or J-hook headgear anchorage. The prospective randomised clinical trial was conducted in Orthodontic Clinic, College of Stomatology, China from 2008-2009. Subjects are patients requiring fixed appliances on waiting list (n=20). In female Han Chinese patients aged from 16-26 years, standardized periapical radiographs from 10 randomly assigned patients with maxillary protrusions comprising the micro-implant group, and from 10 similar patients comprising the J-hook headgear group, were assessed for maxillary central incisor apical root resorption. Measurements before and after orthodontic therapy were also obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs to calculate incisor horizontal retraction and vertical intrusion distances. Estimated retraction force vectors were calculated in horizontal and vertical directions for both treatment groups. Data analysis employed t-tests and the Pearson correlation test, with α=0.05 for statistical significance. The results showed that when compared with the J-hook group, significantly more apical root resorption shortening of the maxillary central incisors was observed in the micro-implant group (1.27 mm difference, 95% CI=0.70-1.84, Presorption shortening and maxillary central incisor retraction than when intermittent J-hook retraction was employed. The employment of continuous duration orthodontic forces presents a risk for increased apical root resorption that requires careful radiographic monitoring.

  4. Behavioral Reactivity and Approach-Withdrawal Bias in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Amie Ashley; Fox, Nathan A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Marshall, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Seven hundred seventy-nine infants were screened at 4 months of age for motor and emotional reactivity. At age 9 months, infants who showed extreme patterns of motor and negative (n = 75) or motor and positive (n = 73) reactivity and an unselected control group (n = 86) were administered the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery, and baseline…

  5. The Temperament of a City: A Postscript to Post-Olympic Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.

  6. The link between bipolar disorders and creativity: evidence from personality and temperament studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shefali; Ketter, Terence A

    2010-12-01

    Although extensive literature supports connections between bipolar disorder and creativity, possible mechanisms underlying such relationships are only beginning to emerge. Herein we review evidence supporting one such possible mechanism, namely that personality/temperament contribute to enhanced creativity in individuals with bipolar disorder, a theory supported by studies showing that certain personality/temperamental traits are not only common to bipolar disorder patients and creative individuals but also correlate with measures of creativity. Thus, we suggest based on studies using three important personality/temperament measures-the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory (NEO); the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); and the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A)-that changeable (increased TEMPS-A-cyclothymia) and at times negative (increased NEO-neuroticism) affect and open-minded (increased NEO-openness) and intuitive (increased MBTI-intuition) cognition may contribute importantly to enhanced creativity in individuals with bipolar disorder.

  7. Investigation of Oxytocin Secretion in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: Relationships to Temperament Personality Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Volpe, Umberto; Di Maso, Virginia; Monteleone, Palmiero

    2016-01-01

    Published studies suggested an implication of oxytocin in some temperament characteristics of personality. Therefore, we measured oxytocin secretion in 23 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), 27 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19 healthy controls and explored the relationships between circulating oxytocin and patients' personality traits. Plasma oxytocin levels were significantly reduced in AN women but not in BN ones. In healthy women, the attachment subscale scores of the reward dependence temperament and the harm avoidance (HA) scores explained 82% of the variability in circulating oxytocin. In BN patients, plasma oxytocin resulted to be negatively correlated with HA, whereas no significant correlations emerged in AN patients. These findings confirm a dysregulation of oxytocin production in AN but not in BN and show, for the first time, a disruption of the associations between hormone levels and patients' temperament traits, which may have a role in certain deranged behaviours of eating disorder patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Four broad temperament dimensions: description, convergent validation correlations, and comparison with the Big Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E; Island, Heide D; Rich, Jonathan; Marchalik, Daniel; Brown, Lucy L

    2015-01-01

    A new temperament construct based on recent brain physiology literature has been investigated using the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI). Four collections of behaviors emerged, each associated with a specific neural system: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone, and estrogen/oxytocin system. These four temperament suites have been designated: (1) Curious/Energetic, (2) Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, (3) Analytical/Tough-minded, and (4) Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that the FTI can measure the influence of these neural systems. In this paper, to further the behavioral validation and characterization of the four proposed temperament dimensions, we measured correlations with five variables: (1) gender; (2) level of education; (3) religious preference; (4) political orientation; (5) the degree to which an individual regards sex as essential to a successful relationship. Subjects were 39,913 anonymous members of a US Internet dating site and 70,000+ members in six other countries. Correlations with the five variables characterize the FTI and are consistent with mechanisms using the proposed neuromodulators. We also report on an analysis between the FTI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, using a college sample (n = 215), which showed convergent validity. The results provide novel correlates not available in other questionnaires: religiosity, political orientation, and attitudes about sex in a relationship. Also, an Eigen analysis replicated the four clusters of co-varying items. The FTI, with its broad systems and non-pathologic factors complements existing personality questionnaires. It provides an index of some brain systems that contribute to temperament, and may be useful in psychotherapy, business, medicine, and the legal community.

  9. Biological contributions to well-being: The relationships amongst temperament, character strengths and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie K. Hutchinson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Positive psychology emphasises the nurturing of personal strengths, yet little research to date has investigated the role of nature in psychological wellness.Research purpose: The study aimed to address this dearth by investigating the relationship between temperament, with its biological roots, and psychological well-being and also to ascertain whether character strengths and resilience can be predicted by certain temperament traits.Motivation for the study: Although the biological bases of mental illness have been researched extensively in past studies, there is very little research regarding the biological bases of psychological wellness.Research design, approach and method: This quantitative study selected a sample of 620 participants and applied four measuring instruments, namely the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, the Values in Action – Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS , the Sense of Coherence scale and the Resilience scale to measure temperament and well-being. Correlations and logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the data.Main findings: There are relationships between certain biologically based temperament traits and the psychological constructs of character strengths and resilience. Logistic regression models, using temperament as the independent variable, correctly predicted high and low scores on the Sense of Coherence scale, the Resilience scale and the (VIA-IS with 64% – 76.1% accuracy.Pratical/managerial implications: Understanding the physiological substrates of flourishing and being able to predict strengths based on temperament promise advances in applying positive psychology concepts.Contribution/value-add: Values, ethics, character strengths, virtues and resilience are universal and may be entrenched in biology, according to some theorists. This has not been researched much, however. The current study addressed this dearth.

  10. Temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and their relations with dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarisoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Ö Mer Faruk; Öztürk, Arif; Yilman, Tuba; Mor, Sema; Özturan, Deniz Deniz; Yazici, Neslihan; Gümüş, Kübra

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and the relation of these traits with dissociative symptoms. Sixty patients (60) diagnosed with conversion disorder according to DSM-IV-TR and 60 healthy volunteers were included in the study. All participants' temperament and character traits were determined using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Patients with conversion disorder were divided into two subgroups using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), dissociative (n=30, 50%) and non-dissociative (n=30, 50%). The two conversion disorder subgroups were compared with the control group in terms of temperament and character traits. Correlation analysis was also performed between TCI and DES scores in the entire conversion group. Novelty seeking (NS) scores were lower in both the dissociative and non-dissociative groups compared to the control group. Harm avoidance (HA) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the control group. Reward dependence (RD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative and control group. Self-directedness (SD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the control group. Self-transcendence (ST) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative group. DES scores were negatively correlated with RD and SD scores in the entire conversion group and positively correlated with ST scores. Low NS temperament traits may be associated with conversion disorder. High HA and low RD temperament traits and low SD and high ST character traits may be associated with pathological dissociation in patients with conversion disorder.

  11. The Relations Between Temperament, Character, and Executive Functions in Children With ADHD and Clinical Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drechsler, Renate; Zulauf Logoz, Marina; Walitza, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the overlap between executive functions and temperament as measured by two questionnaires and to examine characteristic profiles in children with ADHD and clinical controls. METHOD: Parents of 111 clinically referred children, half of whom...... were diagnosed with ADHD and half with other or no diagnoses, completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Cloninger Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). RESULTS: Factor analysis of both instruments resulted in three common factors representing aspects...

  12. ADHD, temperament, and parental style as predictors of the child's attachment patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Manor, Iris; Tyano, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of temperament and parenting styles on attachment patterns in children with ADHD. The study included 65 children aged 7-15 and their parents. Children diagnosed as Combined or Predominantly Hyperactive Impulsive Type had significantly higher scores than those diagnosed as Predominantly Inattentive Type in anxious and avoidant attachment, emotionality, and activity dimensions of temperament, and their parents reported higher levels of controlling styles. Hierarchic regressions indicated that parental promotion of autonomy with children with temperamental emotionality predicted anxious attachment, while parental restriction of autonomy with children with high levels of temperamental activity predicted avoidant attachment.

  13. [Problems in the development of emotional expression--dictated by temperament or environment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukola, Tytti; Karukivi, Max; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2015-01-01

    Learning of emotional regulation skills is based on parent-child interaction. The difficulty in recognition and expression of emotions, along with outsourced thinking and weak imagination are collectively termed alexithymia, the inability to express emotions. Temperament has been shown to account for 20 to 40% in the development of alexithymia. Alexithymia has been found to be associated with introversion, negative emotionality and avoidance of problems, and an insecure affectional tie. Attachment theory is based on early interaction, the establishment of which in turn reflects the temperament features of the child and the parent, and differences in these features.

  14. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  15. Nutrient Enrichment of Mother's Milk and Growth of Very Preterm Infants After Hospital Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Faerk, Jan; Grytter, Carl

    2011-01-01

    were longer and heavier compared with those in group A only. A higher protein intake was related to a higher serum urea nitrogen level and growth. Conclusions: Fortification of mother's milk after hospital discharge while breastfeeding very preterm infants was possible without influencing breastfeeding......Objective: To determine if the addition of a multinutrient human milk fortifier to mother's milk while breastfeeding very preterm infants after hospital discharge is possible and whether it influences first-year growth. Methods: Of a cohort of 320 infants (gestational age: 24-32 weeks; birth weight......: 535-2255 g), breastfed infants (65% [n = 207]) were randomly assigned shortly before hospital discharge to receive either unfortified (n = 102, group A) or fortified (n = 105, group B) mother's milk until 4 months' corrected age (CA). The remaining infants were bottle-fed with a preterm formula (group...

  16. Dor, autorregulação e temperamento em recém-nascidos pré-termo de alto risco Pain, self-regulation and temperament in high risk preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Caroline Klein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os recém-nascidos pré-termo são expostos a experiências dolorosas inevitáveis na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. Apesar de sua imaturidade biológica, esses podem tanto perceber quanto reagir à dor. A exposição repetida à dor exerce impacto negativo no desenvolvimento e pode aumentar a vulnerabilidade dos bebês, dificultando os processos autorregulatórios. A reatividade biocomportamental à dor é um indicador de autorregulação e associa-se ao temperamento da criança. Esses bebês necessitam de estratégias farmacológicas e não farmacológicas para alívio da dor. Além disso, devem ter um contexto de interações sincrônicas com os pais, adaptadas às suas características de temperamento. Os profissionais de saúde podem atuar como suporte de regulação externa para esses bebês promovendo alívio da dor e prevenindo problemas de desenvolvimento.High risk preterm newborns are exposed to unavoidable painful experiences in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. In spite of their biological immaturity, they are able to perceive and react to pain stimuli. Repetitive exposure to pain has a negative impact on the development and may increase the infant's vulnerability, affecting self-regulatory processes. Biobehavioral reactivity to pain is an indicator of self-regulation and it is associated to the child's temperament. Preterm infants need pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for pain relieving. Moreover, they need a context of synchronic interaction with their parents which must be adapted to their temperament characteristics. Health professionals may play an important role in supporting external regulation for those infants, promoting pain relief and preventing development problems.

  17. Clinical evaluation of a novel dental implant system as single implants under immediate loading conditions - 4-month post-loading results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Blasone, Rodolfo; Malaguti, Giuliano; Gaffuri, Cristiano; Caneva, Marco; Minciarelli, Armando; Luongo, Giuseppe

    To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of a novel dental implant system (GENESIS Implant System, Keystone Dental, Massachusetts, USA) using another dental implant system by the same manufacturer as a control (PRIMA Implant System, Keystone Dental). A total of 53 patients requiring at least two single crowns had their sites randomised according to a split-mouth design to receive both implant systems at six centres. If implants could be placed with a torque superior to 40 Ncm they were to be loaded immediately with provisional crowns, otherwise after 3 months of submerged healing. Provisional crowns were replaced by definitive crowns 4 months after initial loading, when the follow-up period for the initial part of this study was completed. Outcome measures were crown/implant failures, complications, pink esthetic score (PES), peri-implant marginal bone level changes, plaque score, marginal bleeding, patients and preference of the clinician. In total 53 PRIMA and 53 GENESIS implants were placed. Three patients dropped out but all of the remaining patients were followed up to 4-months post-loading. No PRIMA implant failed whereas four GENESIS implants failed. Only two complications were reported for PRIMA implants. There were no statistically significant differences for crown/implant failures (difference in proportions = 0.080; P (McNemar test) = 0.125) and complications (difference in proportions = -0.04; P (McNemar test) = 0.500) between the implant systems. There were no differences at 4-months post-loading for plaque (difference = -0.54, 95% CI: -3.01 to 1.93; P (Paired t-test) = 0.660), marginal bleeding (difference = -3.8, 95% CI: -7.63 to 0.019; P (Paired t-test) = 0.051), PES (difference = 0.47, 95% CI: -0.56 to 1.50; P (Paired t-test) = 0.365) and marginal bone level changes (difference in mm = -0.04, 95% CI: -0.33 to 0.26; P (Paired t-test) = 0.795). The majority of the patients (46) had no

  18. 幼儿行为问题与气质特点的关系探讨%Infant’ s behavior problems and temperament characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁静; 王朝晖; 马婧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of infant’s behavior and explore the predictive role of early temperament factors on behavior problems, so as to provide some interventions to prevent and reduce the incidence of behavior problems for medical staff and parents.Methods Totally 220 infants aged 1 year were chosen as study samples.Infant temperament questionnaires were used for assessment and Child Behavior Checklist ( CBCL) scale were used two years later to assess behavior.Results The incidence of infant behavior problems was 25.48%, among which 18.75% was psychosomatic problems, 8.65% was depression and 8.65% was social withdrawal.The difference in the incidence of behavior problems between genders was significant (χ2 =7.316, P=0.007) .The difference in temperament dimension emerged at the age of 1.Boys had higher level of activity (t=1.960,P=0.05) but lower response threshold than girls (t=-2.181,P=0.03).Infants of difficult nurturing type and slow start type had higher total score of behavior problems. Temperament had weak effect on predicting behavior.The rhythmicity and approach-withdrawal could predict 13.6% of social withdrawal problems, mood could predict 9.1%of depression problems, and persistence could predict 3.1%of psychosomatic problems.Conclusion The incidence of infant behavior problems is higher than before.In order to reduce the occurrence of behavior problems, different management methods should be adopted according to different temperament types and dimension scores.%目的:分析幼儿行为特点并探讨早期气质因素对行为问题发生的预测能力,为医务工作者及家长提供可能的干预措施,预防并减少行为问题的发生。方法选取1周岁幼儿共220人进入研究队列,采用气质问卷进行评估,2年后采用CBCL量表进行行为评估。结果幼儿行为问题发生率25.48%,其中心身问题18.75%、抑郁8.65%、社交退缩6.73%,各种行为问题的发

  19. [Factors associated with the psychological impact of the Great East Japan earthquake on high school students 1 year and 4 months after the disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Shunichi; Ohno, Takashi; Kodaka, Akira; Okuyama, Junko; Honda, Nami; Inoue, Takao; Sato, Yuki; Miyajima, Maki; Tomita, Hiroaki; Denda, Kenzou; Matsuoka, Hiroo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with the psychological impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on high school students 1 year and 4 months after the disaster, and clarify support needs of the students. In the outreach program for students of three high schools in coastal areas of southern Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, 1,973 students were surveyed after obtaining informed consent for participation. Questionnaires included: the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-J), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Impact of Event Scale-revised (IES-R), and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10). All scores were compared using SPSS 20.0 J between school grades, locations of the schools, and extent of damage due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Our analysis showed a significant positive correlation between school grades and the level of anxiety. PTSR scores, but not anxiety nor depressive scores, of students whose lives have suffered extensive damage were significantly higher than those of students who have not. Students of high schools which have suffered extensive damage and use temporary buildings showed significantly higher levels of depression and anxiety, and significantly lower resilience, compared to students of high schools which were not damaged. Although previous findings demonstrated that younger children have a higher risk of being influenced by disasters, symptoms related to PTSR and depression were found frequently in the high school students as well. Among the high school students, our analysis showed a positive correlation between the level of anxiety and school grades, probably because the disaster has affected an influential and pivotal point in their lives.

  20. [Prevention and treatment of acute diarrhea in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2007-11-01

    The prognosis of acute diarrhoea in infants is most often satisfactory in industrialized countries. However, it has been estimated that 10 to 15 children die every year in France from acute dehydration due to acute diarrhoea. In spite of an increasing use over the least few years, oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are used in only 70% of infants presenting with acute diarrhoea. The use of homemade ORS, plain water or fizzy drink should be strictly avoided. In case of acute diarrhoea there is no indication to stop breastfeeding or the use of infant formula for more than 4 hours. Lactose intolerance is observed in only 5-10% of infants. Lactose free formulae should only be used in infants with severe, persistent or recurrent diarrhoea. Under 3-4 months of age, infants with severe diarrhoea should receive for a period of 2-4 weeks lactose free protein hydrolysate formulae. Racecadotril is the only drug with anti-diarrheal properties, with a reduction of the stool output of 50%. Oral antibiotics should only be used in case of Shigella infection or in case of bacterial infection with severe sepsis or underlying debilitating disease. Oral Rotavirus vaccine, that is not reimbursed yet in France, has been shown to dramatically reduce the number of severe cases of diarrhoea with dehydration, and has been associated with a striking reduction of both morbidity and mortality, as well as of the number of hospitalisations during periods of epidemics.