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Sample records for 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative pd153035

  1. Potent cardioprotective effect of the 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative PD153035: involvement of mitochondrial K(ATP channel activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata A Cavalheiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of the 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative PD153035 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion and mitochondrial function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perfused rat hearts and cardiac HL-1 cells were used to determine cardioprotective effects of PD153035. Isolated rat heart mitochondria were studied to uncover mechanisms of cardioprotection. Nanomolar doses of PD153035 strongly protect against heart and cardiomyocyte damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion and cyanide/aglycemia. PD153035 did not alter oxidative phosphorylation, nor directly prevent Ca(2+ induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. The protective effect of PD153035 on HL-1 cells was also independent of AKT phosphorylation state. Interestingly, PD153035 activated K(+ transport in isolated mitochondria, in a manner prevented by ATP and 5-hydroxydecanoate, inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+ channels (mitoK(ATP. 5-Hydroxydecanoate also inhibited the cardioprotective effect of PD153035 in cardiac HL-1 cells, demonstrating that this protection is dependent on mitoK(ATP activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that PD153035 is a potent cardioprotective compound and acts in a mechanism involving mitoK(ATP activation.

  2. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035: implication of labeling position on radiometabolites formed in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samen, Erik [Karolinska Pharmacy, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Thorell, Jan-Olov [Karolinska Pharmacy, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anna [Karolinska Pharmacy, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, Sharon [Karolinska Pharmacy, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden) and Department Clinical Neurosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: sharon.stone-elander@karolinska.se

    2006-11-15

    Introduction: The epidermal growth factor receptor is highly expressed in several types of cancers. Molecules with high affinity to its intracellular tyrosine kinase domain are being developed as in vivo imaging probes. The 4-anilinoquinazoline PD153035 has promising in vitro and in vivo properties for development as a reversible radioligand. Labeling it with carbon-11 in either of its two methoxy positions can potentially give rise to different radiometabolites and, consequently, different imaging capabilities. An evaluation of the radiotracers' metabolism was needed to determine the potential significance of the labeling position. Methods: PD153035 was labeled in the 6- and 7-O-methoxy positions by reacting the corresponding O-desmethyl precursors with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. The two radiolabeled compounds were each incubated for 1 h with human and rat liver microsomes. At five time points, the radiolabeled metabolites were examined using radio-liquid chromatography. One metabolite was isolated and subjected to mass spectroscopic analysis. Results: A major polar metabolite was obtained in all incubations. Its molecular weight was consistent with an addition of oxygen, and its fragmentation was consistent with an N-oxidation rather than an aromatic hydroxylation. Regioselective 7-O-dealkylation was also observed, albeit in substantial amounts only in the assay using human microsomes. Conclusions: Radiolabeling in the 7-O-methoxy position is advocated, since the labeled metabolites produced in the 7-O-demethylation are polar and probably rapidly cleared. The differences observed in the incubations with rat and human microsomes suggest that in vivo positron emission tomography studies with {sup 11}C-labeled PD153035 in rodents may not be directly predictive for studies in humans.

  3. A General Synthetic Procedure for 2-chloromethyl-4(3H-quinazolinone Derivatives and Their Utilization in the Preparation of Novel Anticancer Agents with 4-Anilinoquinazoline Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lan Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In our ongoing research on novel anticancer agents with 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffolds, a series of novel 2-chloromethyl-4(3H-quinazolinones were needed as key intermediates. An improved one-step synthesis of 2-chloromethyl-4(3H-quinazolinones utilizing o-anthranilic acids as starting materials was described. Based on it, 2-hydroxy-methyl-4(3H-quinazolinones were conveniently prepared in one pot. Moreover, two novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives substituted with chloromethyl groups at the 2-position were synthesized and showed promising anticancer activity in vitro.

  4. Further characterization of the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand 11C-PD153035

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; YU Jin-ming; YANG Guo-ren; SONG Xian-rang; SUN Xiao-rong; ZHAO Shu-qiang; WANG Xing-wu; ZHAO Wei

    2007-01-01

    Background 11C-4-N-(3-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (11C-PD153035) has been reported as a tracer for imaging human tumors that overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However it is still unclear whether 11C-PD153035 uptake correlates with EGFR expression levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between 11C-PD153035 accumulation and EGFR expression levels.Methods Synthesis of 11C-PD153035 was performed in the Tracerlab FXc system. Accumulation of 11C-PD153035 by MDA-MB-468, A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells was measured in vitro. There were six tumor-bearing mice in each group.11C-PD153035 uptake in tumors was determined by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT).Tumor/normal muscle tissue (T/NT) analysis in PET images was applied to quantify the PET data. Sixty minutes after PET/CT scanning, the nude mice were sacrificed and the tumors were excised. The 11C-PD153035 accumulation in different tumors was determined by a gamma counter.Results Close correlation existed between the uptake and the level of EGFR expression both in vitro and ex vivo (r2=0.72, P<0.001; r2=0.63, P=0.003). When the static T/NT analysis method was applied to analyze the PET data, the observed correlation was again excellent (r2=0.70, P=0.001).Conclusions The uptake of PET tracer 11C-PD153035 closely correlates with the EGFR expression levels in tumor cells. 11C-PD153035 has the potential to yield useful information for both cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  5. Combined treatment with sodium butyrate and PD153035 enhances keratinocyte differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Sandra Leon; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling is a critical determinant of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in both normal and diseased skin. Here we explore the effects of combined treatment with the differentiation-promoting agent sodium butyrate (SB) and the EGFR inhibitor (EGFRI) PD153035 on terminal differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Cells treated with SB showed increased expression of the levels of mRNA and protein of the differentiation markers filaggrin and transglutaminase 1. Co-treatment with EGF significantly blunted these effects of SB. Combined treatment with SB and PD153035 alleviated these inhibitory actions of EGF, resulting in improved effects of decreased cell growth and increased terminal differentiation, relative to the individual treatments. These results indicate that the combined use of a differentiation-promoting agent and an EGFR inhibitor may offer an additional approach to the management of hyperproliferative skin diseases. PMID:24451036

  6. Exploration of chemical space based on 4-anilinoquinazoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D-D; Hou, Y-P; Wang, W; Zhu, H-L

    2012-01-01

    Chemical space is defined as all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems, which is so vast that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Indeed, a thorough examination of all "chemical space" is practically impossible. The success of three EGFR inhibitors (Gefitnib, Erlotinib, Lapatinib) suggests that 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffold is still worth developing in the future. To date hundreds of this sort of derivatives have been synthesized and show potent anticancer activities. Most of the compounds have been proved to be EGFR/HER2 kinase inhibitors, binding at the hinge region of the ATP site and some lead compounds have been optimized against a number of different kinases, including VEGFR-2, Src, Aurora A/B, Tpl, Clk and PDE10A. Now there is now a rich pipeline of novel anticancer agents based on 4-anilinoquinazoline in early phase clinical trials. This review will highlight the exploration of chemical space of 4-anilinoquinazoline in the past ten years and we hope that increasing knowledge of the SAR and cellular processes underlying the antitumor-activity of anilinoquinazoline derivatives will be beneficial to the rational design of new generation of small molecule anticancer drugs.

  7. Synthesis and anticancer effects of 6-nitro-4-anilinoquinazolines and 6-amino-4-anilinoquinazolines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓莉; 刘志红; 陈惠; 张生勇; 药立波

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase such as 6-nitro-4-anilinoquinazolines and 6-amino-4-anilinoquinazolines,and to compare their anticancer effects in vitro. Methods: The 4-anilinoquinazolines compounds were prepared by hydrolyzed, ringed, halagenated, substituded in turn from 2-amino-5-nitrobenzylcarbonitril. The synthesized 4- anilinoquinazoline compounds has been rudimentarily screened by using A431 tumor cell line which overexpresses epidermal growth factor receptor as model adopted MTT method. Results: Five 6-nitro-4-halo-sbstituted anilinoquinazolines and five 6-amino-4-halo-substituted anilinoquinazolines have been obtained,and all of them had anticancer activity. The anticancer activity of 6-amino substituted inhibitors was higher than that of 6-nitro substituted inhibitors. However, the difference of anticancer activity between two series of quinazoline was much less than that of their inhibiting EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. Conclusion: The probable reason for 6-nitro-4-anilinoquinazolines having anticancer activity in vitro was that they had been partially transformed to 6-amino-4-anilinoquinazolines through endocellular cytochrome oxidation-reduction system.

  8. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics modeling of covalent addition between EGFR-cysteine 797 and N-(4-anilinoquinazolin-6-yl) acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoferri, Luigi; Lodola, Alessio; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco

    2015-03-23

    Irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors can circumvent resistance to first-generation ATP-competitive inhibitors in the treatment of nonsmall-cell lung cancer. They covalently bind a noncatalytic cysteine (Cys797) at the surface of EGFR active site by an acrylamide warhead. Herein, we used a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) potential in combination with umbrella sampling in the path-collective variable space to investigate the mechanism of alkylation of Cys797 by the prototypical covalent inhibitor N-(4-anilinoquinazolin-6-yl) acrylamide. Calculations show that Cys797 reacts with the acrylamide group of the inhibitor through a direct addition mechanism, with Asp800 acting as a general base/general acid in distinct steps of the reaction. The obtained reaction free energy is negative (ΔA = -12 kcal/mol) consistent with the spontaneous and irreversible alkylation of Cys797 by N-(4-anilinoquinazolin-6-yl) acrylamide. Our calculations identify desolvation of Cys797 thiolate anion as a key step of the alkylation process, indicating that changes in the intrinsic reactivity of the acrylamide would have only a minor impact on the inhibitor potency.

  9. Absorption of CH330331, a novel 4-anilinoquinazoline inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase: comparative studies using in vitro, in situ and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Bi, Huichang; Huang, Min; Liu, Dong; Qin, Zhenyu

    2010-11-01

    CH330331 is a prototype of a new class of synthetic small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers, the in situ single-pass rat intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique with mesenteric vein cannulated and an in vivo animal model were employed to investigate its permeability and transepithelial transport mechanisms. The Caco-2 model showed that the transport of CH330331 across the monolayers from the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) side was 6- to 10-fold higher than that from the BL to AP side. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app) ) values of CH330331 at 5-20 µg/ml from the AP to BL and from BL to AP side were 5.30-2.21 × 10(-6)  cm/s, with a decrease in P(app) values from the AP to BL side at increased CH330331 concentrations. In the perfused rat intestinal model, a concentration dependent change in permeability was detected where P(blood) at 5 µg/ml (1.66 ± 0.69 × 10(-6)  cm/s) and 10 µg/ml (1.80 ± 0.45 × 10(-6)  cm/s) was significantly different from P(blood) at 20 µg/ml (0.98 ± 0.31 × 10(-6)  cm/s, prat. All the results confirmed that the transepithelial transport of CH330331 was rapid and saturable, which might involve an active mechanism. The oral bioavailability of CH330331 was relatively high in vivo.

  10. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  11. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  12. Derivative Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field \\phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants. Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(\\phi,X), where X is the canonical kinetic term for \\phi. The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for \\phi. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning...

  13. Derivative chameleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂μphi∂μphi,squphi,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(phi,∂μphi∂μphi). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for phi → phi+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  14. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  15. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  16. On $n$-derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sattari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations,  in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are  investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition  $n-$derivations are derivations.

  17. Derived logarithmic geometry I

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Sagave; Timo, Schurg; Gabriele, Vezzosi

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop the foundations of logarithmic derived geometry, we introduce a model category of logarithmic simplicial rings and a notion of derived log \\'etale maps and use this to define derived log stacks.

  18. A NEW FRACTAL DERIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Huan He

    2011-01-01

    A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively.

  19. Derived equivalence of algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜先能

    1997-01-01

    The derived equivalence and stable equivalence of algebras RmA and RmB are studied It is proved, using the tilting complex, that RmA and RmB are derived-equivalent whenever algebras A and B are derived-equivalent

  20. Perfect Derived Propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Christian

    2008-01-01

    When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear equations both with and without coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance. This paper shows how to use variable views, previously introduced for an implementation architecture, to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and channeling are developed for several variable domains. We evaluate the massive impact of derived propagators. Without derived propagators, Gecode would require 140000 rather than 40000 ...

  1. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  2. Numerical Integration with Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Cheng

    2006-01-01

    A new formula with derivatives for numerical integration was presented. Based on this formula and the Richardson extrapolation process, a numerical integration method was established. It can converge faster than the Romberg's. With the same accuracy, the computation of the new numerical integration with derivatives is only half of that of Romberg's numerical integration.

  3. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum;

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives...

  4. LR-PARSING DERIVED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1992-01-01

    The LR(k)-parsing algorithm is derived, i.e., presented and proved as an interplay between program development and parsing theory. The program development uses invariants and the new concept of weakest angelic precondition. The parsing theory involved relates rightmost derivability to three other tr

  5. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with.......The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...

  6. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  7. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective...... and injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product 􀀀 R 􀀀 using Gorenstein at modules....

  8. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  9. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate....... With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...

  10. Deriving diffeomorphism symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kleppe, Astri

    2014-01-01

    In an earlier article, we have "derived" space, as a part of the Random Dynamics project. In order to get locality we need to obtain reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. There we sketched a procedure for how to get locality by first obtaining reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. This is the object of the present article.

  11. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  12. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives ...

  13. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  14. Fractional Derivative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2009-01-01

    The degree by which a function can be differentiated need not be restricted to integer values. Usually most of the field equations of physics are taken to be second order, curiosity asks what happens if this is only approximately the case and the field equations are nearly second order. For Robertson-Walker cosmology there is a simple fractional modification of the Friedman and conservation equations. In general fractional gravitational equations similar to Einstein's are hard to define as this requires fractional derivative geometry. What fractional derivative geometry might entail is briefly looked at and it turns out that even asking very simple questions in two dimensions leads to ambiguous or intractable results. A two dimensional line element which depends on the Gamma-function is looked at.

  15. Systems of integrable derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Bonanzinga

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a commutative k-algebra, with k a subring of A. We give the definition of n-dimensional differentiation of A over k which formally extends the known one of unidimensional differentiation and we study the group of all n-dimensional differentiation of A over k. In the second part of the work we give some theorems of strong integrability for systems of derivations in terms of n-dimensional differentiation.

  16. Dynamic Stability Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    time; i.e., is evaluated at the steady-state reference flight condition. However, this derivation provides no definitive information about limits of...dimensional straight- tapered wing in unsteady flow. Assume that the lift is defined by a function that depends on properties of the fluid (density...kinematic viscocity, and speed-of-sound; wing geometric characteristics (area, mean aerodynamic chord and taper ratio); and its motion (free-stream

  17. Endostatin derivative angiogenesis inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Meng-jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective To throw light on the superiority of the anti-angiogenesis activity of endostatin (ES) derivatives by reviewing the recent progress in the field of ES molecular structure modification.Data sources The data used in this article were mainly from PubMed with relevant English articles published from 1971 to May 2008.The search terms were "endostatin" and "angiothesis".Study selection Articles involved in the ES molecular structure modification and the original milestone articles were selected.Results A number of ES derivatives were designed and studied to improve its clinical relevance.The modified ES with polyethylene glycol (PEG),low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and IgG Fc domain extended the circulation half-life.Meanwhile the recombinant ESs showed more potent anti-tumor activity than native ES in mouse xenografts.Mutated ES also changed its anti-angiogenesis activity.Conclusions The anti-angiogenesis treatment remains a promising tumor therapeutic strategy.New ES derivatives would be a good choice to meet the future challenge on clinical application of ES.

  18. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  19. In defense of derivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  20. Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N,  ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

  1. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  2. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) is a seamless, nationwide, multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) hydrologic database derived from a version of...

  3. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  4. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of the firm, using the concept of entrepreneurship as judgment introduced by Frank Knight. When judgment is complementary to other assets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labour and to own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then......, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his or her control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncetainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners may delegate a wide range of decision rights...... to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...

  5. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of firm using the Knightian concept of entrepreneurship as judgment. When judgment is complementary to other as-sets, and these assets or their services are traded in well-functioning markets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labor...... and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...... may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...

  6. On Q-derived polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Stroeker (Roel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their

  7. On Q-derived polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Stroeker (Roel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their

  8. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  9. Data Derivation Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kadam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.

  10. Data Derivation Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kadam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system  properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.

  11. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...

  12. Derivations, Products of Derivations, and Commutativity in Near-rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Howard E. Bell; Nurcan Argac

    2001-01-01

    For a zero-symmetric 3-prime near-ring N, we study three kinds of conditions: (a) conditions involving two derivations d1, d2 which imply that d1 = 0 or d2 = 0; (b) conditions involving derivations which force (N, +) to be abelian or N to be a commutative ring; (c) the condition that dn (S) is multiplicatively central for some derivation d and subset S of N.

  13. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....

  14. Phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvertkina, L. V.; Khoklov, P. S.; Mironov, Vladimir F.

    1992-10-01

    The present state of work on the methods of synthesis, chemical properties, and practical applications of phosphorus-containing derivatives of salicylic acid has been reviewed. The characteristics of the chemical transformations of cyclic and acyclic phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid related to the coordination state of the phosphorus atom have been examined. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  15. Nonholonomic constraints with fractional derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vasily E [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Zaslavsky, George M [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2006-08-04

    We consider the fractional generalization of nonholonomic constraints defined by equations with fractional derivatives and provide some examples. The corresponding equations of motion are derived using variational principle. We prove that fractional constraints can be used to describe the evolution of dynamical systems in which some coordinates and velocities are related to velocities through a power-law memory function.

  16. Tame-wild dichotomy for derived categories

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkert, Viktor I.; Drozd, Yuriy A.

    2003-01-01

    We prove that every finite dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field is either derived tame or derived wild. The proof is based on the technique of matrix problems (boxes and reduction algorithm). It implies, in particular, that any degeneration of a derived wild algebra is derived wild; respectively, any deformation of a derived tame algebra is derived tame.

  17. Derivatives of Frobenius and Derivatives of Hodge weights

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the derivatives of Frobenius and the derivatives of Hodge weights for families of Galois representations with triangulations. We generalize the Fontaine-Mazur $\\CL$-invariant and use it to build a formula which is a generalization of the Greenberg-Stevens-Colmez formula. For the purpose of proving this formula we show two auxiliary results called projection vanishing property and "projection vanishing implying $\\CL$-invariants" property.

  18. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116).

  19. Twisted derivations of Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    In the paper we introduce the notion of twisted derivation of a bialgebra. Twisted derivations appear as infinitesimal symmetries of the category of representations. More precisely they are infinitesimal versions of twisted automorphisms of bialgebras. Twisted derivations naturally form a Lie algebra (the tangent algebra of the group of twisted automorphisms). Moreover this Lie algebra fits into a crossed module (tangent to the crossed module of twisted automorphisms). Here we calculate this crossed module for universal enveloping algebras and for the Sweedler's Hopf algebra.

  20. Jordan-H\\"older theorems for derived categories of derived discrete algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yongyun

    2015-01-01

    For any positive integer $n$, $n$-derived-simple derived discrete algebras are classified up to derived equivalence. Furthermore, the Jordan-H\\"older theorems for all kinds of derived categories of derived discrete algebras are obtained.

  1. Higher Derivatives and Canonical Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    HAMAMOTO, Shinji

    1995-01-01

    A canonical formalism for higher-derivative theories is presented on the basis of Dirac's method for constrained systems. It is shown that this formalism shares a path integral expression with Ostrogradski's canonical formalism.

  2. View-based Propagator Derivation

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Christian

    2009-01-01

    When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear constraints both with unit and non-unit coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance than resorting to constraint decomposition. This paper shows how to use views to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and type conversion are developed. The paper introduces an implementation architecture for views that is independent of the underlying constraint programming system. A detailed evaluation of views implement...

  3. Derivations of generalized Weyl algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(苏育才)

    2003-01-01

    A class of the associative and Lie algebras A[D] = A × F[D] of Weyl type are studied, where Ais a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of characteristic zero, and F[D] isthe polynomial algebra of a finite dimensional commutative subalgebra of locally finite derivations of A suchthat A is D-simple. The derivations of these associative and Lie algebras are precisely determined.

  4. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  5. Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Weberszpil, José

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.

  6. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  7. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing...... quantities of interest. To be able to utilise the evidence about the derivative it is suggested to adapt the ‘conventional’ problem statement to variational calculus and the way to do so is demonstrated. A number of examples are given throughout the paper....

  8. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  9. Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  10. Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  11. Synthesis of Novel 3-Aryl Isoindolinone Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chen-ming; ZHENG Lian-you; PEI Ya-zhong; BAI Xu

    2013-01-01

    A library of novel 3-aryl isoindolinone derivatives with aromatic amino acid derivative fragments was designed and synthesized.Two synthetic routes were employed to construct 3-aryl isoindolinone ring system for different amino acid derivatives.

  12. Asymptotic aspect of derivations in Banach algebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jaiok; Chang, Ick-Soon

    2017-01-01

    We prove that every approximate linear left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra is continuous. Also, we consider linear derivations on Banach algebras and we first study the conditions for a linear derivation on a Banach algebra. Then we examine the functional inequalities related to a linear derivation and their stability. We finally take central linear derivations with radical ranges on semiprime Banach algebras and a continuous linear generalized left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra.

  13. Push-outs of derivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Let A be a Banach algebra and let X be a Banach A-bimodule. In studying H¹(A,X) it is often useful to extend a given derivation D: A->X to a Banach algebra B containing A as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approx......Let A be a Banach algebra and let X be a Banach A-bimodule. In studying H¹(A,X) it is often useful to extend a given derivation D: A->X to a Banach algebra B containing A as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded....../unbounded) approximate identities to obtain the extension as a limit of operators b->D(ba)-b.D(a), a in A, in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic...... by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations in all situations at the cost of enlarging the module. We use our construction to give improvements and shorter proofs of some results from the literature and to give a necessary and sufficient condition that biprojectivity and biflatness are inherited...

  14. Derived Categories of BHK Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Favero, David

    2016-01-01

    We prove a derived analogue to the results of Borisov, Clarke, Kelly, and Shoemaker on the birationality of Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirrors. Heavily bootstrapping off work of Seidel and Sheridan, we obtain Homological Mirror Symmetry for Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirror pencils to hypersurfaces in projective space.

  15. MCR Synthesis of Praziquantel Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Haixia; William, Samia; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Botros, Sanaa; Domling, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a high volume neglected tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide, can only be effectively treated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline drug praziquantel (PZQ). Herein, we describe an efficient approach to access PZQ derivatives by the Ugi 4-component reaction follo

  16. Antileishmanial activity of polycyclic derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarciron M.E.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available 33 polycyclic derivatives have been studied and tested on Leishmania donovani and L. major promastigotes. Their antileishmanial activity was assessed in vitro and an assay of their cytotoxicity was realized on human myelomonocytic cell line. The reference molecules used in the assays were amphotericin B and pentamidine. Among the compounds tested, 29 possess an antileishmanial activity; 25 of those were more active against L. donovani than amphotericin B, and nine were as effective as amphotericin B against L. major. Many synthesized derivatives were more active against L.donovani than against L. major. The cytotoxicity studies have shown that among the thirty-three derivatives tested, 12 molecules have an IC50 towards THP-1 cells about equal than that reference drugs, the 21 other derivatives are much less toxic. A 3D QSAR study was undertaken and has permitted to predict activity against L. donovani and L. major and to highlight critical area to optimize activity against the two species.

  17. Derivations of certain operator algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankui Li

    2000-01-01

    conditions under which any derivation δ from into L(H must be inner. The conditions include (1 H−≠H, (2 0+≠0, (3 there is a nontrivial projection in which is in , and (4 δ is norm continuous. We also give some pplications.

  18. Starches and their sugar derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, P. (Societe Roquette Freres, 62 - Lestrem (France))

    1982-12-01

    After reviewing the composition of natural starches and their uses, the author deals with starch transformation processes, either by physical processing or chemical treatment. He describes particularly the various starch hydrolysis products together with their derivatives, amongst which are sought products which could replace sugar.

  19. On Generalized Derivations in Nearrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rais Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate some results of nearrings satisfying certain identities involving generalized derivations. Furthermore, we give some examples to demonstrate the restrictions imposed on the hypothesis of various results which are not superfluous.

  20. Derivative couplings in massive bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.

  1. Derivative couplings in massive bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.

  2. Synthese asymetrique glycidol et derives

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La steereochilie (derive du grec ,singnifiant solide ) se refere a la chimie en trois dimensions(1) puisque la plupart des molecules sont tridimensionnelles, la stereochimie s'insere de fait dans pratiquement toute la chimie dans l'evaluation de la pensée chimique ,le concept de la sereochimie est venu relativement tard , une grande paati de la chimie ,souvent excellente de 19éme siecle, l'ingnore .

  3. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  4. Derivation of Hamiltonians for accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symon, K.R.

    1997-09-12

    In this report various forms of the Hamiltonian for particle motion in an accelerator will be derived. Except where noted, the treatment will apply generally to linear and circular accelerators, storage rings, and beamlines. The generic term accelerator will be used to refer to any of these devices. The author will use the usual accelerator coordinate system, which will be introduced first, along with a list of handy formulas. He then starts from the general Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field, using the accelerator coordinate system, with time t as independent variable. He switches to a form more convenient for most purposes using the distance s along the reference orbit as independent variable. In section 2, formulas will be derived for the vector potentials that describe the various lattice components. In sections 3, 4, and 5, special forms of the Hamiltonian will be derived for transverse horizontal and vertical motion, for longitudinal motion, and for synchrobetatron coupling of horizontal and longitudinal motions. Hamiltonians will be expanded to fourth order in the variables.

  5. Generalized derivations and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, M; Pysiak, L; Sasin, W

    2013-01-01

    We construct differential geometry (connection, curvature, etc.) based on generalized derivations of an algebra A. Such a derivation, introduced by Bresar in 1991, is given by a linear mapping u: A -> A such that there exists a usual derivation d of A satisfying the generalized Leibniz rule u(a b) = u(a) b + a d(b) for all a,b in A. The generalized geometry "is tested" in the case of the algebra of smooth functions on a manifold. We then apply this machinery to study the generalized general relativity. We define the Einstein-Hilbert action and deduce from it Einstein's field equations. We show that for a special class of metrics containing, besides the usual metric components, only one non-zero term, the action reduces to O'Hanlon action that is a Brans-Dicke action with potential and with the parameter \\omega equal to zero. We also show that the generalized Einstein equations (with zero energy-stress tensor) are equivalent to those of the Kaluza-Klein theory satisfying a "modified cylinder condition" and hav...

  6. Push-Outs of Derivations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Niels Grønbæk

    2008-05-01

    Let $\\mathfrak{A}$ be a Banach algebra and let be a Banach $\\mathfrak{A}$-bimodule. In studying $\\mathcal{H}^1(\\mathfrak{A},X)$ it is often useful to extend a given derivation $D:\\mathfrak{A}→ X$ to a Banach algebra $\\mathfrak{B}$ containing $\\mathfrak{A}$ as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approximate identities to obtain the extension as a limit of operators $b\\mapsto D(ba)-b.D(a), a\\in\\mathfrak{A}$ in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations in all situations at the cost of enlarging the module. We use our construction to give improvements and shorter proofs of some results from the literature and to give a necessary and sufficient condition that biprojectivity and biflatness is inherited to ideals.

  7. Whither the common law derivative action

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, JL

    2009-01-01

    The common law derivative action was developed as a result of decades of case law in common law jurisdictions. Hong Kong and Singapore continue to retain the common law derivative action within their respective legal frameworks, despite both having enacted statutory derivative actions. This paper considers the situations in which the common law derivative action continues to have practical application in each of these jurisdictions. It then considers whether the common law derivative acti...

  8. Noether theorems and higher derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Paul K

    2016-01-01

    A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time; the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of $\\ddot \\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. While $Q=0$ implies a restricted gauge invariance, an unrestricted gauge invariance requires zero Noetherian charges too. Some illustrative examples are considered.

  9. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, J A

    1989-05-01

    Linear invariants, discovered by Lake, promise to provide a versatile way of inferring phylogenies on the basis of nucleic acid sequences (the method that he called "evolutionary parsimony"). A semigroup of Markov transition matrices embodies the assumptions underlying the method, and alternative semigroups exist. The set of all linear invariants may be derived from the semigroup by using an algorithm described here. Under assumptions no stronger than Lake's, there are greater than 50 independent linear invariants for each of the 15 rooted trees linking four species.

  10. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  11. Synthesis of oleanolic disaccharide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Chen Pei; Jian Bo Wu; Fan Lei; Shan Qian; Li Hai; Yong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Oleanolic acid 1 exists widely in food,medicinal herbs and other plants and possesses many attractive biological activities.Recently,some oleanolic derivatives were reported to have interesting anti-tumor activities.Herein,using association principle of drug design,OA disaccharide 17 was designed and synthesized by coupling α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl disaccharide moiety,which has proved to be a unique sugar sequence with strongly antitumor activity,and modified OA with a nitrile at C-17.

  12. Cosmology with Nonminimal Derivative Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Amendola, L

    1993-01-01

    We study a theory which generalizes the nonminimal coupling of matter to gravity by including derivative couplings. This leads to several interesting new dynamical phenomena in cosmology. In particular, the range of parameters in which inflationary attractors exist is greatly expanded. We also numerically integrate the field equations and draw the phase space of the model in second order approximation. The model introduced here may display different inflationary epochs, generating a non-scale-invariant fluctuation spectrum without the need of two or more fields. Finally, we comment on the bubble spectrum arising during a first-order phase transition occurring in our model.

  13. Hypoxic radiosensitizers: substituted styryl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, A; Falb, E; Odesa, Y; Shmueli-Broide, N

    1994-10-01

    A number of novel styryl epoxides, N-substituted-styryl-ethanolamines, N-mono and N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-cinnamamides--analogues to the known radiosensitizers RSU-1069, pimonidazole and etanidazole--display selective hypoxic radiosensitizing activity. The styryl group, especially when substituted by electron withdrawing groups, was found to be bioisosteric to the nitroimidazolyl functionality. The most active derivative 2-(2'-nitrophenyl)ethen-1-yl-oxirane 8a displayed a sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of 5 relative to misonidazole.

  14. Asymptotic vacua with higher derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotsakis, Spiros, E-mail: skot@aegean.gr [Department of Mathematics, American University of the Middle East, P.O. Box 220 Dasman, 15453 (Kuwait); Kadry, Seifedine, E-mail: Seifedine.Kadry@aum.edu.kw [Department of Mathematics, American University of the Middle East, P.O. Box 220 Dasman, 15453 (Kuwait); Kolionis, Georgios, E-mail: gkolionis@aegean.gr [Research group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, University of the Aegean, Karlovassi 83200, Samos (Greece); Tsokaros, Antonios, E-mail: atsok@aegean.gr [Research group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, University of the Aegean, Karlovassi 83200, Samos (Greece)

    2016-04-10

    We study limits of vacuum, isotropic universes in the full, effective, four-dimensional theory with higher derivatives. We show that all flat vacua as well as general curved ones are globally attracted by the standard, square root scaling solution at early times. Open vacua asymptote to horizon-free, Milne states in both directions while closed universes exhibit more complex logarithmic singularities, starting from initial data sets of a possibly smaller dimension. We also discuss the relation of our results to the asymptotic stability of the passage through the singularity in ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies.

  15. Asymptotic vacua with higher derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Cotsakis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We study limits of vacuum, isotropic universes in the full, effective, four-dimensional theory with higher derivatives. We show that all flat vacua as well as general curved ones are globally attracted by the standard, square root scaling solution at early times. Open vacua asymptote to horizon-free, Milne states in both directions while closed universes exhibit more complex logarithmic singularities, starting from initial data sets of a possibly smaller dimension. We also discuss the relation of our results to the asymptotic stability of the passage through the singularity in ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies.

  16. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  17. Data derived NARMAX Dst model

    OpenAIRE

    Boynton, R J; M. A. Balikhin; S. A. Billings; Sharma, A.S.; Amariutei, O.A

    2011-01-01

    The NARMAX OLS-ERR methodology is applied to identify a mathematical model for the dynamics of the Dst index. The NARMAX OLS-ERR algorithm, which is widely used in the field of system identification, is able to identify a mathematical model for a wide class of nonlinear systems using input and output data. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions, derived from analytical or data based methods, are employed as the inputs to such models and the outputs are geomagnetic indices. The newly dedu...

  18. Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Yong PAN

    2016-01-01

    Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.

  19. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.

  20. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC stra

  1. Derived bracket construction up to homotopy

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, K

    2012-01-01

    We will introduce the notion of higher derived bracket construction in the category of operads and prove that the higher derived bracket construction of Lie operad is equivalent with the cobar construction of Leibniz operad.

  2. Higgs Potential from Derivative Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Quadri, A

    2016-01-01

    A formulation of the linear $\\sigma$ model with derivative interactions is studied. The theory is on-shell equivalent to the model with a quartic Higgs potential. The mass of the scalar mode only appears in the quadratic part and not in the interaction vertices, unlike in the ordinary formulation of the theory. Renormalization of the model is discussed. A natural non power-counting renormalizable extension of the theory is presented. The model is physically equivalent to the inclusion of a dimension six effective operator $\\partial_\\mu (\\Phi^\\dagger \\Phi) \\partial^\\mu (\\Phi^\\dagger \\Phi)$. The resulting UV divergences are arranged in a perturbation series around the power-counting renormalizable theory. UV completion of the non-power-counting renormalizable model through a symmetric deformation of the propagator of the massive physical scalar is addressed.

  3. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Towards a Derivation of Space

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, H B

    2014-01-01

    This attempt to "derive" space is part of the Random Dynamics project. The Random Dynamics philosophy is that what we observe at our low energy level can be interpreted as some Taylor tail of the physics taking place at a higher energy level, and all the concepts like numbers, space, symmetry, as well as the known physical laws, emerge from a "fundamental world machinery" being a most general, random mathematical structure. Here we concentrate on obtaining spacetime in such a Random Dynamics way. Because of quantum mechanics, we get space identified with about half the dimension of the phase space of a very extended wave packet, which we call "the Snake". In the last section we also explain locality from diffeomorphism symmetry.

  5. Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.

  6. Topological Derivatives in Shape Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, Antonio André

    2013-01-01

    The topological derivative is defined as the first term (correction) of the asymptotic expansion of a given shape functional with respect to a small parameter that measures the size of singular domain perturbations, such as holes, inclusions, defects, source-terms and cracks. Over the last decade, topological asymptotic analysis has become a broad, rich and fascinating research area from both theoretical and numerical standpoints. It has applications in many different fields such as shape and topology optimization, inverse problems, imaging processing and mechanical modeling including synthesis and/or optimal design of microstructures, sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics and damage evolution modeling. Since there is no monograph on the subject at present, the authors provide here the first account of the theory which combines classical sensitivity analysis in shape optimization with asymptotic analysis by means of compound asymptotic expansions for elliptic boundary value problems. This book is intende...

  7. Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like am
    option based on gold, when national currency has a great float.
    Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.

  8. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

  9. On the objectivity of time derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matolcsi, Tamas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A four-dimensional treatment of nonrelativistic space-time gives a natural frame to deal with objective time derivatives. In this framework some well known objective time derivatives of continuum mechanics appear as Lie-derivatives. Their coordinatized forms depends on the tensorial properties of the relevant physical quantities.

  10. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  11. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively on the basis of source documents or classification guides shall bear all markings prescribed...

  12. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    CERN Document Server

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  13. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... underlying assets, indices, or reference rates. The most common types of financial derivatives are futures, forward commitments, options, and swaps. A mortgage derivative security, such as a collateralized mortgage... Interest Rate Risk, Investment Securities, and Derivatives Activities,” and other applicable...

  14. Derivations and identities for Kravchuk polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Bedratyuk, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Kravchuk derivations of the polynomial algebra. We prove that any element of the kernel of the derivation gives a polynomial identity satisfied by the Kravchuk polynomials. Also, we prove that any kernel element of the basic Weitzenb\\"ok derivations yields a polynomial identity satisfied by the Kravchuk polynomials. We describe the corresponding intertwining maps.

  15. Covariant derivative of fermions and all that

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Ilya L

    2016-01-01

    We present detailed pedagogical derivation of covariant derivative of fermions and some related expressions, including commutator of covariant derivatives and energy-momentum tensor of a free Dirac field. The text represents a part of the initial chapter of a one-semester course on semiclassical gravity.

  16. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  17. Bioactive terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissawy, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S; Singab, AbdelNasser B; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-03

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years' reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  18. Jordan Higher Derivable Mappings on Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R be a ring. We say that a family of maps D={dn}n∈N is a Jordan higher derivable map (without assumption of additivity on R if d0=IR (the identity map on R and dn(ab+ba=∑p+q=n‍dp(adq(b+∑p+q=n‍dp(bdq(a hold for all a,b∈R and for each n∈N. In this paper, we show that every Jordan higher derivable map on a ring under certain assumptions becomes a higher derivation. As its application, we get that every Jordan higher derivable map on Banach algebra is an additive higher derivation.

  19. Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Emanuel, George

    2012-01-01

    Working knowledge of the relations of various quantities and their derivatives across a shock wave is useful for any advanced research involving shock waves. Although these relations can be derived in principle by any diligent student of the subject, the derivations are often not trivial, and once derived, neither the approach nor the result can be confidently verified. Comprehensive and analytical, Shock Wave Dynamics: Derivatives and Related Topics includes not only the final results but also the methods, which are of great practical value as examples of mathematical procedure in this field.

  20. Time derivative of earthquake acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Tong; Guo-Quan Wang; George C.Lee

    2005-01-01

    Unlike acceleration, velocity, and displacement, the time derivative of acceleration (TDoA) of ground motion has not been extensively studied. In this paper, the basic characteristics of TDoA are evaluated based on records from the 1999Chi-Chi, earthquake (Mw 7.6) and one of its aftershocks (Mw 6.2). It is found that the maximum TDoA at a free-field station was over 31,200 crm/s3 (31.8 g/s); and the duration of "strong" TDoA, between the first and the last time points exceeding 2,000 cm/s3 (2 g/s), was almost one minute near the epicenter area. Since ground TDoA sensors are not commonly available,the time series are calculated by direct numerical differentiation of acceleration time series. Relative error analysis shows that the error is non-transitive and total error is within 4%. The density function of TDoA amplitude, frequency content and spatial distribution of peak ground jerk (PGJ) are evaluated. The study also includes examination of some TDoA responses from a seven-story building and comparison of ground TDoA with the limit TDoA used in the transportation industry for ride comfort. Some potential impacts of TDoA on humans have also been reviewed.

  1. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  2. Animal-derived pharmaceutical proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, el-Rashdy M

    2009-01-01

    Livestock animals have made a significant contribution to human health and well-being throughout humankind's history. A significant contribution of farm animals to human health are the longstanding use of bovine and porcine for production of insulin (for treatment of diabetes), gelatin (for pharmaceutical and other purposes), as well as horse and sheep antibody against natural venoms, toxins, drugs and microbial peptides. Gelatin being the biggest animal protein consumed in human health, follows with antibodies fragments. The chronic problem of animal-derived therapeutics, especially those of high molecular weight, is the immunogenicity induction in addition to their biosafety. However, the invertebrates and lower vertebrates donate the human being a several crucial emergency saving life small-peptides or their analogs such as Refludan, Prialt, Exendin. Not only, but the farm animals are enormously using as models for novel surgical strategies, testing of biodegradable implants and sources of tissue replacements, such as skin and heart valves. Recently, they are being harnessing as bioreactor for production of biopharmaceutical related products through gene farming with efficiency far greater than any conventional microbial or cell-culture production systems. Only 16 transgenic cows would be covering the worldwide needs from human growth hormone. The transgenic, especially animal, technology would be solving a several biopharmaceutical products disadvantages, such as cost, biosafety, immunogenicity and the availability dimensions.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet...

  4. Die derivation der slowenischen substantive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ]ože Toporišič

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Von der traditionellen slowenischen Wortbildungslehre von Substantiven mit den Suffixen (s. g. Derivation wird die betreffende Problematik so dargestellt, dass man - nach Miklošič's Vorbild - von Suffixen mit einem charakteristischen Konsonanten (oder mit eine charakteristischen Konsonantengruppe aus gehend bei verschiedenen Wortartbasen (Zeitwort, Adjektiv, Substantiv die semantischen kategorien von Wortbildungen mit »demselben« Suffix aufzählt. Aber schon bei A. Bajec (Besedotvorje slovenskega jezika, 1950 findet man auch das Kapitel »Die Suffixe nach ihren Bedeutungen, worin Suffixe für 24 Bedeutungsgruppen festgehalten sind. In der Slovenska slovnica (1956 gibt es 16, im Slovenski knjižni jezik 2 (1966 aber 13 solcher Gruppen von Suffixen. Der vorliegende Ausatz geht ebenfalls von den semantischen Kategorien aus, versucht aber die Zahl der Bedeutungskategorien, die aus verhalen, adjekvsehen oder substantiviseher Basen mit Hilfe von Suffixen gebildet werden, auf 6 grosse Gruppen zu reduzieren. Diese 6 Gruppen sind: 1. die Namen der Agenten, des Eigenschaftstragers und der Verbundenheit; 2. die Namen der Werkzeuge, 3. die Namen der Handlung, der Eigenschaft und des Zustandes, 4. die Namen der vergegenständlichten Tat oder Eigenschaft, 5. die Namen der Lokalisierung und 6. Verschiedene. Nur bei den Wortbildungen aus einer substantivischen Basis gibt es noch eine besondere, die s. g. Modifikationsbedeutungsgruppe (Feminativa und Maskulinativa, Kollektiva, Gradativa, Iuvenalia, Diminutiva, Diminutivhipokoristika, Diminutivpeirotiva und Peiorativa. - Dabei wird keine Riick­ sicht darauf genommen, ob diese Suffixe genain slowenisch oder aus anderen Sprachen übernommen sind. Die Berechtigung dafiir gibt uns nicht nur die produktive Wortbildung mit den entlehnten (nichtautochtonen Suffixen im gegenwärtigen Slowenisch, sondern (was noch wichtiger ist auch das richtige Verständnisvermögen der Sprecher für solche Wortbildungen im

  5. A derivational rephrasing experiment for question answering

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    In Knowledge Management, variations in information expressions have proven a real challenge. In particular, classical semantic relations (e.g. synonymy) do not connect words with different parts-of-speech. The method proposed tries to address this issue. It consists in building a derivational resource from a morphological derivation tool together with derivational guidelines from a dictionary in order to store only correct derivatives. This resource, combined with a syntactic parser, a semantic disambiguator and some derivational patterns, helps to reformulate an original sentence while keeping the initial meaning in a convincing manner This approach has been evaluated in three different ways: the precision of the derivatives produced from a lemma; its ability to provide well-formed reformulations from an original sentence, preserving the initial meaning; its impact on the results coping with a real issue, ie a question answering task . The evaluation of this approach through a question answering system shows...

  6. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives ñ especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes ñ financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  7. Speeding up Derivative Configuration from Product Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Heradio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To compete in the global marketplace, manufacturers try to differentiate their products by focusing on individual customer needs. Fulfilling this goal requires that companies shift from mass production to mass customization. Under this approach, a generic architecture, named product platform, is designed to support the derivation of customized products through a configuration process that determines which components the product comprises. When a customer configures a derivative, typically not every combination of available components is valid. To guarantee that all dependencies and incompatibilities among the derivative constituent components are satisfied, automated configurators are used. Flexible product platforms provide a big number of interrelated components, and so, the configuration of all, but trivial, derivatives involves considerable effort to select which components the derivative should include. Our approach alleviates that effort by speeding up the derivative configuration using a heuristic based on the information theory concept of entropy.

  8. Generalized derivations of Lie triple systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present some basic properties concerning the derivation algebra Der (T, the quasiderivation algebra QDer (T and the generalized derivation algebra GDer (T of a Lie triple system T, with the relationship Der (T ⊆ QDer (T ⊆ GDer (T ⊆ End (T. Furthermore, we completely determine those Lie triple systems T with condition QDer (T = End (T. We also show that the quasiderivations of T can be embedded as derivations in a larger Lie triple system.

  9. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  10. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease.

  11. Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Miao, Rong-Xin

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  12. Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  13. Higher derivations on rings and modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Bland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Let τ be a hereditary torsion theory on ModR and suppose that Qτ:ModR→ModR is the localization functor. It is shown that for all R-modules M, every higher derivation defined on M can be extended uniquely to a higher derivation defined on Qτ(M if and only if τ is a higher differential torsion theory. It is also shown that if τ is a TTF theory and Cτ:M→M is the colocalization functor, then a higher derivation defined on M can be lifted uniquely to a higher derivation defined on Cτ(M.

  14. Synthesis of Polynuclear Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Hassan

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of 2-hydrazino-3-methyl-3,4-dihydrothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives 2a,b with aliphatic acids afforded the thienotriazolopyrimidinone derivatives 3a-d, with nitrous acid yielded tetrazolothienopyrimidinone derivatives 4a,b and with carbon disulphide furnished 3-mercaptothienotriazolopyrimidinone derivatives 5a,b. Also, 2a,b reacted with aldehydes to afford the arylhydrazones 6a-f which cyclized into thienotriazolopyrimidinone derivatives 7a-f. Furthermore, 2a,b condensed with ethyl acetoacetate and ethyl cyanoacetate to afford 2-(1-pyrazolyl derivatives 9a,b and 10a,b, respectively. On the other hand, 2-hydrazino derivatives 2a,b condensed with a-halo-ketones to yield thienpyrimidotriazinone derivatives 11a,b and with β-diketones, to form 2-(1-pyrazolyl derivatives 12a-f.

  15. Properties of derivations on some convolution algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Vils

    2014-01-01

    For all convolution algebras L1[0; 1); L1 loc and A(!) = T n L1(!n), the derivations are of the form Dμf = Xf μ for suitable measures μ, where (Xf)(t) = tf(t). We describe the (weakly) compact as well as the (weakly) Montel derivations on these algebras in terms of properties of the measure μ...

  16. Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R. H.; Ardiyanti, A. R.; Wildschut, J.; Oasmaa, A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited

  17. An All-Orders Derivative Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Gerald(Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, U.S.A.)

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate the exact $QED_{2+1}$ effective action for fermions in the presence of a family of static but spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field profiles. This exact result yields an all-orders derivative expansion of the effective action, and indicates that the derivative expansion is an asymptotic, rather than a convergent, expansion.

  18. Structure-activity relationships of bumetanide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Töllner, Kathrin; Römermann, Kerstin;

    2015-01-01

    of diuretics such as bumetanide. Bumetanide was discovered by screening ∼5000 3-amino-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives, long before NKCC2 was identified in the kidney. Therefore, structure-activity studies on effects of bumetanide derivatives on NKCC2 are not available. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study...

  19. Covariant derivative expansion of the heat kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, L.L. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Granada (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    Using the technique of labeled operators, compact explicit expressions are given for all traced heat kernel coefficients containing zero, two, four and six covariant derivatives, and for diagonal coefficients with zero, two and four derivatives. The results apply to boundaryless flat space-times and arbitrary non-Abelian scalar and gauge background fields. (orig.)

  20. Stereoselective synthesis of partially protected azasugar derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoliu; DUAN Kefang; TIAN Jun; XU Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    Five-membered azasugar derivatives with partially protected hydroxyl groups,and their fluorinated derivatives were synthesized via the key intermediates of norbornyl-like bicyclic acetals using o-xylose and o-glucose as starting materials.The glycosylation of the azasugar intermediate and 1-methylenesugar was also explored.

  1. Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Torres, Delfim F M

    2012-01-01

    We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.

  2. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  3. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  4. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  5. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  6. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  7. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  8. Generalized Derivative Based Kernelized Learning Vector Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleif, Frank-Michael; Villmann, Thomas; Hammer, Barbara; Schneider, Petra; Biehl, Michael; Fyfe, Colin; Tino, Peter; Charles, Darryl; Garcia-Osoro, Cesar; Yin, Hujun

    2010-01-01

    We derive a novel derivative based version of kernelized Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (KGLVQ) as an effective, easy to interpret, prototype based and kernelized classifier. It is called D-KGLVQ and we provide generalization error bounds, experimental results on real world data, showing t

  9. Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole.

  10. The Option Value in Timing Derivative Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Feico; van der Heijden, T.G.E.; Werker, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Risk-neutral traders executing derivative trades on behalf of portfolio managers maximize their expected profit compared to trading at pre-determined times by timing trades, using the quickly changing risk exposures of derivative baskets. The optimal order submission strategy is a sequence of stop o

  11. Understanding the Derivative through the Calculus Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eric; Tallman, Michael; Byerley, Cameron; Thompson, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Typical treatments of the derivative do not clearly convey the idea that the derivative function represents the original function's rate of change. Revealing the relationship between a function and its rate-of-change function for static values of "x" does not facilitate productive ways of thinking about generating the rate-of-change function or…

  12. Biology-Derived Algorithms in Engineering Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    Biology-derived algorithms are an important part of computational sciences, which are essential to many scientific disciplines and engineering applications. Many computational methods are derived from or based on the analogy to natural evolution and biological activities, and these biologically inspired computations include genetic algorithms, neural networks, cellular automata, and other algorithms.

  13. Simplicial approach to derived differential manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Borisov, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Derived differential manifolds are constructed using the usual homotopy theory of simplicial rings of smooth functions. They are proved to be equivalent to derived differential manifolds of finite type, constructed using homotopy sheaves of homotopy rings (D.Spivak), thus preserving the classical cobordism ring. This reduction to the usual algebraic homotopy can potentially lead to virtual fundamental classes beyond obstruction theory.

  14. Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.In chapter 1 of this thesis we discuss some appl

  15. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  16. Additive Lie ($\\xi$-Lie) Derivations and Generalized Lie ($\\xi$-Lie) Derivations on Prime Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Xiaofei

    2010-01-01

    The additive (generalized) $\\xi$-Lie derivations on prime algebras are characterized. It is shown, under some suitable assumption, that an additive map $L$ is an additive (generalized) Lie derivation if and only if it is the sum of an additive (generalized) derivation and an additive map from the algebra into its center vanishing all commutators; is an additive (generalized) $\\xi$-Lie derivation with $\\xi\

  17. Catalytic Synthesis Methods for Triazolopyrimidine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new method for catalyzed synthesis of triazolopyrimidine derivatives is reported. Aikylamine reaction with dialkyl cyanodithioiminocarbonate was catalyzed by quaternary ammonium salts at room temperature to yield 3-alkylamine-5-amino-1,2,4-triazole in good quality and high yields. After imidization and reaction with an α,β-unsaturated acid derivative, the reaction intermediate was hydrolyzed in the presence of a Lewis acid to obtain the target product. This novel catalytic method for triazolopyrimidine derivatives can be carried out under inexpen-sive and mild conditions, and is safe and environmentally friendly. IH NMR results for all intermediates are re-ported.

  18. Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei YAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.

  19. Monocyte-Derived Suppressor Cells in Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando, Jordi; Conde, Patricia; Bronte, Vincenzo

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are cells of myeloid origin with enhanced suppressive function. They are negative regulators of the immune responses and comprise a heterogeneous mixture of immunosuppressive cells of monocytic (M-MDSC) and granulocytic (G-MDSC) origin. A more recent nomenclature proposes the term "suppressive monocyte derived cells" (suppressive MCs) to define CSF1/CSF2-dependent mouse suppressor cells that develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) after birth. Here, we review the literature about monocytic-derived cells with demonstrated suppressor function in vitro and in vivo within the context of solid organ transplantation.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TITANOCENE POLYMER DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhuting; SUN Shumen

    1988-01-01

    Titanocene polymer derivatives with potential antitumor properties were synthesized by interfacial condensation. The preformed polymers used are PAA (polyacrylic acid), CPSMA (1:1 alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride) and DVEMA (1:2 copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride). The ratio of practical and theoretical titanium content is 73.6%, 92.2% and 86.2% for PAA, CPSMA and DVEMA polymer derivatives respectively. The IR spectra of the polymer derivatives possess the characteristic absorptions of titanocene. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) of O1s and Ti2p3/2 supports the existence of Ti-O bonding.

  1. Test Derivation Through Critical Path Transitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 魏道政

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique called test derivation is presented,aiming at the promotion of the random testing efficiency for combinational circuits,Combined with a fault simulator based on critical path tracing method,we introduce the concept of seed test derivation and attempt to generate a group of new tests from the seed test by means of critical path transition.The neccessary conditions and efficient algorithms are proposed to guarantee the usefulness of the newly derived tests and the correctness of the critical path transitions.Also,examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  2. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  3. SYNTHESES AND PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIZABLE METALLOPHTHALOCYANINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunqi; YAMADA Akira; SHIGEHARA Kiyotaka; HARA Masahiko

    1988-01-01

    Metallophthalocyanine derivatives with polymerizable vinyl groups were synthesized, characterized and polymerized. Preliminary results on their Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film formation and the electronic properties of (Indium-Tin Oxide/LB-film/Al) Schottky devices were reported.

  4. Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉

    2002-01-01

    Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphiphilicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around 0.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.

  5. Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉

    2002-01-01

    Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphi-philicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around C.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.

  6. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Benzophenone Dianhydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the composition and processes for preparing thermoset polyimides derived from an asymmetric dianhydride, namely 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) with at least one diamine, and a monofunctional terminal endcaps. The monofunctional terminating groups include 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride ester-acid derivatives, phenylethyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA) and its ester derivatives as well as 3-phenylethynylaniline. The process of polyimide composite comprises impregnating monomer reactants of dianhydride or its ester-acid derivatives, diamine and with monofunctional reactive endcaps into glass, carbon, quartz or synthetic fibers and fabrics, and then stack up into laminates and subsequently heated to between 150-375.degree. C. either at atmosphere or under pressure to promote the curing and crosslinking of the reactive endcaps to form a network of thermoset polyimides.

  7. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Shukla

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of benzimidazoles derivative involves subsequent synthesis of 4-(2-chloro-ethoxy-benzaldehyde, 4 methyl benzaldehyde followed by benzimidazoles derivative by reaction between amines derivatives and o-phenylenediamine in dimethyl farmamide (DMF as solvent in the presence of iodine as a catalyst. Iodine is a commercial and environmentally benign catalyst. The yield of all benzimidazole derivatives was found to be in the range of 75 – 94%. The purity of the compounds was ascertained by melting point and TLC. The synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR,1H NMR, and MASS spectral data together with elemental analysis. The synthesized benzimidazole compounds were screened for analgesic and anticonvulsant activity in albino rat (100-200gm by using Writhing test and maximal electroshock (MES. Out of all compound studied only PS-3, PS-4, PS-5 and PS-6 showed significant analgesic activities and response against MES test.

  8. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  9. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF SOME NEW AMINOPYRIDINIUM DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniyan Navaneethakrishnan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminopyridinium derivative such as Ethyl-2-(4-chloroamino pyridinium acetate (compound A,Ethyl-2-(4-bromoamino pyridinium acetate (compound B, Ethyl-2-(3-chloroaminopyridinium acetate (compound C have been evaluated for analgesic, anti anxiety and locomotor activity. All the aminopyridinium derivative prepared by the dose (50&100mg/kg/i.p, which shown significant analgesic activity when compared to morphine (5mg/kg/i.p.In case of open field exploratory and elevated plus maze test, the aminopyridinium derivatives prepared by the dose( 50&100mg/Kg/oral reverse the anxiety behavior of the mice when compared to lorazepam (0.5mg/kg/oral. Among this, compound C (100/mg/kg produce better effect than others. Locomotor activity in the activity cage, the reaction time of Aminopyridinium derivative A, B&C produce more effective Central nerve depressant effect than Diazepam (2mg/kg/i.p drug.

  10. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  11. A New Synthetic Approach to Coumestan Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG, Deng-Huang; LI, Chao-Zhong; YUAN, Cheng-Ye

    2001-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of coumestan derivatives was described involving an intramolecular palladium-catalyzed ring closure reaction of coumarins obtained from condensation of substituted o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and o-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  12. Higher Derivative Corrections To Extended Supersymmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, G A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate higher-derivative terms in N = 2 supersymmetric effective actions. We systematically construct such terms in harmonic superspace despite the infinite redundancy in their description due to the infinite number of auxiliary fields. We write all 3- and 4-derivative terms on Higgs, Coulomb, and mixed branches, modulo the existence of superspace Chern-Simons-like terms. Among these terms are several with only holomorphic dependence on fields, and at least one satisfies a non-renormalization theorem. We then search for superspace Chern-Simons-like terms, which are those gauge-invariant terms which cannot be written solely in terms of field strength superfields and covariant derivatives, but in which gauge potential superfield appears explicitly. We find a class of four- derivative terms with N = 2 supersymmetry which, though locally on the Coulomb branch can be written solely in terms of field strengths, globally on the Coulomb branch are superspace Chern- Simons-like.

  13. Synthesis of Nucleoside Derivatives Containing Benzophenoxazinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu GAO; Wu Xin ZOU; Ling WU; Jin Shui LI; Ji Tao WANG; Ji Ben MENG

    2004-01-01

    Two new nucleoside derivatives containing benzophenoxazinone moiety were synthesized. Their luminescence spectra show that they have strong near infrared fluorescence. Our study provides a new method for direct introduction of near infrared fluorescent probe to bioactive molecules.

  14. Truncation Analysis for the Derivative Schrodinger Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Peng Cheng; CHANG Qian Shun; GUO Bo Ling

    2002-01-01

    The truncation equation for the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been dis-cussed in this paper. The existence of a special heteroclinic orbit has been found by using geometricalsingular perturbation theory together with Melnikov's technique.

  15. Two New Butenolide Derivatives from Erigeron acer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two new butenolide derivatives, named as erigeracerin A and erigeracerin B, which are a pair of epimers, were isolated from Erigeron acer. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS.

  16. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  17. DERIVATIONS AND EXTENSIONS OF LIE COLOR ALGEBRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qingcheng; Zhang Yongzheng

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors obtain some results concerning derivations of fi-nitely generated Lie color algebras and discuss the relation between skew derivation space SkDer(L) and central extension H2(L, F) on some Lie color algebras. Meanwhile, they generalize the notion of double extension to quadratic Lie color algebras, a sufficient con-dition for a quadratic Lie color algebra to be a double extension and further properties are given.

  18. Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH, β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group. β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.

  19. The period functions' higher order derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Sabatini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We prove a formula for the $n$-th derivative of the period function $T$ in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For $n = 1$, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative \\cite{FGG}. We apply such a result to hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order O.D.E.'s to be convex.

  20. Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG LingLing; ZHANG Xiu; MA Jie; ZHONG ZhenZhen; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG Yan; WANG JianBo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH.,β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group.β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.

  1. Synthesis of Pharmacological Heterocyclic Derivatives Based Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Refat; Fadda, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of chromenopyrimidine derivatives and the related fused system carried out by the reaction of chromene derivative 1 with various reagents under suitable reaction conditions. Condensation of stearoyl chloride with these heterocycles, then, propoxylated the products using propylene oxide to produce surface active agents having a twofold capacity as surface and antimicrobial dynamic specialists which may be served in the production of medications, pesticides, beautifying agents or may be utilized as an antimicrobial. Some of the surface properties and antimicrobial activity were resolved.

  2. Three essays on credit derivatives and liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Arakelyan, Armen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of three empirical essays on pricing credit derivatives and the impact of liquidity on the prices of credit derivatives. In essay one, I investigate empirically the pricing of Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDO) within the framework of copula models. In essay two I analyze the impact of illiquidity on Credit Default Swap (CDS) spreads on an individual level. In essay three I analyze the effect of market wide illiquidity on portfolio CDS spreads on an aggrega...

  3. Higher time derivatives, stability and Fermi Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Sarrion, Justo

    2011-01-01

    We show that statistics is crucial for the instability problem derived from higher time derivatives. In fact, and contrary to previous statements, we check that when dealing with Fermi systems, the Hamiltonian is well bounded and the quantum states are normalizable. Although, ghost states are still present, they do not affect unitarity under certain conditions. We first analyze a quantum oscillator involving Grassman variables and then we generalize it to a Dirac field. Finally, we discuss some physical implications

  4. Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hypocrellins are a novel type of photosensitizers. A series of new hypocrellin B (HB) derivatives have been synthesized to overcome their limitations, I.e. To improve their red absorption and amphiphilicity. The generation of reactive oxygen species (including superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) is investigated in the presence of oxygen. The chemical structures of HB derivatives affect not only the generation efficiencies of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, but also quantum yields of singlet oxygen.

  5. Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Ebel

    2010-01-01

    Terpenes from marine-derived fungi show a pronounced degree of structural diversity, and due to their interesting biological and pharmacological properties many of them have aroused interest from synthetic chemists and the pharmaceutical industry alike. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the structural diversity of terpenes from marine-derived fungi, highlighting individual examples of chemical structures and placing them in a context of other terpenes of fungal origin. Wherever ...

  6. Fluorescence of fullerene derivatives at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.K.; Shiu, L.L.; Chien, K.M.; Luh, T.Y.; Lin, T.I. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1995-01-05

    The absorption and fluorescence spectral properties of fullerene (C[sub 60]) and its derivatives C[sub 60]C[sub 4]H[sub 6], C[sub 60]C[sub 5]H[sub 6], C[sub 60]CHCO[sub 2]Et, and C[sub 60]NCO[sub 2]Et at room temperature were investigated. Breaking the structural symmetry of C[sub 60] results in enhancing the fluorescence quantum yield 2-3-fold in some derivatives. Thus, the room temperature fluorescence of fullerene compounds could be detected more rapidly. New absorption bands and altered fluorescence spectra were observed in the derivatives. The Stokes' shifts of the derivatives are small, about 4-5 nm, compared to 68 nm for the parent compound. The time-resolved fluorescence decay study indicates that all four fullerene derivatives have a single fluorescence lifetime of ca. 1.2-1.4 as, which is about the same as that for C[sub 60] (ca. 1.3 ns). Aliphatic solvents have little influence on the absorption or fluorescence spectral profile except on the extinction coefficient whereas aromatic and polar solvents strongly interact with the fullerene derivatives, causing a peak broadening effect. 31 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Quadratic forms and Clifford algebras on derived stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzosi, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to quadratic structures in derived algebraic geometry. We define derived n-shifted quadratic complexes, over derived affine stacks and over general derived stacks, and give several examples of those. We define the associated notion of derived Clifford algebra, in all these contexts, and compare it with its classical version, when they both apply. Finally, we prove three main existence results for derived shifted quadratic forms over derived stacks, define ...

  8. Crystallisation and crystal forms of carbohydrate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Lorna

    This thesis is focused on the synthesis and solid state analysis of carbohydrate derivatives, including many novel compounds. Although the synthetic chemistry surrounding carbohydrates is well established in the literature, the crystal chemistry of carbohydrates is less well studied. Therefore this research aims to improve understanding of the solid state properties of carbohydrate derivatives through gaining more information on their supramolecular bonding. Chapter One focuses on an introduction to the solid state of organic compounds, with a background to crystallisation, including issues that can arise during crystal growth. Chapter Two is based on glucopyranuronate derivatives which are understudied in terms of their solid state forms. This chapter reports on the formation of novel glucuronamides and utilising the functionality of the amide bond for crystallisation. TEMPO oxidation was completed to form glucopyranuronates by oxidation of the primary alcohol groups of glucosides to the carboxylic acid derivatives, to increase functionality for enhanced crystal growth. Chapter Three reports on the synthesis of glucopyranoside derivatives by O-glycosylation reactions and displays crystal structures, including a number of previously unsolved acetate protected and deprotected crystal structures. More complex glycoside derivatives were also researched in an aim to study the resultant supramolecular motifs. Chapter Four contains the synthesis of aryl cellobioside derivatives including the novel crystal structures that were solved for the acetate protected and deprotected compounds. Research was carried out to determine if 1-deoxycellodextrins could act as putative isostructures for cellulose. Our research displays the presence of isostructural references with 1-deoxycellotriose shown to be similar to cellulose III11, 1-deoxycellotetraose correlates with cellulose IV11 and 1-deoxycellopentose shows isostructurality similar to that of cellulose II. Chapter Five contains

  9. Additive Lie (ζ-Lie) Derivations and Generalized Lie (ζ-Lie)Derivations on Prime Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fei QI; Jin Chuan HOU

    2013-01-01

    The additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on prime algebras are characterized.It is shown,under some suitable assumptions,that an additive map L is an additive generalized Lie derivation if and only if it is the sum of an additive generalized derivation and an additive map from the algebra into its center vanishing all commutators; is an additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivation with ζ ≠ 1 if and only if it is an additive (generalized) derivation satisfying L(ζA) =ζL(A) for all A.These results are then used to characterize additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on several operator algebras such as Banach space standard operator algebras and von Neumman algebras.

  10. Derivation of completely cell culture-derived mice from early-passage embryonic stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, A.; Rossant, J.; Nagy, R.; Abramow-Newerly, W; Roder, J C

    1993-01-01

    Several newly generated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines were tested for their ability to produce completely ES cell-derived mice at early passage numbers by ES cell tetraploid embryo aggregation. One line, designated R1, produced live offspring which were completely ES cell-derived as judged by isoenzyme analysis and coat color. These cell culture-derived animals were normal, viable, and fertile. However, prolonged in vitro culture negatively affected this initial totipotency of R1, and...

  11. Structure Activity Relationship of Brevenal Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Goodman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brevenal is a ladder frame polyether produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This organism is also responsible for the production of the neurotoxic compounds known as brevetoxins. Ingestion or inhalation of the brevetoxins leads to adverse effects such as gastrointestinal maladies and bronchoconstriction. Brevenal shows antagonistic behavior to the brevetoxins and shows beneficial attributes when administered alone. For example, in an asthmatic sheep model, brevenal has been shown to increase tracheal mucosal velocity, an attribute which has led to its development as a potential treatment for Cystic Fibrosis. The mechanism of action of brevenal is poorly understood and the exact binding site has not been elucidated. In an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action of brevenal and potentially develop a second generation drug candidate, a series of brevenal derivatives were prepared through modification of the aldehyde moiety. These derivatives include aliphatic, aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrazide derivatives. The brevenal derivatives were tested using in vitro synaptosome binding assays to determine the ability of the compounds to displace brevetoxin and brevenal from their native receptors. A sheep inhalation model was used to determine if instillation of the brevenal derivatives resulted in bronchoconstriction. Only small modifications were tolerated, with larger moieties leading to loss of affinity for the brevenal receptor and bronchoconstriction in the sheep model.

  12. Multiscale analysis of the CMB temperature derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Caballero, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.

    2017-02-01

    We study the Planck CMB temperature at different scales through its derivatives up to second order, which allows one to characterize the local shape and isotropy of the field. The problem of having an incomplete sky in the calculation and statistical characterization of the derivatives is addressed in the paper. The analysis confirms the existence of a low variance in the CMB at large scales, which is also noticeable in the derivatives. Moreover, deviations from the standard model in the gradient, curvature and the eccentricity tensor are studied in terms of extreme values on the data. As it is expected, the Cold Spot is detected as one of the most prominent peaks in terms of curvature, but additionally, when the information of the temperature and its Laplacian are combined, another feature with similar probability at the scale of 10o is also observed. However, the p-value of these two deviations increase above the 6% when they are referred to the variance calculated from the theoretical fiducial model, indicating that these deviations can be associated to the low variance anomaly. Finally, an estimator of the directional anisotropy for spinorial quantities is introduced, which is applied to the spinors derived from the field derivatives. An anisotropic direction whose probability is <1% is detected in the eccentricity tensor.

  13. Deriving Framework Usages Based on Behavioral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenmyo, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Saeki, Motoshi

    One of the critical issue in framework-based software development is a huge introduction cost caused by technical gap between developers and users of frameworks. This paper proposes a technique for deriving framework usages to implement a given requirements specification. By using the derived usages, the users can use the frameworks without understanding the framework in detail. Requirements specifications which describe definite behavioral requirements cannot be related to frameworks in as-is since the frameworks do not have definite control structure so that the users can customize them to suit given requirements specifications. To cope with this issue, a new technique based on satisfiability problems (SAT) is employed to derive the control structures of the framework model. In the proposed technique, requirements specifications and frameworks are modeled based on Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs) with branch conditions represented by predicates. Truth assignments of the branch conditions in the framework models are not given initially for representing the customizable control structure. The derivation of truth assignments of the branch conditions is regarded as the SAT by assuming relations between termination states of the requirements specification model and ones of the framework model. This derivation technique is incorporated into a technique we have proposed previously for relating actions of requirements specifications to ones of frameworks. Furthermore, this paper discuss a case study of typical use cases in e-commerce systems.

  14. Machian derivation of the Friedmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telkamp, Herman

    2016-08-01

    Despite all fundamental objections against Newtonian concepts in cosmology, the Friedmann equation derives from these in an astoundingly simple way through application of the shell theorem and conservation of Newtonian energy in an infinite universe. However, Friedmann universes in general possess a finite gravitational horizon, as a result of which the application of the shell theorem fails and the Newtonian derivation collapses. Hence, unlike the general relativistic derivation, the Newtonian derivation does not prove the Friedmann equation in general, but exclusively in the Newtonian case of an infinite horizon. We show that in the presence of a gravitational horizon the Friedmann equation can be derived from conservation of Machian energy, without invoking the shell theorem. Whereas in the Newtonian case total energy translates to curvature energy density, in the Machian case total energy takes on different identities, depending on the evolution of the horizon; we show that in the de Sitter universe Machian total energy density is constant, i.e. appears as cosmological constant.

  15. Conversion of 3-Carbethoxy-4-methyl Coumarin Derivatives into Several New Annelated Coumarin Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAKEER; HadeerMohammed

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of ethyl esters of 4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-l-benzo(naphtho) pyran.3-carboxylic acids (1) with aromatic aldehy-des in the presence of piperidine yielded 4-styryl-3-carboxami-dopiperidyl connmrin derivatives 4. The reaction of hydrazlne hydrate with 1 gave acetophenone hydrozone derivatives 5 and acetophenone azine derivatives 6. The reaction of 1 with prima-ry amines afforded compomlds 7—9. And the treatment of la with Grignard reagents afforded 3-aroyl-4-methyl coumarin derivatives 10.

  16. Adaptive synchronization of the complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2010-04-05

    This Letter investigates the synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, adaptive synchronization criteria are obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling can asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory, and several useful criteria for synchronization are given. What is more, the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, simulations results show the method is effective.

  17. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of new tonantzitlolone-derived diterpene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Torsten; Dräger, Gerald; Kunst, Eike; Benson, Hannah; Sasse, Florenz; Siems, Karsten; Kirschning, Andreas

    2016-10-14

    The synthesis of the diterpene (+)-tonantzitlolone A and a series of derivatives is reported. The study includes the determination of their antiproliferative activities against selected cancer cell lines.

  18. A REMARK ON THE DERIVATE OF SET-VALUED MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CheaBing

    1994-01-01

    The derivate of set-valued mappings was defined by Hakuhara M in [1] and is called H-derivate. This paper shows a necessary and sufficient condition for a set-valued mapping to be derivable in term of Hderivate and the conditions in which lirnit and derivate ,derivate and integyal are exchanged respectively.

  19. Symmetric Partial Derivatives%对称偏导数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永平

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, symmetric partial derivatives and symmetric total differential of a function of several variables are defined. The relationship between partial derivative and the symmetric partial derivative, the total differential and the symmetric total derivative are discussed. By means of the concept of symmetric partial derivatives, the existence theorem of the total differential of a function of several is obtained.

  20. Another derivation of generalized Langevin equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dengler, R

    2015-01-01

    The formal derivation of Langevin equations (and, equivalently Fokker-Planck equations) with projection operator techniques of Mori, Zwanzig, Kawasaki and others can well be called a pearl of theoretical physics. The derivation relies on classical mechanics, and encompasses everything an omnipotent engineer can construct from point particles and potentials: solids, liquids, liquid crystals, conductors, polymers, systems with spin-like degrees of freedom ... Einstein relations and Onsager reciprocity theorem come for free. It apparently not has widely found its way into textbooks, but has been reproduced dozens of times on the fly with many references to the literature and without adding much substantially new. Here we follow the tradition, but strive to produce a self-contained text. Furthermore, we address questions that naturally arise in the derivation. Among other things the meaning of the divergence of the Poisson brackets is explained, and the role of nonlinear damping coefficients is clarified.

  1. Optimal hedging of Derivatives with transaction costs

    CERN Document Server

    Aurell, E; Aurell, Erik; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal strategy over a finite time horizon for a portfolio of stock and bond and a derivative in an multiplicative Markovian market model with transaction costs (friction). The optimization problem is solved by a Hamilton-Bellman-Jacobi equation, which by the verification theorem has well-behaved solutions if certain conditions on a potential are satisfied. In the case at hand, these conditions simply imply arbitrage-free ("Black-Scholes") pricing of the derivative. While pricing is hence not changed by friction allow a portfolio to fluctuate around a delta hedge. In the limit of weak friction, we determine the optimal control to essentially be of two parts: a strong control, which tries to bring the stock-and-derivative portfolio towards a Black-Scholes delta hedge; and a weak control, which moves the portfolio by adding or subtracting a Black-Scholes hedge. For simplicity we assume growth-optimal investment criteria and quadratic friction.

  2. Derivatives on the isotropic tensor functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUI; Guansuo; WANG; Zhengdao; JIN; Ming

    2006-01-01

    The derivative of the isotropic tensor function plays an important part in continuum mechanics and computational mechanics, and also it is still an opening problem. By means of a scalar response function and solving a tensor equation, this problem is well studied. A compact explicit expression for the derivative of the isotropic tensor function is presented, which is valid for both distinct and repeated eigenvalue cases. Throughout the analysis, the formulation holds for general isotropic tensor functions without need to solve eigenvector problems or determine coefficients. On the theoretical side, a very simple solution of a tensor equation is obtained. As an application to continuum mechanics, a base-free expression for the Hill's strain rate is given, which is more compact than the existent results. Finally, with an example we compute the derivative of an exponent tensor function. And the efficiency of the present formulations is demonstrated.

  3. Electrical derivative measurement of quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dingkai; Cheng, Liwei; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen; Fan, Jenyu; Worchesky, Terry

    2011-02-01

    The electrical derivative characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are investigated to test the QCL threshold, leakage current, and possibly explore carrier transport. QCL thresholds can be identified by searching for the slope peak of the first derivative of the I-V curves and can be further confirmed with its alignment to the peak of the second derivative of the I-V curves. Leakage current in QCLs with oxide-blocked ridge waveguides and buried heterostructure (BH) waveguides are studied and compared. The oxide-blocking structures provide the lowest leakage current although the capped-mesa-BH (CMBH) QCLs provide the toughest durability under highly stressful operations. The leakage current of CMBH QCLs are also compared at different temperatures.

  4. Horava gravity with mixed derivative terms

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, Mattia; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Horava gravity has been constructed so as to exhibit anisotropic scaling in the ultraviolet, as this renders the theory power-counting renormalizable. However, when coupled to matter, the theory has been shown to suffer from quadratic divergences. A way to cure these divergences is to add terms with both time and space derivatives. We consider this extended version of the theory in detail. We perform a perturbative analysis that includes all modes, determine the propagators and discuss how including mixed-derivative terms affects them. We also consider the Lifshitz scalar with mixed-derivative terms as a toy model for power counting arguments and discuss the influence of such terms on renormalizability.

  5. Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under anaerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To improve the red absorption and solubility of hypocrellin, we have synthesized a series of hypocrellin B derivatives. The photochemistry of these new compounds in anaerobic media has been investigated by using electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spectrophotometric methods. The semiquinone anion radicals can be produced by self-electron transfer on irradiation, with the formation efficiency and EPR hyperfine structures of the semiquinone anion radicals dependent on the structures of the derivatives. When an electron donor is present, the electron transfer from electron donor to hypocrellin B derivatives enhanced the production of the corresponding semiquinone anion radical; in addition, the semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone can be detected spectrophotometrically. Structural modifications exert little effect on the absorption position of semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone, but influence their formation efficiency significantly.

  6. INTERPOLATION INEQUALITIES AND DECAY ESTIMATES FOR DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xuguang

    2000-01-01

    Under the only assumption of the cone property for a given domain Ω∈Rn, it is proved that interpolation inequalities for intermediate derivatives of functions in the Sobolev spaces Wm,p (Ω) or even in some weighted Sobolve spaces Wwm,p (Ω) still hold. That is, the usual additional restrictions that Ω is bounded or has the uni form cone property are both removed. The main tools used are polynomial inequalities, by which it is also ob tained pointwise version interpolation inequalities for smooth and analytic functions. Such pointwise version in equalities give explicit decay estimates for derivatives at infinity in unbounded domains which have the cone property. As an application of the decay estimates, a previous result on radial basis function approximation of smooth functions is extended to the derivative-simultaneous approximation.

  7. Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Blender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can b...

  8. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  9. Synthesis of Calix[4]resorcinarene Amide Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Guo YAN; Yun GE

    2004-01-01

    Three different synthetic routes were developed to introduce carbamoyloxy functional groups at the upper periphery of two calix[4]resorcinarenes. By treating activated esters 2a-b with excess corresponding amine such as 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine 3, α-phenethylamine 4 and triethylenetetramine 5, six amide derivatives 6a~8b were obtained in high yield (Route 1). The pyridine-linked amide derivatives 9a-b were prepared by using acid chloride intermediate (Route 2). The amide derivatives 10a-b were obtained in moderate yields by direct alkylation of phenolic hydroxyl groups of 1a-b with N,N-dipropylchloroacetoamide in the presence of K2CO3/KI in acetone (Route 3).

  10. Analytics of Quinine and its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluska, Mariusz; Marciniuk-Kluska, Anna; Prukała, Dorota; Prukała, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a synthesis and analysis of the most important information on quinine and its derivatives, which are still very important in the treatment of malaria. The analysis of stereoisomers of quinine and its derivatives was conducted using two techniques, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Particularly noteworthy is the technique used for the determination of isotachophoresis, referred to as one of the so-called green chemistry techniques. Particular attention was paid to properties and the use of quinine and its derivatives in the treatment of malaria. The analytical part will supplement knowledge about quinidine, quinine, and cinchonidine, and will contribute to the growth of research on the so-much-needed drugs against malaria.

  11. Real-time cosmography with redshift derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P; Calabrese, E; Ramos, M P L P

    2016-01-01

    The drift in the redshift of objects passively following the cosmological expansion has long been recognized as a key model-independent probe of cosmology. Here, we study the cosmological relevance of measurements of time or redshift derivatives of this drift, arguing that the combination of first and second redshift derivatives is a powerful test of the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. In particular, the latter can be obtained numerically from a set of measurements of the drift at different redshifts. We show that, in the low-redshift limit, a measurement of the derivative of the drift can provide a constraint on the jerk parameter, which is $j=1$ for flat $\\Lambda$CDM, while generically $j\

  12. Second derivatives for approximate spin projection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lee M; Hratchian, Hrant P

    2015-02-07

    The use of broken-symmetry electronic structure methods is required in order to obtain correct behavior of electronically strained open-shell systems, such as transition states, biradicals, and transition metals. This approach often has issues with spin contamination, which can lead to significant errors in predicted energies, geometries, and properties. Approximate projection schemes are able to correct for spin contamination and can often yield improved results. To fully make use of these methods and to carry out exploration of the potential energy surface, it is desirable to develop an efficient second energy derivative theory. In this paper, we formulate the analytical second derivatives for the Yamaguchi approximate projection scheme, building on recent work that has yielded an efficient implementation of the analytical first derivatives.

  13. Halogenated coumarin derivatives as novel seed protectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, N; Windorski, J; Bluml, E

    2008-01-01

    Development of new and improved antifungal compounds that are target-specific is backed by a strong Federal, public and commercial mandate. Many plant-derived chemicals have proven fungicidal properties, including the coumarins (1,2-Benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants such as clover, sweet woodruff and grasses. Preliminary research has shown the coumarins to be a highly active group of molecules with a wide range of antimicrobial activity against both fungi and bacteria. It is believed that these cyclic compounds behave as natural pesticidal defence molecules for plants and they represent a starting point for the exploration of new derivative compounds possessing a range of improved antifungal activity. Within this study, derivatives of coumarin that were modified with halogenated side groups were screened for their antifungal activity against a range of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Fungi included in this in vitro screen included Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), Phytophthora spp. (damping off and seedling rot), Rhizoctonia spp. (damping off and root rot) and Pythium spp. (seedling blight), four phylogenetically diverse and economically important plant pathogens. Studies indicate that these halogenated coumarin derivatives work very effectively in vitro to inhibit fungal growth and some coumarin derivatives have higher antifungal activity and stability as compared to the original coumarin compound alone. The highly active coumarin derivatives are brominated, iodinated and chlorinated compounds and results suggest that besides being highly active, very small amounts can be used to achieve LD100 rates. In addition to the in vitro fungal inhibition assays, results of polymer seed coating compatibility and phytotoxicity testing using these compounds as seed treatments will also be reported. These results support additional research in this area of natural pesticide development.

  14. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker......" variance estimator derived from the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework. The results of a small-scale Monte Carlo experiment are found to be consistent with the theory and indicate in particular that sensitivity with respect to the bandwidth choice can be ameliorated by using the "robust...

  15. Mesogenic benzothiazole derivatives with methoxy substituents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Prajapati; N L Bonde

    2006-03-01

    Two new mesogenic homologous series containing 6-methoxybenzothiazole ring at the terminus of the molecule, viz. 2-(4'--alkoxyphenylazo)-6-methoxybenzothiazoles and 2-[4'-(4"--alkoxybenzoyloxy) phenylazo]-6-methoxybenzothiazoles were synthesized. In series I, -butyloxy to -tetradecyloxy derivatives exhibit nematic mesophase. Smectic A mesophase commences from the -dodecyloxy derivative as a monotropic phase and is retained up to the last member synthesized. All the members of series II exhibit enantiotropic nematic mesophase. The mesomorphic properties of the present series are compared with other structurally related series to evaluate the effect of the benzothiazole ring and the methoxy substituent on mesomorphism.

  16. Photoluminescence in anthracene and it's derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita; Mirgane, Nitin A.; Moharil, S. V.; Muley, Aarti Iyer

    2016-05-01

    The anthracene and it's derivative 9-chloro acridine and Anthracene-9-ylmethylacetate have prepared in Poly vinyl alcohol(PVOH). Their photoluminescence properties have studied. The pure anthracene has an emission at 424 and 443nm. The intense peak is observed at 465nm and shoulder at 407nm. The derivatives of anthracene Anthracene-9-ylmethylacetate shows an emission around 440nm for the excitation at 393nm and 9-chloro acridine shows emission around 360nm for the excitation at 290nm. The major problem of this organic material is the stability. The composites prepared in the medium of PVOH are more stable.

  17. Scale up of proteoliposome derived Cochleate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Caridad; Bracho, Gustavo; Lastre, Miriam; González, Domingo; Gil, Danay; Acevedo, Reinaldo; del Campo, Judith; Taboada, Carlos; Solís, Rosa L; Barberá, Ramón; Pérez, Oliver

    2006-04-12

    Cochleate are highly stable structures with promising immunological features. Cochleate structures are usually obtaining from commercial lipids. Proteoliposome derived Cochleate are derived from an outer membrane vesicles of Neisseria meningitidis B. Previously, we obtained Cochleates using dialysis procedures. In order to increase the production process, we used a crossflow system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The raw material and solutions used in the production process are already approved for human application. This work demonstrates that CFS is very efficient process to obtain Cochleate structures with a yield of more than 80% and the immunogenicity comparable to that obtained by dialysis membrane.

  18. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Greensite

    Full Text Available We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  19. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensite, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  20. Synthesis and Antidiabetic Evaluation of Benzothiazole Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G, Mariappan; P, Prabhat; L, Sutharson; J, Banerjee; U, Patangia; S, Nath [Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, Majhitar (India)

    2012-04-15

    A novel series of benzothiazole derivatives were synthesized and assayed in vivo to investigate their hypogly-cemic activity by streptozotocin-induced diebetic model in rat. These derivatives showed considerable biological efficacy when compared to glibenclamide, a potent and well known antidiabetic agent as a reference drug. All the compounds were effective, amongst them 3d showed more prominent activity at 100 mg/kg p.o. The experimental results are statistically significant at p<0.01 and p<0.05 level.

  1. Antiretroviral (HIV-1) activity of azulene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Julia; Selyutina, Anastasia; Bredihhin, Aleksei

    2016-04-15

    The antiretroviral activity of azulene derivatives was detected for the first time. A series of eighteen diversely substituted azulenes was synthesized and tested in vitro using HIV-1 based virus-like particles (VLPs) and infectious HIV-1 virus in U2OS and TZM-bl cell lines. Among the compounds tested, the 2-hydroxyazulenes demonstrated the most significant activity by inhibiting HIV-1 replication with IC50 of 2-10 and 8-20 μM for the VLPs and the infectious virus, respectively. These results indicate that azulene derivatives may be potentially useful candidates for the development of antiretroviral agents.

  2. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  3. Derivation of sink strengths in bounded media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brailsford, A.D. (Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (USA). Engineering and Research Staff)

    1981-11-01

    Several reasons for the need to extend the rate theory of point defect recovery processes to bounded media are cited. This paper is concerned with the essential first step, the derivation of the strength of sinks near a free surface. The Effective Medium method is used. Sink strengths so derived are shown to be formally the same as those found in an unbounded system. Image effects associated with the surface are proved to be small when the sink is located more than a few sink radii from the surface.

  4. On Dirichlet's Derivation of the Ellipsoid Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, W

    2016-01-01

    Newton's potential of a massive homogeneous ellipsoid is derived via Dirichlet's discontinuous factor. At first we review part of Dirichlet's work in an English translation of the original German, and then continue with an extension of his method into the complex plane. With this trick it becomes possible to first calculate the potential and thereafter the force components exerted on a test mass by the ellipsoid. This is remarkable in so far as all other famous researchers prior to Dirichlet merely calculated the attraction components. Unfortunately, Dirichlet's derivation is to a large extent mathematically unacceptable which, however, can be corrected by treating the problem in the complex plane.

  5. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  6. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvio, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm. (orig.)

  7. Derivation of the blackfold effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Joan

    2012-01-01

    We study fluctuations and deformations of black branes over length scales larger than the horizon radius. We prove that the Einstein equations for the perturbed p-brane yield, as constraints, the equations of the effective blackfold theory. We solve the Einstein equations for the perturbed geometry and show that it remains regular on and outside the black brane horizon. This study provides an ab initio derivation of the blackfold effective theory and gives explicit expressions for the metrics near the new black holes and black branes that result from it, to leading order in a derivative expansion.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Danazol Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two danazol derivatives were synthesized and characterized by spectral analyses. In order to characterize the structural and chemical requirements of danazol derivatives, several parameters such as logP, π, Rm and Vm were evaluated. The results showed an increase in the values of logP for the compound 6 in comparison with 3. The compound 3 showed an increase in the values of π, R Vm and V Vm with respect to 6. These data indicate a high degree of lipophilicity and a low steric impediment for compound 6 in comparison with 3.

  9. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work a concept of thermal analysis was shown, using for crystallization kinetics description the temperature derivatives after time and direction. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA is assigned for alloys and metals investigation as well as cast composites in range of solidification. The construction and operation characteristics were presented for the test stand including processing modules and probes together with thermocouples location. Authors presented examples of results interpretation for AlSi11 alloy castings with diversified wall thickness and at different pouring temperature.

  10. Access to new antimicrobial 4-methylumbelliferone derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marwa Zayane; Anis Romdhane; Mejda Daami-Remadi; Hichem Ben Jannet

    2015-09-01

    Synthesis of some novel coumarin esters has been accomplished through iodine-catalyzed method using 4-methylumbelliferone as the starting material. Condensation of hydrazide, which was obtained in two steps from 4-methylumbelliferone, with some arylaldhydes provided hydrazone derivatives, while the reaction with phenylthioisocyanate leads to the thiosemicarbazide that evolved into two new compounds. Finally, condensation reaction of hydrazide with three diketones afforded new pyrrole and pyrazole derivatives. Structures of all synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ES-HRMS. They were finally tested for their antimicrobial activity and the structure-activity relationship was discussed.

  11. Terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Rainer

    2010-08-13

    Terpenes from marine-derived fungi show a pronounced degree of structural diversity, and due to their interesting biological and pharmacological properties many of them have aroused interest from synthetic chemists and the pharmaceutical industry alike. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the structural diversity of terpenes from marine-derived fungi, highlighting individual examples of chemical structures and placing them in a context of other terpenes of fungal origin. Wherever possible, information regarding the biological activity is presented.

  12. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm.

  13. Optimal economic order quantity for buyer-distributor-vendor supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo; Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wee, Hui Ming

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we first complement an inappropriate mathematical error on the total cost in the previously published paper by Chung and Wee [2007, 'Optimal the Economic Lot Size of a Three-stage Supply Chain With Backlogging Derived Without Derivatives', European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 933-943] related to buyer-distributor-vendor three-stage supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives. Then, an arithmetic-geometric inequality method is proposed not only to simplify the algebraic method of completing prefect squares, but also to complement their shortcomings. In addition, we provide a closed-form solution to integral number of deliveries for the distributor and the vendor without using complex derivatives. Furthermore, our method can solve many cases in which their method cannot, because they did not consider that a squared root of a negative number does not exist. Finally, we use some numerical examples to show that our proposed optimal solution is cheaper to operate than theirs.

  14. Intramolecular Cycloaddition of Imines of Cysteine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M. V. D. Pinho e Melo

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Azomethine ylides were generated from Schiffs bases of S-allylcysteine methyl ester and their intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions were studied. These reactions led to the synthesis of thieno[3,4-b]pyrrole derivatives in good yield.

  15. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...

  16. Derived Transformation of Children's Pregambling Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Bateman, Helena; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary behavior-analytic perspectives on gambling emphasize the impact of verbal relations, or derived relational responding and the transformation of stimulus functions, on the initiation and maintenance of gambling. Approached in this way, it is possible to undertake experimental analysis of the role of verbal/mediational variables in…

  17. Endothelial derived hyperpolarization in renal interlobar arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Charlotte M.

    2015-01-01

    In small arteries, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are connect by myoendothelial junctions (MEJ), usually extending from the EC. Ca2+ activated K+ channels (IKCa and SKCa) located in the MEJ are suggested to play a role in NO-independent endothelium derived...

  18. Glycosylation of a Newly Functionalized Orthoester Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tandem glycosylation of the 6-O-Fmoc-substituted benzyl orthoester derivative 2a was carried out in moderate yields by electrogenerated acid (EGA. The Fmoc group was effectively removed under mild basic conditions, and the product was submitted to the subsequent glycosylation.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Sulfonylurea Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-liang; LI Yao-xian; ZHANG Suo-qin; GAO Fei-fei

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of study on the mechanism of action of sulfonylurea herbicides, nine sulfonylurea derivatives of iso-xazolidinone were designed and synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by means of IR, MS, NMR and elemental analysis. The results of preliminary active tests indicate that the compounds have some herbicidal activity. The structure-activity relationship was also studied.

  20. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters,...

  1. Interest Rate Derivative Pricing with Stochastic Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of exotic derivative pricing models is to enable financial institutions to quantify and manage their financial risk, arising from large books of portfolios. These portfolios consist of many non-standard exotic financial products. Risk is managed by means of the evaluation of sensitivity

  2. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  3. New sulphide derivative from Ferula rutabensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; El-Mekkawy, Sahar

    2009-01-01

    Reinvestigation of CH(2)Cl(2) extract of roots and rhizomes of Ferula rutabensis led to the isolation of a new trisulphide (1) and phthalic acid derivative (2). Their characterisation was based on their spectral data, including MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR.

  4. Organogels Derived from Potassium 8-Nitroquinolinecarboxylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Hai-Yu; YANG,Yong; XIANG,Jun-Feng; CHEN,Chuan-Feng

    2007-01-01

    A new class of organogels derived from potassium 8-nitroquinoline-2-carboxylate was selectively formed in (V∶ V= 1∶ 1) THF/MeOH, and their superstructures were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze. Th

  6. New lycosinine derivative from Hippeastrum breviflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sebben

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA new lycosinine derivative, 9-O-demethyllycosinine B, was isolated from the native Brazilian Hippeastrum breviflorumHerb., Amaryllidaceae, along with the well-known alkaloids lycosinine B and lycorine. The structure of the new compound was established by physical and spectroscopic methods. 9-O-demethyllycosinine B is the third lycosinine variant identified in the Amaryllidaceae family.

  7. [Sulphonylurea derivatives or insulin with metformin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, C.J.; Laar, F.A. van de

    2014-01-01

    If pharmacological treatment of glycaemia with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes fails, a second agent is advised, however, the optimal choice is unclear. Most guidelines suggest the addition of sulphonylurea (SU) derivatives as the first option, but sometimes insulin is preferred as there

  8. Generalized Voigt functions and their derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India) and Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in; Nagendra, K.N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Frisch, H. [Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2007-03-15

    This paper deals with a special class of functions called generalized Voigt functions H{sup (n)}(x,a) and G{sup (n)}(x,a) and their partial derivatives, which are useful in the theory of polarized spectral line formation in stochastic media. For n=0 they reduce to the usual Voigt and Faraday-Voigt functions H(x,a) and G(x,a). A detailed study is made of these new functions. Simple recurrence relations are established and employed for the calculation of the functions themselves and of their partial derivatives. Asymptotic expansions are given for large values of x and a. They are used to examine the range of applicability of the recurrence relations and to construct a numerical algorithm for the calculation of the generalized Voigt functions and of their derivatives valid in a large (x,a) domain. It is also shown that the partial derivatives of the usual H(x,a) and G(x,a) can be expressed in terms of H{sup (n)}(x,a) and G{sup (n)}(x,a)

  9. Chemistry of Phosphorylated Formaldehyde Derivatives. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily P. Morgalyuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The underinvestigated derivatives of unstable phosphorylated formaldehyde acetals and some of the structurally related compounds, such as thioacetals, aminonitriles, aminomethylphosphinoyl compounds, are considered. Separately considered are halogen aminals of phosphorylated formaldehyde, acetals of phosphorylated formaldehyde of H-phosphinate-type and a phosphorylated gem-diol of formaldehyde. Synthetic methods, chemical properties and examples of practical applications are given.

  10. Efficient pricing algorithms for exotic derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lord (Roger)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSince the Nobel-prize winning papers of Black and Scholes and Merton in 1973, the derivatives market has evolved into a multi-trillion dollar market. Structures which were once considered as exotic are now commonplace, appearing in retail products such as mortgages and investment notes.

  11. Orchard navigation using derivative free Kalman filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localization and navigation in an orchard. The localization algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features representing the surrounding fruit trees of the orchard. The line features are created on basis of 2...

  12. Risk Management and Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRisk management is crucial for optimal portfolio management. One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance is the expansion of financial derivatives. The purpose of this special issue on “Risk Management and Financial Derivatives” is to highlight some areas in which novel econome

  13. A novel chalcone derivative from Onychium japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel chalcone derivative was isolated from Onychium japonicum and its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods.The isolated compound showed cytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines Hela and BEL-7402 in vitro.(C) 2007 Hong Quan Duan. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENT OXAZINE-2-AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GANESAMOORTHY THIRUNARAYANAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize thirteen effective microbial potent oxazine-2-amine derivatives and evaluate the antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Material and methods: The solvent-free solid fly-ash: H2SO4 catalyzed cyclization of 4-bromo-1-naphthyl chalcones and urea under microwave irradiation technique was utilized for the synthesis of oxazine derivatives. The synthesized oxazines were characterized by their physical constants and spectroscopic data. The Bauer-Kirby disc-diffusion method of measurement of zone of inhibition was used for evaluation antimicrobial activity of synthesized oxazines. Results: The cyclization was effective and this reaction gave more than 80% yield. The catalyst was reused up to five times consecutively without appreciable decreasing of yield. All compounds were active against their microbial strains. Conclusions: This solvent-free synthetic method was effective for the synthesis of oxazine derivatives. The amino, dimethylamino, halogens, methoxy and methyl substituted oxazines shows significant antibacterial activity. Chloro, hydroxy and nitro substituted oxazine derivative have shown significant antifungal activity.

  15. Microscopic Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Close to the critical temperature, GL arises as an effective theory on the macroscopic scale. The relevant scaling limit is semiclassical...

  16. Potentials of Arbitrary Forces with Fractional Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabei, Eqab M.; Alhalholy, Tareq S.; Rousan, Akram

    The Laplace transform of fractional integrals and fractional derivatives is used to develop a general formula for determining the potentials of arbitrary forces: conservative and nonconservative in order to introduce dissipative effects (such as friction) into Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. The results are found to be in exact agreement with Riewe's results of special cases. Illustrative examples are given.

  17. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...

  18. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section 1312.7 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification...

  19. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  20. Current-induced forces: a simple derivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todorov, Tchavdar N.; Dundas, Daniel; Lü, Jing-Tao;

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the problem of forces on atoms under current in nanoscale conductors. We derive and discuss the five principal kinds of force under steady-state conditions from a simple standpoint that-with the help of background literature-should be accessible to physics undergraduates. The discussion...

  1. Simple Derivation of the Lindblad Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearle, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The Lindblad equation is an evolution equation for the density matrix in quantum theory. It is the general linear, Markovian, form which ensures that the density matrix is Hermitian, trace 1, positive and completely positive. Some elementary examples of the Lindblad equation are given. The derivation of the Lindblad equation presented here is…

  2. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

  3. Theoretical derivation of heliostat tracking errors distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel [Candida Oancea Institute of Solar Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)

    2008-12-15

    The tracking error probability distribution is derived on a pure theoretical basis. Methods of integral geometry and geometrical probabilities are used to this purpose. The distribution performs reasonably well when compared with measurements from a small database. The performance of the theoretical distribution is compared with that of other (empirical) probability distributions. The practical relevance of using the present approach is also explained. (author)

  4. Actuarial risk measures for financial derivative pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Goovaerts; R.J.A. Laeven

    2008-01-01

    We present an axiomatic characterization of price measures that are superadditive and comonotonic additive for normally distributed random variables. The price representation derived involves a probability measure transform that is closely related to the Esscher transform, and we call it the Esscher

  5. Synthesis of isothiocyanate-derived mercapturic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Zwanenburg, B.; Chittenden, G.J.F.; Verhagen, H.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve mercapturic acids derived from saturated and unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic isothiocyanates were synthesised, by adding isothiocyanate to a solution of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and sodium bicarbonate, in a typical yield of 77%. Isothiocyanates were synthesised first by adding the corresponding

  6. Approximate methods for derivation of covariance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesen, S. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik; Larson, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Several approaches for the derivation of covariance information for evaluated nuclear data files (EFF2 and ENDF/B-VI) have been developed and used at IRK and ORNL respectively. Considerations, governing the choice of a distinct method depending on the quantity and quality of available data are presented, advantages/disadvantages are discussed and examples of results are given.

  7. Ethos Derived from Karaoke Performance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ringo

    Karaoke (singing along to music videos) has swept Taiwan with such force that many people go to singing schools to improve their singing. Three cases in this paper demonstrate how the ethos, or credibility, of the singer is a combination of initial and derived ethos. Who the singer is tends to determine how much attention he or she receives…

  8. Higher-Derivative Supergravity and Moduli Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciupke, David; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Louis, Jan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachberich Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik

    2015-05-15

    We review the ghost-free four-derivative terms for chiral superfields in N=1 supersymmetry and supergravity. These terms induce cubic polynomial equations of motion for the chiral auxiliary fields and correct the scalar potential. We discuss the different solutions and argue that only one of them is consistent with the principles of effective field theory. Special attention is paid to the corrections along flat directions which can be stabilized or destabilized by the higher-derivative terms. We then compute these higher-derivative terms explicitly for the type IIB string compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold with fluxes via Kaluza-Klein reducing the (α'){sup 3}R{sup 4} corrections in ten dimensions for the respective N=1 Kaehler moduli sector. We prove that together with flux and the known (α'){sup 3}-corrections the higher-derivative term stabilizes all Calabi-Yau manifolds with positive Euler number, provided the sign of the new correction is negative.

  9. Synthesis and application of epoxy starch derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Haar, ter R.; Schols, H.A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxy starch derivatives were synthesized by epoxidation of allylated starch. The reaction was performed with low substituted 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl-waxy maize starch (AHP-WMS; degree of substitution (DS) of 0.23) using hydrogen peroxide and acetonitrile Via a two step spectrophotometric assay,

  10. Diclofenac derivatives with insulin-sensitizing activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ta Wang; Ying Wang; Ji Quan Zhang; Xing Cui; Yi Zhang; Gao Feng Zhu; Lei Tang

    2011-01-01

    A series of diclofenac derivatives were synthesized. The insulin-sensitizing activity of 28 new compounds was evaluated in 3T3-L1 cells. The compounds 10a and 10f exhibited similar insulin-sensitizing activity with positive drag rosiglitazone.

  11. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  12. Synthesis of novel 15-membered macrolide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Qing Xian; Shu Tao Ma; Bo Jiao

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop new antibiotics effective against resistant bacteria,a series of novel 15-membered macrolide derivatives were designed and synthesized by the modification of hydroxyl groups at C-11,C-12 and C-4" positions.Their structures were confirmed by MS,IR,1H NMR or 13C NMR.

  13. $\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizabalaga, A

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the method of $\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories. There, two complications arise, namely the violation of Bose symmetry in correlation functions and the gauge dependence. For the latter we argue that the error introduced by the gauge dependent terms is controlled, therefore not invalidating the method.

  14. Supersymmetric higher derivative couplings and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodato, I.

    2014-01-01

    After an elementary introduction on black hole physics, supersymmetry and effective theories, which motivates the importance of higher derivative couplings in supergravity, we give an exhaustive treatment of the covariant phase space formalism with many examples explicitly worked out. This sets the

  15. Synthesis of [60]Fullerene-Podophyllotoxin Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Li-Wei(郭礼伟); GAO,Xiang(高翔); ZHANG,Dan-Wei(张丹维); WU,Shi-Hui(吴世晖); WU,Hou-Ming(吴厚铭)

    2002-01-01

    The [60]fullerene-podophyllotoxin derivative (3) was obtained by the phosphine promeoted[2 + 3]cycloaddition reaction ofpodophyllotoxin buta-2,3-dienoate (2) and [60]fullerene. The structures of starting mateerial (2) and product (3) were confirmed by UV-vis, IR, NMR and MS spectroscopies.

  16. Derivation of a poroelastic flexural shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Mikelic, Andro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the limit behavior of the solution to quasi-static Biot's equations in thin poroelastic flexural shells as the thickness of the shell tends to zero and extend the results obtained for the poroelastic plate by Marciniak-Czochra and Mikeli\\'c. We choose Terzaghi's time corresponding to the shell thickness and obtain the strong convergence of the three-dimensional solid displacement, fluid pressure and total poroelastic stress to the solution of the new class of shell equations. The derived bending equation is coupled with the pressure equation and it contains the bending moment due to the variation in pore pressure across the shell thickness. The effective pressure equation is parabolic only in the normal direction. As additional terms it contains the time derivative of the middle-surface flexural strain. Derivation of the model presents an extension of the results on the derivation of classical linear elastic shells by Ciarlet and collaborators to the poroelastic shells case. The n...

  17. Synthesis of 8-Heteroaryl-2'-deoxyguanosine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Gerard; Gubala, Vladimir; Rivera-Sánchez, María Del C; Rivera, José M

    2008-06-01

    We describe the synthesis of 8-heteroaromatic-2'-deoxyguanosine analogues using Suzuki-Miyaura or Stille conditions. Unprotected and protected 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine was coupled with commercially available heteroarylboronic acids or the trialkyltin derivatives of 2-pyridylbromides either with or without microwave irradiation in good yields.

  18. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.

  19. Platelet derivatives in regenerative medicine: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Sommese, Linda; Casamassimi, Amelia; Napoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Prior preclinical and clinical studies support the use of platelet-derived products for the treatment of soft and hard tissue lesions. These regenerative effects are controlled by autocrine and paracrine biomolecules including growth factors and cytokines contained in platelet alpha granules. Each growth factor is involved in a phase of the healing process, such as inflammation, collagen synthesis, tissue granulation, and angiogenesis collectively promoting tissue restitution. Platelet derivatives have been prepared as platelet-rich plasma, platelet gel, platelet-rich fibrin, and platelet eye drops. These products vary in their structure, growth factors, composition, and cytokine concentrations. Here, we review the current use of platelet-derived biological products focusing on the rationale for their use and the main requirements for their preparation. Variation in the apparent therapeutic efficacy may have resulted from a lack of reproducible, standardized protocols for preparation. Despite several individual studies showing favorable treatment effects, some randomized controlled trials as well as meta-analyses have found no constant clinical benefit from the application of platelet-derived products for prevention of tissue lesions. Recently, 3 published studies in dentistry showed an improvement in bone density. Seven published studies showed positive results in joint regeneration. Five published studies demonstrated an improvement in the wound healing, and an improvement of eye epithelial healing was observed in 2 reports. Currently, at least 14 ongoing clinical trials in phase 3 or 4 have been designed with large groups of treated patients (n > 100). Because the rationale of the therapy with platelet-derived compounds is still debated, a definitive insight can be acquired only when these large randomized trials will be completed.

  20. Familial Follicular-Cell Derived Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju eSon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancer, papillary (PTC and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC compose 95% of all thyroid malignancies. Familial follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancers contribute to 5% of those cases. These familial follicular cell derived carcinomas or non-medullary thyroid carcinomas (NMTC divide into two clinical-pathological groups. One group, syndromic-associated, composed by predominately non-thyroidal tumors, is comprised of Pendred syndrome, Warner syndrome, Carney complex type 1, PTEN-hamartoma tumor syndrome (Cowden disease; PHTS, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP/Gardner syndrome. Additionally other less established links correlated to the development of follicular cell-derived tumors have also included Ataxia-teleangiectasia syndrome, McCune Albright syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subsequent group encompasses syndromes typified by non-medullary thyroid carcinomas or NMTC, as well as, pure familial (f PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with multinodular goiter and fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma. This heterogeneous group of diseases has not a established genotype-phenotype correlation as the well-known genetic events identified in the familial C-cell-derived tumors or medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC. Clinicians should be have the knowledge to identify the likelihood of a patient presenting with thyroid cancer having an additional underlying familial syndrome stemming from characteristics through morphological findings that would alert the pathologist to have the patient undergo subsequent molecular genetics evaluations. This review will discuss the clinical and pathological findings of the patients with familial papillary thyroid carcinoma, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, Carney complex, Werner syndrome, and Pendred syndrome and the heterogeneous group of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  1. A New Grünwald-Letnikov Derivative Derived from a Second-Order Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel derivation of a second-order accurate Grünwald-Letnikov-type approximation to the fractional derivative of a function is presented. This scheme is shown to be second-order accurate under certain modifications to account for poor accuracy in approximating the asymptotic behavior near the lower limit of differentiation. Some example functions are chosen and numerical results are presented to illustrate the efficacy of this new method over some other popular choices for discretizing fractional derivatives.

  2. Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of benzothiazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Huiying [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao Xindong [State Key Laboratory of Applied Surface Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhong Gaoyu; Zhong Zhiyang [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiao Fei, E-mail: feixiao@fudan.edu.c [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shao Bingxian [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Benzothiazole-based blue fluorescent materials N-(4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-N-phenylbenzenamine (BPPA) and N-(4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-N-phenylnaphthalen-1-amine (BPNA) were synthesized for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Electroluminescent device with a configuration of ITO/NPB/BPPA/BCP/Alq{sub 3}/LiF/Al showed a maximum brightness of 3760 cd/m{sup 2} at 14.4 V with the CIE coordinates of (0.16, 0.16). A current efficiency of 3.01 cd/A and an external quantum efficiency of 2.37% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} were obtained from this device. Molecules derived from BPPA and BPNA with incorporated dicyanomethylidene, which is a functional group for most red fluorescent molecules, were designed, synthesized and characterized to study the red fluorescence properties of the benzothiazole derivatives.

  3. Benzodicarbomethoxytetrathiafulvalene derivatives as soluble organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otón, Francisco; Pfattner, Raphael; Oxtoby, Neil S; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Wurst, Klaus; Fontrodona, Xavier; Olivier, Yoann; Cornil, Jérôme; Veciana, Jaume; Rovira, Concepció

    2011-01-07

    A series of new tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives bearing dimethoxycarbonyl and phenyl or phthalimidyl groups fused to the TTF core (6 and 15-18) has been synthesized as potential soluble semiconductor materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). The electron-withdrawing substituents lower the energy of the HOMO and LUMO levels and increase the solubility and stability of the semiconducting material. Crystal structures of all new TTF derivatives are also described, and theoretical DFT calculations were carried out to study the potential of the crystals to be used in OFET. In the experimental study, the best performing device exhibited a hole mobility up to 7.5 × 10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)).

  4. Renewable polyethylene mimics derived from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türünç, Oĝuz; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Meier, Michael A R

    2011-09-01

    An increasing number of reports on the syntheses of carbohydrate- and plant oil-based polymers has been published in ongoing efforts to produce plastic materials from renewable resources. Although many of these polymers are biodegradable and this is a desirable property for certain applications, in some cases non-degradable polymers are needed for long-term use purposes. Polyolefins are one of the most important classes of materials that have already taken their places in our daily life. On the other hand, their production relies on fossil resources. Therefore, within this contribution, we discuss synthetic routes toward a number of polyethylene mimics derived from fatty acids via thiol-ene and ADMET polymerization reactions in order to establish more sustainable routes toward this important class of polymers. Two different diene monomers were thus prepared from castor oil derived platform chemicals, their polymerization via the two mentioned routes was optimized and compared to each other, and their thermal properties were investigated.

  5. The cytotoxic activity of ursolic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao-Mei; Cai, Shao-Qing; Cui, Jing-Rong; Wang, Rui-Qing; Tu, Peng-Fei; Hattori, Masao; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

    2005-06-01

    Ursolic acid and 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid isolated from apple peels were found to show growth inhibitory activity against four tumor cell lines, HL-60, BGC, Bel-7402 and Hela. Structural modifications were performed on the C-3, C-28 and C-11 positions of ursolic acid and the cytotoxicity of the derivatives was evaluated. The SAR revealed that the triterpenes possessing two hydrogen-bond forming groups (an H-donor and a carbonyl group) at positions 3 and 28 exhibit cytotoxic activity. The configuration at C-3 was found to be important for the activity. Introduction of an amino group increased the cytotoxicity greatly. A 3beta-amino derivative was 20 times more potent than the parent ursolic acid. The 28-aminoalkyl dimer compounds showed selective cytotoxicity.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of formazan derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, Gurusamy; Korim, Rejaul; Joshi, Nand Madhwa; Alam, Faruk; Hazarika, Rajib; Kumar, Deepak; Uriah, Tiewlasubon

    2010-10-01

    The formazan derivatives (FM1-FM5) were synthesized by the reaction of benzaldehyde phenylhydrazone with substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were then elucidated using UV, IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral data. The synthesized derivatives were screened for anticonvulsant, antibacterial and antiviral activities. All the compounds showed remarkable antibacterial activity at 250 μg/ml, but FM4 and FM3 did not show any inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Vibriocholera, respectively. All the compounds showed significant anticonvulsant effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. and the experimental data were statistically significant at P<0.001 level. But none of the compounds was effective against Japanese encephalitis virus.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of formazan derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Mariappan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The formazan derivatives (FM1-FM5 were synthesized by the reaction of benzaldehyde phenylhydrazone with substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were then elucidated using UV, IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectral data. The synthesized derivatives were screened for anticonvulsant, antibacterial and antiviral activities. All the compounds showed remarkable antibacterial activity at 250 μg/ml, but FM4 and FM3 did not show any inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Vibriocholera, respectively. All the compounds showed significant anticonvulsant effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. and the experimental data were statistically significant at P<0.001 level. But none of the compounds was effective against Japanese encephalitis virus.

  8. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Feigel, Alexander; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spiders, to predator inspection by sticklebacks and to territorial defense by lions, demonstrating animal behavior as a new type of game theoretical equilibrium. Games animals play may be derived unequivocally from their observable behavior, the reconstruction, however, can be subjected to fundamental limitations due to our inability to observe all information exchange mechanisms (communication).

  9. Carbon gels derived from natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Celzard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most carbon gels investigated so far and reportedin the literature were prepared from resorcinolcrosslinked with formaldehyde in water, and weregenerally dried with supercritical CO2 before beingpyrolysed. In the present paper, through someselected examples, we show how valuable carbongels can be derived from other phenolic resourceshaving a natural origin. Special emphasis is givento tannin and lignin, both derived from wood, aspotential precursors of carbon aero- and cryogels.However, natural compounds not obeying the usualconcepts of sol-gel chemistry may also be used forpreparing carbon gels, such as cellulose, and evenglucose. In the latter case, hydrothermal treatmentforces the phase separation to occur, and leads tomonoliths which can be advantageously convertedinto carbon aerogels by supercritical drying andsubsequent pyrolysis.

  10. Fundamentals and advanced techniques in derivatives hedging

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the theory of derivatives pricing and hedging as well as techniques used in mathematical finance. The authors use a top-down approach, starting with fundamentals before moving to applications, and present theoretical developments alongside various exercises, providing many examples of practical interest. A large spectrum of concepts and mathematical tools that are usually found in separate monographs are presented here. In addition to the no-arbitrage theory in full generality, this book also explores models and practical hedging and pricing issues. Fundamentals and Advanced Techniques in Derivatives Hedging further introduces advanced methods in probability and analysis, including Malliavin calculus and the theory of viscosity solutions, as well as the recent theory of stochastic targets and its use in risk management, making it the first textbook covering this topic. Graduate students in applied mathematics with an understanding of probability theory and stochastic calculus will find this b...

  11. Cosmology with higher-derivative matter fields

    CERN Document Server

    Harko, Tiberiu; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological implications of a new class of modified gravity, where the field equations generically include higher-order derivatives of the matter fields, arising from the introduction of non-dynamical auxiliary fields in the action. Imposing a flat, homogeneous and isotropic geometry we extract the Friedmann equations, obtaining an effective dark-energy sector containing higher derivatives of the matter energy density and pressure. For the cases of dust, radiation, and stiff matter we analyze the cosmological behavior, finding accelerating, de Sitter, and non-accelerating phases, dominated by matter or dark energy. Additionally, the effective dark-energy equation-of-state parameter can be quintessence-like, cosmological-constant-like, or even phantom-like. The detailed study of these scenarios may provide signatures that could distinguish them from other candidates of modified gravity.

  12. Synthesis of metronidazole derivatives as antigiardiasis agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabnadideh S.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MTZ and its derivatives have been extensively used to treat infections caused by protozoa and anaerobic bacteria. In this investigation several novel imidazole and nitroimidazol derivatives namely: 2-(1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1a, 2-(2-methyl-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1b, 2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1c, 2-(1H-1-imidazolyl-1-cyclohexanol 2d and 2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-cyclohexanol 2e were prepared by the reaction of the corresponding imidazoles with styrene oxide or cyclohexene oxide respectively and their biological activity against Giardia lamblia cyst in compareison with MTZ were determined by flotation technique based on Bingham method. These compounds were less active than metronidazole but showed significant antigiardiasis activity.

  13. Inconsistency of Minkowski higher-derivative theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglietti, Ugo G.; Anselmi, Damiano

    2017-02-01

    We show that Minkowski higher-derivative quantum field theories are generically inconsistent, because they generate nonlocal, non-hermitian ultraviolet divergences, which cannot be removed by means of standard renormalization procedures. By "Minkowski theories" we mean theories that are defined directly in Minkowski spacetime. The problems occur when the propagators have complex poles, so that the correlation functions cannot be obtained as the analytic continuations of their Euclidean versions. The usual power counting rules fail and are replaced by much weaker ones. Self-energies generate complex divergences proportional to inverse powers of D'Alembertians. Three-point functions give more involved nonlocal divergences, which couple to infrared effects. We illustrate the violations of the locality and hermiticity of counterterms in scalar models and higher-derivative gravity.

  14. Electrochemical Behavior of Biologically Important Indole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Karaaslan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltammetric techniques are most suitable to investigate the redox properties of a new drug. Use of electrochemistry is an important approach in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, and determination of physiological activity. The indole nucleus is an essential element of a number of natural and synthetic products with significant biological activity. Indole derivatives are the well-known electroactive compounds that are readily oxidized at carbon-based electrodes, and thus analytical procedures, such as electrochemical detection and voltammetry, have been developed for the determination of biologically important indoles. This paper explains some of the relevant and recent achievements in the electrochemistry processes and parameters mainly related to biologically important indole derivatives in view of drug discovery and analysis.

  15. Renminbi Derivatives: Recent Development and Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Peng; Chang Shu; Raymond Yip

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the developments in the onshore and offshore renminbi derivatives markets. The onshore market has seen a rapid build-up in the market infrastructure and price discovery mechanism in the past year, with empirical evidence suggesting that its pricing is increasingly determined by financial fundamentals, such as the covered interest rate parity. However, the growth of the market has been restrained by restrictions on the participant base, limited variations in the RMB/US$ exchange rate, market participants'lack of technical capacity and experience, and inadequate supporting financial market infrastructure. The non-deliverable forward (NDF) market, concentrated in Hong Kong and Singapore, is more developed, but has the drawback that its pricing is not tied to financial fundamentals. The comparison between onshore and offshore markets suggests that two issues are of particular importance for future derivatives market development in China: the balance between regulation and development, and the relationship between onshore and offshore markets.

  16. Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.

  17. Perturbative unitarity of Higgs derivative interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuta, Yohei

    2012-01-01

    We study the perturbative unitarity bound given by dimension six derivative interactions consisting of Higgs doublets. These operators emerge from kinetic terms of composite Higgs models or integrating out heavy particles that interact with Higgs doublets. They lead to new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. One of characteristic contributions by derivative interactions appear in vector boson scattering processes. Longitudinal modes of massive vector bosons can be regarded as Nambu Goldstone bosons eaten by each vector field with the equivalence theorem. Since their effects become larger and larger as the collision energy of vector bosons increases, vector boson scattering processes become important in a high energy region around the TeV scale. On the other hand, in such a high energy region, we have to take the unitarity of amplitudes into account. We have obtained the unitarity condition in terms of the parameter included in the effective Lagrangian for one Higgs doublet models. Applying it to some of mode...

  18. Synthesis and bioactivity of novel phthalimide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Yi Hua Zhang; Hui Ji; Yan Ping Chen; Si Xun Peng

    2008-01-01

    Novel phthalimide derivatives (4a, 4b and 6a-6e) were designed as hybrids of thalidomide and NO-ASA, and their chemicalsynthesis and in vitro biological activities were presented. The preliminary results showed that compared to thalidomide 4a and 4bexhibited enhanced activities against ECV304 and HepG2 cells, whereas 6c was more potent against HepG2 cells.

  19. Oxidative rearrangements of tricyclic vinylcyclobutane derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Grota, Juliane; Mattay, Jochen; Piech, Krzysztof; Bally, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Three tricyclic vinylcyclobutanes (3-methylenetricyclo[5.3.0.02,6]decanes 1-3) have been subjected to ionization by photoinduced electron transfer in solution and by X-irradiation in Ar matrices. All three compounds undergo oxidative cycloreversion; the cleavage of the four-membered ring, however, occurs in a different direction depending on the presence of a methyl group in position 6 of the tricyclic framework. In those derivatives, cycloreversion is found to lead to 1-methyl-8-methylene-1,...

  20. Aging and Rejuvenation with Fractional Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Science, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 311427, Denton, Texas 76203-1427, USA 2Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFM, via...interval 2,m,3, yield a generalized master equation equivalent to the sum of an ordinary Markov contribution and a fractional derivative term. We show...though these processes are associated with quite different physical phenomena [14]. His general argu- ments rested on three assumptions: (1) microscopic

  1. Anthranilic acid derivatives from Inula japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jiang Qin; Hui Zi Jin; Jian Jun Fu; Xiao Jia Hu; Yan Zhu; Yun Heng Shen; Shi Kai Yan; Wei Dong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Three new anthranilic acid derivatives, N-heneicosanoylanthranilic acid (1b), N-tricosanoylanthranilic acid (1d), N-tetra-cosanoylanthranilic acid (1e), and two known N-arachidylanthranilic acid (1a) and N-docosanoylanthranilic acid (1c) were isolatedfrom the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods.2008 Hui Zi Jin. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of indazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Rosa M; López, Concepción; López, Ana; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Pérez-Torralba, Marta; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2011-04-01

    The inhibition of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases (nNOS and iNOS) by a series of 36 indazoles has been evaluated, showing that most of the assayed derivatives are better iNOS than nNOS inhibitors. A parabolic model relating the iNOS inhibition percentage with the difference, E(rel), between stacking and apical interaction energies of indazoles with the active site of the NOS enzyme has been established.

  3. Derived length for arbitrary topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Jayanthan

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of derived length is as old as that of ordinal numbers itself. It is also known as the Cantor-Bendixon length. It is defined only for dispersed (that is scattered spaces. In this paper this notion has been extended in a natural way for all topological spaces such that all its pleasing properties are retained. In this process we solve a problem posed by V. Kannan. ([1] Page 158.

  4. Eisenhart lift for higher derivative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galajinsky, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The Eisenhart lift provides an elegant geometric description of a dynamical system of second order in terms of null geodesics of the Brinkmann-type metric. In this work, we attempt to generalize the Eisenhart method so as to encompass higher derivative models. The analysis relies upon Ostrogradsky's Hamiltonian. A consistent geometric description seems feasible only for a particular class of potentials. The scheme is exemplified by the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator.

  5. On Butterfly effect in Higher Derivative Gravities

    CERN Document Server

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2016-01-01

    We study butterfly effect in $D$-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. At critical point two velocities coincide.

  6. A Facile Synthesis of Pyrrolidine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Zhi-Hui; CHEN Jing-Bo; WANG Cheng-Ying; LIU Xiao-Long; REN Zhou-Yang; TU Yong-Qiang; ZHANG Hong-Bin

    2003-01-01

    @@ The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids have attracted considerable attention for their interesting biological activities. [1] Many of these tyrosine derived alkaloids[2] incorporate a hexahydroindole moiety in the structural skeletons. New approaches towards the synthesis of hexahydroindole core have been a topical interest for the synthetic community.Herein we report an experimentally very simple method for the synthesis of hexahydroindole by aminocylization. Four kinds of N-substituted have been demonstrate to be effective to this cyclization. The results were summarized in Figure 1.

  7. Eosinophil secretion of granule-derived cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Spencer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include: classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines.

  8. Higher derivative super Yang-Mills theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Rakowski, M.; Sezgin, E.

    1987-01-01

    The most general higher derivative Yang-Mills actions of the type (F^2 + α^2F^4) which are globally supersymmetric up to order α^2 in six- and ten-dimensional spacetimes are given. The F^4-terms turn out to occur in the combination α^2[tr F^4 - ¼(tr F^2)^2], where the trace is over the Lorentz i

  9. Aminopyrimidine derivatives as adenosine antagonists / Janke Kleynhans

    OpenAIRE

    Kleynhans, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Aims of this project - The aim of this study was to design and synthesise novel 2-aminopyrimidine derivatives as potential adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists. Background and rationale - Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (after Alzheimer’s disease) and is characterised by the selective death of the dopaminergic neurons of the nigro-striatal pathway. Distinctive motor symptoms include bradykinesia, muscle rigidity and tremor, while non-m...

  10. Einstein solvmanifolds with a simple Einstein derivation

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolayevsky, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a solvable Lie groups admitting an Einstein left-invariant metric is, in a sense, completely determined by the nilradical of its Lie algebra. We give an easy-to-check necessary and sufficient condition for a nilpotent algebra to be an Einstein nilradical whose Einstein derivation has simple eigenvalues. As an application, we classify filiform Einstein nilradicals (modulo known classification results on filiform graded Lie algebras).

  11. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  12. Particle production in higher derivative theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Singh; A Beesham; R V Deshpande

    2000-05-01

    The effect of particle production on the evolution of the spatially flat Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker cosmological model during the early stages of the universe is analysed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The universe has been considered as an open thermodynamic system where particle production gives rise to a supplementary negative creation pressure in addition to the thermodynamic pressure. The dynamical behaviour of both exponential as well as power law solutions have been discussed.

  13. TD-DFT Study on Pyrazoline Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The molecular structures of ground state and first single excited state for pyrazoline derivatives are optimized with DFT B3LYP method and ab initio "configuration interaction with single excitations"(CIS) method, respectively. The frontier molecular orbital characteristics have been analyzed systematically, and the electronic transition mechanism has been discussed. Electronic spectra are calculated by using TD-DFT method. These results are consistent with those from the experiment.

  14. Time-delay and fractional derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Tenreiro Machado JA

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the calculation of fractional algorithms based on time-delay systems. The study starts by analyzing the memory properties of fractional operators and their relation with time delay. Based on the Fourier analysis an approximation of fractional derivatives through time-delayed samples is developed. Furthermore, the parameters of the proposed approximation are estimated by means of genetic algorithms. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the new perspective.

  15. Two Unusual Flavanol Derivatives from Brainea insignis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明惠; 蔡乐; 沈晓静; 赵冕; 尹田鹏; 丁中涛

    2012-01-01

    Two new flavanol derivatives, bearing phenylpropionic acid moiety at C-4 through a C--C bonding, named brainin B (1) and brainin C (2), were isolated from Brainea insignis. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS spectrometry, Brainins B and C were tested for their antioxidant properties in DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picryl- hydrazyl) radical scavenging, and both compounds displayed potent antioxidant activities.

  16. Literature Review of Polymer Derived Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reuben James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs), also known as preceramic polymers, are valuable coating agents that are used to produce surface barriers on substrates such as stainless steel. These barriers protect against a multitude of environmental threats, and have been used since their research and development in 19772. This paper seeks to review and demonstrate the remarkable properties and versatility that PDCs have to offer, while also giving a brief overview of the processing techniques used today.

  17. Measurements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Klein, Anders Bue; Vinberg, Maj;

    2007-01-01

    Although numerous studies have dealt with changes in blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), methodological issues about BDNF measurements have only been incompletely resolved. We validated BDNF ELISA with respect to accuracy, reproducibility and the effect of storage and repeated freezing...... reproducibility. Female gender is associated with higher whole blood BDNF concentrations whereas age, thrombocyte count and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism were un-associated....

  18. Photopolymerization induced by a benzophenone derivative photoinitiator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A benzophenone derivative photoinitiator, HBP-TDI-HQ-TDI-HBP (HTCTH), was synthesized based on 4-hydroxy benzophenone (HBP), toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroquinone (HQ). HTCTH was a more effective photoinitiator which had longer wavelength absorption in the UV-vis absorption spectra than the low molecular counterpart benzophenone (BP). It showed that both rate of polymerization (Rp) and final conversion (P) increased with increase of amine and HTCTH concentration in photopolymerization.

  19. Synthesis of new 2-quinazolylacetonitrile derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Min, Kyung Su [Yeungnam Univ., Gyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    2-Quinazolylacetonitrile derivatives containing H-chelate have been synthesized from 2-cyanomethylquinazoline using electrophiles such as 4-chloroquinazoline, 4-chloro-2-phenylquinazoline, 4,6-dichloropyrimidine, 4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine, 4,6-dichloro-5-phenylpyrimidine, 2-chloroquinoxaline, 1,3-dichloroisoquinoline, 2,6-dichloropyrazine and 4,6-dichloro-2,5-diphenylpyrimidine. These H-chelates may serve as a polymethine chromophore system. Structures of the target molecules were identified by spectral methods.

  20. A new bibenzyl derivative from Pleione bulbocodioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Qiao Liu; Qiao Yu Yuan; Yuan Qiang Guo

    2008-01-01

    A new bibenzyl derivative 1, named 2-(4"-hydrixybenzyl)-3-(3'-hydroxyphenethyl)-5-methoxy-cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, and two known stilbenoids (2, 3) were isolated from the tubers of Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe. Their structureswere elucidated by spectroscopic methods.2008 Xin Qiao Liu. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  1. The Synthesis of 6-Alkyl-5-Fluorouracil Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    6-alkyl-5-fluorouracil derivatives (5a~5f) were synthesized by facile alkylation of lithiation of 5-fluorouracil derivatives with mthyl iodide (MeI) or alkyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (ROTf) in yield of 42~58%. We found that the methylated product was ethyl-substituted derivatives, not methyl-substituted derivatives.

  2. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ick-Soon Chang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  3. 14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500... PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application of derivative classification markings is a responsibility of those who incorporate, paraphrase, restate,...

  4. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sheon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  5. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Sheon-Young; Chang Ick-Soon; Kim Hark-Mahn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation). Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation) mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  6. 77 FR 7028 - Changes To Implement Derivation Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 42 RIN 0651-AC74 Changes To Implement Derivation Proceedings... the provisions of the Leahy- Smith America Invents Act that create a new derivation proceeding to be... administrative proceeding called a derivation proceeding. Derivation proceedings were created to ensure that...

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF PYRAZOLONE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mariappan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the antioxidant property of pyrazolones derivatives (PYZ1 to PYZ10 are reported. It was assessed by estimation of Malonaldehyde (MDA and 4-Hydroxyl-2-noneal (4-HNE as lipid peroxidation markers in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was compared with the standard ascorbic acid. Among synthesized derivatives PYZ2, PYZ3, PYZ7, PYZ8, PYZ9, and PYZ10 were found to have potent antioxidant effect against MDA marker. In case of 4-HNE, PYZ4, PYZ5, PYZ6, PYZ7, PYZ8, PYZ9 and PYZ10 were found to have effective antioxidant activity and the rest of the compounds are moderately active. Comparatively PYZ7, PYZ8, PYZ9 and PYZ10 are having effective role to control both MDA and 4-HNE generation. All the experimental data were statistically significant at p<0.05 level. Interestingly, beyond its NSAID property, this study explores the protective role of pyrazolone derivatives in ischemic heart injury.

  8. Healthy degenerate theories with higher derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, Hayato [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Noui, Karim [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique,Université François Rabelais,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Laboratoire APC - Astroparticule et Cosmologie,Université Paris Diderot Paris 7,75013 Paris (France); Suyama, Teruaki [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science,The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Langlois, David [Laboratoire APC - Astroparticule et Cosmologie,Université Paris Diderot Paris 7,75013 Paris (France)

    2016-07-20

    In the context of classical mechanics, we study the conditions under which higher-order derivative theories can evade the so-called Ostrogradsky instability. More precisely, we consider general Lagrangians with second order time derivatives, of the form L(ϕ{sup ¨a}, ϕ-dot {sup a},ϕ{sup a}; q-dot {sup i},q{sup i}) with a=1,⋯,n and i=1,⋯,m. For n=1, assuming that the q{sup i}’s form a nondegenerate subsystem, we confirm that the degeneracy of the kinetic matrix eliminates the Ostrogradsky instability. The degeneracy implies, in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory, the existence of a primary constraint, which generates a secondary constraint, thus eliminating the Ostrogradsky ghost. For n>1, we show that, in addition to the degeneracy of the kinetic matrix, one needs to impose extra conditions to ensure the presence of a sufficient number of secondary constraints that can eliminate all the Ostrogradsky ghosts. When these conditions that ensure the disappearance of the Ostrogradsky instability are satisfied, we show that the Euler-Lagrange equations, which involve a priori higher order derivatives, can be reduced to a second order system.

  9. Forest Area Derivation from SENTINEL-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Alena; Hollaus, Markus; Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clustering. Sentinel-1 data collected in winter season 2014-2015 over a test area in eastern Austria were used to derive forest area mask with spatial resolution of 10m and minimum mapping unit of 500 m2. The validation with reference forest mask derived from airborne full-waveform laser scanning data revealed overall accuracy of 92 % and kappa statistics of 0.81. Even better results can be achieved when using external mask for urban areas, which might be misclassified as forests when using the introduced approach based on SAR data only. The Sentinel-1 data and the described methods are well suited for forest change detection between consecutive years.

  10. Exosomes Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The functional mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have become a research focus in recent years. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that MSCs act in a paracrine manner. Therefore, the biological factors in conditioned medium, including exosomes and soluble factors, derived from MSC cultures are being explored extensively. The results from most investigations show that MSC-conditioned medium or its components mediate some biological functions of MSCs. Several studies have reported that MSC-derived exosomes have functions similar to those of MSCs, such as repairing tissue damage, suppressing inflammatory responses, and modulating the immune system. However, the mechanisms are still not fully understood and the results remain controversial. Compared with cells, exosomes are more stable and reservable, have no risk of aneuploidy, a lower possibility of immune rejection following in vivo allogeneic administration, and may provide an alternative therapy for various diseases. In this review, we summarize the properties and biological functions of MSC-derived exosomes and discuss the related mechanisms.

  11. FOREST AREA DERIVATION FROM SENTINEL-1 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dostálová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clustering. Sentinel-1 data collected in winter season 2014-2015 over a test area in eastern Austria were used to derive forest area mask with spatial resolution of 10m and minimum mapping unit of 500 m2. The validation with reference forest mask derived from airborne full-waveform laser scanning data revealed overall accuracy of 92 % and kappa statistics of 0.81. Even better results can be achieved when using external mask for urban areas, which might be misclassified as forests when using the introduced approach based on SAR data only. The Sentinel-1 data and the described methods are well suited for forest change detection between consecutive years.

  12. Derivation of naive human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Carol B; Nelson, Angelique M; Mecham, Brigham; Hesson, Jennifer; Zhou, Wenyu; Jonlin, Erica C; Jimenez-Caliani, Antonio J; Deng, Xinxian; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Cook, Savannah; Tesar, Paul J; Okada, Jeffrey; Margaretha, Lilyana; Sperber, Henrik; Choi, Michael; Blau, C Anthony; Treuting, Piper M; Hawkins, R David; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2014-03-25

    The naïve pluripotent state has been shown in mice to lead to broad and more robust developmental potential relative to primed mouse epiblast cells. The human naïve ES cell state has eluded derivation without the use of transgenes, and forced expression of OCT4, KLF4, and KLF2 allows maintenance of human cells in a naïve state [Hanna J, et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(20):9222-9227]. We describe two routes to generate nontransgenic naïve human ES cells (hESCs). The first is by reverse toggling of preexisting primed hESC lines by preculture in the histone deacetylase inhibitors butyrate and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, followed by culture in MEK/ERK and GSK3 inhibitors (2i) with FGF2. The second route is by direct derivation from a human embryo in 2i with FGF2. We show that human naïve cells meet mouse criteria for the naïve state by growth characteristics, antibody labeling profile, gene expression, X-inactivation profile, mitochondrial morphology, microRNA profile and development in the context of teratomas. hESCs can exist in a naïve state without the need for transgenes. Direct derivation is an elusive, but attainable, process, leading to cells at the earliest stage of in vitro pluripotency described for humans. Reverse toggling of primed cells to naïve is efficient and reproducible.

  13. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  14. Healthy degenerate theories with higher derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Noui, Karim; Suyama, Teruaki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Langlois, David

    2016-07-01

    In the context of classical mechanics, we study the conditions under which higher-order derivative theories can evade the so-called Ostrogradsky instability. More precisely, we consider general Lagrangians with second order time derivatives, of the form L(̈phia, dot phia, phia; qi, qi) with a = 1,⋯,n and i = 1,⋯,m. For n = 1, assuming that the qi's form a nondegenerate subsystem, we confirm that the degeneracy of the kinetic matrix eliminates the Ostrogradsky instability. The degeneracy implies, in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory, the existence of a primary constraint, which generates a secondary constraint, thus eliminating the Ostrogradsky ghost. For n > 1, we show that, in addition to the degeneracy of the kinetic matrix, one needs to impose extra conditions to ensure the presence of a sufficient number of secondary constraints that can eliminate all the Ostrogradsky ghosts. When these conditions that ensure the disappearance of the Ostrogradsky instability are satisfied, we show that the Euler-Lagrange equations, which involve a priori higher order derivatives, can be reduced to a second order system.

  15. P-Splines Using Derivative Information

    KAUST Repository

    Calderon, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Time series associated with single-molecule experiments and/or simulations contain a wealth of multiscale information about complex biomolecular systems. We demonstrate how a collection of Penalized-splines (P-splines) can be useful in quantitatively summarizing such data. In this work, functions estimated using P-splines are associated with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). It is shown how quantities estimated in a single SDE summarize fast-scale phenomena, whereas variation between curves associated with different SDEs partially reflects noise induced by motion evolving on a slower time scale. P-splines assist in "semiparametrically" estimating nonlinear SDEs in situations where a time-dependent external force is applied to a single-molecule system. The P-splines introduced simultaneously use function and derivative scatterplot information to refine curve estimates. We refer to the approach as the PuDI (P-splines using Derivative Information) method. It is shown how generalized least squares ideas fit seamlessly into the PuDI method. Applications demonstrating how utilizing uncertainty information/approximations along with generalized least squares techniques improve PuDI fits are presented. Although the primary application here is in estimating nonlinear SDEs, the PuDI method is applicable to situations where both unbiased function and derivative estimates are available.

  16. Affinity of guanosine derivatives for polycytidylate revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Hurley, T. B.; Baird, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence is presented for complexation of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) with polycytidylate (poly(C)) at pH 8.0 and 23 degrees C in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl2 and 0.2 M MgCl2 in water. The association of 2-MeImpG with poly(C) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy as well as by monitoring the kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of the imidazole moiety by amines. The results of both methods are consistent with moderately strong poly(C) 2-MeImpG complexation and the spectrophotometric measurements allowed the construction of a binding isotherm with a concentration of 2-MeImpG equal to 5.55 +/- 0.15 mM at half occupancy. UV spectroscopy was employed to establish the binding of other guanosine derivatives on poly(C). These derivatives are guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'GMP), guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), and guanosine 5'-monophosphate morpholidate (morpG). Within experimental error these guanosine derivatives exhibit the same affinity for poly(C) as 2-MeImpG.

  17. Peano on derivative of measures, strict derivative of distributive set functions

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Gabriele H; Pagani, Enrico M

    2010-01-01

    By retracing research on coexistent magnitudes (grandeurs coexistantes) by Cauchy (1841), Peano in "Applicazioni geometriche del calcolo infinitesimale" (1887) defines the "density" (strict derivative) of a "mass" (a distributive set function) with respect to a "volume" (a positive distributive set function), proves its continuity (whenever the strict derivative exists) and shows the validity of the mass-density paradigm: "mass" is recovered from "density" by integration with respect to "volume". It is remarkable that Peano's strict derivative provides a consistent mathematical ground to the concept of "infinitesimal ratio" between two magnitudes, successfully used since Kepler. In this way the classical (i.e., pre-Lebesgue) measure theory reaches a complete and definitive form in Peano's Applicazioni geometriche. A primary aim of the present paper is a detailed exposition of Peano's work of 1887 leading to the concept of strict derivative of distributive set functions and their use. Moreover, we compare Pean...

  18. Local and 2-Local derivations on noncommutative Arens algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ayupov, Sh A; Nurjanov, B O; Alauatdinov, A K

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to so-called local and 2-local derivations on the noncommutative Arens algebra $L^\\omega(M, \\tau)$ associated with a von Neumann algebra $M$ and a faithful normal semi-finite trace $\\tau.$ We prove that every 2-local derivation on $L^\\omega(M, \\tau)$ is a spatial derivation, and if $M$ is a finite von Neumann algebra, then each local derivation on $L^\\omega(M, \\tau)$ is also a spatial derivation and every 2-local derivation on $M$ is in fact an inner derivation.

  19. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  20. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng eMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  1. Properties of frequentist confidence levels derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Miriam Lucio; Dettori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In high energy physics, results from searches for new particles or rare processes are often reported using a modified frequentist approach, known as $\\rm{CL_s}$ method. In this paper, we study the properties of the derivatives of $\\rm{CL_s}$ and $\\rm{CL_{s+b}}$ as signal strength estimators if the confidence levels are interpreted as credible intervals. Our approach allows obtaining best fit points and $\\chi^2$ functions which can be used for phenomenology studies. In addition, this approach can be used to incorporate $\\rm{CL_s}$ results into Bayesian combinations.

  2. N-Salicylideneamine Derivatives with TEMPO Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin’ichi Nakatsuji

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Three N-salicylideneamine derivatives bearing TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetra- methyl-1-piperidinyloxy substituents were prepared in order to study their structure and property relationships and to investigate the possibilities of the existence of heat and/or light responsive magnetic properties. Curie-Weiss behavior with weak ferromagnetic intermolecular spin-spin interactions was observed in one of the radicals, while antiferromagnetic interactions were predominant for the other radicals and the structure-property relationships were investigated for the radical compounds from their crystal structures obtained by X-ray analyses. Preliminary results of the examination of their responses towards light and heat are also described.

  3. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  4. [A new eremophilane derivative from Senecio dianthus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, He-Dong; Hu, Hai-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ling

    2013-10-01

    A new eremophilane derivative, 4,5,11-trimethyl-9( 10), 7 ( 11) -eremophiladien-8-keto-12-carboxylic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside( which named dianthuside A) 1 and four known compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavonone-3-0-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-0-beta-D-glucoside(3) ,hyperin(4) and rutin(5) have been isolated from the aerial part of Senecio dianthus. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  5. Sesquiterpenoid derivatives from Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud.) Korov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, He; Li, Guoyu; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Wei, Xiuyan; Ma, Yueping; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Jinhui

    2013-02-01

    Eight sesquiterpenoids, named Ferulaeone A-H (1-8), and seven known sesquiterpenoid derivatives were isolated from the roots of Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud.) Korov. Their structures were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, and biosynthetic pathways leading to these compounds were proposed. The cytotoxicity of all these isolates against HepG2, MCF-7, and C6 cancer cell lines was evaluated and compounds 6-11, 13 exihibited various degrees of cytotoxic effect. Among them, compounds 9-11 displayed the highest potency against C6 with IC(50) values 34, 36, and 31 μM, respectively.

  6. Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Diterpenylnaphthoquinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New diterpenylquinones, combining a diterpene diacid and a naphthoquinone, were prepared from junicedric acid and lapachol. The new derivatives were assessed as gastroprotective agents by the HCl-EtOH-induced gastric lesions model in mice as well as for basal cytotoxicity on the following human cell lines: Normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5, gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS, and hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2. Several of the new compounds were significantly active as antiulcer agents and showed selective cytotoxicity against AGS cells.

  7. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Yup Jeon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.

  8. Analytically Derived Wind Wave Growth Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管长龙; 孙群

    2002-01-01

    By the use of the 3/2 power law presented by Toba combined with the significant wave energy balance equation forwind wave, wind wave growth at a limited fetch is analytically investigated. The new wind wave growth relations(WWGRs) are analytically derived with sheltering coefficient and wind drag coefficient as parameters. The geometricalaverage of observational values of sheltering coefficient and the arithmetic average of observational values of wind drag co-efficient are applied to determine the new WWGRs. Comparisons with existing empirical WWGRs are made.

  9. Photoelectrochemical Properties of Graphene and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Adán-Más

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene and its derivatives combine a numerous range of supreme properties that can be useful in many applications. The purpose of this review is to analyse the photoelectrochemical properties of pristine graphene, graphene oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO and their impact on semiconductor catalysts/quantum dots. The mechanism that this group of materials follows to improve their performance will be cleared by explaining how those properties can be exploited in several applications such as photo-catalysts (degradation of pollutants and photovoltaics (solar cells.

  10. Catalysts derived from waste slag for transesterification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Zhang; Wei Huang

    2011-01-01

    MgO-CaO/SiO2 solid catalysts derived from waste slag (WS) of metal magnesium plant were prepared.The catalytic performances were evaluated in the transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol to biodiesel in a 500 mL three-necked reactor under atmospheric pressure.The basic strengh of the catalyst reached 22.0 measured by indicators accroding to Hammett scale.The results show that the MgO-CaO/SiO2 is an excellent catalyst for transesterification, and the conversion of rapeseed oil reach 98% under the optimum condition.

  11. Black holes in higher derivative gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S

    2015-05-01

    Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.

  12. VARIOUS APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Ashish

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Imidazole, a five-membered heterocycle having three carbon atoms, two nitrogen atoms, and two double bonds, having efficient antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coil, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anti-cancer, mutagenic activity against Salmonella typhimurium, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-allergic activity etc. The presence of heterocyclic structures exerts various physiologic effects on the body. In the present study we have reviewed several newer approches of synthesizing the substituted imidazole derivatives via catalytic reaction & by the application of various suitable reagents.

  13. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Faroni; Richard JP Smith; Adam J Reid

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients along-side high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacriifcing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to pro-vide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacriifce of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of re-generation in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts.

  14. Derivation of an applied nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laine, Mark Richard [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schwarz, Jens [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rambo, Patrick K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  15. A Simplified Procedure for Safety Requirements Derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Ioan Gergely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a procedure for analysis of PLC-controlled system risk due to component failure and for derivation of safety integrity requirements for components, focusing on software requirements. The approach allows fully integrated treatment of random and systematic failure. It can be applied at different levels of design detail and at different stages of the system development lifecycle. The procedure does not address how to assess failure rates, but provides a foundation for integrating PLC software assessment into system riskassessment and for making trade-offs in design.

  16. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  17. A new selaginellin derivative from Selaginella pulvinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Wu, Yong-Ping; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-02-01

    Abstract: A new selaginellin derivative named as selaginellin S (1) was isolated from the whole plants of Selaginella pulvinata (Hook. et Grev.) Maxim. (Selaginellaceae), together with a known one (selaginellin M, 2). Compounds 1 and 2 were separated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis including IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as ECD calculations. Compound 1 is a key intermidiant in the biosynthesis pathway of selaginellins. Compound 2 is first reported in this plant.

  18. Derivation of an Applied Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Todd Alan; Laine, Mark Richard; Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick K.; Karelitz, David B.

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  19. Derivational and Semantic Relations of Croatian Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Šojat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with certain morphosemantic relations between Croatian verbs and discusses their inclusion in Croatian WordNet. The morphosemantic relations in question are the semantic relations between unprefixed infinitives and their prefixed derivatives. We introduce the criteria for the division of aspectual pairs and further discuss verb prefixation which results in combinations of prefixes and base forms that can vary in terms of meaning from compositional to completely idiosyncratic. The focus is on the regularities in semantic modifications of base forms modified by one prefix. The aim of this procedure is to establish a set of morphosemantic relations based on regular or reoccuring meaning alternations.

  20. Medicinal Chemistry Perspective of Fused Isoxazole Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmade, Mahesh A; Murumkar, Prashant R; Sharma, Mayank Kumar; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen containing heterocyclic rings with an oxygen atom is considered as one of the best combination in medicinal chemistry due to their diversified biological activities. Isoxazole, a five membered heterocyclic azole ring is found in naturally occuring ibetonic acid along with some of the marketed drugs such as valdecoxib, flucloxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and danazol. It is also significant for showing antipsychotic activity in risperidone and anticonvulsant activity in zonisamide, the marketed drugs. This review article covers research articles reported till date covering biological activity along with SAR of fused isoxazole derivatives.

  1. A New Bezoxepine Derivative from Senecio desfontainei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamid Hussain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontainei afforded one new benzoxepin derivative, Senecioside (1 along with eleven known compounds (2-12. Their structures were assigned from 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT and by 2D COSY, NOE, HSQC and HMBC experiments. All these compounds were tested for antioxidant activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals.

  2. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-07

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  3. Molecular Recognition Studies on Naphthyridine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Iglesias-Sánchez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association constants Kb of three hosts I–III designed to have both enhanced hydrogen bonding donor strength and conformational preorganization with biotin analogues 1–5 are reported. 1H-NMR titrations under two different concentration conditions have been employed to determine the association constants Kb. A statistical analysis using a presence absence matrix has been applied to calculate the different contributions. Hydrogen bond interactions make naphthyridine derivatives II and III potent binders and effective receptors for (+-biotin methyl ester (1, due to the complex stabilization by additional hydrogen bonds.

  4. Portfolio Selection Model with Derivative Securities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春峰; 杨建林; 蒋祥林

    2003-01-01

    Traditional portfolio theory assumes that the return rate of portfolio follows normality. However, this assumption is not true when derivative assets are incorporated. In this paper a portfolio selection model is developed based on utility function which can capture asymmetries in random variable distributions. Other realistic conditions are also considered, such as liabilities and integer decision variables. Since the resulting model is a complex mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, simulated annealing algorithm is applied for its solution. A numerical example is given and sensitivity analysis is conducted for the model.

  5. Studies on some derivatives of oxamniquine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    el-Hamouly, W.; Pica-Mattoccia, L.; Cioli, D.; Schwartz, H.M.; Archer, S.

    1988-08-01

    On the basis of the remarkable biological similarities between hycanthone and oxamniquine and as a sequel to our finding that some esters of hycanthone are active against hycanthone-resistant schistosomes, we prepared oxamniquine acetate, oxamniquine N-methylcarbamate, and four substituted phenylsulfonohydrazones of oxamniquine aldehyde. These compounds were tested for their effect on survival of and on (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation into hycanthone-sensitive and -resistant Schistosoma mansoni. All of these derivatives were effective to a greater or lesser degree in killing worms and in inhibiting (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation in the sensitive strain, but none was effective in the resistant strain.

  6. Quenching of nucleotide-derived radicals by bisbenzimidazole derivative Hoechst-33258 in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Mohan; A Adhikary; V Jain; J P Mittal

    2000-08-01

    The pulse radiolysis technique has been employed to investigate the reaction of DNA-minor-groove ligand bisbenzimidazole Hoechst 33258 with pyrimidine and purine nucleotide-derived radicals. Formation of an N-centred Hoechst-33258 radical is observed. Bimolecular rate constants and the yields of Hoechst-33258 radical have been evaluated. While the rate constant for the reaction of pyrimidine-derived radicals with Hoechst-33258 remained the same (1-2) × 109 dm3 mol-1s-1, the yields of the Hoechst-33258 radical varied from 25% (5 -cytidine monophosphate) to 75% (5 -guanosine monophosphate) under anoxic conditions. The rate constant values for the reaction of purine-derived radicals with Hoechst-33258, under oxic and anoxic conditions, remained the same whereas with pyrimidine-derived radicals, the rate constant value under oxic conditions was about two orders of magnitude lower than under anoxic conditions. The difference in the yields of Hoechst-33258 radical with various nucleotide-derived radicals suggest the formation of different types of radicals and that the reaction mainly occurs by electron transfer from Hoechst-33258 to the nucleotide radicals.

  7. GENERALIZED DERIVATIONS ON PARABOLIC SUBALGEBRAS OF GENERAL LINEAR LIE ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正新

    2014-01-01

    Let P be a parabolic subalgebra of a general linear Lie algebra gl(n, F) over a field F, where n ≥ 3, F contains at least n different elements, and char(F) 6= 2. In this article, we prove that generalized derivations, quasiderivations, and product zero derivations of P coincide, and any generalized derivation of P is a sum of an inner derivation, a central quasiderivation, and a scalar multiplication map of P. We also show that any commuting automorphism of P is a central automorphism, and any commuting derivation of P is a central derivation.

  8. A derivability criterion based on the existence of adjunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a derivability criterion of functors based on the existence of adjunctions rather than on the existence of resolutions. It constitutes a converse of Quillen-Maltsiniotis derived adjunction theorem. We present two applications of our derivability criterion. On the one hand, we prove that the two notions for homotopy colimits corresponding to Grothendieck derivators and Quillen model categories are equivalent. On the other hand, we deduce that the internal hom for derived Morita theory constructed by B. To\\"en is indeed the right derived functor of the internal hom of dg-categories.

  9. Tobin Tax: Arguments and Current Derivative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozekicioglu Seda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.

  10. PUFA-derived endocannabinoids: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Maria Grazia

    2013-11-01

    Following on from the discovery of cannabinoid receptors, of their endogenous agonists (endocannabinoids) and of the biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes of the endocannabinoids, significant progress has been made towards the understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in both physiological and pathological conditions. Endocannabinoids are mainly n-6 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) derivatives that are synthesised by neuronal cells and inactivated via a two-step process that begins with their transport from the extracellular to the intracellular space and culminates in their intracellular degradation by hydrolysis or oxidation. Although the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids have been well characterised, the processes involved in their cellular uptake are still a subject of debate. Moreover, little is yet known about the roles of endocannabinoids derived from n-3 LCPUFA such as EPA and DHA. Here, I provide an overview of what is currently known about the mechanisms for the biosynthesis and inactivation of endocannabinoids, together with a brief analysis of the involvement of the endocannabinoids in both food intake and obesity. Owing to limited space, recent reviews will be often cited instead of original papers.

  11. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  12. Very Massive Tracers and Higher Derivative Biases

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Senatore, Leonardo; Vlah, Zvonimir; Angulo, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Most of the upcoming cosmological information will come from analyzing the clustering of the Large Scale Structures (LSS) of the universe through LSS or CMB observations. It is therefore essential to be able to understand their behavior with exquisite precision. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a consistent framework to make predictions for LSS observables in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper we focus on biased tracers. We argue that in calculations at a given order in the dark matter perturbations, highly biased tracers will underperform because of their larger higher derivative biases. A natural prediction of the EFTofLSS is therefore that by simply adding higher derivative biases, all tracers should perform comparably well. We implement this prediction for the halo-halo and the halo-matter power spectra at one loop, and the halo-halo-halo, halo-halo-matter, and halo-matter-matter bispectra at tree-level, and compare with simulations. We find good agreement ...

  13. Formulation of benzoporphyrin derivatives in Pluronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Rubinah K; Chansarkar, Namrata; Sharif, Isha; Hioka, Noboru; Dolphin, David

    2003-03-01

    This study investigates the potential of Pluronics for the formulation of tetrapyrrole-based photosensitizers, with a particular focus on B-ring benzoporphyrin derivatives. The B-ring derivatives have a high tendency to aggregate in aqueous solutions, and this poses a significant formulation problem. Pluronics are ABA-type triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic polypropylene oxide section with two hydrophilic polyethylene oxide sections of equal length at either end. Out of a range of different commercially available block copolymers studied, it was found that the longer the hydrophobic block, the better the stabilization of tetrapyrrolic drugs in monomeric form in aqueous suspensions. Of these the best performance was observed in the micelle-forming Pluronic P123. Micelle size determination by laser light scattering confirmed that particle size in stable Pluronic formulations was around 20 nm. Pluronics such as L122 formed emulsions spontaneously without the need for emulsion stabilizers; emulsions were highly stable at ambient temperatures over several days and also highly effective as potential drug delivery agents.

  14. Cell-derived microparticles and the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Nieri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-derived microparticles are small (0.1–1 μm vesicles shed by most eukaryotic cells upon activation or during apoptosis. Microparticles carry on their surface, and enclose within their cytoplasm, molecules derived from the parental cell, including proteins, DNA, RNA, microRNA and phospholipids. Microparticles are now considered functional units that represent a disseminated storage pool of bioactive effectors and participate both in the maintenance of homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of diseases. The mechanisms involved in microparticle generation include intracellular calcium mobilisation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, kinase phosphorylation and activation of the nuclear factor-κB. The role of microparticles in blood coagulation and inflammation, including airway inflammation, is well established in in vitro and animal models. The role of microparticles in human pulmonary diseases, both as pathogenic determinants and biomarkers, is being actively investigated. Microparticles of endothelial origin, suggestive of apoptosis, have been demonstrated in the peripheral blood of patients with emphysema, lending support to the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and represent a link with cardiovascular comorbidities. Microparticles also have potential roles in patients with asthma, diffuse parenchymal lung disease, thromboembolism, lung cancer and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  15. Healthy degenerate theories with higher derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Hayato; Suyama, Teruaki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Langlois, David

    2016-01-01

    In the context of classical mechanics, we study the conditions under which higher-order derivative theories can evade the so-called Ostrogradsky instability. More precisely, we consider general Lagrangians with second order time derivatives, of the form $L(\\ddot\\phi^a,\\dot\\phi^a,\\phi^a;\\dot q^i,q^i)$ with $a = 1,\\cdots, n$ and $i = 1,\\cdots, m$. For $n=1$, assuming that the $q^i$'s form a nondegenerate subsystem, we confirm that the degeneracy of the kinetic matrix eliminates the Ostrogradsky instability. The degeneracy implies, in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory, the existence of a primary constraint, which generates a secondary constraint, thus eliminating the Ostrogradsky ghost. For $n>1$, we show that, in addition to the degeneracy of the kinetic matrix, one needs to impose extra conditions to ensure the presence of a sufficient number of secondary constraints that can eliminate all the Ostrogradsky ghosts. When these conditions that ensure the disappearance of the Ostrogradsky instability are s...

  16. A One Line Derivation of EGARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McAleer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular univariate asymmetric conditional volatility models is the exponential GARCH (or EGARCH specification. In addition to asymmetry, which captures the different effects on conditional volatility of positive and negative effects of equal magnitude, EGARCH can also accommodate leverage, which is the negative correlation between returns shocks and subsequent shocks to volatility. However, the statistical properties of the (quasi- maximum likelihood estimator of the EGARCH parameters are not available under general conditions, but rather only for special cases under highly restrictive and unverifiable conditions. It is often argued heuristically that the reason for the lack of general statistical properties arises from the presence in the model of an absolute value of a function of the parameters, which does not permit analytical derivatives, and hence does not permit (quasi- maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown in this paper for the non-leverage case that: (1 the EGARCH model can be derived from a random coefficient complex nonlinear moving average (RCCNMA process; and (2 the reason for the lack of statistical properties of the estimators of EGARCH under general conditions is that the stationarity and invertibility conditions for the RCCNMA process are not known.

  17. Boson Stars in Higher Derivative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baibhav, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have constructed Boson star (BS) solutions in four dimensional scalar-Gauss-Bonnet (sGB) theory. In order to have non-trivial effect from Gauss-Bonnet term, we invoked non-minimal coupling between a complex scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term with a coupling parameter, $\\alpha$. We show that the scalar field can no longer take arbitrary value at the center of the star. Furthermore, boson-stars in our higher derivative theory turn out to be slightly massive but much more compact than those in the usual Einstein's gravity. Interestingly, we found that for $\\alpha0.8$, binding energy for all possible boson stars is always negative. This implies that these stars are intrinsically stable against the decay by dispersion. We also present the mass-radius and mass-frequency curves for boson-star and compare them with other compact objects in gravity models derived from Gauss-Bonnet term.

  18. Boson stars in higher-derivative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibhav, Vishal; Maity, Debaprasad

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have constructed boson star (BS) solutions in four-dimensional scalar-Gauss-Bonnet (sGB) theory. In order to have a nontrivial effect from the Gauss-Bonnet term, we invoked nonminimal coupling between a complex scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term with a coupling parameter, α . We show that the scalar field can no longer take arbitrary value at the center of the star. Furthermore, boson stars in our higher-derivative theory turn out to be slightly massive but much more compact than those in the usual Einstein's gravity. Interestingly, we found that for α 0.8 , binding energy for all possible boson stars is always negative. This implies that these stars are intrinsically stable against the decay by dispersion. However, for -0.4 negative binding energy depending on scalar field value at the center of the star. We also present the mass-radius and mass-frequency curves for boson stars and compare them with other compact objects in gravity models derived from the Gauss-Bonnet term.

  19. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles derived from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased manufacture of TiO2 nano-products has caused concern about the potential toxicity of these products to the environment and in public health. Identification and confirmation of the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles derived from consumer products as opposed to industrial TiO2 NPs warrants examination in exploring the significance of their release and resultant impacts on the environment. To this end we examined the significance of the release of these particles and their toxic effect on the marine diatom algae Thalassiosira pseudonana. Our results indicate that nano-TiO2 sunscreen and toothpaste exhibit more toxicity in comparison to industrial TiO2, and inhibited the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. This inhibition was proportional to the exposure time and concentrations of nano-TiO2. Our findings indicate a significant effect, and therefore further research is warranted in evaluation and assessment of the toxicity of modified nano-TiO2 derived from consumer products and their physicochemical properties. Submit to journal Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

  20. Fractional derivatives. An introduction; Derivate frazionarie. Che cosa sono, a cosa servono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Div. Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this item is presented a brief survey of fractional calculus and of the relevant applications. In the work are discussed different points of view of the operation of fractional derivative and present a unifying definition. The role played by fractional derivatives and integrals within the framework of integral transform is analyzed. [Italian] In questo articolo si traccia un profilo del cosidetto calcolo frazionario e delle relative applicazioni a problemi di matematica pura ed applicata. Si discutono varie definizioni dell'operazione di derivata frazionaria, non tutte coincidenti fra loro, e si mostra come sia possibile proporre una definizione univoca che inglobi tutte le altre. Si analizza infine il ruolo giocato dalle derivate e dagli integrali frazionari e, piu' in generale, quello degli operatori differenziali ad esponente frazionario, nell'ambito della teoria delle rappresentazioni integrali.

  1. A new diketopiperazine derivative from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Minghe; Tang, Guiling; Ju, Jianhua; Lu, Laichun; Huang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    A new diketopiperazine (DKP) derivative, (6R,3Z)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutyl-1-methyl piperazine-2,5-dione (1), as well as five known DKPs 2-6 was isolated from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496. The structure of 1 was elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS and chiral-phase HPLC techniques. Compounds 1-6 did not show cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 100 μM in bioactivity assay.

  2. A note on the derivation of the derivatives of invariants of stretch tensor to the right Cauchy-Green tensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Dongyan; JIN Ming; DUI Guansuo

    2006-01-01

    A new approach for the derivation of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor with respect to the right Cauchy Green tensor is presented in this paper. According to the definition of the derivation of tensor function, the three first-order derivatives for the principal invariants of the stretch tensor are obtained through derivation directly to the right Cauchy-Green tensor by incremental method. Then the three second-order derivatives are yielded by the derivation to the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor directly. Furthermore, an explicit expression of the tangent modulus of the general Varga material is given as an example.

  3. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  4. Synthesis of (-)-arctigenin derivatives and their anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui-Rong, Chen; Li-Ping, Cai; De-Qiang, Dou; Ting-Guo, Kang; Hong-Fu, Li; Fu-Rui, Li; Ning, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The natural dibenzylbutyrolactone type lignanolide (-)-arctigenin, which was prepared from fructus arctii, showed obvious anticancer activity. The synthesis of four new (-)-arctigenin derivatives and their anticancer bioactivities were examined. The structures of the four new synthetic derivatives were elucidated.

  5. ALGEBROIDAL FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVED FUNCTION IN UNIT CIRCULAR DISC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Yingying; Sun Daochun

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors define the derived function of an algeboidal function in the unit disc, prove it is an algabriodal function, and study the order of algebroidal function and that of its derived function in unit circular disc.

  6. On an Inequality Concerning the Polar Derivative of a Polynomial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Aziz; N A Rather

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we present a correct proof of an -inequality concerning the polar derivative of a polynomial with restricted zeros. We also extend Zygmund’s inequality to the polar derivative of a polynomial.

  7. Derivations and Generating Degrees in the Ring of Arithmetical Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexandru Zaharescu; Mohammad Zaki

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we study a family of derivations in the ring of arithmetical functions of several variables over an integral domain, and compute the generating degrees of the ring of arithmetical functions over the kernel of these derivations.

  8. Thiazolidone derivatives as inhibitors of chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Surender Singh; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Pastorino, Boris; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan

    2015-01-07

    A series of arylalkylidene derivatives of 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (1-20) were synthesized and tested for their antiviral activity against chikungunya virus (LR2006_OPY1) in Vero cell culture by CPE reduction assay. Five compounds (7-9, 16 and 19) were identified to have anti-ChikV activity at lower micro molar concentration. The compounds 7, 8, 9, 16 and 19 inhibited the virus at 0.42, 4.2, 3.6, 40.1 and 6.8 μM concentrations respectively. Molecular docking simulation has been carried out using the available X-ray crystal structure of the ChikV nsp2 protease, in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of action. Interaction of ligands with ChikV nsp2 protease (PDB Code: 3TRK) suggested the possible mechanism of protease inhibition to act as potent anti-ChikV agents.

  9. Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.

    We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...... the relationship between inventory and volatility, we use the information available in options traded on futures. Second, performance assessment in the previous literature has primarily evolved around explaining moments of data or forecasting prices of futures. Instead, we asses the performance of our model...... by considering both the ability of explaining prices in-sample and out-of-sample - assessing both the pricing-performance and the hedging-performance of the models. Third, we model the futures surface rather than the spot price process, and from the no-arbitrage relationship between spot and futures prices we...

  10. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectra of Dipeptide Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO, Zaigang; ZENG, Chengchu; YANG, Daoshan; HUANG, Yali; WANG, Fang; DU, Hongguang; HU, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Based on the structure of the HIV integrase core domain, dipeptide derivatives, as a type of HIV integrase in- hibitor, were synthesized, and their fragmentation pathways were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spec- trometry (ESI-MSN) in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In order to better understand the fragmentation pathways, the MS2 and MS3 spectra of the title compound were obtained. The main fragmentation pathways occur by the cleavage of the C-CO bonds between N-(benzothiazol-2-yl)aminocarbonyl and methylene, NH-CO bonds between the NH groups and carbonyl groups. Electrospray ionization was proven to be a good method for the structural characterization and identification of this kind of compound.

  11. Antibacterial sesquiterpenoid derivatives from Ferula ferulaeoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Osman, Khadijo; Kaatz, Glenn W; Gibbons, Simon; Mu, Qing

    2013-05-01

    Three new sesquiterpenoid derivatives 1, 2, and 3 were isolated from Ferula ferulaeoides. To confirm the structure, compound 2 was also synthesized via a condensation reaction between compound 1 and 2,2-dimethoxypropane. The structures of these three compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Their antibacterial activity against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were evaluated with MIC values in the range of 0.5-128 µg/mL. Compounds 1 and 3 were capable of inhibiting efflux of ethidium bromide using an in vitro assay. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated on cultured HEK293 cells, and none of them showed toxicity to HEK293 cells at a concentration of 125 µg/mL.

  12. Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Graphene Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    . Solution processable graphene in the form of chemically derived graphene has been synthesized through the modified Hummers method with subsequent reduction into reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The completeness of oxidation, the effect of the refinement steps and the reduction of the graphene oxide...... were investigated using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. It was found that reduction of graphene oxide back into graphene did not seem possible in solution, while still maintaining its monolayer character. Instead, an alternative route for graphene synthesis was then designed. This involved...... immobilization of the monolayered graphene oxide via the Langmuir-Blodgett deposition technique prior to a three step reduction scheme involving hydrazine reduc-tion, sulfuric acid de-oxygenation, and thermal annealing. This method resulted in wrin-kle-free reduced graphene oxide with a negligible oxygen content...

  13. Chaotic inflation in higher derivative gravity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrzakul, Shynaray; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate chaotic inflation from a scalar field subjected to a potential in the framework of f(R{sup 2}, P, Q)-gravity, where we add a correction to Einstein's gravity based on a function of the square of the Ricci scalar R{sup 2}, the contraction of the Ricci tensor P, and the contraction of the Riemann tensor Q. The Gauss-Bonnet case is also discussed. We give the general formalism of inflation, deriving the slow-roll parameters, the e-fold number, and the spectral indices. Several explicit examples are furnished; namely, we will consider the cases of a massive scalar field and a scalar field with quartic potential and some power-law function of the curvature invariants under investigation in the gravitational action of the theory. A viable approach to inflation according with observations is analyzed. (orig.)

  14. Power Cocentralizing Generalized Derivations on Prime Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vincenzo De Filippis

    2010-06-01

    Let be a prime ring, the Utumi quotient ring of $R,C=Z(U)$ the extended centroid of , a non-central Lie ideal of , and non-zero generalized derivations of . Suppose that there exists an integer $n≥ 1$ such that $(H(u)u-uG(u))^n=0$, for all $u\\in L$, then one of the following holds: (1) there exists $c\\in U$ such that $H(x)=xc,G(x)=cx;(2)R$ satisfies the standard identity $s_4$ and char ()=2; (3) satisfies $s4$ and there exist $a, b, c\\in U$, such that $H(x)=ax+xc,G(x)=cx+xb$ and $(a-b)^n=0$.

  15. Derivatives Trading, Climate Science and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    Purpose - An assessment of the ideology of climate management. Design/Methodology/Approach - Zizek's (S. Zizek, 2004, From politics to biopolitics . . . and back, The South Atlantic Quarterly, 103(2/3): 501-521) theorization of the real and the signified is used to develop a discursive framework...... the heaviest polluters as contributing to carbon-minimised investment portfolios. Assets owned by privately managed pension funds have remained materially exposed to risks posed by climate change. In public finance, a narrow range of financial instruments centred on derivatives trading has entrenched global...... between human rights, climate change, and the stability of private pensions provision. Originality/value - Provides policy sciences useful assessments of communication media and financial instruments used in climate management. Establishes bases for theoretical and applied communications research...

  16. Generalized Holographic Superconductors with Higher Derivative Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anshuman; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and study generalized holographic superconductors with higher derivative couplings between the field strength tensor and a complex scalar field, in four dimensional AdS black hole backgrounds. We study this theory in the probe limit, as well as with backreaction. There are multiple tuning parameters in the theory, and with two non-zero parameters, we show that the theory has a rich phase structure, and in particular, the transition from the normal to the superconducting phase can be tuned to be of first order or of second order within a window of one of these. This is established numerically as well as by computing the free energy of the boundary theory. We further present analytical results for the critical temperature of the model, and compare these with numerical analysis. Optical properties of this system are also studied numerically in the probe limit, and our results show evidence for negative refraction at low frequencies.

  17. Phytoestrogens: Plant-derived Estrogenic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Konar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a hormone, which is produced in ovary and testis; however, it has many biological effects besides the reproductive system. Phytoestrogens are the compounds, which have estrogen-like structure and activities, taking place in structure of various edible plants at different levels and in different compositions. These compounds attracted notice after the first quarter of 20th century upon they had been associated with infertility seen in some of animals fed with alfalfa, and these compounds have been identified in human-derived biological samples and its effects on health have been taken under study in the recent 30 years. These materials have especially antioxidant role in plants while they have activities in animals and humans as estrogen agonist and antagonists. Based on their chemical structure, they may be gathered under especially isoflavon and lignan groups while some of members of coumestan and stilbene groups are also identified as phytoestrogenic compound.

  18. Deriving consistent GSM schemas from DCR graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshuis, Rik; Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2016-01-01

    Case Management (CM) is a BPM technology for supporting flexible services orchestration. CM approaches like CMMN, an OMG standard, and GSM, one of CMMN’s core influences, use Event- Condition-Action rules, which can be inconsistent due to cyclic interdependencies between the rules; repairing...... such an inconsistent case management schema is difficult. To avoid the problem of inconsistencies altogether, we provide a technique for automatically deriving consistent GSM case management schemas from higher-level business policies defined as DCR graphs, an alternative CM approach. Concretely, we define a behaviour......-preserving mapping that (1) removes the burden from the modeller of GSM schemas to prove consistency and define the ordering of rules, (2) provides high-level patterns for modelling GSM schemas, and (3) gives a way to define a notion of progress (liveness) and acceptance for GSM instances. The mapping is illustrated...

  19. New Thymol Derivate from Centipeda minima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Shou-cheng; GUO Yuan-qiang; GAO Wen-yuan; ZHANG Tie-jun

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Centipeda minima(Compositae) is an annual herbaceous plant found in moist places throughout the plains mainly in the southern regions of the People's Republic of China, Eastern tropical Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islandst[1,2]. It is a commonly used Chinese folk medicine for colds, whooping cough, nasal allergy, malaria and asthma[2]. A number of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and triterpenes have previously been isolated from C. minima[2,3]. During our study on searching for biological active components from this plant, five compounds were isolated. Compound 1 was structurally elucidated as a new thymol derivate, and compounds 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from the plant for the first time.

  20. Ecotoxicology a derivative of encyclopedia of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Fath, Brian D

    2010-01-01

    The compilation of the articles in this derivative emphasizes ecological components and fundamental paradigms of ecotoxicology. The alphabetical listing of toxic substances and chemicals in Part B and C serves as a quick reference for professionals. Additionally, the international focus of Ecotoxicology and the range of toxins it covers will make it an indispensable resource to scientists. The password protected companion website will contain Estimation of Ecotoxicological Parameters (EEP) software developed by the author. EEP allows users to get ecotoxicological properties of chemicals in data bases or they can estimate them (there are only a few percentages in the data base). There are very specific estimation methods that only estimate for instance the properties for halogenated aromatic compounds or there are very general estimation methods. EEP covers the very general methods and is fast to use but gives in general estimation of higher uncertainty than the very specific methods.

  1. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  2. Chaotic inflation in higher derivative gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Myrzakul, Shynaray; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate chaotic inflation from scalar field subjected to potential in the framework of $f(R^2, P, Q)$-gravity, where we add a correction to Einstein's gravity based on a function of the square of the Ricci scalar $R^2$, the contraction of the Ricci tensor $P$, and the contraction of the Riemann tensor $Q$. The Gauss-Bonnet case is also discussed. We give the general formalism of inflation, deriving the slow-roll parameters, the $e$-folds number, and the spectral indexes. Several explicit examples are furnished, namely we will consider the cases of massive scalar field and scalar field with quartic potential and some power-law function of the curvature invariants under investigation in the gravitational action of the theory. Viable inflation according with observations is analyzed.

  3. Inflammatory peptides derived from adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzilai Nir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The low-grade inflammation seen with aging is noted particularly in subjects with the metabolic syndrome of aging. Insulin resistance, obesity/abdominal obesity, and risks for many age-related diseases characterize this common syndrome. It is becoming clear that this increased adipose tissue is not simply a reservoir for excess nutrients, but rather an active and dynamic organ capable of expressing several cytokines and other fat-derived peptides (FDP. Some, but not all, FDP may have a role in development of the metabolic syndrome but there is no evidence that these FDP are causing inflammation directly. We suggest that high levels of inflammatory peptides are markers for obesity/abdominal obesity seen with aging, but some may not necessarily have a causative role in the development of inflammation.

  4. Autocrine Effects of Tumor-Derived Complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Soon Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications.

  5. Grafting of chitosan with fatty acyl derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiandotti, Roberto S.; Rodrigues, Paula C.; Akcelrud, Leni, E-mail: leni@leniak.ne [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The internal plasticization of chitosan with covalently linked long aliphatic branches, typically 12C, was accomplished through the condensation of the amino groups of chitosan with acidic derivatives of lauric acid, as lauroyl anhydride or lauroyl chloride, that are more reactive than the fatty acid itself. The chemical pathway led to selective N-acylation. The degree of substitution was quantitatively determined by FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR and varied between 3 and 35%. The FTIR quantitative analysis was based in a calibration method with good accuracy. The modified chitosan products were soluble in neutral water and/or DMF according to the degree of substitution. The modified chitosan films were more flexible than the pristine, non-modified ones. (author)

  6. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Coumarin Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Chun-feng; ZENG He-ping

    2011-01-01

    Five new coumarin amide derivatives were synthesized with coupling reagent,the structures of which were characterized by IR,1H NMR,13C NMR,MS and element analysis.Their spectral properties were studied in dichloromethane,in N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF) and in solid state.Solvent polarity has less influence on the UV-Vis maximum absorption at about 430 nm.The maximum emission wavelengths change from 464 nm to 474 nm in dichloromethane,from 476 nm to 482 nm in DMF and from 521 nm to 548 nm in solid state,respectively.The fluorescence intensities of compounds 8 and 9 were extremely strong in solvents or in solid state.Compounds 8 and 9 exhibited high fluorescenct quantumn yields in solution compared to compounds 4-7.The fluorescence lifetimes of all the compounds in solvents were measured.

  7. Thermal behavior of sewage sludge derived fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin-Rui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The utility of sewage sludge as a biomass fuel is taken as an approach to deal with global warming. Thermal characterization of this new type of fuel is a premise before it is practically used in real facilities. Four sludge derived fuels were examined by thermal calorimeters (TG-DTA, C80, and TAM at temperature ramp and isothermal conditions. Heat generation at low temperature was found in some sludge species. The corresponding spontaneous ignition was measured in an adiabatic spontaneous ignition tester at 80 °C. The reason of the thermal behaviors of the sludge fuels was discussed. The critical temperature of large scale pile-up was predicted. .

  8. Melilotoside Derivatives from Artemisia splendens (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of solid-phase-extraction (SPE and reversed-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia splendens (common name: “Asia Minor Wormwood”, an endemic Iranian species, afforded Z- and E-melilotosides (1 and 2, Z- and E-4-methoxy-melilotosides (3 and 4, and a new dimer, bis-ortho-Z-melilotoside (5, named: splendenoside. Whilst the structures of these compounds (1-5 were elucidated unequivocally by spectroscopic means, the in vitro free-radical-scavenging property of 1-5 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. This is the first report on the occurrence of any melilotoside derivatives in the genus Artemisia. Artemisia splendens, Asteraceae, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, free-radical scavenger, melilotoside, splendenoside

  9. A topological derivative method for topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norato, J.; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Haber, RB;

    2007-01-01

    resource constraint. A smooth and consistent projection of the region bounded by the level set onto the fictitious analysis domain simplifies the response analysis and enhances the convergence of the optimization algorithm. Moreover, the projection supports the reintroduction of solid material in void......We propose a fictitious domain method for topology optimization in which a level set of the topological derivative field for the cost function identifies the boundary of the optimal design. We describe a fixed-point iteration scheme that implements this optimality criterion subject to a volumetric...... regions, a critical requirement for robust topology optimization. We present several numerical examples that demonstrate compliance minimization of fixed-volume, linearly elastic structures....

  10. Dark Energy and the Schwarzian Derivative

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, G W

    2014-01-01

    Theories with a time dependent Newton's constant admit two natural measures of time : atomic and astronomical. Temporal parametrisation by SL(2, R) transformations gives rise to an equivalence between theories with different time dependence's, including the special Case of no time dependence, a fact noticed by Mestschersky, Vinti and by Lynden-Bell. I point out that theories with time dependent dark energy densities admit three natural measures of time : atomic and astronomical and de Sitter related by temporal re-parametrizations and I extend Mestschersky-Vinti-Lynden-Bell's result to cover this more general situation. I find a consequent equivalence between theories in which the density of dark energy is constant in time and in which it varies with time. Strikingly a time dependent cosmological constant changes by the addition of a Schwarzian derivative term unless the temporal reparameterization belongs to SL(2, R). In General Relativity one may introduce a Schwarzian tensor to investigate how the notion o...

  11. Functionalized carbon nanomaterials derived from carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Dinesh; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

    2010-02-01

    A tremendous growth in the field of carbon nanomaterials has led to the emergence of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, mesoporous carbon and more recently graphene. Some of these materials have found applications in electronics, sensors, catalysis, drug delivery, composites, and so forth. The high temperatures and hydrocarbon precursors involved in their synthesis usually yield highly inert graphitic surfaces. As some of the applications require functionalization of their inert graphitic surface with groups like -COOH, -OH, and -NH(2), treatment of these materials in oxidizing agents and concentrated acids become inevitable. More recent works have involved using precursors like carbohydrates to produce carbon nanostructures rich in functional groups in a single-step under hydrothermal conditions. These carbon nanostructures have already found many applications in composites, drug delivery, materials synthesis, and Li ion batteries. The review aims to highlight some of the recent developments in the application of carbohydrate derived carbon nanostructures and also provide an outlook of their future prospects.

  12. Positive Psychology: possible future and clinical derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible future for the Positive Psychology movement could be to merge it into a new enunciative subsystem of psychology, which is named here as psychoeulogy. Psychoeulogy is defined as: the psychology subsystem that studies psychological well-being, and its conditions, characteristics and promotion. It could be understood as the conceptual reversal of psychopathology. Together, psychoeulogy and psychopathology, can complete the spectre of knowledge about the psyche. The target of this article is to introduce an epistemological model for this future psychoeulogy, and, at the same time, display its derivations on a clinical psychoeulogical model that can integrate the contributions of positive psychology and those of others psychological movements. 

  13. Polyimides derived from non-aromatic monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volksen, W.; Sanchez, M.I.; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Yoon, D.Y. [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    In recent years the shift in emphasis on high performance polymers, such as polyimides for microelectronic applications, has led to the search for other potential applications utilizing the unique properties of this class of polymers. In this context, polyimides incorporating non-aromatic units in the polymer backbone have been shown to exhibit excellent optical properties as well as significantly lower refractive indices. This lowering in the refractive index, of course, is also reflected in a lower dielectric constant of the material. For this reason, we have initiated a study of new polyimides, in which the traditional aromatic character is diluted with cycloaliphatic structures. One such example is the polyimide derived from hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and 1,4-diaminocyclohexane (DACH). Preliminary data with respect to the preparation and solution behavior of the polyimide precursor as well as the characterization of relevant physical properties of the final polyimide will be presented.

  14. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Roberts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples.

  15. The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Montag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the biological basis of personality is a timely research endeavor, with the aim of deepening our understanding of human nature. In recent years, a growing body of research has investigated the role of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the context of individual differences across human beings, with a focus on personality traits. A large number of different approaches have been chosen to illuminate the role of BDNF for personality, ranging from the measurement of BDNF in the serum/plasma to molecular genetics to (genetic brain imaging. The present review provides the reader with an overview of the current state of affairs in the context of BDNF and personality.

  16. Derived Metric Tensors for Flow Surface Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, H; Joy, K I

    2012-12-01

    Integral flow surfaces constitute a widely used flow visualization tool due to their capability to convey important flow information such as fluid transport, mixing, and domain segmentation. Current flow surface rendering techniques limit their expressiveness, however, by focusing virtually exclusively on displacement visualization, visually neglecting the more complex notion of deformation such as shearing and stretching that is central to the field of continuum mechanics. To incorporate this information into the flow surface visualization and analysis process, we derive a metric tensor field that encodes local surface deformations as induced by the velocity gradient of the underlying flow field. We demonstrate how properties of the resulting metric tensor field are capable of enhancing present surface visualization and generation methods and develop novel surface querying, sampling, and visualization techniques. The provided results show how this step towards unifying classic flow visualization and more advanced concepts from continuum mechanics enables more detailed and improved flow analysis.

  17. Hillslope-derived blocks retard river incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2016-05-01

    The most common detachment-limited river incision models ignore the effects of sediment on fluvial erosion, yet steep reaches of mountain rivers often host clusters of large (>1 m) blocks. We argue that this distribution of blocks is a manifestation of an autogenic negative feedback in which fast vertical river incision steepens adjacent hillslopes, which deliver blocks to the channel. Blocks inhibit incision by shielding the bed and enhancing form drag. We explore this feedback with a 1-D channel-reach model in which block delivery by hillslopes depends on the river incision rate. Results indicate that incision-dependent block delivery can explain the block distribution in Boulder Creek, Colorado. The proposed negative feedback may significantly slow knickpoint retreat, channel adjustment, and landscape response compared to rates predicted by current theory. The influence of hillslope-derived blocks may complicate efforts to extract base level histories from river profiles.

  18. On the fluorescence of pyrrole derivative oligomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Jeconias Rocha; Amazonas, Jarlesson Gama; Alberto Brito Silva Junior, Carlos [Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil); Melo, Celso P. de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-020 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Laks, Bernardo [Instituto de Fisica, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nero, Jordan del [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil)], E-mail: jordan@ufpa.br

    2008-08-01

    In this work we have investigated the ground state and others eletronic properties of the biosensor 3-methyl pyrrole-4-carboxilic acid (MPC) oligomers and related compounds. We considered the systems described by a DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* type Hamiltonian and explored the effects due to the presence of conformational defects. Furthermore the excited states have been determined by a post Hartree-Fock CI methodology. The results revealed the existence of different electronic patterns for the MPC if compared to the ones existing for the oligopyrrole derivative systems. The response of one of investigated polymers (MPC) was found to be critically dependent on the radicals linked to the studied oligomer chain structure so that the electronic structure analyses should be easily improved by choosing a proper set of preparation parameters to design conducting polymers with desirable properties.

  19. Brane Cosmology and Higher Derivative Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Naboulsi, R

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered a cosmological model with density perturbation and decreasing cosmological constant of the form Lambda = 3beta (frac{dot{R}^2}{R^2}) + delta (frac{ddot{R}}{R}), beta, gamma = const. Inspired from brane cosmology, we supposed the presence of exotic density related to the cosmological constant by the formula 2Lambda = 3m^2, where m is a constant having the dimension of Hubble constant. Their effects on the evolution of the spatially, flat FRW cosmoligical model of the Universe is analyzed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The Universe is found to be accelerating with time with no initial singularity for beta < frac{1}{3} and the cosmological constant is found to decrease as t^{-2} but smaller than 3H^2. The presence of interacting scalar field is also discussed.

  20. ON THE SHARING VALUES OF ALGEBROID FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huifang LIU; Daochun SUN

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we define the shared value of an algebroid function and its derivative on its Riemann surface.By considering the relationship between the shared values and the branch points of algebroid functions and their derivatives,we obtain some uniqueness theorems of algebroid functions sharing values with their derivatives,which extend 3 IM shared values theorem of nonconstant meromorphic functions and their derivatives obtained by Mues-Steinmetz and Gundersen.

  1. Synthesis of Some New Benzimidazole Derivatives of Pharmaceutical Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzia Zakaria El-Ablack

    2011-01-01

    Reaction of 2-(aminomethyl)benzimidazole dihydrochloride (1) with ethyl acetoacetate was studied to give diazepinone-benzimidazole derivative (2), while, treatment of 1 with phenylhydrazono ethylacetoacetate afforded phenylhydrazino diazepinone derivative (3). On the other hand, reaction of 1 with acetyl acetone resulted in the formation of diazepine derivative (4). The reaction of 1 with ethyl cyanoacetate was studied to give 3-aminodiazepinone derivative (5). Also the reaction of 1 with ace...

  2. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives in Russia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rotfuß, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This work provides a descriptive overview of Russian markets for financial derivatives. Available figures for the exchange-traded and over-the-counter-traded derivatives in Russia show that the Russian derivatives markets experienced enormous growth rates since the financial crisis in 1998. Starting from a very low level, turnover of exchange-traded derivatives in Russia rose from 2000 to 2006 on average 168 percent per year and reached a total turnover of EUR 102 billion in 2006. Among futur...

  3. Synthesis of Substituted α-Trifluoromethyl Piperidinic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rioton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of pathways leading to the generation of α-trifluoromethyl monocyclic piperidinic derivatives is provided (65 references. These compounds have been synthesized either from 6-membered rings e.g., pipecolic acid or lactam derivatives by introduction a trifluoromethyl group, from pyridine or pyridinone derivatives by reduction, and from 5-membered rings e.g., prolinol derivatives by ring expansion, from linear amines by cyclization or from dienes/dienophiles by [4 + 2]-cycloaddition.

  4. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  5. Sarcoma derived from cultured mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Jakub; Nauta, Alma J; Osborn, Mark J; Panoskaltsis Mortari, Angela; McElmurry, Ron T; Bell, Scott; Xia, Lily; Zhou, Ning; Riddle, Megan; Schroeder, Tania M; Westendorf, Jennifer J; McIvor, R Scott; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Szuhai, Karoly; Oseth, Leann; Hirsch, Betsy; Yant, Stephen R; Kay, Mark A; Peister, Alexandra; Prockop, Darwin J; Fibbe, Willem E; Blazar, Bruce R

    2007-02-01

    To study the biodistribution of MSCs, we labeled adult murine C57BL/6 MSCs with firefly luciferase and DsRed2 fluorescent protein using nonviral Sleeping Beauty transposons and coinfused labeled MSCs with bone marrow into irradiated allogeneic recipients. Using in vivo whole-body imaging, luciferase signals were shown to be increased between weeks 3 and 12. Unexpectedly, some mice with the highest luciferase signals died and all surviving mice developed foci of sarcoma in their lungs. Two mice also developed sarcomas in their extremities. Common cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in tumor cells isolated from different animals. Original MSC cultures not labeled with transposons, as well as independently isolated cultured MSCs, were found to be cytogenetically abnormal. Moreover, primary MSCs derived from the bone marrow of both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice showed cytogenetic aberrations after several passages in vitro, showing that transformation was not a strain-specific nor rare event. Clonal evolution was observed in vivo, suggesting that the critical transformation event(s) occurred before infusion. Mapping of the transposition insertion sites did not identify an obvious transposon-related genetic abnormality, and p53 was not overexpressed. Infusion of MSC-derived sarcoma cells resulted in malignant lesions in secondary recipients. This new sarcoma cell line, S1, is unique in having a cytogenetic profile similar to human sarcoma and contains bioluminescent and fluorescent genes, making it useful for investigations of cellular biodistribution and tumor response to therapy in vivo. More importantly, our study indicates that sarcoma can evolve from MSC cultures.

  6. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  7. Pricing Model of Multiattribute Derivatives Based on Mixed Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By Analyzing the behavior and character of derivative security, the authorsestablished a pricing model of multiattribute derivative security whose underlying asset pricingprocess is a mixed process, and obtained a new model for option pricing of multiattribute derivatives based on mixed process, and improved some original results.

  8. T-local Derivations of yon Neumann Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹建明; 谭志松

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of T-local derivations and obtain the main result: each T-local derivation of avon Neumann algebra A into a dual A-bimodule M is a T-derivation, where T is an endomorphism of A to A.

  9. Characterizing Thematized Derivative Schema by the Underlying Emergent Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mercedes; Llinares, Salvador; Sanchez-Matamoros, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on different underlying structures of the derivative schema of three undergraduate students that were considered to be at the trans level of development of the derivative schema (action-process-object-schema). The derivative schema is characterized in terms of the students' ability to explicitly transfer the relationship between…

  10. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Equilibrium Distribution Functions of Statistical Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckly, Beth

    1979-01-01

    Presents a simplified derivation of the equilibrium distribution functions. The derivation proceeds from the change in the Helmholtz free energy when a particle is added to a system of fixed temperature, volume, and chemical potential. The derivations show the relationship between statistical mechanics and macroscopic thermodynamics. (Author/GA)

  11. Generalized Second-Order Partial Derivatives of 1/r

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnizdo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The generalized second-order partial derivatives of 1/r, where r is the radial distance in three dimensions (3D), are obtained using a result of the potential theory of classical analysis. Some non-spherical-regularization alternatives to the standard spherical-regularization expression for the derivatives are derived. The utility of a…

  12. Derivation of the Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm from Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopp, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is a useful description of adsorption phenomena. It is frequently presented as an empirical equation with little theoretical basis. In fact, a variety of derivations exist. Here a new derivation is presented using the concepts of fractal reaction kinetics. This derivation provides an alternative basis for…

  13. Thymol derivatives from hairy roots of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk-Jezyna, I; Kisiel, W; Wysokińska, H

    2006-09-01

    Five known thymol derivatives were isolated from roots of Arnica montana transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods. The pattern of thymol derivatives in light-grown hairy roots was slightly different from that in dark-grown ones. This is the first report on the presence of thymol derivatives in hairy roots of the plant.

  14. Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-10-substituted Hymenialdisine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; WANG Yu; QIN Yong; SONG Hao

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel 2-phenyl-10-substituted hymenialdisine derivatives was synthesized via the microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of the 2-phenyl derivative of hymenialdisine and boronic acid,which enabled the successful introduction of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups to the 2-phenylhymenialdisine derivatives in good yields.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  17. Integration of Image-Derived and Pos-Derived Features for Image Blur Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Zhan, Kai-Zhi

    2016-06-01

    The image quality plays an important role for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)'s applications. The small fixed wings UAV is suffering from the image blur due to the crosswind and the turbulence. Position and Orientation System (POS), which provides the position and orientation information, is installed onto an UAV to enable acquisition of UAV trajectory. It can be used to calculate the positional and angular velocities when the camera shutter is open. This study proposes a POS-assisted method to detect the blur image. The major steps include feature extraction, blur image detection and verification. In feature extraction, this study extracts different features from images and POS. The image-derived features include mean and standard deviation of image gradient. For POS-derived features, we modify the traditional degree-of-linear-blur (blinear) method to degree-of-motion-blur (bmotion) based on the collinear condition equations and POS parameters. Besides, POS parameters such as positional and angular velocities are also adopted as POS-derived features. In blur detection, this study uses Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier and extracted features (i.e. image information, POS data, blinear and bmotion) to separate blur and sharp UAV images. The experiment utilizes SenseFly eBee UAV system. The number of image is 129. In blur image detection, we use the proposed degree-of-motion-blur and other image features to classify the blur image and sharp images. The classification result shows that the overall accuracy using image features is only 56%. The integration of image-derived and POS-derived features have improved the overall accuracy from 56% to 76% in blur detection. Besides, this study indicates that the performance of the proposed degree-of-motion-blur is better than the traditional degree-of-linear-blur.

  18. An Alternative Conception of Tree-Adjoining Derivation

    CERN Document Server

    Schabes, Y; Schabes, Yves; Shieber, Stuart M.

    1994-01-01

    The precise formulation of derivation for tree-adjoining grammars has important ramifications for a wide variety of uses of the formalism, from syntactic analysis to semantic interpretation and statistical language modeling. We argue that the definition of tree-adjoining derivation must be reformulated in order to manifest the proper linguistic dependencies in derivations. The particular proposal is both precisely characterizable through a definition of TAG derivations as equivalence classes of ordered derivation trees, and computationally operational, by virtue of a compilation to linear indexed grammars together with an efficient algorithm for recognition and parsing according to the compiled grammar.

  19. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  20. Effects of Sulfate Chitosan Derivatives on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mingming; WANG Yuanhong; JIANG Tingfu; LV Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentra-tion emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly amelio-rated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  1. Numerical methods for evaluating the derivatives of eigenvalues and eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, C. S.; Chu, Y.-Y.

    1975-01-01

    Two numerical methods are presented for computing the derivatives of eigenvalues and eigenvectors which do not require complete solution of the eigenvalue problem if only a few derivatives are sought. The 'iterative' method may be used to find the first derivative of one or all of the eigenvectors together with the second derivative of their eigenvalues in a self-adjoint system. If the left- and right-hand eigenvectors are known, the first derivative of the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue and the second derivative of the largest eigenvalue may be obtained for a nonself-adjoint system. The 'algebraic' method may be used to find all orders of the derivatives, provided they exist, without requiring the left-hand eigenvectors.

  2. Fields of rational constants of cyclic factorizable derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Zielinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe all rational constants of a large family of four-variable cyclic factorizable derivations. Thus, we determine all rational first integrals of their corresponding systems of differential equations. Moreover, we give a characteristic of all four-variable Lotka-Volterra derivations with a nontrivial rational constant. All considerations are over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero. Our main tool is the investigation of the cofactors of strict Darboux polynomials. Factorizable derivations are important in derivation theory. Namely, we may associate the factorizable derivation with any given derivation of a polynomial ring and that construction helps to determine rational constants of arbitrary derivations. Besides, Lotka-Volterra systems play a significant role in population biology, laser physics and plasma physics.

  3. Interest rate derivatives in developing countries in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Cerovic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial derivatives (interest rate futures, options and swaps are a very simple way to minimize interest rate risk and therefore are extremely popular. The value of interest rate derivatives transactions in the world is increasing dramatically. Unfortunately, this is not the case with developing countries in Europe. Although significantly increased in the last decade, interest rate derivatives markets in developing countries are still in nascent stage. In most developing countries still the main problem for the interest rate derivatives development is the lack of basic conditions, including inadequate measurement of interest rate risk exposure, underdevelopment of financial markets in general and especially of market instruments that underlying derivatives, weak and/or inadequate infrastructure and legal framework, misunderstanding and lack of experience in operations with financial derivatives and the complexity of the derivatives accounting.

  4. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, E A

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(beta-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 sub 1 2 sub 1 2 sub 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20...

  5. Human Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes: An Alternative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical spills and associated deaths in the US has increased 2.6-fold and 16-fold from 1983 to 2012, respectfully. In addition, the number of chemicals to which humans are exposed to in the environment has increased almost 10-fold from 2001 to 2013 within the US. Internationally, a WHO report on the global composite impact of chemicals on health reported that 16% of the total burden of cardiovascular disease was attributed to environmental chemical exposure with 2.5 million deaths per year. Clearly, the cardiovascular system, at all its various developmental and life stages, represents a critical target organ system that can be adversely affected by existing and emerging chemicals (e.g., engineered nanomaterials) in a variety of environmental media. The ability to assess chemical cardiac risk and safety is critically needed but extremely challenging due to the number and categories of chemicals in commerce, as indicated. This presentation\\session will evaluate the use of adult human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, and existing platforms, as an alternative model to evaluate environmental chemical cardiac toxicity as well as provide key information for the development of predictive adverse outcomes pathways associated with environmental chemical exposures. (This abstract does not represent EPA policy) Rapid and translatable chemical safety screening models for cardiotoxicity current status for informing regulatory decisions, a workshop sponsored by the Society

  6. Financial Derivatives Market for Grid Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, David; Lindset, Snorre; Huuse, Henning

    2007-01-01

    This Master thesis studies the feasibility and properties of a financial derivatives market on Grid computing, a service for sharing computing resources over a network such as the Internet. For the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to perform research with the world's largest and most complex machine, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Grid computing was developed to handle the information created. In accordance with the mandate of CERN Technology Transfer (TT) group, this thesis is a part of CERN's dissemination of the Grid technology. The thesis gives a brief overview of the use of the Grid technology and where it is heading. IT trend analysts and large-scale IT vendors see this technology as key in transforming the world of IT. They predict that in a matter of years, IT will be bought as a service, instead of a good. Commoditization of IT, delivered as a service, is a paradigm shift that will have a broad impact on all parts of the IT market, as well as on the society as a whole. Political, e...

  7. Neoplasms derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchetti, Fabio; Cigognetti, Marta; Fisogni, Simona; Rossi, Giuseppe; Lonardi, Silvia; Vermi, William

    2016-02-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms manifest in two clinically and pathologically distinct forms. The first variant is represented by nodular aggregates of clonally expanded plasmacytoid dendritic cells found in lymph nodes, skin, and bone marrow ('Mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells proliferation associated with myeloid neoplasms'). This entity is rare, although likely underestimated in incidence, and affects predominantly males. Almost invariably, it is associated with a myeloid neoplasm such as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia or other myeloid proliferations with monocytic differentiation. The concurrent myeloid neoplasm dominates the clinical pictures and guides treatment. The prognosis is usually dismal, but reflects the evolution of the associated myeloid leukemia rather than progressive expansion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. A second form of plasmacytoid dendritic cells tumor has been recently reported and described as 'blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm'. In this tumor, which is characterized by a distinctive cutaneous and bone marrow tropism, proliferating cells derive from immediate CD4(+)CD56(+) precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The diagnosis of this form can be easily accomplished by immunohistochemistry, using a panel of plasmacytoid dendritic cells markers. The clinical course of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is characterized by a rapid progression to systemic disease via hematogenous dissemination. The genomic landscape of this entity is currently under intense investigation. Recurrent somatic mutations have been uncovered in different genes, a finding that may open important perspectives for precision medicine also for this rare, but highly aggressive leukemia.

  8. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Siwetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  9. Deriving Langevin equations in curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Rudnei O.; Tavares, Romulo F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Warm inflation is an inflationary scenario where the interactions between the inflaton and other degrees of freedom are considered. The effective equation of motion for the inflaton is in general of the form of a Langevin equation, that includes both quantum and thermal effects and where these effects manifest in the form of dissipation and stochastic noise terms, which are related by a generalized fluctuation-dissipation relation. The dissipation term is related to the interactions of the inflaton with other degrees of freedom of the thermal bath that can be obtained from the appropriate Feynman propagators. As the inflaton evolves into an expanding metric, these effects have to be taken into account when calculating the Green functions and consequently the Feynman propagators. In this work we present the considerations that must be made to calculate the Green functions in curved space (expanding metric) and in the presence of radiation in order to proper derive the effective evolution of the inflaton in the warm-inflation scenario. (author)

  10. Biological Derived Nanomotors in a ``Domino Fashion''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    For disproportionation of H2 O2 , we also considers an electrokinetic mechanism they appear.So far, the more efficient micro/nanoscale motors are derived from biological systems [2003]. Besides, a control experimenting using 3 stripped Au/Pt/Au rods with catalyzed the composition of H2 O2 , at a similar rate-Walter F Paxton: ``Catalytic Nanomotors,'' JACS, 2004. We also intended to accomaplishes the HCCI quotes from Marcin Frackowiak, dissertation, 2009, just in several characters seems as twin of IGNITION through IceCube document project held since Oct 11, 2001 ever concludes as ``saw none'' so they can be follows the ITER/IFMIF. Refers to S29286 file in UI retrieved: ``magnetic quantum-dot cellular automata which is nonvolatile & lower power consist of nanomagnets. Since they are magnetically coupled, logic can be performed by switching, on the other hand in a DOMINO fashion..'' [A. Klenm: ``Fabrication of Magnetic Tunnel Junction-based Spintronic Devices..,'' convocation, Aug 11-14, 2010]. Acknowledgments devotes to BB Mandelbrot: ``Fractal Geometry: What is it & What Does it do?''.

  11. Radiolabeled bombesin derivatives for preclinical oncological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Ferreira, Carolina; Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Rubello, Domenico; de Barros, André Luís Branco

    2017-01-01

    Despite efforts, cancer is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths each year, according to the World Health Organization. Among the strategies to reduce cancer progression and improving its management, implementing early detection technologies is crucial. Based on the fact that several types of cancer cells overexpress surface receptors, small molecule ligands, such as peptides, have been developed to allow tumor identification at earlier stages. Allied with imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT, radiolabeled peptides play a pivotal role in nuclear medicine. Bombesin, a peptide of 14 amino acids, is an amphibian homolog to the mammalian gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), that has been extensively studied as a targeting ligand for diagnosis and therapy of GRP positive tumors, such as breast, pancreas, lungs and prostate cancers. In this context, herein we provide a review of reported bombesin derivatives radiolabeled with a multitude of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic purposes in the preclinical setting. Moreover, since animal models are highly relevant for assessing the potential of clinical translation of this radiopeptides, a brief report of the currently used GRP-positive tumor-bearing animal models is described. PMID:28040598

  12. Surface Emissivity Derived From Multispectral Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Young, D. F.

    1998-01-01

    Surface emissivity is critical for remote sensing of surface skin temperature and infrared cloud properties when the observed radiance is influenced by the surface radiation. It is also necessary to correctly compute the longwave flux from a surface at a given skin temperature. Surface emissivity is difficult to determine because skin temperature is an ill-defined parameter. The surface-emitted radiation may arise from a range of surface depths depending on many factors including soil moisture, vegetation, surface porosity, and heat capacity. Emissivity can be measured in the laboratory for pure surfaces. Transfer of laboratory measurements to actual Earth surfaces, however, is fraught with uncertainties because of their complex nature. This paper describes a new empirical approach for estimating surface skin temperature from a combination of brightness temperatures measured at different infrared wavelengths with satellite imagers. The method uses data from the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager to determine multispectral emissivities from the skin temperatures derived over the ARM Southern Great Plains domain.

  13. Deception as a Derived Function of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Language may be one of most important attributes which separates humans from other animal species. It has been suggested by some commentators that the primary biological function of human language is to deceive and selfishly manipulate social competitors. However, despite the existence of a large body of relevant theoretical and empirical literature in favor of the social bonding hypothesis for language function, the ostensible evidence and arguments for the deception hypothesis have not been fully discussed. The following review analyses the evidence and theoretical arguments from human social behavior, comparative animal behavior, and developmental psychology and suggests that deception shows clear signs of a derived function for language. Furthermore, in addition to being used relatively infrequently across most human and non-human animal contexts, deception appears to be utilized just as often for prosocial and social bonding functions, as it is for antisocial purposes. Future studies should focus on theoretical and experimental investigations which explore interactions between deceptive and honest language use in the context of social bonding. PMID:27729895

  14. Gasification of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydary Juma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the gasification of a fraction of municipal solid waste, MSW, generally separated from inorganic materials and biodegradable components, the so-called refuse-derived fuel (RDF, was studied using material characterisation methods, and the modelling of an industrial scale process was presented. The composition of RDF was determined by the separation of a representative sample into its basic components (paper, foils, hard plastics, textiles. All RDF components as well as a representative mixed sample of the RDF were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, elemental analysis and bomb calorimetry to determine their proximate and elemental compositions, and a higher heating value. An industrial scale gasification process was studied by mathematical modelling and computer simulations. All techniques, gasification with air, gasification with oxygen, and gasification with both oxygen and steam were investigated under different conditions. The RDF conversion of 100 % was achieved by the gasification with air at the air to RDF mass ratio of 3.2. The gas heating value was 4.4 MJ/Nm3. The gasification of RDF using oxygen enables the production of gas with the heating value of around 10 MJ/Nm3 at the oxygen to RDF mass ratio of 0.65. By increasing the steam to the RDF mass ratio, the contents of H2 and CO2 increased, while the content of CO, reactor temperature and the gas heating value decreased.

  15. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Isosteviol Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jing-Chao; Tian Guo-Qiang; Zhang Yan-Bing; Wu Ya; Liu Hong-Min

    2004-01-01

    Isosteviol (ent-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic acid, I) is a tetracyclic diterpenoid with a beyerane skeleton obtained by acid hydrolysis of stevioside.1 Several tetracyclic diterpenoids, specially the kaurenes, have important biological activities. Recent studies on the microbial transformation of isosteviol have revealed that it is metabolized by Cunninghamella bainieri, Actinoplanes sp., Mucor recurvatus, and Cunninghamella blackesleeana to yield five new metabolites.2 The hydroxylation pattern of these bioactive compounds may influence their binding on to the receptors, as was proposed for the Rabdosia diterpenoids. Therefore, the introduction of hydroxyl groups or unsaturated bonds in saturated and non-hydroxylated diterpenoids, like isosteviol, may enhance existing properties or lead to new biological activities. Although some beyeranes have been subjected to biotransformations by fungi,4 there are few report in the literature related the chemical transformation of Isosteviol. In the present study, we try to develop the chemical transformation of isosteviol and other beyeranes in order to obtaining some bioactive compounds with beyerane skeleton. Seven isosteviol derivatives, Ⅱ-Ⅷ, were therefore synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal strcture of H(R = H) was also determined.

  16. Bioactive Quinic Acid Derivatives from Ageratina adenophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wen Tan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel quinic acid derivative, 5-O-trans-o-coumaroylquinic acid methyl ester (1, together with three known ones, chlorogenic acid methyl ester (2, macranthoin F (3 and macranthoin G (4, were isolated from the aerial parts of the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.. The structure of new compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 2–4 were isolated from plant A. adenophora for the first time. All the compounds showed in vitro antibacterial activity toward five assayed bacterial strains, especially 3 and 4, which showed in vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica with MIC values of 7.4 and 14.7 μM, respectively. Compound 1 was further found to display in vitro anti-fungal activity against spore germination of Magnaporthe grisea with an IC50 value 542.3 µM. These four compounds were also tested for their antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical.

  17. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  18. Comparative serum protein binding of anthracycline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassany, O; Urien, S; Claudepierre, P; Bastian, G; Tillement, J P

    1996-01-01

    The binding of doxorubicin, iododoxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, pirarubicin, zorubicin, aclarubicin, and mitoxantrone to 600 microM human serum albumin and 50 microM alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was studied by ultrafiltration at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. Anthracycline concentrations (total and free) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection. Binding to albumin (600 microM) varied from 61% (daunorubicin) to 94% (iododoxorubicin). The binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (50 microM) was more variable, ranging from 31% (epirubicin) to 64% (zorubicin), and was essentially related to the hydrophobicity of the derivatives. Simulations showed that the total serum binding varied over a broad range from 71% (doxorubicin) to 96% (iododoxorubicin). We recently reported that the binding to lipoproteins of a series of eight anthracycline analogues could be ascribed to chemicophysical determinants of lipophilicity [2]. The present study was conducted to evaluate in vitro the contribution of albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to the total serum binding of these drugs.

  19. Synthesis of new condensed coumarin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekić Stojadin V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of 4-chloro-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (1 with 4-methylpyridin- 2-ylamine (2 and 6-methoxy-benzothiazol-2-ylamine (3 in acetonitrile containing a catalytic amount of triethylamine gave the new coumarin derivatives 7-imino-10-methyl-7H- 5-oxa-7a,12-diaza-benzo[a]anthracen-6-one (4 and 7-imino-10-methoxy-7H-5-oxa-12- thia-7a,13-diaza-indeno[1,2-b]phenanthren-6-one (5 in 52 and 39% yields, respectively. The novel compounds were subjected to acid hydrolysis giving the corresponding oxoderivatives 10-methyl-5-oxa-7a,12-diaza-benzo[a]anthracene-6,7-dione (6 and 10- methoxy-5-oxa-12-thia-7a,13-diaza-indeno[1,2-b]phenanthrene-6,7-dione (7 in 64 and 58% yields, respectively. The structural assignments of the synthesized compounds were based on elemental analyses, IR and proton NMR spectra. .

  20. Synthesis of Tetraaza Derivatives of Benzoxazinophenothiazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Ezema

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraaza benzoxazinophenothiazine heterocyclic rings were synthesized and characterized. The key intermediate, 11-amino-6-chlorobenzo[a]-8,10-diazaphenoxazin-5-one was prepared by reaction of 4,5-diamino-6-hydroxypyimidine with 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone in anhydrous sodium carbonate. Whereas the parent tetraaza derivatives: 15-amino-8-bromo-6,9,12,14-tetraazabenzo[a][1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-c] phenothiazine, 9,15-diamino-6,8,12,14-tetraazabenzo[a][1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-c]pheno- thiazine and 15-amino-6,8,12,14-tetraazabenzo[a][1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-c]phenothiazine were synthesized by base catalyzed condensation reactions of 11-amino-6-chlorobenzo[a]-8,10-diazaphenoxazin-5-one with 2-amino-5-bromopyrazin-3-thiol, 4,6-diaminopyrimidine-5-thiol and 4-diaminopyrimidine-5-thiol respectively. The compounds are intensely coloured and are readily reduced with sodium dithionite to their leuco bases which can make them applicable as vat dyes. Their wash fastness, sublimation fastness and staining undyed fabric were evaluated.

  1. β-Nitro Derivatives of Iron Corrolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardis, Sara; Stefanelli, Manuela; Mohite, Pruthviraj; Pomarico, Giuseppe; Tortora, Luca; Manowong, Machima; Chen, Ping; Fronczek, Frank R.; McCandless, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Two different methods for the regioselective nitration of different meso-triarylcorroles leading to the corresponding β-substituted nitrocorrole iron complexes have been developed. A two-step procedure affords three Fe(III) nitrosyl products - the unsubstituted corrole, the 3-nitrocorrole and the 3,17-dinitrocorrole. In contrast, a one-pot synthetic approach drives the reaction almost exclusively to formation of the iron nitrosyl 3,17-dinitrocorrole. Electron-releasing substituents on the meso-aryl groups of the triarylcorroles induce higher yields and longer reaction times than what is observed for the synthesis of similar triarylcorroles with electron-withdrawing functionalities, and these results can be confidently attributed to the facile formation and stabilization of an intermediate iron corrole π-cation radical. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the meso-aryl groups of triarylcorrole also seem to labilize the axial nitrosyl group which, in the case of the pentafluorophenylcorrole derivative, results in the direct formation of a disubstituted iron μ-oxo dimer complex. The influence of meso-aryl substituents on the progress and products of the nitration reaction was investigated. In addition, to elucidate the most important factors which influence the redox reactivity of these different iron nitrosyl complexes, selected compounds were examined by cyclic voltammetry and thin-layer UV-visible or FTIR spectroelectrochemistry in CH2Cl2. PMID:22394192

  2. Deriving Process Congruences from Reaction Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a theory which, given a formalism with a reduction semantics, allows the derivation of a canonical labelled transition system on which bisimilarity as well as other other equiv� alences are congruences; provided that the contexts of the formalism f...... form a category which has certain colimits. We shall begin by extending Leifer and Milner’s theory of reactive sys� tems to a 2�categorical setting. This development is motivated by the com� mon situation in which the contexts of a reactive system contain non�trivial algebraic structure...... solutions to the problem of forgetting the two�dimensional structure can be reduced to the 2�categorical approach. Secondly, we shall construct GRPOs in settings which are general enough to allow the theory to be applied to useful, previously studied examples. We shall begin by constructing GRPOs...... of adhesive categories, we shall present a con� struction of GRPOs in input�linear cospan bicategories. As an immediate application, we shall shed light on as well as extend the theory of rewriting via borrowed contexts, due to Ehrig and K ̈onig. Secondly, we shall examine the implications of the construction...

  3. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in Megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fernández, Pedro; Säuberli, Katharina; Colzani, Maria; Moreau, Thomas; Ghevaert, Cedric; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2016-05-06

    The biosynthesis of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has thus far been examined in neurons where it is expressed at very low levels, in an activity-dependent fashion. In humans, BDNF has long been known to accumulate in circulating platelets, at levels far higher than in the brain. During the process of blood coagulation, BDNF is released from platelets, which has led to its extensive use as a readily accessible biomarker, under the assumption that serum levels may somehow reflect brain levels. To identify the cellular origin of BDNF in platelets, we established primary cultures of megakaryocytes, the progenitors of platelets, and we found that human and rat megakaryocytes express the BDNF gene. Surprisingly, the pattern of mRNA transcripts is similar to neurons. In the presence of thapsigargin and external calcium, the levels of the mRNA species leading to efficient BDNF translation rapidly increase. Under these conditions, pro-BDNF, the obligatory precursor of biologically active BDNF, becomes readily detectable. Megakaryocytes store BDNF in α-granules, with more than 80% of them also containing platelet factor 4. By contrast, BDNF is undetectable in mouse megakaryocytes, in line with the absence of BDNF in mouse serum. These findings suggest that alterations of BDNF levels in human serum as reported in studies dealing with depression or physical exercise may primarily reflect changes occurring in megakaryocytes and platelets, including the ability of the latter to retain and release BDNF.

  4. Derivatives and credit contagion in interconnected networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, S.; Kühn, R.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of adequately modeling credit risk has once again been highlighted in the recent financial crisis. Defaults tend to cluster around times of economic stress due to poor macro-economic conditions, but also by directly triggering each other through contagion. Although credit default swaps have radically altered the dynamics of contagion for more than a decade, models quantifying their impact on systemic risk are still missing. Here, we examine contagion through credit default swaps in a stylized economic network of corporates and financial institutions. We analyse such a system using a stochastic setting, which allows us to exploit limit theorems to exactly solve the contagion dynamics for the entire system. Our analysis shows that, by creating additional contagion channels, CDS can actually lead to greater instability of the entire network in times of economic stress. This is particularly pronounced when CDS are used by banks to expand their loan books (arguing that CDS would offload the additional risks from their balance sheets). Thus, even with complete hedging through CDS, a significant loan book expansion can lead to considerably enhanced probabilities for the occurrence of very large losses and very high default rates in the system. Our approach adds a new dimension to research on credit contagion, and could feed into a rational underpinning of an improved regulatory framework for credit derivatives.

  5. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Dianhydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to the compositions and processes for preparing thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides derived from novel asymmetrical dianhydrides: specifically 2,3,3',4' benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA), and 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (a-6FDA). The a-BTDA anhydride is prepared by Suzuki coupling with catalysts from a mixed anhydride of 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid or 2,3-dimethylbenzoic acid with 2,3-dimethylphenylboronic acid or 3,4-dimethylphenylboronic acid respectively, to form 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone which is oxidized to form 2,3,3',4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid followed by cyclodehydration to obtain a-BTDA. The a-6FDA is prepared by nucleophilic triflouoromethylation of 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone with trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane to form 3,4'-(trifluoromethylmethanol)-bis(o-xylene) which is converted to 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene-bis(o-xylene). The 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(o-xylene) is oxidized to the corresponding tetraacid followed by cyclodehydration to yield a-6FDA.

  6. Curdlan ester derivatives: synthesis, structure, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubayashi, Hironori; Yukinaka, Kazuyori; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Takemura, Akio; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2014-03-15

    A series of ester derivatives of curdlan, which is a β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by microorganism, with varying alkyl chain lengths (C2-C12) were synthesized by the heterogeneous reaction using trifluoroacetic anhydride. As a result, high-molecular-weight (Mw ≥ 6 × 10(5)) and fully-acylated curdlan was obtained with relatively high yield (>70%). Thermal stability of curdlan was greatly improved by esterification. Crystallization was observed for curdlan esters with C2-C6 side chains. Both Tg (170 → 50 °C) and Tm (290 → 170 °C) of curdlan esters decreased with increasing the side-chain length. By the increase in the side-chain carbon number, curdlan esters showed lower Young's modulus and tensile strength, and larger elongation at break. Thus, material properties of curdlan esters can be controlled by changing the side-chain length. It was found that the increase of the side-chain length resulted in the decrease of crystallinity and the change of crystal structures.

  7. Cardiovascular pharmacological effects of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jia-Qing

    2002-12-01

    Tetrandrine, dauricine, daurisoline and neferine are bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives isolated from Chinese traditional medicine and herbs. The cardiovascular pharmacological effects and the mechanism of actions of these compounds were reviewed. Tetrandrine isolated from Stephania tetrandra S Moore possesses antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic effects. The antihypertensive effects of tetrandrine have been demonstrated in experimental hypertensive animals and in hypertensive patients. Recent studies showed that in addition to its calcium antagonistic effect, tetrandrine interacted with M receptors. Modulation by M receptor is one of the pharmacological mechanisms of cardiovascular effects of tetrandrine. Dauricine and daurisoloine were isolated from Menispermum dauricum DC. The antiarrhythmic effects of dauricine have been verified in different experimental arrhythmic models and in cardiac arrhythmic patients. Dauricine blocked the cardiac transmembrane Na+,K+ and Ca2+ ion currents. Differing from quinidine and sotalol, which exhibited reverse use-dependent effect, dauricine prolonged APD in a normal use-dependent manner in experimental studies. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline and neferine which is an alkaloid isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, and their mechanisms of actions have also been studied. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline is more potent than that of dauricine.

  8. Genesis of microspore-derived triploid petunias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P P

    1982-12-01

    A total of 61 microspore-derived plants of Petunia parodii were grown to maturity revealing a predominent population of triploids, 80.3%. Cytological investigations, together with the evidence from microfluorimetry, suggest that the origin of these triploids was due to the fusion of interphase nuclei in two different pathways. In the majority of embryogenic microspores, a vegetative nucleus of 1C DNA content fused with an endo-reduplicated 2C DNA generative nucleus at the binucleate stage and produced true triploid embryoids and plantlets (A pathway). Where this fusion failed, both the vegetative and the generative nuclei divided separately and in the multinucleate microspore two or more daughter nuclei fused to form a mixoploid embryoid. Such mixoploid embryoids produced a mixed population of plants with various ploidy levels as well as ploidy polymorphism within an individual. Since the triploids are morphologically superior with a faster growth rate than their diploids and related tetraploids, a predominent population of triploid plants was obtained from such mixoploid embryoids (B pathway). By low temperature treatment of the anther-donor buds, the embryogenic response of microspores was enhanced up to 5-fold.

  9. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  10. Clean and Green Synthesis of New Benzothiazole Derivatives via Electrochemical Oxidation of Catechol Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Arab Chamjangali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical oxidation of the catechols 1a and 1b is studied in the presence of 6-methyl-2-thouracil (3b and 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (3a as nucleophiles in a phosphate buffer (0.15 mol L−1, pH = 6.8/DMF (95:5 solution using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results obtained indicate that the quinones derived from the catechols participate in 1,4-Michael-addition reactions with the nucleophiles to form the corresponding new benzothiazole compounds. In this work, we derive a variety of products with good yields using controlled potential at graphite electrodes in an undivided cell. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  11. Synthesis of some new derivatives of thiazolopyrimidines and hydrolysis of its arylidene derivative

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Nagarajaiah; Imtiyaz Ahmed M Khazi; Noor Shahina Begum

    2015-03-01

    A new ammonium acetate-assisted, convenient and efficient procedure for the synthesis of arylidene derivatives of thiazolopyrimidine is described. The main advantages of this protocol is that it is economical, short reaction time, commonly available chemicals, and ease of isolation of products. In addition, a new series of thiazole-fused pyrimidines were synthesized and hydrolysis of one of its arylidene derivative studied. All the compounds were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods. Further, the structure of hydrolyzed product and two other compounds were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The crystal structures are stabilized by intermolecular C-H...O, C-H...N, C-H... and ... weak interactions. The anti-microbial screening was done on the compounds in order to test their anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities.

  12. Indole derivatives from a marine sponge-derived yeast as DPPH radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Ito, Yuki; Suzuki, Motofumi; Hirota, Akira

    2009-11-01

    Two new indole derivatives (3, 4) and three known compounds (1, 2, 5) were isolated as radical scavengers from the culture filtrate of a marine sponge-derived yeast. Their structures were determined to be tyrosol (1), tryptophol (2), 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate (3), 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl 5-hydroxypentanoate (4), and cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) (5) on the basis of their spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of compounds 3 and 5 were determined by chiral HPLC analysis combined with synthesis and Marfey's method, respectively. Each obtained compound was evaluated for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, and all compounds exhibited weak activities.

  13. Enhancement of ventricular-subventricular zone-derived neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis by erythropoietin and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Naoko; Kako, Eisuke; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2013-11-27

    In the postnatal mammalian brain, stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) continuously generate neuronal and glial cells throughout life. Genetic labeling of cells of specific lineages have demonstrated that the V-SVZ is an important source of the neuroblasts and/or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that migrate toward injured brain areas in response to several types of insult, including ischemia and demyelinating diseases. However, this spontaneous regeneration is insufficient for complete structural and functional restoration of the injured brain, so interventions to enhance these processes are sought for clinical applications. Erythropoietin (EPO), a clinically applied erythropoietic factor, is reported to have cytoprotective effects in various kinds of insult in the central nervous system. Moreover, recent studies suggest that EPO promotes the V-SVZ-derived neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. EPO increases the proliferation of progenitors in the V-SVZ and/or the migration and differentiation of their progenies in and around injured areas, depending on the dosage, timing, and duration of treatment, as well as the type of animal model used. On the other hand, EPO has undesirable side effects, including thrombotic complications. We recently demonstrated that a 2-week treatment with the EPO derivative asialo-EPO promotes the differentiation of V-SVZ-derived OPCs into myelin-forming mature oligodendrocytes in the injured white matter of neonatal mice without causing erythropoiesis. Here we present an overview of the multifaceted effects of EPO and its derivatives in the V-SVZ and discuss the possible applications of these molecules in regenerative medicine.

  14. Enhancement of ventricular-subventricular zone-derived neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis by erythropoietin and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko eKaneko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the postnatal mammalian brain, stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ continuously generate neuronal and glial cells throughout life. Genetic labeling of cells of specific lineages have demonstrated that the V-SVZ is an important source of the neuroblasts and/or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs that migrate toward injured brain areas in response to several types of insult, including ischemia and demyelinating diseases. However, this spontaneous regeneration is insufficient for complete structural and functional restoration of the injured brain, so interventions to enhance these processes are sought for clinical applications. Erythropoietin (EPO, a clinically applied erythropoietic factor, is reported to have cytoprotective effects in various kinds of insult in the central nervous system. Moreover, recent studies suggest that EPO promotes the V-SVZ-derived neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. EPO increases the proliferation of progenitors in the V-SVZ and/or the migration and differentiation of their progenies in and around injured areas, depending on the dosage, timing, and duration of treatment, as well as the type of animal model used. On the other hand, EPO has undesirable side effects, including thrombotic complications. We recently demonstrated that a two-week treatment with the EPO derivative asialo-EPO promotes the differentiation of V-SVZ-derived OPCs into myelin-forming mature oligodendrocytes in the injured white matter of neonatal mice without causing erythropoiesis. Here we present an overview of the multifaceted effects of EPO and its derivatives in the V-SVZ and discuss the possible applications of these molecules in regenerative medicine.

  15. Tumor-derived lactate and myeloid-derived suppressor cells: Linking metabolism to cancer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Zaheed; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2013-11-01

    Many malignant cells produce increased amounts of lactate, which promotes the development of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs, lactate, and a low pH in the tumor microenvironment inhibit the function of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, hence allowing for disease progression. Ketogenic diets can deplete tumor-bearing animals from MDSCs and regulatory T cells, thereby improving their immunological profile.

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EUGENOL DERIVATIVES Antimikrobielle Aktivität EUGENOL DERIVATE

    OpenAIRE

    George Eyambe, Luis Canales and Bimal K. Banik

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of the clove plant are due to the presence of eugenol, an aromatic phenolic compound. Eugenol was isolated from clove by stem distillation. The alkene group in eugenol was epoxidized resulting in the synthesis of epoxide-eugenol. The heterocyclic ring in epoxide was cleaved to a bromoalcohol derivative. The compounds synthesized epoxideeugenol, bromo alcohol and euginol were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). Epoxide-euge...

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Novel Fused Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from Tetrahydropyrimidine Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Marwa Sayed; Farhat, Mahmoud; Errayes, Asma Omar; Madkour, Hassan Mohamed Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    6-(Benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile has been utilized for synthesis of the fused heterocyclic compounds namely thiazolopyrimidines, tetrazolopyrimidine, pyrimidoquinazoline, pyrimidothiazolopyrimidine, pyrimidothiazolotriazine and pyrrolothiazolopyrimidine derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antioxidant activities of all synthesized compounds were investigated.

  18. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Fouillaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  19. Gelatin Nanofiber Matrices Derived from Schiff Base Derivative for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Devina; James, Roshan; Shelke, Namdev B; Harmon, Matthew D; Brown, Justin L; Hussain, Fazle; Kumbar, Sangamesh G

    2015-11-01

    Electrospinning of water-soluble polymers and retaining their mechanical strength and bioactivity remain challenging. Volatile organic solvent soluble polymers and their derivatives are preferred for fabricating electrospun nanofibers. We report the synthesis and characterization of 2-nitrobenzyl-gelatin (N-Gelatin)--a novel gelatin Schiff base derivative--and the resulting electrospun nanofiber matrices. The 2-nitrobenzyl group is a photoactivatable-caged compound and can be cleaved from the gelatin nanofiber matrices following UV exposure. Such hydrophobic modification allowed the fabrication of gelatin and blend nanofibers with poly(caprolactone) (PCL) having significantly improved tensile properties. Neat gelatin and their PCL blend nanofiber matrices showed a modulus of 9.08 ± 1.5 MPa and 27.61 ± 4.3 MPa, respectively while the modified gelatin and their blends showed 15.63 ± 2.8 MPa and 24.47 ± 8.7 MPa, respectively. The characteristic infrared spectroscopy band for gelatin Schiff base derivative at 1560 cm(-1) disappeared following exposure to UV light indicating the regeneration of free NH2 group and gelatin. These nanofiber matrices supported cell attachment and proliferation with a well spread morphology as evidenced through cell proliferation assay and microscopic techniques. Modified gelatin fiber matrices showed a 73% enhanced cell attachment and proliferation rate compared to pure gelatin. This polymer modification methodology may offer a promising way to fabricate electrospun nanofiber matrices using a variety of proteins and peptides without loss of bioactivity and mechanical strength.

  20. New Metabolites and Bioactive Chlorinated Benzophenone Derivatives Produced by a Marine-Derived Fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hui; Lin, Xiuping; Han, Li; Ma, Jian; Ma, Qingjuan; Zhong, Jialiang; Liu, Yonghong; Sun, Tiemin; Wang, Jinhui; Huang, Xueshi

    2017-01-01

    Four new compounds, including two isocoumarins, pestaloisocoumarins A and B (1, 2), one sesquiterpenoid degradation, isopolisin B (4), and one furan derivative, pestalotiol A (5), together with one known isocoumarin, gamahorin (3), and three chlorinated benzophenone derivatives, pestalachloride B (6), pestalachloride E (7) and a mixture of pestalalactone atropisomers (8a/8b), were isolated from a culture of the fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis associated with sponge Phakellia fusca. These new chemical structures were established using NMR and MS spectroscopic data, as well as single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD Cotton effects. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Isocoumarins 1–3, showed antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values ranging from 25 to 100 μg/mL and weak antifungal activities. Chlorinated benzophenone derivatives 6–8 exhibited antibacterial activities against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values ranging from 3.0 to 50 μg/mL and cytotoxicities against four human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 6.8–87.8 μM. PMID:28335391

  1. New Metabolites and Bioactive Chlorinated Benzophenone Derivatives Produced by a Marine-Derived Fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new compounds, including two isocoumarins, pestaloisocoumarins A and B (1, 2, one sesquiterpenoid degradation, isopolisin B (4, and one furan derivative, pestalotiol A (5, together with one known isocoumarin, gamahorin (3, and three chlorinated benzophenone derivatives, pestalachloride B (6, pestalachloride E (7 and a mixture of pestalalactone atropisomers (8a/8b, were isolated from a culture of the fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis associated with sponge Phakellia fusca. These new chemical structures were established using NMR and MS spectroscopic data, as well as single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD Cotton effects. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Isocoumarins 1–3, showed antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values ranging from 25 to 100 μg/mL and weak antifungal activities. Chlorinated benzophenone derivatives 6–8 exhibited antibacterial activities against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values ranging from 3.0 to 50 μg/mL and cytotoxicities against four human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 6.8–87.8 μM.

  2. Synthesis of Some New Heterocycles Derived from Phenylacetyl Isothiocyanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEMDAN M.M.; FAHMY A.F.; ALI N.F.; HEGAZI E.; ABD-ELHALEEM A.

    2008-01-01

    Phenylacetyl isothiocyanate (1) was reacted with benzoyl hydrazine (2a) in acetonitrile to give thiosemicarbazide derivative 3 which was cyclized by polyphosphoric acid to give 1,2,4-triazoline-5-thione derivative 4.Treatment of 1 with thiosemicarbazide (2b) yielded another 1,2,4-triazoline-5-thione derivative 5.Similar treatment of 1 with phenyl hydrazine (2c) in acetonitrile gave a differently substituted 1,2,4-triazoline-5-thione derivative 6 in one pot-reaction.On the other hand, when the reaction was carried out in acetone, a mixture of 6 and thiadiazolidine derivative 7 was obtained.However, reaction of 1 with hydrazine hydrate (2d) gave hydrazine derivative 8.Reaction of isothiocyanate 1 with anthranilic acid (9) gave benzo[d][1,3,6]oxazin-1-one derivative 10.Treatment of 1 with 2-aminothiophenol (11a), 2-aminophenol (11b) or o-phenylenediamine (11c) produced benzothiazole derivative 12a, benzoxazole derivative 12b and benzimidazole derivative 12c, respectively.The structures of all the products were confirmed by micro-analytical and spectral data.

  3. Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Pyrazoline Derivants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hai-Bin; JI Shun-Jun; ZHANG Yong

    2005-01-01

    Two pyrazoline derivants 1-(2-benzothiazole)-3-phenyl-5-(3-thiophene)-2- pyrazoline (BPTP) and 1-(2-benzothiazole)-3-(2-thiophene)-5-phenyl-2-pyrazoline (BTPP) have been synthe- sized and their crystal structures were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction.Crystal of BPTP belongs to triclinic, space group P with a = 9.4430(11), b = 9.9384(13), c = 9.9394(13) (A), α = 83.107(10), β = 79.947(10), γ = 70.221(7)o, V = 862.42(19) (A)3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.392 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 0.316 mm-1, F(000) = 376, λ = 0.71070 (A), (Δρ)max = 0.348, (Δρ)min = -0.481 e/(A)3, the final R = 0.0407 and wR = 0.1055 for 2844 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I).Crystal of BTPP is of monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 11.6158(17), b = 11.2796(18), c = 13.082(2) (A), α = 90, β = 91.087(4), γ = 90o, V = 1713.7(5) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.401 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 0.318 mm-1, Mr = 361.07, F(000) = 752, λ = 0.71070 (A), (Δρ)max = 0.322, (Δρ)min = -0.330 e/(A)3, the final R = 0.0563 and wR = 0.1058 for 3434 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I).

  4. Fucoxanthin Derivatives: Synthesis and their Chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komba, Shiro; Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Machida, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Novel fucoxanthin derivatives that could change the size of mixed micelles were synthesized. The mixed micelles under consideration consist of a bile acid and some additives. To change the affinity against a bile acid, we designed the synthesis of a fucoxanthin-lithocholic acid complex. Lithocholic acid is one of the bile acids. The 3-OH on lithocholic acid was protected by a levulinyl group, and the protected lithocholic acid was selectively coupled via an ester linkage to the 3-OH on fucoxanthin to obtain levulinyl-protected lithocholyl fucoxanthin (LevLF). The levulinyl group was then selectively deprotected using hydrazine to obtain a lithocholyl fucoxanthin (LF). The average sizes of the micelles that contained these compounds (fucoxanthin, LevLF, and LF) with a bile acid (sodium taurocholate) were measured. The LevLF induced larger micelles than fucoxanthin or LF. Interestingly, the addition of 1-oleoyl-rac-glycerol induced a more efficient change in the micelle size. The large micelles grew larger, and the small micelles became smaller. Triple-mixed micelles with LevLF, sodium taurocholate, and 1-oleoyl-rac-glycerol formed the largest micelle with a diameter of 68 nm. On the other hand, triple-mixed micelles using LF, sodium taurocholate, and 1-oleoyl-rac-glycerol made the smallest micelles with diameters as low as 12 nm. We also investigated the hydrolysis of these compounds with enzymes (esterase from porcine liver, lipase from porcine pancreas, and cholesterol esterase from Pseudomonas sp.). The ester linkage between the lithocholic acid and fucoxanthin of LevLF was hydrolyzed with cholesterol esterase. In addition, the intestinal absorption was examined with Caco-2 cells, and no advantageous change in absorption efficiency was observed by chemically modifying the fucoxanthin unless different micelles sizes and increasing hydrophobicity are induced.

  5. Nanofiltration of plasma-derived biopharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnouf, T; Radosevich, M

    2003-01-01

    This review presents the current status on the use and benefits of viral removal filtration systems--known as nanofiltration--in the manufacture of plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrates and other biopharmaceutical products from human blood origin. Nanofiltration of plasma products has been implemented at a production scale in the early 1990s to improve margin of viral safety, as a complement to the viral reduction treatments, such as solvent-detergent and heat treatments, already applied for the inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. The main reason for the introduction of nanofiltration was the need to improve product safety against non-enveloped viruses and to provide a possible safeguard against new infectious agents potentially entering the human plasma pool. Nanofiltration has gained quick acceptance as it is a relatively simple manufacturing step that consists in filtering protein solution through membranes of a very small pore size (typically 15-40 nm) under conditions that retain viruses by a mechanism largely based on size exclusion. Recent large-scale experience throughout the world has now established that nanofiltration is a robust and reliable viral reduction technique that can be applied to essentially all plasma products. Many of the licensed plasma products are currently nanofiltered. The technology has major advantages as it is flexible and it may combine efficient and largely predictable removal of more than 4 to 6 logs of a wide range of viruses, with an absence of denaturing effect on plasma proteins. Compared with other viral reduction means, nanofiltration may be the only method to date permitting efficient removal of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses under conditions where 90-95% of protein activity is recovered. New data indicate that nanofiltration may also remove prions, opening new perspectives in the development and interest of this technique. Nanofiltration is increasingly becoming a

  6. Derivation of the high field semiconductor equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, P.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Cox, R.W. (Department of Computer Information Science, Indiana University, Purdue University, Indianapolis (USA)); Wagner, B.A. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1991-01-01

    Electron and hole densities evolve in x-z phase space according to Boltzmann equations. When the mean free path of the particles is short and electric force on the particles is weak, a well-known expansion can be used to solve the Boltzmann equation. This asymptotic solution shows that the spatial density of electrons and holes evolves according to diffusion-drift equations. As devices become smaller, electric fields become stronger, which renders the Basic Semiconductor Equations increasingly inaccurate. To remedy this problem, we use singular perturbation techniques to obtain a new asymptotic expansion for the Boltzmann equation. Like the Hilbert expansion, the new expansion requires the mean free path to be short compared to all macroscopic length scales. However, it does not require the electric forces to be weak. The new expansion shows that spatial densities obey diffusion-drift equations as before, but the diffusivity D and mobility {mu} turn out to be nonlinear functions of the electric field. In particular, our analysis determines the field-dependent mobilities {mu}(E) and diffusivities D(E) directly from the scattering operator. By carrying out this asymptotic expansion to higher order, we obtain the high frequency corrections to the drift velocity and diffusivity, and also the corrections due to gradients in the electric field. Remarkably, we find that Einsteins's relation is still satisfied, even with these corrections. The new diffusion-drift equations, together with Poissons' equation for the electric field, form the high-field semiconductor equations, which can be expected to be accurate regardless of the strength of the electric fields within the semiconductor. In addition, our analysis determines the entire momentum distribution of the particles, so we derive a very accurate first moment model for semi-conductors by substituting the asymptotically-correct distribution back into the Boltzmann equation and taking moments.

  7. Crystal structures of five 6-mercaptopurine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia R. Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of five 6-mercaptopurine derivatives, viz. 2-[(9-acetyl-9H-purin-6-ylsulfanyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenylethan-1-one (1, C16H14N4O3S, 2-[(9-acetyl-9H-purin-6-ylsulfanyl]-1-(4-methoxyphenylethan-1-one (2, C16H14N4O3S, 2-[(9-acetyl-9H-purin-6-ylsulfanyl]-1-(4-chlorophenylethan-1-one (3, C15H11ClN4O2S, 2-[(9-acetyl-9H-purin-6-ylsulfanyl]-1-(4-bromophenylethan-1-one (4, C15H11BrN4O2S, and 1-(3-methoxyphenyl-2-[(9H-purin-6-ylsulfanyl]ethan-1-one (5, C14H12N4O2S. Compounds (2, (3 and (4 are isomorphous and accordingly their molecular and supramolecular structures are similar. An analysis of the dihedral angles between the purine and exocyclic phenyl rings show that the molecules of (1 and (5 are essentially planar but that in the case of the three isomorphous compounds (2, (3 and (4, these rings are twisted by a dihedral angle of approximately 38°. With the exception of (1 all molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds in their crystals. There is π–π stacking in all compounds. A Cambridge Structural Database search revealed the existence of 11 deposited compounds containing the 1-phenyl-2-sulfanylethanone scaffold; of these, only eight have a cyclic ring as substituent, the majority of these being heterocycles.

  8. Quinoxaline derivatives: novel and selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Aurang; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Latifullah; Khan, Imran; Dalvandi, Kourosh; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Basha, Fatima Z

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder which occurs due to lower levels of acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitters, and results in a gradual decline in memory and other cognitive processes. Acetycholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are considered to be primary regulators of the ACh levels in the brain. Evidence shows that AChE activity decreases in AD, while activity of BChE does not change or even elevate in advanced AD, which suggests a key involvement of BChE in ACh hydrolysis during AD symptoms. Therefore, inhibiting the activity of BChE may be an effective way to control AD associated disorders. In this regard, a series of quinoxaline derivatives 1-17 was synthesized and biologically evaluated against cholinesterases (AChE and BChE) and as well as against α- chymotrypsin and urease. The compounds 1-17 were found to be selective inhibitors for BChE, as no activity was found against other enzymes. Among the series, compounds 6 (IC50 = 7.7 ± 1.0 µM) and 7 (IC50 = 9.7 ± 0.9 µM) were found to be the most active inhibitors against BChE. Their IC50 values are comparable to the standard, galantamine (IC50 = 6.6 ± 0.38 µM). Their considerable BChE inhibitory activity makes them selective candidates for the development of BChE inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) of this new class of selective BChE inhibitors has been discussed.

  9. Deriving Motor Primitives through Action Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Hemeren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown twelve point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question or upside-down (inverted without information about the object. The results show that (1 despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2 segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics.

  10. Deriving motor primitives through action segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeren, Paul E; Thill, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up) on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown 12 point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question (top-down condition) or upside down (inverted) without information about the object (bottom-up condition). The results show that (1) despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2) segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity, and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips) for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics.

  11. Tachometers Derived From a Brushless DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    2007-01-01

    The upper part of the figure illustrates the major functional blocks of a direction-sensitive analog tachometer circuit based on the use of an unexcited two-phase brushless dc motor as a rotation transducer. The primary advantages of this circuit over many older tachometer circuits include the following: Its output inherently varies linearly with the rate of rotation of the shaft. Unlike some tachometer circuits that rely on differentiation of voltages with respect to time, this circuit relies on integration, which results in signals that are less noisy. There is no need for an additional shaft-angle sensor, nor is there any need to supply electrical excitation to a shaft-angle sensor. There is no need for mechanical brushes (which tend to act as sources of electrical noise). The underlying concept and electrical design are relatively simple. This circuit processes the back-electromagnetic force (back-emf) outputs of the two motor phases into a voltage directly proportional to the instantaneous rate (sign magnitude) of rotation of the shaft. The processing in this circuit effects a straightforward combination of mathematical operations leading to a final operation based on the well-known trigonometric identity (sin x)2 + (cos x)2 = 1 for any value of x. The principle of operation of this circuit is closely related to that of the tachometer circuit described in Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver (MFS-28845), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 3 (March 1995), page 39. However, the present circuit is simpler in some respects because there is no need for sinusoidal excitation of shaftangle- resolver windings.

  12. Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Soon Kong; Shrivastava, Manoj; Srivastava, Prashant; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-01-01

    , hydraulic conductivity, permeability, surface area and sorption capacity. Crosslinked chitosan is an excellent sorbent for trace metals especially because of the high flexibility of its structural stability. Sorption of trace metals by chitosan is selective and independent of the size and hardness of metal ions, or the physical form of chitosan (e.g., film, powder and solution). Both -OH and -NH2 groups in chitosan provide vital binding sites for complexing metal cations. At low pH, -NH3 + groups attract and coagulate negatively charged contaminants such as metal oxyanions, humic acids and dye molecules. Grafting certain functional molecules into the chitin structure improves sorption capacity and selectivity for remediating specific metal ions. For example, introducing sulfur and nitrogen donor ligands to chitosan alters the sorption preference for metals. Low molecular weight chitosan derivatives have been used to remediate metal contaminated soil and sediments. They have also been applied in permeable reactive barriers to remediate metals in soil and groundwater. Both chitosan and modified chitosan have been used to phytoremediate metals; however, the mechanisms by which they assist in mobilizing metals are not yet well understood. In addition, microbes have been used in combination with chitosan to remediate metals (e.g., Cu and Zn) in contaminated soils. Chitosan has also been used to remediate organic contaminants, such as oil-based wastewater, dyes, tannins, humic acids, phenols, bisphenoi-A, p-benzoquinone, organo-phosphorus insecticides, among others. Chitosan has also been utilized to develop optical and electrochemical sensors for in-situ detection of trace contaminants. In sensor technology, naturally-derived chitosan is used primarily as an immobilizing agent that results from its enzyme compatibility, and stabilizing effect on nanoparticles. Contaminant-sensing agents, such as enzymes, microbes and nanoparticles, have been homogeneously immobilized in chitosan

  13. Synthesis of ketones from biomass-derived feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglei; Hou, Minqiang; Liu, Huizhen; Song, Jinliang; Han, Buxing

    2017-01-01

    Cyclohexanone and its derivatives are very important chemicals, which are currently produced mainly by oxidation of cyclohexane or alkylcyclohexane, hydrogenation of phenols, and alkylation of cyclohexanone. Here we report that bromide salt-modified Pd/C in H2O/CH2Cl2 can efficiently catalyse the transformation of aromatic ethers, which can be derived from biomass, to cyclohexanone and its derivatives via hydrogenation and hydrolysis processes. The yield of cyclohexanone from anisole can reach 96%, and the yields of cyclohexanone derivatives produced from the aromatic ethers, which can be extracted from plants or derived from lignin, are also satisfactory. Detailed study shows that the Pd, bromide salt and H2O/CH2Cl2 work cooperatively to promote the desired reaction and inhibit the side reaction. Thus high yields of desired products can be obtained. This work opens the way for production of ketones from aromatic ethers that can be derived from biomass.

  14. Parameters influencing derivation of embryonic stem cells from murine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle-Morera, Laura; Smith, Austin; Nichols, Jennifer

    2008-12-01

    The derivation of ES cells is poorly understood and varies in efficiency between different strains of mice. We have investigated potential differences between embryos of permissive and recalcitrant strains during diapause and ES cell derivation. We found that in diapause embryos of the recalcitrant C57BL/6 and CBA strains, the epiblast failed to expand during the primary explant phase of ES cell derivation, whereas in the permissive 129 strain, it expanded dramatically. Epiblasts from the recalcitrant strains could be expanded by reducing Erk activation. Isolation of 129 epiblasts facilitated very efficient derivation of ES cell lines in serum- and feeder-free conditions, but reduction of Erk activity was required for derivation of ES cells from isolated C57BL/6 or CBA epiblasts. The results suggest that the discrepancy in ES cell derivation efficiency is not attributable merely to variable prodifferentiative effects of the extra-embryonic lineages but also to an intrinsic variability within the epiblast to maintain pluripotency.

  15. Synthesis of Some New Benzimidazole Derivatives of Pharmaceutical Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Zakaria El-Ablack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of 2-(aminomethylbenzimidazole dihydrochloride (1 with ethyl acetoacetate was studied to give diazepinone-benzimidazole derivative (2, while, treatment of 1 with phenylhydrazono ethylacetoacetate afforded phenylhydrazino diazepinone derivative (3. On the other hand, reaction of 1 with acetyl acetone resulted in the formation of diazepine derivative (4. The reaction of 1 with ethyl cyanoacetate was studied to give 3-aminodiazepinone derivative (5. Also the reaction of 1 with acetophenone and/or benzophenone has been investigated to give the fused imidazolines 6 and 7 respectively, while the reaction of 1 with cyclopentanone gave benzimidazolyl derivative (8. Treatment of 1 with chloroacetyl chloride gave the fused pyrazinone (9. The treatment of 1 with benzoin gave the derivative (10. The structures of the hitherto unknown compounds have been confirmed from analytical and spectral data. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  16. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  17. Pyrazole derivatives as antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Jia; Zhao, Meng-Yue; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xin; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Within the past years, many researches on the synthesis, structure-activity relationships (SAR), antitumor, antiinflammatory and anti-bacterial activities of the pyrazole derivatives have been reported. Several pyrazole derivatives possess important pharmacological activities and they have been proved useful materials in drug research. Pyrazole derivatives play an important role in antitumor agents because of their good inhibitory activity against BRAF(V600E), EGFR, telomerase, ROS Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Aurora-A kinase. In addition, pyrazole derivatives also show good antiinflammatory and anti-bacterial activities. In this review, the bioactivities of the pyrazole derivatives mentioned above will be summarized in detail. We sincerely hope that increasing knowledge of the SAR and cellular processes underlying the bioactivity of pyrazole derivatives will be beneficial to the rational design of new generation of small molecule drugs.

  18. On left (θ,ϕ-derivations in BCI-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Muhiuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of (regular left (θ,ϕ-derivations of a BCI-algebra is introduced, some useful examples are discussed, and related properties are investigated. Conditions for a left (θ,ϕ-derivation to be regular are provided. The concepts of a d(θ,ϕ-invariant left (θ,ϕ-derivation and θ-ideal are introduced, and their relations are discussed. Furthermore, some more interesting results are established.

  19. No Violation of the Leibniz Rule. No Fractional Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that a violation of the Leibniz rule is a characteristic property of derivatives of non-integer orders. We prove that all fractional derivatives D^a, which satisfy the Leibniz rule D^(fg)=(D^a f) g + f (D^a g), should have the integer order a=1, i.e. fractional derivatives of non-integer orders cannot satisfy the Leibniz rule.

  20. Pterocaryquinone, a Novel Naphthoquinone Derivative from Pterocarya tonkinesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Hong-Bing; CAI, Bing; CUI, Cheng-Bin; GU, Qian-Qun; ZHAO, Qing-Chun; GUAN, Hua-Shi

    2006-01-01

    Pterocaryquinone, a novel 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative, was isolated from Pterocarya tonkinesis and its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Pterocaryquinone is a new dimeric 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative having a pentacyclic skeleton with two five-membered carbon rings, which provided a novel structural skeleton for 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and showed apoptosis-inducing activity toward mouse cancer tsFT210 cells.