WorldWideScience

Sample records for 4-aminobutyrate transaminase

  1. Subcellular Compartmentation of the 4-Aminobutyrate Shunt in Protoplasts from Developing Soybean Cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreuz, K. E.; Shelp, B. J.

    1995-05-01

    The subcellular localization of enzymes involved in the 4-ami-nobutyrate shunt was investigated in protoplasts prepared from developing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv Maple Arrow] cotyledons. Protoplast lysate was fractionated by differential and continuous Percoll-gradient centrifugation to separate organelle fractions. Glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15) was found exclusively in the cytosol, whereas 4-aminobutyrate:pyruvate transami-nase (EC 2.6.1.19) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.16) were associated exclusively with the mitochondrial fractions. Mitochondrial fractions also catabolized [U-14C]4-aminobu-tyrate to labeled succinate.

  2. [Topography of the metabolic cycle of 4-aminobutyrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, A

    1982-01-01

    This work describes, with some detail the intervention of 4-aminobutyrate as protagonist of a derivation of tricarboxylic cycle. Its vicarial mission is emphasized in connection with its existence in microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens), plants (Helianthus tuberosus. Lupinus albus and Agave americana), neoplasic cells (ascitic tumor of Ehrlich and HeLa cells) and animal tissues (adrenal medulla and brain.

  3. Hydroxylated analogues of 5-aminovaleric acid as 4-aminobutyric acidB receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, U; Hedegaard, A; Herdeis, C;

    1992-01-01

    The (R) and (S) forms of 5-amino-2-hydroxyvaleric acid (2-OH-DAVA) and 5-amino-4-hydroxyvaleric acid (4-OH-DAVA) were designed as structural hybrids of the 4-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist (R)-(-)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [(R)-(-)-3-OH-GABA] and the GABAB antagonist 5-aminovaleric acid....... All four compounds were weak inhibitors of GABAA receptor binding in rat brain, and none of them significantly affected synaptosomal GABA uptake. Based on molecular modeling studies it has been demonstrated that low-energy conformations of (R)-(-)-3-OH-GABA, (S)-(-)-2-OH-DAVA, and (R)-(-)-4-OH...

  4. Hypothesis/review: contribution of putrescine to 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) production in response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelp, Barry J; Bozzo, Gale G; Trobacher, Christopher P; Zarei, Adel; Deyman, Kristen L; Brikis, Carolyne J

    2012-09-01

    4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) accumulates in various plant parts, including bulky fruits such as apples, in response to abiotic stress. It is generally believed that the GABA is derived from glutamate, although a contribution from polyamines is possible. Putrescine, but not spermidine and spermine, generally accumulates in response to the genetic manipulation of polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and abiotic stress. However, the GABA levels in stressed plants are influenced by processes other than putrescine availability. It is hypothesized that the catabolism of putrescine to GABA is regulated by a combination of gene-dependent and -independent processes. The expression of several putative diamine oxidase genes is weak, but highly stress-inducible in certain tissues of Arabidopsis. In contrast, candidate genes that encode 4-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase are highly constitutive, but not stress inducible. Changes in O(2) availability and cellular redox balance due to stress may directly influence the activities of diamine oxidase and 4-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, thereby restricting GABA formation. Apple fruit is known to accumulate GABA under controlled atmosphere storage and therefore could serve as a model system for investigating the relative contribution of putrescine and glutamate to GABA production.

  5. Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in ‘Empire’ apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Deyman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP delays ethylene-meditated ripening of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1-MCP and controlled atmosphere storage enhances the levels of polyamines (PAs and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA in apple fruit. A 46-week experiment was conducted with ‘Empire’ apple using a split-plot design with four treatment replicates and 3 oC, 2.5 kPa O2, and 0.03 or 2.5 kPa CO2 with or without 1 μL L-1 1-MCP. Total PA levels were not elevated by the 1-MCP treatment. Examination of the individual PAs revealed that: (i total putrescine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP regardless of the CO2 level, and while this was mostly at the expense of free putrescine, large transient increases in soluble conjugated putrescine were also evident; (ii total spermidine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP, particularly at 2.5 kPa CO2, and this was mostly at the expense of soluble conjugated spermidine; (iii total spermine levels at 2.5 kPa CO2 tended to be lower with 1-MCP, and this was mostly at the expense of both soluble and insoluble conjugated spermine; and (iv total spermidine and spermine levels at 0.03 kPa were relatively unaffected, compared to 2.5 kPa CO2, but transient increases in free spermidine and spermine were evident. These findings might be due to changes in the conversion of putrescine into higher PAs and the interconversion of free and conjugated forms in apple fruit, rather than altered S-adenosylmethionine availability. Regardless of 1-MCP and CO2 treatments, the availability of glutamate showed a transient peak initially, probably due to protein degradation, and this was followed by a steady decline over the remainder of the storage period which coincided with linear accumulation of GABA. This pattern has been attributed to the stimulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity and inhibition of GABA catabolism, rather than a contribution of PAs to GABA

  6. Applying Enzymatic Cascades for ISCPR in ω-transaminase Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janes, Kresimir; Woodley, John; Tufvesson, Pär

    Filtration Membrane Reactor) as a viable process design option and charge analysis showed that ISPR is possible via ion exchange resins or electrodialysis. An ISPR example showed that process intensification could yield significant reductions in the required ω-transaminase activity improvement (up to five fold...... that is most promising for future industrial implementation. Furthermore, the required improvements of the ω-transaminase have been identified as a function of the added cascade enzymes and for the case γLDH = 11 g L-1, γFDH = 11 g L-1 and cNADH = 0.1 mmol L-1, it was found that the ω-transaminase activity...... improvement) needed to achieve a viable industrial process, as well as reduction of required tolerance toward product inhibition. Although this thesis has been based on a specific case of a severely thermodynamically challenged ω-transaminase reaction (Keq = 4.03∙10-5), the selection framework can...

  7. A volumetric and viscometric study of 4-aminobutyric acid in aqueous solutions of metformin hydrochloride at 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRISHA RAJAGOPAL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Density (r and viscosity (h measurements were performed for4-aminobutyric acid in 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 M aqueous metformin hydrochloride at 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K. The measured values of density and viscosity were used to estimate some important parameters, such as the partial molal volume, Vf, the standard partial molal volume, Vf, the standard partial molal volume of transfer, DVf, the hydration number, nH, the second derivative of the infinite dilution of the standard partial molal volume with temperature ¶2Vf/¶T2, the viscosity B-coefficients, variation of B with temperature, dB/dT, the free energy of activation per mole of solvent Dm1* and solute Dm2* of the amino acid in a ternary system. These parameters were interpreted in terms of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions and structure making/breaking ability of solutes in the given solution.

  8. Serum transaminase levels and dengue shock syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Putra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical and biochemical impacts on liver dysfunction, as manifested by an increase in serum transaminase levels, are common in dengue infection. However, an association of elevated serum transaminase and dengue shock syndrome (DSS has not been well-established. Objective To assess for an association between serum transaminase levels and the presence of DSS in children. Methods A nested, case control study was conducted on children aged 1 month to 12 years admitted to Sanglah Hospital who were diagnosed with dengue infection. Baseline characteristics and serum transaminase levels were recorded. Patients who were included in the study were observed for the presence of DSS. Those who had DSS were selected as cases, and those who did not develop DSS were selected as controls. Data was analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods with 95% confidence intervals and P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Ninety-four children were involeved, 47 children in the case group and the other 47 were in the control group. Baseline characteristics of the subjects were similar between the case and control groups. Serum aspartate transaminase (AST level of ≥128 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT of ≥40 U/L were associated with DSS (OR 10; 95%CI 2.3 to 44.4; P=0.002 and (OR 7.3; 95%CI 1.6 to 32.9; P=0.009, respectively. Conclusion Elevated AST and ALT levels were associated with an increased risk of DSS in children with dengue infection

  9. Process considerations for protein engineering of ω-Transaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Afonso Neto, Watson; Schwarze, Daniel; Tufvesson, Pär;

    to a wild type transaminase through protein engineering changed the characteristics of the biocatalyst and the implications this would have on a process. A methodology for characterizing the biocatalyst was developed which was subsequently applied to the wild type and 5 mutants selected. It was seen...

  10. A rational approach for ω-transaminase-catalyzed process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Lloyd, Richard; Tufvesson, Pär;

    Herein we describe a novel rational approach to the design of a ω-transaminase process such that it will fulfill criteria necessary for industrial use. By first determining the fundamental properties of the reaction system, it is possible to suggest appropriate process strategies that may be used...

  11. Elevated creatine kinase and transaminases in asymptomatic SBMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Eric J; Klein, Christopher J

    2007-02-01

    X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's disease) has a variable prognosis. Most male carriers are affected by their fourth or fifth decade of life, while some remain asymptomatic lifelong. Elevations of serum creatine kinase are well known to occur in clinically manifesting SBMA patients. Elevations prior to the onset of the clinical syndrome have not been reported. Here we report two cases of SBMA presenting with 'idiopathic' elevations of serum transaminases and creatine kinase a decade in advance of their symptomatic onset. These cases emphasize the need to consider SBMA and genetic testing for the androgen receptor trinucleotide CAG expansion in males otherwise healthy with 'idiopathic' elevated creatinine kinase.

  12. A methodology for cascade selection for co-product removal in the ω-transaminase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janes, Kresimir; Gernaey, Krist; Tufvesson, Pär;

    Production of chiral amines using transaminases has indeed been proposed recently as an interesting alternative to conventional methods to help in the synthesis of many new pharmaceuticals. Two reaction strategies have been demonstrated: kinetic resolution and asymmetric synthesis. The latter...

  13. Catalytic Promiscuity of Transaminases: Preparation of Enantioenriched b-Fluoroamines by Formal Tandem Hydrodefluorination/Deamination

    OpenAIRE

    Cuetos, Aníbal; García-Ramos, Marina; Fischereder, Eva-Maria; Díaz-Rodríguez, Alba; Grogan, Gideon; Gotor,Vicente; Kroutil, Wolfgang; Lavandera, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Transaminases are valuable enzymes for industrial biocatalysis and enable the preparation of optically pure amines. For these transformations they require either an amine donor (amination of ketones) or an amine acceptor (deamination of racemic amines). Herein transaminases are shown to react with aromatic b-fluoroamines, thus leading to simultaneous enantioselective dehalogenation and deamination to form the corresponding acetophenone derivatives in the absence of an amine acceptor. A series...

  14. Diagnosis of Infectious Mononucleosis by Combined Detection of Atypical Lymphocytes and Transaminase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lihua; YANG Juhong; CUI Tianpen; XING Hui; CAI Pengcheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the value of combined detection of atypical lymphocytes (ATL) and transaminase (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; asparate aminotransferase, AST) in the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (IM), The data of blood routine and liver function were collected from 54 IM patients, 34 acute hepatitis (AH) patients, 44 upper respiratory infection (URI) patients in Union Hospital during March 2002 to March 2005. Same data were also collected from 40 healthy children as normal control. These data were analyzed retrospectively. Both proportion of atypical lymphocytes and enzyme activity of transaminase were elevated simultaneously (ALT>40 IU/L,AST>45 IU/L) in 57.4% (31/54) IM patients. There was significant difference (P<0.01) between IM group and the other groups. Combined detection of atypical lymphocytes and transaminase can be regarded as a diagnostic marker of infectious mononucleosis.

  15. Disproportional exaggerated aspartate transaminase is a useful prognostic parameter in late leptospirosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Ling Chang; Chih-Wei Yang; Jeng-Chang Chen; Yu-Pin Ho; Ming-Jeng Pan; Cheng-Hui Lin; Deng-Yn Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the hepatic dysfunction in leptospirosis is usually mild and resolved eventually. However,sequential follow-up of liver biochemical data remained lacking..METHODS: The biochemistry data and clinical symptoms of 11 sporadic patients were collected and analyzed, focusing on the impacts of leptospirosis upon liver biochemistry tests.RESULTS: The results disclosed that of the 11 cases, 5 or 45% died. The liver biochemistry data in the beginning of the disease course were only mildly elevated.Nevertheless, late exaggerated aspartate transaminase (AST)elevations were noted in three cases who finally died when compared with the typical course. Besides, significant higher AST/alanine transaminase (ALT) ratios (AARs) of the peak levels for transaminase were also noted in the cases who eventually succumbed. The mean±SD of AARs for the survival group and dead group were 5.65±2.27 (n = 5)and 1.86±0.64 (n = 6) respectively (P= 0.006). The ratios of the cases who finally died were all more than 3.0.Conversely, the survival group's ratios were less than 3.0.CONCLUSION: Serial follow-up of transaminase might provide evidence to predict some rare evolutions in leptospirosis. If AST elevated progressively without a concomitant change of ALT, it might indicate an acute disease course with ensuing death. Additionally, AAR is another prognostic parameter for leptospirosis. Once the value was higher than 3.0, a grave prognosis is inevitable.

  16. Immobilization of Escherichia coli containing ω‐transaminase activity in LentiKats®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cárdenas‐Fernández, Max; Lima Afonso Neto, Watson; López, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Whole Escherichia coli cells overexpressing ω‐transaminase (ω‐TA) and immobilized cells entrapped in LentiKats® were used as biocatalysts in the asymmetric synthesis of the aromatic chiral amines 1‐phenylethylamine (PEA) and 3‐amino‐1‐phenylbutane (APB). Whole cells were permeabilized...

  17. Indian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease presenting with raised transaminases are different at presentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Duseja; Naveen Kaita; Ashim Das; Radha Krishan Dhiman; Yogesh Kumar Chawla; Reena Das; Sanjay Bhadada; Ravinder Sialy; Kiran Kumar Thumburu; Anil Bhansali

    2007-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR We read with great interest the article, "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may not be a severe disease at presentation among Asian Indians" by Madan et al in the recent issue of WJG. Twenty-eight (55%) out of 51 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who presented with abnormal transaminases had histological evidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

  18. A Practical and Fast Method To Predict the Thermodynamic Preference of omega-Transaminase-Based Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Robert J.; Gundersen Deslauriers, Maria; Woodley, John

    2015-01-01

    A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable as confir...

  19. A Rapid Selection Procedure for Simple Commercial Implementation of omega-Transaminase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen Deslauriers, Maria; Tufvesson, Pär; Rackham, Emma J.

    2016-01-01

    A stepwise selection procedure is presented to quickly evaluate whether a given omega-transaminase reaction is suitable for a so-called "simple" scale-up for fast industrial implementation. Here "simple" is defined as a system without the need for extensive process development or specialized...

  20. Selections of minimal conditions for a simple intensification and scale up of w-transaminase reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Maria T.; Lloyd, Richard C; Woodley, John

    A step wise decision matrix is presented to quickly evaluate w - transaminase for a ‘simple scale up’ in the synthetic direction . Here a ‘simple scale up’ is defined as a system without specialized equipment or process development, thus a rapid implementation . The three step method consists...

  1. A Practical and Fast Method To Predict the Thermodynamic Preference of ω-Transaminase-Based Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Robert J.; Gundersen, Maria T.; Woodley, John

    2015-01-01

    A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable as confir...

  2. Amine donor and acceptor influence on the thermodynamics of ω-transaminase reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Maria T.; Abu, Rohana; Schürmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years biocatalytic transamination using ω-transaminase has become established as one of the most interesting routes to synthesize chiral amines with a high enantiomeric purity, especially in the pharmaceutical sector where the demand for such compounds is high. Nevertheless, one limitat...

  3. A Practical and Fast Method To Predict the Thermodynamic Preference of ω-Transaminase-Based Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Robert J.; Gundersen, Maria T.; Woodley, John;

    2015-01-01

    A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable as confir......A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable...... as confirmed by experiment. Once a larger data base is established, in silico screening of several new reactions (new target molecules) can easily be performed each day....

  4. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Klymenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  5. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    OpenAIRE

    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso

    2009-01-01

    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  6. Stereoselective amination of racemic sec-alcohols through sequential application of laccases and transaminases

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Lía; Gotor,Vicente; Lavandera, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot/two-step bienzymatic asymmetric amination of secondary alcohols is disclosed. The approach is based on a sequential strategy involving the use of a laccase/TEMPO catalytic system for the oxidation of alcohols into ketone intermediates, and their following transformation into optically enriched amines by using transaminases. Individual optimizations of the oxidation and biotransamination reactions have been carried out, studying later their applicability in a concurrent proc...

  7. Two previously undetected variants of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase found by acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, T

    1982-01-01

    Two new electrophoretic variants of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) have been found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at acidic pH. They appeared to represent a single allele, GPT 2, by the standard method of starch gel electrophoresis. Studies in families show that they are inherited as codominant alleles at the GPT locus. Population frequencies are about the same as those of other rare GPT variants. Their behavior on gels is consistent with both of them having substitutions of histi...

  8. Genetics of mitochondrial glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT-2) in Tigriopus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, M M; Burton, R S

    1984-04-01

    Glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT; EC 2.6.1.1) occurs as two electrophoretically distinguishable isozymes in the copepod Tigriopus californicus. The slower-migrating form, referred to as GOT2 , is shown to be associated with the mitochondrial cell fraction. GOT2 phenotypes are inherited in typical Mendelian fashion, indicating that they are encoded by a nuclear gene. Allelic frequencies for electrophoretic variants of the two Got loci in 12 California populations of T. californicus show a sharp differentiation of local populations. Linkage studies demonstrated that Got-2 is linked to Got-1; a map of four loci in linkage group I is presented.

  9. [Asymmetric synthesis of aromatic L-amino acids catalyzed by transaminase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenna; Sun, Yu; Min, Cong; Han, Wei; Wu, Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Aromatic L-Amino acids are important chiral building blocks for the synthesis of many drugs, pesticides, fine chemicals and food additives. Due to the high activity and steroselectivity, enzymatic synthesis of chiral building blocks has become the main research direction in asymmetric synthesis field. Guided by the phylogenetic analysis of transaminases from different sources, two representative aromatic transaminases TyrB and Aro8 in type I subfamily, from the prokaryote Escherichia coli and eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisia, respectively, were applied for the comparative study of asymmetric transamination reaction process and catalytic efficiency of reversely converting keto acids to the corresponding aromatic L-amino acid. Both TyrB and Aro8 could efficiently synthesize the natural aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine as well as non-natural amino acid phenylglycine. The chiral HPLC analysis showed the produced amino acids were L-configuration and the e.e value was 100%. L-alanine was the optimal amino donor, and the transaminase TyrB and Aro8 could not use D-amino acids as amino donor. The optimal molar ratio of amino donor (L-alanine) and amino acceptor (aromatic alpha-keto acids) was 4:1. Both of the substituted group on the aromatic ring and the length of fatty acid carbon chain part in the molecular structure of aromatic substrate alpha-keto acid have the significant impact on the enzyme-catalyzed transamination efficiency. In the experiments of preparative-scale transamination synthesis of L-phenylglycine, L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine, the specific production rate catalyzed by TryB were 0.28 g/(g x h), 0.31 g/(g x h) and 0.60 g/(g x h) and the specific production rate catalyzed by Aro8 were 0.61 g/(g x h), 0.48 g/(g x h) and 0.59 g/(g x h). The results obtained here were useful for applying the transaminases to asymmetric synthesis of L-amino acids by reversing the reaction balance in industry.

  10. Nucleic acids encoding plant glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-03-29

    Glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) proteins, nucleic acid molecules encoding GPT proteins, and uses thereof are disclosed. Provided herein are various GPT proteins and GPT gene coding sequences isolated from a number of plant species. As disclosed herein, GPT proteins share remarkable structural similarity within plant species, and are active in catalyzing the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (2-oxoglutaramate), a powerful signal metabolite which regulates the function of a large number of genes involved in the photosynthesis apparatus, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism.

  11. Termoativação da transaminase glutâmico oxaloacética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélion Póvoa Júnior

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a atividade da transaminase glutâmico oxaloacética (TGO em diferentes tecidos (fígado, músculo, rim, pulmão, baço e soro sanguíneo de ratos e de soro humano. verificou-se que a atividade da enzima proveniente de qualquer um destes tecidos é aumentada cerca de tr~es vezes quando a incubação se faz a 60ºC, ao invés de 37ºC. São feitas considerações acerca da importância deste fato.Glutamic Oxalacetic transaminase is thermoativated. Its optimum of catalytical activity is at 60ºC. At this temperature, colour is approximately three times more intense than at 37ºC, temperature usually utilized for determination of enzyme activity. This phenomenon is observed in human blood serum and several rat tissues (liver, heart, striated muscle, spleen, lung, kidney and blood serum.

  12. SERUM LIPID PROFILE AND TRANSAMINASES LEVELS IN HIV PATIENTS ON HAART WITH ADIPOSE TISSUE ALTERATIONS

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    Vijay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND HIV patients receiving highly active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART usually suffer from side effects like hepatitis, neurological problems, abnormal fat distribution etc. Among these, the most physical, mental and cosmetically disturbing side effect is adipose tissue alterations (ATA, also called as lipodystrophy, which is abnormal fat deposition (Lipohypertrophy and/or fat atrophy (Lipoatrophy. AIM Several studies have shown dyslipidemia in patients on HAART, but there are very few studies on the lipid profile changes in patients on ART with ATA. Hence a study was conducted to assess the serum lipid profile and transaminases activity in patients on ART with ATA and also to evaluate whether lipid profile parameters can predict ATA changes in HIV patients on HAART. METHOD Randomly selected HIV positive patients, who were attending ART centre, were included in the study. Twenty five of these patients in whom HAART was yet to be started were considered as Control group, 25 patients on HAART for more than 12 months but without ATA as ART group and 23 patients on HAART with ATA as ATA group. Lipid profile and serum transaminases in all the groups were assayed by standard methods. RESULTS Serum cholesterol and LDL were significantly increased in ART group and ATA group when compared to control group, but there was no significant difference in lipid profile parameters between ART group and ATA group. Serum AST and ALT levels were significantly increased (p<0.02 in ATA group when compared to ART group. Buffalo hump was seen only in females in our study. Lipoatrophy (facial and limbs and central obesity was seen in males. CONCLUSION There was no significant change in lipid profile parameters in ATA group when compared with ART group. Hence lipid profile parameters are not good predictors of ATA changes in HIV patients on HAART. Significant increase in transaminase levels suggests increased hepatotoxity in ATA patients due to HAART drugs. There

  13. Process Considerations for the Asymmetric Synthesis of Chiral Amines using ω-Transaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Afonso Neto, Watson

    of suitable polymeric resins for product removal. The work has been performed in collaboration with c-LEcta GmbH (Leipzig, Germany) and DSM Innovative Synthesis (Geleen, The Netherlands) who supplied the enzymes for the case study, making possible the successful demonstration of the screening methodologies...... in order to eliminate infeasible routes. This work illustrates the Laboratory scale characterization of different process options for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines catalysed by ω-transaminase (ω –TAm). The studied process options include: (i) the immobilization of the biocatalyst to improve its......PR) to respectively alleviate product inhibition and shift the reaction equilibrium. From an academic point of view, more important than the implementation of these technologies to a specific example, is the development of a general methodology that can be later applied in other cases. Hence, this work has also...

  14. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maika Genz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S-selective amine transaminase (ATA, a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417 was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal, as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions.

  15. 308.15 K、313.15 K和318.15K下4-氨基丁酸在硫酸沙丁胺醇水溶液中的体积和黏度研究%Volumetric and Viscometric Studies of 4-Aminobutyric Acid in Aqueous Solutions of Salbutamol Sulphate at 308.15,313.15 and 318.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Rajagopal; S.S. Jayabalakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Density (ρ) and viscosity (η) measurements were carried out for 4-aminobutyric acid in 0.0041, 0.0125 and 0.0207 mol·L~(-1) aqueous salbutamol sulphate at T= 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K.. The measured values of density and viscosity were used to estimate some important parameters such as apparent molar volume V_φ, limiting apparent molar volume V_φ~0, transfer volume ΔV_φ~0, hydration number nH , second derivative of infinite dilution of partial molar volume with temperature (e)~2V_φ~0 /(e)T~2 , viscosity B-coefficients, variation of B with temperature dB/dT, free energy of activation per mole of solvent Δμ_1~(0*) and solute Δμ_2~(0*), activation entropy ΔS_2~(0*) and activation enthalpy ΔH_2~(0*) of the amino acids. These parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and structure making/breaking ability of solutes in the given solution.

  16. Magnetic catechol-chitosan with bioinspired adhesive surface: preparation and immobilization of ω-transaminase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng Ni

    Full Text Available The magnetic chitosan nanocomposites have been studied intensively and been used practically in various biomedical and biological applications including enzyme immobilization. However, the loading capacity and the remained activity of immobilized enzyme based on existing approaches are not satisfied. Simpler and more effective immobilization strategies are needed. Here we report a simple catechol modified protocol for preparing a novel catechol-chitosan (CCS-iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs composites carrying adhesive moieties with strong surface affinity. The ω-transaminase (ω-TA was immobilized onto this magnetic composite via nucleophilic reactions between catechol and ω-TA. Under optimal conditions, 87.5% of the available ω-TA was immobilized on the composite, yielding an enzyme loading capacity as high as 681.7 mg/g. Furthermore, the valuation of enzyme activity showed that ω-TA immobilized on CCS-IONPs displayed enhanced pH and thermal stability compared to free enzyme. Importantly, the immobilized ω-TA retained more than 50% of its initial activity after 15 repeated reaction cycles using magnetic separation and 61.5% of its initial activity after storage at 4°C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS for 15 days. The results suggested that such adhesive magnetic composites may provide an improved platform technology for bio-macromolecules immobilized.

  17. A Lactobacillus nifS-like gene suppresses an Escherichia coli transaminase B mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong-Morgenthaler, P; Oliver, S G; Hottinger, H; Söll, D

    1994-01-01

    The nifS gene was first identified in nitrogen-fixing bacteria where its protein product is essential for efficient nitrogen fixation. Here, we demonstrate that a nifS-like gene also occurs in Lactobacillus bulgaricus, an organism which does not fix nitrogen, and that the nifS gene product suppresses the leucine auxotrophy of an ilvD, ilvE Escherichia coli strain. The known nifS genes from prokaryotes and eukaryotes exhibit a high degree of sequence conservation although the genes have diverse functions, as shown by their ability to complement or suppress dissimilar mutations. It was suggested that the nifS gene products represent a group of enzymes which mediate a specific chemical reaction common to diverse metabolic pathways. The purified NifS protein from Azotobacter vinelandii was experimentally shown to be a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent cysteine desulfurase. Curiously, the NifS proteins exhibit also a remarkable sequence homology to a new class of pyridoxal phoshate-dependent aminotransferases. We show that the L bulgaricus NifS-like protein is able to replace in vivo transaminase B in E coli. This experimental observation supports the prediction that some NifS-like proteins may be aminotransferases.

  18. Synchronization by Food Access Modifies the Daily Variations in Expression and Activity of Liver GABA Transaminase

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    Dalia De Ita-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Daytime restricted feeding (DRF is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO. Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study was aimed at characterizing the expression and activity of the mostly mitochondrial enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T during DRF/FEO expression. We found that DRF promotes a sustained increase of GABA-T in the liver homogenate and mitochondrial fraction throughout the entire day-night cycle. The higher amount of GABA-T promoted by DRF was not associated to changes in GABA-T mRNA or GABA-T activity. The GABA-T activity in the mitochondrial fraction even tended to decrease during the light period. We concluded that DRF influences the daily variations of GABA-T mRNA levels, stability, and catalytic activity of GABA-T. These data suggest that the liver GABAergic system responds to a metabolic challenge such as DRF and the concomitant appearance of the FEO.

  19. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase isozymes from rat liver. Purification and physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Q K; Sakakibara, R; Watanabe, T; Wada, H

    1980-07-01

    Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase isozymes were purified simultaneously to homogeneity from rat liver with high yields. Three subforms of mitochondrial isozyme and three subforms of cytosolic isozyme were separated by chromatography on CM-Sephadex and electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. The general enzymatic properties of the purified isozymes such as their kinetic parameters, isoelectric points, molecular weights, amino acid compositions, NH2-terminal amino acid sequences and COOH-terminal amino acids were determined. Most of these properties of the isozymes are similar to those of the corresponding isozymes from other sources, such as rat brain and pig and human heart. In amino acid compositions, cytosolic isozyme from rat liver has more proline and glycine and less arginine, threonine and leucine than pig heart cytosolic isozyme; the mitochondrial isozyme has more glutamic acid and glycine and less serine than the corresponding pig heart isozyme. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of GOT isozymes from rat liver were identical with those of the GOT isozymes from pig heart up to the 10th residues except for the 5th residues. The subforms of mitochondrial isozyme from rat liver were generated on storage at 4 degrees C for 4-8 weeks.

  20. Increased availability of NADH in metabolically engineered baker's yeast improves transaminase-oxidoreductase coupled asymmetric whole-cell bioconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Hägglöf, Cecilia; Weber, Nora

    2016-01-01

    yeast for transamination-reduction coupled asymmetric one-pot conversion was investigated. RESULTS: A series of active whole-cell biocatalysts were constructed by over-expressing the (S)-selective ω-transaminase (VAMT) from Capsicum chinense together with the NADH-dependent (S)-selective alcohol...... dehydrogenase (SADH) originating from Rhodococcus erythropolis in strains with or without deletion of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (GPD1 and GPD2). The yeast strains were evaluated as catalysts for simultaneous: (a) kinetic resolution of the racemic mixture to (R)-1-phenylethylamine, and (b......) reduction of the produced acetophenone to (S)-1-phenylethanol. For the gpd1Δgpd2Δ strain, cell metabolism was effectively used for the supply of both amine acceptors and the co-factor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) for the ω-transaminase, as well as for regenerating NADH for the reduction. In contrast...

  1. Radiation-induced enzyme efflux from rat heart: sedentary animals. [Gamma radiation, lactate dehydrogenase, creative kinase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacWilliam, L.D.; Bhakthan, N.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase show initial elevations within 12 hr of exposure to 2,000 rads of ..gamma..-radiation to the thoracic region of rats. Significant decreases in heart muscle homogenate levels of these enzymes parallel initial elevations in the serum and may suggest that enhanced leakage of enzymes is a consequence of radiation injury to heart muscle. Insignificant alterations in mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase levels after exposure indicate that in vivo injury to the mitochondria from therapeutic levels of ..gamma..-radiation is questionable. The results support the contention that ionizing radiation instigates alterations in the dynamic permeability of membranes, allowing leakage of biologically active material out of the injured cell.

  2. Profile of hemogram and transaminases in dengue-suspected patients at a first-aid health unit

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    Érica Maria da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current retrospective analysis describes the laboratorial profile of patients hypothetically diagnosed with dengue at a First-Aid Health Unit in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Results of hemograms were assessed by counting platelets and transaminase dosages, in the first half of 2012. Further, 394 patients (252 females or 64% and 142 males or 34% were listed, mostly during March and April. Hemograms with platelet counting was undertaken with 210 patients (53.3% and hemogram plus transaminases dosages with 184 patients (46.7%. Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and atypical lymphocytes occurred in both genders. Hematocrits were highest in males and transaminases were more altered in females. Patients attended at the health unit with clinical symptoms of classical dengue had a laboratory profile of non-specific exams which is a feature of infection by the dengue virus. Diagnosis could not be confirmed and the need of a fast test in the health unit services was mandatory. The above avoids dengue cases not being notified and treated or overestimated.

  3. Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Erema Ransome Daka; I.R. Inyang; E.N. Ogamba

    2010-01-01

    Diazinon-induced changes in the total protein and transaminase activities of Clarias gariepinus, a common Niger Delta wetland fish were assessed. Adult fish (mean length 35.24±2.80 cm) were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and then exposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L) in semi-static bioassays for 30 days. Total protein and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined...

  4. Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 gene, encoding an aromatic amino acid transaminase, enhances phenylethanol production from glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Liti, Gianni; Louis, Edward J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Phenylethanol has a characteristic rose-like aroma that makes it a popular ingredient in foods, beverages and cosmetics. Microbial production of phenylethanol currently relies on whole-cell bioconversion of phenylalanine with yeasts that harbour an Ehrlich pathway for phenylalanine catabolism. Complete biosynthesis of phenylethanol from a cheap carbon source, such as glucose, provides an economically attractive alternative for phenylalanine bioconversion. In this study, synthetic genetic array (SGA) screening was applied to identify genes involved in regulation of phenylethanol synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen focused on transcriptional regulation of ARO10, which encodes the major decarboxylase involved in conversion of phenylpyruvate to phenylethanol. A deletion in ARO8, which encodes an aromatic amino acid transaminase, was found to underlie the transcriptional upregulation of ARO10 during growth, with ammonium sulphate as the sole nitrogen source. Physiological characterization revealed that the aro8Δ mutation led to substantial changes in the absolute and relative intracellular concentrations of amino acids. Moreover, deletion of ARO8 led to de novo production of phenylethanol during growth on a glucose synthetic medium with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. The aro8Δ mutation also stimulated phenylethanol production when combined with other, previously documented, mutations that deregulate aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced >3 mm phenylethanol from glucose during growth on a simple synthetic medium. The strong impact of a transaminase deletion on intracellular amino acid concentrations opens new possibilities for yeast-based production of amino acid-derived products.

  5. Elevated transaminases as a predictor of coma in a patient with anorexia nervosa: a case report and review of the literature

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    Yoshida Shuhei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Liver injury is a frequent complication associated with anorexia nervosa, and steatosis of the liver is thought to be the major underlying pathology. However, acute hepatic failure with transaminase levels over 1000 IU/mL and deep coma are very rare complications and the mechanism of pathogenesis is largely unknown. Case presentation A 37-year-old Japanese woman showed features of acute liver failure and hepatic coma which were not associated with hypoglycemia or hyper-ammonemia. Our patient's consciousness was significantly improved with the recovery of liver function and normalization of transaminase levels after administration of nutritional support. Conclusions Our case report demonstrates that transaminase levels had an inverse relationship with the consciousness of our patient, although the pathogenesis of coma remains largely unknown. This indicates that transaminase levels can be one of the key predictors of impending coma in patients with anorexia nervosa. Therefore, frequent monitoring of transaminase levels combined with rigorous treatment of the underlying nutritional deficiency and psychiatric disorder are necessary to prevent this severe complication.

  6. Detection of Hepatitis C virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with abnormal alanine transaminase in Ahvaz

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    M Makvandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important agent for chronic and acute hepatitis. Occult hepatitis C remains a major health problem worldwide. Patients with chronic occult HCV may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of occult hepatitis C by IS-PCR-ISH (in situ PCR in situ hybridisation in the patients with abnormal ALT. Materials and Methods: The blood samples were taken from 53 patients including 17 females (32.1% and 36 (67.9% males who had abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT for more than 1 year. The mean ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST level were 41.02 ± 9.3 and 24.17 ± 7.3, respectively. The patients′ age were between 4 and 70-years old with mean age 38 ± 13. All the patients were negative for HCV antibody, HCV RNA and HBs Ag. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were separated with ficoll gradient from each blood sample, then the cells were fixed on slides by cold acetone and followed by IS-PCR-ISH for HCV RNA detection. Results: Seventeen (32% patients including 6 (11.3% females and 11 (20.7% males showed positive results for HCV RNA by in situ-PCR in situ hybridisation. Ten (18.8% positive cases were between 20 and 40-years old and 6 (11.3% positive patients were between 40 and 60 years old. Ten (19.6% patients who were positive for IS-PCR-ISH also had positive anti-HBc IgG and 7 (13.2% patients were negative for HBc-IgG. Conclusion: In the present study high rate of 32% occult hepatitis C were found among the patients with elevated ALT.

  7. Mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Hwan; Mirabella, Rossana; Bronstein, Philip A; Preston, Gail M; Haring, Michel A; Lim, Chun Keun; Collmer, Alan; Schuurink, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three genes annotated as gabT GABA transaminases. A DC3000 mutant lacking all three gabT genes was constructed and found to be unable to utilize GABA as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. In complete minimal media supplemented with GABA, the mutant grew less well than wild-type DC3000 and showed strongly reduced expression of hrpL and avrPto, which encode an alternative sigma factor and effector, respectively, associated with the type III secretion system. The growth of the gabT triple mutant was weakly reduced in Arabidopsis ecotype Landberg erecta (Ler) and strongly reduced in the Ler pop2-1 GABA transaminase-deficient mutant that accumulates higher levels of GABA. Much of the ability to grow on GABA-amended minimal media or in Arabidopsis pop2-1 leaves could be restored to the gabT triple mutant by expression in trans of just gabT2. The ability of DC3000 to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves is dependent upon deployment of the type III secretion system, and the gabT triple mutant was less able than wild-type DC3000 to elicit this HR when bacteria were infiltrated along with GABA at levels of 1 mm or more. GABA may have multiple effects on P. syringae-plant interactions, with elevated levels increasing disease resistance.

  8. Physiological effects of an allozyme polymorphism: glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and response to hyperosmotic stress in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R S; Feldman, M W

    1983-04-01

    In order to regulate cell volume during hyperosmotic stress, the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus, like other aquatic crustaceans, rapidly accumulates high levels of intracellular alanine, proline, and glycine. Glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT; EC 2.6.1.2), which catalyzes the final step of alanine synthesis, is genetically polymorphic in T. californicus populations at Santa Cruz, California. Spectrophotometric studies of homogenates derived from a homozygous isofemale line of each of the two common GPT alleles indicated that the GPTF allozyme has a significantly higher specific activity than the GPTS allozyme. Under conditions of hyperosmotic stress, individual adult copepods of GPTF and GPTF/S genotypes accumulated alanine, but not glycine or proline, more rapidly than GPTS homozygotes. When young larvae were subjected to the same hyperosmotic conditions, GPTS larvae suffered a significantly higher mortality than GPTF or GPTF/S larvae. These results suggest that the biochemical differences among GPT allozymes result in specific physiological variation among GPT genotypes and that this physiological variation is manifested in differential genotypic survivorships under some naturally occurring environmental conditions.

  9. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  10. Study of Triclabendazole (TCBZ Effect on Aspartate Transaminase (AST Activity of Fasciola gigantica Parasite and Liver Enzyme Activity Assay

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    Shima Shafaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Aspartate transaminase (AST is an important enzyme in parasite and liver tissue. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate triclabendazole (TCBZ effect on AST activity of Fasciola gigantica parasite. To compare of enzyme level of parasite and its host tissue, enzyme activity of F. gigantica parasite and liver tissues were also determined. Method:The livers were collected from sheep slaughtered in local slaughterhouse and living F. gigantica parasites were isolated. The washed parasites were cultured in buffe rmedia with or without Triclabendazole (Egaten®; 15μg/mL in an incubator at 37° C. Extractions of collected parasites and liver tissues were prepared by homogenizing buffer in a Mortar and pestle. Extraction samples were examined for protein measurement, AST activity assay and protein recognition. Results:The results of AST assay revealed, enzyme activity for treated and untreated is not significant. Healthy liver tissue shows significantly higher enzyme activity than parasite. Enzyme activity for healthy and infected liver tissues was significant. Enzymatic proteins including Cathepsin L & B (Protease were recognized in parasite samples. Conclusion:Although AST could not be concerned as an indicator for efficiency treatment, however may be involved as a biomarker for biochemical comparison of parasite and host tissue.

  11. Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus

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    Erema Ransome Daka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon-induced changes in the total protein and transaminase activities of Clarias gariepinus, a common Niger Delta wetland fish were assessed. Adult fish (mean length 35.24±2.80 cm were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and then exposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L in semi-static bioassays for 30 days. Total protein and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined in plasma, muscle, liver, gills and kidney. The levels of total protein in plasma and muscle were significantly lower (p<0.05 in all test concentrations in comparison with the control; but no concentration-dependent in depletions were observed. On the other hand, protein concentrations in liver, kidney and gills decreased with increased concentration of diazinon. In addition to significant differences in ALT and AST in liver, kidney, gills and muscle when compared with the control, concentration dependent activities in ALT was observed to in the liver and gills. It is concluded that protein concentration as well as ALT activities in gills and liver of Clarias gariepinus are more useful biomarkers of sub-lethal effects of diazinon than total protein, ALT and A ST activities in plasma.

  12. An Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain with Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Transaminase Activity Shows an Enhanced Genetic Transformation Ability in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Satoko; Someya, Tatsuhiko; Zhou, Sha; Takayama, Mariko; Nakamura, Kouji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens has the unique ability to mediate inter-kingdom DNA transfer, and for this reason, it has been utilized for plant genetic engineering. To increase the transformation frequency in plant genetic engineering, we focused on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a negative factor in the Agrobacterium-plant interaction. Recent studies have shown contradictory results regarding the effects of GABA on vir gene expression, leading to the speculation that GABA inhibits T-DNA transfer. In this study, we examined the effect of GABA on T-DNA transfer using a tomato line with a low GABA content. Compared with the control, the T-DNA transfer frequency was increased in the low-GABA tomato line, indicating that GABA inhibits T-DNA transfer. Therefore, we bred a new A. tumefaciens strain with GABA transaminase activity and the ability to degrade GABA. The A. tumefaciens strain exhibited increased T-DNA transfer in two tomato cultivars and Erianthus arundinacues and an increased frequency of stable transformation in tomato. PMID:28220841

  13. Generic HPLC platform for automated enzyme reaction monitoring: Advancing the assay toolbox for transaminases and other PLP-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Tim; Grey, Carl; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Methods for rapid and direct quantification of enzyme kinetics independent of the substrate stand in high demand for both fundamental research and bioprocess development. This study addresses the need for a generic method by developing an automated, standardizable HPLC platform monitoring reaction progress in near real-time. The method was applied to amine transaminase (ATA) catalyzed reactions intensifying process development for chiral amine synthesis. Autosampler-assisted pipetting facilitates integrated mixing and sampling under controlled temperature. Crude enzyme formulations in high and low substrate concentrations can be employed. Sequential, small (1 µL) sample injections and immediate detection after separation permits fast reaction monitoring with excellent sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. Due to its modular design, different chromatographic techniques, e.g. reverse phase and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) can be employed. A novel assay for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes is presented using SEC for direct monitoring of enzyme-bound and free reaction intermediates. Time-resolved changes of the different cofactor states, e.g. pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate and the internal aldimine were traced in both half reactions. The combination of the automated HPLC platform with SEC offers a method for substrate-independent screening, which renders a missing piece in the assay and screening toolbox for ATAs and other PLP-dependent enzymes.

  14. Plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein and mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase of rat liver are related

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, P.D.; Potter, B.J.; Sorrentino, D.; Zhou, S.L.; Isola, L.M.; Stump, D.; Kiang, C.L.; Thung, S. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA)); Wada, H.; Horio, Y. (Univ. of Osaka (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    The hepatic plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP{sub PM}) and the mitochondrial isoenzyme of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (mGOT) of rat liver have similar amino acid compositions and identical amino acid sequences for residues 3-24. Both proteins migrate with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, have a similar pattern of basic charge isomers on isoelectric focusing, are eluted similarly from four different high-performance liquid chromatographic columns, have absorption maxima at 435 nm under acid conditions and 354 nm at pH 8.3, and bind oleate. Sinusoidally enriched liver plasma membranes and purified h-FABP{sub PM} have GOT enzymatic activity. Monospecific rabbit antiserum against h-FABP{sub PM} reacts on Western blotting with mGOT, and vice versa. Antisera against both proteins produce plasma membrane immunofluorescence in rat hepatocytes and selectively inhibit the hepatocellular uptake of ({sup 3}H)oleate but not that of ({sup 35}S)sulfobromophthalein or ({sup 14}C)taurocholate. The inhibition of oleate uptake produced by anti-h-FABP{sub PM} can be eliminated by preincubation of the antiserum with mGOT; similarly, the plasma membrane immunofluorescence produced by either antiserum can be eliminated by preincubation with the other antigen. These data suggest that h-FABP{sub PM} and mGOT are closely related.

  15. Asymmetric synthesis of aromatic β-amino acids using ω-transaminase: Optimizing the lipase concentration to obtain thermodynamically unstable β-keto acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sam; Jeong, Seong-Su; Chung, Taeowan; Lee, Sang-Hyeup; Yun, Hyungdon

    2016-01-01

    Synthesized aromatic β-amino acids have recently attracted considerable attention for their application as precursors in many pharmacologically relevant compounds. Previous studies on asymmetric synthesis of aromatic β-amino acids using ω-transaminases could not be done efficiently due to the instability of β-keto acids. In this study, a strategy to circumvent the instability problem of β-keto acids was utilized to generate β-amino acids efficiently via asymmetric synthesis. In this work, thermodynamically stable β-ketoesters were initially converted to β-keto acids using lipase, and the β-keto acids were subsequently aminated using ω-transaminase. By optimizing the lipase concentration, we successfully overcame the instability problem of β-keto acids and enhanced the production of β-amino acids. This strategy can be used as a general approach to efficiently generate β-amino acids from β-ketoesters.

  16. Branched chain amino acid transaminase and branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in the brain, liver and skele­tal muscle of acute hepatic failure rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takei,Nobuyuki

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Branched chain amino acid (BCAA transaminase activity increased in both the mitochondrial and supernatant fractions of brain from hepatic failure rats, in which a partial hepatectomy was performed 24h following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 administration, although the activity of liver and skeletal muscle was the same as in control rats. The elevation of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase activity in liver-injured rats was partly due to increased activity of brain specific Type III isozyme. Branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA dehydrogenase in the brain homogenates was not significantly altered in acute hepatic failure rats, while the liver enzyme activity was markedly diminished. BCKA dehydrogenase activity in the brain homogenates was inhibited by adding ATP to the assay system, and was activated in vitro by preincubating the brain homogenate at 37 degrees C for 15 min. These findings suggest that brain BCAA catabolism is accelerated in acute hepatic failure rats.

  17. Valores de transaminasas en cabras criollas infectadas con Trypanosoma vivax Transaminases values in Creole goats infected with Trypanosoma vivax

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    Emir Espinoza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente comunicación reporta los valores de las enzimas transaminasas, Aspartatoaminotransferasa (AST y Alaninaaminotransferasa (ALT encontrados en sueros de cabras infectadas con la cepa de Trypanosoma vivax Stock (TvIIV y sus controles. Las determinaciones se realizaron durante un lapso experimental de diez semanas, divididos en dos períodos iguales (pre y post-infección por intermedio de un método colorimétrico, utilizando kits comerciales. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba t Student's. En el caso de la AST, la comparación de las medias parciales de ambos grupos infectado y control, no indicó diferencias estadísticas. Con respecto a la ALT, la contrastación de las medias parciales de pre y post-infección del grupo de cabras infectadas, señaló diferencias significativas (PThe present communication reports the transaminases enzymes values Aspartatoaminotransferase (AST and Alaninaaminotransferase (ALT in serum from goats infected with the Trypanosoma vivax Stock (TvIIV. The determinations were realized during a ten week experimental period divided into two equal periods (pre- and post-infection by colorimetric method, using commercial kits. The dates were analyzed through the t Student's test. In the AST case, the comparison between partial means of infected and control groups did not show any statistical differences. In relation to ALT, the contrast of partial means to pre- and post-infection from infected goats group indicated significant differences (P<0.01.

  18. Mutants of GABA transaminase (POP2 suppress the severe phenotype of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ssadh mutants in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ludewig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gamma-aminubutyrate (GABA shunt bypasses two steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, the pathway is composed of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated cytosolic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, the mitochondrial enzymes GABA transaminase (GABA-T; POP2 and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH. We have previously shown that compromising the function of the GABA-shunt, by disrupting the SSADH gene of Arabidopsis, causes enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and cell death in response to light and heat stress. However, to date, genetic investigations of the relationships between enzymes of the GABA shunt have not been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the role of succinic semialdehyde (SSA, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB and GABA in the accumulation of ROIs, we combined two genetic approaches to suppress the severe phenotype of ssadh mutants. Analysis of double pop2 ssadh mutants revealed that pop2 is epistatic to ssadh. Moreover, we isolated EMS-generated mutants suppressing the phenotype of ssadh revealing two new pop2 alleles. By measuring thermoluminescence at high temperature, the peroxide contents of ssadh and pop2 mutants were evaluated, showing that only ssadh plants accumulate peroxides. In addition, pop2 ssadh seedlings are more sensitive to exogenous SSA or GHB relative to wild type, because GHB and/or SSA accumulate in these plants. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the lack of supply of succinate and NADH to the TCA cycle is not responsible for the oxidative stress and growth retardations of ssadh mutants. Rather, we suggest that the accumulation of SSA, GHB, or both, produced downstream of the GABA-T transamination step, is toxic to the plants, resulting in high ROI levels and impaired development.

  19. Comparison of Therapeutic Response and Clinical Outcome between HCV Patients with Normal and Abnormal Alanine Transaminase Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Kung Wu

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic hepatitic C (HCV infection and normal serum alanine transaminase (ALT levels were considered to have mild disease. In Taiwan, these patients were not suggested for interferon (IFN based therapies. The aim of study is to compare therapeutic outcomes between HCV patients with normal and elevated ALT levels.We conducted a retrospective study on 3241 HCV patients treated by IFN based therapies. Patients with normal ALT levels were classified as group A (n = 186 while those with elevated ALT levels were group B (n = 3055.At baseline, incidence of diabetes mellitus, low platelet counts and cirrhosis were significantly higher in group B patients. The sustained virologic response (SVR rate was comparable between the 2 groups (65.3% vs. 65.3%, P = .993. But significantly higher incidence of HCC development after HCV treatment was observed in group B (7.4% vs. 3.2%, P = .032. No significant differences with respect to the outcome of liver decompensation, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and mortality were noted between 2 groups. Multivariate analysis showed younger age, female gender, non-HCV genotype 1, lower viral load, higher platelet counts and non-cirrhosis were favorable factors for achieving SVR, rather than ALT levels. Further analysis revealed older age, cirrhosis, lower platelet levels and non- peg-interferon treatment are risk factors of HCC development.HCV patients with normal ALT levels had similar response to antiviral therapy and low rate of HCC development after therapy. Antiviral therapies begun at early course of HCV infection may be beneficial to prevent disease progression.

  20. Pengaruh Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) terhadap Struktur Mikroanatomi Hepar dan Kadar Glutamat Piruvat Transaminase Serum Mencit (Mus musculus) yang Terpapar Diazinon

    OpenAIRE

    TRI WULANDARI; MARTI HARINI; SHANTI LISTYAWATI

    2007-01-01

    Diazinon is a pesticide which is often using by farmer to kill insect as theenemy of the plant. The over using of pesticide may result in the remaining of diazinon residue in farming product. This residue can cause the damage of body tissue, especially liver. The aim of research were to find out the effect of leaves sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Ness.) extract on microanatomic structure of liver and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) level of mice (Mus musculus L.) expose...

  1. The coupling of ω-transaminase and Oppenauer oxidation reactions via intra-membrane multicomponent diffusion – A process model for the synthesis of chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza-Isunza, T.; González-Brambila, M.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we consider the theoretical coupling of an otherwise thermodynamically limited ω-transaminase reaction to an Oppenauer oxidation, in order to shift the equilibria of both reactions, with the aim of achieving a significant (and important) increase in the yield of the desired chiral a...... a significant increase in the yield of the chiral amine product may be obtained. Finally, the role of the different parameters involved in the process model has been analyzed....

  2. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max;

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma hepa...... and catalase) or plasma levels of oxidative markers (malondialdehyde and 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde) were found. Conclusion Supplementation with vitamin C, E and selenium increased the antioxidant status, but had no effects on alanine aminotransferase, viral load or oxidative markers....

  3. The 1.9 A Structure of the Branched-Chain Amino-Acid Transaminase (IlvE) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, L.; Blanchard, J

    2009-01-01

    Unlike mammals, bacteria encode enzymes that synthesize branched-chain amino acids. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent transaminase performs the final biosynthetic step in these pathways, converting keto acid precursors into {alpha}-amino acids. The branched-chain amino-acid transaminase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtIlvE) has been crystallized and its structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The MtIlvE monomer is composed of two domains that interact to form the active site. The biologically active form of IlvE is a homodimer in which each monomer contributes a substrate-specificity loop to the partner molecule. Additional substrate selectivity may be imparted by a conserved N-terminal Phe30 residue, which has previously been observed to shield the active site in the type IV fold homodimer. The active site of MtIlvE contains density corresponding to bound PMP, which is likely to be a consequence of the presence of tryptone in the crystallization medium. Additionally, two cysteine residues are positioned at the dimer interface for disulfide-bond formation under oxidative conditions. It is unknown whether they are involved in any regulatory activities analogous to those of the human mitochondrial branched-chain amino-acid transaminase.

  4. [The prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies among volunteer blood donors with elevated blood transaminase and antibodies to the B virus core antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán Carrasco, J C; González Santos, P; Rosario Díaz, E

    1996-05-01

    The use of non-specific markers before 1989 (increased serum transaminase values and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen) as a screening method for blood donors in an attempt to decrease the incidence of post-transfusional non-A non-B hepatitis (currently hepatitis C virus) was a matter of controversy. To determine the impact of the use of these markers on the detection of blood donors infected with hepatitis C virus, a prospective study was undertaken in Málaga (1988-1989) with 5,003 volunteer donors with two objectives: a) to know the prevalence of these non-specific markers (anti-HBc and increased serum transaminase) and antibodies to HCV (anti-C100) in our blood donor population; b) to determine whether the presence of some of these non specific markers in blood donors was associated with a higher rate of virus C infection. The prevalence of antibodies to HCV in blood donors with increased serum transaminase and/or anti-HBc was significantly higher than the prevalence found among the general blood donor population.

  5. Sequence Classification: 389262 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|31793773|ref|NP_856266.1| 4-AMINOBUTYRATE AMI...NOTRANSFERASE GABT (GAMMA-AMINO-N-BUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE) (GABA TRANSAMINASE) (GLUTAMATE:SUCCINIC SEMIALDEHYDE TRANSAMI...NASE) (GABA AMINOTRANSFERASE) (GABA-AT) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/31793773 ...

  6. Sequence Classification: 399013 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|15609726|ref|NP_217105.1| 4-AMINOBUTYRATE AMI...NOTRANSFERASE GABT (GAMMA-AMINO-N-BUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE) (GABA TRANSAMINASE) (GLUTAMATE:SUCCINIC SEMIALDEHYDE TRANSAMI...NASE) (GABA AMINOTRANSFERASE) (GABA-AT) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/15609726 ...

  7. Sequence Classification: 891219 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase (4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase) involved in the 4-aminobutyrate and glutamate degradation pathwa...ys; required for normal oxidative stress tolerance and nitrogen utilization; Uga1p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6321456 ...

  8. Glutamine transaminase K intranephron localization in rats determined by urinary excretion after treatment with segment-specific nephrotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, A.; Fanelli, G.; Bicciato, F.; Stocco, E. [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Univ. of Padova (Italy); Cristofori, P. [Medicine Safety Evaluation, Pathology Department, GlaxoWellcome S.p.A., Verona (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Glutamine transaminase K(GTK) excretion assessed in urine and by kidney histology was evaluated in rats after single treatment with 1.0 mg/kg i.p. of mercuric chloride, 100 mg/kg i.p. of hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (both S{sub 3}, pars recta, segment-specific nephrotoxicants) and 25 mg/kg s.c. of potassium dichromate (S{sub 1}-S{sub 2}, pars convoluta, segment-specific nephrotoxicant). The aim was to correlate segment-specific injury and enzyme excretion in order to assess, using non-vasive methods, localization of GTK along the proximal tubule. Mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene produced early focal damage in the pars recta (focal necrosis was shown 10 h after treatment, and diffuse necrosis appeared later at 34 and 24 h after treatment). Changes of the pars convoluta were occasional and delayed (72 h after treatment for both substances). On the contrary, potassium dichromate induced damage of the pars convoluta (vacuolar degeneration and focal necrosis were evident 24 h and 48 h after treatment, respectively), whereas the pars recta was affected later (focal vacuolar degeneration was observed 72 h after treatment). Increase urinary GTK excretion was early after treatment with mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (significant increase was observed within 10 h), with a peak for both substances 24 h after treatment, in agreement with the necrosis of the pars recta. Potassium dichromate induced a significant increase of enzyme excretion in urine also 24 h after injection, according to histological features showing vacuolar degeneration of the pars convoluta; the peak of excretion was reached 48 h after treatment (delay was due, probably, to s.c. administration). The results show that GTK increased in urine after treatment with S{sub 3}and S {sub 1}-S {sub 2} specific nephrotoxicants; the combination of histological examination and urinary enzyme supports the evidence that the enzyme is distributed along the whole of the proximal tubule. (orig

  9. The Efficacy of Silymarin in Decreasing Transaminase Activities in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Akbar Hajaghamohammadi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most common causes of increased liver enzymes. According to statistical reports, 20%-40% of Western population and 5%-30% of the population of Pacific and Asian countries are afflicted with this disease. The prevalence of NAFLD is higher in hyperlipidemic, diabetic and obese people. Considering the high prevalence of NAFLD and its complications and lack of consensus on its treatment, we were motivated to study the efficacy of silymarin on this disease. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 50 patients including 32 men (64% and 18 women (36% were divided into case and control groups. The mean age of case group was 40.3 and for control group was 39.9 years. All patients had elevated liver enzymes and had increased liver echogenicity (lipid accumulation on sonography. The case group was treated with one tablet containing 140 mg silymarin per day for two months and the control group was treated in the same manner with placebo. Before and after the study, weight, body mass index (BMI and liver transaminases levels were measured for each patient.Results: The difference between the mean weight and BMI measured before and after the study was not statistically significant in both case and control groups. But the mean ALT and AST levels deceased from 103.1 to 41.4 and 53.7 to 29.1 IU/mL, respectively in case group which was statistically significant (P<0.001 & P<0.001. In the control group, the decrease in mean ALT and AST, with decrease of 7.8 and 2.2 IU/mL, respectively, was not statistically significant.Conclusions: Considering the significant drop in liver enzymes following administration of silymarin, it seems that after conducting similar studies in order to determine the appropriate doses and treatment periods, this cheap and easy to access drug can be prescribed for treatment of NAFLD.

  10. ω-Amino Acid:Pyruvate Transaminase from Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2: a New Catalyst for Kinetic Resolution of β-Amino Acids and Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Hyungdon; Lim, Seongyop; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2004-01-01

    Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2 was obtained by selective enrichment followed by screening from soil samples, which showed ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase activity, to kinetically resolve aliphatic β-amino acid, and the corresponding structural gene (aptA) was cloned. The gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 by using an isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible pET expression system (9.6 U/mg), and the recombinant AptA was purified to show a specific activity...

  11. The enzyme 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase as potential target for 1,2,4-oxadiazoles with larvicide activity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vanessa S; Pimenteira, Cecília; da Silva-Alves, Diana C B; Leal, Laylla L L; Neves-Filho, Ricardo A W; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; dos Anjos, Janaína V; Soares, Thereza A

    2013-11-15

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the vector agent responsible for the transmission of yellow fever and dengue fever viruses to over 80 million people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Exhaustive efforts have lead to a vaccine candidate with only 30% effectiveness against the dengue virus and failure to protect patients against the serotype 2. Hence, vector control remains the most viable route to dengue fever control programs. We have synthesized a class of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives whose most biologically active compounds exhibit potent activity against Aedes aegypti larvae (ca. of 15 ppm) and low toxicity in mammals. Exposure to these larvicides results in larvae pigmentation in a manner correlated with the LC50 measurements. Structural comparisons of the 1,2,4-oxadiazole nucleus against known inhibitors of insect enzymes allowed the identification of 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase as a potential target for these synthetic larvicides. Molecular docking calculations indicate that 1,2,4-oxadiazole compounds can bind to 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase with similar conformation and binding energies as its crystallographic inhibitor 4-(2-aminophenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases in subcellular fractions of the brain and heart in white rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenin, A.E.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments on rats, the activity of alanine (I) and aspartate transaminases (II) was studied in homogenates and subcellular fractions of the brain and myocardium under normal conditions and for 30 days after ..gamma.. irradiation at 40 rads. The activity of II in brain homogenates increased 1 hour after irradiation but decreased by 20 percent on day 3; it decreased again on days 7 and 15. The activity of brain I increased after 1 hour and 3 days but then returned to normal. The activity of I in heart homogenates increased in all the periods after irradiation. The subcellular fractions exhibited phase changes in the activity of the enzymes. These changes were different in nature from those observed after X and ..gamma.. irradiation at the same dose.

  13. Kynurenine aminotransferase III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes that have cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity and can transaminate L-selenomethionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, John T; Krasnikov, Boris F; Alcutt, Steven; Jones, Melanie E; Dorai, Thambi; Villar, Maria T; Artigues, Antonio; Li, Jianyong; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2014-11-01

    Three of the four kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I, II, and IV) that synthesize kynurenic acid, a neuromodulator, are identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), α-aminoadipate aminotransferase, and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. GTK/KAT I and aspartate aminotransferase/KAT IV possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. The gene for the former enzyme, GTK/KAT I, is listed in mammalian genome data banks as CCBL1 (cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1). Also listed, despite the fact that no β-lyase activity has been assigned to the encoded protein in the genome data bank, is a CCBL2 (synonym KAT III). We show that human KAT III/CCBL2 possesses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity, as does mouse KAT II. Thus, depending on the nature of the substrate, all four KATs possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. These present studies show that KAT III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes. This report also shows that KAT I, II, and III differ in their ability to transaminate methyl-L-selenocysteine (MSC) and L-selenomethionine (SM) to β-methylselenopyruvate (MSP) and α-ketomethylselenobutyrate, respectively. Previous studies have identified these seleno-α-keto acids as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors. Methylselenol (CH3SeH), also purported to have chemopreventive properties, is the γ-elimination product of SM and the β-elimination product of MSC catalyzed by cystathionine γ-lyase (γ-cystathionase). KAT I, II, and III, in part, can catalyze β-elimination reactions with MSC generating CH3SeH. Thus, the anticancer efficacy of MSC and SM will depend, in part, on the endogenous expression of various KAT enzymes and cystathionine γ-lyase present in target tissue coupled with the ability of cells to synthesize in situ either CH3SeH and/or seleno-keto acid metabolites.

  14. 缬氨酸转氨酶基因原核表达载体构建及表达%Construction and expression of prokaryotic vector of valine-pyruvate transaminase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞; 魏涛; 刘寅; 何培新

    2013-01-01

    构建了具有缬氨酸转氨酶基因的大肠杆菌工程菌,对该酶表达条件进行了优化.PCR结果表明,扩增出一特异DNA条带且长度与avtA基因长度1 254 bp符合.通过纸层析检测,筛选到了阳性克隆,但是酶活偏低.SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳显示目的蛋白表达量较低.酶表达优化结果显示:蛋白胨浓度12 g/L,IPTG浓度0.4 mmol/L,经过8h诱导,酶活达到最大值.%The engineered strain of Escherichia coli with valine-pyruvate transaminase gene was constructed and the expression condition for valine-pyruvate transaminase was optimized. The result of PCR showed that a special DNA band was amplified and the length of the band was accord with the length of avtA, 1 254 bp. Activity of valine-pyruvate transaminase was found by paper chromatography but the enzyme activity was not high. The expression of valine-pyruvate transaminase was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and a high expression was displayed. The optimal conditions were peptone 12 g/L,IPTG 0. 4 mmol/L and induced time 8 h.

  15. 13C-NMR spectroscopic evaluation of the citric acid cycle flux in conditions of high aspartate transaminase activity in glucose-perfused rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Dinh, S; Hoerter, J A; Mateo, P; Gyppaz, F; Herve, M

    1998-12-01

    A new mathematical model, based on the observation of 13C-NMR spectra of two principal metabolites (glutamate and aspartate), was constructed to determine the citric acid cycle flux in the case of high aspartate transaminase activity leading to the formation of large amounts of labeled aspartate and glutamate. In this model, the labeling of glutamate and aspartate carbons by chemical and isotopic exchange with the citric acid cycle are considered to be interdependent. With [U-13C]Glc or [1,2-(13)C]acetate as a substrate, all glutamate and aspartate carbons can be labeled. The isotopic transformations of 32 glutamate isotopomers into 16 aspartate isotopomers or vice versa were studied using matrix operations; the results were compiled in two matrices. We showed how the flux constants of the citric acid cycle and the 13C-enrichment of acetyl-CoA can be deduced from 13C-NMR spectra of glutamate and/or aspartate. The citric acid cycle flux in beating Wistar rat hearts, aerobically perfused with [U-13C]glucose in the absence of insulin, was investigated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Surprisingly, aspartate instead of glutamate was found to be the most abundantly-labeled metabolite, indicating that aspartate transaminase (which catalyses the reversible reaction: (glutamate + oxaloacetate 2-oxoglutarate + aspartate) is highly active in the absence of insulin. The amount of aspartate was about two times larger than glutamate. The quantities of glutamate (G0) or aspartate (A0) were approximately the same for all hearts and remained constant during perfusion: G0 = (0.74 +/- 0.03) micromol/g; A0 = (1.49 +/- 0.05) micromol/g. The flux constants, i.e., the fraction of glutamate and aspartate in exchange with the citric acid cycle, were about 1.45 min(-1) and 0.72 min(-1), respectively; the flux of this cycle is about (1.07 +/- 0.02) micromol min(-1) g(-1). Excellent agreement between the computed and experimental data was obtained, showing that: i) in the absence of insulin, only 41

  16. Efeito do Exercício com 1 e 3 Minutos de Intervalo de Descanso Entre as Séries na Atividade Sérica das Transaminases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Martins Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O treinamento de força (TF intenso ocasiona danos na estrutura muscular, que podem ser detectados por meio de marcadores indiretos. OBJETIVO. Verificar se há alterações na atividade da creatina quinase (CK, da aspartato transaminase (AST e alanina transaminase (ALT com o TF em diferentes intervalos entre séries e exercícios. MÉTODOS. Treze voluntários (± 21,8 anos; ±173,6 cm; ±68,3 kg realizaram o teste de uma repetição máxima (1RM nos exercícios: supino reto, puxada (pulley, desenvolvimento sentado, tríceps (pulley e rosca bíceps. Após sete dias, todos foram submetidos a uma coleta de sangue (PRE e realizaram 4 séries máximas até a falha concêntrica com intensidade de 85% de 1RM e intervalos de 1 ou 3 minutos entre as séries e exercícios. Todos retornaram ao mesmo local 24, 48 e 72 horas após a sessão para mais uma coleta de sangue. Repetindo os procedimentos após uma semana, porém os voluntários que realizaram o teste com intervalo de 1 minuto na semana seguinte manteriam intervalos de 3 minutos e vice-versa. Realizou-se ANOVA mantendo como significância p<0,05. RESULTADOS. Houve redução significativa do número de repetições a cada série de todos os exercícios com 1 e 3 minutos de intervalo. Observou-se um aumento significativo da atividade sérica de CK e de AST 24, 48 e 72 horas utilizando ambos os intervalos. ALT não se alterou. CONCLUSÃO. O TF causou aumento na atividade de CK e AST, mas sem apresentar diferenças com os intervalos utilizados. Porém, pequenos intervalos reduzem o volume total de repetições.

  17. Pengaruh Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata terhadap Struktur Mikroanatomi Hepar dan Kadar Glutamat Piruvat Transaminase Serum Mencit (Mus musculus yang Terpapar Diazinon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI WULANDARI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon is a pesticide which is often using by farmer to kill insect as theenemy of the plant. The over using of pesticide may result in the remaining of diazinon residue in farming product. This residue can cause the damage of body tissue, especially liver. The aim of research were to find out the effect of leaves sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Ness. extract on microanatomic structure of liver and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT level of mice (Mus musculus L. exposed to diazinon. The research used Compelete Random Design with five treatments. The treatment of each group were using CMC 1% (placebo control, diazinon solution 40 mg/Kg BW (negative ontrol and the leaves sambiloto extract 12,6; 25,2 and 37,8 mg /kg BW. Diazinon solution was given within 10 days and continued with extract of sambiloto leaves also within 10 days. Parameter observed was the microanatomic structure of liver and serum GPT level. The data was analyzed of Analysis of Varians (Anova and continued with DMRT at significance 5%. The result of the research showed that the giving of the extract of sambiloto leaves in some dose variation degree is significantly influential to repair the microanatomic structure of liver and to decrease the serum GPT level was 37,8 mg/Kg BW.

  18. Structures of a γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase from the s-triazine-degrading organism Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 in complex with PLP and with its external aldimine PLP–GABA adduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Heather; Nguyen Tuan, Anh; Mangas Sánchez, Juan; Leese, Charlotte; Hopwood, Jennifer; Hyde, Ralph; Hart, Sam; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Grogan, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Two complex structures of the γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase A1R958 from Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 are presented. The first, determined to a resolution of 2.80 Å, features the internal aldimine formed by reaction between the ∊-amino group of Lys295 and the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate (PLP); the second, determined to a resolution of 2.75 Å, features the external aldimine adduct formed between PLP and GABA in the first half-reaction. This is the first structure of a microbial GABA transaminase in complex with its natural external aldimine and reveals the molecular determinants of GABA binding in this enzyme. PMID:23027742

  19. Structural analysis and mutant growth properties reveal distinctive enzymatic and cellular roles for the three major L-alanine transaminases of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Soler, Esther; Fernandez, Francisco J; López-Estepa, Miguel; Garces, Fernando; Richardson, Andrew J; Quintana, Juan F; Rudd, Kenneth E; Coll, Miquel; Vega, M Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In order to maintain proper cellular function, the metabolism of the bacterial microbiota presents several mechanisms oriented to keep a correctly balanced amino acid pool. Central components of these mechanisms are enzymes with alanine transaminase activity, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that interconvert alanine and pyruvate, thereby allowing the precise control of alanine and glutamate concentrations, two of the most abundant amino acids in the cellular amino acid pool. Here we report the 2.11-Å crystal structure of full-length AlaA from the model organism Escherichia coli, a major bacterial alanine aminotransferase, and compare its overall structure and active site composition with detailed atomic models of two other bacterial enzymes capable of catalyzing this reaction in vivo, AlaC and valine-pyruvate aminotransferase (AvtA). Apart from a narrow entry channel to the active site, a feature of this new crystal structure is the role of an active site loop that closes in upon binding of substrate-mimicking molecules, and which has only been previously reported in a plant enzyme. Comparison of the available structures indicates that beyond superficial differences, alanine aminotransferases of diverse phylogenetic origins share a universal reaction mechanism that depends on an array of highly conserved amino acid residues and is similarly regulated by various unrelated motifs. Despite this unifying mechanism and regulation, growth competition experiments demonstrate that AlaA, AlaC and AvtA are not freely exchangeable in vivo, suggesting that their functional repertoire is not completely redundant thus providing an explanation for their independent evolutionary conservation.

  20. Structural analysis and mutant growth properties reveal distinctive enzymatic and cellular roles for the three major L-alanine transaminases of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Peña-Soler

    Full Text Available In order to maintain proper cellular function, the metabolism of the bacterial microbiota presents several mechanisms oriented to keep a correctly balanced amino acid pool. Central components of these mechanisms are enzymes with alanine transaminase activity, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that interconvert alanine and pyruvate, thereby allowing the precise control of alanine and glutamate concentrations, two of the most abundant amino acids in the cellular amino acid pool. Here we report the 2.11-Å crystal structure of full-length AlaA from the model organism Escherichia coli, a major bacterial alanine aminotransferase, and compare its overall structure and active site composition with detailed atomic models of two other bacterial enzymes capable of catalyzing this reaction in vivo, AlaC and valine-pyruvate aminotransferase (AvtA. Apart from a narrow entry channel to the active site, a feature of this new crystal structure is the role of an active site loop that closes in upon binding of substrate-mimicking molecules, and which has only been previously reported in a plant enzyme. Comparison of the available structures indicates that beyond superficial differences, alanine aminotransferases of diverse phylogenetic origins share a universal reaction mechanism that depends on an array of highly conserved amino acid residues and is similarly regulated by various unrelated motifs. Despite this unifying mechanism and regulation, growth competition experiments demonstrate that AlaA, AlaC and AvtA are not freely exchangeable in vivo, suggesting that their functional repertoire is not completely redundant thus providing an explanation for their independent evolutionary conservation.

  1. Attenuation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase activity contributes to GABA increase in the cerebral cortex of mice exposed to β-cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Cao, D; Li, X; Zhang, R; Yu, F; Ren, Y; An, L

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigated the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and GABA metabolic enzymes (GABA transaminase (GABA(T)) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)) activities at 2 and 4 h after treatment, using a high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detectors and colorimetric assay, in the cerebral cortex of mice treated with 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin by a single oral gavage, with corn oil as vehicle control. In addition, GABA protein (4 h after treatment), GABA(T) protein (2 h after treatment) and GABA receptors messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. β-Cypermethrin (80 mg/kg) significantly increased GABA levels in the cerebral cortex of mice, at both 2 and 4 h after treatment, compared with the control. Also, GABA immunohistochemistry results suggested that the number of positive granules was increased in the cerebral cortex of mice 4 h after exposure to 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin when compared with the control. Furthermore, the results also showed that GABA(T) activity detected was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of mice 2 h after β-cypermethrin administration (40 or 80 mg/kg). No significant changes were found in GAD activity, or the expression of GABA(T) protein and GABAB receptors mRNA, in the cerebral cortex of mice, except that 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin caused a significant decrease, compared with the vehicle control, in GABAA receptors mRNA expression 4 h after administration. These results suggested that attenuated GABA(T) activity induced by β-cypermethrin contributed to increased GABA levels in the mouse brain. The downregulated GABAA receptors mRNA expression is most likely a downstream event.

  2. Structural Analysis and Mutant Growth Properties Reveal Distinctive Enzymatic and Cellular Roles for the Three Major L-Alanine Transaminases of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Estepa, Miguel; Garces, Fernando; Richardson, Andrew J.; Quintana, Juan F.; Rudd, Kenneth E.; Coll, Miquel; Vega, M. Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In order to maintain proper cellular function, the metabolism of the bacterial microbiota presents several mechanisms oriented to keep a correctly balanced amino acid pool. Central components of these mechanisms are enzymes with alanine transaminase activity, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes that interconvert alanine and pyruvate, thereby allowing the precise control of alanine and glutamate concentrations, two of the most abundant amino acids in the cellular amino acid pool. Here we report the 2.11-Å crystal structure of full-length AlaA from the model organism Escherichia coli, a major bacterial alanine aminotransferase, and compare its overall structure and active site composition with detailed atomic models of two other bacterial enzymes capable of catalyzing this reaction in vivo, AlaC and valine-pyruvate aminotransferase (AvtA). Apart from a narrow entry channel to the active site, a feature of this new crystal structure is the role of an active site loop that closes in upon binding of substrate-mimicking molecules, and which has only been previously reported in a plant enzyme. Comparison of the available structures indicates that beyond superficial differences, alanine aminotransferases of diverse phylogenetic origins share a universal reaction mechanism that depends on an array of highly conserved amino acid residues and is similarly regulated by various unrelated motifs. Despite this unifying mechanism and regulation, growth competition experiments demonstrate that AlaA, AlaC and AvtA are not freely exchangeable in vivo, suggesting that their functional repertoire is not completely redundant thus providing an explanation for their independent evolutionary conservation. PMID:25014014

  3. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiushi Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1 is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS termed “limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates”. CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A, and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells.

  4. Suppression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminases induces prominent GABA accumulation, dwarfism and infertility in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Satoshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Takayama, Mariko; Asamizu, Erika; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Tomatoes accumulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at high levels in the immature fruits. GABA is rapidly converted to succinate during fruit ripening through the activities of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Although three genes encoding GABA-T and both pyruvate- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent GABA-T activities have been detected in tomato fruits, the mechanism underlying the GABA-T-mediated conversion of GABA has not been fully understood. In this work, we conducted loss-of-function analyses utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic plants with suppressed pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent GABA-T gene expression to clarify which GABA-T isoforms are essential for its function. The RNAi plants with suppressed SlGABA-T gene expression, particularly SlGABA-T1, showed severe dwarfism and infertility. SlGABA-T1 expression was inversely associated with GABA levels in the fruit at the red ripe stage. The GABA contents in 35S::SlGABA-T1(RNAi) lines were 1.3-2.0 times and 6.8-9.2 times higher in mature green and red ripe fruits, respectively, than the contents in wild-type fruits. In addition, SlGABA-T1 expression was strongly suppressed in the GABA-accumulating lines. These results indicate that pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent GABA-T is the essential isoform for GABA metabolism in tomato plants and that GABA-T1 primarily contributes to GABA reduction in the ripening fruits.

  5. Five different levels of secondary standard reference material of transaminase prepared with mixed freezing human serum%5种浓度水平冰冻混合人血清ALT、AST二级标准品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏昌宇; 庄俊华; 王兰珍; 张雪莲; 于琴; 刘牧龙; 徐国宾; 刘欧; 李海霞; 刘岩; 齐丽丽; 何振坤; 徐静; 黄宪章

    2011-01-01

    Objective To prepare a stable secondary standard reference materials of serum transaminase ( alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) for accurate value of of serum transaminase level in routine measurement. Methods Human sera without hemolysis and lipemia were pooled which covered 5 different levels of the linearity measuring range. After filtration for sterilization, the mixed sera were distributed into freezing tubes (0.5ml per vial) and stored at -70 ℃ +2 ℃. Transaminase levels in the mixed sera were assessed in 4 laboratories with the recommended reference method recommended by International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) containing or non-containing pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The consistency of transaminase level in the sera measured by 7 commercial biochemical analysis systems and the results were evaluated by linear regression. The homogeneity of the materials was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The stabilities of materials for short-term and long-term were studied at room temperature ( 15-25 ℃ ), 4 ℃ and -70 ℃ respectively. Results The sera materials were verified to be homogeneous and stable enough for use when stored at room temperature and 4 ℃, and could be preserved at - 70 ℃ for at least one year. The measured values from 4 laboratories were of high consistency with small uncertainties. The materials prepared by mixed sera were proved to be consistent with each other except the level 4 and level 5 which showed a little variation induced by matrix effect of PLP. Conclusion The prepared 5 levels of frozen sera materials were homogeneous, stable and intercommunicatable. All the 5 levels of material may achieve accurate measuring values and serve as the secondary standard reference material of serum transaminase.%目的 研制5个浓度水平冰冻混合人血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)二级标准品,为常规检测ALT、AST提供稳定性和互通性良好的准确度

  6. Clinical analysis of 61 cases of progressive muscular dystrophy visiting as transaminase elevation%转氨酶升高的进行性肌营养不良61例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉英杰; 何卫平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨以转氨酶升高为首发表现的进行性肌营养不良(PMD)的临床特点,提高临床医生对该病的认识,避免误诊.方法 选取61例以转氨酶升高入院,最后确诊为PMD的患者,总结其临床资料,予以统计分析.结果 (1)男性占96.7%(59/61),73.8%(45/61)患儿6岁以下发病,半数左右的患儿学走路时间较晚,易摔倒、上楼需扶;(2)13.1%(8/61)的患儿有明确家族史,腓肠肌肥大的占59%(36/61),44.1%(26/59)Gower征阳性;(3)所有患者均有血清肌酸激酶(CK)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)明显增高,ALT、AST轻度升高;(4)肝活检无特异性病变,肌电图表现为肌源性疾病,肌活检有较特异病变.结论 PMD早期临床表现不典型,或经常被忽视,以发现转氨酶升高就诊者不在少数,容易被误诊为病毒性肝炎;PMD诊断需综合考虑临床表现、家族史、血清酶学、肌电图、肌活检等.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of PMD with the first presentation of transaminase elevation, and to improve the doctor's knowledge of this disease, avoiding misdiagnosis. Methods Sixty-one patients who were admitted to hospital with elevated transaminase were diagnosed to have progressive muscular dystrophy (PMD). Their clinical data was collected and analyzed. Results (1) In the cases, male were of %. 7% (59/61). 73. 8%(45/61) of the children had the signs and symptoms under six years old, and half of them walked later than the ordinary, fell down easily, and went upstairs with help; (2)13. l%o(8/61) of PMD children had conclusive family history. 59% (36/61) of them were with gastrocnemius muscle hypertrophic and 44. 1% (26/59) of them were with Gower showing positive; (3) All of patients had significant increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) while mild increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase( AST); (4) Liver biopsy showed no specific lesions, EMG presented

  7. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic and manual searches were combined. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs......) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase...

  8. New insights into the metabolism of organomercury compounds: mercury-containing cysteine S-conjugates are substrates of human glutamine transaminase K and potent inactivators of cystathionine γ-lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C; Krasnikov, Boris F; Joshee, Lucy; Pinto, John T; Hallen, André; Li, Jianyong; Zalups, Rudolfs K; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic practices and recycling in the environment through natural processes result in release of potentially harmful levels of mercury into the biosphere. Mercury, especially organic forms, accumulates in the food chain. Mercury reacts readily with sulfur-containing compounds and often exists as a thiol S-conjugate, such as the l-cysteine (Cys)-S-conjugate of methylmercury (CH(3)Hg-S-Cys) or inorganic mercury (Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys). These S-conjugates are structurally similar to l-methionine and l-cystine/l-cystathionine, respectively. Bovine and rat glutamine transaminase K (GTK) catalyze transamination of sulfur-containing amino acids. Recombinant human GTK (rhGTK) has a relatively open catalytic active site, and we report here that this enzyme, like the rat and bovine enzymes, can also utilize sulfur-containing l-amino acids, including l-methionine, l-cystine, and l-cystathionine as substrates. The current study extends this list to include mercuric S-conjugates, and shows that CH(3)Hg-S-Cys and Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys are substrates and reversible inhibitors of rhGTK. The homocysteine S-conjugates, Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy and CH(3)Hg-S-Hcy, are also inhibitors. Finally, we show that HgCl(2), CH(3)Hg-S-Cys and Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys are potent irreversible inhibitors of rat cystathionine γ-lyase. The present study broadens our knowledge of the biochemistry of mercury compounds by showing that Cys S-conjugates of mercury interact with enzymes that catalyze transformations of biologically important sulfur-containing amino acids.

  9. 缬氨酸转氨酶拆分DL-缬氨酸的催化条件%Study on chiral resolution of DL-valine valine catalyzed by valine-pyruvate transaminase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞; 魏涛; 刘寅; 韩亚伟; 何培新

    2013-01-01

    利用具有缬氨酸转氨酶活性的工程菌对DL-缬氨酸进行拆分,考察了反应温度、pH值、底物摩尔比、底物浓度和金属离子对酶活性和底物转化率的影响.结果显示,该催化反应的最适反应条件为:反应温度是45℃,pH =9,L-缬氨酸与丙酮酸的摩尔比1∶8,DL-缬氨酸初始浓度为0.6 mol/L、丙酮酸初始浓度为2.4 mol/L,0.5 mmol/L的Mg2+和Na+对酶活性有明显的促进作用.%An engineered strain with catalytic activity of valine-pyruvate transaminase was used in chiral resolution of DL-valine.The effect of reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, pH, substrate mole ratio, substrate concentration and metal ions on enzyme activity was studied.Results showed that the optimal conditions were 45 ℃ and pH9.The optimal substrate ratio of L-valine to pyruvic acid was 1:8 ( mol: mol).The initial substrate concentration of DL-xaline and pyruvic acid were 0.6 mol/L and 2.4 mol/L respectively.Enzyme activity was improved by addition of 0.5 mmol/L Mg2+ and Na+.

  10. Is liver transaminases assessment an appropriate tool for the screening of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in at risk obese children and adolescents? ¿Es útil la valoración de las transaminasas hepáticas para el screening del hígado graso no alcohólico en niños y adolescentes obesos?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric obesity has increased dramatically all over the world and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity. NAFLD causes serum transaminase elevation and liver disease, which could end up in fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD seems to be associated with the metabolic complications of obesity, mainly insulin resistance. The aim of the present article is to review the role of serum liver...

  11. Analysis on the correlation between pediatric rotavirus enteritis and serum levels of transaminases and myocardial enzymes%小儿轮状病毒性肠炎与血清转氨酶和心肌酶谱变化的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖巧玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between pediatric rotavirus enteritis and serum transaminases and myocardial enzyme changes. Methods 55 cases with pediatric rotavirus enteritis and 55 cases rotavirus enteritis with with rotavirus test negative were studied. Compare and analyze serum transaminases and myocardial enzymes in the observation group and control group. Results Each monitoring indicators of serum transaminases and cardiac enzymes in patients in the observation group were significantly higher in the control group, the difference was statistical y significant (P <0.05). Conclusion Pediatric rotavirus enteritis can induce abnormal serum myocardial enzymes and transaminases; monitoring the changes of serum transaminases and myocardial enzymes early has important referential meaning for diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of pediatric rotavirus enteritis.%目的:探讨小儿轮状病毒性肠炎与血清转氨酶和心肌酶谱变化的关系。方法:选取来我院进行治疗的轮状病毒性肠炎患者55例作为观察组,同期住院的轮状病毒检测为阴性的患儿55例作为对照组,比较分析观察组和对照组患者血清转氨酶和心肌酶的测定结果。结果:观察组患者的血清转氨酶和心肌酶的各监测指标均显著高于对照组,两组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:轮状病毒性肠炎患儿的血清转氨酶和心肌酶异常,早期监测血清转氨酶和心肌酶谱变化对小儿轮状病毒性肠炎有重要临床价值。

  12. Dynamic changes of aspartate transaminase level in gingival crevicular fluid on tooth movement in new bone area%犬牙移入牵张成骨区龈沟液 AST 水平动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌宁; 王银龙; 李峥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic changes of aspartate transaminase(AST ) in gingival crevicular fluid on tooth movement in new bone area after distraction osteogenesis at different time .Methods The distraction osteogenesis surgical proce‐dure was performed in 8 beagle dogs without periodontal disease and normal teeth ,experimental teeth were transplanted into the bone regeneration area after 2 weeks and after 6 weeks .Comparative analysis AST of each time (1 ,2 ,3 ,7 ,14 ,28 d after distraction) dynamic changes in gingival crevicular fluid .Results The AST level of gingival crevicular fluid in experimental tooth was rising for the first three days ,and the group of two weeks were significantly higher than 6 weeks ;AST levels after 7 d showed a trend of de‐cline ,down to the lowest point at 21 d ,and gradually restored ,AST levels reached a higher level again in the 28 d .Conclusion The AST level of experimental teeth increased significantly after 2 weeks than after 6 weeks ,but over time the AST level change is not linear ,this change has certain guiding significance for the clinical research in the future .%目的:研究分析不同时机将犬牙移入牵张成骨区后龈沟液的天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST )水平变化。方法8只无牙周疾病且正常恒牙列beag le犬行牵张成骨术后分为两组(2周和6周),均行牙齿移入牵张成骨新骨区。观察对实验牙加力1、2、3、7、14、28 d后龈沟液中AST水平变化。结果两组实验牙龈沟液AST水平前3 d均存在上升趋势,且2周组上升较6周组明显;7 d后AST水平呈现下降趋势,在21 d达最低,并逐渐恢复;当28 d时AST水平再次上升。结论牵张成骨2周后实验牙移入新骨区龈沟液AST整体水平较6周后明显升高,但随着时间的推移AST水平改变并非呈线性升高。

  13. Is liver transaminases assessment an appropriate tool for the screening of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in at risk obese children and adolescents? ¿Es útil la valoración de las transaminasas hepáticas para el screening del hígado graso no alcohólico en niños y adolescentes obesos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rodríguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity has increased dramatically all over the world and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity. NAFLD causes serum transaminase elevation and liver disease, which could end up in fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD seems to be associated with the metabolic complications of obesity, mainly insulin resistance. The aim of the present article is to review the role of serum liver enzyme assessment as a suitable non invasive predictor of NAFLD in children. Although serum liver enzyme elevation does not accurately measure liver damage, it may be a valuable and non invasive test to screen NAFLD in children and adolescents and a marker to control NAFLD evolution. To detect NAFLD in obese children and adolescents, transaminases serum concentrations should be routinely determined in these patients. In this sense, it seems necessary to obtain transaminase reference standards for children and adolescents.La prevalencia de obesidad en niños ha aumentado considerablemente en todo el mundo y el hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA es una de las complicaciones más frecuentemente asociadas al exceso de adiposidad. El HGNA provoca elevación de las transaminasas hepáticas y una alteración hepática que pueden desencadenar fibrosis, cirrosis e incluso malignización. El HGNA aparece asociado a las complicaciones metabólicas de la obesidad, sobre todo a la resistencia a la insulina. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar el rol que tienen las enzimas hepáticas como predictor no invasivo del HGNA en niños. Aunque la elevación de las enzimas hepáticas no valora con exactitud el daño hepático, pueden suponer un test no invasivo para el screening del HGNA en niños y adolescentes y un marcador de su evolución. Las transaminasas hepáticas deben ser determinadas de rutina en el diagnóstico del HGNA en niños y adolescentes. En este

  14. The synthesis and biodistribution of 3-(4'-[[sup 125]I]-iodophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid, a radioiodinated analogue of baclofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakita, Y.; Kojima, M. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Div. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry); Schwendner, S.W.; McConnell, D.; Counsell, R.E. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Medicine)

    1990-02-01

    Baclofen has been found to bind to receptors in the central nervous system that are specific for [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a well known inhibitory neurotransmitter. This paper describes the synthesis of a radioiodinated analog of baclofen as part of an effort to develop receptor probes useful in single photon emission computed tomography. Preliminary biodistribution studies showed the radioiodinationed analog to be essentially stable to in vivo deiodination and have a distribution profile similar to that of baclofen. (Author).

  15. 通心络联合瑞舒伐他汀治疗冠心病合并转氨酶升高的疗效观察%Clinical observation on treating coronary heart disease with high level of transaminases with Tongxinluo capsule and Rosuvastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英壮; 陈桃玉

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨通心络胶囊联合瑞舒伐他汀对冠心病合并转氨酶升高患者的治疗疗效。方法:连续入选60例冠心病患者,谷丙转氨酶(ALT)均大于120u/L;随机分两组,各30例,治疗组加用瑞舒伐他汀5mg/次,1次/晚,通心络胶囊(河北以岭药业生产),3粒/次,3次/d,持续6个月的治疗;进行10个月临床随访,记录心脑血管事件的发生情况。结果:10个月后随访时,治疗组的血脂及 hs-CRP 等血液指标,急性心脑血管意外发生率均显著低于对照组;与对照组比较差别有统计学意义,而转氨酶的变化两组之间差异,无统计学意义。结论:转氨酶升高的冠心病患者加用通心络胶囊联合他汀类药物治疗,能有效降低血脂及hs-CRP,降低心脑血管意外及再住院率,效果肯定。%To observe the effect of Rosuvastatin and Tongxinluo capsule on treating coronary heart disease with high level of transaminases. Methods:60 patients with CHD that were continuously enrolled in this study,whose Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were more than 120u/L. 60 patients were randomly divided into two groups, with 30 patients in each group. The treated group was given the Rosuvastatin, 5mg/time, 1 time/d, Tongxinluo capsule 3 pills every time, 3 times/d, continuing treating for at least 6 months. Observe the treatment effect. follow-up10 months. Results:The treated group patients’ blood fat, hs-CRP and other blood indexs were much better than control group, the acute cerebrovascular accidents is lower too;statistically significant (P<0.05). The transaminase change between the two groups had no differences. Conclusion: Rosuvastatin and Tongxinluo capsule can effectively reduce blood fat and hs-CRP on admission to reduce heart cerebrovascular accident and hospital admission rates .It has the function in treating coronary heart disease with high level of transaminases.

  16. 维生素A对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响%Effects of vitamin A on growth performance,body composition and serum transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 文华; 吴凡; 刘伟; 田娟; 杨长庚

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究VA对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响,以确定草鱼饲料中VA适宜的添加量。【方法】采用酪蛋白和脱脂豆粕为蛋白源、白糊精为糖源、玉米胚芽油和大豆油为脂肪源的半纯化饲料作为基础饲料,配制VA水平为0(对照组),810,1 620,2 520,3 224,3 980,7 950,16 386IU/kg的8组试验饲料,饲养初始体质量为(10.79±0.52)g的草鱼12周,每组3个重复,每重复40尾,试验结束后测算体质量增长率、特定生长率、饲料系数、鱼体营养成分以及血清中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、谷丙转氨酶(GPT)和谷草转氨酶(GOT)活性等指标。【结果】对照组的草鱼幼鱼,在试验后期有8.33%出现眼球突出、尾鳍充血的症状,添加VA试验组的草鱼未出现类似症状;饲料中VA含量在0~1 620IU/kg时,体质量增长率随饲料中VA增加而显著增加(P〈0.05),饲料中VA含量〉7 950IU/kg时,体质量增长率显著降低(P〈0.05);特定生长率的变化趋势与体质量增长率类似,而饲料系数变化趋势与体质量增长率相反;VA对草鱼成活率和全鱼水分、蛋白质、脂肪、灰分含量无显著性影响(P〉0.05);饲料中缺乏VA会显著降低血清中ALP的活性,同时显著提高GPT和GOT的活性(P〈0.05)。【结论】在本试验条件下,饲料中缺乏VA会引起草鱼幼鱼眼球突出、尾鳍充血和肝功能异常,饲料中添加适量的VA会促进草鱼的生长,降低饲料系数,但过量的VA会降低草鱼幼鱼的生长速度。对草鱼体质量增长率与饲料中VA含量进行折线回归分析,可知草鱼幼鱼获得最佳生长时对VA的需要量为1 653IU/kg,同时建议饲料中VA含量不宜超过7 950IU/kg。%【Objective】 This experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of the dietary vitamin A on growth,body composition and transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella),to determine optimal

  17. Applying Enzymatic Cascades for ISCPR in ω-transaminase Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Janes, Kresimir; Woodley, John; Tufvesson, Pär; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    Biocatalysis complements the classical organic synthesis, and in many cases the superior selectivity of a biocatalyst is a strong driver explaining why there are an increasing number of processes where traditional organic synthesis has been replaced or combined with biocatalytic industrial process steps. An important fact is also that different types of selectivity make biocatalysis an excellent tool for overcoming difficulties typically associated with organic synthesis. Regioselectivity of ...

  18. Genetic manipulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt in rice: overexpression of truncated glutamate decarboxylase (GAD2) and knockdown of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) lead to sustained and high levels of GABA accumulation in rice kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimajiri, Yasuka; Oonishi, Takayuki; Ozaki, Kae; Kainou, Kumiko; Akama, Kazuhito

    2013-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid commonly present in all organisms. Because cellular levels of GABA in plants are mainly regulated by synthesis (glutamate decarboxylase, GAD) and catabolism (GABA-transaminase, GABA-T), we attempted seed-specific manipulation of the GABA shunt to achieve stable GABA accumulation in rice. A truncated GAD2 sequence, one of five GAD genes, controlled by the glutelin (GluB-1) or rice embryo globulin promoters (REG) and GABA-T-based trigger sequences in RNA interference (RNAi) cassettes controlled by one of these promoters as well, was introduced into rice (cv. Koshihikari) to establish stable transgenic lines under herbicide selection using pyriminobac. T₁ and T₂ generations of rice lines displayed high GABA concentrations (2-100 mg/100 g grain). In analyses of two selected lines from the T₃ generation, there was a strong correlation between GABA level and the expression of truncated GAD2, whereas the inhibitory effect of GABA-T expression was relatively weak. In these two lines both with two T-DNA copies, their starch, amylose, and protein levels were slightly lower than non-transformed cv. Koshihikari. Free amino acid analysis of mature kernels of these lines demonstrated elevated levels of GABA (75-350 mg/100 g polished rice) and also high levels of several amino acids, such as Ala, Ser, and Val. Because these lines of seeds could sustain their GABA content after harvest (up to 6 months), the strategy in this study could lead to the accumulation GABA and for these to be sustained in the edible parts.

  19. 乳腺癌FE100C类方案新辅助化疗后粒细胞减少和肝功能损害的发生及对策%Neoadjuvant chemotherapy using epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil:neutropenia and elevation of transaminase, and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王歆光; 范铁; 范照青; 王天峰; 解云涛; 李金锋; 欧阳涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析乳腺癌FE100 C类方案新辅助化疗后粒细胞减少和肝功能损害的发生率及其对策。方法从北京大学肿瘤医院乳腺癌预防治疗中心数据库中筛选2011年1月至2012年12月确诊的303例原发性乳腺癌并接受FE100 C类方案新辅助化疗4周期后手术的连续病例,分析乳腺癌患者粒细胞减少和肝功能损害的发生情况。结果全组共有200例(66.0%)患者曾出现中性粒细胞绝对值或白细胞3~4度减少,其中176例患者发生于第1周期化疗。粒细胞减少性发热( FN)13例14例次;转氨酶升高46例(15.2%),其中2度及以上升高15例(5.0%)。预防性使用粒细胞集落刺激因子32例,均未发生FN以及因粒细胞减少导致的化疗推迟。采用化疗开始后每周1次、化疗前+化疗第10天以及化疗前+化疗第7、10、14天3种方式监测化疗后血常规变化,发生因粒细胞减少不符合化疗标准导致化疗推迟分别为3例(5.0%)、7例(3.9%)和2例(3.2%)。3种监测方式发生FN分别为2例(3.3%)、8例(4.4%)和3例(4.8%)。不同血常规监测方式之间因粒细胞减少导致化疗推迟发生率的差异及FN发生率的差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05)。不同氟尿嘧啶使用方式之间3~4度粒细胞减少及转氨酶升高发生率的差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05)。结论在无常规预防性使用粒细胞集落刺激因子的情况下,FE100 C类方案4周期化疗中3~4度中性粒细胞绝对值或白细胞减少的发生率较高,但FN的发生率较低。无基础肝脏疾病患者无需预防性使用保肝药。%Objective To retrospectively investigate the incidence of severe neutropenia and elevation of transaminase during neoadjuvant chemotherapy using epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil in breast cancer patients.Methods From January 2011 to December 2012, 303

  20. The Research of Inj ection ad Acumen of Thymopeptide on Influence of organ index and the Activation of serum transaminase in Movement Training Rats%胸腺肽穴位注射对运动训练大鼠脏器指数和血清转氨酶活性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成红娟; 马亚妮

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of the experiment is to study the influence of thymic peptide point inj ection on the organ index and serum transaminase activity of sports training rats.Methods:In the experiments,two different methods were selected,administrating thymic peptide to animals by intramuscular inj ection and selecting“Zusanli”,“Guanyuan”and“Neiguan”three point to inject thymic peptide,respectively.Then to study their effect onthe organ index and serum transaminase activity of sports training rats.Results:Movement made the cardiac index of rats increased significantly.The increasing trend of cardiac index was repressed through the intramuscular drug offers and point inj ection drug offers.The difference of cardiac index between the point inj ection drug group and the intramuscular experimental group was statistically significant(P<0.05).Movement made the liver index of rats lower than the control group.The decreasing trend of liver index was repressed through the intramuscular drug offers and point inj ection drug offers.The difference of liver index between the point injection drug group and the intramuscular experimental group was statistically significant(P<0.05). Movement made the ALT and AST activity increased significantly.The increasing trends of the ALT and AST were repressed through the intramuscular drug offers and point inj ection drug offers.The ALT and AST of the traning control group and the intramuscular experimental group increased significantly compared with the control proup(P <0.01).The difference of ASL between the point inj ection drug group and the intramuscular experimental group was statistically significant(P<0.05).Also,there was statistical difference bwtween injectio ad acumen experimental group and movement control group(P<0.01).The difference of ALT between the point injection drug group and the intramuscular experimental group was statistically significant(P<0.01).Conclusion:Both intramuscular injection of thymic peptide

  1. Genomic organisation, activity and distribution analysis of the microbial putrescine oxidase degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Alexander; Barnes, Nicole; Speight, Robert; Keane, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    The catalytic action of putrescine specific amine oxidases acting in tandem with 4-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase is explored as a degradative pathway in Rhodococcus opacus. By limiting the nitrogen source, increased catalytic activity was induced leading to a coordinated response in the oxidative deamination of putrescine to 4-aminobutyraldehyde and subsequent dehydrogenation to 4-aminobutyrate. Isolating the dehydrogenase by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration revealed that the enzyme acts principally on linear aliphatic aldehydes possessing an amino moiety. Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis delivered a Michaelis constant (K(M)=0.014 mM) and maximum rate (Vmax=11.2 μmol/min/mg) for the conversion of 4-aminobutyraldehyde to 4-aminobutyrate. The dehydrogenase identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis (E value=0.031, 23% coverage) belongs to a functionally related genomic cluster that includes the amine oxidase, suggesting their association in a directed cell response. Key regulatory, stress and transport encoding genes have been identified, along with candidate dehydrogenases and transaminases for the further conversion of 4-aminobutyrate to succinate. Genomic analysis has revealed highly similar metabolic gene clustering among members of Actinobacteria, providing insight into putrescine degradation notably among Micrococcaceae, Rhodococci and Corynebacterium by a pathway that was previously uncharacterised in bacteria.

  2. Clinical research of two cases of glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1-related limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome%谷氨酰胺-果糖-6-磷酸转氨酶1相关性肢带型先天性肌无力综合征二例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 徐春晓; 孟令超; 吕鹤; 左越焕; 刘靖; 王朝霞; 袁云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe clinical,neurophysiological and pathological features in 2 patients with glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1)-related limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome.Methods We recruited two patients diagnosed as GFPT1-related limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome in Peking University First Hospital in March and June 2014 respectively.Then we collected clinical,laboratory,neurophysiological,neuropathological and genetic data of the 2 patients to characterize the disease features.We also followed up the two patients to evaluate therapeutic effects.Results Case 1 was a sixteen years old boy complaining of exercise related fatigue for 10 years.Case 2 was a nine years old boy complaining of exercise related fatigue for 6 years.Both patients revealed mild proximal weakness during physical examinations.The level of serum creatine kinase was 224 IU/L in case 1 and within normal range in case 2.Repetitive nerve stimulation with 3 Hz at axillary nerve revealed decremental response of the main compound muscle action potential amplitude,which was 46.9% in case 1 and 17.5% in case 2.Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody was not detected in both cases.Both of them responded well to oral pyridostigmine bromide.Muscle biopsies and GFPT1 gene analysis were performed in 2 cases.Muscle biopsy revealed massive tubular aggregates within muscle fibers in case 1 and type 1 fiber predoninance in case 2.GFPT1 showed 2 compound heterozygous mutations in patient 1 with p.Y367C and p.G564C,and in patient 2 with p.G26S and p.V291I respectively.Conclusions Childhood onset,fluctuating limb girdle weakness,decrement on low frequency repetitive nerve stimulation,tubular aggregates on muscle pathology could be considered as the diagnostic clues for GFPT1-related limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome.Cholinesterase inhibitors therapy could be used as the first choice in this disease.%目的 观察2例谷氨酰胺-果糖-6-磷酸转氨酶1(GFPT1)相关

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA-CYPERMETHRIN ON GLUTAMIC- PYRUVIC TRANSAMINASE (GPT) AND GLUTAMIC-OXALOACETIC TRANSAMINASE (GOT) ACTIVITIES FROM CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS) SERUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are considered as possible sub-stitutesfor some organophosphate carbamates or organochlo-rine insecticides,and have been used extensivelyfor morethantwo decades[1].Pyrethroids are preferred over otherinsecticides because of their easy degradation into non-toxic or less toxic metabolites under natural conditions.Consequently,there has recently beena dramatic increaseinthe use of pyrethroid pesticides to control insect pests.However,synthetic pyrethroids were also reported to bemore toxi...

  4. Aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index in hepatitis C virus and Schistosomiasis coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbala, Moutaz; Elbadri, Mohammed Elshiekh; Amer, Aliaa Mohamed; AlKaabi, Saad; Sultan, Khaleel Hassan; Kamel, Yasser Medhat; Elsayed, Eman Hassan Satti; Avades, Tony Yervant; Chandra, Prem; Shebl, Fatma M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy, of aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) alone and with antischistosomal antibody (Ab) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and schistosomiasis coinfection. METHODS: This retrospective study included medical records of three hundred and eighty three Egyptian men patients who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy between January 2006 to April 2014 in tertiary care hospital in Qatar for diagnosis or monitoring purpose were selected. Data of patients > 18 years of age were included in the study. The values of HCV RNA titer and antischistosomal antibody titer were also taken into consideration. Patients were excluded from the study if they had any other concomitant chronic liver disease, including; history of previous antiviral or interferon therapy, immunosuppressive, therapy, chronic hepatitis B infection, human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, autoimmune hepatitis, decompensated liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, prior liver transplantation, and if no data about the liver biopsy present. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 46 years. About 7.1% had no fibrosis, whereas 30.4%, 37.5%, 20.4%, and 4.6% had fibrosis of stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. In bivariate analysis, APRI score, levels of AST, platelet count and age of patient showed statistically significant association with liver fibrosis (P schistosomiasis as compared to biopsy. The addition of antischistosomal Ab to APRI did not improve sensitivity for predicting the degree of cirrhosis. PMID:26674154

  5. Structural Insight into the Inhibition of Human Kynurenine Aminotransferase I/Glutamine transaminase K∥

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qian; Robinson, Howard; Cai, Tao; Tagle, Danilo A.; Li, Jianyong

    2010-01-01

    Human kynurenine aminotransferase I (hKAT I) catalyzes the formation of kynurenic acid, a neuroactive compound. Here, we report three high-resolution crystal structures (1.50–1.55 Å) of hKAT I that are in complex with glycerol and each of two inhibitors of hKAT I: indole-3-acetic acid (IAC) and Tris. Because Tris is able to occupy the substrate binding position, we speculate that this may be the basis for hKAT I inhibition. Furthermore, the hKAT/IAC complex structure reveals that the binding moieties of the inhibitor are its indole ring and a carboxyl group. Six chemicals with both binding moieties were tested for their ability to inhibit hKAT I activity; 3-indolepropionic acid and DL-indole-3-lactic acid demonstrated the highest level of inhibition, and as they cannot be considered as substrates of the enzyme, these two inhibitors are promising candidates for future study. Perhaps even more significantly, we report the discovery of two different ligands located simultaneously in the hKAT I active center for the first time. PMID:19338303

  6. Structural insight into the inhibition of human kynurenine aminotransferase I/glutamine transaminase K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qian; Robinson, Howard; Cai, Tao; Tagle, Danilo A; Li, Jianyong

    2009-05-14

    Human kynurenine aminotransferase I (hKAT I) catalyzes the formation of kynurenic acid, a neuroactive compound. Here, we report three high-resolution crystal structures (1.50-1.55 A) of hKAT I that are in complex with glycerol and each of two inhibitors of hKAT I: indole-3-acetic acid (IAC) and Tris. Because Tris is able to occupy the substrate binding position, we speculate that this may be the basis for hKAT I inhibition. Furthermore, the hKAT/IAC complex structure reveals that the binding moieties of the inhibitor are its indole ring and a carboxyl group. Six chemicals with both binding moieties were tested for their ability to inhibit hKAT I activity; 3-indolepropionic acid and DL-indole-3-lactic acid demonstrated the highest level of inhibition, and as they cannot be considered as substrates of the enzyme, these two inhibitors are promising candidates for future study. Perhaps even more significantly, we report the discovery of two different ligands located simultaneously in the hKAT I active center for the first time.

  7. Structural Insight into the Inhibition of Human Kynurenine Aminotransferase I/Glutamine Transaminase K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Human kynurenine aminotransferase I (hKAT I) catalyzes the formation of kynurenic acid, a neuroactive compound. Here, we report three high-resolution crystal structures (1.50-1.55 A) of hKAT I that are in complex with glycerol and each of two inhibitors of hKAT I: indole-3-acetic acid (IAC) and Tris. Because Tris is able to occupy the substrate binding position, we speculate that this may be the basis for hKAT I inhibition. Furthermore, the hKAT/IAC complex structure reveals that the binding moieties of the inhibitor are its indole ring and a carboxyl group. Six chemicals with both binding moieties were tested for their ability to inhibit hKAT I activity; 3-indolepropionic acid and dl-indole-3-lactic acid demonstrated the highest level of inhibition, and as they cannot be considered as substrates of the enzyme, these two inhibitors are promising candidates for future study. Perhaps even more significantly, we report the discovery of two different ligands located simultaneously in the hKAT I active center for the first time.

  8. Structural studies into ketosteroid dehydrogenases and S-selective ω-transaminases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterwijk, Cornelis Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the 3D-structures of three different proteins by protein X-ray crystallography. The knowledge obtained from the 3D-structures of the proteins is combined with biochemical data to discover the details of the functioning of the proteins. This information can be used to improv

  9. [Modifications of hepatic transaminases in workers exposed to low doses of isopropanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, I; Fontana, L; Iavicoli, S

    2007-01-01

    Isopropanol (IPA) is a volatile solvent that is used in many industrial process. The major symptoms of acute isopropanol toxicity include dizziness, incoordination, headache, hypothermia, eye ataxia, irritation of upper respiratory tract and shortness of breath. Vomiting, hematemesis, diarrhoea and hypotension may occur following accidental ingestion of IPA. No data regarding subchronic or chronic toxicity of IPA were identified. The aim of this study was to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) of the last five years in 40 printer workers after the removal of IPA from the industry. The serum levels of ALT, AST and gamma-GT were higher in the exposed workers than in non exposed. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the removal of IPA from the industry had a positive health effect improving the hepatic function of the workers.

  10. Hepatic glycogen deposition in a patient with anorexia nervosa and persistently abnormal transaminase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kransdorf, Lisa N; Millstine, Denise; Smith, Maxwell L; Aqel, Bashar A

    2016-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders characterized by calorie restriction have been associated with a variety of hepatic abnormalities. Fatty steatosis has been described in eating disorder patients. We report the rare finding of glycogen accumulation in the liver in a patient with anorexia nervosa, which to our knowledge is only the second such case reported in the literature. This case highlights the importance of monitoring for liver abnormalities in patients with restrictive eating disorders.

  11. 2-(hydroxymethyl)aspartic acid: synthesis, crystal structure, and reaction with a transaminase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.; Metzler, D.E.; Powell, D.; Jacobson, R.A.

    1980-11-05

    The synthesis and x-ray crystal structure of 2-(hydroxymethyl) aspartic acid and the preliminary evaluation of its interaction with cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase of pig heart are described. A dissociation constant 1.4 mM for the L-2-(hydroxymethyl) aspartate complex with the enzyme was obtained. 2 figures. (DP)

  12. A comparative study of serum histaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum histaminase and SGOT were estimated in 35 cases of acute myocardial infarction and 34 cases of ischaemic heart disease (Other than acute myocardial infarction and 30, age and sex match-ed, healthy subjects which served as controls, to evaluate the com-parison of time relation activity, diagnostic and prognostic value of histaminase and SGOT. The enzymes were estimated within 6 hours, then repeated -within 24 hours, 2nd day, 3rd day, 5th day, 10th day and 15th day, ascertained from the time o f pain in the chest. Raised histaminase levels were found in 97.14%; cases, while SGOT levels were found elevated in only 91.4% cases of acute myo-cardial infarction of which 30 were electrocardiographically proved and 5 had equivocal electrocardiographic evidence of acute infarc-tion like LBBB, complete heart block, ventricular tachycardia and old myocardial infarction. Furthermore elevation of histaminase was 6.2 times whereas of SGOT only 5.2 times above the mean normal value. Serum histaminase was found elevated in all the 6 cases who presented within 6 hours of infarction, while SGOT did not rise in any of these cases. Both histaminase and SGOT reached the peak levels on the 2nd day and persisted for whole of the first week. Higher levels of these enzymes were found associated with worse prognosis. Above observations show that the serum histaminase rises earlier than SGOT and can prove the diagnosis of myocardial infarction even when SGOT and ECG fail to reveal the diagnosis. It is a more sensitive index and has higher peak rise of levels than SGOT. How-ever its pattern of rise, fall and prognostic values are similar to that of SGOT.

  13. A case study on robust optimal experimental design for model calibration of ω-Transaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daele, Timothy, Van; Van Hauwermeiren, Daan; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer;

    the experimental space. However, it is expected that more informative experiments can be designed to increase the confidence of the parameter estimates. Therefore, we apply Optimal Experimental Design (OED) to the calibrated model of Shin and Kim (1998). The total number of samples was retained to allow fair...... comparison with the original experimental design. Using OED led to unique and higher quality parameter estimates for all parameters. This illustrates that OED can increase parameter confidence without increasing the experimental effort.The main problem which arises when performing OED is that the “real...... behind this problem is practical identifiability, which can be related to both the model structure and/or the information content of the data.The available data are 25 experiments performed by Shin and Kim, set up in a 5x5 factorial design (2 substrates with 5 concentration levels each) across...

  14. Heart transaminase in the rock crab, Cancer irroratus, exposed to cadmium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, E.; Collier, R.S.; Karolus, J.J.; Givens, S.

    1976-01-01

    When rock crabs, Cancer irroratus, were exposed for 4 days to 1 ppM cadmium as the chloride salt, aspartate aminotransferase activity in heart muscle preparations increased significantly over heart AAT in the control crabs. When crabs were exposed to 1 ppM cadmium as the nitrate salt in analogous experiments, however, the heart AAT was slightly depressed, but not to a significant degree. That the nitrate salt of cadmium did not produce the same effect as the chloride salt underscores the importance of the form in which a metal occurs in the environment. Metal ions bind to various ligands, metabolic and otherwise, to an extent largely dependent upon the nature of their immediate chemical association. The results reported here clearly indicate that cadmium is more toxic as the chloride salt than as the nitrate. Data indicate that some enzymes in metal exposed animals may develop a degree of tolerance to higher-than-normal concentrations of cations, a tolerance that may lessen the necessary sensitivity to biochemical modulators, such as magnesium.

  15. Study of Serum Alanine Transaminase: Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Ratio for Typhoid Hepatits

    OpenAIRE

    Damor PB; Prajapati VJ; Patel SV; Vasavada H; Panchal AR; Shukla P

    2016-01-01

    "Introduction: Typhoid hepatitis clinically mimics acute viral hepatitis. Differentiation between these two illnesses is very important as typhoid hepatitis requires definitive treatment in form of antimicrobial drugs. This study was undertaken to study pattern of hepatic involvement in enteric fever and to evaluate serum ALT:LDH ratio for differentiating it from acute viral hepatitis. Material and Method :This was a clinical observational study .Patients of enteric fever with hepatic mani...

  16. Process considerations for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines using transaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima-Ramos, Joana; Jensen, Jacob S; Al-Haque, Naweed; Neto, Watson; Woodley, John M

    2011-07-01

    Biocatalytic transamination is being established as key tool for the production of chiral amine pharmaceuticals and precursors due to its excellent enantioselectivity as well as green credentials. Recent examples demonstrate the potential for developing economically competitive processes using a combination of modern biotechnological tools for improving the biocatalyst alongside using process engineering and integrated separation techniques for improving productivities. However, many challenges remain in order for the technology to be more widely applicable, such as technologies for obtaining high yields and productivities when the equilibrium of the desired reaction is unfavorable. This review summarizes both the process challenges and the strategies used to overcome them, and endeavors to describe these and explain their applicability based on physiochemical principles. This article also points to the interaction between the solutions and the need for a process development strategy based on fundamental principles.

  17. Process engineering tools to guide implementation and scale-up of transaminase cascades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Janes, Kresimir; Lima Ramos, Joana

    ]. In this lecture we will present several process engineering tools including the use of mathematical modelling, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis [3] as well as economic evaluation and defined experimental protocols to help evaluate the feasibility of new biocatalytic cascades. The concepts will be illustrated...... as a means to synthesize optically pure chiral amines from prochiral ketones using an amine donor. Chiral amines can also be synthesized by other routes but the importance of the compounds mean that a variety of routes will be required to cover the synthesis of many different chiral amines of different...

  18. Towards a standardized way of reporting physicochemical data and process metrics for transaminase reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär

    to build a broader understanding of the correlation between the underlying physicochemical properties of the system (e.g. substrate volatility) and the process performance (e.g. gram of product per gram of biocatalyst), it would be highly beneficial if these data were reported, and ideally in a consistent...

  19. Process considerations for the asymetric synthesis of chiral amines using transaminases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Jensen, Jacob Skibsted

    2011-01-01

    Biocatalytic transamination is being established as key tool for the production of chiral amine pharmaceuticals and precursors due to its excellent enantioselectivity as well as green credentials. Recent examples demonstrate the potential for developing economically competitive processes using...... a combination of modern biotechnological tools for improving the biocatalyst alongside using process engineering and integrated separation techniques for improving productivities. However, many challenges remain in order for the technology to be more widely applicable, such as technologies for obtaining high...

  20. A systems biology approach to understanding elevated serum alanine transaminase levels in a clinical trial with ximelagatran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulf; Lindberg, Johan; Wang, Shunghuang; Balasubramanian, Raji; Marcusson-Ståhl, Maritha; Hannula, Mira; Zeng, Chenhui; Juhasz, Peter J; Kolmert, Johan; Bäckström, Jonas; Nord, Lars; Nilsson, Kerstin; Martin, Steve; Glinghammar, Björn; Cederbrant, Karin; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina

    2009-12-01

    Ximelagatran was developed for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic conditions. However, in long-term clinical trials with ximelagatran, the liver injury marker, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased in some patients. Analysis of plasma samples from 134 patients was carried out using proteomic and metabolomic platforms, with the aim of finding predictive biomarkers to explain the ALT elevation. Analytes that were changed after ximelagatran treatment included 3-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvic acid, CSF1R, Gc-globulin, L-glutamine, protein S and alanine, etc. Two of these analytes (pyruvic acid and CSF1R) were studied further in human cell cultures in vitro with ximelagatran. A systems biology approach applied in this study proved to be successful in generating new hypotheses for an unknown mechanism of toxicity.

  1. Mechanism-based Inactivation by Aromatization of the Transaminase BioA Involved in Biotin Biosynthesis in Mycobaterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ce; Geders, Todd W.; Park, Sae Woong; Wilson, Daniel J.; Boshoff, Helena I.; Abayomi, Orishadipe; Barry, III, Clifton E.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Finzel, Barry C.; Aldrich, Courtney C. (Weill-Med); (UMM); (NIAID)

    2011-11-16

    BioA catalyzes the second step of biotin biosynthesis, and this enzyme represents a potential target to develop new antitubercular agents. Herein we report the design, synthesis, and biochemical characterization of a mechanism-based inhibitor (1) featuring a 3,6-dihydropyrid-2-one heterocycle that covalently modifies the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor of BioA through aromatization. The structure of the PLP adduct was confirmed by MS/MS and X-ray crystallography at 1.94 {angstrom} resolution. Inactivation of BioA by 1 was time- and concentration-dependent and protected by substrate. We used a conditional knock-down mutant of M. tuberculosis to demonstrate the antitubercular activity of 1 correlated with BioA expression, and these results provide support for the designed mechanism of action.

  2. Distinct immunoregulatory cytokine pattern in Egyptian patients with occult Hepatitis C infection and unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Z Gad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The immunopathogenesis of occult Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a matter of great controversy and has been suggested to involve a complex balance between cytokines with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity. This work aimed at studying the serum Th1 and Th2 cytokine production in patients with occult HCV infection. Materials and Methods: Serum levels of cytokines of Th1 (interleukin [IL]-2, INF-γ and Th2 (IL-4 were measured in 27 patients with occult HCV infection and 28 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Results: The levels of IL-2 and interferon-γ were highly significantly increased in patients with chronic HCV infection (P<0.001. IL-4 was highly significantly increased in occult HCV infection (P<0.001. Significant increases were noted in chronic HCV infection regarding bilirubin (P<0.001, ALT (P = 0.009, AST (P = 0.013, AFP (P<0.001, while serum albumin was significantly higher in occult HCV infection (P<0.001. Necroinflammation (P<0.001, fibrosis (P<0.001, and cirrhosis (P = 0.03 were significantly increased in chronic HCV infection. Conclusion: Our data revealed a high prevalence of occult HCV infection (25% in patients with unexplained persistently abnormal liver function test results. Those patients exhibited a distinct immunoregulatory cytokine pattern, favoring viral persistence and explaining the less aggressive course of this disease entity than chronic HCV infection.

  3. On-Treatment Elevation in Hepatic Transaminases during HCV Treatment with Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Dasabuvir, Ritonavir, and Ribavirin: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lydia; Kottilil, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Eradication of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now possible with all oral antiviral medications, including the combination of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, dasabuvir, and ritonavir (PrOD) with or without ribavirin. While high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) can be achieved, a small subset of patients experience on-treatment liver enzyme elevations, in particular women using concurrent estradiol-containing oral contraceptive medications (OCPs). Herein, we describe four cases of liver enzyme elevations within 2-3 weeks of PrOD initiation in African-American men infected with HCV genotype 1a or 1b. Three patients with varying degrees of hepatic fibrosis received a full treatment course without medication modification, achieved SVR, and experienced resolution of liver enzyme abnormalities. One patient with cirrhosis was switched mid-treatment to an alternate HCV regimen, experienced subsequent resolution of liver enzyme abnormalities, and achieved SVR. In summary, these cases suggest that all HCV patients treated with PrOD, independent of gender or concurrent medications, should have laboratory monitoring for liver enzyme elevations, with a particular emphasis on early monitoring in cirrhotic patients. PMID:27313921

  4. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MADU TERHADAP KADAR PROFIL LIPID, GULA DARAH PUASA, TEKANAN DARAH DAN ALANIN TRANSAMINASE PADA PASIEN DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar, Nurhaedar; Citrakesumasari; Natzir, Rosdiana; Virani, Devintha

    2013-01-01

    Perkiraan terakhir menunjukkan ada 171 juta orang di dunia menderita diabetes pada tahun 2000 dan ini diproyeksikan meningkat menjadi 366 juta pada 2030. Dari hasil penelitian laboratorium dan uji klinis, madu mengandung antioksidan dan memiliki efek yang menguntungkan pada individu yang sehat dan pasien D iabetes Melitus ( D M ) . Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menyelidiki e fek pemberian madu terhadap kadar profil lipid , tekanan dara...

  5. Study correlation between HCV-RNA quantity and alanine transaminase%丙肝患者HCV-RNA病毒载量和ALT浓度的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宽; 王敏

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究丙肝患者血清HCV-RNA含量和ALT浓度的关系.方法 采用荧光定量PCR法检测296例疑似HCV感染患者的血清HCV-RNA,ELISA法检测抗-HCV,全自动生化分析仪测定ALT.结果 296例血清标本中, HCV-RNA和抗-HCV均阳性155例,HCV-RNA阳性而抗-HCV阴性的9例,HCV-RNA阴性而抗-HCV阳性的67例.HCV-RNA含量和ALT浓度水平相关性不显著.结论 HCV-RNA和抗-HCV的检测是诊断HCV-RNA感染的重要指标.但HCV-RNA含量和ALT浓度水平无明显相关.

  6. Liver stiffness in the hepatitis B virus carrier: A non-invasive marker of liver disease influenced by the pattern of transaminases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filippo Oliveri; Barbara Coco; Pietro Ciccorossi; Piero Colombatto; Veronica Romagnoli; Beatrice Cherubini; Ferruccio Bonino; Maurizia Rossana Brunetto

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of transient elastography by Fibroscan (FS), a rapid non-invasive technique to evaluate liver fibrosis, in the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. METHODS: In 297 consecutive HBV carriers, we studied the correlation between liver stiffness (LS), stage of liver disease and other factors potentially influencing FS measurements. In 87 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, we monitored the FS variations according to the spontaneous or treatment-induced variations of biochemical activity during follow-up. RESULTS: FS values were 12.3±3.3 kPa in acute hepatitis, 10.3±8.8 kPa in chronic hepatitis, 4.3 ±1.0 kPa in inactive carriers and 4.6±1.2 kPa in blood donors. We identified the cut-offs of 7.5 and 11.8 kPa for the diagnosis of fibrosis≥S3 and cirrhosis respectively, showing 93.9% and 86.5% sensitivity, 88.5% and 96.3% specificity, 76.7% and 86.7% positive predictive value (PPV), 97.3% and 96.3% negative predictive value (NPV) and 90.1% and 94.2% diagnostic accuracy. At multivariate analysis in 171 untreated carriers, fibrosis stage (t=13.187, P 10/18 vs≤ 10/18, P = 0.035) and All levels (t = 3.566, P = 0.001) were independently associated with LS in 83 untreated patients without cirrhosis and long-term biochemical remission (t = 4.662, P < 0.001) in 80 treated patients. During FS monitoring (mean follow-up 19.9±7.1 mo) FS values paralleled those of ALT in patients with hepatitis exacerbation (with 1.2 to 4.4-fold increases in CHB patients) and showed a progressive decrease during antiviral therapy. CONCLUSION: FS is a non-invasive tool to monitor liver disease in chronic HBV carriers, provided that the pattern of biochemical activity is taken into account. In the inactive carrier, it identifies non-HBV-related causes of liver damage and transient reactivations. In CHB patients, it may warrant a more appropriate timing of control liver biopsies.

  7. Liver stiffness in the hepatitis B virus carrier: A non-invasive marker of liver disease influenced by the pattern of transaminases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Filippo; Coco, Barbara; Ciccorossi, Pietro; Colombatto, Piero; Romagnoli, Veronica; Cherubini, Beatrice; Bonino, Ferruccio; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of transient elastography by Fibroscan (FS), a rapid non-invasive technique to evaluate liver fibrosis, in the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. METHODS: In 297 consecutive HBV carriers, we studied the correlation between liver stiffness (LS), stage of liver disease and other factors potentially influencing FS measurements. In 87 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, we monitored the FS variations according to the spontaneous or treatment-induced variations of biochemical activity during follow-up. RESULTS: FS values were 12.3 ± 3.3 kPa in acute hepatitis, 10.3 ± 8.8 kPa in chronic hepatitis, 4.3 ± 1.0 kPa in inactive carriers and 4.6 ± 1.2 kPa in blood donors. We identified the cut-offs of 7.5 and 11.8 kPa for the diagnosis of fibrosis ≥ S3 and cirrhosis respectively, showing 93.9% and 86.5% sensitivity, 88.5% and 96.3% specificity, 76.7% and 86.7% positive predictive value (PPV), 97.3% and 96.3% negative predictive value (NPV) and 90.1% and 94.2% diagnostic accuracy. At multivariate analysis in 171 untreated carriers, fibrosis stage (t = 13.187, P 10/18 vs ≤ 10/18, P = 0.035) and ALT levels (t = 3.566, P = 0.001) were independently associated with LS in 83 untreated patients without cirrhosis and long-term biochemical remission (t = 4.662, P < 0.001) in 80 treated patients. During FS monitoring (mean follow-up 19.9 ± 7.1 mo) FS values paralleled those of ALT in patients with hepatitis exacerbation (with 1.2 to 4.4-fold increases in CHB patients) and showed a progressive decrease during antiviral therapy. CONCLUSION: FS is a non-invasive tool to monitor liver disease in chronic HBV carriers, provided that the pattern of biochemical activity is taken into account. In the inactive carrier, it identifies non-HBV-related causes of liver damage and transient reactivations. In CHB patients, it may warrant a more appropriate timing of control liver biopsies. PMID:18985805

  8. Variation of transaminases, HCV-RNA levels and Th1/Th2 cytokine production during the post-partum period in pregnant women with chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Ruiz-Extremera

    Full Text Available This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%, with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001 or as Type-B (34%, with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001 and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INFγ, P = 0.04; IL12, P = 0.01 and IL2, P = 0.01. On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INFγ and IL2, P<0.05 than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation.

  9. A Process Concept for High-Purity Production of Amines by Transaminase-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis: Combining Enzyme Cascade and Membrane-Assisted ISPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börner, Tim; Rehn, Gustav; Grey, Carl;

    2015-01-01

    in situ product removal (ISPR) approach using liquid-membrane extraction together with an enzyme cascade. This ISPR strategy facilitates very high (>98%) product purity with an integrated enrichment step and eliminates product as well as coproduct inhibition. In the presented proof-of-concept alanine...

  10. The effect of isotretinoin on triglycerides and liver aminotransferases Influência da isotretinoína nas transaminases hepáticas e triglicerídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Salezze Vieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin has been used to treat the most severe cases of acne; however, it may provoke adverse events in mucocutaneous and hepatic tissues, lead to alterations in lipid levels and cause teratogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and triglyceride levels in patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin dispensed by the São Mateus/ES pharmacy for special drugs. METHODS: A retrospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted by carrying out a secondary analysis of each patient's data. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients who received isotretinoin between January and December 2009, only 70 were actually treated for 3 months or more and handed in the results of their laboratory tests. Of these 70 patients, 39 (55.7% were female. The mean age of the women (23.9 years was higher than the mean age of the men (20.1 years. There was a statistically significant increase in the levels of triglycerides (87.01 ± 48.25 versus 105.32 ± 48.76 mg/dL, AST (20.44 ± 6.26 versus 24.38 ± 11.92 U/L and ALT (18.24 ± 8.31 versus 23.34 ± 20.03 U/L performed prior to and 3 months or more after oral isotretinoin treatment. After treatment with oral isotretinoin, triglyceride levels had increased beyond the normal range in 11% of the patients, while 8.6% had elevated AST levels and 7.3% had increased ALT levels. CONCLUSION: The results in this population show that the use of oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acne may result in altered triglyceride, AST and ALT levels. These findings are in accordance with data published previously in the scientific literature, confirming the need to monitor these patients.FUNDAMENTOS: A isotretinoína tem sido usada no tratamento dos casos mais graves de acne, embora possa induzir reações adversas nos tecidos mucocutâneos e hepáticos, alterações nos níveis lipídicos e teratogenicidade. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo avaliou o perfil de alterações nas concentrações de Alanina Aminotransferrase, Aspartato Aminotransferrase e triglicerídeos em pacientes que fizeram uso de isotretinoína oral fornecida pelo serviço Farmácia de Medicamentos Excepcionais de São Mateus/ES. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo observacional longitudinal exploratório retrospectivo, utilizando coleta de dados secundários de cada paciente. RESULTADOS: Dos 130 pacientes que receberam isotretinoína no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2009, somente 70 realizaram o tratamento por 3 meses ou mais e apresentaram os resultados dos exames. Desses 70 pacientes, 39 (55,7% eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade das mulheres (23,9 anos foi maior do que a média de idade dos homens (20,1 anos. Houve aumento estatisticamente significante nas dosagens de triglicerídeos (87,01±48,25 versus 105,32 ± 48,76, Aspartato Aminotransferrase (20,44 ± 6,26 versus 24,38 ± 11,92 e Alanina Aminotransferrase (18,24 ± 8,31 versus 23,34 ± 20,03, realizadas antes e após 3 meses ou mais de tratamento com isotretinoína oral. Após o tratamento com isotretinoína oral, 11% dos pacientes apresentaram elevação de triglicerídeos acima dos valores normais, 8,6% apresentaram elevação da Aspartato Aminotransferrase e 7,3% tiveram elevação da Alanina Aminotransferrase. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram que o uso de isotretinoína oral para o tratamento da acne, na população estudada, pode levar a alterações nas dosagens de triglicerídeos, Alanina Aminotransferrase e Aspartato Aminotransferrase, como mostrado pela literatura científica, confirmando a necessidade de monitoramento.

  11. Effect of pyridoxine on vitamin B6 concentrations and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activity in whole blood of tuberculous patients receiving high-dosage isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, D V; Selkon, J B; Ramachandran, K; Devadatta, S; Mitchison, D A; Radhakrishna, S; Stott, H

    1967-01-01

    An earlier report from the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, showed that, in tuberculous patients receiving high-dosage isoniazid (12.5-15.6 mg/kg body-weight), the concomitant administration of 6 mg of pyridoxine prevented peripheral neuropathy. In that study, biochemical determinations of B(6) concentrations and GOT activity in whole blood had been routinely undertaken on all patients on admission to treatment, and at 6, 12, 24 and 52 weeks thereafter; in addition, extra determinations were undertaken for patients who developed peripheral neuropathy. The present paper reports the findings of these investigations, which are: (a) peripheral neuropathy developed predominantly among slow inactivators of isoniazid, and was associated with a substantial reduction in GOT activity but no apparent change in B(6) concentration; (b) the reduction in GOT activity appeared to be due to deficiency of both the coenzyme (pyridoxal phosphate) and the apoenzyme; (c) the concomitant administration of pyridoxine (6 mg or 48 mg) with high-dosage isoniazid to 3 patients with peripheral neuropathy, 1 of whom had convulsions also, resulted in increased B(6) concentrations and GOT activity, and no further convulsions; and (d) the concomitant administration of pyridoxine 6 mg daily, as a prophylactic, resulted in a significant increase in B(6) concentrations and GOT activity and prevention of the neuropathy.These findings establish the existence of a definite association between the occurrence of isoniazid-induced toxicity and diminished pyridoxine function.

  12. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE: a transaminase involved in the biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) from Serratia sp. FS14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiangdi; Ran, Tingting; Han, Ning; Gao, Yanyan; He, Jianhua; Tang, Lin; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Weiwu

    2014-04-25

    Prodigiosin, a tripyrrole red pigment synthesized by Serratia and some other microbes through a bifurcated biosynthesis pathway, MBC (4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde) and MAP (2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole) are synthesized separately and then condensed by PigC to form prodigiosin. MAP is synthesized sequentially by PigD, PigE and PigB. PigE catalyzes the transamination of an amino group to the aldehyde group of 3-acetyloctanal, resulting in an aminoketone, which spontaneously cyclizes to form H2MAP. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE which involved in the biosynthesis of prodigiosin precursor MAP for the first time to a resolution of 2.3Å with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The monomer of PigE catalytic domain is composed of three domains with PLP as cofactor: a small N-terminal domain connecting the catalytic domain with the front part of PigE, a large PLP-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. The residues from both monomers build the PLP binding site at the interface of the dimer which resembles the other PLP-dependent enzymes. Structural comparison of PigE with Thermus thermophilus AcOAT showed a higher hydrophobic and smaller active site of PigE, these differences may be the reason for substrate specificity.

  13. A Multidisciplinary Approach Toward the Rapid and Preparative-Scale Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Amino Alcohols: A Concise Transketolase-/omega-Transaminase-Mediated Synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-Aminopentane-1,3-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M.E.B; Chen, B.H.; Hibbert, E.G

    2010-01-01

    Chiral amino alcohols represent an important class of value-added biochemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Chemical routes to such compounds are generally step intensive, requiring environmentally unfriendly catalysts and solvents. This work describes a multidisciplinary approach to the rap...

  14. GABAB antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Hansen, J J; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    1994-01-01

    Phaclofen, which is the phosphonic acid analogue of the GABAB agonist (RS)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid (baclofen), is a GABAB antagonist. As part of our studies on the structural requirements for activation and blockade of GABAB receptors, we have resolved phaclofen using chiral chroma...

  15. Footsteps from insect larvae damage leaf surfaces and initiate rapid responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, D.E.; MacGregor, K.B.; Nijsse, J.; Bown, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Plant resistance to insect herbivory involves gene expression in response to wounding and the detection of insect elicitors in oral secretions (Kessler and Baldwin, 2002, Ann. Rev. Plant/ Biol. 53: 299¿328). However, crawling insect larvae stimulate the synthesis of 4-aminobutyrate within minutes an

  16. Relationship between uric acid and blood lipid, alanine transaminase, C reactive protein and cystatin C in type 2 diabetes mellitus%2型糖尿病血清尿酸与血脂、丙氨酸转氨酶、C反应蛋白和胱抑素C的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪艳; 马建慧; 周健; 孙永宁

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨2型糖尿病患者血清尿酸(UA)与血脂、丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)、C反应蛋白(CRP)和胱抑素C的关系,旨在发现影响血清UA水平的可能因素.方法 选取无糖尿病严重并发症的2型糖尿病患者160例,按照血清UA水平分为UA<250 μmol/L(UA<250)组、UA 250~<300 μmol/L(UA250~<300)组、UA 300~350 μmol/L(UA300~350)组和UA>350 μmol/L(UA>350)组.测量各组患者的身高、体重、腰围、臀围,计算体质指数(BMI).禁食8h后,于清晨6:00取空腹静脉血,并分别于早餐后30、120 min再次抽取静脉血,测定空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后30 min血糖(30PG)、餐后120 min血糖(120PG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、糖化血清白蛋白(GA)、总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、血清UA、尿素、尿素氮、肌酐、ALT、天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)、总胆红素、直接胆红素、CRP和胱抑素C水平.对不同性别患者的血清UA与血脂、ALT、CRP和胱抑素C的关系进行相关性分析,并对其他因素进行逐步多元回归分析.结果 UA>350组的男/女比值、身高和舒张压(DBP)均显著高于UA<250组(P值分别<0.05、0.01),UA250~<300组、UA300~350组和UA>350组的体重、BMI、腰围、臀围均显著高于UA<250组(P值分别<0.05、0.01).4组间TC、LDL-C、FPG、30PG、120PG、ALT、AST、总胆红素、直接胆红素和尿素氮的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).UA>350组的TG水平显著高于UA<250组(P<0.01),HDL-C水平显著低于UA<250组(P<0.05);UA250~<300组、UA300~350组和UA>350组的GA水平均显著低于UA<250组(P值分别<0.05、0.01),胱抑素C水平均显著高于UA< 250组(P值分别<0.05、0.01);UA300~350组和UA>350组的HbA1 c均显著低于UA<250组(P值均<0.01),肌酐和CRP水平均显著高于UA< 250组(P值分别<0.05、0.01).直线相关分析显示,血清UA与性别呈负相关(r=-0.262,P=0.001).男性患者的血清UA与胱抑素C(r=0.751)、TG(r=0.251)和CRP(r=0.162)均呈正相关(P值均<0.05),与ALT(r=0.046)、TC(r=-0.049)、HDL-C(r=-0.178)和LDL-C(r=-0.190)均不相关(P值均>0.05);女性患者的血清UA与胱抑素C(r=0.413)和CRP(r=0.310)均呈正相关(P值均<0.05),与HDL-C呈负相关(r=-0.285,P<0.05),与TC(r=0.006)、TG(r=0.097)、LDL-C(r=0.020)和ALT(r=0.171)均不相关(P值均>0.05).男性患者的血清UA与体重(β=0.340,t=3.091)、肌酐(β=0.209,t=1.874)和LDL-C(β=-0.224,t=-2.035)均有相关性(P值均<0.05),女性患者的血清UA与体重(β=0.397,t=4.225)、BMI(β=0.380,t=4.009)、肌酐(β=0.397,t=4.337)和HDL-C(β=-0.261,t=-2.336)均有相关性(P值均<0.05).结论 血清UA与血清胱抑素C、CRP和血脂紊乱有关,其可能参与2型糖尿病血管并发症的发生.在2型糖尿病患者的管理中应重视血清UA水平的控制,尽可能制定血清UA水平的控制标准.

  17. Effect of two different hypocaloric diets in transaminases and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obese patients Efecto de dos dietas hipocalóricas en los niveles de transaminasas y resistencia a la insulina en pacientes obesos con hígado graso no alcohólico

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. De Luis; R. Aller; O. Izaola; M. Gonzalez Sagrado; Conde, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the changes in hypertransaminasemia after weight reduction in obese patients with and without NAFLD and the relation with insulin resistance. Research Methods: A population of 162 obese patients was randomly allocated to two groups: a) diet I (low fat) and b) diet II (low carbohydrate), dieting along 3 months. Patients were classified as group I (n=112) when serum ALT activity was normal or group II (NAFLD, n=30) when serum ALT activity was ( > o...

  18. Results analysis of serum alanine transaminase measurement in 23 clinical laboratories with target value assigned by reference method%利用参考方法定靶值评价23家临床实验室血清丙氨酸转氨酶测量结果的质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹伟民; 庄俊华; 黄宪章; 林增文; 李云; 王建兵; 利嘉琦

    2015-01-01

    目的通过测量患者血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶的活性,了解参加实验室的检测水平,探讨在临床实验室之间用患者血清开展室间比对和正确度评价的可行性。方法采用方法学比对研究,2013年3至8月经2家国际候选参考实验室应用改良的不含磷酸吡哆醛ALT参考方法为5份患者血清赋值,23家常规实验室在同一时间重复2次测定这5份样品。计算常规实验室检测结果与参考实验室均值的偏倚,并与允许偏倚6%进行比较。计算均值和相对偏移。结果以参考实验室测量均值为靶值,23家实验室5份样品的百分偏倚绝对值最大为31.27%,样品1至样品5偏倚小于允许偏倚的比例范围为26.09%~73.91%。8家实验室5份样品中有4份及以上的偏倚小于允许偏倚(合格率大于或等于80%),15家实验室5份样品中有2份及以上的偏倚大于允许偏倚(合格率小于或等于60%),3家实验室5份样品的偏倚均大于允许偏倚(合格率为0%)。结论使用患者血清同时使用参考方法定值开展室间比对和正确度评价是一种有效的能力验证方式,能更真实地反映实验室检测质量水平。(中华检验医学杂志,2015,38:318-320)%Objective To explore the feasibility of inter-laboratory comparison and trueness evaluation among clinical laboratories, and assess the quality of participants′measurement, by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase ( ALT ) in patient serum samples.Methods Method comparison study was used.Five patients serum samples, whose target values were assigned by two international candidate reference laboratory with reference method of ALT without pyridoxal phosphate, were measured by 23 routine laboratories.The bias between measurement result of each participant and the mean of reference laboratories was calculated, and then compared to allowable bias 6%.Calculate the mean value and the relative bias.Results Compared with the mean of reference laboratories, the maximum absolute value of bias among the 23 routine laboratories was 31.27%.The rate range which bias was less than the allowable bias was 26.09%-73.91 %.The bias acceptability of 8 participants were more than or equal to 80%;15 participants were less than or equal to 60%; and 3 participants were 0%.Conclusions Using patient serum samples and values assigned by reference method is an effective way to carry out inter-laboratory comparison and trueness evaluation.It can reflect the quality of measurement more truly.

  19. 力竭运动前后及恢复期大鼠脑皮质运动区GABA含量及GAD、GABA-T活性的变化%Changes of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Content and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase, GABA Transaminase Activity in Motor Area of Rats Cortex after Acute Exhausting Swimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡江平; 张蕴琨

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察力竭运动前后及恢复期大鼠脑皮质运动区GABA含量及GAD、GABA-T活性的动态变化.方法:成年雄性SD大鼠进行一次性力竭游泳,用荧光法测定其脑皮质运动区GABA含量及GAD、GABA-T活性.结果:力竭运动前后及恢复期大鼠脑皮质运动区GA-BA含量、GAD与GABA-T活性出现明显变化.结论:运动性疲劳时GABA可能是脑的机能抑制状态的主导因素之一.力竭运动后GAD、GABA-T活性明显增高,GABA的代谢加快.中枢机能的恢复具有时间延续性.GABA代谢酶的变化可以用来评定运动过程及恢复期中枢机能状态.

  20. Effect of two different hypocaloric diets in transaminases and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obese patients Efecto de dos dietas hipocalóricas en los niveles de transaminasas y resistencia a la insulina en pacientes obesos con hígado graso no alcohólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. de Luis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the changes in hypertransaminasemia after weight reduction in obese patients with and without NAFLD and the relation with insulin resistance. Research Methods: A population of 162 obese patients was randomly allocated to two groups: a diet I (low fat and b diet II (low carbohydrate, dieting along 3 months. Patients were classified as group I (n=112 when serum ALT activity was normal or group II (NAFLD, n=30 when serum ALT activity was ( > or = 43 UI/L. Results: In control group with diet I, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist to hip ratio, waist circumference, systolic pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HOMA and insulin levels decreased. In NAFLD group with diet I improved the same parameters and glucose, triglycerides, ALT, AST, gamaglutamine transferase levels, too. In control group with diet II, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist to hip ratio, waist circumference, systolic pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HOMA and insulin levels decreased. In NAFLD group with diet II improved the same parameters and glucose, triglycerides, ALT and gamaglutamine transferase levels, without statistical changes in AST. Conclusion: We showed that weight reduction secondary to two hypocaloric diets was associated with improvement in hipertransaminasemia and insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.Objetivo: El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar los cambios en las transaminasas tras la perdida de peso en pacientes obesos con y sin esteatohepatitis no alcohólica (EHNA y su relación con la resistencia a la insulina. Material y métodos: Se aleatorizó una muestra de 162 pacientes obesos en dos grupos: a dieta I (baja en grasa y b dieta II (baja en hidratos de carbono, siguiendo al dieta durante 3 meses. Los pacientes se clasificaron como grupo I (n=112, con unos niveles de ALT normales y grupo II (EHNA, n=30 con unos niveles de ALT superiores a 43 UI/L. Resultados: En el grupo I con la dieta I disminuyó el IMC, peso, masa grasa, índice cintura cadera, circunferencia cintura, presión sistólica, colesterol LDL, colesterol total, HOMA e insulina. En el grupo NASH con la dieta I disminuyeron los mismos parámetros además de la glucosa, triglicéridos, ALT, AST y gamaGT. En el grupo control con la dieta II disminuyó el IMC, peso, masa grasa, índice cintura cadera, circunferencia de la cintura, presión sistólica, colesterol total, LDL colesterol, HOMA e insulina. En el grupo NASH con la dieta II disminuyeron los mismos parámetros junto a la glucosa, triglicéridos, ALT y gama GT sin cambios en os niveles de ALST. Conclusión: La perdida de peso con dos dietas hipocalÓricas diferentes mejora los niveles de tranasminasas y la resistencia a la insulina en pacientes con NASH.

  1. SwissProt search result: AK060423 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 6e-11 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK099445 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 1e-18 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK103274 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-12 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_HUMAN 4e-13 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK060423 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 1e-12 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-13 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK099445 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-18 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK102306 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 5e-11 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK105642 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 3e-14 ...

  10. Sequence Classification: 390230 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|31794741|ref|NP_857234.1| POSSIBLE ASPARTATE AMI...NOTRANSFERASE ASPB (TRANSAMINASE A) (ASPAT) (GLUTAMIC--OXALOACETIC TRANSAMINASE) (GLUTAMIC--ASPARTIC TRANSAMINASE) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/31794741 ...

  11. Sequence Classification: 400006 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|15610701|ref|NP_218082.1| POSSIBLE ASPARTATE AMI...NOTRANSFERASE ASPB (TRANSAMINASE A) (ASPAT) (GLUTAMIC--OXALOACETIC TRANSAMINASE) (GLUTAMIC--ASPARTIC TRANSAMINASE) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/15610701 ...

  12. Organic Nitrogen Utilization by Phytoplankton: The Role of Cell-Surface Deaminases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    For COCCOII, ethanolamine, ethylamine, glycylglycine, 4-aminobutyric acid, putrescine , 3-amino-l- propanol, and L-ornithine supported H202 production...H H H HH H + I I I I + H3N-C-C-C-C--NH 3 PUTRESCINE I I I I H HH H POSSIBLE AMINE OXIDASE SUBSTRATES 121 Figure 4: Hydrogen peroxide production from... Putrescine utilization by bacteria in seawater has received some attention (Hoefle, 1984), but concentration levels are not well characterized. One

  13. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  14. Preclinical Evaluation to Specifically Target Ovarian Cancer with Folic Acid-Conjugated Nanoceria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    due, in part, to the valence structure of the cerium atom combined with inherent defects in the crystal lattice structure, which are magnified at the...aspartate aminotransferase, AST; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; albumin) and kidney function (creatinine; urea ; albumin, uric acid) in plasma collected...labelled as FA) treated mice as per the manufacturer’s instructions, ALT ( Alanine Transaminase), AST (Aspartate Transaminase), Albumin

  15. Croton zehntneri Essential oil prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Goretti R. Queiroz; José Henrique L. Cardoso; Tomé, Adriana R; Roberto C. P. Lima Jr.; Jamile M. Ferreira; Daniel F. Sousa; Felipe C. Lima; Campos, Adriana R.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of Croton zehntneri Pax & Hoffman (Euphorbiaceae) leaf essential oil (EOCz) was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (500 mg/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in mice. EOCz significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities, that were significantly (p

  16. Free radical scavenging activity of Calotropis gigantea on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathod N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarnabhasma , an Ayurvedic preparation containing Calotropis gigantea R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae is extensively used by Ayurvedic physicians for treatment of diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and nervous disorders. In the present study, we report the effect of chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea leaf and flower on free radical scavenging activity, and lipid profile in streptozotozin-induced diabetic rats. The lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were measured in liver homogenate and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid profile were measured in blood serum. Administration of single dose of streptozotozin (55 mg/kg, i.p. caused significant increases in lipid peroxidation, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, while superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were significantly decreased. Further, administration of chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea leaf and flower to streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats at a dose of 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg orally for 27 d lead to a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Consequently, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were significantly increased. Glibenclamide was used as a positive control (10 mg/kg. It was observed that the effect of chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea on alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, levels are comparable to that of those produced by the positive control.

  17. UniProt search blastx result: AK287462 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287462 J043020M17 Q6YP21|KAT3_HUMAN Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3 (EC 2.6.1.7) (Kynure...nine--oxoglutarate transaminase III) (Kynurenine aminotransferase III) (KATIII) (Cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase 2) (EC 4.4.1.13) - Homo sapiens (Human) 3.00E-11 ...

  18. UniProt search blastx result: AK287462 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287462 J043020M17 Q0P5G4|KAT3_BOVIN Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3 (EC 2.6.1.7) (Kynure...nine--oxoglutarate transaminase III) (Kynurenine aminotransferase III) (KATIII) (Cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase 2) (EC 4.4.1.13) - Bos taurus (Bovine) 8.00E-11 ...

  19. Sequence Classification: 445208 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|37524309|ref|NP_927653.1| valine...--pyruvate aminotransferase (transaminase C) (alanine--valine transaminase) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/37524309 ...

  20. An Evaluation of Blood Cholinesterase Testing Methods for Military Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    biochips are fabricated on the basis of Bio-MicroElectroMechanical System concepts and employ an immunoassay detection technology. The project was...glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase; GPT, Glutamic pyruvic transaminase; Hb , hemoglobin; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; Hct, hematocrit; HDL, high density

  1. [Effects of repeated sevoflurane anesthesia on hepatic and renal function in a pediatric patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, M; Mitsuhata, H; Shimizu, R; Akazawa, S; Fukuda, H; Saitoh, K; Hirabayashi, Y; Togashi, H

    1994-10-01

    A 10-yr-old boy with an injured lower extremity received sevoflurane anesthesia 5 times within 40 days. Laboratory tests for hepatic and renal function i.e., serum transaminase (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), serum cholinesterase, plasma protein, serum cholinesterase, serum bilirubine, serum lactic dehydrogenase, serum prothrombin time, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-D-glucosamidase and 24 hr-creatinine clearance remained within normal ranges throughout his perioperative period. Repeated sevoflurane anesthesia did not exert any adverse effect on hepatic and renal function in this patient.

  2. Safety and vasopressor effect of rosuvastatin in septic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa A. El Gendy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Rosuvastatin 20 mg/day in septic patients increased number ABPSPD, decreased time to initial ABPSPD, norepinephrine dose and duration, with no significant elevation in transaminases or CPK.

  3. Ribavirin plus interferon versus interferon for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The disease progresses without symptoms for several decades and most patients are diagnosed based on the presence of hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid and elevated transaminases....

  4. [Effect of probiotics on proinflammatory cytokines level in patients with type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhal'chyshyn, H P; Bodnar, P M; Kobyliak, N M

    2013-03-01

    We examined 72 patients with T2D and NAFLD. All patients divided by us on the way of therapy into 2 groups. The main group (n = 45) received oral antidiabetic therapy and multiprobiotic "Symbiter" within 30 days. Patients of comparison group (n = 27) received only hypoglycemic drugs. Also in each group we identified patients with normal and elevated level of transaminases. We observed 1.5-2 times increasing of cytokines in patients with NAFLD and elevated transaminase levels compared to patients with normal transaminase levels. We noted statistically significant reduction of proinflammatory cytokines in plasma, after 30 days of therapy, in patients with elevated levels of transaminases. In particular, the level of IL-6 decreased on 30.9% (P Probiotics can be recommended for use in patients with different stages of NAFLD and T2D as an adjunct to standard treatment regimens because it decreases manifestations of low-grade systemic inflammatory response.

  5. A novel photoluminescent and photochromic europium complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A ternary europium complex of 4-aminobutyric acid (ABA) with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) [Eu2(ABA)4 (phen)4](phen)4(ClO4)6 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The result shows that 4-aminobutyric acid exists in zwitterion form in the binuclear complex and that the carboxylates coordinate with Eu3+ ion in bidentate bridging and tridentate chelating-bridging modes. There are two types of phen molecules, one is coordinated and the other is uncoordinated. When excited by YAG: Nd laser with 355 nm light, the title complex can emit strong red fluorescence, and its high-resolution emission spectrum was recorded at 77 K. The Eu3+ ion site is in low symmetry, which is in agreement with the result of X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. When irradiated with a mercury lamp, the aqueous solution of the title complex can perform photochromism with the color change from colorless to green and the green color can fade away in the dark. The photochromic response time is related to the concentration and pH of the solution, the temperature and the light intensity.

  6. Pathway and Enzyme Redundancy in Putrescine Catabolism in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Barbara L.; Reitzer, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Putrescine as the sole carbon source requires a novel catabolic pathway with glutamylated intermediates. Nitrogen limitation does not induce genes of this glutamylated putrescine (GP) pathway but instead induces genes for a putrescine catabolic pathway that starts with a transaminase-dependent deamination. We determined pathway utilization with putrescine as the sole nitrogen source by examining mutants with defects in both pathways. Blocks in both the GP and transaminase pathways were requir...

  7. Preventive effect of zinc toward the hepatotoxicity of nickel in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kechrid, Zine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Liver dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein and serum albumin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Exposure of rats to nickel caused a significant a decrease in body weight and...

  8. Protective effect of root extract of Operculina turpethum linn. Against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract obtained from roots of Operculina turpethum (Convolvulaceae were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing liver damage by paracetamol. The ethanol extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Silymarin was used as positive control.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona muricata Linn. and Polyalthia cerasoides bedd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P; Chansouria, J P; Khosa, R L

    1999-07-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides (Annonaceae) were monitored by estimating the serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), liver and brain lipid peroxidation (LOP) and their total protein content. Both drugs at a dose of 100 μg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum transaminases, SALP, liver and brain LOP and decrease in liver and brain total protein content following carbontetrachloride (CCl) induced hepatoxicity in albino rats.

  10. Leversygdom hos børn kan forekomme uden forhøjelse af leverspecifikke enzymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caverius, Anna Ulrika; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Lausen, Birgitte;

    2015-01-01

    In children, liver diseases are rarely suspected without elevated levels of liver transaminases. We describe two cases of portal hypertension of children who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, splenomegaly and cytopenia. Both cases had normal levels of liver transaminases; thus...... haematological conditions initially were suspected. An elevated alanine aminotransferase level should always lead to further examination to detect liver diseases in early stages, in order to limit development of cirrhosis....

  11. Autoimmune-like hepatitis during masitinib therapy in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient

    OpenAIRE

    Salvado, Maria; Vargas, Victor; Vidal, Marta; Simon-Talero, Macarena; Camacho, Jessica; Gamez, Josep

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute severe hepatitis resulting from masitinib in a young amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient. Hepatotoxicity induced by masitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is usually transient with mild elevation of transaminases, although acute hepatitis has been not reported to date. The hepatitis was resolved after masitinib was discontinued and a combination of prednisone and azathioprine was started. The transaminases returned to baseline normal values five months later. This...

  12. Influence of insecticidal derivative (cartap hydrochloride) from the marine polycheate on certain enzyme systems of the fresh water fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, V; Vijayavel, K; Balasubramanian, S Ezhilarasi; Balasubramanian, M P

    2005-04-01

    The activities of phosphatases and transaminases were studied in muscle and liver of the fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus on exposure to different sublethal concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mgl(-1)) of cartap hydrochloride (insecticidal derivative from marine polycheate) for 96 h. There was an overall decrease in phosphatases and transaminases activity in muscle and liver of the fish subjected to cartap hydrochloride.

  13. Biochemical assessment of physical training: a tool to sports dietitians-nutritionists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The high demand in athletes creates the need to control the process of adaptation to training. The aim of this review is to analyze the biochemical parameters of utility for biological control of the athlete, and provide tools to sports dietitian-nutritionist in the follow-up of the training.Glucose and lipid profile parameters are widely used but insufficient to control training. The lactic acid level in the plasma is the most common tool to assess training load, where values higher than 4 mmol/l, suggest an intensive training. Other enzymes in high concentrations such as creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and two transaminases: glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT or aspartate transaminase (AST or aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT or alanine transaminase or aminotransferase (ALT suggest that the training load was high producing microscopic tearing of the muscle fibers. Determination of other substrates such as ammonia, glutamine, or testosterone/cortisol ratio, used to detect a possible overtraining syndrome. Likewise the latest research suggest that high cortisol levels decrease the immune system.Moreover, an increase of urea, alanine or ketone bodies are related to muscle glycogen stores depleted. Therefore, the information provided by these parameters is useful for the sports dietitian-nutritionist for dietary and nutritional interventions to achieve more effective in function of the training goals.

  14. THE PROBLEM OF STATIN USE IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND CONCOMITANT LIVER DISEASES. WHAT PREVENTS OVERCOMING STATINOPHOBIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Bel'diev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, Russian physicians often and sometimes unreasonably find it impossible to use statins in patients with cardiovascular diseases and concomitant chronic liver diseases. Analysis of domestic publications of recent years reveals the following factors which can impede overcoming statinophobia: 1 fragmentary and contradictory statement of the problem "Statins and liver" in Russian clinical guidelines for management of patients with high cardiovascular risk; 2 common perception that isolated transaminase increase in response to statin therapy is an indicator of "cytolysis" or "cytolytic syndrome"; 3 unreasonably overestimated lipid-lowering activity of combination therapy with low doses of statins and ursodeoxycholic acid; 4 view of the inadmissibility of statin use in patients with transaminase levels more than three upper limit of normal. To overcome these shortcomings and mistakes it seems appropriate to issue national clinical guidelines on statin use in high cardiovascular risk patients with underlying liver disease and/or with elevated transaminases.

  15. Succinic semialdehyde as a substrate for the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, F J; Schouten, M J; Fekkes, D; Bruinvels, J

    1985-11-01

    The conversion of succinic semialdehyde into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by GABA-transaminase was measured in rat brain homogenate in the presence of different concentrations of the cosubstrate glutamate. The calculated kinetic parameters of succinic semialdehyde for GABA-transaminase were a limiting Km value of 168 microM and a limiting Vmax value of 38 mumol g-1 h-1. Combination with previously obtained data for the conversion of GABA into succinic semialdehyde revealed a kEq value of 0.04, indicating that equilibrium of GABA-transaminase is biased toward the formation of GABA. The increased formation of GABA in the presence of succinic semialdehyde was not due to an increased conversion of glutamate into GABA by glutamic acid decarboxylase. Therefore these results indicate that succinic semialdehyde can act as a precursor for GABA synthesis.

  16. Associação entre isoenzimas e matéria seca em batata silvestre Isoenzymes and dry matter content in wild potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ HELENA GOMES ROCHA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Clones de batata silvestre (Solanum spp. foram analisados quanto aos teores de matéria seca em tubérculos e isoenzimas de aspartato transaminase e isocitrato desidrogenase em folhas, com o objetivo de identificar associação entre estas características. Os resultados obtidos em uma amostra de 50 clones indicam grande variabilidade do teor de matéria seca. Clones de S. commersonii malmeanum apresentaram maior teor que os de S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri e de outros cuja espécie não foi identificada. Os padrões isoenzimáticos de folhas de 38 clones da amostra mostraram 15 variantes eletroforéticas de aspartato transaminase e sete de isocitrato desidrogenase. Comparações efetuadas através de tabelas de contingência 2 x 2, usando o teste de chi², com correção para continuidade, permitiram concluir que existe associação significativa entre o teor de matéria seca e as bandas de mobilidade relativa 1,00 de aspartato transaminase e de isocitrato desidrogenase.Wild potato clones (Solanum spp. were analysed for tuber dry matter content, leaf aspartate transaminase and leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in order to identify association between these characteristics. The results indicate that there is great variability for dry matter content among 50 clones analysed. S. commersonii malmeanum clones had higher dry matter levels than S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri and the clones whose species were not identified. Fifteen aspartate transaminase and seven isocitrate dehydrogenase bands were observed in the gels of 38 clones. Tests of chi², using 2 x 2 contingency table, revealed a significant association between dry matter content and the bands of relative mobility 1.00 of both aspartate transaminase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes.

  17. Rat brain slices produce and liberate kynurenic acid upon exposure to L-kynurenine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turski, W A; Gramsbergen, J B; Traitler, H;

    1989-01-01

    aminooxyacetic acid (IC50, approximately 25 microM), and showed pronounced regional distribution (hippocampus greater than cortical areas greater than thalamus much greater than cerebellum). The conversion of L-KYN to KYNA was dependent on oxygenation and on the presence of glucose in the incubation medium...... of extracellular KYNA appears to occur at the level of L-KYN uptake and/or kynurenine transaminase, the biosynthetic enzyme of KYNA. KYNA production from L-KYN was linear up to 4 h and reached a plateau at a L-KYN concentration of 250 microM. The process was effectively inhibited by the transaminase inhibitor...

  18. Gestational changes of GABA levels and GABA binding in the human uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdoe, S.L.; Villanyi, P.; Laszlo, A.

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the activities of L-glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, and the nature of the sodium-independent binding of GABA were examined in uterine tissue pieces obtained surgically from pregnant and non-pregnant women. GABA concentrations were reduced, while the activity of GABA-transaminase and the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GABA significantly increased in specimens from pregnant subjects. These findings suggest some gestation-related functional role for the GABA system in the human uterus.

  19. Plasma biochemical variables in response to 42-km kayak and canoe races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutoslawska, G; Sendecki, W

    1990-12-01

    Some plasma biochemical parameters were examined one day prior, immediately after and 18 h after 42-km canoe and kayak races. The increases in plasma glycerol, lactate, ammonia and uric acid as well as the elevation in plasma CK, LDH and transaminase activities confirm the changes induced by different prolonged efforts. However some differences between canoeists and kayakers were indicated for ammonia and urea plasma concentration after the race, lactate elimination and increase in CK and transaminase activities. The influence of body posture and the impact of the static component during effort are discussed as a reason for observed disparity in response to prolonged races.

  20. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats.

  1. Autoimmune-like hepatitis during masitinib therapy in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, Maria; Vargas, Victor; Vidal, Marta; Simon-Talero, Macarena; Camacho, Jessica; Gamez, Josep

    2015-09-28

    We report a case of acute severe hepatitis resulting from masitinib in a young amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient. Hepatotoxicity induced by masitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is usually transient with mild elevation of transaminases, although acute hepatitis has been not reported to date. The hepatitis was resolved after masitinib was discontinued and a combination of prednisone and azathioprine was started. The transaminases returned to baseline normal values five months later. This is the first case in the hepatitis literature associated with masitinib. The autoimmune role of this drug-induced liver injury is discussed. Physicians should be aware of this potential complication.

  2. Levels of enzymes in leukaemic mice treated withAeromonas L-asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, P J; Muraleedhara Kurup, G; Sreejith, K

    1999-07-01

    L-asparaginase isolated in our laboratory fromAeromonas has been found to be antileukaemic. In the present study changes in the levels of serum enzymes in leukaemic mice and under treatment withAeromonas L-asparaginase has been compared. A significant increase in the levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase with tumour growth and a decrease during therapy was observed. A significant decrease in alanine transaminase activity during tumour growth and an increase during treatment was noticed. Increased levels of aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase was observed during enzyme therapy. Total acid phosphatase was found to be increased during tumour growth and decreased considerably during treatment.

  3. Autologous cytokine-induced killer cells in equal to liver protectant in a patient with metastatic rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyi Ren; Zhaozhe Liu; Zhenyu Ding; Xiaodong Xie

    2013-01-01

    The cytokine-induced killer (CIK) therapy was an effective treatment for many cancers. We report a patient with postoperative rectal cancer received autologous CIK therapy combined with raltitrexed chemotherapy. After the adjuvant therapy, the serum transaminase was persistently elevated, and lung metastases was observed. Due to hepatic injury, only cytokine-induced killer therapy was administered, and it rectified transaminase. The following regimens of CIK therapy and low-dose raltitrexed could diminish the metastatic lesion, improve the quality of life and prolong the survival time. It reveals that the CIK cells may repair the hepatic injury.

  4. Zn(OTf)2-catalysed indolylation and pyrrolylation of isatins: Efficient synthesis and biochemical assay of 3,3-di(heteroaryl)oxindoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Praveen; S Narendiran; P Dheenkumar; P T Perumal

    2013-11-01

    An efficient and cheap synthetic approach to 3,3-di(indolyl)oxindoles and 3,3-di(pyrrolyl) oxindoles has been developed via Zn(OTf)2 catalysed indolylation and pyrrolylation of isatins. A preliminary biochemical assay of the synthesized molecules in rodent models were performed to estimate the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and malondialdehyde levels.

  5. Assessment of functional integrity of liver among workers exposed to soluble nickel compounds during nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalahasthi Ravi Babu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the functional integrity of liver among workers exposed to nickel during nickel-plating process. The functional integrity of liver was assessed in 69 workers who are exposed to nickel during nickel plating and considered as nickel-exposed workers; and 50 administrative workers residing in same city, but away from the place of work of study group, were considered as control group. The level of urine nickel was measured by using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Using kits supplied by Bayer Diagnostics, we determined serum markers of liver function tests. Results: The levels of urine nickel were significantly increased in high-and moderate-exposure groups as compared to control group. The levels of serum transaminases -viz, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase-were significantly increased in nickel-exposed workers, who had high urine nickel levels as compared to control group. The level of serum albumin was negatively correlated with urine nickel levels. The levels of serum transaminases and serum g- glutamyl- transpeptidase were positively and significantly correlated with urine nickel levels. Conclusion: Results indicate that workers who had high urine nickel levels had a consistent effect on hepatic inflammatory function.

  6. The anti epileptic vigabatrin induces in the EEG of rats behaviour-independent increase of delta - and decrease of beta power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakurum, E.; Bouwman, B.M.; Patsalos, P.N.; Jongsma, M.L.A.; Broek, P.L.C. van den; Coenen, A.M.L.; Rijn, C.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Vigabatrin and diazepam both are GABAergic drugs. Vigabatrin enhances the concentration of endogenous GABA by inhibiting GABA-transaminase, while diazepam enhances the efficacy of the endogenous GABA present. As may be expected, the clinical effects of the two drugs overlap: e.g. both have anti-epil

  7. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin as postconsolidation therapy does not prevent relapse in children with AML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Henrik; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    weeks. We randomized 120 patients; 59 to receive GO. Survival was analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. The median follow-up for patients who were alive was 4.2 years. Children who received GO showed modest elevation of transaminase and bilirubin without signs of veno-occlusive disease. Severe...

  8. A novel phenotype of a hepatocyte nuclear factor homeobox A (HNF1A) gene mutation, presenting with neonatal cholestasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Aleida G. M.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Dassel, Anne C. M.; Losekoot, Monique; Duiker, Evelien W.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Bodewes, Frank A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel phenotype of a hepatocyte nuclear factor homeobox A (HNF1A) mutation (heterozygote c.130dup, p.Leu44fs) presenting with transient neonatal cholestasis, subsequently followed by persistent elevation of transaminases, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) type 3 and hepatocellu

  9. Search for rare liver diseases: The case of glycosylation defects mimicking Wilson Disease ->

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Socha, P.; Vajro, P.; Lefeber, D.J.; Adamowicz, M.; Tanner, S.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric hepatology appears to be a very specific field of paediatrics which deals mainly with rare diseases although clinical features can be commonly found - like increased activity of transaminases. Some of these rare diseases like Wilson disease are commonly looked for and recently Wilsonian li

  10. Chromosomal and regional localization of the loci for IGKC, IGGC, ALDB, HOXB, GPT, and PRNP in the American mink (Mustela vison): comparisons with human and mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khlebodarova, TM; Malchenko, Sergey; Matveeva, NM;

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal localization of the genes for gamma- and kappa-immunoglobulins (IGGC and IGKC, respectively), aldolase B (ALDB), prion protein (PRNP), homeo box B (HOXB), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were determined with the use of mink-rodent hybrid cells. Analysis of segregation...

  11. Structural Determinants of the beta-Selectivity of a Bacterial Aminotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wybenga, Gjalt G.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Janssen, Dick B.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2012-01-01

    Chiral beta-amino acids occur as constituents of various natural and synthetic compounds with potentially useful bioactivities. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent S-selective transaminase from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK (MesAT) is a fold type I aminotransferase that can be used for the pre

  12. Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of 2-Phenylpropanal Derivatives to Yield β-Chiral Primary Amines via Bioamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, C.S.; Hollauf, M.; Meissner, M.; Simon, R.C.; Besset, T.; Reek, J.N.H.; Riethorst, W.; Zepeck, F.; Kroutil, W.

    2014-01-01

    The amination of racemic alpha-chiral aldehydes, 2-phenylpropanal derivatives, was investigated employing omega-transaminases. By medium and substrate engineering the optical purity of the resulting β-chiral chiral amine could be enhanced to reach optical purities up to 99% ee. Using enantiocompleme

  13. SwissProt search result: AK243448 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243448 J100069E13 (Q8N5Z0) Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase mitocho...ndrial precursor (KAT/AadAT) (Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase II) (EC 2.6.1.7) (Kynurenine aminotransferase II) (Kynure

  14. EFFECT OF THERAPEUTIC AND DOUBLE THERAPEUTIC DOSES OF IVERMECTIN ON OXIDATIVE STATUS AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafez El-Far

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the biochemical alterations of oxidative status and male sexual hormones, thyroid hormones, cortisol, liver function and kidney function; sixty male New Zealand White rabbits were equally allotted according to their body weight into two groups. Control samples were collected before subcutaneous injection of rabbits by ivermectinin Therapeutic (TD and Double Therapeutic Doses (DTD. After injection blood samples were collected from ear vein at 1st, 3rd and 7th day of experiment and subjected to the biochemical analysis of urea, uric acid, creatinine, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, nitric oxide, total antioxidant capacity, cortisol, testosterone and free testosterone. The obtained data of both TD and DTD revealed a significant increase in urea, uric acid, creatinine, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, nitric oxide, cortisol, testosterone and free testosterone while total antioxidant capacity levels were significantly decreased. From the date data of the current study on TD and DTD with a higher value in the DTD. We can conclude that ivermectin induced deleterious effects on kidneys and hepatic functions, oxidative stress, weight loss and increased testosterone and free testosterone.

  15. Biochemical Studies Of The Effect Of Two Laser Radiation Wavelengths On The Khapra Beetle Trogoderma Granarium Everts (Coleoptera : Dermestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, Mahmoud H.; El-Nozahy, Adel M.; Ahmed, Salwa M. S.; Khalifa, Ibtesam A.

    2007-02-01

    The present work was carried out to evaluate the actual effect of subleathal dosage of LD30 of two different lasers (Argon-ion and CO2 lasers) on the main metabolites, phosphatases enzymes, transaminases, acetylcholinestrase and peroxidases in the one day adult stage of Trogoderma granarium treated as 2-3 days old pupae. Our results clearly indicated that two different wavelengths of laser radiation increased significantly the total proteins content, whereas no significant changes occurred in the total lipids for the two laser radiation wavelenghts. On the other hand the total carbohydrates were significantly decreased when irradiating using CO2 laser wavelength which is not the case for the Argon-ion laser radiation. Significant changes of phosphatases occurred for both wavelengths. Inhibition of transaminases GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases) and insignificant changes of GPT (glutamic pyruvic oxaloacetic transaminases) was observed for both laser wavelengths. Significant inhibition of acetyl cholinestrase was observed using CO2 laser and insignificant changes were recorded for Argon ion laser radiation where as insignificant decrease of peroxideses was observed for both lasers.

  16. Trauma induced thyroid storm complicated by multiple organ failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Kanbay; Aysegul Sengul; Nilgün Güvener

    2005-01-01

    @@ Thyroid storm is a state of severe hyperthyroidism perhaps accompanied by systemic organ decompensation. This is a life threatening condition. In this report, we present a case of thyroid storm caused by trauma, with several atypical features including multiple organ failure, elevated transaminases and acute renal failure. Prompt recognition and treatment is important in limiting the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.

  17. AcEST: DK948950 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ichia coli (strain UTI89 / UPEC) GN=astC PE=3 SV=1 Length = 406 Score = 124 bits (311), Expect = 5e-28 Ident...|Q0TH82|ASTC_ECOL5 Succinylornithine transaminase OS=Escherichia coli O6:K15:H31 (strain 536 / UPEC) GN=astC

  18. Ameliorative effect of Leucas cephalotes extract on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhini Bais; Payal Saiju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate ameliorative effect of alcoholic extract of whole herb of Lucas cephalotes (L. cephalotes) on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Hepatoprotective potential of alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes was ascertained at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were intoxicated with isoniazid and rifampicin (100 mg/kg each, i.p.) for 21 d. Assessment was done on the basis of liver function test (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin);effect on enzymes involved in oxidative stress (lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase) and histology of liver were assessed as well. Comparison among different treatment group was done using One way ANOVA followed by Benferroni’s t test. Results: It was observed that at both of the selected doses extract exhibited significant ameliorative effect. In animals treated with the extract at both doses, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and lipid peroxidase level was found to be significantly less (P Conclusions:From the present study it can be concluded that alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes possesses significant hepatoprotective potential against isoniazid and rifampicin induced heptoxicity.

  19. Liver alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridaemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, RK; Diamant, M; Bakker, SJL; van Dijk, RAJM; Scheffer, PG; Teerlink, T; Kostense, PJ; Heine, RJ

    2005-01-01

    Background Plasma levels of liver transaminases, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), are elevated in most cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated ALT levels are associated with insulin resistance, and subjects with NAFLD have features of the metabolic syndrome that confer h

  20. [Tenofovir and entecavir for chronic hepatitis B infection treatment: a single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Tarsetti

    2015-12-01

    DISCUSSION: Tenofovir seems to exert a better viral replication inhibition (though not statistically significant and to show transaminases improvement in comparison with entecavir, which, in turn, results more effective in HBeAg/HBsAg seroconversion. Both drugs have a high safety profile in terms of side effects. [Article in Italian

  1. [Acute non cholestatic hepatitis as the first manifestation of secondary syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinascente, Chiara; Candela, Giancarlo; Cervero, Miguel; Lobato, Alejandro; Carbonell, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We present a 34 year old male who enter the Digestive Department of the University Hospital Severo Ochoa in Madrid, Spain with jaundice with a great elevation of transaminases in relationship with an infectious syndrome that was correctly diagnosed and treated with a very good outcome.

  2. The Effects of Subacute Exposure of Peracetic Acid on Lipid Peroxidation and Hepatic Enzymes in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoljalal Marjani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the effect of subacute exposure of peracetic acid on lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes in Wistar rats.Methods: 48 male animals in Treatment Group I, II and III received 0.2%, 2% and 20% peracetic acid daily for 2 and 4 weeks.Results: Serum malondialdehyde increased and Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase decreased significantly in groups 2 and 3, compared to the control group. The malondialdehyde, Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase with 0.2% and 2% doses of peracetic acid for 2 weeks do not lead to the alteration of malondialdehyde and enzyme activities.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the enhancement of malondialdehyde could provide an oxidative damage induced by disinfectant peroxidation at 20% and 2% doses at 2 and 4 weeks. The consumption of peroxidation with 20% for 2 weeks and 2% for 4 weeks can cause the increase of malondialdehyde and the decrease of enzyme activities, respectively.

  3. Generalized lymphadenopathy as a marker of ongoing inflammation in prolonged cholestatic hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Ashis; Chandy, George M

    2002-08-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis A are very unusual. We describe a case of prolonged cholestatic hepatitis A in a patient with generalized lymphadenopathy. With normalization of transaminases, there was an accompanying reduction in size of these lymph nodes. Lymphadenopathy reflects ongoing hepatic inflammation in prolonged cholestatic hepatitis A.

  4. Vigabatrin in Low doses Selectively Suppresses the Clonic Component of Audiogenically Kindled Seizures in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinogradova, L.V.; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Shatskova, A.B.; Rijn, C.M. van

    2005-01-01

    The effect of systemic administration of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-transaminase inhibitor vigabatrin (VGB) on different components of convulsions was tested in the model of audiogenically kindled seizures, which consist of brainstem (running, tonus) and forebrain (clonus) elements. METHODS:

  5. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  6. Monitoring the ripening process of Cheddar cheese based on hydrophilic component profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, H; Sakai, Y; Koishihara, H; Abe, F; Bamba, T; Fukusaki, E

    2013-01-01

    We proposed an application methodology that combines metabolic profiling with multiple appropriate multivariate analyses and verified it on the industrial scale of the ripening process of Cheddar cheese to make practical use of hydrophilic low-molecular-weight compound profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to design optimal conditions and quality monitoring of the cheese ripening process. Principal components analysis provided an overview of the effect of sodium chloride content and kind of lactic acid bacteria starter on the metabolic profile in the ripening process of Cheddar cheese and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis unveiled the difference in characteristic metabolites. When the sodium chloride contents were different (1.6 and 0.2%) but the same lactic acid bacteria starter was used, the 2 cheeses were classified by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis from their metabolic profiles, but were not given perfect discrimination. Not much difference existed in the metabolic profile between the 2 cheeses. Compounds including lactose, galactose, lactic acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, and phosphate were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. On the other hand, in the case of the same salt content of 1.6%, but different kinds of lactic acid bacteria starter, an excellent distinctive discrimination model was obtained, which showed that the difference of lactic acid bacteria starter caused an obvious difference in metabolic profiles. Compounds including lactic acid, lactose, urea, 4-aminobutyric acid, galactose, phosphate, proline, isoleucine, glycine, alanine, lysine, leucine, valine, and pyroglutamic acid were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. Then, a good sensory prediction model for "rich flavor," which was defined as "thick and rich, including umami taste and soy sauce-like flavor," was constructed based on the metabolic profile during ripening using partial least

  7. The "Transport Specificity Ratio": a structure-function tool to search the protein fold for loci that control transition state stability in membrane transport catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Steven C

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In establishing structure-function relationships for membrane transport proteins, the interpretation of phenotypic changes can be problematic, owing to uncertainties in protein expression levels, sub-cellular localization, and protein-folding fidelity. A dual-label competitive transport assay called "Transport Specificity Ratio" (TSR analysis has been developed that is simple to perform, and circumvents the "expression problem," providing a reliable TSR phenotype (a constant for comparison to other transporters. Results Using the Escherichia coli GABA (4-aminobutyrate permease (GabP as a model carrier, it is demonstrated that the TSR phenotype is largely independent of assay conditions, exhibiting: (i indifference to the particular substrate concentrations used, (ii indifference to extreme changes (40-fold in transporter expression level, and within broad limits (iii indifference to assay duration. The theoretical underpinnings of TSR analysis predict all of the above observations, supporting that TSR has (i applicability in the analysis of membrane transport, and (ii particular utility in the face of incomplete information on protein expression levels and initial reaction rate intervals (e.g., in high-throughput screening situations. The TSR was used to identify gab permease (GabP variants that exhibit relative changes in catalytic specificity (kcat/Km for [14C]GABA (4-aminobutyrate versus [3H]NA (nipecotic acid. Conclusions The TSR phenotype is an easily measured constant that reflects innate molecular properties of the transition state, and provides a reliable index of the difference in catalytic specificity that a carrier exhibits toward a particular pair of substrates. A change in the TSR phenotype, called a Δ(TSR, represents a specificity shift attributable to underlying changes in the intrinsic substrate binding energy (ΔGb that translocation catalysts rely upon to decrease activation energy (. TSR analysis is

  8. Comparative in silico analysis of butyrate production pathways in gut commensals and pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swadha Anand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of butyrate by commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintenance of human gut health while dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been linked to several enteric disorders. Contrastingly, butyrate shows cytotoxic effects in patients with oral diseases like periodontal infections and oral cancer. In addition to these host associations, few syntrophic bacteria couple butyrate degradation with sulfate reduction and methane production. Thus, it becomes imperative to understand the distribution of butyrate metabolism pathways and delineate differences in substrate utilization between pathogens and commensals.The bacteria utilize four pathways for butyrate production with different initial substrates (Pyruvate, 4-aminobutyrate, Glutarate and Lysine which follow a polyphyletic distribution. A comprehensive mining of complete/draft bacterial genomes indicated conserved juxtaposed genomic arrangement in all these pathways. This gene context information was utilized for an accurate annotation of butyrate production pathways in bacterial genomes. Interestingly, our analysis showed that inspite of a beneficial impact of butyrate in gut, not only commensals, but a few gut pathogens also possess butyrogenic pathways. The results further illustrated that all the gut commensal bacteria (Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Butyrivibrio, commensal species of Clostridia etc ferment pyruvate for butyrate production. On the contrary, the butyrogenic gut pathogen Fusobacterium utilizes different amino acid metabolism pathways like those for Glutamate (4-aminobutyrate and Glutarate and Lysine for butyrogenesis which leads to a concomitant release of harmful by-products like ammonia in the process. The findings in this study indicate that commensals and pathogens in gut have divergently evolved to produce butyrate using distinct pathways. No such evolutionary selection was observed in oral pathogens (Porphyromonas and Filifactor which showed presence of pyruvate as

  9. Comparative In silico Analysis of Butyrate Production Pathways in Gut Commensals and Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Swadha; Kaur, Harrisham; Mande, Sharmila S.

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of butyrate by commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintenance of human gut health while dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been linked to several enteric disorders. Contrastingly, butyrate shows cytotoxic effects in patients with oral diseases like periodontal infections and oral cancer. In addition to these host associations, few syntrophic bacteria couple butyrate degradation with sulfate reduction and methane production. Thus, it becomes imperative to understand the distribution of butyrate metabolism pathways and delineate differences in substrate utilization between pathogens and commensals. The bacteria utilize four pathways for butyrate production with different initial substrates (Pyruvate, 4-aminobutyrate, Glutarate and Lysine) which follow a polyphyletic distribution. A comprehensive mining of complete/draft bacterial genomes indicated conserved juxtaposed genomic arrangement in all these pathways. This gene context information was utilized for an accurate annotation of butyrate production pathways in bacterial genomes. Interestingly, our analysis showed that inspite of a beneficial impact of butyrate in gut, not only commensals, but a few gut pathogens also possess butyrogenic pathways. The results further illustrated that all the gut commensal bacteria (Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Butyrivibrio, and commensal species of Clostridia etc) ferment pyruvate for butyrate production. On the contrary, the butyrogenic gut pathogen Fusobacterium utilizes different amino acid metabolism pathways like those for Glutamate (4-aminobutyrate and Glutarate) and Lysine for butyrogenesis which leads to a concomitant release of harmful by-products like ammonia in the process. The findings in this study indicate that commensals and pathogens in gut have divergently evolved to produce butyrate using distinct pathways. No such evolutionary selection was observed in oral pathogens (Porphyromonas and Filifactor) which showed presence of pyruvate as well as

  10. A new monoterpene acid from Marrubium vulgare with potential antihepatotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bahar; Masoodi, Mubashir H; Siddique, Anwarul H; Khan, Shamshir

    2010-11-01

    The whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. afforded a new terpenoid, characterised as p-menthane-5,6-dihydroxy-3-carboxylic acid (1), which has been designated as marrubic acid. Its structure has been elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical analyses. The compound (1) also exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) by 40.16%, serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) by 35.06%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 30.51%. On the other hand, total protein (TP) levels were increased by 34.07%, as compared to the standard drug silymarin, which decreased SGOT by 53.04%, SGPT by 55.96%, ALP by 35.87% and increased TP levels by 59.59%. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by histopathological examinations of liver sections.

  11. Protective role of food supplement Spirulina fusiformis in chemical induced hepatotoxicity: A Bromobenzene model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Prince Sabina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the efficacy of Spirulina fusiformis in protecting against chemical induced hepatotoxicity in rats using Bromobenzene as the candidate toxin. A single oral dose of bromobenzene (BB (10mmol/kg b.w. resulted in significant (p< 0.05 decrease in antioxidant levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidese, total reduced glutathione and total protein, and significant (p< 0.05 increase in the levels of serum bilirubin, liver enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicating the induction of hepatotoxicity. Spirulina fusiformis (400 mg/kg b.w was orally administered for 8 days prior to the administration of BB and was seen to protect the above parameters from significant changes upon challenge with bromobenzene. This was also confirmed by the histological examination of liver tissues after sacrifice. The protective effect of Spirulina fusiformis was comparable to that of the standard hepatoprotective drug sylimarin.

  12. A Biochemical Logic Approach to Biomarker-Activated Drug Release

    CERN Document Server

    Bocharova, V; MacVittie, K; Arugula, M A; Guz, N V; Dokukin, M E; Halamek, J; Sokolov, I; Privman, V; Katz, E; 10.1039/C2JM32966B

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at integrating drug-releasing materials with signal-processing biocomputing systems. Enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)---biomarkers for liver injury---were logically processed by a biocatalytic cascade realizing Boolean AND gate. Citrate produced in the system was used to trigger a drug-mimicking release from alginate microspheres. In order to differentiate low vs. high concentration signals, the microspheres were coated with a protective shell composed of layer-by-layer adsorbed poly(L-lysine) and alginate. The alginate core of the microspheres was prepared from (Fe3+)-cross-linked alginate loaded with rhodamine 6G dye mimicking a drug. Dye release from the core occurred only when both biomarkers, ALT and AST, appeared at their high pathophysiological concentrations jointly indicative of liver injury. The signal-triggered response was studied at the level of a single microsphere, yielding information on the dye release kinetics.

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of Chenopodium murale in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of drugs has its roots in medicinal plants that appeal researchers to identify new therapeutical entities from plants. The current study was conducted to determine its hepatoprotective activity. The results showed that aqueous methanolic extract of Chenopodium murale (200 and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.001 decrease in paracetamol induced increased levels of liver enzymes (alanin transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These findings were further supported by histopathological investigations by microscope and detection of phytoconstituents having hepatoprotective potential e.g. qurecetin, kaempferol and gallic acid by HPLC. Conclusively aqueous methanolic extract of C. murale possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Amomum subulatum Roxb against ethanol-induced liver damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Mihir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb (Zingiberaceae seeds was studied against 20 % ethanol (3.76 g/kg/days, p.o for 18 days induced liver damage in rats. Ethanol produced significant changes in various liver parameters such as functional (thiopentone-induced sleeping time and physical (increased liver weight and volume. It also increased the biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and decreased total protein along with changes in histological parameters (damage to hepatocytes. Treatment with methanolic extract of A. subulatum (100 and 300 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 18 days and silymarin significantly prevented the functional, physical, biochemical and histological changes induced by ethanol, indicating the recovery of hepatic cells. These results demonstrate that methanolic extract of A. subulatum seeds possessed the hepatoprotective activity.

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Tylophora indica (Burm. f. Merill. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Tylophora indica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters like Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, total protein and level of serum bilirubin (both total and direct. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight, i.p., was compared with Silymarin (25 mg/kg, i.p. treated animals. Tylophora indica leaves (200 and 300 mg/kg exhibited significant reduction in serum hepatic enzymes when compared to rats treated with carbon tetrachloride alone. Furthermore, histopathological studies were also done to support the study.

  16. Antihepatotoxic effect of isolated chitin from Rhizopus oryzae against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Ramanathan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the antihepatotoxic activity of isolated fungal chitin, a natural polysaccharide from Rhizopus oryzae NCIM1009 against paracetamol-induced toxicity in rats. Changes in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic injury such as serum glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyuruvic transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and total protein were determined in both treated and control group of rats. The effect of fungal chitin was compared with that of silymarin (25 mg/kg. The results showed that paracetamol (750 mg/kg elevated the levels of biomarkers enzymes. Treatment with fungal chitin (200 mg/kg brought the marker level near to normal and showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Acute toxicity studies of fungal chitin was carried out and found safe up to 2,000 mg/kg. The isolated fungal chitin was characterized by IR spectroscopy and compared with commercial chitin.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Mussaenda philippica (stems against anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalatha Reddy Dugasani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Mussaenda philippica against isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats. Six groups of six rat were selected for the study. Methanolic extract of Mussaendaphilippicaat a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg as well as silymarin (50 mg/kg were administered orally once daily for 14 d in isoniazid and rifampicin group. The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin were estimated along with total protein. Histopathological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver. The altered biochemical parameters were significantly reverting back by the methanolic extract treatment. Histopathology also supported the biochemical variation. From this study it has been concluded that the methanolic extract of Mussaendaphilippicashows significant hepatoprotective activity.

  18. Hepatoprotective activity studies of herbal formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble Manisha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional system of medicine recommends various hepatoprotective agents and preparations to treat hepatic disorders. Polyherbal formulations F1 and F2 were developed for treatment of liver disorders by exploiting the knowledge of traditional system of medicine and evaluated for hepatoprotective activity using acute liver toxicity models of CCl 4 and Paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. The rats were monitored for morphological changes in liver, biochemical parameter Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase, Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase, Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, and Serum bilirubin, histopathological studies, and pentobarbitone sleeping time. Both of these formulations F1 and F2 showed significant hepatoprotective activity at dose of 400 mg/kg, which was comparable to silymarin at 6 mg/kg. Formulations F1 and F2 are effective both as prophylactic and therapeutic in experimental liver damage. Biochemical parameters showed better results for formulation F2 but morphological, pentobarbitone sleeping time and hisptopathological observation were similar for both the groups.

  19. Metreleptin Treatment in Patients with Non-HIV Associated Lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gulcin; Akinci, Baris

    2015-01-01

    Lipodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by congenital or acquired loss of adipose tissue. Recently, metreleptin, a recombinant human leptin analog, has been approved for the treatment of patients with generalized lipodystrophy. Leptin is an adipokine which has a fundamental role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Metreleptin treatment has been demonstrated to improve metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased hepatic fat content and elevated liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in patients with generalized lipodystrophy, and to correct hyperphagia that likely occurs as a result of leptin deficiency. Limited data has also suggested that metreleptin treatment might be beneficial on metabolic abnormalities in patients with partial lipodystrophy. This review focuses on potential benefits of metreleptin in various forms of non-HIV associated lipodystrophy. Safety issues have been discussed. Recent patent submissions have also been reviewed.

  20. Linkage relationships among five enzyme-coding gene loci in the copepod Tigriopus californicus: a genetic confirmation of achiasmiatic meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R S; Feldman, M W; Swisher, S G

    1981-12-01

    Linkage relationships among five polymorphic enzyme-coding gene loci in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus have been determined using electrophoretic analysis of progeny from laboratory matings. Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI; EC 5.3.1.9) was found to be tightly linked to glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT; EC 2.6..1.2), with only one recombinant observed in 364 progeny; glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT; EC 2.6.1.1) is linked to the PGI-GPT pair, with a recombination fraction of approximately 0.20 in male double heterozygotes. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; EC 2.7.5.1) and an esterase (EST; EC 3.1.1.1) are not linked to the PGI, GPT, GOT grouping, which has been designated linkage group I. Reciprocal crosses have revealed that no recombination occurs in female T. californicus; this observation confirms a previous report that meiosis in female Tigriopus is achiasmatic.

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Tridax procumbens against d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2005-10-03

    The hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Tridax procumbens was investigated against d-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (d-GalN/LPS) induced hepatitis in rats. d-GalN/LPS (300 mg/kg body weight/30 microg/kg body weight)-induced hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase) and bilirubin level in serum and lipids both in serum and liver. Pretreatment of rats with a chloroform insoluble fraction from ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens reversed these altered parameters to normal values. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Results of this study revealed that Tridax procumbens could afford a significant protection in the alleviation of d-GalN/LPS-induced hepatocellular injury.

  2. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the roots of Hibiscus esculentus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunilson J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Hibiscus esculentus Linn roots inhibited the formation of oxygen derived free radicals invitro with IC 50 of 620 µg/ml, 2300 µg/ml, 870 µg/ml and 610 µg/ml. [Fe 2+ /ascobate system], 730 µg/ml, [Fe 3+ /ADP/ascorbate system], for superoxide radical production, hydroxyl radical generation, nitric oxide radical formation and lipid peroxide formation respectively. The oral administration of the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, significantly reduce CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, as judged from the serum and tissue activity of marker enzymes [Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]. These results were comparable with standard drug silymarin [20 mg/kg, P.O.

  3. Oxygen and nitrate in utilization by Bacillus licheniformis of the arginase and arginine deiminase routes of arginine catabolism and other factors affecting their syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, K; Lauwers, N; Stalon, V; Wiame, J M

    1978-09-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has two pathways of arginine catabolism. In well-aerated cultures, the arginase route is present, and levels of catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase were low. An arginase pathway-deficient mutant, BL196, failed to grow on arginine as a nitrogen source under these conditions. In anaerobiosis, the wild type contained very low levels of arginase and ornithine transaminase. BL196 grew normally on glucose plus arginine in anaerobiosis and, like the wild type, had appreciable levels of catabolic transferase. Nitrate, like oxygen, repressed ornithine carbamoyltransferase and stimulated arginase synthesis. In aerobic cultures, arginase was repressed by glutamine in the presence of glucose, but not when the carbon-energy source was poor. In anaerobic cultures, ammonia repressed catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase, but glutamate and glutamine stimulated its synthesis. A second mutant, derived from BL196, retained the low arginase and ornithine transaminase levels of BL196 but produced high levels of deiminase pathway enzymes in the presence of oxygen.

  4. Hepatic Failure in a Patient Receiving Itraconazole for Pulmonary Histoplasmosis-Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Natasha N; Pisano, Jennifer; Weber, Stephen; Ridgway, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Severe cases of itraconazole-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported; however, these events are thought to occur very rarely. The available literature is comprised largely of individual case reports and small series that do not report the itraconazole serum concentration at the time of the severe adverse event or apply an objective scale to assess probability of the event being related to drug exposure. We report a case of severe hepatotoxicity after 6 months of itraconazole therapy for histoplasmosis, resulting in acute hepatic failure (aspartate transaminase >20× and alanine transaminase >15× upper limit normal), in the setting of therapeutic serum concentrations (5 mg/mL). Both the Naranjo probability scale and the Roussel Uclaf causality assessment method were used to assess the probability of a causality relationship showing a "probable" and "highly probable" association with itraconazole exposure, respectively. The available literature describing severe hepatotoxicity resulting in hepatic failure associated with itraconazole is also reviewed.

  5. Polymeric nanocapsules as a technological alternative to reduce the toxicity caused by meloxicam in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Benonio T; Ianiski, Francine R; Vogt, Ane G; Pinz, Mikaela P; Reis, Angélica S; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Soares, Mauro P; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Luchese, Cristiane

    2016-11-01

    This study determined whether meloxicam in nanocapsules modifies stomach and liver damage caused by free meloxicam in mice. Male Swiss mice were treated with blank nanocapsules or meloxicam in nanocapsules or free meloxicam (10 mg/kg, intragastrically, daily for five days). On the seventh day, blood was collected to determine biochemical markers (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, albumin and alkaline phosphatase). Stomachs and livers were removed for histological analysis. There was no significant difference in the biochemical markers in the plasma of mice. Meloxicam in nanocapsules did not have an ulcerogenic potential in the stomach or cause lipid peroxidation in the stomach and liver. Free meloxicam increased the ulcerogenic potential in the stomach and lipid peroxidation in the stomach and liver. Meloxicam in nanocapsules caused less histological changes than free meloxicam. In conclusion, polymeric nanocapsules can represent a technological alternative to reduce the toxicity caused by meloxicam.

  6. Recommended Nordic paediatric reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Linda; Rustad, Pål; Aksglæde, Lise;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Paediatric reference intervals based on samples from healthy children are difficult to establish and consequently data are often from hospitalized children. Furthermore, biases may present in published data due to differences in the analytical methods employed. Blood samples from 1429...... healthy Danish children were collected for establishing reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties (Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatine kinase, HDL-Cholesterol, Iron, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL...... values of X for the properties and statistical calculations carried out as performed in the NORIP study. Thus commutable (regarding analytical method) reference intervals for 20 properties were established and for LDL-Cholesterol reference intervals were reported for the specific analytical method...

  7. Protective effect of Tamarindus indica linn against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimple B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of Tamarindus indica Linn (Caesalpiniaceae was evaluated by intoxicating the rats with paracetamol (1 g/kg p.o. for seven days. The aqueous extracts of different parts of Tamarindus indica such as fruits, leaves (350 mg/kg p.o. and unroasted seeds (700 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 9 days after the third dose of paracetamol. Biochemical estimations such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein were recorded on 4 th and 13 th day. Liver weight variation, thiopentone-induced sleeping time and histopathology were studied on 13 th day. Silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o. was used as a standard. A significant hepatoregenerative effect was observed for the aqueous extracts of tamarind leaves, fruits and unroasted seeds (p< 0.05 as judged from the parameters studied.

  8. Croton zehntneri Essential oil prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti R. Queiroz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective activity of Croton zehntneri Pax & Hoffman (Euphorbiaceae leaf essential oil (EOCz was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (500 mg/kg, p.o. acute hepatotoxicity in mice. EOCz significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activities, that were significantly (p<0.01 elevated in the acetaminophen alone treated animals. Histopathological examinations of liver tissue corroborated well with the biochemical changes. Hepatic steatosis, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed in the acetaminophen treated group, while these were completely absent in the standard and EOCz treated groups. In conclusion, these data suggest that the Croton zehntneri essential oil can prevent hepatic injuries from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  9. The Challenges of Diagnosing and Following Wilson Disease in the Presence of Proteinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Soofia; Schilsky, Michael; Silber, Gary; Morgenstern, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of Wilson disease with Alport syndrome has not previously been reported. The diagnosis of Wilson disease and its ongoing monitoring is challenging when associated with an underlying renal disease such as Alport syndrome. Proteinuria can lead to low ceruloplasmin since it is among serum proteins inappropriately filtered by the damaged glomerulus, and can also lead to increased urinary loss of heavy metals such as zinc and copper. Elevated transaminases may be attributed to dyslipidemia or drug induced hepatotoxicity. The accurate diagnosis of Wilson disease is essential for targeted therapy and improved prognosis. We describe a patient with a diagnosis of Alport syndrome who has had chronic elevation of transaminases eventually diagnosed with Wilson disease based on liver histology and genetics. PMID:27437191

  10. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of 2-(4-[(2-hydroxybenzyl) amino]-phenyl amino-methyl)-phenol in STZ induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirasanagandla, Swapna; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Shaik, Abdul Nabi; Natava, Rajesh; Surtineni, Venkata Prasad; Cirradur, Suresh Reddy; Chippada, Apparao

    2013-08-01

    Oral administration of 2-(4-[(2-hydroxybenzyl) amino]-phenyl amino-methyl)-phenol (HBPMP) (30 mg/kg) to Streptozotocin (STZ) rats produced significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of HBPMP administration. Treatment of the STZ rats with HBPMP (30 mg/kg/day) for 30 days resulted in a significant decrease in their Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), Serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) along with an increase in serum High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Activities of Serum Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of blood urea and creatinine were improved to near normal levels in the treated STZ rats indicating the protective role of the HBPMP against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. In conclusion, HBPMP possesses antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities.

  11. The Challenges of Diagnosing and Following Wilson Disease in the Presence of Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Soofia; Schilsky, Michael; Silber, Gary; Morgenstern, Bruce; Miloh, Tamir

    2016-06-01

    The coexistence of Wilson disease with Alport syndrome has not previously been reported. The diagnosis of Wilson disease and its ongoing monitoring is challenging when associated with an underlying renal disease such as Alport syndrome. Proteinuria can lead to low ceruloplasmin since it is among serum proteins inappropriately filtered by the damaged glomerulus, and can also lead to increased urinary loss of heavy metals such as zinc and copper. Elevated transaminases may be attributed to dyslipidemia or drug induced hepatotoxicity. The accurate diagnosis of Wilson disease is essential for targeted therapy and improved prognosis. We describe a patient with a diagnosis of Alport syndrome who has had chronic elevation of transaminases eventually diagnosed with Wilson disease based on liver histology and genetics.

  12. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  13. An easy method for diagnosing macro-aspartate aminotransferase: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beşer, Omer Faruk; Laçinel, Sibel; Gülcü, Didem; Kutlu, Tufan; Cullu Çokuğraş, Fügen; Erkan, Tülay

    2014-10-01

    Macro-aspartate transaminase (macro-AST) must be considered when the aspartate transaminase (AST) level is chronically high without any liver, cardiac, or muscle disease. Many specialized laboratory techniques have been recommended for diagnosing macro-AST, including the polyethylene glycol immune precipitate technique, which is simple. This study presents a considerably easier method based on the studies of Davidson and Watson and Castiella et al. Our method is based on the decrease in the plasma AST level after storage of the macroenzyme at 2-8 °C for 5 days, and has the advantages of low cost, reliability, and practicality at any health center. In our eight cases of macro-AST, the AST activity at day 6 had decreased by more than 50% from day 1. This method is practical for primary healthcare facilities because of its easy application and accurate results, and obviated the need for unnecessary tests after diagnosis.

  14. Enoxaparin-induced hepatotoxicity: an under-recognised complication of enoxaparin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarnik, Katie Ann; Schiffman, Fred; Sullivan, James; Finn, Arkadiy

    2016-09-23

    Low-molecular-weight heparins including enoxaparin are commonly used for anticoagulation as prophylaxis and treatment for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Prescribers of enoxaparin monitor for common side effects, such as bleeding and thrombocytopenia, but hepatotoxicity, a less common and under-reported adverse effect, may be overlooked. This report describes a case of enoxaparin-induced hepatotoxicity in a 57-year-old man who was started on the drug for a DVT. Within 3 days of taking enoxaparin, elevated transaminases were noted, and the drug was discontinued after 6 days. Similar to other published reports, the patient's transaminases peaked 1 day after discontinuation of the drug and then trended down to normal over 32 days.

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera on antitubercular drug-induced liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, L; Kumar, N Ashok

    2002-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae), commonly known as "Drumstick," is used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of various illness. We have evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves on liver damage induced by antitubercular drugs such as isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), and pyrazinamide (PZA) in rats. Oral administration of the extract showed a significant protective action made evident by its effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (alanine aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin in the serum; lipids, and lipid peroxidation levels in liver. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The results of this study showed that treatment with M. oleifera extracts or silymarin (as a reference) appears to enhance the recovery from hepatic damage induced by antitubercular drugs.

  16. Toxicity of gentamicin in red-tailed hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J E; Walser, M M; Duke, G E

    1983-07-01

    Gentamicin sulfate at dosage levels of 10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight was administered twice daily IV to red-tailed hawks. Clinical signs, water consumption, and changes in blood chemical values were monitored. Tissues were examined grossly and ultrastructurally, using light and electron microscopy. Clinical signs of weakness and apnea were attributed to gentamicin-induced neuromuscular blockade in the 20-mg/kg group. Serum values of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, albumin, and uric acid increased in some birds. There was a decrease in periodic acid-Schiff staining of proximal tubular brush borders. Increased numbers of cytoplasmic lysosomes, many of which contained myelin figures, in renal epithelial cells were seen at the ultrastructural level. All birds given 20 mg/kg died. Both dosage levels were considered toxic in red-tailed hawks.

  17. Mean platelet volume in children with Reye-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Ahmet; Kilicaslan, Cengizhan; Solak, Ece Selma; Arslan, Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Reye-like syndrome (RLS) is considered to be a systemic disorder in which the cytokine storm plays a major role. Mean platelet volume (MPV), which is commonly used as a measure of platelet size, indicates the rate of platelet production and platelet activation. We aimed to study MPV in children with RLS. The study population consisted of 30 children with RLS and 30 healthy control subjects. White blood cell (WBC) count, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) values were significantly higher and MPV values were significantly lower in patients with RLS at an early stage of illness when compared to controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein, AST and ALT values were significantly decreased in patients with RLS after the treatment when compared to baseline whereas MPV values were increased. MPV values were negatively correlated with ESR and WBC. In conclusion, at an early stage of RLS MPV values were lower when compared to controls.

  18. GROSS TOXICITIES AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ALOE VERA (L BURM.F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Sultana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal drugs have a great demand in under developed countries due to their efficacy, low cost and lesser adverse effects, and they are considered to be “natural. Aloe vera at the dose of 500 mg body weight per oral was studied for the gross toxicities and hepatoprotective effect and observed the level of liver biochemical parameters in rabbits. Aloe vera showed highly significant (p<0.001 hepatoprotective effect by lowering the serum levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvates transaminase (SGPT and direct bilirubin. The overall experimental results suggests that Aloe vera protects the liver from oxidative stress and inhibits the excessive free radicals accumulation and possessing many hepatoprotective phytoconstituents which are biologically active such as flavonoids, alkaloids, they may be responsible for the significant hepatoprotective activity and the results justify the use of Aloe vera as a hepatoprotective agent.

  19. Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 significantly reduces complications of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Wacim; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Riadh; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 for preventing alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The oral administration of this probiotic was noted to significantly improve the immunological parameters, protect the pancreatic tissues, and reduce the pancreatic and plasmatic α-amylase activities and level of plasma glucose in the treated as compared to the control group of rats. Furthermore, this probiotic treatment was observed to markedly reduce pancreatic and plasmatic lipase activities and serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol rates and to increase the level of HDL-Cholesterol. It also exerted efficient protective effects on the liver and kidney functions evidenced by significant decreases in serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, as well as creatinine and urea contents. Taken together, the findings indicate that L. plantarum TN627 exhibits attractive in vivo antidiabetic effects that may be helpful in preventing diabetic complications in adult rats.

  20. Brewers’ Rice: A By-Product from Rice Processing Provides Natural Hepatorenal Protection in Azoxymethane-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Ling Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewers’ rice, which is known locally as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Our present study was designed to identify the effect of brewers’ rice on the attenuation of liver and kidney damage induced by azoxymethane (AOM. Alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, and urea were evaluated to understand potential hepatoprotective effects and the ability of brewers’ rice to attenuate kidney pathology induced by AOM treatment. Liver and kidney tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Overall analyses revealed that brewers’ rice improved the levels of serum markers in a manner associated with better histopathological outcomes, which indicated that brewers’ rice could enhance recovery from hepatocyte and kidney damage. Taken together, these results suggest that brewers’ rice could be used in future applications to combat liver and kidney disease.

  1. Phytochemical investigation and hepatoprotective activity of Cupressus sempervirens L. leaves growing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nabaweya Ali; El-Seedi, Hesham Rushdey; Mohammed, Magdy Mostafa Desoky

    2007-08-01

    Three phenolic compounds cosmosiin, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid were isolated for the first time from the leaves of Cupressus sempervirens L., together with cupressuflavone, amentoflavone, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, myricitrin. The isolated compounds were identified using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra. The hepatoprotective activity of the MeOH extract was carried out in liver homogenate of normal and CCl(4)-treated rats; a significant decrease in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol level, and triglycerides, while a significant increase in the total protein level, was observed after the oral administration of MeOH extract. The free radical scavenging activity against stable 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) was measured for MeOH extract and some of the isolated phenolic compounds in comparison with alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxy toluene as standard antioxidants using ESR technique, showed high antioxidant activity for quercetin, rutin, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid.

  2. Do differences in chemical composition of stem and cap of Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies correlate with topsoil type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Stanisław; Wieczorek, Piotr P; Halama, Marek; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Kafarski, Paweł; Poliwoda, Anna; Młynarz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) was investigated using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The caps and stems were studied separately, revealing different metabolic compositions. Additionally, multivariate data analyses of the fungal basidiomata and the type of soil were performed. Compared to the stems, A. muscaria caps exhibited higher concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, threonine, lipids (mainly free fatty acids), choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), acetate, adenosine, uridine, 4-aminobutyrate, 6-hydroxynicotinate, quinolinate, UDP-carbohydrate and glycerol. Conversely, they exhibited lower concentrations of formate, fumarate, trehalose, α- and β-glucose. Six metabolites, malate, succinate, gluconate, N-acetylated compounds (NAC), tyrosine and phenylalanine, were detected in whole A. muscaria fruiting bodies but did not show significant differences in their levels between caps and stems (P value>0.05 and/or OPLS-DA loading correlation coefficient muscaria from mineral and mineral-organic topsoil. Moreover, the metabolomic approach and multivariate tools enabled to ascribe the basidiomata of fly agaric to the type of topsoil. Obtained results revealed that stems metabolome is more dependent on the topsoil type than caps. The correlation between metabolites and topsoil contents together with its properties exhibited mutual dependences.

  3. Do differences in chemical composition of stem and cap of Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies correlate with topsoil type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Deja

    Full Text Available Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria was investigated using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The caps and stems were studied separately, revealing different metabolic compositions. Additionally, multivariate data analyses of the fungal basidiomata and the type of soil were performed. Compared to the stems, A. muscaria caps exhibited higher concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, threonine, lipids (mainly free fatty acids, choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, acetate, adenosine, uridine, 4-aminobutyrate, 6-hydroxynicotinate, quinolinate, UDP-carbohydrate and glycerol. Conversely, they exhibited lower concentrations of formate, fumarate, trehalose, α- and β-glucose. Six metabolites, malate, succinate, gluconate, N-acetylated compounds (NAC, tyrosine and phenylalanine, were detected in whole A. muscaria fruiting bodies but did not show significant differences in their levels between caps and stems (P value>0.05 and/or OPLS-DA loading correlation coefficient <0.4. This methodology allowed for the differentiation between the fruiting bodies of A. muscaria from mineral and mineral-organic topsoil. Moreover, the metabolomic approach and multivariate tools enabled to ascribe the basidiomata of fly agaric to the type of topsoil. Obtained results revealed that stems metabolome is more dependent on the topsoil type than caps. The correlation between metabolites and topsoil contents together with its properties exhibited mutual dependences.

  4. NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature. In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine, succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals.

  5. NMR Metabolomics Show Evidence for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selen, Ebru Selin; Bolandnazar, Zeinab; Tonelli, Marco; Bütz, Daniel E; Haviland, Julia A; Porter, Warren P; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M

    2015-08-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. Mice prenatally treated with glucocorticoids exhibit metabolic disturbances that are similar to those seen in women with PCOS. We used an untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach to understand the metabolic changes occurring in the plasma and kidney over time in female glucocorticoid-treated (GC-treated) mice. There are significant changes in plasma amino acid levels (valine, tyrosine, and proline) and their intermediates (2-hydroxybutyrate, 4-aminobutyrate, and taurine), whereas in kidneys, the TCA cycle metabolism (citrate, fumarate, and succinate) and the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway products (inosine and uracil) are significantly altered (p metabolic substrates in the plasma and kidneys of treated mice are associated with altered amino acid metabolism, increased cytoplasmic PP, and increased mitochondrial activity, leading to a more oxidized state. This study identifies biomarkers associated with metabolic dysfunction in kidney mitochondria of a prenatal gluococorticoid-treated mouse model of PCOS that may be used as early predictive biomarkers of oxidative stress in the PCOS metabolic disorder in women.

  6. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huifeng; JI Chenglong; WANG Qing; LIU Xiaoli; ZHAO Jianmin; FENG Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology.Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however,little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees.In this study,we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology.Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities.In addition,we found that hypotaurine,malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills,while alanine,arginine,glutamate,succinate,4-aminobutyrate,taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills.Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn,as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles,but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn.Therefore,we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution,whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  7. Surface Design in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Effects of Zwitterionic Co-adsorbents on Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-07-10

    In solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) charge recombination at the dye-hole transporting material interface plays a critical role in the cell efficiency. For the first time we report on the influence of dipolar coadsorbents on the photovoltaic performance of sensitized hetero-junction solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of two zwitterionic butyric acid derivatives differing only in the polar moiety attached to their common 4 carbon-chain acid, i.e., 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) and 4-aminobutyric acid (ABA). These two molecules were implemented as coadsorbents in conjunction with Z907Na dye on the SSDSC. It was found that a Z907Na/GBA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases both the open circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current density ( Jsc) as compared to using Z907Na dye alone. The Z907Na/ABA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases the Jsc. Impedance and transient photovoltage investigations elucidate the cause of these remarkable observations. ©2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Impaired glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission by amitraz in primary hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Javier; Frejo, María Teresa; Baselga, María José Anadon; Moyano, Paula; Díaz, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Amitraz is a formamidine pesticide that has been reported to be a neurotoxic compound that induces convulsions among other effects. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated mainly by glutamate and GABA, respectively, so their alteration could be responsible for induction of seizures. In this regard, amitraz α2 adrenergic agonist action, which has been suggested as likely responsible for this effect, could alter these neurotransmitter systems and lead to seizure induction. Moreover, other amitraz mechanisms such as histamine H1 receptor inhibition could be involved. To confirm if amitraz disrupts glutamatergic/GABAergic transmission by these mechanisms, we evaluated, in primary hippocampal neurons, the effect of amitraz (0.01 μM to 100 μM) with or without the α2 adrenergic antagonist idazoxan (1 μM) and/or the H1 receptor agonist n-methylhistaprodifen (30 μM) co-treatment on 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65), succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase and glutaminase gene expression and on glutamate and GABA levels after 24h treatment. We observed that amitraz disrupts glutaminase and GAD 65 gene expression, altering glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission. These effects were mediated partially by H1 and α2 receptors suggesting that other mechanisms could be involved. These data could help explain the mechanism by which amitraz induces seizures and provide a therapeutic strategy to protect against this effect in case of poisoning.

  9. Novel Route for Agmatine Catabolism in Aspergillus niger Involves 4-Guanidinobutyrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Saragadam, Tejaswani; Punekar, Narayan S

    2015-08-15

    Agmatine, a significant polyamine in bacteria and plants, mostly arises from the decarboxylation of arginine. The functional importance of agmatine in fungi is poorly understood. The metabolism of agmatine and related guanidinium group-containing compounds in Aspergillus niger was explored through growth, metabolite, and enzyme studies. The fungus was able to metabolize and grow on l-arginine, agmatine, or 4-guanidinobutyrate as the sole nitrogen source. Whereas arginase defined the only route for arginine catabolism, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches suggested the absence of arginine decarboxylase in A. niger. Efficient utilization by the parent strain and also by its arginase knockout implied an arginase-independent catabolic route for agmatine. Urea and 4-guanidinobutyrate were detected in the spent medium during growth on agmatine. The agmatine-grown A. niger mycelia contained significant levels of amine oxidase, 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-guanidinobutyrase (GBase), and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, but no agmatinase activity was detected. Taken together, the results support a novel route for agmatine utilization in A. niger. The catabolism of agmatine by way of 4-guanidinobutyrate to 4-aminobutyrate into the Krebs cycle is the first report of such a pathway in any organism. A. niger GBase peptide fragments were identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The corresponding open reading frame from the A. niger NCIM 565 genome was located and cloned. Subsequent expression of GBase in both Escherichia coli and A. niger along with its disruption in A. niger functionally defined the GBase locus (gbu) in the A. niger genome.

  10. Biofuel and chemical production by recombinant microorganisms via fermentation of proteinaceous biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung; Yan, Yajun; Huo, Yixin

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are metabolically modified microorganisms characterized by having an increased keto-acid flux when compared with the wild-type organism and comprising at least one polynucleotide encoding an enzyme that when expressed results in the production of a greater quantity of a chemical product when compared with the wild-type organism. The recombinant microorganisms are useful for producing a large number of chemical compositions from various nitrogen containing biomass compositions and other carbon sources. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing alcohols, acetaldehyde, acetate, isobutyraldehyde, isobutyric acid, n-butyraldehyde, n-butyric acid, 2-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 2-methyl-1-butyric acid, 3-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butyric acid, ammonia, ammonium, amino acids, 2,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediamine, isobutene, itaconate, acetoin, acetone, isobutene, 1,5-diaminopentane, L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, shikimic acid, mevalonate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), isoprenoids, fatty acids, homoalanine, 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA), succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid, adipic acid, p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, tetrahydrofuran, 3-methyl-tetrahydrofuran, gamma-butyrolactone, pyrrolidinone, n-methylpyrrolidone, aspartic acid, lysine, cadeverine, 2-ketoadipic acid, and/or S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) from a suitable nitrogen rich biomass.

  11. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  12. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract ofZiziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill roots against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ch V Rao; AKS Rawat; Anil P Singh; Arpita Singh; Neeraj Verma

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic (50%) extract ofZiziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill (Z. oenoplia) root against isoniazid(INH) and rifampicin(RIF) induced liver damage in animal models.Methods: Five groups of six rats each were selected for the study. Ethanolic extract at a dose of 150 and300 mg/kg as well as silymarin (100 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for21d in INH + RIF treated groups. The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and hepatic melondialdehyde formation. Histopathological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver.Result: The considerably elevated serum enzymatic activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin due toINH + RIF treatment were restored towards normal in a dose dependent manner after the treatment with ethanolic extract of Z. oenopliaroots. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were also restored towards normal dose dependently. In addition, ethanolic extract also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation in the liver ofINH + RIF intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections.Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. oenoplia has a potent hepatoprotective action againstINH + RIF induced hepatic damage in rats.

  13. THE EFFECT OF A NEW SALICYLIC ACID SYNTHESIS COMPOUNDS ADMINISTRATION ON SERUM TRANSAMINASIS

    OpenAIRE

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2013-01-01

    The chemical synthesis product is the amide of chlorine salicylic acid andsulphanilamide (5ClSA-SA). This research had as objective the effect of this productfrom salicylic acid class as a potential medicine on the serum transaminasis activity.5ClSA-SA has been administrated intraperitoneal to Wistar rats for 7 daysconsecutively determining ALT and AST transaminasis activities after 5 and 7 days.Serum transaminases had high values compared to the control sample (220% ASTand 237% ALT).This syn...

  14. Effects of ethylenediamine on morphine analgesia and tolerance-dependence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediamine, a GABA receptor agonist induced a small hyperalgesic state in mice, but increased morphine analgesia. The interaction with this morphine effect was not dose-dependent. Ethylenediamine significantly antagonized tolerance development at relatively low doses (5-10 mg/kg). The GABA mimetic agent increased the frequency of abstinence signs in the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in mice. The effect of ethylenediamine on morphine withdrawal was suppressed by the irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, gamma-vinyl GABA.

  15. Electrophoretic method for the determination of the proportion of gamma-aminobutyric acid in a mixture of labeled neurotransmitter and its catabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupello, A.; Rapallino, M.V.; Besio, G.; Mainardi, P.

    1987-01-01

    An electrophoretic method for the separation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from its metabolites after GABA-transaminase attack is presented. The method is based on the fact that at neutral pH GABA has no net electrical charge, whereas its major metabolites, succinic acid and Krebs cycle intermediates, are negatively charged. The method appears to be especially suitable for evaluation of true-labeled neurotransmitter within the radioactivity which is found in synaptosomes after labeled GABA-uptake studies.

  16. Púrpura trombocitopénico inmune asociado a infección por virus hepatitis C en paciente hemofílico: Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Pilleux C,Lilian; MARTÍNEZ G,ALEJANDRA; DONOSO S,MARIO; CARRASCO L,CRISTIAN

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a cause of secondary chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). We report a 43 year old man with mild Hemophilia A, who received blood transfusions during childhood, that consulted for epistaxis and ecchymoses. The laboratory showed a platelet count of 23.000/mm³, positive HCV serology and elevated transaminases. Steroids administered in pulses followed by oral doses resulted in a partial response requiring a second pulse and association of azathioprine. A stero...

  17. Influence of Caffeine on Serum Substrate Changes During Running in Trained and Untrained Individuals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-15

    of CAF. CAF is known to stiumlate glycogenolysis in both liver and muscle (Sutherland et al., 1968). Artifically elevated blood glucose levels...the same relative exercise intensity when rates of glycogenolysis are similar (Saltin and Karlsson, 1971). Levels of aspartate transaminase and malate...However, there was some suggestion of increased glycogenolysis . The elevated serum glucose levels during the CAF sessions indicated increased liver

  18. Biological evaluation of crude and degummed oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Graziela de Fátima Andrade; Tânia Márcia Sacramento Melo; Cláudia Dumans Guedes; Kátia Monteiro Novack; Rinaldo Cardoso dos Santos; Marcelo Eustáquio Silva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the oil extracted from Moringa oleifera (fam. Moringaceae) seeds from the nutritional standpoint. Nutritional evaluation of crude or degummed moringa oil or soybean oil (as a control) involved the determination of the Food Efficiency (FE) in male Fisher rats and the fatty acid composition of the moringa oil. Hepatic and renal functions were assessed by measuring serum transaminases activity and urea and creatinine concentrations, respectively. Serum choles...

  19. Safety and Adherence for 12 Weekly Doses of Isoniazid and Rifapentine for Pediatric Tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andrea T; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2016-07-01

    Traditional treatment of tuberculosis infection (TBI) is efficacious, but adherence is low. Eighty children with TBI received a 12-dose once-weekly isoniazid/rifapentine regimen; 79 (99%) completed therapy, 94% reported no adverse events, 1 child had mildly elevated transaminases but 1 adolescent later developed pulmonary TB. Isoniazid/rifapentine is safe, is well tolerated and has much higher completion rates than traditional TBI regimens.

  20. Hematologi dan Kimia Klinik Darah Kambing Peranakan Etawah yang Diberi Pakan Produk Sampingan Pertanian dan Enzim Optizym (HEMATOLOGY AND BLOOD CLINICAL CHEMISTRY OF ETAWAH GOAT CROSSBRED-FED AGRICULTURE BY PRODUCTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH OPTIZYM ENZYME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia including Bali island until now, a lot of Etawah Goat Crossbred raised by farmers. Inthe island, there was  lots of  agriculture by products available which were not much used yet for animalfeed. There is an opportunity the product were supplemented with Optizym enzyme to  feed the animal.The enzyme was a cellulotic one. The objective of this experiment was to study hematology (packaged cellvolume, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, sedimentationrate and clinical chemistry of blood (creatinine, urea, serum glutamic piruvat transaminase, serum glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase, glucose, and cholesterol. The experiment was conducted for 2 months at Bukit-Jimbaran, Badung, Bali. Measurements were conducted  on the packaged cell volume with the method ofmicrohematocrite, hemoglobin with the method of Hematin (Hemoglobinometer or Hemometer Sahli,erythrocytes and leukocytes with the method of Hemocytometer (improved Neubaeur, differential ofleukocytes (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil with the method of slide; and blood sedimentationrate with the method of Westergreen, while measurements of the creatinine, urea, serum glutamic piruvattransaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glucose, and cholesterol were conducted with Reflotron Plus modified Reflovet Plus (Roch.Data were analyzed with Analysis of Variance. Results ofthe experiment showed that supplementation of the optizym for 0,25 kg and 0,50 kg in every 100 kg basaldiet of agriculture by products (unconventional were not increased significantly on the packaged cellvolume, hemoglobin, total erythrocytes, total leucocytes, neuthrophil, lymposite, monocyte and the samething was also occurred on serum glutamic piruvat transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetictransaminase, glucose, and cholesterol of the animals (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated one; while therest (blood sedimentation rate, creatinine, and urea

  1. The Prevalence, laboratory confirmation, clinical features and public health significance of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Badrood city, an old focus of Isfahan Province, Central Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rohollah Dehghani; Hamid kassiri; Narges Mehrzad; Nilofar Ghasemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (MMK) leaves in attenuating the hepatic damage inflicted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a potent oxidative stress inducer and a model hepatotoxicant.Methods:Rats were divided into six groups of five each: normal control group, CCl4 group, CCl4+silymarin group, CCl4+MMK group (200 mg/kg body weight), CCl4+MMK group (300 mg/kg body weight) and CCl4+MMK group (500 mg/kg body weight). Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1 mL/kg body weight) and MMK was orally administered for 3 weeks. Levels of hepatic markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were measured. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were assayed and malondialdehyde content was measured. For histopathological examination, liver microtome sections were prepared and observed under light microscope.Results:Oral administration of MMK had significantly reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin content in a dose-dependent manner, which were elevated by CCl4. However, CCl4-induced rise in lipid peroxidation and drop in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reversed by MMK administration. Further, the hepatoprotective activity of MMK was supported by histopathological examination of liver microtome sections.Conclusions:Our biochemical and histological studies demonstrate the potential antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of MMK and our results scientifically validate the often use of MMK leaves in food preparation and in Ayurvedic medicine in India and neighboring countries.

  2. Tula hantavirus infection in a hospitalised patient, France, June 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynes, Jean Marc; Carli, Damien; Boukezia, Nourredine; Debruyne, Monique; Herti, Samir

    2015-01-01

    We report an infection with Tula virus in June 2015, leading to hospitalisation, in a patient living approximately 60 km east of Paris with no previous remarkable medical history. Clinical symptoms were limited to a fever syndrome with severe headache. The main laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminase levels. Based on S (small) gene sequence analysis, the strain affecting the patient was closely related to strains detected in Central Europe, especially to a south-east German strain.

  3. Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Klatte, Stephanie; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-01-01

    Background In white biotechnology biocatalysis represents a key technology for chemical functionalization of non-natural compounds. The plasmid-born overproduction of an alcohol dehydrogenase, an L-alanine-dependent transaminase and an alanine dehydrogenase allows for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols in whole cell biotransformation. Here, conditions to optimize the whole cell biocatalyst presented in (Bioorg Med Chem 22:5578–5585, 2014), and the role of L-alanine for efficient amin...

  4. Metabolic fate of L-(N-13) glutamate in normal isolated myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, R.E.; Krivokapich, J.; Barrio, J.R.; Douglas, A.; Wittmer, S.; Shine, K.; Phelps, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    In the present work nitrogen flux of an amino acid in myocardium is followed via arterial bolus injection of non-carrier added L-(N-13)glutamate (N-13 GLU) into the isolated rabbit septa. Incorporation of nitrogen-13 into (N-13)aspartate (N-13 ASP)(16%) and (N-13)alanine (N-13 ALA)(14%) predominates over (N-13)glutamine (N-13 GLN) (3.2%) as determined by reversed phase HPLC in normal septa 6 min after bolus injection. No N-13 ammonia or N-13 urea is detected. Introduction of the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA, 2 nM) into perfusate completely blocked transaminase reaction and increased N-13 GLN (7.3%) and free N-13 ammonia (4.0%), probably resulting from glutamate dehydrogenase reaction. Inclusion of 2mM pyruvate in the perfusate resulted in 3 fold increase in N-13 ALA (44%), slight increase in N-13 GLN (5.0%) and significant decrease in N-13 ASP. Addition of 2mM AOA in the presence of pyruvate blocked production of N-13 ASP and N-13 ALA, and increased N-13 GLN slightly (6.0%). All studies had similar residual fractions (50%) except AOA treated septa (23%) indicating decreased metabolic trapping of the N-13 label. In conclusion, nitrogen-13 distribution in tissue is primarily governed by glutamate interaction with transaminases. Although the Michaelis constants of glutamate for GOT (Km = 4 nM, pig heart), GPT (Km = 8.1 mM, beef heart) and glutamine synthetase (Km = 2.5 mM, ovine brain) are similar, the transaminases play a predominant role because of their great abundance in myocardial tissue.

  5. Rosiglitazone and Fenofibrate Additive Effects on Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    fasting TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL -C), LDL -C, and plasma apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and C-III level were compared after 12 weeks of...2 diabetic patients, the mean HDL -C increased by 6% and TG by 2%. The increase in the LDL -C concentration (9%) was accompanied by a shift in small...transaminases, fasting lipid profile, apolipoproteins, HDL size, LDL size, and statistical differ- ence from baseline. At this visit, subjects were

  6. Pleiotropic protective roles of melatonin against aluminium-induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, Mohamed S; Hachani, Rafik; Saidi, Saber; Feriani, Anouer; Murat, Jean C; Kacem, Kamel; El feki, Abdelfatteh

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of melatonin on aluminium-induced toxicity in a rat model using a set of biochemical, inflammatory, oxidant, lipid profile criteria and hepatic integrity (verified by hematoxylin-eosin staining). The results indicated that AlCl3 administration during 60 days (100 mg/kg b.w.) significantly increased the activities of transaminases AST and ALT by 46% (p aluminium-intoxication.

  7. Effect of critical process parameters on the synthesis of chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrung, Silvia; Lima Afonso Neto, Watson; Schwarze, Daniel

    equilibrium, the inhibition profiles for substrates and products but also on the possibilities for in-situ product removal (ISPR) and technologies for shifting the equilibrium. In a challenging process such as the synthesis of optically pure chiral amines using ω-transaminase, these decisions will have...... process parameters involved in the production of two chiral amines (S-methylbenzylamine and 3-amino-1-phenylbutane) (Figure 1) to demonstrate the effects of such decisions....

  8. Antihepatotoxic activity of eclipta alba, tephrosia purpurea and boerhaavia diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V N; Reddy, B P; Venkateshwarlu, V; Kokate, C K

    1992-01-01

    Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of E. albaT. purpurea and B. diffusa were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with CCl4. Liver function was assessed based on liver to boy weight ratio, pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and bilirubin. Alcoholic extract of E. alba was found to have good antihepatotoxic activity.

  9. The protective effect of Murraya koenigii leaves against carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brahma Naidu Parimi; Ramgopal Mopuri; Balaji Meriga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (MMK) leaves in attenuating the hepatic damage inflicted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a potent oxidative stress inducer and a model hepatotoxicant.Methods:Rats were divided into six groups of five each: normal control group, CCl4 group, CCl4+silymarin group, CCl4+MMK group (200 mg/kg body weight), CCl4+MMK group (300 mg/kg body weight) and CCl4+MMK group (500 mg/kg body weight). Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1 mL/kg body weight) and MMK was orally administered for 3 weeks. Levels of hepatic markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were measured. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were assayed and malondialdehyde content was measured. For histopathological examination, liver microtome sections were prepared and observed under light microscope.Results:Oral administration of MMK had significantly reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin content in a dose-dependent manner, which were elevated by CCl4. However, CCl4-induced rise in lipid peroxidation and drop in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reversed by MMK administration. Further, the hepatoprotective activity of MMK was supported by histopathological examination of liver microtome sections.Conclusions:Our biochemical and histological studies demonstrate the potential antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of MMK and our results scientifically validate the often use of MMK leaves in food preparation and in Ayurvedic medicine in India and neighboring countries.

  10. Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Vanderley Oliveira; Licia Maria Henrique da Mota; Leopoldo Luiz dos Santos-Neto; Jozélio Freire de Carvalho; Iramaya Rodrigues Caldas; Olindo Assis Martins Filho; Pedro Luis Tauil

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotrop...

  11. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2013-01-01

    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells w...

  12. Identification of Small Ligands Targeting Breast Cancer by In Vivo Screening of Peptide Libraries in Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    thermocisplatin therapy: A pilot study in spontaneous canine and feline tumors. Int J Hvperther. Vol.7,6:881-892. RESEARCH ARTICLE 43 Wolf RF Goodnight JE, Kraq...Bilirubin Transaminase (SGOT, SGPT) Alk Phos or 5’ nucleotidase WNL WNL WNL GASTROINTESTINAL Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Stomatitis none none...grossly bloody diarrhea, or need for parenteral support Stomatitis none painless ulcers, erythema, or mild soreness painful erythema, edema, or

  13. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah; Mohd. Shahimi Mustafa; Pinaki Senguptha; Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker; Arindam Das; Sreemoy Kanti Das

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety dose range of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Pericampylus glaucus(Lam.) Merr. by acute and sub-acute oral toxicity study on animal model. Methods: The acute and sub-acute toxicity study was carried out as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423 and 407. In acute toxicity study, the oral dose (300, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg) of tested plant extract was administered to three groups in single dose and general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined up to 72 h and compared to normal group. In sub-acute study, the tested crude plant extract was administered orally at doses of 600 and 1 000 mg/kg for 28 days to the two animals groups and their body weight, hematological, serum hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated and compared to normal group by sacrificing all group animals. Results: In acute toxicity, all treated groups’ revealed neither mortality nor any significant alteration in behavior only drowsiness, sedation and lethargy were observed in two group, i.e. 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg of the tested plant extract. In sub-acute toxicity study no change in hematological, biochemical parameter and organ body weight were observed during study compared to the normal group. The kidney function parameters [serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (aspartate transaminase), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (alanine transaminase)] were significantly increased following administration of tested crude plant extract (600, 1 000 mg/kg). Conclusions:The result indicates that the oral administration ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage.

  15. Litter Size, Sex Ratio and Some Liver Biomarkers in Sprague-Dawley Rats Recovering From Exposure to Ethanol Extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eme Efioanwan Orlu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at assessing reproductive recovery of Sprague-Dawley rat after cessation of treatment with ethanol extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides (Vahl. Thirty sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were previously divided into six groups (A-F. Groups B-F administered ethanol extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides orally at a daily dose of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 35 days were tested for fertility following 35 days recovery period. Each male was kept with two mature females for mating purposes and observed. Upon delivery the sex, litter sizes and weight of pups were taken. Results showed significant (p0.05 to the control group. There was small but non-significant (p>0.05 increase in Sex ratio in the recovery group and no morphological abnormalities were observed in the pups. Liver function Transaminases (Alanine Transaminase ALT, Aspartate Transaminase AST elevated during the treatment period reduced to control levels. Phosphatases (Alkaline Phosphatase ALP, Acid Phosphatase assessed after the recovery period were also reduced to control values 35days after cessation of treatment. Similar reversion to control values was observed in serum total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubin. This investigation reveals that the toxic and reproductive inhibitory effect of Lepidagathis alopecuroides is reversible in mammals after cessation of the treatment. Chronic use of the extract is not recommended. However, caution in the use of the plant as an herbal medicine is advocated.

  16. Pathway and enzyme redundancy in putrescine catabolism in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara L; Reitzer, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Putrescine as the sole carbon source requires a novel catabolic pathway with glutamylated intermediates. Nitrogen limitation does not induce genes of this glutamylated putrescine (GP) pathway but instead induces genes for a putrescine catabolic pathway that starts with a transaminase-dependent deamination. We determined pathway utilization with putrescine as the sole nitrogen source by examining mutants with defects in both pathways. Blocks in both the GP and transaminase pathways were required to prevent growth with putrescine as the sole nitrogen source. Genetic and biochemical analyses showed redundant enzymes for γ-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (PatD/YdcW and PuuC), γ-aminobutyrate transaminase (GabT and PuuE), and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GabD and PuuC). PuuC is a nonspecific aldehyde dehydrogenase that oxidizes all the aldehydes in putrescine catabolism. A puuP mutant failed to use putrescine as the nitrogen source, which implies one major transporter for putrescine as the sole nitrogen source. Analysis of regulation of the GP pathway shows induction by putrescine and not by a product of putrescine catabolism and shows that putrescine accumulates in puuA, puuB, and puuC mutants but not in any other mutant. We conclude that two independent sets of enzymes can completely degrade putrescine to succinate and that their relative importance depends on the environment.

  17. Sodium arsenite induced biochemical perturbations in rats: ameliorating effect of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Mokhtar I; El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Radwan, Fatma M E

    2008-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin in terms of normalization of altered biochemical parameters following sodium arsenite treatment in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group was used as control. While, groups 2, 3 and 4 were orally treated with curcumin (Cur, 15 mg/kg BW), sodium arsenite (Sa, 5 mg/kg BW) and sodium arsenite plus curcumin, respectively. Results showed that the activities of transaminases and phosphatases were significantly decreased in liver due to Sa administration, whereas increased in plasma. The activity of brain and plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with Sa. Also, Sa significantly decreased plasma total protein (TP), albumin (Alb) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), while increased glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, total lipid (TL), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c). Curcumin alone decreased the levels of glucose, urea, creatinine, TL, cholesterol, TG and LDL-c. Curcumin reduced Sa-induced transaminases, phosphatases, glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, TL, cholesterol and TG. Moreover, curcumin induced Sa-reduced liver transaminases and phosphatases, plasma and brain AChE, and the levels of TP and Alb. Experimental results, therefore suggested that curcumin protects arsenic induced biochemical alterations in rats.

  18. Effect of the daily consumption of ostrich and bovine meat on the lipid metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Vasconcelos de Carvalho-Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of ostrich meat (lliofemuralis internus and bovine meat (Psoas major on the lipid metabolism in adult mice. The analyses of the centesimal composition of the meats and preparation of the diets were accomplished following the recommendations of the American Institute of Nutrition-AIN-93. Three groups of 150 day-old animals: group I (diet I, with casein, group II (diet II, with ostrich meat, and group III (diet III with bovine meat were fed for 13 weeks with the respective diets and weight gain, food efficiency coefficient, total cholesterol, lipoprotein fractions, hepatic, transaminases and body fat percentage and hepatic fat content were evaluated. No difference (p < 0.05 it was found for weight gain and coefficients for feed efficiency among the groups. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, relationship of total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol, VLDL, triglycerides and hepatic transaminases were also not different among the groups (p < 0.05. This research suggests that the consumption of ostrich meat or thin bovine meat on a daily basis does not raise concerns about weight gain, and an increase in the plasma concentrations of lipoprotein and levels of hepatic transaminase.

  19. Toxic effects of imidacloprid on adult loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohua; Xia, Xiaopei; Huo, Weiran; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Linxia; Chang, Zhongjie

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation was aimed to assess the effects of imidacloprid on the survival, genetic materials, hepatic transaminase activity and histopathology of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). The values of LC50 (24, 48, 72 and 96h) of imidacloprid were 167.7, 158.6, 147.9 and 145.8mg/L, respectively, and the safety concentration was 42.55mg/L. The erythrocyte micronuclei assays and the comet assay results showed that imidacloprid had genetic toxic effect on the loach erythrocytes. To assess the physiological and biochemical damage caused by imidacloprid, the activities of hepatic glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) were measured and their values declined in treatment groups. Histological examination of testis revealed that imidacloprid treatment resulted in disorganized lobules and cysts structures. In the present work, we also investigated the joint toxicity of pesticides commonly used in paddy fields (imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin) on M. anguillicaudatus, and confirmed that a synergistic effect existing in the binary mixtures. The results of our study provide relevant and comparable toxicity information that are useful for safety application of pesticides.

  20. Serum enzymes in rainbow trout as tools in the diagnosis of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, W.; Hinterleitner, S.

    1980-08-01

    The activities of serum enzymes are likely to reflect the metabolic state of fish in much the same way as they do in mammals. Thus it can be expected that toxic agents or factors which lead to chronic impairment of the animals' metabolism will cause changes, usually increases, of the activities of some serum enzymes. Many studies have been conducted in which fish were experimentally stressed and the ensuing changes in serum enzyme activities recorded. Some of these responses are likely to be of a more general nature, i.e., indicating the organism's answer to a situation of stress brought about by a general deterioration of water quality. We have tested this idea further by measuring the activities of two transaminases, glutamic oxalacetate transaminase (GOT, E.C.2.6.1.1.) and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT, E.C.2.6.1.8.) in the serum (S) of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) caught at various distances from the outflow of a sewage plant into the river Inn near Innsbruck. The quality of the river water was also tested by measuring, at the points where the fish were caught, the concentration of NH/sub 3/, NO/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2/.

  1. [Hepatic alterations in patients with dengue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larreal, Yraima; Valero, Nereida; Estévez, Jesús; Reyes, Ivette; Maldonado, Mery; Espina, Luz Marina; Arias, Julia; Meleán, Eddy; Añez, German; Atencio, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    Clinical features of Dengue are very variable due to multiple alterations induced by the virus in the organism. Increased levels of transaminases similar to those produced by the Hepatitis virus have been reported in patients with Dengue from hiperendemic zones in Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine alterations in the liver tests in patients with Dengue and to relate them to the disease, clinically and serologically. Clinical history, hemathological tests serum transaminases (ALT y AST) and bilirubin assays were performed in 62 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis of Dengue. According to clinical features 38.7% of the patients with classical (CD) and hemorrhagic (DHF) forms of Dengue reffered abdominal pain and 2 patients with DHF had ictericia and hepatomegaly. Laboratory test findings showed leucopenia in 72.5% in both forms of Dengue and of patients with DHF severe thrombocytopenia (< 50.000 platelets x mm3), long PT and PPT in 70.9%, 23.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Transaminase values five fold higher than the normal values (p < 0.005) were observed in 36.8% and 74.4% of patients with CD and DHF respectively; AST was predominant in both groups. Our results suggest liver damage during the course of Dengue. A differential diagnosis has to be done between the hepatic involvement of Dengue cases and others viral diseases with hepatic disfunctions.

  2. Long-term alpha interferon and lamivudine combination therapy in non-responder patients with anti-HBe-positive chronic hepatitis B: Results of an open, controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Francesca Jaboli; Marco Montagnani; Antonio Colecchia; Davide Festi; Letizia Bacchi Reggiani; Enrico Roda; Giuseppe Mazzella; Carlo Fabbri; Stefania Liva; Francesco Azzaroli; Giovanni Nigro; Silvia Giovanelli; Francesco Ferrara; Anna Miracolo; Sabrina Marchetto

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of long-term combination therapy with alpha interferon and lamivudine in non-responsive patients with anti-HBe-positive chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: 34 patients received combination treatment (1 month lamivudine, 12 month lamivudine+interferon, 6month lamivudine), 24 received lamivudine (12 months),24 received interferon (12 months). Interferon was administered at 6 MU tiw and lamivudine at 100 mg orally once daily. Patients were followed up for 6 months after treatment.RESULTS: At the end of treatment, HBV DNA negativity rates were 88 % with lamivudine+interferon, 99 % with lamivudine and 55 % with interferon, (P=0.004, combination therapy vs. interferon, and P=0.001 lamivudine vs.interferon), and serum transaminase normalization rates were 84 %, 91% and 53 % (P=0.01 combination therapy vs. interferon, and P=0.012 lamivudine vs. interferon). Six months later, HBV DNA negativity rates were 44 % with lamivudine+interferon, 33 % with lamivudine and 25 % with interferon, and serum transaminase normalization rates were 61%, 42 % and 45 %, respectively, without statistical significance. No YMDD variants were observed with lamivudine+interferon (vs. 12 % with lamivudine). The combination therapy appeared to be safe. CONCLUSION: Although viral clearance and transaminase normalization are slower with long-term lamivudine+interferon than that with lamivudine alone, the combination regimen seems to provide more lasting benefits and to protect against the appearance of YMDD variants. Studies with other regimens regarding sequence and duration are needed.

  3. Prolonged treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, G; Cagnoni, C; Castelli, A; Concesi, C; Girometta, S; Pancotti, D; Sverzellati, E; Tacchini, G; Pierfranceschi, M G; Carrara, G C

    1995-05-01

    Eighteen patients affected with biopsy-proved primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (histological stage III and IV) received ursodeoxicholic acid (UDCA) 600 mg for 1 year. Signs and symptoms and biochemical tests (glutamic and oxalcetic transaminase, glutamic and pyruvic transaminase, bilirubine, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase, bile acids, plasma proteins electrophoresis, immunoglubulins A, G and M) and antimitochondrial antibodies were evaluated before the treatment and every four months during the treatment. The results were compared with those obtained in 8 untreated patients affected PBC. The control group of patients were comparable (as far as age, histological stage, biochemical tests are concerned) to the group who received UDCA. Bilirubine, ALP, gamma-GT and LAP decreased during the treatment with UDCA and remained lower than baseline values until the end of the observation (12 months), while no changes occurred in the untreated patients. Both in the treated and untreated group plasma protein electrophoresis, serum immunoglubulins A, G and M remained unchanged, as well as anti-mitochondrial antibody. A moderate reduction of transaminases and bile acids was observed in the group of patients receiving UDCA but it did not reach statistical significance. In 16 out of the 18 treated patients pruritus disappeared and resulted diminished in the remaining 2 patients. No significant amelioration of pruritus was observed in the patients who did not receive UDCA. In conclusion, our data show that prolonged treatment with UDCA drastically reduces pruritus and improves cholestasis biochemical tests in patients affected with symptomatic PBC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Unusually severe varicella zoster (VZV) virus viral (aseptic) meningitis in an unimmunized, immunocompetent host with chickenpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Warren-Favorito, Heather; Mickail, Nardeen

    2011-01-01

    Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and may be more severe in adults than in children. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of chickenpox and VZV are uncommon, for example, encephalitis and cerebellar ataxis. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is a rare CNS complication of VZV. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile in VZV viral (aseptic) meningitis is indistinguishable from other causes of viral meningitis. The clue to most of the diagnoses of VZV aseptic meningitis is based on the temporal relationship between antecedent or concomitant chickenpox. Chickenpox is a clinical diagnosis based on the appearance and distribution of the rash. The rash of chickenpox is vesicular/pruritic and typically appears in crops over 3 successive days. VZV vesicles are fragile, superficial, and surrounded by a erythematous halo. Common nonspecific laboratory findings in chickenpox include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase/serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is not highly elevated in chickenpox. In VZV aseptic meningitis, the CSF shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis with normal protein, glucose, and lactic acid levels. CSF red blood cells are not a feature of VZV meningitis. We present the case of a healthy unimmunized adult who was hospitalized with chickenpox complicated by VZV aseptic meningitis with an unusually severe headache and nuchal rigidity that occurred during hospitalization.

  5. Age-Dependent Variation in Hormonal Concentration and Biochemical Constituents in Blood Plasma of Indian Native Fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was to investigate the age-related changes in hormonal concentration and biochemical constituents of blood plasma in Indian native desi fowl. One hundred and sixty two (54 from each breed, i.e., Kadaknath (KN, Aseel peela (AP, and White leghorn (WLH day-old female chicks were randomly divided into nine groups each of 18 chicks (3 groups × 3 replicates. WLH was taken in this study to compare the characteristics of Indian native desi fowl. The highest level of estrogen hormone in WLH and desi fowl in blood plasma was occurred at 18 and 24 wks of age, respectively. Whereas, the peak of progesterone hormone in WLH hens noticed around 24 wks, in case of desi fowls, it was at 30 wks of age. Irrespective of the breed, the hormonal profile of Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroxine (T4 in blood plasma was found highest around 6 to 12 wks of age. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP increased with the reduction of alkaline phosphate (ALP activities at different time intervals. Irrespective of the breed, transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT activities of blood plasma increased linearly with the advancement of the age. From this study, it may be concluded that sexual maturity of the Indian native desi fowl occurred nearly 6 wk later (24 wk than WLH.

  6. Evaluation of the sub-chronic toxicity of a standardized flavonoid extract of safflower in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Liu, Runzhe; Pu, Xiaoping; Sun, Yi; Zhao, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L., or safflower, is an annual herbaceous crop belonging to the family Asteraceae, which is cultivated throughout China and used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Our previous study revealed anti-Parkinson's disease effects of an isolated standardized safflower flavonoid extract (SAFE). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential sub-chronic toxicity of SAFE. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats received three doses of SAFE (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg) q.d. by gavage for four weeks. Body weights were measured during the experiment, and blood samples were collected once per week for hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Major organs were examined after execution and histopathological analyses were performed. Body weight gain in the administration groups showed no decline compared to the control group. However, there were changes in values of aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), alanine transaminase (p < 0.05), and blood glucose (p < 0.05) between treatments. SAFE influenced parameters related to platelets in rats receiving SAFE for both sexes under different dosages (p < 0.05). No histopathological changes were observed. SAFE might have influence on conglomeration of platelets, transaminases, and blood glucose. SAFE caused no significant toxicity and further studies may be needed to ensure safety of SAFE.

  7. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Supports Respiration but Not Volatile Synthesis in Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrej Kochevenko; Wagner L.Araújo; Gregory S.Maloney; Denise M.Tieman; Phuc Thi Do; Mark G.Taylor; Harry J.Klee; Alisdair R.Fernie

    2012-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) have a crucial role in metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine,isoleucine,and valine.These enzymes catalyze the last step of synthesis and the initial step of degradation of these amino acids.Although the biosynthetic pathways of branched chain amino acids in plants have been extensively investigated and a number of genes have been characterized,their catabolism in plants is not yet completely understood.We previously characterized the branched chain amino acid transaminase gene family in tomato,revealing both the subcellular localization and kinetic properties of the enzymes encoded by six genes.Here,we examined possible functions of the enzymes during fruit development.We further characterized transgenic plants differing in the expression of branched chain amino acid transaminases 1 and 3,evaluating the rates of respiration in fruits deficient in BCAT1 and the levels of volatiles in lines overexpressing either BCAT1 or BCAT3.We quantitatively tested,via precursor and isotope feeding experiments,the importance of the branched chain amino acids and their corresponding keto acids in the formation of fruit volatiles.Our results not only demonstrate for the first time the importance of branched chain amino acids in fruit respiration,but also reveal that keto acids,rather than amino acids,are the likely precursors for the branched chain flavor volatiles.

  8. LRH-1-dependent programming of mitochondrial glutamine processing drives liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pan; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Stein, Sokrates; Demagny, Hadrien; Ryu, Dongryeol; Moullan, Norman; Wang, Xu; Can, Emine; Zamboni, Nicola; Comment, Arnaud; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Various tumors develop addiction to glutamine to support uncontrolled cell proliferation. Here we identify the nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) as a key regulator in the process of hepatic tumorigenesis through the coordination of a noncanonical glutamine pathway that is reliant on the mitochondrial and cytosolic transaminases glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1), which fuel anabolic metabolism. In particular, we show that gain and loss of function of hepatic LRH-1 modulate the expression and activity of mitochondrial glutaminase 2 (GLS2), the first and rate-limiting step of this pathway. Acute and chronic deletion of hepatic LRH-1 blunts the deamination of glutamine and reduces glutamine-dependent anaplerosis. The robust reduction in glutaminolysis and the limiting availability of α-ketoglutarate in turn inhibit mTORC1 signaling to eventually block cell growth and proliferation. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of LRH-1 in coordinating glutamine-induced metabolism and signaling to promote hepatocellular carcinogenesis. PMID:27298334

  9. Transamination of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) in rat adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, G.P.; Goodman, H.M.

    1986-03-05

    Like most extrahepatic tissues, adipose tissue can transaminate the BCAA faster than they are oxidized. Catabolism of the BCAA by adipose tissue appears to be limited by the activity of branched chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH). Conditions which stimulate the activity of this intramitochondrial enzyme in tissue extracts also increase the rate at which (1-/sup 14/C)leucine (L) and (1-/sup 14/C)valine (V) are oxidized by tissue segments. However, when maximum rates of oxidation were measured, 10 mM L was oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ 5 times faster than 10 mM V (30 +/- 2 vs. 6 +/- 1 nmol min/sup -1/ g tis/sup -1/). In contrast, the ..cap alpha..-keto analogs of L and V were oxidized by tissue segments at nearly equal rates which slightly exceeded the rate of L oxidation. These results suggested that transamination might limit the catabolism of V, perhaps due to its inaccessibility to transaminase. The distribution of transaminase activity in tissue extracts was determined after centrifugation to obtain mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. L and V were transaminated at similar rates by enzymes in both fractions. Transaminase activity in the mitochondrial fraction was greater than that of the cytosol and exceeded the capacity of the tissue to oxidize L. Catabolism of BCAA may depend upon intramitochondrial transamination and oxidation of V may be slower than that of L because uptake of V by mitochondria may be slower than that of L.

  10. Toxic effects of male Perna viridis gonad exposed to BaP, DDT and their mixture: A metabolomic and proteomic study of the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Zheng, Pengfei; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-05

    Benzo(a)pyrene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are typical persistent organic pollutants, and also the widespread environmental estrogens with known toxicity towards green mussels Perna viridis. In this study, the toxicological effects of BaP and DDT and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gonads using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy revealed that BaP did not show obvious metabolite changes in the gonad of male green mussel. DDT mainly caused some disturbance of osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by changing BCAAs, alanine, threonine, arginine, etc., unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, homarine and ATP at different levels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT mainly caused some disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differentially altering branched chain amino acids, glutamate, alanine, arginine, unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, 4-aminobutyrate, dimethylglycine, homarine and ATP. The results suggest that DDT alone may cause most of metabolites changes in the mixture exposed male mussel gonad, and the results also show that the male P. viridis gonad was more sensitive to DDT than BaP exposures. Proteomic study showed that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced signal transduction, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, etc. in the male green mussel gonad; whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with signal transduction, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, cellular organization, energy metabolism, etc. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to cytoskeleton and cell structure, oxidative stress, cellular organization, etc. This research demonstrated that metabolomic and proteomic approaches could better elucidate the underlying mechanism of environmental pollutants gonad toxicity.

  11. Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal MdAO1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular MdAO2 exclusively utilizes monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Adel; Trobacher, Christopher P; Cooke, Alison R; Meyers, Ashley J; Hall, J Christopher; Shelp, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) accumulates in apple fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. A potential source of GABA is the polyamine putrescine, which can be oxidized via copper-containing amine oxidase (CuAO), resulting in the production 4-aminobutanal/Δ(1)-pyrroline, with the consumption of O2 and release of H2O2 and ammonia. Five putative CuAO genes (MdAO genes) were cloned from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Empire) fruit, and the deduced amino acid sequences found to contain the active sites typically conserved in CuAOs. Genes encoding two of these enzymes, MdAO1 and MdAO2, were highly expressed in apple fruit and selected for further analysis. Amino acid sequence analysis predicted the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 tripeptide in MdAO1 and an N-terminal signal peptide and N-glycosylation site in MdAO2. Transient expression of green fluorescent fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts or onion epidermal cells revealed a peroxisomal localization for MdAO1 and an extracellular localization for MdAO2. The enzymatic activities of purified recombinant MdAO1 and MdAO2 were measured continuously as H2O2 production using a coupled reaction. MdAO1 did not use monoamines or polyamines and displayed high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, whereas MdAO2 exclusively utilized aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, including 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Together, these results indicate that MdAO1 may contribute to GABA production via putrescine oxidation in the peroxisome of apple fruit under controlled atmosphere conditions. MdAO2 seems to be involved in deamination of 2-phenylethylamine, which is a step in the biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol, a contributor to fruit flavor and flower fragrance.

  12. Establishment of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury model in mice%四氯化碳致小鼠急性肝损伤动物模型建立方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琼; 刘芳萍; 刘颖姝; 赵玉林; 李昌文; 李睿; 张秀英

    2012-01-01

    通过对染毒途径、剂量和时间的研究,建立四氯化碳(CCl4)致小鼠急性肝损伤模型.采取腹腔注射和灌胃两种途径给予小鼠1% CCl4,染毒后24h检测血清转氨酶含量,并观察肝脏病变.结果显示,灌胃组比腹腔注射组小鼠血清转氨酶变化个体差异小,肝脏病变明显,病灶分布均匀,且与实际中毒途径一致,故采用灌胃方法进行确定染毒剂量及时间试验.分别以0.125%、0.25%、0.35%、0.5%的CCl4给小鼠灌胃,染毒24h后检测血清转氨酶含量,确定最佳染毒剂量.以该浓度给小鼠灌胃,分别于染毒后2、6、12、16、20、24、28、32、48h检测小鼠血清转氨酶含量.结果表明,灌胃0.35% CCl4,小鼠血清转氨酶升高与对照组相比差异极显著(P<0.01),此浓度灌胃后,20h血清转氨酶含量显著升高(P<0.01),24h达到最高值,与对照组相比差异极显著(P<0.01).因此,以0.35%四氯化碳,按0.1mL·10g-1体重灌胃,染毒24h,可建立较理想的小鼠急性肝损伤模型.%Established the model of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice by investigating the optimal exposure pathway, dose and time. Mice were prepared with 1% CCU by intraperitoneal injection and gavage respectively. Serum transaminase levels were detected and liver lesions were examined after 24 h. The results showed that individual difference of serum transaminase level in gavage group was smaller than intraperitoneal injection group, liver lesions were more uniform. Optimal dose and time was investigated by gavage because it has the same poisoning way with reality. Mice were given carbon tetrachloride in oil solution by gavage, with concentration of 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.35% and 0.5%. Detected serum transaminase levels after 24 h to measure optimal exposure dose. Serum transaminase levels was detected at 2,6,12,16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 48 h after mice were expoed to optimal dose of CCU. The results showed that mice received 0.35% CCU

  13. Exacerbation of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by the anthelmentic drug fenbendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Carol R; Mishin, Vladimir; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2012-02-01

    Fenbendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug widely used to prevent or treat nematode infections in laboratory rodent colonies. Potential interactions between fenbendazole and hepatotoxicants such as acetaminophen are unknown, and this was investigated in this study. Mice were fed a control diet or a diet containing fenbendazole (8-12 mg/kg/day) for 7 days prior to treatment with acetaminophen (300 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline. In mice fed a control diet, acetaminophen administration resulted in centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminases, which were evident within 12 h. Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was markedly increased in mice fed the fenbendazole-containing diet, as measured histologically and by significant increases in serum transaminase levels. Moreover, in mice fed the fenbendazole-containing diet, but not the control diet, 63% mortality was observed within 24 h of acetaminophen administration. Fenbendazole by itself had no effect on liver histology or serum transaminases. To determine if exaggerated hepatotoxicity was due to alterations in acetaminophen metabolism, we analyzed sera for the presence of free acetaminophen and acetaminophen-glucuronide. We found that there were no differences in acetaminophen turnover. We also measured cytochrome P450 (cyp) 2e1, cyp3a, and cyp1a2 activity. Whereas fenbendazole had no effect on the activity of cyp2e1 or cyp3a, cyp1a2 was suppressed. A prolonged suppression of hepatic glutathione (GSH) was also observed in acetaminophen-treated mice fed the fenbendazole-containing diet when compared with the control diet. These data demonstrate that fenbendazole exacerbates the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen, an effect that is related to persistent GSH depletion. These findings are novel and suggest a potential drug-drug interaction that should be considered in experimental protocols evaluating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity in rodent colonies treated with fenbendazole.

  14. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes%2型糖尿病合并非酒精性脂肪性肝病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐婷; 许樟荣

    2010-01-01

    非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)是以肝细胞脂肪变性和脂肪蓄积为病理特征,但无过量饮酒史的临床综合征,它是代谢综合征在肝脏的表现.胰岛素抵抗是NAFLD与2型糖尿病的共同发病基础.NAFLD是转氨酶慢性升高的常见原因之一.转氨酶升高在2型糖尿病患者中的发生率明显高于普通人群,并与心血管危险因素的聚集有关.运动和节制饮食可控制体重、改善胰岛素抵抗、纠正血脂紊乱和减轻脂肪肝.二甲双胍和格列酮类可降低血转氨酶水平和部分逆转脂肪肝组织学变化.%The pathological feature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is liver steatosis and fat accumulation, without excessive alcohol drinking history. It is the manifestation of metabolic syndrome in the liver. Insulin resistance is the common pathogenic basis of NAFLD and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD is the most common cause for the chronic elevation of transaminase. The prevalence of elevated transaminase was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes than that in general population. The basic treatment is to control the body weight by exercise and diet, improve insulin resistance and correct dyslipidemia. Metformin and glitazones can reduce the hyper-transaminase level and ameliorate the progression of NAFLD.

  15. Ameliorative effect of butylated hydroxyanisole against ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2015-11-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a known renal carcinogen and has been shown to adversely induce oxidative stress and tissue toxicity after both acute and chronic exposure. Present studies were designed to study the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a phenolic antioxidant used in foods on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain (4-6 weeks old) weighing 125-150 g were used in this study. Animals were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) after a week's treatment with BHA. BHA was administered orally once daily for 7 days at doses of 1 and 2 mg/animal/day. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters as serum transaminases (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST)) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Fe-NTA treatment increased ALT, AST, and LDH levels significantly when compared to the corresponding saline-treated group (p < 0.001). Fe-NTA also depleted the levels of glutathione and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-tranferase (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with BHA significantly decreased ALT, AST and LDH levels in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). BHA also increased antioxidant enzymes level and decreased lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation to 1.3-1.5-fold as compared to Fe-NTA-treated group. The results show the strong hepatoprotective activity of BHA which could be due to its potent antioxidant effects.

  16. Different effects of a CD14 gene polymorphism on disease outcome in patients with alcoholic liver disease and chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Meiler; M Mühlbauer; M Johann; A Hartmann; B Schnabl; N Wodarz; G Schmitz; J Sch(o)lmerich; C Hellerbrand

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Clinical and experimental data suggest that gut-derived endotoxins are an important pathogenic factors for progression of chronic liver disease. Recently, a C-T (-159)polymorphism in the promoter region of the CD14 gene was detected and found to confer increased CD14 expression and to be associated with advanced alcoholic liver damage. Here, we investigated this polymorphism in patients with less advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD)and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS: CD14 genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP analysis in (a) 121 HCV patients, (b) 62 patients with alcohol-associated cirrhosis (Alc-Ci), (c) 118 individuals with heavy alcohol abuse without evidence of advanced liver damage (Alc-w/o Ci), and (d) 247 healthy controls.Furthermore, serum levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and transaminases were determined.RESULTS: The TT genotype was significantly more frequent in Alc-Ci compared to Alc-w/o Ci or controls (40.3% vs 23.7% or 24.0%, respectively). In Alc-w/o Ci,serum levels of transaminases did not differ significantly between patients with different CD14 genotypes. In HCV patients, TT-homozygotes had significantly higher sCD14 levels and sCD14 serum levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. However,no association was found between CD14 genotypes and histological staging or grading.CONCLUSION: Considering serum transaminases as surrogate markers for alcoholic liver damage, the CD14 polymorphism seems to exhibit different effects during the course of ALD. Differences in genotype distribution between cirrhotic HCV patients and alcoholics and the known functional impact of this polymorphism on CD14 expression levels further indicate differences in the pathophysiological role of CD14 and CD14-mediated lipopolysaccharides signal transduction with regard to the stage as well as the type of the underlying liver disease.

  17. Comprehensive investigation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, propylene glycol, polysorbate 80, and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin for use in general toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackaberry, Evan A; Kopytek, Stephen; Sherratt, Phillip; Trouba, Kevin; McIntyre, Barry

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess the safety and tolerability of the alternative formulation vehicles polysorbate 80 (PS80), propylene glycol (PG), and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) in general toxicology studies in the mouse, rat, dog, and monkey. Twenty (20) mg/kg of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (MC, control), 10 mg/kg PS80, 1000 mg/kg PG, 500 mg/kg HPβCD, or 1000 mg/kg HPβCD were administered by oral gavage to mice, rats, dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys for approximately 90 days. The effects of these formulations on clinical observations, body weight and food consumption parameters, clinical pathology, and histopathology were evaluated across all species. The suitability of formulations containing up to 20 mg/kg MC, 10 mg/kg PS80, and 1000 mg/kg PG for use in preclinical safety studies was confirmed by a lack of effects on all parameters examined. However, formulations containing HPβCD produced elevated transaminase (aspartate and alanine aminotransferase) levels in rats and mice and fecal changes (loose and soft stool) in large animals. Although the etiology and toxicological significance of the transaminase elevations in rats and mice is uncertain, this finding could represent a significant liability for a preclinical formulation because of the critical importance of these biomarkers in the risk assessment of novel therapeutic agents. Based on these data, PS80 and PG are considered to be practical alternatives to MC in preclinical toxicology studies. However, formulations containing HPβCD should be used with caution because of the elevations in rodent transaminase levels.

  18. Clinical and laboratory differences between Epstein-Barr and cytomegalovirus infectious mononucleosis in children

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    Medović Raša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infective mononucleosis is most commonly caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and in smaller percentage by cytomegalovirus (CMV. Objective. The aim of this paper was to determine the clinical and laboratory differences between EBV and CMV infectious mononucleosis in children. Methods. Cohort retrospective analytical research was conducted. We used data from medical history in six years period and monitored anamnestic data, frequency of inspection and palpation obtained data during physical examination, several laboratory tests, abdomen ultrasonography examination finding and emergence of disease complications. Statistical processing of data has been performed using SPSS 20. Results. Total number of examined children was 137, out of which 85.4% were with EBV and 14.6% with CMV infection. Affected children were most commonly younger than eight years. Boys were affected more often. There was no difference in frequency of high temperature, sore throat, bad breath, and respiratory symptomatology between examined children. Differences were discovered in frequency of stomachaches, eyelid swelling, skin rash and fatigue. Differences were not proven in the frequency of angina, lymphadenopathy and splenohepatomegaly between the groups. Values of transaminases and lactic dehydrogenases significantly decreased after seven days of hospitalization in both groups. In children with EBV, values of transaminases declined faster than in children with CMV. Anemia and bacterial superinfection of pharynx were most common disease complications. Thrombocytopenia was more common in children with CMV infection. Average duration of hospitalization was 6.7 days. Conclusion. In children with CMV abdominal pain, eyelid swelling, skin rash, fatigue and thrombocytopenia were more common. In children with EBV values of transaminases declined significantly faster.

  19. The Safety of Tenofovir–Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Individuals With Active Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Mauro; Liu, Albert Y.; McManhan, Vanessa M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Hance, Robert J.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Grant, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents HIV infection. The safety and feasibility of HIV PrEP in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were evaluated. Methods: The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición study randomized 2499 HIV-negative men and transgender women who have sex with men to once-daily oral FTC/TDF versus placebo. Hepatitis serologies and transaminases were obtained at screening and at the time PrEP was discontinued. HBV DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and drug resistance was assessed by population sequencing. Vaccination was offered to individuals susceptible to HBV infection. Results: Of the 2499 participants, 12 (0.5%; including 6 randomized to FTC/TDF) had chronic HBV infection. After stopping FTC/TDF, 5 of the 6 participants in the active arm had liver function tests performed at follow-up. Liver function tests remained within normal limits at post-stop visits except for a grade 1 elevation in 1 participant at post-stop week 12 (alanine aminotransferase = 90, aspartate aminotransferase = 61). There was no evidence of hepatic flares. Polymerase chain reaction of stored samples showed that 2 participants in the active arm had evidence of acute HBV infection at enrollment. Both had evidence of grade 4 transaminase elevations with subsequent resolution. Overall, there was no evidence of TDF or FTC resistance among tested genotypes. Of 1633 eligible for vaccination, 1587 (97.2%) received at least 1 vaccine; 1383 (84.7%) completed the series. Conclusions: PrEP can be safely provided to individuals with HBV infection if there is no evidence of cirrhosis or substantial transaminase elevation. HBV vaccination rates at screening were low globally, despite recommendations for its use, yet uptake and efficacy were high when offered. PMID:26413853

  20. The Clinical Significance of Autoantibodies in Hepatitis C Patients Submitted to Interferon Treatment

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    Eduardo Rodrigues-Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus is associated with several immune-mediated phenomena, presented usually as extra-hepatic hepatitis C manifestations. A predisposition to autoimmunity associated with the presence of baseline autoantibodies has been demonstrated in interferon mediated autoimmune diseases. We report a male patient, 34 years old, with genotype 1, chronic hepatitis C (hepatitis C viremia 1.432.463 UI/mL and family history of psoriasis. He had high levels of transaminases and immunology showed positive antinuclear antibodies (1/320 and anti-smooth-muscle antibodies, with elevated immunoglobulin G (1740 mg/dL. Liver biopsy revealed a F1/2 Metavir score, histologic activity index of 3 and mild piecemeal necrosis. Antiviral treatment was started with peg-interferon α2a 180 mcg plus ribavirin 1200 mg, and the patient had rapid virologic response, normalization of transaminases, negativation of antinuclear antibodies positivity and decrease of immunoglobulin levels. However, at week 22, he developed psoriatic-like eczema and arthritis with functional limitation. Due to suspicion of latent psoriatic arthritis not previously diagnosed, he was started on methotrexate 10 mg/weekly with improvement of psoriatic plaques, arthritis and functional limitation. Patient achieved sustained virologic response, with normal transaminases and no significant changes in immunology. Post-treatment median hepatic elastography was 3.6 kPa. Autoimmunity in hepatitis C infection is not limited to surrogate autoantibody seropositivity, but may embrace the full spectrum of autoimmune disorders.

  1. Clinical and Laboratory Features and Extraintestinal Manifestations of Celiac Disease in Adults

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    Mete Akın

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Celiac disease an autoimmune disorder resulting from an immune response to the gluten in genetically predisposed patients. Although, diarrhea is the most common finding at presentation in adults, disease may present with extraintestinal manifestations such as anemia, osteoporosis, elevated transaminase levels and growth retardation. In this article, symptoms, extraintestinal manifestations and coexistence with other autoimmune disorders of adult patients with celiac disease were evaluated. Material and Method: 22 patients whose followed with the diagnosis of celiac disease in Suleyman Demirel University Department of Gastroenterology, between January 2007 and Semptember 2010, were evaluated retrospectively. Symptoms, extraintestinal manifestations and coexistence with other autoimmune disorders of patients at presentation were investigated. Results: 13 (59% of all cases were female and 9 (41% were male. Mean age at presentation was 38,5 years. Most common complaints were diarrhea and weakness . Tissue transglutaminase and/or antiendomysium antibody were positive, and diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination in all patients. Iron deficiency, vitamine B12 deficiency and folic acid deficiency were detected in 17 (77%, 8 (36% and 6 (27% patients, respectively. There were elevated transaminase levels in 8 (36% patients. Osteoporosis was detected in 4 female and 1 male patients. Sensorimotor polineuropathy was detected in 2 patients. There was growth retardation in 2 patients. Autoimmune hypothyroidism and Type 1 diabetes mellitus were detected in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. Coexistence with Crohn%u2019s disease was detected in a patient. Discussion: Celiac disease may present with extraintestinal manifestations in adults. It should be remembered, especially in patients with iron deficiency and mild to moderate transaminase elevations with unexplained etiology. It should be considered in patients with chronic diarrhea and

  2. Acute Sodium Arsenite-Induced Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Wistar Rats: Protective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ageratum conyzoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Davies, Olufunke Eunice; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herbaceous plant used in folklore medicine for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Objective: To investigate the protective effect of the ethanol leaf extract of A. conyzoides (EEAC) against hematological, serum biochemical and histological alterations induced by Sodium arsenite administration to Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats each. Group I received propylene glycol and Group II rats were given the (EEAC, 100 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 7 days. Group III were given a single oral dose of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 2.5 mg/kg b.w.). Animals in Group IV were pretreated with 100 mg/kg EEAC for 7 days followed by a single oral dose of sodium arsenite. Results: Arsenic exposure resulted in significant reductions (P produced significant reversal of the reduction in the erythrocytic indices (packed cell volume, red blood cell, and Hb) caused by sodium arseniteSodium arsenite-induced slight elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), correlating with the histopathological lesions observedAgeratum conyzoides produced only slight reductions in AST, ALT, and ALP compared to the sodium arsenite group, but significantly reduced the severity of histopathological lesions. Abbreviations Used: EEAC: Ethanol extract of Ageratum conyzoides; RBC: Red blood cell; WBC: White blood cell; Hb: Hemoglobin; ALT: Alanine transaminase; AST: Aspartate transaminase or Aspartate aminotransferase; ALP: Alkaline phosphatase; GGT: Gamma glutamyl transferase. PMID:27114688

  3. The Effect of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on Hepatic Complications Due to the Gelofen Consumption in Adult Female Rats

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    Leila Hejazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Gelofen is one of the anti-inflammatory drugs which is used to relieve the pain and reduce the inflammations. This drug has side effects on body's tissues. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Tribulus terrestris (Tt plant on hepatic transaminases due to the Gelofen consumption. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study 56 rats were divided into 7 groups of 8 rats, including control, sham and 4 experimental groups receiving Gelofen 400mg / kg, Tt extract 80 mg / kg, Tt extract 20mg / kg and Gelofen with 400mg / kg doses, Tt extract  40mg / kg  and Gelofen 400mg / kg, and Tt extract 80mg / kg  and Gelofen 400mg / kg. Gelofen was prescribed intraperitoneal and Tt was prescribed orally for 21 days. At the end of phlebotomizing the animals, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK levels were measured, and the results were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan tests. The significant difference in the data was considered P> 0/05. Results: The results showed that the transaminase concentration in the groups receiving Gelofen alone and with the Tt extract in doses of 20mg /kg and 40 mg /kg had a significant increase compared to the control group and the groups receiving Tt alone and Tt with the dose of 80mg/kg with Gelofen,had a significant decrease compared to the control and Gelofen alone groups (P> 0/05.  Conclusion: The results showed that the Tt extract led to prevent the negative effects of Gelofen on hepatic tissue in a dose-dependent manner and in result on the serum levels of liver transaminases.

  4. Association of erythrocyte methotrexate-polyglutamate levels with the efficacy and hepatotoxicity of methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 76-week prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Yuko; Okano, Yutaka; Taguchi, Hiroaki; Oshima, Hisaji; Izumi, Keisuke; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the utility of erythrocyte methotrexate-polyglutamate (MTX-PG) concentrations in determining the safety and efficacy of MTX in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods 79 MTX-naïve patients with RA were enrolled in this prospective 76-week cohort study. MTX was initiated, and a predefined dose-escalation protocol was followed. Erythrocyte MTX-PG concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography. The associations of MTX-PG concentrations with disease activity and adverse events were analysed. Results Dose escalation of MTX resulted in increased MTX-PG concentrations and a decrease in the mean Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28). A significant association was observed between total MTX-PG concentrations and ΔDAS28 at week 12 (β=−0.013, p=0.003) and at week 24 (β=−0.014, p=0.003). The maximum MTX-PG levels were significantly higher in patients presenting with elevated transaminases (≥100 IU/L) than in those without (146 vs 106 nmol/L, p=0.009). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that a total MTX-PG concentrations of 83 nmol/L at week 12 was the threshold for a DAS28 improvement of ≥1.2 at week 24, and 105 nmol/L was the threshold for transaminases of ≥50 IU/L and 131 nmol/L for transaminases of ≥100 IU/L. MTX-PG concentrations were strongly influenced by body mass index and a serum albumin level. Conclusions MTX-PG concentrations are a useful biomarker in MTX therapy, in terms of efficacy and safety.

  5. Transient cutaneous hyperpigmentation of extremities following dengue fever

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    Shrikiran Aroor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 14 year old boy presented with fever and generalized flushing of skin of 1 week duration. His vital signs were normal. Examination revealed generalized blanching macular erythematous rash. Systemic examination was unremarkable except for tender hepatomegaly. Investigations revealed leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and normal hemoglobin with mildly elevated liver transaminases. NS 1 (Non-structural protein-1 antigen and IgM antibody titer for Dengue ELISA was positive suggesting dengue fever. He was managed symptomatically and he recovered. During his follow up after 2 weeks he presented with brownish discoloration of dorsum of both hands and feet.

  6. Autoimmun hepatitis forudgået af hepatitis A-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Grave; Juel, Jacob; Vyberg, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by unresolving inflammation and fibrosis of the liver, which untreated may lead to cirrhosis. The pathogenesis remains unclear and reflects a complex interaction between autoantigens, genetic predisposition, triggering factors and immune regulation. In rare...... cases, acute hepatitis A has been suspected as a triggering factor. We describe a case of a 66-year-old woman who two months after a resolving acute hepatitis A presented with fatigue, pale stools and elevated levels of transaminases. A liver biopsy showed histological changes compatible with autoimmune...... hepatitis....

  7. Amrubicin therapy improves patients with refractory small-cell lung cancer: A single-arm confirmatory Chinese clinical study

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    Mengli Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate an open-label, multicenter, single-arm study to appraise whether amrubicin therapy improves patients with refractory small-cell lung cancer in Chinese clinical study. Patients (n=95 with refractory small-cell lung cancer received 3 consecutive days amrubicin therapy for 21 days. Overall response rate of response to amrubicin was 39%. Anemia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, infection, elevated serum transaminases levels were appeared, but the incidences of adverse events were very few. Our results suggest amrubicin therapy can improve patients with refractory small-cell lung cancer and may be an effective and safe treatment option.

  8. THE EFFECT OF A NEW SALICYLIC ACID SYNTHESIS COMPOUNDS ADMINISTRATION ON SERUM TRANSAMINASIS

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    STANA LETIŢIA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical synthesis product is the amide of chlorine salicylic acid andsulphanilamide (5ClSA-SA. This research had as objective the effect of this productfrom salicylic acid class as a potential medicine on the serum transaminasis activity.5ClSA-SA has been administrated intraperitoneal to Wistar rats for 7 daysconsecutively determining ALT and AST transaminasis activities after 5 and 7 days.Serum transaminases had high values compared to the control sample (220% ASTand 237% ALT.This synthesis product can lead to stress that induces increasing of plasmaticenzymes activity, transaminasis being one of those.

  9. THE EFFECT OF A NEW SALICYLIC ACID SYNTHESIS COMPOUNDS ADMINISTRATION ON SERUM TRANSAMINASIS

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    LETIŢIA STANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available sulphanilamide (5ClSA-SA. This research had as objective the effect of this productfrom salicylic acid class as a potential medicine on the serum transaminasis activity.5ClSA-SA has been administrated intraperitoneal to Wistar rats for 7 daysconsecutively determining ALT and AST transaminasis activities after 5 and 7 days. Serum transaminases had high values compared to the control sample (220% ASTand 237% ALT.This synthesis product can lead to stress that induces increasing of plasmaticenzymes activity, transaminasis being one of those.

  10. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial hepática em indivíduos com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva Clinical evaluation and hepatic laboratory assessment in individuals with congestive heart failure

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    Luiz Antônio Brito Arruda Vasconcelos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar o perfil de alterações clínicas e, principalmente, laboratoriais hepáticas observadas em pacientes de cada uma das classes de insuficiência cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Por meio de um estudo seccional, foram pesquisados os dados clínicos e laboratoriais (alanina aminotransferase [ALT], aspartato aminotransferase [AST], fosfatase alcalina [FA], gama-glutamil transpeptidase [gama-GT], bilirrubinas e coagulograma de 50 pacientes internados em 2002 em um hospital terciário com diagnóstico de insuficiência cardíaca. Os doentes foram separados de acordo com sua classe de insuficiência cardíaca e seus dados, comparados estatisticamente. Foram excluídos pacientes com hepatopatia de qualquer etiologia. RESULTADOS: A análise das médias de transaminases revelou aumento significativo apenas nos pacientes da classe IV. Por outro lado, a FA e a gama-GT apresentaram aumento progressivo de acordo com a classe de insuficiência cardíaca. CONCLUSÃO: A insuficiência cardíaca é caracterizada por perfil colestático progressivo de alterações laboratoriais, enquanto as transaminases se elevam apenas na insuficiência cardíaca mais avançada. O entendimento dessas alterações é fundamental para que se evite investigação hepática desnecessária em indivíduos com insuficiência cardíaca.OBJECTIVES: To verify the clinical alterations and, in particular, hepatic laboratory alterations in patients in each of the heart failure (HF functional classes. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data - alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, bilirubin and coagulogram - of 50 patients admitted in 2002 to a tertiary hospital with the diagnosis of heart failure were researched by means of a cross sectional study. The patients were separated in accordance with their HF class and their data were compared statistically. Patients with hepatopathy of any etiology

  11. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

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    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  12. Renal infarction due to spontaneous dissection of the renal artery: an unusual cause of non-visceral type abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, James H-E; Kang, Jin-Yong; Morgan, Robert

    2013-09-18

    A 44-year-old man presented with very severe right upper quadrant pain of sudden onset. This was exacerbated by movement but unaffected by food or defaecation. It was continuous-day and night -but resolved over a 1-week period. The physical examination was normal at presentation, by which time the pain had resolved. His white cell count, alanine transaminase and C reactive protein were elevated but normalised after 10 days. An abdominal CT showed low density lesions in the right kidney consistent with segmental infarcts. CT angiogram showed a dissection of the right renal artery. The patient remained asymptomatic and normotensive when reviewed 1 month later.

  13. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  14. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD.

  15. Swift and Complete Healing of Digital Ulcers after Macitentan Treatment

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    Emilio Giner Serret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital ulcers are a burdensome and painful condition with sparse options of treatment. We report the case of a 78-year-old female patient with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis that sequentially developed digital ulcers. After the appearance of digital ulcers in the soles of her feet she was successfully treated with bosentan. The report of two new digital ulcers in her hands 9 months later alongside with elevated transaminase levels led to a switch to macitentan treatment. A swift and complete healing of both digital ulcers was observed after 3 months, with the restoration of normal biochemical values.

  16. Swift and Complete Healing of Digital Ulcers after Macitentan Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Digital ulcers are a burdensome and painful condition with sparse options of treatment. We report the case of a 78-year-old female patient with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis that sequentially developed digital ulcers. After the appearance of digital ulcers in the soles of her feet she was successfully treated with bosentan. The report of two new digital ulcers in her hands 9 months later alongside with elevated transaminase levels led to a switch to macitentan treatment. A swift and complete healing of both digital ulcers was observed after 3 months, with the restoration of normal biochemical values. PMID:27994906

  17. Are heat stroke and physical exhaustion underestimated causes of acute hepatic failure?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kilian Weigand; Carina Riediger; Wolfgang Stremmel; Christa Flechtenmacher; Jens Encke

    2007-01-01

    While cardiopulmonary symptoms are common in patients undergoing classical or, due to physical exercise,exertional heat stroke, the failure of other organs is a rarely described phenomenon. Here we present two cases of acute hepatic failure, one due to classic heat shock, while the other occurred while the patient was doing a marathon-type running. Both cases presented with very high transaminases and significantly elevated international normalized ratio (INR). No other causes for liver failure could be identified but physical exhaustion and hyperthermia.

  18. Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, V; Sathyamoorthy, A V; Motlag, D B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

  19. Search for rare liver diseases: the case of glycosylation defects mimicking Wilson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Piotr; Vajro, Pietro; Lefeber, Dirk; Adamowicz, Maciej; Tanner, Stuart

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric hepatology appears to be a very specific field of paediatrics which deals mainly with rare diseases although clinical features can be commonly found - like increased activity of transaminases. Some of these rare diseases like Wilson disease are commonly looked for and recently Wilsonian like phenotypes have been described which additionally presented with abnormal glycosylation of the plasma protein transferrin. In a subgroup of those patients with specific additional clinical symptoms (cleft uvula, low blood sugar, rhabdomyolysis and dilated cardiomyopathy) phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency was identified. We recommend screening for abnormal glycosylation of the plasma protein transferrin in children with unexplained liver injury.

  20. Hepatic safety profile of darunavir with low-dose ritonavir (DRV/r) in HIV/HCV coinfected and HIV monoinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsica, Giulia; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Bagaglio, Sabrina; Conte, Camilla; Salpietro, Stefania; Porrino, Lucy; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina

    2011-07-01

    The hepatic safety profile of ART including DRV/r was retrospectively evaluated in antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients (18 HIV/HCV coinfected, group A and 29 infected with HIV alone, group B) during a 72 week study. During the study, liver enzyme values were higher in group A, but in the case of abnormal transaminase levels, the median values did not exceed 1.6xULN. This study showed evidence of long-lasting hepatic safety of ART including PI DRV/r in HIV/HCV coinfected and in HIV monoinfected persons.

  1. The expression of HIF-1 α in liver tissues in the rat model of paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊莺

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the levels of HIF-αand TGF-βin the liver tissue,change of serum transaminase in different phases after paraquat(PQ)toxicity and liver histopathology change in PQ-induced liver toxicity of rat models in order to analyze the relationship between HIF-αand hepatic toxicity induced by PQ.Methods A total of 48 healthy SD rats were randomly(random number)assigned into 2 groups:PQ poisoning group(n=42,

  2. Increased liver stiffness in alcoholic liver disease:Differentiating fibrosis from steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastian; Mueller; Gunda; Millonig; Lucie; Sarovska; Stefanie; Friedrich; Frank; M; Reimann; Maria; Pritsch; Silke; Eisele; Felix; Stickel; Thomas; Longerich; Peter; Schirmacher; Helmut; Karl; Seitz

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To test if inflammation also interferes with liver stiffness (LS) assessment in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and to provide a clinical algorithm for reliable fibrosis assessment in ALD by FibroScan (FS).METHODS:We first performed sequential LS analysis before and after normalization of serum transaminases in a learning cohort of 50 patients with ALD admitted for alcohol detoxification. LS decreased in almost all patients within a mean observation interval of 5.3 d. Six patients (12%) would have been m...

  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An early mediator predicting metabolic syndrome in obese children?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Fen Fu; Hong-Bo Shi; Li-Rui Liu; Ping Jiang; Li Liang; Chun-Lin Wang; Xi-Yong Liu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an early mediator for prediction of metabolic syndrome, and if liver B-ultrasound can be used for its diagnosis.METHODS: We classified 861 obese children (6-16 years old) into three subgroups: group 0 (normal liver in ultrasound and normal transaminases); group 1 (fatty liver in ultrasound and normal transaminases); and group 2 (fatty liver in ultrasound and elevated transaminases).We measured the body mass index, waist and hip circumference,blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin,homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI),lipid profile and transaminases in all the participants.The risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) was assessed according to the degree of liver fatty infiltration based on the B-ultrasound examination.RESULTS: Among the 861 obese children, 587 (68.18%)were classified as having NAFLD, and 221 (25.67%)as having MS. The prevalence of MS in NAFLD children (groups 1 and 2) was 37.64% (221/587), which was much higher than that in non-NAFLD group (group 0,12.04%) (P < 0.01). There were significantly higher incidences concerning every component of MS in group 2 compared with group 0 (P < 0.05). The incidence of NAFLD in MS patients was 84.61% (187/221), which was significantly higher than that of hypertension (57.46%,127/221) and glucose metabolic anomalies (22.62%,50/221), and almost equal to the prevalence of dyslipidemia (89.14%, 197/221). Based on the B-ultrasound scales, the presence of moderate and severe liver fatty infiltration carried a high risk of hypertension [odds ratio (OR): 2.18, 95% confidence interval (95% CI):1.27-3.75], dyslipidemia (OR: 7.99, 95% CI: 4.34-14.73),impaired fasting glucose (OR: 3.65, 95% CI: 1.04-12.85),and whole MS (OR: 3.77; 95% CI: 1.90-7.47, P < 0.01).The state of insulin resistance (calculated by HOMA-IR and WBISI) deteriorated as the degree of fatty infiltration increased

  4. [Metabolism, intensity of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense system in humans during chamber experiments with long-term isolation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, A A; Stroganova, L B; Vostrikova, L V; Balashov, O I; Nichiporuk, I A

    1997-01-01

    Blood biochemical parameters of lipid, protein, carbohydrate and energy metabolism were measured in a 135-day chamber experiment. Also, dynamics of the intensity of lipid peroxidation and status of the antioxidant defence system were evaluated. Results of the investigation showed that extended chamber isolation led to modifications of several biochemical parameters including hemoglobin, bilirubin, cholesterol and its fractions, elevated transaminase activity which are typical for long-term space mission. However, these were not accompanied by substantive changes in protein, energy and carbohydrate metabolisms, or intensity of free radical processes. Effects of prolonged stay in chamber was successfully counterbalanced by organism.

  5. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  6. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; KOBASHI, HARUHIKO; Takaki,Akinobu; Kato, Jun; Nawa,Toru; Tatsukawa, Masashi; ISHIKAWA, SHIN; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Miyake,Yasuhiro; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past ...

  7. New Insights on Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreani, Annarosa; Gervasi, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by maternal pruritus, and elevated serum transaminases and bile acids. Genetic defects in at least 6 canalicular transporters have been found. Association studies stress the variability of genotypes, different penetrance, and influence of environmental factors. Serum autotaxin is a sensitive, specific, and robust diagnostic marker. Elevated maternal bile acids correlate with fetal complications. Long-term sequelae for mothers include the gallstone risk and chronic liver disease. There is an association between ICP and hepatitis C. Current treatment is ursodeoxycholic acid, owing to benefits on pruritus, liver function, safety, and decreased rates of adverse effects.

  8. Efeito de diferentes protocolos de superovulação sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona e de metabólitos lipídicos de vacas Nelore Effect of different superovulation protocols on plasma progesterone concentration and lypidic metabolites in Nelore cows

    OpenAIRE

    RAMOS, A. F.; Neves,E.F.; Marques,V.S.; Lima,F.P.C.; Drumond,D.L.; A.P. Marques Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as concentrações plasmáticas de triglicérides, colesterol, aspartato transaminase (AST) e progesterona (P4) em vacas Nelore não lactantes com elevado escore corporal, superovuladas com diferentes protocolos. Foram utilizados três grupos de animais, G1 (n=11), G2 (n=8) e G3 (n=5), superovulados com 500UI de FSH, 200mg e 180mg de FSH (hormônio folículo estimulante), respectivamente, em doses decrescentes, duas vezes ao dia, durante quatro dias. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas...

  9. Post-transfusional hepatitis in neonates hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Hepatitis post-transfusional en neonatos encamados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Extremera, A.; Salmerón, J.; M. L. Rey; Torres, C; P. Muñoz de Rueda; E. Ocete; Luna, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: to assess the significance of increased serum transaminase levels in neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and its relationship with blood transfusion. Methods: follow-up prospective study of 209 patients; 177 completed follow-up, of whom 129 were transfused and 48 were not; 57 were born after full gestation and 120 were born prematurely. The activity of serum levels of ALT, AST, and GGT was measured monthly up to six months of age, and until six months after the last...

  10. EST Table: FS724252 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS724252 E_FL_bmmt_01E10_F_0 10/09/28 43 %/164 aa ref|XP_973433.1| PREDICTED: similar to Kynure...nine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase mitochondrial precursor (KAT/AadAT) (Kynurenine--oxoglu...tarate transaminase II) (Kynurenine aminotransferase II) (Kynurenine--oxoglutarate aminotransferase II) (2-a...Amel|GB30100-PA 10/09/10 43 %/164 aa gi|91086977|ref|XP_973433.1| PREDICTED: similar to Kynurenine/alpha-ami...noadipate aminotransferase mitochondrial precursor (KAT/AadAT) (Kynurenine--oxogl

  11. EST Table: FS799755 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS799755 E_FL_fmgV_02B20_F_0 10/09/28 45 %/148 aa ref|XP_973433.1| PREDICTED: similar to Kynure...nine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase mitochondrial precursor (KAT/AadAT) (Kynurenine--oxoglu...tarate transaminase II) (Kynurenine aminotransferase II) (Kynurenine--oxoglutarate aminotransferase II) (2-a...Amel|GB30100-PA 10/09/10 45 %/148 aa gi|91086977|ref|XP_973433.1| PREDICTED: similar to Kynurenine/alpha-ami...noadipate aminotransferase mitochondrial precursor (KAT/AadAT) (Kynurenine--oxogl

  12. EST Table: FS729238 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS729238 E_FL_bmmt_15H13_F_0 10/09/28 45 %/136 aa ref|XP_973433.1| PREDICTED: similar to Kynure...nine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase mitochondrial precursor (KAT/AadAT) (Kynurenine--oxoglu...tarate transaminase II) (Kynurenine aminotransferase II) (Kynurenine--oxoglutarate aminotransferase II) (2-a...Amel|GB30100-PA 10/09/10 45 %/136 aa gi|91086977|ref|XP_973433.1| PREDICTED: similar to Kynurenine/alpha-ami...noadipate aminotransferase mitochondrial precursor (KAT/AadAT) (Kynurenine--oxogl

  13. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczyk, Wojciech; Socha, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasingly prevalent in children, together with obesity. Transaminases, tests for insulin resistance, ultrasonography and MRI are variably used as surrogates markers of steatosis. Other liver diseases, such as Wilson disease, should be excluded. A liver biopsy is performed in selected cases: young children, familial history of severe disease, inconclusive tests for other pathologies, suspected advanced fibrosis, hypertransaminasemia despite weight loss and in clinical trials. Weight reduction, and changes in lifestyle, are the front-line treatment. Drug therapy is under evaluation.

  14. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112 Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos fármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raça definida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (ASTResearch on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainly tannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form. However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  15. A new type of anticonvulsant, stiripentol. Pharmacological profile and neurochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, M; Huguet, F; Savattier, A; Bakri-Logeais, F; Narcisse, G

    1984-01-01

    4,4-Dimethyl-1-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)-phenyl]-1-penten-3-ol (stiripentol), selected from a series of alpha-ethylene alcohols, demonstrated anticonvulsant activity in studies in the rat and rabbit in which convulsions were induced electrically and chemically using pentetrazol, bicuculline and strychnine. Neurochemical studies showed that stiripentol in vitro did not act as a GABA receptor agonist, instead it inhibited the synaptosomal uptake of 3H-labelled GABA. Stiripentol has been shown elsewhere to inhibit GABA transaminase. These findings suggest that the anticonvulsant activity of stiripentol involves two aspects of the GABAergic mechanism in which the metabolic transamination and synaptosomal uptake of this neurotransmitter are inhibited.

  16. Obstructive choledocholithiasis requiring intervention in a three week old neonate: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay E. Peters

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cholelithiasis in neonates is often incidental, however obstructing common bile duct stones are rare. Herein we report the case of a 3 week old neonate who presented with obstructive choledocholithiasis. The patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics and ursodeoxycholic acid but did not improve. He was therefore taken to surgery for cholecystectomy and stone extraction. The operation was successful and his transaminases and bilirubin levels declined. Trials of conservative management can be attempted in asymptomatic infants with choledocholithiasis. However, failure of the stone to pass or ongoing signs of cholecystitis should be met with operative intervention to remove the obstruction.

  17. Influência da monensina e levedura sobre parâmetros ruminais e metabólicos em cordeiros semiconfinados - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4687 Influence of monensin and yeast on rumination and metabolic parameters in semi-confined lamb - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4687

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schwegler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência dos suplementos monensina e levedura sobre parâmetros ruminais e metabólicos de cordeiros semiconfinados. Foram utilizados 30 animais divididos em três grupos: controle (sem suplemento, ionóforo (500 g t-1 de Rumensin® e levedura (500 g t-1 de Beefsac® . Os animais foram mantidos em sistema de semiconfinamento, recebendo ração concentrada equivalente a 2% do peso corporal. O fluido ruminal foi coletado a cada sete dias, a fim de determinar o pH, potencial redox, tempo de sedimentação e flutuação, cor, odor, consistência e movimentação de protozoários. O mesmo intervalo foi adotado para coleta de sangue, para determinação de glucose, ureia, colesterol total, triacilgliceróis, albumina, transaminase oxaloacética e γ-glutaril-transferase. O grupo levedura apresentou valores de pH menores (p 0,05 entre os grupos. Em relação aos parâmetros metabólicos, não foram observadas diferenças (p > 0,05 nas concentrações de glucose, colesterol total, albumina e transaminase oxaloacética. Entretanto, a ureia, triacilglicerol e γ-glutaril-transferase apresentaram valores superiores (p The aim of this study was to verify the influence of monensin and yeast supplements on rumination and metabolic parameters in semi-confined lamb. Thirty animals were divided into 3 groups: control (without supplement, ionophore (500 g t-1 of Rumensin® and yeast (500 g t-1 of Beefsac®, were used. These animals were kept in semi-confinement, receiving the feed equivalent to 2% of their live weight. Samples of the ruminal fluid were collected every 7 days, in order to determine the pH, redox potential, time of sedimentation and fluctuation, color, odor, consistency and protozoa movement. The same interval was used for blood sampling collection. The concentrations of glucose, urea, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, albumin, oxaloacetic transaminase and γ-glutaril-transferase were determined. The

  18. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis: First Reported Case in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Parkins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA is a tick-borne rickettsial infection of peripheral blood neutrophils caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. While this infection is increasingly recognized as endemic throughout much of the United States, no Canadian cases have been previously described, despite the agent being identified in Canadian ticks. Herein we present a case of HGA acquired in an urban Alberta centre. Canadian physicians must be aware of the possibility of tick-borne rickettsial diseases as etiology of fever in individuals presenting with leukopenia/lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminases during periods of tick activity. Prompt recognition and treatment are important in minimizing resultant morbidity and mortality.

  19. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis: First reported case in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Michael D; Church, Deirdre L; Jiang, Xiu Yan; Gregson, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne rickettsial infection of peripheral blood neutrophils caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. While this infection is increasingly recognized as endemic throughout much of the United States, no Canadian cases have been previously described, despite the agent being identified in Canadian ticks. Herein we present a case of HGA acquired in an urban Alberta centre. Canadian physicians must be aware of the possibility of tick-borne rickettsial diseases as etiology of fever in individuals presenting with leukopenia/lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminases during periods of tick activity. Prompt recognition and treatment are important in minimizing resultant morbidity and mortality.

  20. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raçadefinida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (AST. Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de VigilânciaSanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainlytannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form.However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  1. Biocatalytic process development using microfluidic miniaturized systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in biocatalytic processes means there is a clear need for a new systematic development paradigm which encompasses both protein engineering and process engineering. This paper argues that through the use of a new microfluidic platform, data can be collected more rapidly...... and integrated with process modeling, can provide the basis for validating a reduced number of potential processes. The miniaturized platform should use a smaller reagent inventory and make better use of precious biocatalysts. The EC funded BIOINTENSE project will use ω-transaminase based synthesis of chiral...

  2. Propylthiouracil-induced acute liver failure: role of liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Czul, Frank; Arosemena, Leopoldo R; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Garcia, Monica T; Tekin, Akin; Tzakis, Andreas G; Martin, Paul; Ghanta, Ravi K

    2010-01-01

    Propylthiouracil- (PTU-) induced hepatotoxicity is rare but potentially lethal with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from asymptomatic elevation of transaminases to fulminant hepatic failure and death. We describe two cases of acute hepatic failure due to PTU that required liver transplantation. Differences in the clinical presentation, histological characteristics, and posttransplant management are described as well as alternative therapeutic options. Frequent monitoring for PTU-induced hepatic dysfunction is strongly advised because timely discontinuation of this drug and implementation of noninvasive therapeutic interventions may prevent progression to liver failure or even death.

  3. Propylthiouracil-Induced Acute Liver Failure: Role of Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres F. Carrion

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylthiouracil- (PTU- induced hepatotoxicity is rare but potentially lethal with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from asymptomatic elevation of transaminases to fulminant hepatic failure and death. We describe two cases of acute hepatic failure due to PTU that required liver transplantation. Differences in the clinical presentation, histological characteristics, and posttransplant management are described as well as alternative therapeutic options. Frequent monitoring for PTU-induced hepatic dysfunction is strongly advised because timely discontinuation of this drug and implementation of noninvasive therapeutic interventions may prevent progression to liver failure or even death.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF PIGS BLOOD OF SPECIALIZED TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodyanov V. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the pure-bred pigs CT and hybrid juveniles CT x L Total protein blood serum was determined refractometrically, protein fraction - a method of horizontal electrophoresis on paper, the level of total lipids - B. Swahn, I. Scand. Researched transaminases (AST and ALT method of Reitman-Frenkel, alkaline phosphatase - method O.A. Bessey e.a., creatine kinase - S.S. Kuby. Cortisol levels was determined by radioimmunoassay analysis, adrenaline - fluorometric method. Phagocytic activity was installed by Ms. V. Matusevich, bactericidal activity - by the method of Overmoney, T.A. Kuzmina

  5. Clinical laboratory, virologic, and pathologic changes in hamsters experimentally infected with Pirital virus (Arenaviridae): a rodent model of Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrana, Elena; Mateo, Rosa I; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Popov, Vsevolod L; Newman, Patrick C; Tesh, Robert B

    2006-06-01

    The clinical laboratory, virologic, and pathologic changes occurring in hamsters after infection with Pirital virus (Arenaviridae) are described. Pirital virus infection in the hamsters was characterized by high titered viremia, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, hepatocellular and splenic necrosis, and marked elevation of serum transaminase levels. All of the animals died within 9 days. The clinical and histopathological findings in the Pirital virus-infected hamsters were very similar to those reported in severe human cases of Lassa fever, suggesting that this new animal model could serve as a low-cost and relatively safe alternative for studying the pathogenesis and therapy of Lassa fever.

  6. Reducing ventilator-induced lung injury and other organ injury by the prone position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation can cause structural and functional disturbances in the lung, as well as other vital organ dysfunctions. Apoptosis is thought to be a histological sign of distant organ damage in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Nakos and colleagues observed a protective effect of prone positioning against VILI in normal sheep. Less alteration in the lung architecture and function and in liver transaminases, and lower indices for apoptosis in the liver, the diaphragm and the lung were noted in the prone position compared with the supine position. If confirmed, these data open a new hypothesis for pathogenesis and prevention of VILI and its extrapulmonary complications. PMID:16677405

  7. Correlação entre a incapacidade funcional, idade e enzimas séricas nas doenças neuromusculares

    OpenAIRE

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    1995-01-01

    Foram estudados 806 casos de diversas doenças neuromusculares, a fim de verificar se existe correlação entre o grau de incapacidade funcional aferida pela escala de Vignos e Archibald (V&A) e enzimas séricas (creatinoquinase, desidrogenase lática, aldolase, transaminase glutâmica oxalacética e pirúvica). Foram utilizados testes para a análise do coeficiente de correlação simples (Pearson) e múltiplo. Foi encontrada correlação positiva (piora progressiva da incapacidade) da V&A com a idade em ...

  8. Role of environmental pollutants in liver physiology: special references to peoples living in the oil drilling sites of Assam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Dey

    Full Text Available The populations residing near polluted sites are more prone to various types of diseases. The important causes of air pollution are the suspended particulate matter, respirable suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. As limited information is available enumerating the effect of these pollutants on liver physiology of the population living near the polluted sites; in the present study, we tried to investigate their effect on liver of the population residing near the oil drilling sites since birth. In this study, a randomly selected 105 subjects (46 subjects from oil drilling site and 61 subjects from control site aged above 30 years were taken under consideration. The particulate matter as well as the gaseous pollutants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, were analyzed through a respirable dust sampler. The level of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase enzymes in serum were measured by spectrophotometer. The generalized regression model studies suggests a higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter, suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide lowers the alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.0001 by 3.5 times (95% CI 3.1-3.9, 1.5 times (95% CI 1.4-1.6 and 12 times (95% CI 10.74-13.804, respectively in the exposed group. The higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in air was associated with increase in alanine transaminase level (p<0.0001 by 0.8 times (95% CI 0.589-1.049 and by 2.8 times (95% CI 2.067-3.681 respectively in the exposed group. The increase in nitrogen dioxide level was also associated with increase in aspartate transaminase level (p<0.0001 by 2.5 times (95% CI 1.862-3.313 in the exposed group as compared to control group. Thus, the study reveals that long-term exposure to the environmental pollutants may lead to liver abnormality or injury of populations living in polluted sites.

  9. Pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinia, Babak; Oliaei-Motlagh, Mohammad; Teimouri-Dereshki, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems in Iran. Although the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported almost everywhere, the northwestern Iran is one of the major endemic regions.To do this study, clinical, laboratory as well as disease characteristics of children admitted to Children Cure and Health Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, were examined as the reference hospital for the treatment of VL in northwestern Iran.In this study, 156 children hospitalized in a pediatric hospital from 2000 to 2015 for VL were included. Gender, age, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine transaminase (SGPT), and aspartate transaminase (SGOT), major clinical manifestations such as fever, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, treatment type, and the disease were studied.Among 156 patients examined in this study, 88 (56.41%) and 68 (43.59%) participants were male and female, respectively. The minimum and maximum ages of the infection were 4.5 months and 6 years, respectively. The mean age of the infected children was 17.94 months. Fever (94.24%) and splenomegaly (86.53%) were the most common symptoms of this disease among children. In addition, 49 (31.41%), 64 (41.02%), 18 (11.53%), 33 (21.15%), and 40 (25.64%) participants had leukopenia, hemoglobin count below 8, ESR above 100, ESR above 60, and platelets below 100,000, respectively. Moreover, 39 (25%) and 17 (10.89%) patients had high aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Also, 96.2% of the participants responded to the treatment with glucantime. The rate of mortality in this study was 3.2%.Clinically, almost all children had fever and splenomegaly at the onset of the disease. In addition, hepatic involvement was observed in all cases of mortality, cases with a lack of initial response, and those in need of auxiliary medication. Hepatic involvement appears to be related to the prognosis of the disease. In our study, bone marrow

  10. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri herbs on subacute administration and isolation of active principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Aslan, Mustafa; Aktay, Göknur; Ergun, Ender; Yesilada, Erdem; Ergun, Fatma

    2003-04-04

    Hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) flowering herbs on subacute administration were studied using in vivo models in rats. For the activity assessment on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage following biochemical parameters were evaluated; plasma and hepatic tissue malondialdehyde formation, and liver tissue glutathione level, as well as plasma transaminase enzyme levels (aspartate transferase and alanine transferase). Results of biochemical tests were also confirmed by histopathological examination. Through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures isoorientin, a known C-glycosylflavone, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction as the active antihepatotoxic constituent by silica gel column chromatography. Isoorientin exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect at 15 mg/kg b.w. dose.

  11. Ischemic preconditioning protects liver from hepatectomy under hepatic inflow occlusion for hepatocellular carcinoma patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Qiang Li; Li-Jian Liang; Jie-Fu Huang; Zhi Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)patients with cirrhosis undergoing hepatic resection under hepatic inflow occlusion (HIO) and its possible mechanism.METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive patients with resectable 0HCC were randomized into two groups: IPC group: before HIO, IPC with 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion was given; control group: no IPC was given. Liver functions,hepatic Caspase-3 activity, and apoptotic cells were compared between these two groups.RESULTS: On postoperative days (POD) 1, 3 and 7, the aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in the IPC group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). On POD 3 and 7, the total bilirubin level in the IPC group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). On POD 1, the albumin level in the IPC group was higher than that in the control group (P = 0.053). After 1 h of reperfusion, both hepatic Caspase-3 activity and apoptotic sinusoidal endothelial cells in the IPC group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: IPC has a potential protective effect on HCC patients with cirrhosis. Its protective mechanism underlying the suppression of sinusoidal endothelial cell apoptosis is achieved by inhibiting Caspase-3 activity.

  12. Morphological studies in a model for dengue-2 virus infection in mice

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    Ortrud Monika Barth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main difficulties in studying dengue virus infection in humans and in developing a vaccine is the absence of a suitable animal model which develops the full spectrum of dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It is our proposal to present morphological aspects of an animal model which shows many similarities with the dengue infection in humans. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with non-neuroadapted dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2. Histopathological and morphometrical analyses of liver tissue revealed focal alterations along the infection, reaching wide-ranging portal and centrolobular veins congestion and sinusoidal cell death. Additional ultrastructural observations demonstrated multifocal endothelial injury, platelet recruitment, and alterated hepatocytes. Dengue virus antigen was detected in hepatocytes and in the capillar endothelium of the central lobular vein area. Liver function tests showed high levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase enzyme activity. Lung tissue showed interstitial pneumonia and mononuclear cells, interseptal oedema, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of the bronchiolar epithelial cells. DENV-2 led to a transient inflammatory process, but caused focal alterations of the blood-exchange barrier. Viremia was observed from 2nd to 11th day p.i. by isolation of DENV-2 in C6/36 mosquito cell line inoculated with the supernatant of macerated liver, lung, kidney, and cerebellum tissues of the infected mice.

  13. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

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    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts.

  14. Effect of Microwave and He-Ne Laser on Enzyme Activity and Biophoton Emission of Isatis indigotica Fort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ping CHEN; Yong-Jun LIU; Xun-Ling WANG; Zhao-Yu REN; Ming YUE

    2005-01-01

    The seed embryos of Isatis indigotica Fort were exposed to He-Ne laser (5.23 mW/mm2, radiated for 5 min) and microwave (1.26 mW/mm2, radiated for 8 s) irradiation to determine the effects of microwave and He-Ne laser pretreatment on enzyme activities, and biophoton emission of cotyledon. Then: (i) changes in the activities of enzymes in I. indigotica cotyledon (such as amylase, transaminase, and proteinase) were measured to investigate the effects of He-Ne laser and microwave pretreatment; and (ii) biophoton emission was measured to determine the speed of cell division and metabolism. Results from these experiments indicated that: (i) the activities of amylase, transaminase, and proteinase of the cotyledon pretreated by HeNe laser and microwave were significantly increased; and (ii) the intensity of biophoton emission was enhanced significantly by He-Ne laser and microwave irradiation. These changes suggest that He-Ne laser and microwave pretreatment can improve the inner energy of seeds, lead to an enhancement of cotyledon enzymes, and speed up the metabolism of the cell, resulting in significantly increased biophoton emission.Moreover, the mechanism of action of the effects of laser and microwave radiation on the microcalorimetric parameters, enzyme activities, and biophoton emission of seeds is discussed on the basis of the results obtained.

  15. Antioxidant and protective effect of inulin and catechin grafted inulin against CCl4-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect of inulin and catechin grafted inulin (catechin-g-inulin) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury were investigated. Results showed that both inulin and catechin-g-inulin had moderate scavenging activity on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and H2O2, as well as lipid peroxidation inhibition effect. The antioxidant activity decreased in the order of Vc > catechin >catechin-g-inulin > inulin. Administration of inulin and catechin-g-inulin could significantly reduce the elevated levels of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as compared to CCl4 treatment group. Moreover, inulin and catechin-g-inulin significantly increased the levels of hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, whereas markedly decreased the malondialdehyde level when compared with CCl4 treatment group. Notably, catechin-g-inulin showed higher hepatoprotective effect than inulin. In addition, the hepatoprotective effect of catechin-g-inulin was comparable to positive standard of silymarin. Our results suggested that catechin-g-inulin had potent antioxidant activity and potential protective effect against CCl4-induced acute liver injury.

  16. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

    2011-03-01

    The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 μg/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 μg/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 μg/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 μg/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish.

  17. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott) leaves on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinonyelum, Azubike Nkiruka; Uwadiegwu, Achukwu Peter; Nwachukwu, Okwuosa Chukwugozie; Emmanuel, Oduah

    2015-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of orally administered leaf aqueous extract of Colocasia esculenta (CCLE) in thioacetamide-induced liver toxicity in rats was investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats (weight range: 120-150g) were divided into 5 groups (n=5) and received no treatment (normal control), distilled water (negative control), 50mg/kg silymarin (positive control) and CCLE (250 and 500mg/kg) respectively once daily for 3 consecutive days. Thioacetamide (TAA) (150mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally on the 4th day to rats in all groups except the normal control. Evaluations were made for serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and serum albumin. Histopathological examination was performed on the excised liver tissues. TAA-induced hepatotoxicity increased ALT, AST, ALP and decreased serum albumin. Histopathological results revealed extensive disruption of the liver histoarchitecture when compared to the normal control liver sections. Pre-treatment with CCLE showed protective effects by normalizing the liver enzymes markers. These results were supported by the histopathological observations. The activity of the CCLE was comparable to that of the standard hepatoprotective drug, silymarin (50mg/kg). Overall findings suggest that CCLE possesses in vivo hepatoprotective activity against thioacetamide in rats.

  18. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN EFEK HEPATOPROTEKTIF DAUN BAKAU API-API PUTIH

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    safrina dyah hardiningtyas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan ekstrak kasar daun api-api putih yang memiliki aktivitas antioksidan terbaik, menentukan kandungan fitokimia dan efek Hepatoprotektif ekstrak kasar yang dipilih secara in vivo. Daun api-api putih diekstrak menggunakan tiga jenis pelarut, yakni metanol, etil asetat dan n-heksana. Dalam uji in vivo dilakukan evaluasi terhadap kadar malondialdehid (MDA, enzim aspartat transaminase (AST, enzim alanin transaminase (ALT, dan histopatologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstraksi daun api-api putih dengan pelarut etil asetat menghasilkan aktivitas antioksidan terbaik dengan kandungan fitokimia terdiri dari flavonoid dan steroid/triterpenoid. Pemberian ekstrak etil asetat daun api-api putih pada tikus yang telah diinduksi CCl4 dapat menormalkan berbagai parameter biokimia stres oksidatif (kadar MDA, AST, dan ALT dibandingkan dengan standar Silymarin. Ekstrak daun api-api putih berpotensi untuk melindungi hati tikus dari kerusakan oksidatif yang diinduksi CCl4. Efek Hepatoprotektif ekstrak daun api-api putih berkorelasi dengan aktivitas antioksidannya.Kata kunci: antioksidan, Avicennia marina, ekstrak, hepatoprotektor

  19. Anticancer Effect of Rutin Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum aestivum Straw in Mice

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    Savita Dixit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rutin is the bioactive flavanoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a anthracene (DMBA and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen treated control. Rutin produced significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results from the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.

  20. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  1. Morphological and Isozyme Variation in Natural Populations of the Genus Medicago L. Prospected in Northern Algeria

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    Imane MEDOUKALI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the evaluation and enhancement of genetic resources, morphological and isozyme variability within and among 169 accessions, representing 14 species of the genus Medicago L. collected in northern Algeria, was assessed using twelve quantitative traits and two enzymatic systems. Phenotype frequencies were scored in six enzyme zones to determine isozyme variability within and among populations. The data analysis resolved a high level of genetic diversity. Ten morphometric characteristics contributed to the discrimination of the species. The relationship between the collection site environment and phenotypic characteristics was also studied. Esterase (EST enzyme system was more polymorphic than glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT system. Were scored 2 zones with 10 bands and 21 phenotypes for GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and 4 zones with 22 bands and 71 phenotypes for EST (esterase Polymorphism index and Jaccard’s genetic distances revealed the existence of a high genetic diversity within and among the studied populations. The annual species M. polymorpha presented an intraspecific polymorphism index of 0.57, which was higher than all other species indices. Clustering of the species based on isozyme markers was in agreement with taxonomic criteria and showed no significant correlation with morphological characteristics. Conservation programs should take into account the level of genetic diversity within and between populations revealed by isozyme markers.

  2. Protective effect of isoorientin-2″-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl isolated from Gypsophila elegans on alcohol induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Quan Fang; Zhang, Shi Jun; Zheng, Li; Liao, Ming; He, Min; Huang, RenBin; Zhuo, Lang; Lin, Xing

    2012-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the major causes of liver fibrosis, which shows a sharply increasing trend worldwide, yet effective therapeutic options for advanced alcohol fibrosis are limited. Recently we investigated the effect of anti-fibrosis by isoorientin-2″-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (IOA) isolated from Gypsophila elegans. During the experiment, the model group received alcohol only, and treatment groups received the corresponding drugs plus alcohol respectively, while the normal control group received an equal volume of saline. Analysis at the end of 24-week experiments showed that IOA could significantly improve the liver function, as indicated by decreasing levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, IOA could effectively inhibit collagen deposition and reduce the pathological tissue damage. Research on mechanism showed that IOA was able to markedly reduce lipid peroxidation, recruit the anti-oxidative defense system, and induce HSC apoptosis by down-regulating bcl-2 mRNA, as well as inhibit the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor β1 proteins. In short, our results showed that IOA is effective in attenuating hepatic injury and fibrosis in the alcohol-induced rat model, which should be developed as a new drug to treat liver fibrosis and even cirrhosis.

  3. Effect of long-term treatment with vanadate in drinking water on KK mice with genetic non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W; Hasegawa, T; Hosaka, H; Peng, D; Takahashi, K; Seko, Y

    2001-05-01

    The glucose-lowering effect of vanadate, ammonium metavanadate (AMV), on diabetic KK mice was examined. Five-week-old male KK mice were administrated with a solution of AMV via drinking water at concentrations of vanadium (V) with 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 microg/mL for a period of 10 wk, respectively. Body weight, consumption of food and water, and blood glucose levels was measured every week for 10 wk. The results showed that food consumption and body weight in the experimental groups were similar to those in the control group. A statistically significant decrease of drinking water consumption and blood glucose levels in the group treated with 100 microg V/mL was observed. The glucose tolerance in the vanadate-treated mice with 10 and 100 microg V/mL was remarkably improved compared with the control group. Biochemical analyses at the end of experiments demonstrated that a distinct tendency for the glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels to decrease with vanadate treatment in the blood was also observed. The glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol levels in plasma were lower in the higher vanadium groups than those in the control group. These results indicate that vanadium effectively produced the glucose-lowering effect at a higher dose than that at a low dose of vanadium in drinking water, without any overt signs of toxicity.

  4. Diagnosis of. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Liver Cir­rhosis Using Liver Function Assays

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    Itoshima,Tatsuya

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Sex, age and 21 routine liver function assays were analyzed by stepwise selection and the best-of-all-possible-combinations method to identify a small group of assays valuable in establishing which liver cirrhosis (LC patients have a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, when alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is not elevated. Data was obtained from 115 HCC and 122 LC patients on admission. Tumor size correlated with AFP (0.73, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, 0.47, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, 0.42, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, 0.42, and the glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT/glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT ratio (GOT/GPT, 0.41. The mean of the correct diagnosis rates (CDR of HCC and LC utilizing AFP as the sole parameter (89% was markedly higher than those of the other parameters. The best-of-all-possible-combinations method presented a more powerful combination than stepwise selection. The best combination of 7 parameters (LAP, GOT/GPT, choline esterase, one-hour erythrocyte sedimentation rate, age, albumin/globulin ratio, and total bilirubin presented a mean CDR of 80%, HCC CDR of 77%, and false positive rate of 18%. LC patients statistically diagnosed as having HCC by these 7 parameters are proposed as high risk patients. Fourteen (78% of 18 HCC patients who were AFP-negative were statistically diagnosed. This analysis can be applied to LC patients to distinguish those that should be followed closely by imaging diagnostic techniques.

  5. Association of sleep duration and insulin resistance in Taiwanese vegetarians

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    Chang Jiunn-Kae

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short sleep duration has been reported to associate with increased insulin resistance. However, no studies have investigated whether such association exists in vegetarians. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and insulin resistance in Taiwanese vegetarians. Methods A total of 1290 individuals were recruited from a regional hospital in south Taiwan during their regular routine physical examination. Only individuals who described themselves as Buddhist vegetarians were included in the study. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were collected and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between sleep duration and insulin resistance. Results A total of 433 vegetarians were included in the study. Results from univariate logistic regression indicated that insulin resistance was significantly associated with male sex, greater waist circumference, higher triglyceride levels, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, higher plasma creatinine levels, higher alanine transaminase levels, greater energy expenditure, and sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night. Multiple logistic regression revealed that insulin resistance was significantly and independently associated with sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night (odd ratios = 2.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.24, 4.11 after adjusting for waist circumference and levels of alanine transaminase. Conclusions Sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night is an independent risk factor associated with increased insulin resistance in vegetarians.

  6. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus L., protects rat tissues against oxidative damage after acute ethanol administration

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    Carmen Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol-mediated free radical generation is directly involved in alcoholic liver disease. In addition, chronic alcohol bingeing also induces pathological changes and dysfunction in multi-organs. In the present study, the protective effect of xanthohumol (XN on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated by determining antioxidative parameters and stress oxidative markers in liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain of rats. An acute treatment (4 g/kg b.w. of ethanol resulted in the depletion of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content. This effect was accompanied by the increased activity of tissue damage marker enzymes (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Pre-treatment with XN protected rat tissues from ethanol-induced oxidative imbalance and partially mitigated the levels to nearly normal levels in all tissues checked. This effect was dose dependent, suggesting that XN reduces stress oxidative and protects rat tissues from alcohol-induced injury.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF NEPFROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SILYMARIN AGAINST METHOTREXATE AND IFOSFAMIDE INDUCED TOXICITY IN RATS.

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    MANOHAR NAIK K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the Nephroprotective effect of silymarin against Methotrexate (MTX induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In MTX model rats of either sex (n=6 were pre-treated with silymarin (50mg/kg, p.o. for 6 days in MTX model, MTX toxicity was induced by administering MTX (20mg/kg on third day by intra-peritoneal route. The influence of prophylactic treatment was analyzed by quantification of Serum/Urinary biomarkers and antioxidants and histopathological observations. Silymarin treatment in presence of MTX was responsible for significant reduction in Serum; Urea, Creatinine, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Alanine transaminase (ALT and Urinary; Total Protein, Sodium and Potassium compared to MTX control group. Silymarin treatment was also responsible for significant increase in Serum Albumin and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, Glutathione (GSH and Catalase activities in kidney tissue homogenate compared to MTX control group. Similarly, there was an increase in the urine volume and decrease in the kidney weight in the silymarin treated groups compared to the MTX control group. Results were further supported by histopathological studies. Investigation witnessed the administration of silymarin 50mg/kg dose was effective in normalizing the abnormal conditions of kidney induced by MTX. Thus investigational finding conclude that silymarin possess potential benefits in treating animals with nephrotoxicity.

  8. Antifibrotic effect of heparin on liver fibrosis model in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binita; Shah; Gaurang; Shah

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chronic thrombin inhibition by heparin on experimentally induced chronic liver injury (liver fibrosis) in rats. METHODS: Chronic liver injury (liver fibrosis) was induced in Wistar rats by oral administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) for 7 wk, an animal model with persistent severe hepatic fibrosis. Intravenous administration of the thrombin antagonist (heparin) started 1 wk after the start of CCl 4 intoxication for 6 wk. After completion of treatment (7 wk), markers of hepatic dysfunction were measured and changes evaluated histopathologically. RESULTS: Higher serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total, direct and indirect bilirubin levels, as well as lower fibrinogen levels, were found in CCl 4 intoxicated rats. Heparin, silymarin and combination of drug (heparin and silymarin) treatment for 6 wk prevented a rise in SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total, direct and indirect bilirubin levels and improved fibrinogen levels. Deterioration in hepatic function determined by the fibrosis area was retarded, as evident from hepatic histopathology. Total protein levels were not changed in all groups.CONCLUSION: Heparin, a thrombin antagonist, preserved hepatic function and reduced severity of hepatic dysfunction/fibrogenesis. Combination of heparin and silymarin produced additional benefits on liver fibrosis.

  9. Effect of Mallotus Philippensis Muell.-Arg leaves against hepatotoxicity of Carbon tetrachloride in rats

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    Ramakrishna.S,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Liver Toxicity is a major health problem of worldwide proportions. Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases. In the present study MEMP leaves is used to screen the hepatoprotective activity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in experimental animals by administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 (25ml/kg, i.p.. Silymarin (25 mg/kg, p.o. was used as the standard. Functional parameters like onset of sleep and duration of sleep, Biochemical Parameters like serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were measured. Cytotoxicity of CCl4 was estimated by quantitating the release of malondialdehyde (MDA. The activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes namely super oxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and the level of total protein (TP were also measured. Histopathological evaluation of liver sections was also done. CCl4 administration in rats elevated the levels of SGPT, SGOT, SALP and bilirubin. Administration of MEMP significantly (P<0.001 prevented this increase. The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 group was decreased and these enzyme levels were significantly (p<0.001 increased in Mallotus philippensis leaves groups. Histopathological studies revealed that the concurrent administration of MEMP with CCl4 exhibited protection of liver tissue, which further evidenced the above results. Thestudy confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of MEMP, which may be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  10. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L. against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats

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    Narayanan Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH, and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250 mg/kg·bw orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model.

  11. In vivo antioxidant activity of bark extract of Bixa orellana L. against acetaminophen- induced oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smilin Bell Aseervatham G; Shamna R; Sangeetha B; Sasikumar JM

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vivo activity of bark extract of Bixa orellana L. (B. orellana) against acetaminophen induced oxidative stress. Methods: In the present study, antioxidant activity ofB. orellana was evaluated by using normal and acetaminophen induced oxidative stressed rats at the dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg p.o. oraly daily for 20 days. The animal's body weight was checked before and after treatment. Different biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases, serum glutamate oxalo transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, protein, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbic acid, lipid peroxide was performed. Histopathological analysis of the control and the hepatotoxicity induced rats were performed. Results: It was observed that the B. orellana bark extract showed significant protective activity against acetaminophen induced damage at 200 mg/kg dose level, while the 100 mg/kg dose showed moderate activity. Conclusions: From the result obtained in the present study suggest that B. orellana bark extract elicit protective activity through antioxidant activity on acetaminophen induced hepatic damage in rats.

  12. An antibody of TNF-alpha did not prevent thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Ulvi; Harputluoglu, Murat M M; Seckin, Yuksel; Ciralik, Harun; Temel, Ismail; Ozyalin, Fatma; Otlu, Baris; Yilmaz, Bilgic; Dincturk, Mehmet Sarp; Aladag, Hulya

    2011-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibodies have been shown to reduce liver damage in different models. We investigated the effects of infliximab (a TNF-α antibody) on liver damage in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Group 1 (n = 8) was the control group. In group 2 (n = 8), the TAA group, the rats received 300 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) TAA daily for 2 days. In group 3 (n = 8), the TAA + Infliximab (INF) group, infliximab (5 mg/kg ip daily) was administered 48 hours before the first dose of TAA daily for 2 days and was maintained for 4 consecutive days. In group 4 (n = 8), the INF group, the rats received only ip infliximab (5 mg/kg) daily. Livers were excised for histopathological and biochemical tests (thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and myeloperoxidase [MPO]). Serum ammonia, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), TNF-α, liver TBARS and MPO levels, and liver necrosis and inflammation scores in the TAA group were significantly higher than in the control and INF groups (all p induced hepatotoxicity, and infliximab does not improve oxidative liver damage.

  13. Ameliorative effect of Grewia tenax (Forssk) fiori fruit extract on CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O; Rafatullah, Syed

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Grewia tenax (GTE) fruit was tested for possible efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver toxicity in Wistar albino rats. GTE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg were administered orally to CCl(4)-treated rats. Acute toxicity test and sleeping time determination were done with mice. The results showed that oral administration of GTE for 3 wk to rats significantly reduced the CCl(4)-induced elevated levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, and triglycerides. Moreover, it was found that the treatment with GTE significantly elevated the hemoglobin level in serum and increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl and total protein contents in the liver tissue, and a significant diminution was observed in the CCl(4)-induced elevated levels of malondialdehyde in the liver tissue. The biochemical findings were supported by an evaluation with liver histopathology. Pentobarbital-induced prolongation of narcolepsy in mice was shortened significantly by the extract. The observed hepatoprotective effect is believed to occur due to antioxidant properties of the contents of G. tenax extract, which may provide a new drug to be used for fighting liver diseases and it validates its folkloric use in anemic and other conditions.

  14. HD-03对实验性肝硬化的抑制%Inhibition of experimental cirrhosis in rats by HD-03

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S K MITRA; U VENKATESH UDUPA; S J SHESHADRI; M V VENKATARANGANNA; S GOPUMADHAVAN; S D ANTURLIKAR

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of HD-03 in experimental cirrhosis following chronic intoxication with thioacetamide ( TAA ). METHODS: The effect of HD-03 (750 mg/kg po ) was studied in rats following TAA-induced intoxication (50 mg/kg po ) for a period of 90 d. HD-03 was administered as an aqueous suspension. Levels of biochemical markers indicative of hepatotoxicity were assessed in serum and liver. Histopathological evaluation of liver was also carried out to find out the protective effect of HD-03 following TAA-induced chronic intoxication. RESULTS: Administxation of TAA at a dose of 50 mg/kg po for 90 d resulted in a significant derangement of serum [ serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and bilirubin ] and hepatic ( triglycerides, protein, hydroxyproline, collagen and glycogen) biochemical parameters. Histopathological evaluation of liver sections following TAA-intoxication showed necrosis and proliferative changes characteristic of cirrhosis. Simultaneous treatment of TAA-intoxicated rats with HD-03 at a dose of 750 mg/kg po for the same duration significantly prevented the changes in both serum and hepatic biochemical parameters. The reversal of serum and hepatic biochemical parameters also correlated with the preservation of liver histoarchitecture in HD-03 treated rats. CONCLUSION: The responses such as membrane stabilization,hepatocellular regeneration, and inhibition of collagen formation are the contributing factors in the correction of TAA-induced cirrhosis by HD-03.

  15. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.

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    Arijit Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts.

  16. Malathion-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats: biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flehi-Slim, Imen; Chargui, Issam; Boughattas, Sonia; El Mabrouk, Aymen; Belaïd-Nouira, Yosra; Neffati, Fadwa; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Haouas, Zohra; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2015-11-01

    The increasing use of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment constitutes an ecotoxicological hazard especially for humans and non-target animals. Hereby, we analyzed the toxic effects of malathion on the histological structure of liver and biochemical parameters in male rats. Three groups received daily different amounts of malathion: 1/1000, 1/100, and 1/10 LD50 for 30 days. The weights of treated rat's liver have increased. Analyzed tissues showed centrilobular and sinusoidal congestion, hepatocyte hypertrophy, cellular vacuolization, anucleated hepatocytes, depletion of organelles affecting the majority of cells, and presence of necrotic foci into the hepatic parenchyma. Histological sections of the liver showed important hepatocyte glycogen storage. We conclude that malathion stimulates the filing of glycogen in a dose-dependent manner. Biochemical parameters showed that alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels increased in the treated groups when the level of total protein decreased in intoxicated groups.

  17. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

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    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  18. Lead finding from whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. with Hepatoprotective Potentials through in silico methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amita Verma; Mubashir Masoodi; Bahar Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the present study an attempt has been made to study the antihepatotoxic activity of active compounds in this plant through in silico methods. Methods: We have taken 12 compounds form this plant. All the compounds were further subjected to molecular propertied prediction and drug likeness by Molinspiration and found in compliance with Lipinski’s rule of five. Biochemical parameters like SGOT and SGPT were determined by Reitman and Frankel, ALP by Kind and King, TP by reported methods of Wooton. Results: All the compounds were showed expected similar bioactivity especially in case of enzyme inhibition. Compound Vulgarin showed no violation with good drug likeness score and biological activity as compare to standard drug Silibinin. Vulgarin exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) while the total protein (TP) levels were increased when compared with standard drug silymarin against CCl4-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by histopathological examinations of the liver sections. Conclusions: We found that Vulgarin one of the twelve compounds is showed better drug likeness and biological activity against Silibinin. So this particular compound can be taken as lead compound for further drug discovery for hepatotoxic activity.

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of LIV-first against carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats

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    Lima T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver toxicity is a major health problem of worldwide proportions. Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases. In the present study, LIV-first (16.3 mg/kg, p.o. was used to screen the hepatoprotective activity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in experimental animals by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 (1 ml/kg, i.p. Silymarin (25 mg/kg,p.o. was used as the standard. Biochemical parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and serum bilirubin were measured. Cytotoxicity of CCl 4 was estimated by quantitating the release of malondialdehyde. The activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase and the level of total protein and glutathione were also measured. Histopathological evaluation of liver sections was also done. CCl 4 administration in rats elevated the levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and bilirubin. Administration of LIV-first significantly ( P< 0.01 prevented this increase. The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in carbon tetrachloride CCl 4 -treated group was decreased and these enzyme levels were significantly ( P< 0.05 increased in LIV-first-treated groups. Histopathological studies revealed that the concurrent administration of CCl 4 with the extract exhibited protection of the liver tissue, which further evidenced the above results. The study confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of LIV-first, which may be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  20. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

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    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21st day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  1. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Garima Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct, and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  2. Hepatho-nephroprotective and antioxidant effect of stem bark of Allanblackia gabonensis aqueous extract against acetaminophen-induced liver and kidney disorders in rats

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    Theophile Dimo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Allanblackia gabonensis (Guttiferae is a plant used in traditional medicine to treat some inflammatory diseases. As oxidative stress promotes the development of acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepato-nephroprotective and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of A.gabonensis on APAP-induced liver and kidney damage. Methods: A.gabonensis was given daily per os during 7 days, followed by APAP which was given 2 h after the 6th dose for preventive effect, whereas for curative testing A.gabonensis was administrated 30 min after APAP (2 g/kg. Preventive and curative effects were observed by following biochemical parameters analysis: transaminases, bilirubin, creatinine, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. Results: The aqueous extract of A.gabonensis at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg produced significant hepato-nephroprotective activity by reducing the serum effect of MDA while it significantly produced an increase in enzymatic antioxidant activities (SOD and CAT and non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH levels. A.gabonensis also showed a significant decrease in transaminase, bilirubin and creatinine in APAP intoxicicated rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that aqueous extract of A.gabonensis may possess hepato-nephroprotective activities which can be partly attributed to its antioxidant properties. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 337-344

  3. Protective effect of Juglans nigra on sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in rats

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    Solomon E Owumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of arsenic contaminated water has been implicated in metalloid-induced carcinogenesis. Dietary intake of certain plant products with chemoprotective properties may protect against the onset of diseases and promote maintenance of health. Objectives: We investigated the outcome of black walnut Juglans nigra (JN consumption on sodium arsenite (SA-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Wister albino rats were treated as follows: Control, SA only (positive control (2.5 mg/kg body weight, JN only (100 mg/kg weight, and JN+SA coadministered. After 5 weeks animals were sacrificed whole blood, femur, liver and testis harvested were assessed for hepatic transaminases and clastogenicity. Histology of the liver, sperm morphology and quality were also assessed. Data were analyzed (ANOVA and expressed as means ±SD. Results: SA treatment elevated hepatic transaminases level in serum (P < 0.05, induced histological changes in liver: fibroplasia and periportal hepatocytes infiltration by mononuclear cells. These changes were ameliorated by JN (P < 0.05 coadministration. SA induced micronuclei formation (P < 0.05. Again JN decreased (P < 0.05 micronuclei formation by 50%. Sperm count and motility decreased (P < 0.05 in all groups compared to control. Conclusion: JN showed no protection against arsenite effect on sperm quality. Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects were apparent suggesting a chemopreventive potential active against arsenite genotoxicity and chromosomal instability which have implication for metalloid-induced carcinogenesis.

  4. NOVEL INVESTIGATIONS ON THUJA OCCIDENTALIS EXTRACT ON RABBIT HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

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    Mansoor Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thuja occidentalis (family: Cupressaceae has been used as antiseptic, expectorant, diuretic and in the treatment of cancer and removal of kidney stones in different systems of medicine. The present studies were carried out on T. occidentalis leaves extract to evaluate the hematological and biochemical effects on rabbits. The animals were divided in to control (A and B and treated (C and D male and female groups (n=5. There was a slight decrease in Hemoglobin, Red blood cell count and Hematocrit/Packed cell volume values, while a significant increase in platelet count was observed in male and female treated groups. However, slight increase in total leukocyte count value in male treated group and decrease count with female treated group was also observed. Urea, Creatine phospho kinase, Creatine phospho kinase iso-enzyme, Direct Bilirubin, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Cholesterol and Albumin/Globulin ratio values were elevated in male treated group. While Phosphorus, Uric acid, Lactate dehydrogenase, Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, High density lipoprotein, Low density lipoprotein, Very-low-density lipoprotein, Globulin and Blood Glucose values were found low. In female treated group almost same results were observed like male treated group except that hypoglycemic effect was more pronounced in female treated group. These findings suggested that when results of hematological and biochemical parameters of test groups (C & D were compared with their respective controls (A & B, significant changes were observed which contributes towards the diversified therapeutic effect of T. occidentalis.

  5. Safety and tolerability of the antimicrobial peptide human lactoferrin 1-11 (hLF1-11

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    Blijlevens Nicole MA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of patients with haematological malignancies by means of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is often accompanied by life threatening infections. With emerging antimicrobial resistance there is an increased need for new agents, with a beneficial safety profile. Therefore we evaluated the safety of the promising new antimicrobial peptide human lactoferrrin 1-11 (hLF1-11 in healthy volunteers and patients. Methods We undertook a sequential, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using ascending single (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 5 mg and multiple intravenous doses (0.5, 5 mg in healthy volunteers, and open-label, single intravenous 5 mg doses in autologous HSCT recipients. Results Single and multiple doses of hLF1-11 were tolerable up to 5 mg intravenously in healthy volunteers, while 5 mg single dose was tolerable in patients. Elevations in transaminases possibly related to treatment were reversible and not serious. Conclusion The new antimicrobial hLF1-11 is well tolerated in healthy volunteers with repeated daily doses up to 5 mg. The side-effect profile is very favourable for an antimicrobial, the only undesirable effect being a possible elevation of transaminases, which may be related to hLF1-11 although the current data do not allow conclusive interpretation of treatment relationship. A lower dose is recommended for the forthcoming multiple dosing studies in HSCT patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: nct00509938.

  6. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppasamy Balamurugan; Antony Nishanthini; Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract ofMelastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats.Results:In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2 000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats.Conclusions:Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats.

  7. Protective effect of prednisolone on ischemia-induced liver injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of prednisolone on cell membrane bleb formation, calpain μ activation and talin degradation during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: The hilar area of the left lateral and median lobes of rat liver (68%) was clamped for 60 min and followed by 120 min reperfusion. Prednisolone was administered at 1.0, 3.0, or 10 mg/kg at 30 min before ischemia. In addition to biochemical and microscopic analyses, activation of calpain μ was determined using specific antibodies against the intermediate (activated) form of calpain μ. Degradation of talin was also studied by Western blotting.RESULTS: In the control and prednisolone (1.0 mg/kg) groups, serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) level were elevated, and cell membrane bleb formation was observed after 120 min of reperfusion. Moreover, calpain μ activation and talin degradation were detected. Infusion of prednisolone at 3.0 or 10 mg/kg significantly suppressed serum AST and ALT, and prevented cell membrane bleb formation. At 10 mg/kg, prednisolone markedly suppressed calpain μ activation and talin degradation. CONCLUSION: Prednisolone can suppress ischemia- reperfusion injury of the rat liver. Its cytoprotective effect is closely associated with the suppression of calpain μ activation and talin degradation.

  8. Effect of Withania Somnifera Root Powder on the Levels of Circulatory Lipid Peroxidation and Liver Marker Enzymes in Chronic Hyperammonemia

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    B. Harikrishnan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L Dunal (Solanaceae, commonly called Ashwagandha (Sanskrit is an Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plant, which has been widely used as a home remedy for several ailments. We have investigated the influence of W.somnifera root powder on the levels of circulatory ammonia, urea, lipid peroxidation products such as TBARS (thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances, HP (hydroperoxides and liver marker enzymes such as AST (aspartate transaminase, ALT (alanine transaminase and ALP (alkaline phosphatase, for its hepatoprotective effect in ammonium chloride induced hyperammonemia. Ammonium chloride treated rats showed a significant increase in the levels of circulatory ammonia, urea, AST, ALT, ALP, TBARS and HP. These changes were significantly decreased in rats treated with W.somnifera root powder and ammonium chloride. Our results indicate that W.somnifera offers hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver markers in experimental hyperammonemia and this could be due to (i the presence of alkaloids, withanolids and flavonoids, (ii normalizing the levels of urea and urea related compounds, (iii its free radical scavenging property and (iv its antioxidant property. The exact underlying mechanism is still unclear and further research needed.

  9. [The value of FibroScan® in the follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection without indication for treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Gregorio; Manzano, María Luisa

    2014-07-01

    Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive method of assessing hepatic fibrosis in a quick, simple and reproducible manner. FibroScan is the best-known elastography apparatus and can assess a tissue volume 100 times greater than hepatic biopsy. Given that it lacks complications, TE can be repeated in the follow-up visit, thereby providing evolutionary information. One of its limitations, however, is its failure rate (4.5% of examinations), mainly in obese patients. TE has certain characteristics in chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection. Transaminase levels and necroinflammation increase in reactivations, with hepatic stiffness increasing by 1.2 to 4.4 times. The second characteristic is related to macronodular cirrhosis caused by HBV, with less fibrous tissue compared with that produced by hepatitis C. Therefore, the cutoff values are smaller for hepatitis B than for hepatitis C. FibroScan helps categorize patients with chronic HBV infection into 4 fibrosis groups (approximate mean values and adding 1-2 more points with high transaminase levels): not significant (9 kPa) and cirrhosis (>12 kPa). Thus, Fibroscan contributes to the treatment decision, and its repeated use during treatment enables us to verify that fibrosis has not progressed. In cases with no indication for treatment (chronic hepatitis with no criteria, inactive carrier state, immune-tolerant), the periodic reapplication of TE helps determine whether the inactivity continues or not. If the results are compatible with cirrhosis, hepatocarcinoma surveillance should be started.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

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    Teruaki Toyota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  11. Protective effects of niacin against methylmercury-induced genotoxicity and alterations in antioxidant status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Paula, Eloisa; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Grotto, Denise; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Barbosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the potential beneficial effects of niacin (NA; vitamin B3) supplementation in rats chronically exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Animals were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (n = 6): Group I, control, received distilled water by gavage; Group II, received MeHg (100 µg/kg/d) by gavage; Group III, received NA (50 mg/kg/d) in drinking water; Group IV, received MeHg (100 µg/kg/d) by gavage + NA (50 mg/kg/d) in drinking water. Biochemical parameters levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions, and enzyme activities aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were determined. Further, oxidative stress markers activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity, as well as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide, were examined, and the comet assay was performed, using blood/plasma. Hg levels were measured in blood, brain, and kidneys of animals. Our results demonstrated that NA reduced adverse effects produced by MeHg. The mechanism underlying these effects appears to be related to the intrinsic antioxidant potential of NA. Considering the beneficial effects attributed to NA following MeHg exposure and that fish are the main source of both NA and MeHg, future studies need to evaluate the potential counteractive effect of NA against the adverse consequences of MeHg exposure in fish-eating populations.

  12. Medicinal plants as immunostimulants for health management in Indian cat fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iruthayam Vijaya Kumar; Gurusamy Chelladurai; Thangapandi Veni; S Syed Hussain Peeran; Jayaraj Mohanraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of three medicinal plants on growth, survival and immunoprotection in Mystus montanus fingerlings. Methods:The three experimental groups of fish were fed with a diet supplemented of Ocimum tenuiflorum, Zingiber officinale and Allium cepa (0.5 g each), and control group was fed without supplementation of herbal diet. After 45 d of feeding the experimental group fishes were injected with 0.5 mL of Aeromonas hydrophila and were supplemented with herbal diet. In the control group fishes were injected with 0.5 mL of physiological saline solution alone. Results:The blood samples were collected for haemotological analysis after 7 d of post infection. The results showed that the haematological parameters of haemoglobin, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glucose, red blood cell and white blood cell were found to be more in challenged fish. The survival rate of pathogen challenged fish maintained on the herbal diet is better than those in the control group which is supplemented with non-herbal diet. Conclusions: These results indicated that herbal diet is useful as a growth promoter and for disease resistance of Mystus montanus against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

  13. Pure red cell aplasia accompanied by autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with type A viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiso, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Satsuki; Ueki, Kazue; Hamada, Tetsuya; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Murakami, Hirokazu; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2009-05-01

    A rare case of acute hepatitis A associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is reported. A 55-year-old woman consulted a doctor because of common cold-like symptoms and she was referred to our hospital in January 2007. Laboratory findings showed a marked elevation of serum transaminase and total bilirubin levels (AST 9,605 IU/l, ALT 5,546 IU/l and T-bil 4.14 mg/dl), and prolonged prothrombin time, findings which suggested the risk of progression to fulminant hepatitis, and she was treated with plasmapheresis and hemodialysis filtration on the first and second hospital days. She was diagnosed with severe acute hepatitis A based on the elevation of serum IgM anti-hepatitis A virus. On the 20th hospital day, her hemoglobin level began to decrease in spite of improving transaminase levels without any signs of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bilirubin and LDH elevation, haptoglobin decline and a positive direct Coombs test were detected and these findings indicated AIHA complication; however, the reticulocyte count decreased and bone marrow showed marked erythroid hypoplasia so the co-existence of PRCA was diagnosed. After oral prednisolone administration (1 mg/kg/day), her hemolytic anemia rapidly improved.

  14. Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Assay Results for Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Green Tea Nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-ElSalam, Heba-Alla H; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad; Nassar, Noha; Zaazaa, Hala E; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2016-07-01

    Green tea (GT)-derived catechins; epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in particular are commonly used nutraceuticals for their free-radical scavenging activity (FRSA). The influence of photodegradation on the protective power of GT nutracenticals against oxidative stress was thoroughly explored. Photodegradation of GT extracts was carried out and monitored using orthogonal stability-indicating testing protocol; in vitro and in vivo assays. Total polyphenol content (TPC) and FRSA were determined spectrophotometrically while EGCG was selectively monitored using SPE-HPLC. In vivo assessment of photodegraded samples was investigated via measuring a number of biomarkers for hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis (caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, mitogen-activated protein kinase, glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nuclear factor kappa beta, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor) as well as liver damage (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase) in serum of rats previously subjected to oxidative stress. Results showed complete degradation of EGCG in photodegraded green tea samples with no correlation with either TPC or FRSA. On the other hand, in vivo assay results revealed not only loss of activity but formation of harmful pro-oxidants. Photostability was found crucial for the protective effect of GT extract against lead acetate insult. Results confirmed that careful design of quality control protocols requires correlation of chemical assays to bioassays to verify efficacy, stability, and most importantly safety of nutraceuticals.

  15. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Amalkadi Ghrita against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Dorle, Avinash K

    2004-02-01

    Amalkadi Ghrita (AG), a polyherbal formulation, was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of AG was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP). The serum levels of total proteins and bilirubin were also estimated. The histological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Silymarin was used as standard drug. Administration of AG (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT, ACP, ALP, and bilirubin. The decreased level of total proteins due to hepatic damage induced by CCl4 was found to be increased in AG-treated group. The results are comparable to that of silymarin. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture, as compared to CCl4-treated group. Hepatoprotective effect of AG is probably due to combined action of all ingredients.

  16. Exacerbation of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats by polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Patere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that excessive intake of vegetable oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load precipitate alcohol-induced liver damage was investigated in a rat model. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying this synergism, the serum levels of iron, total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase in liver of rats treated with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron per se and in combination were examined. Alcohol was fed to the rats at a level of 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained between 150-350 mg/dl by using head space gas chromatography, polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 15% of diet and carbonyl iron 1.5-2% of diet per se and in combination to different groups for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was elevated and serum total protein, which was decreased significantly in rats fed with a combination of alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. It was also associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption of antioxidant defense in combination fed rats as compared to rats fed with alcohol or polyunsaturated fatty acids or iron. The present study revealed significant exacerbation of the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron.

  17. Studies on the effect of long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide on serum and liver proteins level and enzyme activity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdz, M; Kucharz, E; Ludyga, K; Molska-Drozda, T

    1976-01-01

    Forty male guinea pigs were exposed to nitrogen dioxide in a concentration of 2 mg/m3, 8 hours daily for a period of 180 days. Forty male animals were used as a control group. The following changes were found in intoxicated animals: the decrease of total protein and seromucoid concentration in blood serum and the decrease of total protein, perchloric acid-soluble proteins, protein-bound hexosamines and sialic acids content, in liver tissue. Electrophoretic examination of the serum proteins showed the increase of alpha 1- and beta 2-globulins and the decrease of albumin concentration. Changes in the level of glycoproteins fractions and protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum were described also. Estimation of enzymes activity showed the decrease of alanine and aspartate transaminase activity in blood serum caused by the strong decrease of the cytoplasmic fraction of these enzymes. However the simultaneous increase of the mitochondrial fraction of transaminases activity was observed. The decrease of the activity of choline esterase was found also. Similar changes of enzymes activity were found in liver tissue. Histopathological studies were done for the further clearing the influenze of nitrogen dioxide on serum and liver proteins concentration and enzymes activity. It was found that after long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide the destruction processes may be observed in the liver. The possible mechanism of the nitrogen dioxide-induced damage of protein metabolism is discussed.

  18. Maresin 1 Mitigates Inflammatory Response and Protects Mice from Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis, frequently caused by infection of bacteria, is considered as an uncontrollable systematic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS. Maresin 1 (Mar1 is a new proresolving mediator with potent anti-inflammatory effect in several animal models. However, its effect in sepsis is still not investigated. To address this question, we developed sepsis model in BALB/c mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP with or without Mar1 treatment. Our data showed that Mar1 markedly improved survival rate and decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in CLP mice such as interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Furthermore, Mar1 reduced serum level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and enhanced the bacteria clearance in mice sepsis model. Moreover, Mar1 attenuated lung injury and decreased level of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine (Cre, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN in serum in mice after CLP surgery. Treatment with Mar1 inhibited activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κb pathway. In conclusion, Mar1 exhibited protective effect in sepsis by reducing LPS, bacteria burden in serum, inhibiting inflammation response, and improving vital organ function. The possible mechanism is partly involved in inhibition of NF-κb activation.

  19. Effects of a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt (uranyl acetate) on biochemical and hematological parameters of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Kahem Al-Balawi, Hmoud F.; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of Clarias gariepinus were treated with lethal (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 mg/L) and sub-lethal concentrations (8, 12 and 16 mg/L) of uranyl acetate, a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt. The LC 50 value was registered as 81.45 mg/L. The protein and glycogen concentrations in liver and muscles were decreased in the fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) values were decreased. Different blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were negatively affected. Level of plasma glucose was elevated whereas protein was decreased. The level of calcium concentration (Ca) was declined in the blood of exposed fish whereas magnesium (Mg) remains unchanged. The activity level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was elevated in exposed fish. These effects were more pronounced in the last period of exposure and in higher concentrations. Results of the present study indicate that uranyl acetate has adverse effects on Clarias gariepinus and causes changes in the biochemical and hematological parameters of the fish.

  20. Structure, expression, and function of kynurenine aminotransferases in human and rodent brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qian; Cai, Tao; Tagle, Danilo A; Li, Jianyong

    2010-02-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D: -aspartate and alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Abnormal KYNA levels in human brains are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological disorders. Four KATs have been reported in mammalian brains, KAT I/glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1, KAT II/aminoadipate aminotransferase, KAT III/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2, and KAT IV/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2/mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. KAT II has a striking tertiary structure in N-terminal part and forms a new subgroup in fold type I aminotransferases, which has been classified as subgroup Iepsilon. Knowledge regarding KATs is vast and complex; therefore, this review is focused on recent important progress of their gene characterization, physiological and biochemical function, and structural properties. The biochemical differences of four KATs, specific enzyme activity assays, and the structural insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes are discussed.

  1. Are Preoperative Routine Laboratory Tests Necessary in Minor and Moderate Surgical Procedures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abit Toker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative routine tests are commonly used to evaluate patients who will have planned elective surgical procedure. In this study, we aimed to identify the preoperative tests required for ASA I-II patients, over 40 years old, who will undergo elective minor and moderate surgeries. Totally 140 patients were included in the study. They were separated into 2 groups equally [Group I (40-59 years and Group II (≥60 years] according to their ages. The patients’ preoperative tests; including chest radiography, electrocardiography, hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelets, glucose, sodium, potassium, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, ürea and creatinine were evaluated together with history and physical examination. After routine monitoring, balance anaesthesia was performed. The patients were followed during the peroperative and postoperative 24 hours for any problems occurred. In Group I; excluding ürea in both male and female patients and haemoglobin in only female patients; preoperative tests had no effect on the management of the asymptomatic patients. In Group II; electrocardiography, chest radiography, ürea, glucose and hemoglobin tests effected the management of the patients in the preoperative and postoperative period. In conclusion, preoperative tests could be ordered according to history and physical examination of the patients.

  2. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether lyophilized aqueous extract of alfalfa, or Medicago sativa L. could exert antioxidant activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of alfalfa extract was determined by assessing the levels of serum transaminases, ALP, bilirubin and lipid profile. Further, the effect of the test substance on malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation; antioxidant liver enzyme non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH); and total protein (TP) were also studied. Serum transaminase, ALP, bilirubin level, lipid profile and liver MDA were significantly elevated and the antioxidant status in liver NP-SH and TP contents were declined in animals treated with CCl (4) alone. Pretreatment with alfalfa and silymarin for three weeks prior to the administration of CCl (4) significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic marker, LDL, VLDL levels enzymes and reduced oxidative stress indicated by elevated NP-SH and TP concentration. The histopathological examination of the livers also showed that the alfalfa extract reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl (4). The in vitro antioxidant assessment of alfalfa extract on DPPH and carotene-linoleic assays demonstrated a moderate antioxidant potential. Results suggest that the alfalfa extract possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidative stress properties possibly through its antioxidant phytochemical constituents and substantiates its use in various liver disorders as a hepatoprotector.

  3. The small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator, UTL-5g, reduces side effects induced by cisplatin and enhances the therapeutic effect of cisplatin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, JiaJiu; Chen, Ben; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Lee, An-Rong; Media, Joseph; Valeriote, Frederick A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated a small-molecule modulator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), UTL-5g (also referred to as GBL-5g), as a potential chemoprotective agent against cisplatin-induced side effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity. Pretreatment of UTL-5g i.p. in BDF1 mice reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine induced by cisplatin treatment. The levels of both aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in these animals were also reduced by UTL-5g. Pretreatment of UTL-5g did not significantly affect the number of white blood cells (WBC) under current experimental conditions, yet it markedly increased blood platelet counts by more than threefold. Therapeutic assessment in SCID mice inoculated with human HCT-15 tumor cells showed that UTL-5g did not attenuate the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin but increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. The LD50 of UTL-5g was determined to be > 2,000 mg/kg by an acute toxicity study. In summary, our studies showed that 1) UTL-5g significantly reduces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin in mice, presumably by lowering the levels of TNF-alpha, 2) UTL-5g markedly increased blood platelet counts in mice and 3) UTL-5g treatment increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against HCT-15 cells inoculated in SCID mice.

  4. The effect of cytoflavin on functional and metabolic parameters rat liver in pancreatonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Sukach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of diagnosis and treatment of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis is an urgent. So it is interesting to study the effectiveness of a multicomponent antihypoxant and antioxidant cytoflavin to reduce violations of the detoxifying properties of the liver in experimental pancreatitis and reduce the severity of pancreatic endotoxemia. Pancreatic modeled by introducing into the pancreas of autobile in a dose of 0,15 ml/kg. Cytoflavin was injected into animals of a comparison group in a dose 0,21 ml/kg in 5 minutes after the model of pancreatic necrosis. We determined the activity of enzymes: alanine transaminase, amylase, and gamma glutamyltransferase, the content of direct bilirubin, glucose, and urea. After modeling of pancreatic necrosis in two days, there are signs of acute liver failure, as evidenced by the differences in the studied parameters of blood and hepatic portal vein: increased alanine transaminase and gamma glutamyltransferase, the change in concentration of metabolic products, such as direct bilirubin and urea. In addition, decreased glucose levels. Introduction of cytoflavin approached the control values the basic biochemical parameters of liver function: decreased hyperenzymemia, exchange function of the liver was restored, which is probably due to antihypoxic, membrane and antioxidant effects of the drug.

  5. Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

    2013-05-01

    The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources.

  6. Effect of water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane on Clarias gariepinus' cellular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O; Oginni, O; Osubor, C C; Adeyemi, O; Oloyede, O B; Oladiji, A T; Adebayo, E A

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane (major components of municipal waste in Nigeria) on the cellular system of Clarias gariepinus. Standard enzyme assays were conducted for alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase of selected tissues of C. gariepinus cultivated in contaminated water over a period of 56 days. Generally, a significant decrease in the activity of the enzymes of the tissues of C. gariepinus cultivated in contaminated water was observed relative to the control (pgariepinus cultivated in phthalate contaminated water was found to be 8.26+/-1.42 while that of control was 14.42+/-1.09. The activity of serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase of serum of the same group of fish was found to be twice that of control. It could be inferred that membrane integrity of the tissues studied are compromised and that tissue dysfunction may result. Consumption of C. gariepinus cultivated in water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane could pose threats to public health.

  7. Comparison of the therapeutic effectiveness of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) with continuous blood purification (CBP) in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Junzhang; Hu, Shouliang; Lu, Hongzhu; Lei, Qingfeng; Liu, Juncheng; Yuan, Fanli; Chen, Rong

    2013-01-01

    The differences in therapeutic effectiveness between sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous blood purification (CBP) were investigated. In order to assess the different treatment methods, 56 critically ill patients were divided into two groups, the CBP group and the SLED group. A comparison was made between all the biochemical indicators, in-hospital duration, hemodynamic parameters, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-II), the survival, and the mortality rates. After treatment, the levels of serum creatine kinase isozyme MB (CK-MB), creatine kinase, creatinine, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase (AST), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (ALT), APACHE II score on the 1st, 2nd, and 7th day in both the treatment groups were lower than that before the treatment (P 0.05). It was concluded that SLED has similar hemodynamic stability with CBP and the two methods have similar treatment effects in critically ill patients. However, we noticed that SLED can be relatively economical and convenient for critically ill patients in clinical practice.

  8. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Villanova, Nicola; Agostini, Federica; Marzocchi, Rebecca; Soverini, Valentina; Marchesini, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Background Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which could delay the introduction of injectable insulin or reduce the insulin dose needed. Commonly available as a nutraceutical, berberine is a potential candidate. Methods and results Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol®) in type 2 diabetes in terms of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action. Conclusion Although further studies should be carried out to confirm our data, Berberol could be considered a good candidate as an adjunctive treatment option in diabetes, especially in patients with suboptimal glycemic control. PMID:22924000

  9. Multivariable analysis of clinical influence factors on liver enhancement of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI; Multivariable Analyse klinischer Einflussfaktoren auf die Signalintensitaet bei Gd-EOB-DTPA 3T-MRT der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Zeman, F. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Center for Clinical Trials; Teufel, A. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Lang, S. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Surgery

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors influencing Gd-EOB-DTPA liver uptake in patients with healthy liver parenchyma. A total of 124 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. The relative enhancement (RE) between plain and contrast-enhanced signal intensity was calculated. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate clinical factors influencing the relative enhancement. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to their relative liver enhancement (HRE, RE ≥ 100 %; MRE, 100 % > RE > 50 %; NRE, RE ≤ 50 %) and were analyzed according to the relevant risk factors. Simple regression analyses revealed patient age, transaminases (AST, ALT, GGT), liver, spleen and delta-liver volume (the difference between the volumetrically measured liver volume and the estimated liver volume based on body weight) as significant factors influencing relative enhancement. In the multiple analysis the transaminase AST, spleen and delta liver volume remained significant factors influencing relative enhancement. Delta liver volume showed a significant difference between all analyzed groups. Liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase depends on a variety of factors. Body weight-adapted administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA may lead to inadequate liver enhancement after 20 minutes especially when the actual liver volume differs from the expected volume.

  10. Inhibition of Fas/FasL mRNA expression and TNF-α release in concanavalin A-induced liver injury in mice by bicyclol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Geng-Tao Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Bicyclol, 4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-dimethylene-dioxy-2-hydroxymethyl-2'-carbonyl biphenyl, is a new anti-hepatitis drug. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of bicyclol on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced immunological liver injury in mice and its mechanism.METHODS: Liver injury was induced by injection of Con A via tail vein of mice and assessed biochemically and histologically. Serum transaminase and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined. Liver lesions were observed by light microscope. Expressions of TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) mRNA in the livers were measured by RT-PCR.RESULTS: Serum transaminase level and liver lesions in Con A-induced mice were markedly reduced by oral administration of 100, 200 mg/kg of bicyclol. TNF-α level in serum was also reduced by bicyclol. Con A injection induced up-regulation of TNF-α, IFN-γ, Fas and FasL mRNA expression in liver tissues. Bicyclol significantly down-regulated the expression of IFN-γ, Fas and FasL mRNA, but only slightly affected TNF-α mRNA expression in liver tissues.CONCLUSION: Bicyclol protects against Con A-induced liver injury mainly through inhibition of Fas/FasL mRNA expression in liver tissues and TNF-α release in mice.

  11. Acute hepatitis C virus infection in a nurse trainee following a needlestick injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaggiante, Renzo; Chemello, Liliana; Rinaldi, Roberto; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after biological accident (needlestick injury) is a rare event. This report describes the first case of acute HCV infection after a needlestick injury in a female nursing student at Padua University Hospital. The student nurse was injured on the second finger of the right hand when recapping a 23-gauge needle after taking a blood sample. The patient who was the source was a 72-year-old female with weakly positive anti-HCV test results. Three months after the injury, at the second step of follow-up, a relevant increase in transaminases with a low viral replication activity (350 IU/mL) was observed in the student, indicating HCV infection. The patient tested positive for the same genotype (1b) of HCV as the injured student. A rapid decline in transaminases, which was not accompanied by viral clearance, and persistently positive HCV-RNA was described 1 mo later. Six months after testing positive for HCV, the student was treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for 24 wk. A rapid virological response was observed after 4 wk of treatment, and a sustained virological response (SVR) was evident 6 mo after therapy withdrawal, confirming that the patient was definitively cured. Despite the favourable IL28B gene (rs12979860) CC- polymorphism observed in the patient, which is usually predictive of a spontaneous clearance and SVR, spontaneous viral clearance did not take place; however, infection with this genotype was promising for a sustained virological response after therapy. PMID:23382640

  12. Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-03-01

    Flower extract of C. officinalis L. was evaluated for its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The activities of serum marker enzymes of liver injury like glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which were increased by CCl4 injection was found to be significantly reduced by the pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The lipid peroxidation in liver, the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in serum were also found to be at significantly low level in the extract pretreated group, indicating its protective role. The kidney function markers like urea and creatinine were significantly increased in cisplatin treated animals. However, their levels were found to be lowered in the extract pretreated groups (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, cisplatin induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment. Treatment with the extract produced enhancement of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione. Results suggest a protective role of the flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Extract has been found to contain several carotenoids of which lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene predominates. Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals.

  13. Protective effect of apigenin against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fahad; Rahul; Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2014-06-01

    A number of pharmacological properties have been attributed to apigenin. In the present study the effect of apigenin was investigated with respect to hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), a compound that is present in many food stuffs and has been reported to be a hepatocarcinogen. Male rats were exposed to NDEA (0.1mg/ml) dissolved in drinking-water separately, and with 10, 20, or 40mg/ml of apigenin for 21 days. The activity of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured in blood serum. Lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and micronucleus frequency were determined in hepatocytes. To assess the effect on DNA damage, the comet assay was performed on hepatocytes, blood lymphocytes and bone-marrow cells of the exposed rats. The results of the study reveal that the treatment of NDEA together with apigenin showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the serum concentration of the enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALP and LDH (papigenin. A significant dose-dependent reduction in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content was observed in rats exposed to NDEA (0.1mg/ml) together with apigenin (papigenin as an anti-genotoxic and hepatoprotective agent.

  14. Melatonin reduces hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; El-Hammadi, Mazen; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Tassi, Mohamed; Abdo, Walied; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Reiter, Russel J

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a role in the development of liver steatosis and insulin resistance, which are both common characteristics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It was hypothesized that the antioxidant properties of melatonin could potentially improve the impaired functions of hepatic mitochondria in diabetic obese animals. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean littermates (ZL) were given either melatonin (10 mg/kg BW/day) orally for 6 wk (M-ZDF and M-ZL) or vehicle as control groups (C-ZDF and C-ZL). Hepatic function was evaluated by measurement of serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, liver histopathology and electron microscopy, and hepatic mitochondrial functions. Several impaired functions of hepatic mitochondria were observed in C-ZDF in comparison with C-ZL rats. Melatonin treatment to ZDF rats decreases serum levels of ALT (P diabetic-induced mitochondrial abnormalities, glycogen, and lipid accumulation. Melatonin improves mitochondrial dysfunction in M-ZDF rats by increasing activities of mitochondrial citrate synthase (P melatonin augments ATP production (P melatonin reduces liver steatosis and mitochondria dysfunction in ZDF rats. Therefore, it may be beneficial in the treatment of diabesity.

  15. Structure Expression and Function of kynurenine Aminotransferases in Human and Rodent Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Q Han; T Cai; D Tagle; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D: -aspartate and alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Abnormal KYNA levels in human brains are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological disorders. Four KATs have been reported in mammalian brains, KAT I/glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1, KAT II/aminoadipate aminotransferase, KAT III/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2, and KAT IV/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2/mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. KAT II has a striking tertiary structure in N-terminal part and forms a new subgroup in fold type I aminotransferases, which has been classified as subgroup Iepsilon. Knowledge regarding KATs is vast and complex; therefore, this review is focused on recent important progress of their gene characterization, physiological and biochemical function, and structural properties. The biochemical differences of four KATs, specific enzyme activity assays, and the structural insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes are discussed.

  16. Antiproliferative and hepatoprotective activity of metabolites from Corynebacterium xerosis against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhadul Islam; Soby Ghosh; Jahan Ara Khanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effective anticancer drugs from bacterial products, petroleum ether extract of Corynebacterium xerosis.Methods:parameters like tumor weight measurement, tumor cell growth inhibition in mice and survival time of tumor bearing mice, etc. Hepatoprotective effect of the metabolites was determined by observing biochemical, hematological parameters.Results:It has been found that the petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite significantly Antiproliferative activity of the metabolite has been measured by monitoring the decrease cell growth (78.58%; P<0.01), tumor weight (36.04 %; P<0.01) and increase the life span of tumor bearing mice (69.23%; P<0.01) at dose 100 mg/kg (i.p.) in comparison to those of untreated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. The metabolite also alters the depleted hematological parameters like red blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin (Hb%), etc. towards normal in tumor bearing mice. Metabolite show no adverse effect on liver functions regarding blood glucose, serum alkaline phosphatases, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity and serum billirubin, etc. in normal mice. Histopathological observation of these mice organ does not show any toxic effect on cellular structure. But in the case of EAC bearing untreated mice these hematological and biochemical parameters deteriorate extremely with time whereas petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite receiving EAC bearing mice nullified the toxicity induced by EAC cells.Conclusion:Study results reveal that metabolite possesses significant antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effect against EAC cells.

  17. Chemoprevention and cytotoxic effect of Bauhinia variegata against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver tumors and human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkapoor, B; Jayakar, B; Murugesh, N; Sakthisekaran, D

    2006-04-06

    The chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) was evaluated in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg) induced experimental liver tumor in rats and human cancer cell lines. Oral administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (250 mg/kg) effectively suppressed liver tumor induced by DEN as revealed by decrease in DEN induced elevated levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, gamma glutamate transpeptidase (GGTP), lipid peroxidase (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The extract produced an increase in enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels and total proteins when compared to those in liver tumor bearing rats. The histopathological changes of liver samples were compared with respective controls. EBV was found to be cytotoxic against human epithelial larynx cancer (HEp2) and human breast cancer (HBL-100) cells. These results show a significant chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata against DEN induced liver tumor and human cancer cell lines.

  18. Moderate protective effect of 6-MFA, a microbial metabolite obtained from Aspergillus ochraceus on immunological liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuley, J N; Naik, S R

    1999-01-01

    Hepatoprotective effect of 6-MFA, obtained from fungus Aspergillus ochraceus ATCC 28706, was evaluated by employing three different immunological liver injury mice models. The first liver injury model was induced by injecting anti-basic liver protein (BLP) antibody into mice previously immunised with rabbit IgG (RGG). The other models were simulated by injecting antiliver specific protein (LSP) antibody or by injecting bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice pretreated with Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvum). 6-MFA treatment inhibited the increased transaminases (GOT and GPT) activities and showed a tendency to inhibit the histopathological changes of the liver in all the models studied. Furthermore, 6-MFA treatment inhibited deoxycholic acid induced transaminase release from cultured rat hepatocytes in vitro, but failed to affect the formation of hemolytic plaque forming cells in immunised mice spleens and hemolytic activity of guinea pig complement in immunohemolytic reaction. Our findings, therefore, suggested that the moderate hepatoprotective effect of 6-MFA could be related to it's protective effect on hepatocyte plasma membrane rather than the direct inhibitory effects on the antibody formation and/or complement activity.

  19. Bioconjugates of PAMAM dendrimers with trans-retinal, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipowicz A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Filipowicz, S WołowiecDepartment of Cosmetology, University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszów, Rzeszów, PolandBackground: Bioconjugates of a polyamidoamine (PAMAM G3 dendrimer and an aldehyde were synthesized as carriers for vitamins A and B6, and the bioavailability of these vitamins for skin nutrition was investigated.Methods: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and ultraviolet-visible methods were used to characterize the structure of the bioconjugates and for monitoring release of pyridoxal (Pyr and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP from these bioconjugates in vitro. A skin model permeation of bioconjugates was also studied in a Franz chamber.Results: A transdermal G3 PAMAM dendrimer was used to synthesize bioconjugates with trans-retinal (Ret, pyridoxal (Pyr, or PLP. These nanomolecules, containing up to four covalently linked Ret, Pyr, or PLP (G34Ret, G34Pyr, and G34PLP, were able to permeate the skin, as demonstrated in vitro using a model skin membrane. PLP and Pyr bound to a macromolecular vehicle were active cofactors for glutamic pyruvic transaminase, as shown by 1H NMR spectral monitoring of the progress of the L-alanine + α-ketoglutarate → glutamic acid + pyruvic acid reaction.Conclusion: PAMAM-PLP, PAMAM-Pyr, and PAMAM-Ret bioconjugates are able to permeate the skin. PLP and Pyr are available as cofactors for glutamic pyruvic transaminase.Keywords: PAMAM, trans-retinal, pyridoxal phosphate, pyridoxal, transamination

  20. Acute toxicity of the pesticide methomyl on the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva): mortality and effects on four biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixian; Jiang, Hui; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Xiaojun; Qu, Weigang; Lin, Ronghua; Chen, Jiao

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the acute toxicity of the pesticide methomyl on the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) was evaluated using mortality and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) as endpoints. LC50 values were 1.228, 0.782, 0.538, and 0.425 mg/l at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Methomyl caused a sharp decrease in specific activity of brain AChE around 48% at concentrations between 0.043 and 0.213 mg/l. A reduction higher than 40% in liver GST activity at concentrations between 0.085 and 0.213 mg/l was found, whereas no significant effects were observed in intestinal GST. A significant concentration-dependent decrease of GOT activity was found after 24 h of exposure to the pesticide but not after 96 h. No significant effects on GPT activity were observed. These results indicate that at the concentrations tested, methomyl is acutely toxic to the species P. parva, causing mortality, neurotoxic effects, and changes in some hepatic enzymes.

  1. High preoperative bilirubin values protect against reperfusion injury after live donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Kaths, Johann M; Marquez, Max; Selzner, Nazia; Cattral, Mark S; Greig, Paul D; Lilly, Les; McGilvray, Ian D; Levy, Gary A; Ghanekar, Anand; Renner, Eberhard L; Grant, David R; Selzner, Markus

    2015-11-01

    Heme Oxygenase-1 and its product biliverdin/bilirubin have been demonstrated to protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). We investigated whether increased preoperative bilirubin values of transplant recipients decrease IRI. Preoperative bilirubin levels of live donor liver recipients were correlated to postoperative liver transaminase as a marker of IRI. Additionally, two recipient groups with pretransplant bilirubin levels >24 μmol/l (n = 348) and ≤24 μmol/l (n = 118) were compared. Post-transplant liver function, complications, length of hospital stay, and patient and graft survival were assessed. Preoperative bilirubin levels were negatively correlated to the postoperative increase in transaminases suggesting a protective effect against IRI. The maximal rise of ALT after transplantation in high versus low bilirubin patients was 288 (-210-2457) U/l vs. 375 (-11-2102) U/l, P = 0.006. Bilirubin remained a significant determining factor in a multivariate linear regression analysis. The MELD score and its individual components as a marker of severity of chronic liver disease were significantly higher in the high versus low bilirubin group (P bilirubin levels of liver recipients before live donor transplantation is associated with decreased postoperative IRI.

  2. Amla as an antihyperglycemic and hepato-renal protective agent in fluoride induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal A Vasant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study was to examine the antihyperglycemic and hepato-renal protective effects of Emblica officinalis (Eo fruit as a food supplement in fluoride induced toxicity. Eo fruit powder was incorporated into the diet (2.5, 5 and 10 gm % of fluoride exposed animals for a duration of 30 days. Fluoride exposure caused significant elevation in plasma glucose, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, acid phosphatase (ACP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase and decreased hepatic glycogen content, hexokinase activity and antioxidant profiles (hepatic and renal. An inclusion of Eo fruit powder significantly reduced plasma glucose levels, SGOT, SGPT, ACP and ALP activities, hepatic G-6-Pase activity and increased hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity. Hepatic and renal antioxidant status of fluoride exposed animals improved upon feeding Eo fruit powder. We, therefore, conclude that E. officinalis fruit could be useful in regulating hyperglycemia and enhances antioxidant status of fluoride exposed animals.

  3. Toxicity of Neem Leaf Extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on Some Haematological, Ionoregulatory, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Indian Major Carp, Cirrhinus mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of neem leaf extract to Cirrhinus mrigala for 24 h was found to be 1.035 g l-l. During the study period, the haematological parameters including Hb, Hct, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC levels were significantly decreased in neem leaf extract exposed fish when compared to the control fish whereas WBC count was increased. Similarly, plasma Na+ and Cl- levels were significantly lower and K+ level were significantly higher when compared to the control. In biochemical study, elevated plasma glucose and induced protein levels were noticed. The enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activities were increased significantly in gill, liver and muscle of treated fish compared to that of their control groups. The results of the present investigation suggest that neem leaf extracts affects the hematological, ionoregulatory, biochemical and enzymological parameters of fish and alterations of these parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of neem based products in freshwater environment.Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Acute toxicity, Cirrhinus mrigala, Haematology, Ion regulation, Biochemical and Enzymological parameters.

  4. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF THE DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (L. MERR. IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saiful Islam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effects of Ethyl acetate (Et Ac, Petroleum-ether (Pet ether, and Chloroform fractions from methanolic extract of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic mice (AIDM. The effect of these fractions (200 mg/kg body weight i.p was observed on fasting blood glucose (FBG level and active fraction was further investigated for its dose dependent activity (250 and 350 mg/kg b. w. on fasting blood glucose level and also on total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT level in AIDM and found significant effects. The most significant reduction of FBG level of around 72.02% was observed for Et-Ac fraction in AIDM. A significant reduction (*p< 0.05 in serum TC and TG level of 53.00% and 57.25% respectively was also found for Et-Ac fraction of E. phaseoloides. The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities were comparable to metformin HCl (150 mg/kg. In diabetic mice, SGOT and SGPT levels were significantly elevated that were further reduced after intraperitoneal administration of this fraction. These results indicate that Et-Ac fraction of E. phaseoloides have favorable effects in bringing down the severity of diabetes together with hepatoprotectivity.

  5. Investigation of the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita on the biochemical and anthropometric profile of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Barbalho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hypolipidemic effects of several medicinal plants have already been demonstrated, but many plants commonly used to treat diseases still need to be studied. Peppermint (Mentha piperita is widely consumed by the population for different purposes, but not for the treatment of dyslipidemias. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of this plant on human biochemical and anthropometric profiles and blood pressure, based on the administration of peppermint juice twice daily for 30 days. Blood samples were collected before and after the treatment in order to determine the glycemic and lipid profiles, and the Body Mass Index (BMI analysis was performed. Results indicated that 41.5% of the subjects showed a reduction in glycemia, 66.9% in total cholesterol levels, 58.5% in triacylglycerides, 52.3% in LDL-c (low-density lipoproteins indices, 70% in GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase levels, 74.5% in GPT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels, and that 52% presented an increase in HDL-c (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol indices. Also, 52.5% showed a decrease in blood pressure and 48.7% in BMI. The use of peppermint by humans can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors of chronic degenerative diseases.

  6. Rutin and quercetin, bioactive compounds from tartary buckwheat, prevent liver inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Shen, Siou-Ru; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wu, She-Ching

    2013-04-30

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a healthy and nutritionally important food item. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of 75% ethanol extracts from tartary buckwheat (EEB) against ethanol- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. EEB were administered to C57BL/6 mice (ethanol induction) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (CCl(4) induction) for 4 and 8 consecutive weeks, respectively. The major active compounds, rutin and quercetin, were also administered to ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals. EEB inhibited increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals; similar effects were found after rutin and quercetin administration. Moreover, EEB elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities, including those of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and inhibited the levels of hepatic inflammation in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-treated animals. This study suggests that EEB exerts hepatoprotection via promoting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties against oxidative liver damage.

  7. Protective effects of berberine on doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Nannan; Chen, Youran; Luo, Yonghuang

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin, a very potent and often used anti-cancer drug, is largely limited due to the dose-related toxic effects. The present study investigated whether berberine, a natural product alkaloid, can reduce the liver injury induced by doxorubicin. Mice of either gender were randomly divided into four groups: the control group, doxorubicin group, berberine group, and berberine+doxorubicin group. In the tests, body weight, general condition and mortality of the mice were observed, and serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase levels were determined to evaluate liver function. Furthermore, the liver was excised for determination of the weight changes, as well as histopathological analysis in the tissues. Mortality rate and significant decline in body weight, and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase activities were observed in doxorubicin-treated mice. These changes were significantly prevented by pretreatment with berberine. Histopathological studies showed that doxorubicin caused structural injuries, such as vascular congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, fibrosis in the liver. These histopathological changes were largely attenuated by berberine pretreatment. These findings indicate that berberine has the hepatoprotective effect on doxorubicin-induced liver injury in mice.

  8. Oldenlandia diffusa Promotes Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects in a Rat Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Sunwoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oldenlandia diffusa (OD is commonly used with various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and autoimmune disease. Liver cirrhosis is a predominant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Here, we show that the therapeutic effect of OD, which was investigated both in vitro and chemically, induced HCC model. OD significantly enhanced apoptosis and antiproliferative activity and reduced migration ability of HCC cells. In vivo, OD was treated twice a day for 28 days after confirmed HCC model through 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG imaging. The survival in OD treated groups was shown to have a greater therapeutic effect than the control group. 28 days after OD treatment, OD treated groups resulted in a significant reduction in tumor number, size, 18F-FDG uptake, and serum levels such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphate compared to the control group. Also, proliferated cells in tumor sites by OD were reduced compared to the control group. Furthermore, several rats in OD treated group survived over 60 days and liver morphology of these rats showed the difference between tumor mass and normal tissue. These results suggest that OD may have antiproliferative activity, inhibition of metastasis, and apoptotic effects in chemically induced HCC model and can have the potential use for clinical application as anticancer drug of the herbal extract.

  9. In vivo anti-inflamatory potential of various extracts of Sida tiagii Bhandari

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study is an attempt to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of n-Hexane extract (HS), Ethyl acetate extract (EAS) and Residual ethanolic extract (RES) of fruits of Sida tiagii Bhandari by using carrageenan and egg-albumin induced paw edema, xylene induced ear edema and cotton wool granuloma animal models. Methods: The biochemical markers like or lysosomal enzymes viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also found out in blood serum. Results:There was decrease in edema volume in EAS and RES administered animals in carrageenan and egg-albumin induced edema models. The percentage inhibition of inflammation in EAS (34.15%) and RES (39.66%) was found comparable with that of the standard drug, diclophenac sodium (46.69%). The two extracts EAS and RES was found to have good anti-inflammatory activity as compared to standard drug. Conclusions: Thus the plant can be used as a potential anti-inflammatory candidate in animals.

  10. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  11. Acute and Subacute Toxicity In Vivo of Thermal-Sprayed Silver Containing Hydroxyapatite Coating in Rat Tibia

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    Masatsugu Tsukamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA containing silver (Ag. This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2–4 days after treatment and subacute phase (4–12 weeks after treatment. Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation.

  12. Antihypertensive Efficiency and Safety of L- & N- type Ca2+ Antagonists -cilnidipine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向阳; 刘国树

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate antihypertensive efficiency and safety of a new domesticof L - & N - type Ca2+ antagonist - cilnidipine withimidapril as a positive control. Methods After 2weeks' placebo washingout, 22 patients were treatedwith cilnidipine 5 mg daily and 27 patients were treatedwith imidapril 5 mg daily. 4 weeks later, if patient'ssitting diastolic blood pressure is over 90 mmHg, his/her dosage was doubled for another 4 weeks, the othersmeasuring up remained their dosage unchanged foranother 4 weeks. Blood pressure, heart rate, blood andurine routine examination, serum glucose, serumchemical examination including total cholesterol,triglyceride, HDL, LDL, transaminase, creatine etcand side reactions were recorded before and after thetrial. Data were analyzed statistically. Results After8 weeks' treatment, blood pressure was significantlydecreased (P < 0.05) in both groups, and the twomedicines had similar antihypertensive effects. Fur-thermore, the reducing of heart rate was statisticallysignificant compared with baseline ( P < 0.01 ) in thecilnidipine group, but not in the imidapril group. Thenegative chronotropic effect of cilnidipine had little ef-fect on continuing the therapy. There were no changeson blood and urine routine examination and serumlipid, serum glucose, creatine, transaminase and etcin both groups. Their side reactions were mild and well-tolerated. Conclusions Cilnidipine has a con-vincing antihypertensive effect similar to that of imi-dapril. Especially cilnidipine may be administered topatients with relatively mild tachycardia.

  13. Comparative evaluation of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in experimentally-induced myocardial necrosis: Biochemical, morphological and histological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variya, Bhavesh C; Patel, Snehal S; Trivedi, Jinal I; Gandhi, Hardik P; Rathod, S P

    2015-10-05

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of different statins on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis. Atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin (10 mg/kg/day) were administered for 12 weeks. After pretreatment of 12 weeks myocardial necrosis was induced by subsequent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg/day, s.c.) to wistar rats. Serum biochemical parameters like glucose, lipid profile, cardiac markers and transaminases were evaluated. Animals were killed and heart was excised for histopathology and antioxidant study. Statins pretreated rats showed significant protection against ISO induced elevation in serum biochemical parameters and serum level of cardiac marker enzymes and transaminase level as compared to ISO control group. Mild to moderate protection was observed in different statins treated heart in histopathology and TTC stained sections. Result from our study also revealed that statins could efficiently protect against ISO intoxicated myocardial necrosis by impairing membrane bound enzyme integrity and endogenous antioxidant enzyme levels. Amongst all statins used, rosuvastatin and pravastatin were found to have maximum cardio-protective activity against ISO induced myocardial necrosis as compared to other statins.

  14. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis) on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad Mohebali; Mohammad Salarmoini; Neda Eskandarzade

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone) in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4) received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively) andtest groups (No. 5, 6 and 7) receivedFeSO4 (1%)-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively) on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15%FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions:We concluded that up to 10%FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Synthesis of platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with 9,9-dihexyl-4,5-diazafluorene and their in vivo antitumour activity against Hep3B xenografted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q-W; Lam, P-L; Wong, R S-M; Cheng, G Y-M; Lam, K-H; Bian, Z-X; Ho, C-L; Feng, Y-H; Gambari, R; Lo, Y-H; Wong, W-Y; Chui, C-H

    2016-11-29

    Two complexes dichloro(9,9-dihexyl-4,5-diazafluorene)platinum(II) (Pt-DHF) and dichloro(9,9-dihexyl-4,5-diazafluorene)palladium(II) (Pd-DHF) were synthesized and their in vivo antitumour activity was investigated using an athymic nude mice model xenografted with human Hep3B carcinoma cells. Pt-DHF- and Pd-DHF-treated groups showed significant tumour growth inhibition (with about 9-fold and 3-fold tumour growth retardation) when compared with the vehicle control group. The liver toxicology effects on the animals of the two compounds were investigated. Pt-DHF and Pd-DHF-treated groups had a lower alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values than those of the vehicle treated group as the animals from the vehicle control group had very heavy hepatoma burden. We assume that both complexes could be further investigated as effective antitumour agents and it is worthwhile to study their underlying working mechanism.

  16. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

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    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted, compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet, a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  17. Profile of hepatic involvement by dengue virus in dengue infected children

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    Amrita Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spectrum of liver dysfunction in children with dengue infection is wide and has been associated with disease severity. Aims: This study was undertaken to estimate the range of hepatic involvement in dengue infection in children. Materials and Methods: This study assessed the biochemical and clinical profile of hepatic involvement by dengue virus in 120 children with serologically positive dengue fever (DF, aged 2 months to 14 years. Results: All cases were grouped into DF without warning signs (Group 1, DF with warning signs (Group 2 and severe dengue (Group 3 according to revised World Health Organization 2009 criteria. The spectrum of hepatic manifestations included hepatomegaly (80.8%, hepatic tenderness (46.3%, jaundice (60%, raised aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and prolonged prothrombin time (41.7% and reduced serum albumin (56%. Conclusions: Hepatic dysfunction was observed more in Groups 2 and 3. There was 84.4% and 93.75% ALT and AST elevation respectively in Group 2 and 94.5% and 95.9% ALT and AST elevation respectively in Group 3 and fulminant hepatic failure was observed in Group 3. Therefore in a child with fever, jaundice, hepatomegaly and altered liver function tests, the diagnosis of dengue infection should be strongly considered in areas where dengue infection is endemic.

  18. Anti hyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of aerial parts of Aerva lanata Linn Juss in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh R; Chitra K; Padmaa M Paarakh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of methanol extract (MEAL) and aqueous extract (AEAL) of the aerial parts of Aerva lanata Linn Juss (A. lanata) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.Methods:The streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were orally treated with vehicle (Normal saline), glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg), MEAL (200 and 400 mg/kg) and AEAL (200 and 400 mg/ kg) to the respective treatment groups. The blood glucose level, lipid profile, body weight on 0 day, 1 week and 2 week and biochemical parameters on 2 week of treatment were measured and are compared to the diabetic control rats. Results: MEAL, AEAL and glibenclamide were found to significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05) reduce the blood glucose level, lipid profile, increase body weight and reduce serum glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate- pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin to significant level. The antidiabetic effect was sustained from 1 week onwards till the end of the study. Conclusions: It has been concluded that MEAL and AEAL in addition to the antidiabetic activity, also possess antihyperlipidemic and the normal value of the hepatic biochemical parameters reveals the safety profile of the extract on liver function in the streptozotocin induced diabetic model.

  19. Chitosan oligosaccharides in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill extract reduces hepatoma formation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    YEH, MING YANG; SHANG, HUNG SHENG; LU, HSU FENG; CHOU, JASON; YEH, CHUN; CHANG, JIN BIOU; HUNG, HSIAO FANG; KUO, WAN LIN; WU, LUNG YUAN; CHUNG, JING GUNG

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan and Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) extracts possess antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan, ABM extract or the two in combination were effective against tumors in tumor-bearing mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with SK-Hep 1 cells and were then were divided into the following six groups: Group 1, control group; group 2, chitosan 5 mg/kg/day; group 3, chitosan 20 mg/kg/day; group 4, ABM (246 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) combined; group 5, ABM (984 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (20 mg/kg/day) combined; and group 6, ABM (984 mg/kg/day). The mice were treated with the different concentrations of chitosan, ABM or combinations of the two for 6 weeks. The levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tissue histopathological features were examined in the surviving animals. Based on the results of the investigation, the treatments performed in groups 2, 3 and 4 were identified as being capable of reducing the weights of the tumors, however, group 4, which was treated with chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) in combination with ABM (246 mg/kg/day) was able to reduce the levels of GOT and VEGF. As a result, treatment with chitosan in combination with ABM may offer potential in cancer therapy and requires further investigation. PMID:25760985

  20. Clinical Experience in Treatment of Amanita Mushroom Poisoning with Glossy Ganoderma Decoction(灵芝煎剂) and Routine Western Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gu-lin; ZHANG Chun-hu; LIU Fa-yi; CHEN Zuo-hong; HU Sui-yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of treatment of Amanita Glossy anoderma Decoction (灵芝煎剂, GGD). Methods: Twelve patients with acute Amanita mushroom poisoning with poisoning received conventional treatment (penicillin and reduced glutathione) combined with oral administration of GGD (treated group), which was prepared out of 200 g Glossy ganoderma decocted in water to 600 mL, and 200 ml was given once, three times a day for 7 successive days; while conventional treatment alone was given to the other 11 patients assigned to the control group. The therapeutic efficacy and changes in serum levels of total bilirubin (TBil), bile acids (BA), alanine transaminase (ALT),and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities in the two groups were compared. Results: The curedmarkedly effective rate in the treated group was more significant than that in the control group (P<0.01).Elevation in TBil, BA, ALT, and AST activities were observed in both groups 3 days after poisoning, which progressively increased thereafter in the control group. In the treated group, they reached their peak on the 3rd day and then declined gradually. The differences between pre-treatment and post-treatment in both groups were obviously significant (P<0.01), so were the differences between the two groups at corresponding time points (P<0.01). Conclusion: GGD shows excellent clinical efficacy in the treatment of acute Amanita mushroom poisoning and can reduce mortality significantly.

  1. The Antitumor Activity of the Novel Compound Jesridonin on Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Saiqi; Shi, Hongge; Wang, Junwei; Wang, Ran; Li, Yongmei; Dou, Yinhui; Liu, Ying; Hou, Guiqin; Ke, Yu; Liu, Hongmin

    2015-01-01

    Jesridonin, a small molecule obtained through the structural modification of Oridonin, has extensive antitumor activity. In this study, we evaluated both its in vitro activity in the cancer cell line EC109 and its in vivo effect on tumor xenografts in nude mice. Apoptosis induced by Jesridonin was determined using an MTT assay, Annexin-V FITC assay and Hoechest 33258 staining. Apoptosis via mitochondrial and death receptor pathways were confirmed by detecting the regulation of MDM2, p53, and Bcl-2 family members and by activation of caspase-3/-8/-9. In addition, vena caudalis injection of Jesridonin showed significant inhibition of tumor growth in the xenograft model, and Jesridonin-induced cell apoptosis in tumor tissues was determined using TUNEL. Biochemical serum analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) indicated no obvious effects on liver function. Histopathological examination of the liver, kidney, lung, heart and spleen revealed no signs of JD-induced toxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Jesridonin exhibits antitumor activity in human esophageal carcinomas EC109 cells both in vitro and in vivo and demonstrated no adverse effects on major organs in nude mice. These studies provide support for new drug development. PMID:26103161

  2. Increased intestinal permeability in pathogenesis and progress of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Jin; Chao-Hui Yu; Guo-Cai Lv; You-Ming Li

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether increased intestinal permeability contributes to the pathogenesis and progress of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by observing its dynamic change in rat models.METHODS: Rat models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis were established by giving a fat-rich diet. The rats were sacrificed at wk 8, 12 and 16 during the study. Rats fed with normal diet were taken as control. Plasma D-lactate, plasma diamine oxidase, serum lipids and liver transaminases were measured in blood of the femoral artery. Hepatic steatosis and inflammation were assessed by haematoxylin-eosin staining.RESULTS: A rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was established successfully. Plasma D-lactate level in model group at wk 8, 12 and 16 and diamine oxidase level in model group at wk 12, 16 increased significantly compared with those in control group. There were notable differences of D-lactate and diamine oxidase level in model group between wk 8 and 12 as well as between wk 12 and 16. Serum lipids, liver transaminases and liver injury also increased with disease developmentCONCLUSION: Increased intestinal permeability caused by intestinal bacterial overgrowth and endotoxin-induced intestinal destruction exists in rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which may partially explain the pathogenesis and progress of this disease.

  3. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

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    Rajasekaran Aiyalu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg. Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmala M; Girija K; Lakshman K; Divya T

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods:Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Results:Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M.paradisiaca. Conclusions: The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  5. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garima Mishra; Ratan Lal Khosa; Pradeep Singh; Keshri Kishor Jha

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista) against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods:Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct), and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results:Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct) and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  6. Ameliorative effect of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (Poir.) Hook. f. & Thoms. roots (ACP) on APAP/CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats and in vitro free radical scavenging property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varghese Jancy Shine; Somasekharan Nair Rajam Suja; Gangadharan Indira Anuja; Gopan Raj; Sreedharan Nair Rajasekharan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (C. peltata) against paracetamol/carbon tetra chloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats.Methods: In vivo paracetamol/carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats, in vitro free radical scavenging studies, HPTLC estimation of tetrandrine and direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry of alkaloid extract of C. peltata were used for the validation. Results: The results showed that pretreatment with alkaloid extract of C. peltata caused significant reduction of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum cholesterol, liver malondialdehyde levels. The reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase levels in liver were increased with alkaloid extract of C. peltata treatment. These results were almost comparable to silymarin and normal control. Histopathological studies also substantiated the biochemical findings. The in vitro hydroxyl, superoxide and DPPH scavenging study of alkaloid extract of C. peltata showed significant free radical scavenging property.Conclusions:The hepatoprotective property of alkaloid extract of C. peltata against paracetamol/carbon tetrachloride may be due the synergistic action of alkaloids especially tetrandrine, fangchinoline through free radical scavenging and thus preventing oxidative stress.

  7. L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid: enzymatic synthesis, myocardial uptake, and metabolism

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    Barrio, J.R.; Egbert, J.E.; Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Baumgartner, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sterile, pyrogen-free L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid was prepared from /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ using phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and glutamic/oxaloacetic acid transaminase immobilized on Sepharose supports to determine if it is a useful indicator for in vivo, noninvasive determination of myocardial metabolism. An intracoronary bolus injection of L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid into dog myocardium showed a triexponential clearance curve with maximal production of /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ 100 s after injection. Inactivation of myocardial transaminase activity modified the tracer clearance and inhibited the production of /sup 11/CO/sub 2/. Positron-computed tomography imaging showed that the /sup 11/C activities retained in rhesus monkey myocardium are higher than those observed in dog heart after intravenous injection of L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid. These findings demonstrated the rapid incorporation of the carbon skeleton of L-aspartic acid into the tricarboxylic acid cycle after enzymatic transamination in myocardium and suggested that L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid could be of value for in vivo, noninvasive assessment of local myocardial metabolism.

  8. Relationship Between Obesity and Liver Enzymes Levels in Turner’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Farzaneh; Golgiri, Fatemeh; Alaei, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Mojgan; Nikraftar, Parham; Bozorgmehr, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Background Liver enzyme abnormalities have been reported in Turner’s syndrome (TS). There are some studies about possible causes of abnormal levels of liver enzymes. One of the main suggestions is obesity. The study aimed to determine the relationship between obesity and liver enzymes levels in patients with TS. Methods Forty-one karyotype-proven TS patients referred to Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center were included in this cross-sectional study. Height and weight of patients were measured and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The patients were divided into two groups as the control group including 27 cases (65.8%) with normal BMI (defined as 85th percentile for age and gender). Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AlkPh) were measured. Results There were no statistically significant differences regarding AST (27 ± 2.7 vs. 29.6 ± 5.85 U/L; P = 0.3), ALT (20.1 ± 2.45 vs. 22.2 ± 5.85 U/L; P = 0.5), and AlkPh (583.4 ± 2.45 vs. 472.8 ± 161.5 U/L; P = 0.28) between overweight TS patients and those with normal BMI. Conclusion There was no significant difference in liver enzyme levels between TS patients with normal BMI and those who were overweight. PMID:28270874

  9. Hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol Extract from Asparagus officinalis L. in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinglei; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng; Wang, Jiesi; Zhao, Jingjing; Qu, Weijing

    2011-08-01

    During industrial processing of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), around half of each spear is discarded. However, these discarded asparagus (by-products) might be used as food supplements for their potential therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol extract (BEA) from asparagus by-products in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Continuous HFD feeding caused hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and liver damage in mice. Interestingly, while BEA significantly decreased the levels of body weight gain, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, it dramatically increased the high density lipoprotein level when administered at three different doses (40, 80 or 160 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks in hyperlipidemic mice. In addition, BEA decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in serum. Finally, superoxide dismutase activity and the total antioxidation capacity were evidently increased, while the malondialdehyde level and the distribution of lipid droplets were reduced in liver cells of BEA-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of this study suggested that BEA had a strong hypolipidemic function and could be used as a supplement in healthcare foods and drugs or in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs.

  10. Reduction of oxidative stress by an ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (Paan) Linn. decreased methotrexate-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Soumita; Sen, Tuhinadri; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-11-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist, is currently used as first line therapy for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, but its use is limited by the associated hepatotoxicity. As leaves of Piper betle, belonging to family Piperaceae, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of Piper betle leaf extract (PB) in attenuating MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats pre-treated with PB (50 or 100 mg kg(-1) b.w., p.o.) were administered with a single dose of MTX (20 mg kg(-1), b.w., i.p.) and its hepatoprotective efficacy was compared with folic acid (1 mg kg(-1) b.w., i.p.), conventionally used to minimize MTX-induced toxicity. MTX-induced hepatotoxicity was confirmed by increased activities of marker enzymes, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase which were remitted by pre-treatment with PB and corroborated with histopathology. Additionally, MTX-induced hepatic oxidative stress which included increased generation of reactive oxygen species, enhanced lipid peroxidation, depleted levels of glutathione and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes was effectively mitigated by PB, indicative that its promising antioxidant-mediated hepatoprotective activity was worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

  11. Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton Prabu, S; Muthumani, M; Shagirtha, K

    2012-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats.

  12. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients from Antalya, Turkey

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    Ibrahim Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We assessed the bone mineral density and related parameters in nine adults, thirty-eight pubertal, prepubertal totally forty-seven patients with thalassemia major living in Antalya, Turkey. Materials and Methods. We measured height and pubertal staging in last five years by six-month intervals. Average ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were calculated for last three years. The levels of hydroxyproline, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine were measured in 24 h urine, and those of parathormone, IGF 1, osteocalcine, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatine, blood glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase were determined in serum, and also the bone mineral density was measured. Results. The average L1–L4 bone mass density was 27.1±10.1 g cm−2; the average bone mineral content was 0.65 ± 0.11 g. of the patients with a Z-score under 2.5. A moderate relationship was found between the bone mass density age and height. Subjects in low pubertal staging and short stature (<3% percentile have significantly lower bone mass densities P<0.001. Conclusion. he prevalence of osteoporosis is high in patients with thalassemia major, possibly related to delayed puberty.

  14. Biochemical adaptations in middle-distance runners: an assessment of blood and anthropometric parameters

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    Danila Di Majo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism underlying the physiological adaptation of purely aerobic workout, we investigated the effect of 2 months of training on nine males (17-22 year-old middle distance running agonistic athletes. Blood sample was collected in the morning to analyze: hematological parameters, lipid profile, liver function enzymes [glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT] and skeletal and myocardial markers of muscle damage [creatin kinase (CK and creatin kinase MB (CK-MB]. Endurance training, as it implies high oxygen consumption, should increase reactive oxygen species, but it has been shown that exercise leads to increased activation of antioxidant defenses. In fact, serum levels of γ-GT enzyme and total CK were not increased. On the other hand, a statistical significant reduction of CKMB has been observed. There were not variations in hematological parameters. As far as the anthropometric value is concerned, after two months of training there was a change in weight (P<0.0001. Finally, any oxidative and biological stress was highlighted in the middle distance runners but, since this is a preliminary study, it would be of interest to replicate the study on a larger sample.

  15. Ameliorating effects of curcumin and vitamin E on diazinon-induced oxidative damage in rat liver and erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messarah, Mahfoud; Amamra, Wahiba; Boumendjel, Amel; Barkat, Leila; Bouasla, Ihcène; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed Salah; Feki, Abdelfattah El

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of vitamin E and/or curcumin against diazinon (DZN) (an organophosphorus insecticide)-induced toxicity of blood, liver and erythrocyte markers of male Wistar rats. The exposure of rats to DZN for 21 days provoked significant changes in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin. Results showed that lipid peroxidation increased significantly in DZN-treated rats, as evidenced by high liver and erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. Alteration of the antioxidant system in DZN-treated rats was confirmed by the significant decrease in the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase, accompanied by a decline in reduced glutathione content in both tissues. On the other hand, a significant increase in the activities of plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase was observed in the rats treated with DZN. However, the administration of vitamin E and curcumin has ameliorated the previous markers. In conclusion, our results indicate that the natural antioxidants like vitamin E and curcumin can effectively lower the erythrocytes and hepatic injuries induced by DZN as monitored by lipid peroxides, antioxidant enzyme activities and sensitive serum enzyme levels.

  16. Sero diagnosis of dengue activity in an unknown febrile outbreak at the Siliguri Town, District Darjeeling, West Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debjani Taraphdar; Arindam Sarkar; Mihir Kumar Bhattacharya; Shyamalendu Chatterjee

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the outbreak of unknown fever at Siliguri town, Darjeeling District on request from the State Health Department, Government of West Bengal. Methods:Investigations were made to the affected wards, Sub Divisional Hospital and the nursing homes of Siliguri Town. Duration of illness was 3-5 days. Interesting observations were made in some cases which had gastrointestinal disorders with high serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels. A total of 69 blood samples and 7 throat swabs (in Minimum Essential Media) were collected and brought to the ICMR Virus Unit, Kolkata for analysis. Mosquitoes from different affected areas were collected for the identification of the definite vector. Results:Amongst the 69 blood samples, 42 (60.86%) were positive to IgM antibody against dengue virus by Mac enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. No IgM antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus was detected among the collected blood samples. Based on the clinical symptoms, presence of IgM antibody to dengue virus and identification of Aedes mosquito, it amply proves that, the illness of those cases were due to dengue virus infection. Conclusions:Based on clinical-epidemiological observations of the investigations the possibility of a communicable disease of viral origin, the detection of IgM antibody and the identification of Aedes egypti, and the potential circulation of denge virus in Siliguri town for the first time were all suggested.

  17. In vivo cancer targeting and fluorescence-CT dual-mode imaging with nanoprobes based on silver sulfide quantum dots and iodinated oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng-Yao; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Song, Ji-Tao; Yao, Ming-Hao; Yan, Dong-Mei; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2015-12-14

    In this article, a fluorescence-CT dual-mode nanoprobe is successfully synthesized by making use of distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (DSPE-PEG2000-FA) and other amphiphilic molecules to coat silver sulfide (Ag2S) quantum dots (QDs) and iodinated oil simultaneously. In vitro experiments show that the fluorescence wavelength of the nanoprobe is 1170 nm in the near infrared-II region. Its size is 139.6 nm, it has good dispersibility, and it has low cellular toxicity at concentrations up to 25 μg mL(-1) Ag. In vivo experiments revealed that the probe has a rather long circulation time (blood half-life of 5.7 hours), and the tissue histopathological tests show that it is not obviously harmful to major organs' normal function. Biochemical analysis (glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels) and blood analysis (white blood cell, red blood cell, hemoglobin and blood platelet counts) reveal that it has little influence on blood within 15 days of administration. When injected into HeLa xenograft nude mice by the tail vein, the probe elicited intensely enhanced fluorescence and X-ray computed tomography (CT) signals in the tumors after 24 hours, and the structure, size and position of tumor tissue were shown clearly. In a word, the probe has good tumor targeting capabilities, and it has significant value in fluorescence-CT dual-mode imaging in vivo.

  18. Rapid development of migratory, linear, and serpiginous lesions in association with immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichard, Dominique C; Hensley, Jennifer R; Williams, Esther; Apolo, Andrea B; Klion, Amy D; DiGiovanna, John J

    2014-06-01

    A 78-year-old Bulgarian woman presented to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with a diagnosis of poorly differentiated metastatic carcinoma of unknown origin. The prior month she had been seen at a hospital in Bulgaria for weight loss and a right inguinal mass. NIH pathology review confirmed a poorly differentiated carcinoma with extensive necrosis suggesting squamous cell carcinoma. She was enrolled in a treatment trial at NIH with metastatic disease invading the lungs and lymph nodes (mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis) and a chemotherapy regimen was started of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and lenalidomide with dexamethasone as an antiemetic. The patient returned on day 8, and a rash of 2 days duration was noted. Immediately before arriving at the dermatology clinic, she developed altered mental status with aphasia and was admitted for neurologic observation. The altered mental status resolved and evaluation revealed only small-vessel ischemia. The patient was also experiencing diarrhea and was found to have elevated transaminases (4- to 7-fold over normal). Chemotherapy was held because of the transaminase abnormalities and altered mental status. The following day, the patient was seen by dermatology for a progressive asymptomatic eruption.

  19. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Curcuma Longa on the Biochemical Profile and Meat Characteristics of Broiler Rabbits under Summer Stress

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    Basavaraj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen four week’s old weaned broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with turmeric rhizome powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mgand T2 (basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Different hematological and serum biochemical parameters such as packed cell volume, Hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count and serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase due to the dietary inclusion of turmeric powder rhizome supplementation at 0, 0.15 and 0.30 percent did not show significant difference between the treatment groups. Carcass parameters and chemical composition of meat were closer to the standard values. The results of the study indicated no beneficial effect of dietary inclusion of turmeric (Curcuma longa rhizome powder at 0, 0.15 and 0.30 per cent on blood biochemical and meat characteristics of broiler rabbits reared under summer stress [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 15-18

  20. Flux of Nitrogen-13 from L-(N-13)Glutamate in isolated myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, R.E.; Barrio, J.R.; Krivokapich, J.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    Specific activity of nitrogen-13 containing metabolites in tissue and effluent was determined following an intra-arterial bolus of non-carrier added L-(N-13)glutamate (N-13 GLU) given to isolated rabbit septa under different metabolic states which include pyruvate (2 mM), transaminase inhibition (aminooxy-acetate, AOA, 2 mM), or pyruvate with AOA superimposed on the insulin and glucose perfused septa. Six minutes after the N-13 GLU bolus administration relative tissue specific activities of glutamine, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate were approximately 3:38:52:100, respectively, in the control and pyruvate perfused septa. The lower alanine specific activity when compared with control tissue indicated that alanine output was from a pool separate from GPT alanine pools. Higher glutamate specific activity suggested that its output is from a pool(s) different than the larger intra-cellular glutamate pool(s). All interventions with AOA blocked N-13 flux through transminases altering tissue and effluent relative specific activities with increase in % N-13 and specific activities for glutamine, glutamate, ammonia, and protein concomittant with disappearance of labeled aspartate and alanine. These results indicate that N-13 distribution in myocardium after N-13 GLU administration is mainly controlled by glutamate interaction with reversible transaminases. The differences in reactant (N-13 GLU) and product specific activities are a consequence of channeling between different cytosolic and mitochondrial glutamate microcompartments.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF SEASONS ON BLOOD CONSTITUENTS OF DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    E.A. BABEKER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in White Nile State, Sudan for a period of one year, and was designed to investigate the effect of seasons on the blood constituents of dromadery camel (Camelus dromedarius. One hundred and four Samples different sex and age were collected in July (Rainy Season, September (Rainy hot summer, October (Dry wet winter and April (Dry hot summer. The effect of season on some blood hematology, metabolites, enzymes and minerals profile was studied. The results showed higher significant level were: Monocytes, total protein and Glutamic- Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GPT during rainy season, while MCV, MCH, lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils in rainy hot summer, whereas within dry wet winter were: glucose, albumin and k, even in dry hot summer were: MCHC, total white blood cells, neutrophils, uric acid, creatinine, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT and Ca. The results also indicate that the fluctuations of seasons were observed in red blood cells, hematocrit (PCV and E.S.R as lower level. Therefore, it could be valuable to provide that the dromedary camels adapted to tropical conditions.

  2. Effect of Copper on the Humoral and Biochemical Indices of the Teleost fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792

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    Bhaskaran Nair Girish KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of copper and the ameliorating capacity of vitamin C on the humoral and biochemical parameters in the teleost fish, Anabas testudineus, were investigated. The 96 h LC 50 value of copper for A. testudineus was determined by Probit method and was found to be 1.74 mg/L. The blood of fish from two sub-lethal concentrations along with vitamin supplemented media and control medium, were analysed. The haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, erythrocyte count (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC were reduced (p > 0.0001 in copper exposed fish compared to the control. The leucocyte (WBC count increased (p < 0.0001 with dose and duration. Immature and amitotic RBCs, hypoxia, hypochromia, and crenation were observed in highest nominal concentrations and last exposures. The plasma glucose, cortisol, GOT (Glutamate oxalate transaminase, GPT (Glutamate pyruvate transaminase, ALP (Alkaline phosphatase and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase increased (p < 0.0001, and serum protein decreased. However, on day 28, the Hb, RBC count, MCH, MCHC, and the oxygen carrying capacity increased, and glucose, cortisol and LDH decreased, markedly. The administration of vitamin C improved the blood parameters, illustrating its prophylactic capacity to overwhelm the trace metal stress.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.78

  3. Remnant B-cell-stimulative and anti-oxidative effects of Persea americana fruit extract studied in rats introduced into streptozotocin - induced hyperglycaemic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, U S Mahadeva; Adinew, Bizuneh

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-stimulative and anti-oxidative effects of Persea americana fruit extract were evaluated using streptozotocin (STZ). Ethanol extract of P. americana in the concentration of 300 mg/kg body weight/rat /day was orally administered to rats introduced into STZ-induced hyperglycaemic state for a period of 30 days. After the treatment with avocado fruit extract, the elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood urea and serum creatinine seen in the hyperglycaemic rats, reverted back to near normal. Similarly, significantly decreased plasma insulin and haemoglobin levels went back to near normal after the treatment, suggesting the insulin-stimulative effect of P. americana fruit. Determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides and both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, confirmed the anti-oxidative potential of avocado fruit extract which, in turn, might be responsible for its hypoglycaemic potential. Changes in activities of enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) seen in the control and experimental rats, revealed the tissue-protective nature of Persea americana fruits, while all of the analysed biochemical parameters were comparable to those obtained with gliclazide as a standard reference drug.

  4. Caracterização isozimática e atividade de peroxidase em folhas de plantas hiperídrica, intermediária e normal de Bidens pilosa L. mantidas in vitro Isoezymatic characterization and peroxidase activity in leaves of hyperhydric, intermediary and normal plants of Bidens pilosa L. grown in vitro

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    José Emílio Zanzirolani de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizadas as plantas: hiperídrica, intermediária e normal de um clone de Bidens pilosa mantido em cultivo in vitro por meio de isozimas e da atividade de peroxidase. Empregando-se a eletroforese em géis de amido a 12%, testou-se seis isozimas, sendo detectado polimorfismo em peroxidase e fosfatase ácida, permitindo caracterizar cada tipo de planta. Não houve polimorfismo em fosfogluco isomerase, fosfoglucomutase, glutamato oxaloacetato transaminase e malato desidrogenase. A atividade da peroxidase foi maior nas plantas hiperídricas e intermediárias. Conclui-se que a variabilidade enzimática tem potencial como marcador de hiperidricidade em plantas mantidas in vitro.Activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 and isozymes analysis of a Bidens pilosa clone maintained in vitro culture were characterized in hyperhydric, intermediary and normal plants. Electrophorese in starch gels (12% of six isozymes systems was tested, polymorphisms in peroxidase and acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2 were detected. There was absence of polymorphism in phosphoglucoisomerase (EC 5.3.1.9, phosphoglucomutase (EC 5.4.2.2, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.1 and malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37. Comparing the activity of peroxidase enzyme, it was higher in hyperhydric and intermediary plants in relation to normal ones. Enzymatic variability is a potential tool as hyperhydricity marker in plants grown in vitro.

  5. EFFECT OF PIOGLITAZONE ON HEPATIC ULTRA-STRUCTURE AND METABOLIC CHANGES INDUCED BY A HIGH SUCROSE DIET IN RATS

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    Mohamed D. Morsy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone (Pio is a PPAR-γ agonist insulin sensitizer has anti-inflammatory activity. Our novel aspect was to investigate its hepatic anti-inflammatory activity at the level of ultra-structure and enzymatic changes in a high sucrose diet animal model. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four equal groups: Control; control Pio; high sucrose diet; high sucrose diet Rio treated groups. Fourteen weeks later, serum glucose, insulin, lipogram, gamma glutamyle transferase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, fetuin-A and adiponectin levels were measured. Hepatic tissue homogenate levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase activity were determined. Microscopic and ultra-structure hepatic changes were conducted in all animal groups. Administration of Pio in HS+Pio group reduced significantly the hepatic inflammatory markers and the hepatic enzymes compared with HS group. Both light and electron microscopic examination revealed a great improvement of the hepatic tissue with Pio treatment. This study suggested that Pio treatment in obesity; in addition to insulin sensitizing activity; could protect the liver from the development of hepatic inflammation induced by a high sucrose diet not only at the enzymatic but also at ultra-structure levels.

  6. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

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    Mansour S. Al-Said

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO (0.2 mL/kg in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH, and total protein (TP contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0% of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of bacoside A against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver toxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2009-10-01

    N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) is a notorious carcinogen, present in many environmental factors. DEN induces oxidative stress and cellular injury due to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species; free radical scavengers protect the membranes from DEN-induced damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of bacoside A (the active principle isolated from Bacopa monniera Linn.) on carcinogen-induced damage in rat liver. Adult male albino rats were pretreated with 15 mg/kg body weight/day of bacoside A orally (for 14 days) and then intoxicated with single necrogenic dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (200 mg/kg bodyweight, intraperitonially) and maintained for 7 days. The liver weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and activity of serum marker enzymes (aspartate transaminases, alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were markedly increased in carcinogen-administered rats, whereas the activities of marker enzymes were near normal in bacoside A-pretreated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutatione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione) in liver also decreased in carcinogen-administered rats, which were significantly elevated in bacoside A-pretreated rats. It is concluded that pretreatment of bacoside A prevents the elevation of LPO and activity of serum marker enzymes and maintains the antioxidant system and thus protects the rats from DEN-induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Bacoside-A, a major constituent of Bacopa monniera Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, T; Nongbri, A

    2008-10-01

    Bacoside-A (B-A) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against d-GalN induced liver injury in rats. B-A is a major constituent isolated from the plant Bacopa monniera Linn. B-A (10mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally once daily for 21 days and then d-GalN (300 mg/kg of body weight) was injected on 21st day after final administration of B-A. B-A reduces the elevated levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 5'nucleotidase (5'ND). In addition B-A also significantly restored towards normalization of the decreased levels of Vit-C, and Vit-E induced by d-GalN both in liver and plasma. These results suggest that B-A has hepatoprotective effect against d-GalN induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  9. Radioprotective effect of Curcuma longa extract on γ-irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Ahmed S; Hawas, Asrar M; Amin, Nour El-Din; Elnashar, Magdy M; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulatory effect of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (L.) against γ-irradiation (GR), which induces biochemical disorders in male rats. The sublethal dose of GR was determined in primary hepatocytes. Also, the effect of C. longa extract was examined for its activity against GR. In rats, C. longa extract was administered daily (200 mg/kg body mass) for 21 days before, and 7 days after GR exposure (6.5 Gy). The lipid profile and antioxidant status, as well as levels of transaminases, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were assessed. The results showed that in hepatocytes, the aqueous extract exhibited radioprotective activity against exposure to GR. Exposure of untreated rats to GR resulted in transaminase disorders, lipid abnormalities, elevation of lipid peroxidation, trace element alterations, release of IL-6 and TNF, and decrease in glutathione and protein level of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX-1). However, treatment of rats with this extract before and after GR exposure improved antioxidant status and minimized the radiation-induced increase in inflammatory cytokines. Changes occurred in the tissue levels of trace elements, and the protein levels of SOD-1 and PRDX-1 were also modulated by C. longa extract. Overall, C. longa exerted a beneficial radioprotective effect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in male rats by alleviating pathological disorders and modulating antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Protective effect of crude Curcuma longa and its methanolic extract in alloxanized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mobasher; Kamran, Sairah Hafeez; Mobasher, Afroze

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) is commonly found in different areas of Pakistan. It has been locally utilized as a traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and total antioxidant effect of the crude drug and its methanolic extract in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with alloxan (180mg/kg). Two major groups were designed, curative and protective groups. In curative group the crude drug and its methanolic extract was orally administered to the diabetic animals and acute study was performed. On the other hand in protective group the crude drug and its methanolic extract were administered for eight days prior to the diabetes induction. Results indicated that in Curative group the crude and methanolic extract of C. longa significantly improved the levels of serum glucose, serum transaminases and antioxidant activity (AOA). In protective group, serum glucose, serum transaminases were not significantly increased by alloxan, in both crude as well as methanolic extract group. This study shows that C. longa acts as antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant in diabetes especially type 1 diabetes.

  11. Dexamethasone Improves Heat Stroke-Induced Multiorgan Dysfunction and Damage in Rats

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    Chia-Chyuan Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone (DXM is known as an immunosuppressive drug used for inflammation control. In the present study, we attempted to examine whether DXM administration could attenuate the hypercoagulable state and the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, improve arterial hypotension, cerebral ischemia and damage, and vital organ failure in a rat model of heat stroke. The results indicated that all the rats suffering from heat stroke showed high serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β, accompanied with increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and D-D dimer, and decreased protein C. During the induction period of heat stroke, plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, were consistently increased. High striatal levels of glycerol, glutamate, and lactate/pyruvate were simultaneously detected. On the contrary, the mean arterial pressure, plasma levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10, and local cerebral blood flow at the striatum were all decreased. Importantly, intravenous administration of DXM substantially ameliorated the circulatory dysfunction, systematic inflammation, hypercoagulable state, cerebral ischemia and damage during the induction period of heat stroke. These findings demonstrated that DXM may be an alternative therapy that can ameliorate heat stroke victims by attenuating activated coagulation, systemic inflammation, and vital organ ischemia/injury during heat stroke.

  12. The possible effect of diets containing Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris on blood parameters and some organs structure in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousson, Ehab; El-Moghazy, Mostafa; El-Atrsh, Efaf

    2011-03-01

    Because of the increasing cost of animal feed ingredients as well as the high demand, especially for the protein supplements, several efforts were carried out to use untraditional feed protein ingredients to participate in facing feed shortage problem and at the same time to decrease feeding costs. Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Thymus vulgaris are the most famous medical plants that have attracted the attention of many investigators for long time. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of a partial replacement of soybean meal in control diet by Nigella sativa and/or Thymus vulgaris on the possible harmful changes in histological structure of some organs and blood parameters in growing New Zealand White rabbits. Blood constituents showed that the percentages of hemoglobin, hematocrate, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and white blood cells (WBCs) count were significantly increased with the presence of black cumin seeds in the diets while WBCs count and the mean corpuscular volume in rabbit blood tends to decrease in Thymus vulgaris diets. Feeding diet supplemented with Nigella sativa increased the plasma total proteins, albumin, globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and decreased total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides. The use of Nigella sativa alone or either mixture with Thymus vulgaris are good supplements for growing rabbits without any adverse effect on histological structure of liver, kidney and testis in rabbits.

  13. Screening of Enzyme Biomarker for Nanotoxicity of Zinc Oxide in OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Periasamy; Bupesh, Giridharan

    2011-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) on fish models. Oreochromis mossambicus was orally administered with ZnO NPs (50-100 nm) once and its effects at five different concentrations (60 ppm-100 ppm) were observed for 12 days. Enzymatic assays were performed at every three days interval in the vital tissues of liver, gill, muscle and kidney. The defense enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S transferase (GST) exerted a dose dependent elevation up to 6 days. This hike then declines in higher concentrations and extended duration. Whereas the tissue damaging enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) exhibited a dose and duration dependent increase until the end of the experiment. Among these enzymes, the antioxidant enzymes response to ZnO NP toxicity on fish showed notable continuous induction. This study demonstrates that antioxidant enzymes responses in O. mossambicus could be used as a biomarker for the early detection of nanotoxicity.

  14. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    C. Nelson Hayes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and α-fetoprotein, provide insight into liver function and are used during treatment of liver disease, but such information is limited. In the case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, which is often not detected until an advanced stage, more sensitive biomarkers may help to achieve earlier detection. Serum also contains microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression. miR-122 is specific to the liver and correlates strongly with liver enzyme levels and necroinflammatory activity, and other microRNAs are correlated with the degree of fibrosis. miR-122 has also been found to be required for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, whereas other microRNAs have been shown to play antiviral roles. miR-125a-5p and miR-1231 have been shown to directly target hepatitis B virus (HBV transcripts, and others are up- or down-regulated in infected individuals. MicroRNA profiles also differ in the case of HBV and HCV infection as well as between HBeAg-positive and negative patients, and in patients with occult versus active HBV infection. In such patients, monitoring of changes in microRNA profiles might provide earlier warning of neoplastic changes preceding HCC.

  15. Toxicity effect of dichlorvos on loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) assessed by micronucleus test, hepatase activity analysis and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Ping; Yan, Shuaiguo; Li, Li; Chen, Jianjun; Du, Qiyan; Chang, Zhongjie

    2015-06-01

    Pesticides and other chemicals at environmental concentrations often have detrimental effects. Many aquatic species are particularly threatened because of their susceptibility and also because water environment are often polluted. This study preliminarily evaluated the toxicity effect of dichlorvos (DDVP) on loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) using the methods of micronucleus (MN) test, hepatase activity and comet assay. The tested results showed that indeed very little DDVP had strong toxicity effect on loach and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at 24 h, 48 h and 96 h was 8.38 μg l(-1), 7.168 μg l(-1) and 6.411 μg l(-1), respectively; The glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activity of loach liver decreased; meanwhile, the GPT and GOT activity of loach serum, the MN rate (‰) and three comet parameters of tested fish increased with the increase in the treatment concentration and treatment time of DDVP, and there was significant difference between control group and each treatment group (p < 0.05). These results suggested that DDVP residues might become toxic chemical contaminant in environment and would threaten aquatic and other organisms.

  16. Clinical and hepatic evaluation in adult dengue patients: a prospective two-month cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tristão-Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To analyze the liver dysfunction and evolution of signs and symptoms in adult dengue patients during a two-month follow-up period. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to July, 2008. The evolution of laboratory and clinical manifestations of 90 adult dengue patients was evaluated in five scheduled visits within a two-month follow-up period. Twenty controls were enrolled for the analysis of liver function. Patients with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, those known to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive and pregnant women were excluded from the study. RESULTS: At the end of the second month following diagnosis, we observed that symptoms persisted in 33.3% (30/90 of dengue patients. We also observed that, 57.7% (15/26 of the symptoms persisted at the end of the second month. The most persistent symptoms were arthralgia, fatigue, weakness, adynamia, anorexia, taste alteration, and hair loss. Prior dengue virus (DENV infection did not predispose patients to a longer duration of symptoms. Among hepatic functions, transaminases had the most remarkable elevation and in some cases remained elevated up to the second month after the disease onset. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels overcame aspartate aminotransferase (AST during the convalescent period. Male patients were more severely affected than females. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue fever may present a wide number of symptoms and elevated liver transaminases at the end of the second month.

  17. BCAT1 expression associates with ovarian cancer progression: possible implications in altered disease metabolism.

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    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Faddaoui, Adnen; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Guillemette, Chantal; Gobeil, Stéphane; Macdonald, Elizabeth; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2015-10-13

    Previously, we have identified the branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) gene as notably hypomethylated in low-malignant potential (LMP) and high-grade (HG) serous epithelial ovarian tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. Here we show that BCAT1 is strongly overexpressed in both LMP and HG serous epithelial ovarian tumors, which probably correlates with its hypomethylated status. Knockdown of the BCAT1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells led to sharp decrease of cell proliferation, migration and invasion and inhibited cell cycle progression. BCAT1 silencing was associated with the suppression of numerous genes and pathways known previously to be implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis, and the induction of some tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). Moreover, BCAT1 suppression resulted in downregulation of numerous genes implicated in lipid production and protein synthesis, suggesting its important role in controlling EOC metabolism. Further metabolomic analyses were indicative for significant depletion of most amino acids and different phospho- and sphingolipids following BCAT1 knockdown. Finally, BCAT1 suppression led to significantly prolonged survival time in xenograft model of advanced peritoneal EOC. Taken together, our findings provide new insights about the functional role of BCAT1 in ovarian carcinogenesis and identify this transaminase as a novel EOC biomarker and putative EOC therapeutic target.

  18. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provide Protection against Radiation-Induced Liver Injury by Antioxidative Process, Vasculature Protection, Hepatocyte Differentiation, and Trophic Effects

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    Sabine Francois

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of the infusion of hMSCs for the correction of liver injuries, we performed total body radiation exposure of NOD/SCID mice. After irradiation, mir-27b level decreases in liver, increasing the directional migration of hMSCs by upregulating SDF1α. A significant increase in plasmatic transaminases levels, apoptosis process in the liver vascular system, and in oxidative stress were observed. hMSC injection induced a decrease in transaminases levels and oxidative stress, a disappearance of apoptotic cells, and an increase in Nrf2, SOD gene expression, which might reduce ROS production in the injured liver. Engrafted hMSCs expressed cytokeratin CK18 and CK19 and AFP genes indicating possible hepatocyte differentiation. The presence of hMSCs expressing VEGF and Ang-1 in the perivascular region, associated with an increased expression of VEGFr1, r2 in the liver, can confer a role of secreting cells to hMSCs in order to maintain the endothelial function. To explain the benefits to the liver of hMSC engraftment, we find that hMSCs secreted NGF, HGF, and anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10, IL1-RA contributing to prevention of apoptosis, increasing cell proliferation in the liver which might correct liver dysfunction. MSCs are potent candidates to repair and protect healthy tissues against radiation damages.

  19. Co-infusion of haplo-identical CD19-chimeric antigen receptor T cells and stem cells achieved full donor engraftment in refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Bo Cai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL have poor prognosis. Autologous CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T cells have potentials to cure patients with B cell ALL; however, safety and efficacy of allogeneic CD19 CAR-T cells are still undetermined. Case presentation We treated a 71-year-old female with relapsed and refractory ALL who received co-infusion of haplo-identical donor-derived CD19-directed CAR-T cells and mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC following induction chemotherapy. Undetectable minimal residual disease by flow cytometry was achieved, and full donor cell engraftment was established. The transient release of cytokines and mild fever were detected. Significantly elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine transaminase, bilirubin and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase were observed from days 14 to 18, all of which were reversible after immunosuppressive therapy. Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest that co-infusion of haplo-identical donor-derived CAR-T cells and mobilized PBSCs may induce full donor engraftment in relapsed and refractory ALL including elderly patients, but complications related to donor cell infusions should still be cautioned. Trial registration Allogeneic CART-19 for Elderly Relapsed/Refractory CD19+ ALL. NCT02799550

  20. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

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    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system.

  1. Hyperacute drug-induced hepatitis with intravenous amiodarone: case report and review of the literature

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    Nasser M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Nasser, Timothy R Larsen, Barryton Waanbah, Ibrahim Sidiqi, Peter A McCullough Providence Hospitals and Medical Centers, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Southfield and Novi, MI, USA Abstract: Amiodarone is a benzofuran class III antiarrhythmic drug used to treat a wide spectrum of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The parenteral formulation is prepared in polysorbate 80 diluent. We report an unusual case of acute elevation of aminotransaminase concentrations after the initiation of intravenous amiodarone. An 88-year-old Caucasian female developed acute hepatitis and renal failure after initiating intravenous amiodarone for atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response in the setting of acutely decompensated heart failure and hepatic congestion. Liver transaminases returned to baseline within 7 days after discontinuing the drug. Researchers hypothesized that this type of injury is related to liver ischemia with possible superimposed direct drug toxicity. The CIOMS/RUCAM scale identifies our patient’s acute hepatitis as a highly probable adverse drug reaction. Future research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which hyperacute drug toxicity occurs in the setting of impaired hepatic perfusion and venous congestion. Keywords: intravenous amiodarone, acute hepatotoxicity, liver transaminases, drug-induced liver toxicity

  2. Alpha methyldopa induced hepatotoxicity in pregnancy

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    Padmasri Ramalingappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of gestational hepatitis due to alpha-methyldopa and briefly review the literature on alpha-methyldopa-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnancy. A 32 year old woman, primigravida with 34 weeks of gestation with pre eclampsia, presented with symptoms of nausea, dark coloured urine and jaundice. She was on alpha methyldopa (Aldomet 250 mg thrice a day since the last five weeks. Laboratory investigations revealed raised bilirubin, serum aspartate transaminases and serum alanine transaminases. Platelets were normal. Peripheral smear did not show haemolysis. With the exclusion of viral, haemolytic and obstructive causes, drug induced jaundice was considered as a differential diagnosis. Alpha methyldopa was withdrawn and replaced with nifedipine for her pre eclampsia treatment. Her repeat bilirubin level done two weeks later showed a drop. She went into labour at 38 weeks and delivered vaginally. In postpartum follow up her liver tests returned to normal in two weeks, about six weeks after stopping methyldopa. Hepatotoxicity should be considered as one of the adverse drug reaction of alpha methyldopa. It is not possible at present to predict which patients will develop liver disease following the administration of this drug. An awareness of the possibility of methyldopa induced hepatotoxicity should be present in the clinician's mind and liver function tests should be done at regular intervals. The occasional occurrence of this harmful side effect is not a contraindication to the use of this antihypertensive agent. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 805-807

  3. MODE OF ACTION OF LANTANA CAMARA EXTRACTS ON ENZYMES ASPARTATE AMINO TRANSFERASE AND ALANINE AMINO TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN TARGET AND NONTARGET ORGANISMS

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    DIVYA RAJAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Lantana camara on the basis of study conducted found to show effective larvicidal activity. The presentstudy deals with the mode of action of Lantana camara extract on enzymes, Aspartate Amino Transferase andAlanine Amino Transferase activity in target and non-target organisms. The major transaminase system of the bodysuch as AsAT and AlAT were significantly inhibited by the plant extract. A significant decrease in the activity ofabove two enzyme systems were observed from the fourth h of incubation onwards. The transaminase system ofmosquito larvae was more sensitive to Lantana camara extract than that of vertebrate system such as Anabastestudineus and Rana hexadactyla which are the non-target organisms seen in the aquatic habitat. The majortransaminase systems of the body such as AsAT and AlAT were inhibited in a dose dependent manner under bothinvitro and invivo conditions. The change of pH from alkaline (normal larvae to acidic (intoxicated larvae, mayalso be sufficient for inhibiting or blocking most of the enzymatic reactions leading to the death of the organisms.The results of this experiment indicated that the shrub Lantana camara could be studied further in detail and itsbenificial effects to the control of vector bron diseases could be utilised for healthy environments

  4. Interleukin-6 and highly sensitive C-reactive protein in obese adolescents

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    Michael Kasenda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is a major health concern. Oobesity is due to an expansion of adipose tissue mass. This tissue produces pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6. IL-6 is considered to be the chief stimulator of the production of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP in the liver. Both molecules are responsible for the chronic low-grade inflammatory state in obese individuals. Objective To assess a correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP in obese adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2011 in Manado. Subjects were obese and normal body mass index (BMI teens aged 13-18 years. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels were measured to rule out liver impairment. IL-6 and hsCRP levels were also measured. Data was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and linear regression to test for correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP levels. Results There was a strongly positive correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP levels in obese adolescents (r=0.79 with P<0.001. IL-6 and hsCRP levels were not significantly associated in subjects with normal BMI. Conclusions There was a strongly positive correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP levels in obese adolescents, suggestive of an ongoing, chronic, low-grade inflammatory state.

  5. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON HEPATO AND NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF BUTTERFLY TREE (BAUHINIA PURPUREA LINN. AGAINST ACETAMINOPHEN INDUCED TOXICITY

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    T. Sivanagi Reddy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepato and nephroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea against paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, Oral doses of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea was administered to group of animals for 14 days. Silymarin (25 mg/kg served as a standard and paracetamol suspension at a dose of 750 mg/kg, Body weight, was used to induce liver and kidney damage. Parameters of study were glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, triglycerides and total protein as liver function tests, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine and urea as kidney function tests. Biochemical studies showed increase in the levels of serum GOT, GPT, ALP, total bilirubin, triglycerides, BUN, creatinine and urea and reduction in the levels of total protein in paracetamol induced groups. These values are retrieved significantly (p< 0.05 in a dose dependant manner by treatment with ethanolic extracts of Bauhinia purpurea stem bark at three different doses. The overall result suggests that the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea possesses hepato and nephroprotective activity against paracetamol induced toxicity.

  6. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Pouteria campechiana on acetaminophen-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

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    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Sasikumar, J M; Christabel, P Hephzibah; Jeyadevi, R; Ananth, D Arul

    2014-03-01

    Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni. is used as a remedy for coronary trouble, liver disorders, epilepsy, skin disease, and ulcer. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of polyphenolic-rich P. campechiana fruit extract against acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of egg fruit were estimated followed by the determination of antioxidant activities. Treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract effectively scavenged the free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all antioxidant models. The presence of polyphenolic compounds were confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The animals were treated with acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) thrice at the interval of every 5 days after the administration of P. campechiana aqueous extract and silymarin (50 mg/kg). Acetaminophen treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress in liver, leading to an increase of serum marker enzymes. However, treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract significantly reduced the elevated liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase) and increased the antioxidant enzymes (viz., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. These results strongly suggest that P. campechiana fruit extract has strong antioxidant and significant hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. Effect of dietary intake of avocado oil and olive oil on biochemical markers of liver function in sucrose-fed rats.

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    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α -amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α -amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  8. Effect of Curcumin Supplementation on Physiological Fatigue and Physical Performance in Mice

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    Wen-Ching Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CCM is a well-known phytocompound and food component found in the spice turmeric and has multifunctional bioactivities. However, few studies have examined its effects on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CCM supplementation on fatigue and ergogenic function following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CCM (180 μg/mL by oral gavage at 0, 12.3, 24.6, or 61.5 mL/kg/day for four weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated after physical challenge by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-associated biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and glucose and tissue damage markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, and creatine kinase (CK. CCM supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance performance and significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, BUN, AST, ALT, and CK levels after physical challenge. Muscular glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased. CCM supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. CCM supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and preventing fatigue.

  9. Effect of perches on liver health of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Hester, P Y; Hu, J Y; Yan, F F; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2014-07-01

    Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged laying hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of perches on fat deposition and liver health in laying hens. Three hundred twenty-four 17-wk-old White Leghorn hens were housed in 1 of 4 treatments with 9 hens per cage. Treatment 1 hens never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had access to perches during the pullet phase only. Treatment 3 hens had access to perches during the laying phase only. Treatment 4 hens always had access to perches. Liver weight, abdominal fat pad weight, BW, liver fat, and circulating alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and adiponectin were determined. Provision of perches during either the rearing or laying phase did not affect liver health in 71-wk-old hens. However, perch access compared with no perch access during the egg laying phase reduced relative fat pad weight. These results suggest that providing perches as a means of stimulating activity reduced abdominal fat deposition in caged hens during the laying period. However, perch access in caged hens was ineffective in reducing fat deposition in the liver and altering enzyme activities related to improved liver function.

  10. Expression of Zonula occlndens-1 protein in intestine in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease%非酒精性脂肪性肝病患者肠道闭锁小带蛋白1表达水平的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴鑫; 吕宗舜; 王邦茂; 杨雪敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 检测非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)患者中肠道黏膜上皮细胞闭锁小带蛋白1(ZO-1)的表达情况,并探讨其与NAFLD发病的关系.方法 选取NAFLD伴转氨酶升高患者14例,NAFLD伴转氨酶正常者24例,健康对照组31例.进行相关生化指标的检测,免疫组化技术检测其肠道黏膜上皮细胞ZO-1蛋白表达情况并分析其与转氨酶水平的相关性.结果 NAFLD转氨酶升高组,NAFLD伴转氨酶正常组及健康对照组体质量指数(BMI),总胆固醇(TC),甘油三酯(TG),空腹血糖(FPG),丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT),天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)3组间差异均有统计学意义.NAFLD伴转氨酶升高组的BMI、TC、TG,FPG,AST,ALT均高于NAFLD伴肝功能正常组;而后者的指标又高于健康对照组.3组在ZO-1蛋白的强阳性表达水平上有统计学意义(x2=11.731,P<0.01).健康对照组,NAFLD伴转氨酶正常组,NAFLD伴氨酶升高组,ZO-1蛋白的表达情况依次减低(rs=0.424,P<0.01).在NAFLD患者中,ZO-1的表达程度与肝功能的升高水平呈负相关(rs=-0.347,P<0.05).结论 肠道黏膜上皮细胞ZO-1蛋白的表达与NAFLD的发生和发展状况密切相关,为“肠-肝轴”机制解释NAFLD的发生发展提供新的证据.%Objective To investigate the expression of Zonula occludens-1(ZO-1) protein in intestinal epithelial cells in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and explore its relationship with the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Methods We examined 14 patients with NAFLD and elevated transaminase,24 patients with NAFLD but normal transaminase and 31 healthy volunteers. We measured their biochemical characters, assessed the expression of ZO-1 protein in intestinal epithelial cells by immunohistochemical analysis and discussed their relationships with transaminase levels. Results Significant differences in the levels of BMI, TC, TG, FPG, ALT, AST could be found among three groups. The levels oi BM1, TC, TG, FPG, AST, ALT in the patients with NAFLD and

  11. The effect of gomisin A on immunologic liver injury in mice.

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    Nagai, H; Yakuo, I; Aoki, M; Teshima, K; Ono, Y; Sengoku, T; Shimazawa, T; Aburada, M; Koda, A

    1989-02-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of Gomisin A (TJN-101), which is a lignan compound isolated from Schizandra fruits, was studied on three immunologic liver injury models in mice. The first liver injury model was produced by the injection of anti-basic liver protein (BLP) antibody into DBA/2 mice which had been previously immunized with rabbit IgG (RGG). Other models were effected by injection of anti-liver specific protein (LSP) antibody into DBA/2 mice or by the injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into ddY mice pretreated with Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvum). TJN-101 inhibited the elevation of transaminase (GOT and GPT) activities and showed the tendency to inhibit the histopathological changes of the liver in all models. Moreover, TJN-101 inhibited deoxycholic acid-induced release of transaminase from cultured rat hepatocytes in vitro, but did not affect the formation of hemolytic plaque forming cells in immunized mice spleens and hemolytic activity of guinea pig complement in immunohemolysis reaction. These results, therefore, suggested that the hepatoprotective effect of TJN-101 could be related to the protecting effect of hepatocyte plasma membrane rather than the inhibiting effects of the antibody formation and complement activity.

  12. Pyrroloquinoline quinone ameliorates l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism and associated problems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda

    2014-08-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be a strong antioxidant. In this study, we have evaluated its hitherto unknown role in l-thyroxin (L-T4 )-induced hyperthyroidism considering laboratory rat as a model. Alterations in the serum concentration of thyroxin (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ); lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver, kidney, heart, muscles and brain; in the endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione and in serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien, triglycerides, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and urea were evaluated. Administration of l-T4 (500-µg kg(-1) body weight) enhanced not only the serum T3 and T4 levels but also the tissue LPO, serum SGOT, SGPT and urea with a parallel decrease in the levels of antioxidants and serum lipids. However, on simultaneous administration of PQQ (5 mg kg(-1) for 6 days), all these adverse effects were ameliorated, indicating the potential of PQQ in the amelioration of hyperthyroidism and associated problems. Possibly, the curative effects were mediated through inhibition of oxidative stress. We suggest that PQQ may be considered for therapeutic use for hyperthyroidism after dose standardization.

  13. Effect of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the activity levels of certain plasma enzymes in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2005-04-01

    The effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the activity levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LD), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed rats were investigated. A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl4 intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with pumpkin seed protein isolate. All three subgroups of rats were maintained on the low-protein diet for the duration of the investigation. Groups of rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after their respective treatments. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of all four enzymes were significantly higher than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. CCl4 intoxication resulted in significant increases in the activity levels of all four enzymes investigated. The administration of pumpkin seed protein isolate after CCl4 intoxication resulted in significantly reduced activity levels of all four enzymes. It is concluded that pumpkin seed protein isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein malnutrition.

  14. Propolis reduces Leishmania amazonensis-induced inflammation in the liver of BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Suelen S; Mizokami, Sandra S; Fanti, Jacqueline R; Miranda, Milena M; Kawakami, Natalia Y; Teixeira, Fernanda Humel; Araújo, Eduardo J A; Panis, Carolina; Watanabe, Maria A E; Sforcin, José M; Pavanelli, Wander R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Felipe, Ionice; Conchon-Costa, Ivete

    2016-04-01

    Experimental models of mouse paw infection with L. amazonensis show an induction of a strong inflammatory response in the skin, and parasitic migration may occur to secondary organs with consequent tissue injury. There are few studies focusing on the resolution of damage in secondary organs caused by Leishmania species-related cutaneous leishmaniasis. We investigated the propolis treatment effect on liver inflammation induced by Leishmania amazonensis infection in the mouse paw. BALB/c mice were infected in the hind paw with L. amazonensis (10(7)) promastigote forms. After 15 days, animals were treated daily with propolis (5 mg/kg), Glucantime (10 mg/kg), or with propolis plus Glucantime combined. After 60 days, mice were euthanized and livers were collected for inflammatory process analysis. Liver microscopic analysis showed that propolis reduced the inflammatory process compared to untreated infected control. There was a decrease of liver myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activity levels, collagen fiber deposition, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and plasma aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels. Furthermore, propolis treatment enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine levels and reversed hepatosplenomegaly. Our data demonstrated that daily low doses of Brazilian propolis reduced the secondary chronic inflammatory process in the liver caused by L. amazonensis subcutaneous infection in a susceptible mice strain.

  15. Hepatotherapeutic effect of Aloe vera in alcohol-induced hepatic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, W A; Akhigbe, R E; Ishola, O S; Ashamu, E A; Olayemi, O T; Adeleke, G E

    2011-07-15

    There is a lack of reliable hepatotherapeutic drugs in modern medicine in the management of alcohol/drug-induced liver damage. Aloe vera extract has been used in folklore medicine for its medicinal values. This study evaluates the hepatotherapeutic activity of aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; the negative control, positive control and the extract-treated groups. The negative control received only distilled water daily. The positive control received alcohol, while the extract-treated group received aqueous extract of Aloe vera and alcohol. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the positive control and extract-treated rats with alcohol. The hepatotherapeutic effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine transaminases and liver histopathology. Alanine transaminase activities were comparable in all groups. Alcohol treatment alone significantly (p Aloe vera extract. Histopathological examination revealed that alcohol induced hepatic damage. Aloe vera treatment maintained hepatic architecture similar to that seen in the control. This study shows that aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel is hepatotherapeutic and thus lends credence to the use of the plant in folklore medicine in the management of alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction.

  16. PARÁMETROS BIOQUÍMICOS ENZIMÁTICOS (ALT, AST, ALP, Γ-GT, LDH EN NIÑOS CON LEUCEMIA LINFOBLÁSTICA AGUDA ANTES DEL TRATAMIENTO ANTINEOPLÁSICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeél Moya S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the enzymatic biochemical parameters (glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyltransferase (γ-GT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL before cancer treatment. Material and Methods: A prospective experimental, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 children between 2 and 15 years old, from several Neoplastic Centers in Lima. Blood collection was performed in BD red cap Vacutainer tubes, processed in the semi-automated analyzer BIOTEC® EMP-168, with Wiener Lab Group enzyme reagents under the modified method Szaaz and UV-Optimized by IFCC, SSCC and SFBC. Finally, coding and tabulation was performed. Results: 60% were boys and 46.7% are between the ages of 2-6 years. Serum levels of AST were increased by 33.3% in boys and 50% in girls. Serum ALT values were increased in 33.3% of boys and 41.7% of girls; only 25% of girls showed increased levels of γ-GT values; ALP was increased in 44.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Moreover LDH levels were increased in 55.6% of boys and 41.7% of girls. Conclusions: The enzymatic tests LDH, AST, ALT and ALP are increased in children with ALL compared to normal values due to tumor lysis syndrome characterized by electrolyte abnormalities, and as a result of the massive destruction of tumor cells and rapid release of large amounts of intracellular elements.

  17. Community-wide survey of physicians' knowledge of cholesterol management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Fei; XIE Jiang; WANG Gui-lian; WANG Jia-hong; WANG Jin-song; YU Jin-ming; HU Da-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background An elevated serum lipid is one of the major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Physicians' awareness contributes to successful adoption of practice guidelines. Community medical centers are the primary defense against chronic disease. This study aimed to investigate community physicians' awareness of cholesterol guidelines and their utilization.Methods Six hundred and one community physicians were randomly selected from four different regions, and completed a confidential and semi-structured questionnaire. Four hundred and ninety-one completed the questionnaire, and 486 valid questionnaires were available.Results The physicians' fundamental knowledge of lipids was astonishingly poor, while the awareness of cholesterol guidelines was low. Only 24% and 14% of the physicians reported the right optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level for CHD and diabetes patients respectively. More than half of the physicians (55.8%) mistakenly considered elevated transaminases to be the lethal side effect of statins. More than half of the physicians (51.9%) would give up statin treatment in the case of transaminase elevation.Conclusion Educational interventions to improve cholesterol knowledge and to publicize standard treatment are needed among Chinese community physicians.

  18. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury: Implications for temporal homeostasis of lipid metabolism and eicosanoid signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Maria; Gruia, Alexandra T; Nica, Dragos V; Azghadi, Seyed M R; Mic, Ani A; Mic, Felix A

    2015-12-05

    Acetaminophen is a commonly used drug that induces serious hepatotoxicity when overdosed, leading to increased levels of serum aminotransferases. However, little knowledge exists linking acetaminophen to liver free fatty acids and the eicosanoid-mediated signaling pathway. To this end, adult NMRI mice injected with a dose of 400 mg/kg acetaminophen were monitored for one week post-treatment. Consistent changes were observed in serum transaminases, profile of hepatic free fatty acids, expression of cyclooxygenase, elongase, lipogenesis, and lipolysis genes; as well as in expression patterns of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in the liver. Both linoleic acid and arachidonic acid--substrates in eicosanoid biosynthesis--were significantly influenced by overdose, and the latter peaked first among the free fatty acids examined here. There was a close similarity between the temporal dynamics of linoleic acid and aspartate aminotransferases. Moreover, serum transaminases were reduced by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, but not by cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. Our results hence attest to the hazard of acetaminophen overdose on the temporal homeostasis of hepatic concentrations of free fatty acids and expression of key genes underlying liver lipid metabolism. There is also evidence for activation of a cyclooxygenase-mediated signaling pathway, especially the cyclooxygenase 2-prostanoid pathway, during acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Therefore, the results of the present study should provide valuable information to a wide audience, working to understand the health hazard of this drug and the implications of the eicosanoid signaling pathway in liver pathophysiology.

  19. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) in rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunachalam Muthuraman; Nirmal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of the hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus (HAE-AC) in mice and rats respectively. Methods: In acute toxicity study, mice were assessed to any alteration of general behavior and mortality rate within 24 h. Further, in sub-acute toxicity study, rats were used for assessment of mortality, body weight, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes. Results: Single oral administrations of the HAE-AC 2500-10000 mg/kg induced increase in general behavioral abnormalities in mice. The mortality rate also increased with increasing dosage (median lethal dose; LD50 = 5 070.59 mg/kg). Daily single oral doses of HAE-AC 200, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were observed to be well tolerated behaviorally after 28 days of dosing and induced no significant changes in body and organs weights of rats. Further, a mild rise in the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and histopatholological changes in liver tissue was noted at 1000 mg/kg dose of HAE-AC. Conclusions: Overall, the findings of this study indicate that, HAE-AC is non-toxic and has at high dose, a mild but acceptable toxicity potential.

  20. Clinico-hematological and tissue changes induced by butachlor in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Riaz; Khan, Ahrar; Mahmood, Fazal; Rehan, Sarmad; Ali, Farah

    2014-02-01

    The present experiment was executed to determine the pathological effects induced by concurrent feeding of butachlor (chloroacetanilide herbicide) in male Japanese quail. For this purpose mature male quail about 4-5weeks of age were procured from the local market and randomly divided into six equal groups (A-F). Butachlor was mixed in corn oil and administered orally for 30days using crop tube. Four birds from each group were killed at day 10, 20 and 30 of the experiment and blood was collected with and without anticoagulant. The birds in groups (A-D) did not reveal any clinical and behavioral alterations. Clinical signs like watery droppings, dullness, ruffled feather, depression, decrease frequency of crowing, mounting with pen mates and foam production were observed. Maximum intensity of these clinical signs and behavioral alterations were observed in group F throughout the experiment. Significant lower values of erythrocytes, hematocrit percent and hemoglobin were recorded. Significantly increased numbers of erythrocytes with micronuclei, lobed and notched nuclei were observed. Histopathologically, enlarged intertubular space, fewer numbers of round spermatids, necrotic spermatids and admixture of dead spermatids were observed in testes. The results revealed significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and urea concentrations. The results of present experimental study indicated that butachlor induces hematobiochemical and testicular changes in birds.