Driving Rydberg-Rydberg transitions from a co-planar microwave waveguide
Hogan, S D; Merkt, F; Thiele, T; Filipp, S; Wallraff, A
2011-01-01
The coherent interaction between ensembles of helium Rydberg atoms and microwave fields in the vicinity of a solid-state co-planar waveguide is reported. Rydberg-Rydberg transitions, at frequencies between 25 GHz and 38 GHz, have been studied for states with principal quantum numbers in the range 30 - 35 by selective electric-field ionization. An experimental apparatus cooled to 100 K was used to reduce effects of blackbody radiation. Inhomogeneous, stray electric fields emanating from the surface of the waveguide have been characterized in frequency- and time-resolved measurements and coherence times of the Rydberg atoms on the order of 250 ns have been determined.
Transition Rates for a Rydberg Atom Surrounded by a Plasma
Lin, Chengliang; Röpke, Gerd; Reinholz, Heidi
2016-01-01
We derive a quantum master equation for an atom coupled to a heat bath represented by a charged particle many-body environment. In Born-Markov approximation, the influence of the plasma environment on the reduced system is described by the dynamical structure factor. Expressions for the profiles of spectral lines are obtained. Wave packets are introduced as robust states allowing for a quasi-classical description of Rydberg electrons. Transition rates for highly excited Rydberg levels are investigated. A circular-orbit wave packet approach has been applied, in order to describe the localization of electrons within Rydberg states. The calculated transition rates are in a good agreement with experimental data.
Transition rates in proton - Rydberg atom collisions
Vrinceanu, Daniel
2016-05-01
Monte Carlo simulations for energy and angular momentum transfer processes in proton - Ryderg atom collisions were performed and the corresponding rates are reported.The relevance of these rates in the context of cosmological recombination is discussed. The rates are contrasted with the similar rates in electron - Rydberg atom collisions. This work has been supported by National Science Foundation through grants for the Center for Research on Complex Networks (HRD-1137732) and Research Infrastructure for Science and Engineering (RISE) (HRD-1345173).
Non-equilibrium phase-transitions in multi-component Rydberg gases
Ding, D S; Shi, B S; Guo, G C
2016-01-01
Highly-excited Rydberg atoms have strong long-range interactions resulting in exotic optical prop erties such as large single photon non-linearities and intrinsic bistability. In this paper we study optical-driven non-equilibrium phase transitions in a thermal Rydberg gas with a sensitivity two order of magnitude higher than in previous work. In this regime we can elucidate the effect of inter actions on the bistable optical response, and exploit different branches in the potential in order to study multi-component Rydberg gases with a rich of phase diagram including overlapping bistable regions. In addition, we study the effect of polarization on the width of the hysteresis loop. Finally, we observe that the medium exhibits a dynamical instability resulting from the competing dynamics of excitation and decay.
Direct single-shot observation of millimeter wave superradiance in Rydberg-Rydberg transitions
Grimes, David D; Barnum, Timothy J; Zhou, Yan; Yelin, Susanne F; Field, Robert W
2016-01-01
We have directly detected millimeter wave (mm-wave) free space superradiant emission from Rydberg states ($n \\sim 30$) of barium atoms in a single shot. We trigger the cooperative effects with a weak initial pulse and detect with single-shot sensitivity and 20 ps time resolution, which allows measurement and shot-by-shot analysis of the distribution of decay rates, time delays, and time-dependent frequency shifts. Cooperative line shifts and decay rates are observed that exceed values that would correspond to the Doppler width of 250 kHz by a factor of 20 and the spontaneous emission rate of 50 Hz by a factor of $10^5$. The initial superradiant output pulse is followed by evolution of the radiation-coupled many-body system toward complex long-lasting emission modes. A comparison to a mean-field theory is presented which reproduces the quantitative time-domain results, but fails to account for either the frequency-domain observations or the long-lived features.
Observation of Electric Quadrupole Transitions to Rydberg nd States of Ultracold Rubidium Atoms
Tong, D; Van Kempen, E G M; Pavlovic, Z; Stanojevic, J; Côté, R; Eyler, E E; Gould, P L
2008-01-01
We report the observation of dipole-forbidden, but quadrupole-allowed, one-photon transitions to high Rydberg states in Rb. Using pulsed UV excitation of ultracold atoms in a magneto-optical trap, we excite $5s \\to nd$ transitions over a range of principal quantum numbers $n=27-59$. Compared to dipole-allowed (E1) transitions from $5s \\to np$, these E2 transitions are weaker by a factor of approximately 2000. We also report measurements of the anomalous $np_{3/2} : np_{1/2}$ fine-structure transition strength ratio for $n=28-75$. Both results are in agreement with theoretical predictions.
Cooper minima in the transitions from low-excited and Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms
Beterov, I I; Yakshina, E A; Ryabtsev, I I; Tretyakov, D B; Entin, V M; MacCormick, C; Piotrowicz, M J; Kowalczyk, A; Bergamini, S
2012-01-01
The structure of the Cooper minima in the transition probabilities and photoionization cross-sections for low-excited and Rydberg nS, nP, nD and nF states of alkali-metal atoms has been studied using a Coulomb approximation and a quasiclassical model. The range of applicability of the quasiclassical model has been defined from comparison with available experimental and theoretical data on dipole moments, oscillator strengths, and photoionization cross-sections. A new Cooper minimum for transitions between rubidium Rydberg states has been found.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piotrowicz, M J; MacCormick, C; Kowalczyk, A; Bergamini, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK6 7AA (United Kingdom); Beterov, I I; Yakshina, E A, E-mail: c.maccormick@open.ac.uk, E-mail: s.bergamini@open.ac.uk [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentyeva Avenue 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2011-09-15
We present the direct measurements of electric dipole moments for 5P{sub 3/2}{yields}nD{sub 5/2} transitions with 20
Two-Atom Rydberg Blockade using a Single-Photon Transition
Hankin, A M; Parazzoli, L P; Chou, C W; Armstrong, D J; Landahl, A J; Biedermann, G W
2014-01-01
We explore a single-photon approach to Rydberg state excitation and Rydberg blockade. Using detailed theoretical models, we show the feasibility of direct excitation, predict the effect of background electric fields, and calculate the required interatomic distance to observe Rydberg blockade. We then measure and control the electric field environment to enable coherent control of Rydberg states. With this coherent control, we demonstrate Rydberg blockade of two atoms separated by 6.6(3) {\\mu}m. When compared with the more common two-photon excitation method, this single-photon approach is advantageous because it eliminates channels for decoherence through photon scattering and AC Stark shifts from the intermediate state while moderately increasing Doppler sensitivity.
Cooper minima in the transitions from low-excited and Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms
Beterov, I. I.; Mansell, C. W.; Yakshina, E. A.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.; MacCormick, C.; Piotrowicz, M. J.; Kowalczyk, A.; S. Bergamini
2012-01-01
The structure of the Cooper minima in the transition probabilities and photoionization cross-sections for low-excited and Rydberg nS, nP, nD and nF states of alkali-metal atoms has been studied using a Coulomb approximation and a quasiclassical model. The range of applicability of the quasiclassical model has been defined from comparison with available experimental and theoretical data on dipole moments, oscillator strengths, and photoionization cross-sections. A new Cooper minimum for transi...
Long-range Rydberg molecules, Rydberg macrodimers and Rydberg aggregates in an ultracold Cs gas
Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Merkt, Frédéric
2016-01-01
We present an overview of our recent investigations of long-range interactions in an ultracold Cs Rydberg gas. These interactions are studied by high-resolution photoassociation spectroscopy, using excitation close to one-photon transitions into $n$p$_{3/2}$ Rydberg states with pulsed and continuous-wave ultraviolet laser radiation, and lead to the formation of long-range Cs$_2$ molecules. We observe two types of molecular resonances. The first type originates from the correlated excitation of two atoms into Rydberg-atom-pair states interacting at long range via multipole-multipole interactions. The second type results from the interaction of one atom excited to a Rydberg state with one atom in the electronic ground state. Which type of resonances is observed in the experiments depends on the laser intensity and frequency and on the pulse sequences used to prepare the Rydberg states. We obtain insights into both types of molecular resonances by modelling the interaction potentials, using a multipole expansion...
Quantum optical non-linearities induced by Rydberg-Rydberg interactions: a perturbative approach
Grankin, A.; Brion, E.; Bimbard, E.; Boddeda, R.; Usmani, I.; Ourjoumtsev, A.; Grangier, P
2015-01-01
In this article, we theoretically study the quantum statistical properties of the light transmitted through or reflected from an optical cavity, filled by an atomic medium with strong optical non-linearity induced by Rydberg-Rydberg van der Waals interactions. Atoms are driven on a two-photon transition from their ground state to a Rydberg level via an intermediate state by the combination of a weak signal field and a strong control beam. By using a perturbative approach, we get analytic resu...
Pattern formation of quantum jumps with Rydberg atoms
Lee, Tony E
2012-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum jumps in a one-dimensional chain of atoms. Each atom is driven on a strong transition to a short-lived state and on a weak transition to a metastable state. We choose the metastable state to be a Rydberg state so that when an atom jumps to the Rydberg state, it inhibits or enhances jumps in the neighboring atoms. This leads to rich spatiotemporal dynamics that are visible in the fluorescence of the strong transition. It also allows one to dissipatively prepare Rydberg crystals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agrawal, Aniket [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)
2012-07-01
Recently, Chiao predicted the quantum incompressibility of a falling Rydberg atom. A Hydrogen-like atom was considered in a very high n,l=m=n-1 state to calculate the effects of tidal gravitational forces on these states. The high values of quantum numbers ensure that gravitational effect is measurable on the *stretch* state. We consider a similar atom and derive the energy of a particular level under the influence of Newtonian gravity. A change in the frequency of observed transition is predicted for a freely falling Hydrogen atom. This change is calculated both in Newtonian gravity and in curved space. We see that the change in energy of the electron under gravity also depends on its principal quantum number. Thus there will be a shift in the frequency of the photon emitted by an electron making an ordinary transition from the state n=100, l=99, m=99 to the state n=99, l=98, m=98. Though this shift is quite less to be observed on Earth, it is measurable in satellites in a highly elliptical orbit about the earth, by spectroscopic methods. A similar result was derived by Chiao recently using a different argument. We conclude that the effect described by Chiao will be masked to a very large extent by the effect calculated above. Such perturbations might be important in emission spectra of white dwarfs and neutron stars.
Hofmann, C S; Schempp, H; Müller, N L M; Faber, A; Busche, H; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M; Whitlock, S; Weidemüller, M
2013-01-01
Recent developments in the study of ultracold Rydberg gases demand an advanced level of experimental sophistication, in which high atomic and optical densities must be combined with excellent control of external fields and sensitive Rydberg atom detection. We describe a tailored experimental system used to produce and study Rydberg-interacting atoms excited from dense ultracold atomic gases. The experiment has been optimized for fast duty cycles using a high flux cold atom source and a three beam optical dipole trap. The latter enables tuning of the atomic density and temperature over several orders of magnitude, all the way to the Bose-Einstein condensation transition. An electrode structure surrounding the atoms allows for precise control over electric fields and single-particle sensitive field ionization detection of Rydberg atoms. We review two experiments which highlight the influence of strong Rydberg--Rydberg interactions on different many-body systems. First, the Rydberg blockade effect is used to pre...
Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae
Lynch, David K.; Rudy, R. J.; Bernstein, L. S.
2008-09-01
Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae David K. Lynch, Richard. J. Rudy (The Aerospace Corporation) & Lawrence S. Bernstein (Spectral Sciences, Inc.) Novae spectra in the near infrared frequently show a set of six emission lines that have not been positively identified (Williams, Longmore, & Geballe 1996, MNRAS, 279, 804; Lynch et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 2013; Rudy et al. 2002 ApJ, 573, 794; Lynch et al. 2004 Astron. J. 127, 1089-1097). These lines are at 0.8926, 1.1114, 1.1901, 1.5545, 2.0996 and 2.425 µm ± 0.005 µm. Krautter et al. (1984 A&A 137, 304) suggested that three of the lines were due to rydberg (hydrogenic) transitions in an unspecified atomic species that was in the 4th or 5th ionization stage (core charge = 4 & 5). We believe that Krautter et al.'s explanation is correct based on 4 additional lines that we have identified in the visible and near infrared spectrum of V723 Cassiopeiae. The observed Rydberg lines appear to originate from high angular momentum states with negligible quantum defects. The species cannot be determined with any certainty because in rydberg states, the outer electron sees a nucleus shielded by the inner electrons and together the inner atom appears to have a charge of +1, like hydrogen. As a result, the atom looks hydrogenic and species such as CV, NV, OV, MgV, SiV, etc. have their rydberg transitions at very similar wavelengths. All the lines represent permitted transitions, most likely formed by recombination. Atoms with core charges 4, 5 & 6 are rarely seen in the astrophysical environment because an extremely hot radiation field is necessary to ionize them. Thermonuclear runaways on the surface of a white dwarf can reach millions of degrees K, and thus there are enough X-ray photons available to achieve the necessary high ionization levels.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nez, F
1993-10-15
The aim of this thesis is to make a pure measurement of the frequency of the 2S-8S/8D two-photon transition in atomic hydrogen. In that purpose we have built a frequency chain in which hydrogen frequencies are compared with the difference of two optical standards, the methane stabilized He-Ne laser (3.39 {mu}m) and the iodine stabilized He-Ne laser (633 nm). The radiation from a home made Ti-sapphire laser (TS2) at 778 nm is mixed, in a LiIO{sub 3} crystal, with the one of a auxiliary He-Ne laser at 3.39 {mu}m to produce a synthesized radiation at 633 nm. The frequency of the Ti-sapphire (TS1) laser used for the two photon excitation is 89 GHz away from the one of TS2. To compare these two lasers, we have used a Schottky diode. The two lasers and a microwave radiation at 89 GHz, produced by a Gunn diode, are focused on the Schottky diode. The Gunn diode is phase locked on an ultra-stable quartz oscillator. In this way, we have linked an optical frequency of atomic hydrogen to the cesium clock without interferometry. From our measurements, we have deduced a new value of the Rydberg constant: R{sub {infinity}} equals 109737.3156834 (24) cm{sup -1} with an uncertainty of 2.2 10{sup -11}. Our uncertainty is near the one of the Q.E.D calculations giving the theoretical values of the energy levels. This value, which is currently the most precise available, is in good agreement with the recent result obtained from the 1S-2S and 2S-4D transitions. (author)
Applicability of Rydberg atoms to quantum computers
Ryabtsev, Igor I.; Tretyakov, Denis B.; Beterov, Ilya I.
2005-01-01
The applicability of Rydberg atoms to quantum computers is examined from an experimental point of view. In many recent theoretical proposals, the excitation of atoms into highly excited Rydberg states was considered as a way to achieve quantum entanglement in cold atomic ensembles via dipole-dipole interactions that could be strong for Rydberg atoms. Appropriate conditions to realize a conditional quantum phase gate have been analysed. We also present the results of modelling experiments on microwave spectroscopy of single- and multi-atom excitations at the one-photon 37S1/2 → 37P1/2 and two-photon 37S1/2 → 38S1/2 transitions in an ensemble of a few sodium Rydberg atoms. The microwave spectra were investigated for various final states of the ensemble initially prepared in its ground state. The results may be applied to the studies on collective laser excitation of ground-state atoms aiming to realize quantum gates.
High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1S0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)
Addressing single trapped ions for Rydberg quantum logic
Bachor, P.; Feldker, T.; Walz, J.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.
2016-08-01
We demonstrate the excitation of ions to the Rydberg state 22F by vacuum ultraviolet radiation at a wavelength of 123 nm combined with the coherent manipulation of the optical qubit transition in {}40{{Ca}}+. With a tightly focused beam at 729 nm wavelength we coherently excite a single ion from a linear string into the metastable 3{D}5/2 state before a VUV pulse excites it to the Rydberg state. In combination with ion shuttling in the trap, we extend this approach to the addressed excitation of multiple ions. The coherent initialization as well as the addressed Rydberg excitation are key prerequisites for more complex applications of Rydberg ions in quantum simulation or quantum information processing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudakov, Fedor M [ORNL; Zhang, Zhili [ORNL
2012-01-01
We present a technique for nonintrusive and standoff detection of large organic molecules using coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering from plasma produced by structure sensitive photoionization through Rydberg states. We test the method on 1,4-diazobicyclooctane. Transitions between the 3s Rydberg state and higher lying Rydberg states are probed using two-color photoionization with 266?nm photons and photons in the range of 460-2400 nm. Photoionization is detected using microwave radiation, which is scattered by the unbounded electrons. Highly resolved Rydberg spectra are acquired in vacuum and in air.
Chitnis, Saurabh S; Vos, Kevin A; Burford, Neil; McDonald, Robert; Ferguson, Michael J
2016-01-14
Reactions of polydentate phosphines with sources of Pn(3+) (Pn = P, As, Sb, Bi) yield complexes of Pn(1+) (Pn = P, As) or Pn(3+) (Pn = Sb, Bi) acceptors. The distinction between coordination of a phosphine center to Pn and oxidation of a phosphine ligand is dependent on Pn. The first structurally verified triphosphine complexes of Sb(III) and Bi(III) acceptors are reported.
THz Detection and Imaging using Rydberg Atoms
Wade, Christopher; Sibalic, Nikola; Kondo, Jorge; de Melo, Natalia; Adams, Charles; Weatherill, Kevin
2016-05-01
Atoms make excellent electromagnetic field sensors because each atom of the same isotope is identical and has well-studied, permanent properties allowing calibration to SI units. Thus far, atoms have not generally been exploited for terahertz detection because transitions from the atomic ground state are constrained to a limited selection of microwave and optical frequencies. In contrast, highly excited `Rydberg' states allow us access to many strong, electric dipole transitions from the RF to THz regimes. Recent advances in the coherent optical detection of Rydberg atoms have been exploited by a number of groups for precision microwave electrometry Here we report the demonstration of a room-temperature, cesium Rydberg gas as a THz to optical interface. We present two configurations: First, THz-induced fluorescence offers non-destructive and direct imaging of the THz field, providing real-time, single shot images. Second, we convert narrowband terahertz photons to infrared photons with 6% quantum efficiency allowing us to use nano-Watts of THz power to control micro-Watts of laser power on microsecond timescales. Exploiting hysteresis and a room-temperature phase transition in the response of the medium, we demonstrate a latching optical memory for sub pico-Joule THz pulses.
Topological spin models in Rydberg lattices
Kiffner, Martin; Jaksch, Dieter
2016-01-01
We show that resonant dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms in a triangular lattice can give rise to artificial magnetic fields for spin excitations. We consider the coherent dipole-dipole coupling between $np$ and $ns$ Rydberg states and derive an effective spin-1/2 Hamiltonian for the $np$ excitations. By breaking time-reversal symmetry via external fields we engineer complex hopping amplitudes for transitions between two rectangular sub-lattices. The phase of these hopping amplitudes depends on the direction of the hop. This gives rise to a staggered, artificial magnetic field which induces non-trivial topological effects. We calculate the single-particle band structure and investigate its Chern numbers as a function of the lattice parameters and the detuning between the two sub-lattices. We identify extended parameter regimes where the Chern number of the lowest band is $C=1$ or $C=2$.
Bohmian picture of Rydberg atoms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Partha Ghose; Manoj K Samal; Animesh Datta
2002-08-01
Unlike the previous theoretical results based on standard quantum mechanics that established the nearly elliptical shapes for the centre-of-mass motion in Rydberg atoms using numerical simulations, we show analytically that the Bohmian trajectories in Rydberg atoms are nearly elliptical.
Nicholson, Travis; Thompson, Jeff; Liang, Qiyu; Cantu, Sergio; Venkatramani, Aditya; Pohl, Thomas; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail; Vuletic, Vladan
2016-05-01
The realization of strong optical nonlinearities between two photons has been a longstanding goal in quantum science. We achieve large single-photon-level nonlinearities with Rydberg EIT, which combines slow light techniques with strongly interacting Rydberg states. For two Rydberg atoms in the same state, a Van der Waals interaction is the dominant coupling mechanism. Inherently stronger dipole-dipole interactions are also possible between atoms in different Rydberg states. Using light storage and microwave resonances, we study the effect of dipole-dipole interactions in Rydberg EIT. We observe a coherent spin exchange effect for pairs of states dominated by dipole-dipole interactions. Spin exchange manifests as an increase in optical transmission through a cold Rubidium gas that is highly dissipative in the presence of Van der Waals interactions. We also observe a controlled π / 2 phase shift due to this effect, which paves the way for robust, universal all-optical quantum gates.
Radial Rydberg wavepacket maps
Zeibel, J. G.; Jones, R. R.
2001-04-01
Picosecond laser pulses have been used to excite radial Rydberg wavepackets in Ca. Time-delayed, unipolar, `half-cycle' electric field pulses are used to probe the evolution of the wavepackets as a continuous function of binding energy. The data provide three-dimensional maps of wavepacket recurrence probability versus binding energy versus time. A rescaling of the energy and time coordinate axes allows the visualization of the distinct difference between the initial oscillations of the wavepacket and those that occur at integer and fractional revivals.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guerlin, Christine; Brion, Etienne; Esslinger, Tilman;
2010-01-01
The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly cou...
Annulled van der Waals interaction and nanosecond Rydberg quantum gates
Shi, Xiao-Feng
2016-01-01
A pair of neutral atoms separated by several microns and prepared in identical s-states of large principal quantum number experience a van der Waals interaction. If microwave fields are used to generate a superposition of s-states with different principal quantum numbers, a null point may be found at which a specific superposition state experiences no van der Waals interaction. An application of this novel Rydberg state in a quantum controlled-Z gate is proposed, which takes advantage of GHz rate transitions to nearby Rydberg states. A gate operation time in the tens of nanoseconds is predicted.
Coherent excitation of a single atom to a Rydberg state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Gaëtan, Alpha; Evellin, Charles;
2010-01-01
We present the coherent excitation of a single Rubidium atom to the Rydberg state 58d3/2 using a two-photon transition. The experimental setup is described in detail, as are experimental techniques and procedures. The coherence of the excitation is revealed by observing Rabi oscillations between...... ground and Rydberg states of the atom. We analyze the observed oscillations in detail and compare them to numerical simulations which include imperfections of our experimental system. Strategies for future improvements on the coherent manipulation of a single atom in our settings are given....
Rydberg-induced optical nonlinearities from a cold atomic ensemble trapped inside a cavity
Boddeda, R.; Usmani, I.; Bimbard, E.; Grankin, A.; Ourjoumtsev, A.; Brion, E.; Grangier, P.
2016-04-01
We experimentally characterize the optical nonlinear response of a cold atomic medium placed inside an optical cavity, and excited to Rydberg states. The excitation to S and D Rydberg levels is carried out via a two-photon transition in an electromagnetically induced transparency configuration, with a weak (red) probe beam on the lower transition, and a strong (blue) coupling beam on the upper transition. The observed optical nonlinearities induced by S states for the probe beam can be explained using a semi-classical model with van der Waals’ interactions. For the D states, it appears necessary to take into account a dynamical decay of Rydberg excitations into a long-lived dark state. We show that the measured nonlinearities can be explained by using a Rydberg bubble model with a dynamical decay.
Rydberg-induced optical nonlinearities from a cold atomic ensemble trapped inside a cavity
Boddeda, Rajiv; Bimbard, Erwan; Grankin, Andrey; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Brion, Etienne; Grangier, Philippe
2015-01-01
We experimentally characterize the optical nonlinear response of a cold atomic medium placed inside an optical cavity, and excited to Rydberg states. The excitation to S and D Rydberg levels is carried out via a two-photon transition in an EIT (electromagnetically induced transparency) configuration, with a weak (red) probe beam on the lower transition, and a strong (blue) coupling beam on the upper transition. The observed optical nonlinearities induced by S states for the probe beam can be explained using a semi-classical model with van der Waals' interactions. For the D states, it appears necessary to take into account a dynamical decay of Rydberg excitations into a long-lived dark state. We show that the measured nonlinearities can be explained by using a Rydberg bubble model with a dynamical decay.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Concepts from the theory of transient chaos are applied to study the classical ionization process of one dimensional model of kicked hydrogen Rydberg atoms. The phase-space dynamics is represented by a mapping T which is proved to be hyperbolic. The fraction of atoms not ionized after time t, PB(t), decays asymptotically according to PB(t)∼t-α with α ∼ 1.65. The observed algebraic decay, which seems to contradict the hyperbolicity of T, is explained by (i) the symbolic dynamics of T consists of a countably infinite number of symbols and (ii) the invariant manifold of phase-space points which never ionize is an anomalously scaling fractal. Therefore, the one-dimensional kicked hydrogen atom provides a counterexample to the hypothesis that algebraic decay marks regular dynamics, whereas hyperbolic systems decay exponentially. The algebraic decay is reproduced by an analytically solvable diffusion model which predicts α = 3/2. Replacing zero-width δ-kicks by smooth finite-width pulses, the mapping T is no longer completely hyperbolic, and a subset of phase-space is regular. For this case we observe that PB(t) shows a transition between two power-law decays with α ∼ 1.65 for short times and α ∼ 2.1 for long times where the effect of the regular domain is felt. (author)
Rydberg States of Atoms and Molecules
Stebbings, R. F.; Dunning, F. B.
2011-03-01
List of contributors; Preface; 1. Rydberg atoms in astrophysics A. Dalgarno; 2. Theoretical studies of hydrogen Rydberg atoms in electric fields R. J. Damburg and V. V. Kolosov; 3. Rydberg atoms in strong fields D. Kleppner, Michael G. Littman and Myron L. Zimmerman; 4. Spectroscopy of one- and two-electron Rydberg atoms C. Fabre and S. Haroche; 5. Interaction of Rydberg atoms with blackbody radiation T. F. Gallagher; 6. Theoretical approaches to low-energy collisions of Rydberg atoms with atoms and ions A. P. Hickman, R. E. Olson and J. Pascale; 7. Experimental studies of the interaction of Rydberg atoms with atomic species at thermal energies F. Gounand and J. Berlande; 8. Theoretical studies of collisions of Rydberg atoms with molecules Michio Matsuzawa; 9. Experimental studies of thermal-energy collisions of Rydberg atoms with molecules F. B. Dunning and R. F. Stebbings; 10. High-Rydberg molecules Robert S. Freund; 11. Theory of Rydberg collisions with electrons, ions and neutrals M. R. Flannery; 12. Experimental studies of the interactions of Rydberg atoms with charged particles J. -F. Delpech; 13. Rydberg studies using fast beams Peter M. Koch; Index.
Eidelsberg, M; Federman, S R; Lemaire, J L; Fillion, J H; Rostas, F; Ruiz, J
2006-01-01
One of the processes controlling the interstellar CO abundance and the ratio of its isotopologues is photodissociation. Accurate oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for Rydberg transitions are needed for modeling this process. We present results on absorption from the E ^1Pi-X ^1Sigma^+ (1-0) and B ^1Sigma^+-X ^1Sigma^+ (6-0) bands at 1051 and 1002 \\AA, respectively, and the vibrational progression W ^1Pi-X ^1Sigma^+ (v'-0) bands with v' = 0 to 3 at 972, 956, 941, and 925 \\AA, respectively. The corresponding spectra were acquired at the high resolution (R ~ 30,000) SU5 beam line at the Super ACO Synchrotron in Orsay, France. Spectra were obtained for the ^12C^16O, ^13C^16O, and ^13C^18O isotopologues. These represent the most complete set of measurements available. Comparison is made with earlier results, both empirical and theoretical. While earlier determinations of oscillator strengths based on absorption from synchrotron radiation tend to be somewhat smaller than ours, the suite of measurements...
A NEW TECHNIQUE TO STUDY RYDBERG STATES BY MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION SPECTROSCOPY
Verma, R.; Chanda, A.
1987-01-01
A new technique to study the Rydberg states of the Ba atom has been developed. In this technique a Multiphoton Ionization signal is detected by selective excitation of the ground state ion (6s) to an excited state (6p), which results in a collimated Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) signal at the 6p→5d transition of Ba*. Discrete Rydberg states, 6snℓ (ℓ=0,2), as well as autoionizing Rydberg states, 5dnℓ (ℓ=0,2) and 6pnℓ (ℓ=0,2) are observed by this novel but very simple method.
Ultralong-range Molecules in Strontium Rydberg Gases
Killian, Thomas
2016-05-01
Alkaline-earth metal atoms are attracting increased attention for studies of ultracold Rydberg gases because of new opportunities created by strong core transitions accessible with visible light and the presence of excited triplet states. We have created and characterized ultralong-range Sr2 molecules formed from one ground-state 5 s21 S0 atom and one atom in a 5sns 3 S1 Rydberg state. Molecules are formed in a trapped ultracold atomic gas using two-photon excitation, near resonance with the 5s5p 3 P1 intermediate state. Spectra for both a thermal gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate have been studied, and highly structured vibrational spectra are obtained for molecular dimers, trimers, and tetramers. Measured lifetimes of Rydberg atoms and molecules in dense gases of ground state atoms show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This reflects the fact that in strontium there is no p-wave resonance for electron scattering in this energy regime, unlike the situation in rubidium. The absence of a resonance offers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing theories of molecular formation and decay. Research supported by the AFOSR under Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0007, the NSF under Grants No. 1301773 and No. 1205946, and the Robert A, Welch Foundation under Grants No. C-0734 and No. C-1844.
Two-way interconversion of millimeter-wave and optical fields in Rydberg gases
Kiffner, Martin; Feizpour, Amir; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T.; Jaksch, Dieter; Nunn, Joshua
2016-09-01
We show that cold Rydberg gases enable an efficient six-wave mixing process where terahertz or microwave fields are coherently converted into optical fields and vice versa. This process is made possible by the long lifetime of Rydberg states, the strong coupling of millimeter waves to Rydberg transitions and by a quantum interference effect related to electromagnetically induced transparency. Our frequency conversion scheme applies to a broad spectrum of millimeter waves due to the abundance of transitions within the Rydberg manifold, and we discuss two possible implementations based on focussed terahertz beams and millimeter wave fields confined by a waveguide, respectively. We analyse a realistic example for the interconversion of terahertz and optical fields in rubidium atoms and find that the conversion efficiency can in principle exceed 90%.
Rydberg atoms in ultracold plasmas
Rolston, Steven
2009-05-01
Ultracold plasmas are formed through the photoionization of laser-cooled atoms, or spontaneous ionization of a dense cloud of Rydberg atoms or now molecules[1]. Ultracold plasmas are inherently metastable, as the ions and electrons would be in a lower energy state bound together as atoms. The dominant process of atom formation in these plasmas is three-body recombination, a collision between two electrons and an ion that leads to the formation of a Rydberg atom. This collisional process is not only important in determining the lifetime and density of the plasma, but is also critical in determining the time evolution of the temperature. The formation of the Rydberg atoms is accompanied by an increase in electron energy for the extra electron in the collision, and is a source of heating in these plasmas. Classical three-body recombination theory scales as T-9/2, and thus as a plasma cools due to a process such as adiabatic expansion, recombination-induced heating turns on, limiting the temperature [2]. The Rydberg atoms formed live in the plasma and contribute to the temperature dynamics, as collisions with plasma electrons can change the principal quantum number of the Rydberg atom, driving it to more tightly bound states (a source of plasma heating) or to higher states (a source of plasma cooling). If the plasma is cold and dense enough to be strongly coupled, classical three-body recombination theory breaks down. Recent theoretical work [3] suggests that the rate limits as the plasma gets strongly coupled. I will review the role of Rydberg atoms in ultracold plasmas and prospects for probing Rydberg collisions in the strongly coupled environment. [4pt] [1] J. P. Morrison, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 205005 (2008 [0pt] [2] R. S. Fletcher, X. Zhang, and S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 145001 (2007 [0pt] [3] T. Pohl, private communication.
Gravitational-wave phasing for low-eccentricity inspiralling compact binaries to 3PN order
Moore, Blake; Favata, Marc; Arun, K. G.; Mishra, Chandra Kant
2016-06-01
Although gravitational radiation causes inspiralling compact binaries to circularize, a variety of astrophysical scenarios suggest that binaries might have small but non-negligible orbital eccentricities when they enter the low-frequency bands of ground- and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. If not accounted for, even a small orbital eccentricity can cause a potentially significant systematic error in the mass parameters of an inspiralling binary [M. Favata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 101101 (2014)]. Gravitational-wave search templates typically rely on the quasicircular approximation, which provides relatively simple expressions for the gravitational-wave phase to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order. Damour, Gopakumar, Iyer, and others have developed an elegant but complex quasi-Keplerian formalism for describing the post-Newtonian corrections to the orbits and waveforms of inspiralling binaries with any eccentricity. Here, we specialize the quasi-Keplerian formalism to binaries with low eccentricity. In this limit, the nonperiodic contribution to the gravitational-wave phasing can be expressed explicitly as simple functions of frequency or time, with little additional complexity beyond the well-known formulas for circular binaries. These eccentric phase corrections are computed to 3PN order and to leading order in the eccentricity for the standard PN approximants. For a variety of systems, these eccentricity corrections cause significant corrections to the number of gravitational-wave cycles that sweep through a detector's frequency band. This is evaluated using several measures, including a modification of the useful cycles. By comparing to numerical solutions valid for any eccentricity, we find that our analytic solutions are valid up to e0≲0.1 for comparable-mass systems, where e0 is the eccentricity when the source enters the detector band. We also evaluate the role of periodic terms that enter the phasing and discuss how they can be incorporated into some of
From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nez, F
2005-06-15
This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)
Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates
Leonhardt, K; Rost, J M
2015-01-01
We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable non-adiabatic effects. A joint exciton/motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of non-adiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K.~Leonhardt {\\it et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~Lett. {\\bf 113} 223001 (2014)]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterise the ...
Zelener, B. B.; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E.
2016-04-01
Forbidden 2 P- nP and 2 P- nF transitions in the ranges of the principal quantum number n = 42-114 and n = 38-48 have been detected in the optical spectra of ultracold highly excited lithium-7 atoms. The presence of forbidden transitions is due to induced external electric fields. The quantum defects and ionization energy obtained in various experiments and predicted theoretically have been discussed.
Microwave electric field sensing with Rydberg atoms
Stack, Daniel T.; Kunz, Paul D.; Meyer, David H.; Solmeyer, Neal
2016-05-01
Atoms form the basis of precise measurement for many quantities (time, acceleration, rotation, magnetic field, etc.). Measurements of microwave frequency electric fields by traditional methods (i.e. engineered antennas) have limited sensitivity and can be difficult to calibrate properly. Highly-excited (Rydberg) neutral atoms have very large electric-dipole moments and many dipole allowed transitions in the range of 1 - 500 GHz. It is possible to sensitively probe the electric field in this range using the combination of two quantum interference phenomena: electromagnetically induced transparency and the Autler-Townes effect. This technique allows for very sensitive field amplitude, polarization, and sub-wavelength imaging measurements. These quantities can be extracted by measuring properties of a probe laser beam as it passes through a warm rubidium vapor cell. Thus far, Rydberg microwave electrometry has relied upon the absorption of the probe laser. We report on our use of polarization rotation, which corresponds to the real part of the susceptibility, for measuring the properties of microwave frequency electric fields. Our simulations show that when a magnetic field is present and directed along the optical propagation direction a polarization rotation signal exists and can be used for microwave electrometry. One central advantage in using the polarization rotation signal rather than the absorption signal is that common mode laser noise is naturally eliminated leading to a potentially dramatic increase in signal-to-noise ratio.
Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states
Branden, Drew B; Mahlokozera, Tatenda; Vesa, Cristian; Wilson, Roy O; Zheng, Mao; Kortyna, Andrew; Tate, Duncan A
2009-01-01
We have measured the radiative lifetimes of ns, np and nd Rydberg states of rubidium in the range 28 < n < 45. To enable long-lived states to be measured, our experiment uses slow-moving Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Two experimental techniques have been adopted to reduce random and systematic errors. First, a narrow-bandwidth pulsed laser is used to excite the target Rydberg state, resulting in minimal shot-to-shot variation in the initial state population. Second, we monitor the target state population as a function of time delay from the laser pulse using a short-duration, millimetre-wave pulse that is resonant with a one- or two-photon transition. We then selectively field ionize the monitor state, and detect the resulting electrons with a micro-channel plate. This signal is an accurate mirror of the target state population, and is uncontaminated by contributions from other states which are populated by black body radiation. Our results are generally consistent with other recent experime...
Quantum information with Rydberg atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.; Mølmer, Klaus
2010-01-01
Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom...... of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing....
Mayhew, C A
1984-01-01
The high resolution absorption spectra of the important group VI dihydrides and deuterides in the vacuum ultraviolet below, and up to, their first ionisation potentials are presented. These spectra were recorded using synchrotron radiation as the background light source in conjunction with a 3m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph, equipped with holographic gratings. Due to the nature of the originating orbital for the majority of optical transitions in the VUV well developed Rydberg series are observed. One particular series can be followed up to fairly high n, so that accurate values of the first ionisation potential are determined. The identifications of the Rydberg series are made from arguments relating to their oscillator strengths, quantum defects, symmetries and from comparisons with the spectra of the corresponding united atoms i.e. the inert gases. Examples of the symmetry assignments for Rydberg series from rotational band contour analyses of the lower Rydberg members for the H sub 2 S, H sub 2 Se ...
Collision-induced shifts of Rydberg levels of strontium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Measurements of spectral line shifts induced by collisions with rare gas perturbers are reported. High Rydberg states were prepared by multiphoton excitation using an excimer pumped tunable dye laser. A thermionic detector inside a heat pipe was used to collect the ionization products resulting from excited states. Analysis of the data for the shifts of the absorption transition to 5snd 1D2 states in strontium is presented
Resonant quenching of Rydberg atomic states by highly polar molecules
Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.
2016-06-01
The results of theoretical studies of the resonant quenching and ion-pair formation processes induced by collisions of Rydberg atoms with highly polar molecules possessing small electron affinities are reported. We elaborate an approach for describing collisional dynamics of both processes and demonstrate the predominant role of resonant quenching channel of reaction for the destruction of Rydberg states by electron-attaching molecules. The approach is based on the solution of the coupled differential equations for the transition amplitudes between the ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule formed during a collision of particles. It takes into account the possibility of the dipole-bound anion decay in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core and generalizes previous models of charge-transfer processes involving Rydberg atoms to the cases, when the multistate Landau–Zener approaches become inapplicable. Our calculations for {{Rb}}({nl}) atom perturbed by {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4{{SO}}3, {{CH}}2{CHCN}, {{CH}}3{{NO}}2, {{CH}}3{CN}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}2{{{O}}}3, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}4{{{O}}}3 molecules show that the curves representing the dependence of the resonant quenching cross sections on the principal quantum number n are bell-shaped with the positions of maxima being shifted towards lower values of n and the peak values, {σ }{max}({{q})}, several times higher than those for the ion-pair formation, {σ }{max}({{i})}. We obtain a simple power relation between the energy of electron affinity of a molecule and the position of maximum in n-dependence of the resonant quenching cross section. It can be used as an additional means for determining small binding energies of dipole-bound anions from the experimental data on resonant quenching of Rydberg states by highly polar molecules.
Quasiclassical dynamics of resonantly driven Rydberg states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchleitner, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Sacha, K.; Zakrzewski, J. [Instytut Fizyki Imienia Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Delande, D. [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Paris (France)
1999-02-01
We present a semiclassical analysis of the dynamics of Rydberg states of atomic hydrogen driven by a resonant microwave field of linear polarization. The semiclassical quasienergies of the atom in the field are found to be in very good agreement with the exact quantum solutions. The ionization rates of individual eigenstates of the atom dressed by the field reflect their quasiclassical dynamics along classical periodic orbits in the near integrable regime, but exhibit a transition to nonspecific rates when global chaos takes over in phase space. We concentrate both on the principal resonance where the unperturbed Kepler frequency {omega}{sub K}is equal to the driving field frequency {omega} and on the higher primary resonance {omega}=2{omega}{sub K}. The latter case allows for the construction of nondispersive wave packets which propagate along Kepler ellipses of intermediate eccentricity. (orig.) 37 refs.
Effective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons.
Gullans, M J; Thompson, J D; Wang, Y; Liang, Q-Y; Vuletić, V; Lukin, M D; Gorshkov, A V
2016-09-01
We develop an effective field theory (EFT) to describe the few- and many-body propagation of one-dimensional Rydberg polaritons. We show that the photonic transmission through the Rydberg medium can be found by mapping the propagation problem to a nonequilibrium quench, where the role of time and space are reversed. We include effective range corrections in the EFT and show that they dominate the dynamics near scattering resonances in the presence of deep bound states. Finally, we show how the long-range nature of the Rydberg-Rydberg interactions induces strong effective N-body interactions between Rydberg polaritons. These results pave the way towards studying nonperturbative effects in quantum field theories using Rydberg polaritons. PMID:27661685
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beauvoir, B. de
1996-12-15
The purpose of this work is to design a 778 nm standard laser for performing an absolute measurement of 2S-8S/D frequencies of hydrogen and deuterium atoms. This frequency calibration is based on a 5S-5D two-photon transition of the rubidium atom. Metrological performance of this laser is 10 times as good as that of He-Ne laser calibrated on iodine. It has been shown that the passage of a laser radiation through an optic fiber does not deteriorate its metrological properties. 2S-8S/8D transitions have been excited in an atomic jet by a titanium-sapphire laser. Spurious effects can shift and broaden lines. In order to prevent these effects, a theoretical line has been shaped and adjusted on experimental signals. The frequency comparison between the excitation laser and the standard laser has led to the measurement of the absolute frequency of the line concerned. The value of the Rydberg constant has been deduced: R{sub {infinity}} = 109737.3156859 (10) cm{sup -1}. The comparison of experimental data between deuterium and hydrogen has allowed us to determine the value of the Lamb shift of the 2S state of deuterium: L(2S-2P) = 1059,230 (9) MHz.
Buma, W.J.; Dobber, M.R.; Lange
1993-01-01
Rydberg states of methyl iodide have been investigated using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization in combination with photoelectron spectroscopy with nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses. The study of the ns (6n10) Rydberg states in two-, three-, and four-photon excitations has resulted in an unambiguous identification of state [1] in the 7s and 8s Rydberg states. As a consequence, it is concluded that the transition to 6s[1] in two- and three-photon excitations is anomalously weak. Th...
Quantum melting of two-component Rydberg crystals
Lan, Zhihao; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-01-01
We investigate the quantum melting of one dimensional crystals that are realized in an atomic lattice in which ground state atoms are laser excited to two Rydberg states. We focus on a regime where both, intra- and inter-state density-density interactions as well as coherent exchange interactions contribute. We determine stable crystalline phases in the classical limit and explore their melting under quantum fluctuations introduced by the excitation laser as well as two-body exchange. We find that quantum fluctuations introduced by the laser give rise to a devil's staircase structure which one might associate with transitions in the classical limit. The melting through exchange interactions is shown to also proceed in a step-like fashion, in case of mesoscopic crystals, due to the proliferation of Rydberg spinwaves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR 8214, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 210, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Liévin, Jacques, E-mail: jlievin@ulb.ac.be [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Cpi 160/09, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2014-11-07
The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0–10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores {sup 2}A{sub 1} and {sup 2}B{sub 1} results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some Δl = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the {sup 2}A{sub 1} ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic
Observation of Rydberg Series in Sodium Vapour by Two-Photon Resonant Nondegenerate Four-Wave Mixing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王延帮; 姜谦; 李隆; 米辛; 俞祖和; 傅盘铭
2001-01-01
We apply two-photon resonant nondegenerate four-wave mixing with a resonant intermediate state for the obser- vation of Rydberg states in sodium vapour. The broadening and shift of the sodium 3S- 11D transition perturbed by argon are investigated. This technique can achieve Doppler-free resolution of narrow spectral structures of Rydberg levels if lasers with narrow bandwidths are employed.
Efficient Grover search with Rydberg blockade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mølmer, Klaus; Isenhower, Larry; Saffman, Mark
2011-01-01
We present efficient methods to implement the quantum computing Grover search algorithm using the Rydberg blockade interaction. We show that simple π-pulse excitation sequences between ground and Rydberg excited states readily produce the key conditional phase shift and inversion...
Rydberg EIT in High Magnetic Field
Ma, Lu; Anderson, David; Miller, Stephanie; Raithel, Georg
2016-05-01
We present progress towards an all-optical approach for measurements of strong magnetic fields using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with Rydberg atoms in an atomic vapor. Rydberg EIT spectroscopy is a promising technique for the development of atom-based, calibration- and drift-free technology for high magnetic field sensing. In this effort, Rydberg EIT is employed to spectroscopically investigate the response of Rydberg atoms exposed to strong magnetic fields, in which Rydberg atoms are in the strong-field regime. In our setup, two neodymium block magnets are used to generate fields of about 0.8 Tesla, which strongly perturb the atoms. Information on the field strength and direction is obtained by a comparison of experimental spectra with calculated spectral maps. Investigations of magnetic-field inhomogeneities and other decoherence sources will be discussed.
Rydberg polaritons in a thermal vapor
Ripka, Fabian; Löw, Robert; Pfau, Tilman
2016-01-01
We present a pulsed four-wave mixing (FWM) scheme via a Rydberg state to create, store and retrieve collective Rydberg polaritons. The storage medium consists of a gas of thermal Rb atoms confined in a 220 {\\mu}m thick cell, which are heated above room temperature. The experimental sequence consists of a pulsed excitation of Rydberg polaritons via the D1 line, a variable delay or storage time, and a final retrieval pulse via the D2 line. The lifetime of the Rydberg polaritons is around 1.2 ns, almost entirely limited by the excitation bandwidth and the corresponding motional dephasing of the atoms. The presented scheme combined with a tightly confined atomic ensemble is a good candidate for a deterministic single-photon source, as soon as strong interactions in terms of a Rydberg blockade are added.
Laser diagnostics of the energy spectrum of Rydberg states of the lithium-7 atom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zelener, B. B., E-mail: bobozel@mail.ru; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
The spectra of excited lithium-7 atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap are studied using a UV laser. The laser diagnostics of the energy of Rydberg atoms is developed based on measurements of the change in resonance fluorescence intensity of ultracold atoms as the exciting UV radiation frequency passes through the Rydberg transition frequency. The energies of various nS configurations are obtained in a broad range of the principal quantum number n from 38 to 165. The values of the quantum defect and ionization energy obtained in experiments and predicted theoretically are discussed.
Nguyen, Thanh Long; Celistrino Teixeira, Raul; Hermann Avigliano, Carla; Cantat Moltrecht, Tigrane; Raimond, Jean Michel; Haroche, Serge; Gleyzes, Sebastiens; Brune, Michel
2016-05-01
Dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms are a flourishing tool for quantum information processing and for quantum simulation of complex many-body problems. Microwave spectroscopy of a dense Rydberg gas trapped close to a superconducting atom chip in the strong dipole blockade regime reveals directly the many-body atomic interaction spectrum. We present here a direct measurement of the interaction energy distribution in the strong dipole blockade regime, based on microwave spectroscopy. We first apply this method to the observation of the excitation dynamics of the Rydberg gas, conditioned by dipole-dipole interactions, in either the strong blockade regime or the so-called facilitation regime. We also observe with this method the atomic cloud expansion driven by the repulsive Van der Waals interaction after excitation. This measurement, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the excitation process and of the cloud dynamics, reveals the limits of the frozen gas approximation. This method can help investigate self-organization and dynamical phase transitions in Rydberg-atom based quantum simulators. This study thus opens a promising route for quantum simulation of many-body systems and quantum information transport in chains of strongly interacting Rydberg atom.
Large energy superpositions via Rydberg dressing
Khazali, Mohammadsadegh; Lau, Hon Wai; Humeniuk, Adam; Simon, Christoph
2016-08-01
We propose to create superposition states of over 100 strontium atoms in a ground state or metastable optical clock state using the Kerr-type interaction due to Rydberg state dressing in an optical lattice. The two components of the superposition can differ by an order of 300 eV in energy, allowing tests of energy decoherence models with greatly improved sensitivity. We take into account the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, spatial inhomogeneity of the interaction, decay from the Rydberg state, collective many-body decoherence, atomic motion, molecular formation, and diminishing Rydberg level separation for increasing principal number.
Multichannel long-range Rydberg molecules
Eiles, Matthew T
2015-01-01
A generalized class of ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules is proposed which consist of a multichannel Rydberg atom whose outermost electron creates a chemical bond with a distant ground state atom. Such multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number. The resulting occurrence of near degeneracies with states of high orbital angular momentum promotes the admixture of low $l$ into the high $l$ deeply bound `trilobite' molecule states, thereby circumventing the usual difficulty posed by electric dipole selection rules. Such states also can exhibit multi-scale binding possibilities that could present novel options for quantum manipulation.
The Spectral Backbone of Excitation Transport in Ultra-Cold Rydberg Gases
Scholak, Torsten; Buchleitner, Andreas
2014-01-01
The spectral structure underlying excitonic energy transfer in ultra-cold Rydberg gases is studied numerically, in the framework of random matrix theory, and via self-consistent diagrammatic techniques. Rydberg gases are made up of randomly distributed, highly polarizable atoms that interact via strong dipolar forces. Dynamics in such a system is fundamentally different from cases in which the interactions are of short range, and is ultimately determined by the spectral and eigenvector structure. In the energy levels' spacing statistics, we find evidence for a critical energy that separates delocalized eigenstates from states that are localized at pairs or clusters of atoms separated by less than the typical nearest-neighbor distance. We argue that the dipole blockade effect in Rydberg gases can be leveraged to manipulate this transition across a wide range: As the blockade radius increases, the relative weight of localized states is reduced. At the same time, the spectral statistics -- in particular, the den...
Classical space-time as Rydberg states of underlying quantum geometries
Sivaram, C
2016-01-01
Classical macroscopic space-time is pictured in terms of Rydberg states of an underlying discritzed `atomic' quantum geometry at Planck scales. While quantum geometry on such scales involves several very short lived transitions changing curvature and topologies, the Rydberg states have very long lifetimes, going as a high power of the quantum number n. This means space-time on macroscopic scales are almost infinitely stable. The large degeneracy in the Rydberg levels, with high n, can also account for a large black hole entropy, as well as long lifetime of massive black holes to quantum decays. We have a possible promising paradigm to link quantum geometry at Planck scales, to classical space-time.
Strong Coupling of Rydberg Atoms and Surface Phonon Polaritons on Piezoelectric Superlattices
Sheng, Jiteng; Chao, Yuanxi; Shaffer, James P.
2016-09-01
We propose a hybrid quantum system where the strong coupling regime can be achieved between a Rydberg atomic ensemble and propagating surface phonon polaritons on a piezoelectric superlattice. By exploiting the large electric dipole moment and long lifetime of Rydberg atoms as well as tightly confined surface phonon polariton modes, it is possible to achieve a coupling constant far exceeding the relevant decay rates. The frequency of the surface mode can be selected so that it is resonant with a Rydberg transition by engineering the piezoelectric superlattice. We describe a way to observe the Rabi splitting associated with the strong coupling regime under realistic experimental conditions. The system can be viewed as a new type of optomechanical system.
Strong coupling of Rydberg atoms and surface phonon polaritons on piezoelectric superlattices
Sheng, Jiteng; Shaffer, James P
2016-01-01
We propose a hybrid quantum system where the strong coupling regime can be achieved between a Rydberg atomic ensemble and propagating surface phonon polaritons on a piezoelectric superlattice. By exploiting the large electric dipole moment and long lifetime of Rydberg atoms as well as tightly confined surface phonon polariton modes, it is possible to achieve a coupling constant far exceeding the relevant decay rates. The frequency of the surface mode can be selected so it is resonant with a Rydberg transition by engineering the piezoelectric superlattice. We describe a way to observe the Rabi splitting associated with the strong coupling regime under realistic experimental conditions. The system can be viewed as a new type of optomechanical system.
MOLECULAR RYDBERG SPECTROSCOPY MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS IN ALKYL HALIDES
Mcglynn, S.; Scott, J; Felps, W.
1982-01-01
The total angular momentum of all states of HI, CH3I, CD3I and CH3Br in the 1st s-Rydberg complex is found to be quantized, even in C3υ molecules where symmetry-breaking decrees the absence of such quantization. This observation suggests that the operative symmetry is that of a molecular "bit" within which the transition is localized and that the remainder of the molecule is merely perturbatory. The angular momenta of various vibronic states have also been measured. It is found that non-total...
Ultracold Long-Range Rydberg Molecules with Complex Multichannel Spectra
Eiles, Matthew; Greene, Chris
2016-05-01
A generalized class of exotic long-range Rydberg molecules consisting of a multichannel Rydberg atom bound to a distant ground state atom by the Rydberg electron is predicted. These molecules are characterized by the rich physics provided by the strongly perturbed multichannel Rydberg spectra of divalent atoms, in contrast to the regular Rydberg series of the alkali atoms used to form Rydberg molecules to date. These multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number n. In particular, the nd Rydberg state of calcium becomes nearly degenerate with states of high orbital angular momentum over the range 17 channel interactions between Rydberg series leading to the spin-orbit split ionization thresholds. These interactions manifest themselves in potential curves exhibiting two distinct length scales, providing novel opportunities for quantum manipulation. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306905.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈旸; 裴林森; 冉琴; 高义德; 陈从香
1999-01-01
(2+1) resonant multiphoton ionization of photolytically produced CH radical yields previously unobserved bands arising from two photon transition to Rydberg states.Analysing of the spectrum of CH+,three new states are identified.They are 8d,9d and 10d Rydberg states,respectively.
Efficient Multiparticle Entanglement via Asymmetric Rydberg Blockade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saffman, Mark; Mølmer, Klaus
2009-01-01
We present an efficient method for producing N particle entangled states using Rydberg blockade interactions. Optical excitation of Rydberg states that interact weakly, yet have a strong coupling to a second control state is used to achieve state dependent qubit rotations in small ensembles....... On the basis of quantitative calculations, we predict that an entangled quantum superposition state of eight atoms can be produced with a fidelity of 84% in cold Rb atoms....
Thermal Casimir-Polder shifts in Rydberg atoms near metallic surfaces
Crosse, J. A.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.; Clements, Kate; Buhmann, Stefan Y.; Scheel, Stefan
2010-01-01
The Casimir-Polder (CP) potential and transition rates of a Rydberg atom above a plane metal surface at finite temperature are discussed. As an example, the CP potential and transition rates of a rubidium atom above a copper surface at room temperature is computed. Close to the surface we show that the quadrupole correction to the force is significant and increases with increasing principal quantum number n. For both the CP potential and decay rates one finds that the dominant contribution co...
Laser cooling, trapping, and Rydberg spectroscopy of neutral holmium atoms
Hostetter, James Allen
This thesis focuses on progress towards using ensembles of neutral holmium for use in quantum computing operations. We are particularly interested in using a switchable interaction between neutral atoms, the Rydberg blockade, to implement a universal set of quantum gates in a collective encoding scheme that presents many benefits over quantum computing schemes which rely on physically distinct qubits. We show that holmium is uniquely suited for operations in a collective encoding basis because it has 128 ground hyperfine states, the largest number of any stable, neutral atom. Holmium is a rare earth atom that is very poorly described for our purposes as it has never been cooled and trapped, its spectrum is largely unknown, and it presents several unique experimental challenges related to its complicated atomic structure and short wavelength transitions. We demonstrate important progress towards overcoming these challenges. We produce the first laser cooling and trapping of holmium into a MOT. Because we use a broad cooling transition, our cooling technique does not require the use of a Zeeman slower. Using MOT depletion spectroscopy, we provide precise measurements of holmium's Rydberg states and its ionization potential. Our work continues towards cooling holmium into a dipole trap by calculating holmium's AC polarizability and demonstrating the results of early attempts at an optical dipole trap. We provide details of future upgrades to the experimental apparatus and discuss interesting potential for using holmium in quantum computing using single atoms in a magnetically trapped lattice. This thesis shows several promising indicators for continued work in this field.
Storage enhanced nonlinearities in a cold atomic Rydberg ensemble
Distante, Emanuele; Cristiani, Matteo; Paredes-Barato, David; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2016-01-01
The combination of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with the nonlinear interaction between Rydberg atoms provides an effective interaction between photons. In this paper, we investigate the storage of optical pulses as collective Rydberg atomic excitations in a cold atomic ensemble. By measuring the dynamics of the stored Rydberg polaritons, we experimentally demonstrate that storing a probe pulse as Rydberg polaritons strongly enhances the Rydberg mediated interaction compared to the slow propagation case. We show that the process is characterized by two time scales. At short storage times, we observe a strong enhancement of the interaction due to the reduction of the Rydberg polariton group velocity down to zero. For longer storage times, we observe a further, weaker enhancement dominated by Rydberg induced dephasing of the multiparticle components of the state. In this regime, we observe a non-linear dependence of the Rydberg polariton coherence time with the input photon number. Our results ...
Balmer and Rydberg Equations for Hydrogen Spectra Revisited
Heyrovska, Raji
2011-01-01
Balmer equation for the atomic spectral lines was generalized by Rydberg. Here it is shown that 1) while Bohr's theory explains the Rydberg constant in terms of the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom, quantizing the angular momentum does not explain the Rydberg equation, 2) on reformulating Rydberg's equation, the principal quantum numbers are found to correspond to integral numbers of de Broglie waves and 3) the ground state energy of hydrogen is electromagnetic like that of photons an...
Trapping Rydberg Atoms in an Optical Lattice
Anderson, Sarah E.
2012-06-01
Optical lattice traps for Rydberg atoms are of interest in advanced science and in practical applications. After a brief discussion of these areas of interest, I will review some basics of optical Rydberg-atom trapping. The trapping potential experienced by a Rydberg atom in an optical lattice is given by the spatial average of the free-electron ponderomotive energy weighted by the Rydberg electron's probability distribution. I will then present experimental results on the trapping of ^85Rb Rydberg atoms in a one-dimensional ponderomotive optical lattice (wavelength 1064 nm). The principal methods employed to study the lattice performance are microwave spectroscopy, which is used to measure the lattice's trapping efficiency, and photo-ionization, which is used to measure the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice. I have achieved a 90% trapping efficiency for ^85Rb 50S atoms by inverting the lattice immediately after laser excitation of ground-state atoms into Rydberg states. I have characterized the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice using photo-ionization of 50D5/2 atoms. In continued work, I have explored the dependence of the Rydberg-atom trapping potential on the angular portion of the atomic wavefunction. Distinct angular states exhibit different trapping behavior in the optical lattice, depending on how their wavefunctions are oriented relative to the lattice planes. Specifically, I have measured the lattice potential depth of sublevels of ^85Rb nD atoms (50behavior varies substantially for the various angular sublevels, in agreement with theory. The talk will conclude with an outlook into planned experiments.
Thermal Casimir-Polder shifts in Rydberg atoms near metallic surfaces
Crosse, J A; Clements, Kate; Buhmann, Stefan Y; Scheel, Stefan
2010-01-01
The Casimir-Polder (CP) potential and transition rates of a Rydberg atom above a plane metal surface at finite temperature are discussed. As an example, the CP potential and transition rates of a rubidium atom above a copper surface at room temperature is computed. Close to the surface we show that the quadrupole correction to the force is significant and increases with increasing principal quantum number n. For both the CP potential and decay rates one finds that the dominant contribution comes from the longest wavelength transition and the potential is independent of temperature. We provide explicit scaling laws for potential and decay rates as functions of atom-surface distance and principal quantum number of the initial Rydberg state.
Effective dynamics of strongly dissipative Rydberg gases
Marcuzzi, M; Olmos, B; Lesanovsky, I
2014-01-01
We investigate the evolution of interacting Rydberg gases in the limit of strong noise and dissipation. Starting from a description in terms of a Markovian quantum master equation we derive effective equations of motion that govern the dynamics on a "coarse-grained" timescale where fast dissipative degrees of freedom have been adiabatically eliminated. Specifically, we consider two scenarios which are of relevance for current theoretical and experimental studies --- Rydberg atoms in a two-level (spin) approximation subject to strong dephasing noise as well as Rydberg atoms under so-called electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions and fast radiative decay. In the former case we find that the effective dynamics is described by classical rate equations up to second order in an appropriate perturbative expansion. This drastically reduces the computational complexity of numerical simulations in comparison to the full quantum master equation. When accounting for the fourth order correction in this e...
Observation of pendular butterfly Rydberg molecules
Niederprüm, Thomas; Eichert, Tanita; Lippe, Carsten; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H; Ott, Herwig
2016-01-01
Obtaining full control over the internal and external quantum states of molecules is the central goal of ultracold chemistry and allows for the study of coherent molecular dynamics, collisions and tests of fundamental laws of physics. When the molecules additionally have a permanent electric dipole moment, the study of dipolar quantum gases and spin-systems with long-range interactions as well as applications in quantum information processing are possible. Rydberg molecules constitute a class of exotic molecules, which are bound by the interaction between the Rydberg electron and the ground state atom. They exhibit extreme bond lengths of hundreds of Bohr radii and giant permanent dipole moments in the kilo-Debye range. A special type with exceptional properties are the so-called butterfly molecules, whose electron density resembles the shape of a butterfly. Here, we report on the photoassociation of butterfly Rydberg molecules and their orientation in a weak electric field. Starting from a Bose-Einstein cond...
Long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms
Deiglmayr, Johannes
2016-10-01
We present an overview over theoretical models to describe adiabatic potential-energy curves, experimental excitation spectra, and electronic and nuclear dynamics in interacting Rydberg-atom pairs at large internuclear separations. The potential-energy curves and molecular wavefunctions are determined from the multipole expansion of the static Coulomb interaction which is evaluated numerically in a product basis of atomic orbitals. The convergence of this approach both in the truncation of the multipole expansion as well as in the size of the product basis is discussed, and the comparison of simulated excitation spectra is established as a useful criterium to test the convergence of the calculation. We finally discuss the dynamics of electronic and nuclear motions of pairs of Rydberg atoms, focusing on the stability of ultralong range Rydberg molecules with respect to autoionization.
Cold and Ultracold Rydberg Atoms in Strong Magnetic Fields
Pohl, T; Schmelcher, P
2009-01-01
Cold Rydberg atoms exposed to strong magnetic fields possess unique properties which open the pathway for an intriguing many-body dynamics taking place in Rydberg gases consisting of either matter or anti-matter systems. We review both the foundations and recent developments of the field in the cold and ultracold regime where trapping and cooling of Rydberg atoms have become possible. Exotic states of moving Rydberg atoms such as giant dipole states are discussed in detail, including their formation mechanisms in a strongly magnetized cold plasma. Inhomogeneous field configurations influence the electronic structure of Rydberg atoms, and we describe the utility of corresponding effects for achieving tightly trapped ultracold Rydberg atoms. We review recent work on large, extended cold Rydberg gases in magnetic fields and their formation in strongly magnetized ultracold plasmas through collisional recombination. Implications of these results for current antihydrogen production experiments are pointed out, and ...
Rydberg Excitation of a Single Trapped Ion.
Feldker, T; Bachor, P; Stappel, M; Kolbe, D; Gerritsma, R; Walz, J; Schmidt-Kaler, F
2015-10-23
We demonstrate excitation of a single trapped cold (40)Ca(+) ion to Rydberg levels by laser radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 122 nm. Observed resonances are identified as 3d(2)D(3/2) to 51F, 52F and 3d(2)D(5/2) to 64F. We model the line shape and our results imply a large state-dependent coupling to the trapping potential. Rydberg ions are of great interest for future applications in quantum computing and simulation, in which large dipolar interactions are combined with the superb experimental control offered by Paul traps. PMID:26551109
Dephasing dynamics of Rydberg atom spin waves
Bariani, F; Kennedy, T A B
2012-01-01
A theory of Rydberg atom interactions is used to derive analytical forms for the spin wave pair correlation function in laser-excited cold-atom vapors. This function controls the quantum statistics of light emission from dense, inhomogeneous clouds of cold atoms of various spatial dimensionalities. The results yield distinctive scaling behaviors on the microsecond timescale, including generalized exponential decay. A detailed comparison is presented with a recent experiment on a cigar-shaped atomic ensemble [Y. Dudin and A. Kuzmich, Science 336, 887 (2012)], in which Rb atoms are excited to a set of Rydberg levels.
\\cal{PT} -symmetry in Rydberg atoms
Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Lee, Ray-Kuang
2016-07-01
We propose a scheme to realize parity-time ( {PT} )-symmetry in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms, which act as superatoms due to the dipole blockade mechanism. We show that Rydberg-dressed 87Rb atoms in a four-level inverted Y-type configuration is highly efficient to generate the refractive index for a probe field, with a symmetric (antisymmetric) profile spatially in the corresponding real (imaginary) part. Comparing with earlier investigations, the present scheme provides a versatile platform to control the system from {PT} -symmetry to non-PT -symmetry via different external parameters, i.e., coupling field detuning, probe field intensity and control field intensity.
Effective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons
Gullans, M. J.; Y Wang; Thompson, J. D.; Liang, Q. -Y.; Vuletic, V.; Lukin, M. D.; Gorshkov, A.V.
2016-01-01
We study non-perturbative effects in N-body scattering of Rydberg polaritons using effective field theory (EFT). We develop an EFT in one dimension and show how a suitably long medium can be used to prepare shallow N-body bound states. We then derive the effective N-body interaction potential for Rydberg polaritons and the associated N-body contact force that arises in the EFT. We use the contact force to find the leading order corrections to the binding energy of the N-body bound states and ...
Kondo, Jorge M; Guttridge, Alex; Wade, Christopher G; De Melo, Natalia R; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J
2015-01-01
We report on the observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Absorption (EIA) of highly-excited Rydberg states in thermal Cs vapor using a 4-step excitation scheme. The advantage of this 4-step scheme is that the final transition to the Rydberg state has a large dipole moment and one can achieve similar Rabi frequencies to 2 or 3 step excitation schemes using two orders of magnitude less laser power. Consequently each step is driven by a relatively low power infra-red diode laser opening up the prospect for new applications. The observed lineshapes are in good agreement with simulations based on multilevel optical Bloch equations.
Collisions of Rydberg Atoms with Charged Particles
MacAdam, Keith B.
2000-10-01
The long range of Coulomb interactions, together with the large size, long radiative lifetimes and high state densities of highly excited Rydberg atoms, results in inelastic collision cross sections of prodigious size -- often large enough to outweigh small number densities in astrophysica and cool laboratory plasmas -- and in other unusual features. This talk will provide: (a) a brief survey of the significant features of collisions between electron or positive ions and state-selected Rydberg atoms and of recent experiments( O. Makarov and K.B. MacAdam, Phys. Rev. A 60), 2131-8 (1999); and K.B. MacAdam, J.C. Day and D.M. Homan, Comm. At. Mol. Phys./Comm. Mod. Phys. 1(2), Part D, 57-73 (1999). to investigate them; (b) an introduction to some of the special techniques that have been developed(J.L. Horn, D.M. Homan, C.S. Hwang, W.L. Fuqua III and K.B. MacAdam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69), 4086-93 (1998). for preparation, manipulation and detection of Rydberg atoms; and (c) a glimpse at new directions in Rydberg atom collision research.
Storage Enhanced Nonlinearities in a Cold Atomic Rydberg Ensemble
Distante, E.; Padrón-Brito, A.; Cristiani, M.; Paredes-Barato, D.; de Riedmatten, H.
2016-09-01
The combination of electromagnetically induced transparency with the nonlinear interaction between Rydberg atoms provides an effective interaction between photons. In this Letter, we investigate the storage of optical pulses as collective Rydberg atomic excitations in a cold atomic ensemble. By measuring the dynamics of the stored Rydberg polaritons, we experimentally demonstrate that storing a probe pulse as Rydberg polaritons strongly enhances the Rydberg mediated interaction compared to the slow propagation case. We show that the process is characterized by two time scales. At short storage times, we observe a strong enhancement of the interaction due to the reduction of the Rydberg polariton group velocity down to 0. For longer storage times, we observe a further, weaker enhancement dominated by Rydberg induced dephasing of the multiparticle components of the state. In this regime, we observe a nonlinear dependence of the Rydberg polariton coherence time with the input photon number. Our results have direct consequences in Rydberg quantum optics and may enable the test of new theories of strongly interacting Rydberg systems.
Charged oscillator quantum state generation with Rydberg atoms
Stevenson, Robin; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility of engineering quantum states of a charged mechanical oscillator by coupling it to a stream of atoms in superpositions of high-lying Rydberg states. Our scheme relies on the driving of a two-phonon resonance within the oscillator by coupling it to an atomic two-photon transition. This approach effectuates a controllable open system dynamics on the oscillator that permits the creation of squeezed and other non-classical states. We show that these features are robust to thermal noise arising from a coupling of the oscillator with the environment. The possibility to create non-trivial quantum states of mechanical systems, provided by the proposed setup, is central to applications such as sensing and metrology and moreover allows the exploration of fundamental questions concerning the boundary between classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of macroscopic objects.
Cavity polaritons with Rydberg blockade and long-range interactions
Litinskaya, Marina; Pupillo, Guido
2016-01-01
We study interactions between polaritons, arising when photons strongly couple to collective excitations in an array of two-level atoms trapped in an optical lattice inside a cavity. We consider two types of interactions between atoms: Dipolar forces and atomic saturability, which ranges from hard-core repulsion to Rydberg blockade. We show that, in spite of the underlying repulsion in the subsystem of atomic excitations, saturability induces a broadband bunching of photons for two-polariton scattering states. We interpret this bunching as a result of interference, and trace it back to the mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons. We examine also bound bipolaritonic states: These include states created by dipolar forces, as well as a gap bipolariton, which forms solely due to saturability effects in the atomic transition. Both types of bound states exhibit strong bunching in the photonic component. We discuss the dependence of bunching on experimentally relevant parameters.
Experimental Research of Spontaneous Evolution from Ultracold Rydberg Atoms to Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Lin-Jie; FENG Zhi-Gang; LI An-Ling; ZHAO Jian-Ming; LI Chang-Yong; JIA Suo-Tang
2008-01-01
@@ The spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma is investigated in a caesium MOT by using the method of field ionization. The plasma transferred from atoms in different Rydberg states (n = 22-32) are obtained experimentally. Dependence of the threshold time of evolving to plasma and the threshold number of initial Rydberg atoms on the principal quantum number of initial Rydberg states is studied. The experimental results are in agreement with hot-cold Rydberg-Rydberg atom collision ionization theory.
Radiation trapping in a dense cold Rydberg gas
Sadler, D P; Boddy, D; Bounds, A D; Keegan, N C; Lochead, G; Jones, M P A; Olmos, B
2016-01-01
Cold atomic gases resonantly excited to Rydberg states can exhibit strong optical nonlinearity at the single photon level. We observe that in such samples radiation trapping leads to an additional mechanism for Rydberg excitation. Conversely we demonstrate that Rydberg excitation provides a novel in situ probe of the spectral, statistical, temporal and spatial properties of the trapped re-scattered light. We also show that absorption can lead to an excitation saturation that mimics the Rydberg blockade effect. Collective effects due to multiple scattering may co-exist with co-operative effects due to long-range interactions between the Rydberg atoms, adding a new dimension to quantum optics experiments with cold Rydberg gases.
Bohé, Alejandro; Marsat, Sylvain; Porter, Edward K
2015-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of spinning binaries of compact objects at the next-to-leading order in the quadratic-in-spin effects, which corresponds to the third post-Newtonian order (3PN). Using a Dixon-type multipolar formalism for spinning point particles endowed with spin-induced quadrupoles and computing iteratively in harmonic coordinates the relevant pieces of the PN metric within the near zone, we derive the post-Newtonian equations of motion as well as the equations of spin precession. We find full equivalence with available results. We then focus on the far-zone field produced by those systems and obtain the previously unknown 3PN spin contributions to the gravitational-wave energy flux by means of the multipolar post-Minkowskian (MPM) wave generation formalism. Our results are presented in the center-of-mass frame for generic orbits, before being further specialized to the case of spin-aligned, circular orbits. We derive the orbital phase of the binary based on the energy balance equation and brief...
Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg
Gaëtan, A.
2010-12-01
Considérons un système quantique constitué de deux sous-systèmes : on dit qu'il est dans un état intriqué s'il existe des corrélations quantiques entre les états de ces derniers. La compréhension et la mise en œuvre d'états intriqués ont de nombreuses applications (métrologie quantique, étude des systèmes fortement corrélés, traitement quantique de l'information, etc.) et constituent le contexte général de ce travail de thèse. Plus en détail, nous démontrons la réalisation d'un état intriqué de deux atomes neutres piégés indépendamment. Pour cela, nous exploitons le phénomène de blocage de Rydberg : lorsqu'on essaie d'exciter simultanément deux atomes séparés de quelques micromètres vers un état de Rydberg donné, la forte interaction entre atomes de Rydberg peut empêcher cette excitation simultanée. Dans ce cas, seul un des deux atomes est excité et l'on génère ainsi des corrélations quantiques entre les états des deux atomes, c'est-à-dire de l'intrication. Dans notre expérience, deux atomes de 87Rb dans l'état fondamental 5S1/2 sont piégés chacun dans une pince optique microscopique, à une distance relative de 4 micromètres. En réalisant des transitions entre l'état 5S1/2 et l'état de Rydberg 58D3/2 par des transitions à deux photons, nous obtenons un état intriqué des deux atomes dans les sous-niveaux |5S1/2, f = 1, mf = 1> et |5S1/2, f = 2, mf = 2>. Afin de quantifier l'intrication, nous mesurons la fidélité par rapport à l'état-cible en réalisant des transitions Raman entre ces deux sous-niveaux. La fidélité des paires d'atomes présentes à la fin de l'expérience est supérieure à la valeur seuil de 0,5, ce qui prouve la création d'un état intriqué.
Ultralong-range triatomic Rydberg molecules in an electric field
Aguilera Fernández, Javier; Schmelcher, Peter; González-Férez, Rosario
2016-06-01
We investigate the electronic structure of a triatomic Rydberg molecule formed by a Rydberg atom and two neutral ground-state atoms. Taking into account the s-wave and p-wave interactions, we perform electronic structure calculations and analyze the adiabatic electronic potentials evolving from the Rb (n=35,l≥slant 3) Rydberg degenerate manifold. We hereby focus on three different classes of geometries of the Rydberg molecules, including symmetric, asymmetric and planar configurations. The metamorphosis of these potential energy surfaces in the presence of an external electric field is explored.
Balmer and Rydberg Equations for Hydrogen Spectra Revisited
Heyrovska, Raji
2011-01-01
Balmer equation for the atomic spectral lines was generalized by Rydberg. Here it is shown that 1) while Bohr's theory explains the Rydberg constant in terms of the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom, quantizing the angular momentum does not explain the Rydberg equation, 2) on reformulating Rydberg's equation, the principal quantum numbers are found to correspond to integral numbers of de Broglie waves and 3) the ground state energy of hydrogen is electromagnetic like that of photons and the frequency of the emitted or absorbed light is the difference in the frequencies of the electromagnetic energy levels.
Condensate losses and oscillations induced by Rydberg atoms
Karpiuk, Tomasz; Rzążewski, Kazimierz; Gaj, Anita; Krupp, Alexander T; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman
2016-01-01
We numerically analyze the impact of a single Rydberg electron onto a Bose-Einstein condensate. Both $S-$ and $D-$ Rydberg states are studied. The radial size of $S-$ and $D-$states are comparable, hence the only difference is due to the angular dependence of the wavefunctions. We find the atom losses in the condensate after the excitation of a sequence of Rydberg atoms. Additionally, we investigate the mechanical effect in which the Rydberg atoms force the condensate to oscillate. Our numerical analysis is based on the classical fields approximation. Finally, we compare numerical results to experimental data.
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in strongly interacting Rydberg Gases
Ates, C; Pohl, T
2011-01-01
We develop an efficient Monte-Carlo approach to describe the optical response of cold three-level atoms in the presence of EIT and strong atomic interactions. In particular, we consider a "Rydberg-EIT medium" where one involved level is subject to large shifts due to strong van der Waals interactions with surrounding Rydberg atoms. We find excellent agreement with much more involved quantum calculations and demonstrate its applicability over a wide range of densities and interaction strengths. The calculations show that the nonlinear absorption due to Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions exhibits universal behavior.
Tests of Theory in Rydberg States of One-Electron Ions
Tan, Joseph N.; Mohr, Peter J.
Comparison of optical frequency measurements to predictions of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for Rydberg states of one-electron ions can test theory and allow new determinations of constants of nature to be made. Simplifications in the QED theory of high-angular-momentum states reduces the uncertainty in the prediction of transition frequencies to a level where a new value of the Rydberg constant which is independent of the proton radius can be determined. Since the energy-level spacing between neighbouring Rydberg states grows as the square of the nuclear charge number, it is possible to study transitions with optical frequencies that are accessible to femtosecond laser frequency combs. Recently at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), highly charged ions (including bare nuclei) created in an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) were extracted and captured in a novel compact Penning trap. An ongoing experiment aims to produce one-electron ions isolated in an ion trap designed for laser spectroscopy. Tests of theory in a regime free of nuclear effects would be valuable in shedding light on the puzzle surrounding the large discrepancy in the value of the proton radius inferred from the observed Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen as compared to the value deduced from hydrogen and deuterium spectroscopy and electron scattering measurements.
Cooper, Keith
2016-04-01
Quantum computers of the future could operate via the energy transitions of excited atoms, or even from pure light, if a rapidly growing area of atomic physics continues to meet with success, writes Keith Cooper.
Coherent dynamics of Rydberg atoms in cosmic-microwave-background radiation
Tscherbul, Timur V.; Brumer, Paul
2014-01-01
Rydberg atoms excited by cold blackbody radiation are shown to display long-lived quantum coherences on time scales of tens of picoseconds. By solving non-Markovian equations of motion with no free parameters we obtain the time evolution of the density matrix and demonstrate that the blackbody-induced temporal coherences manifest as slowly decaying (100 ps) quantum beats in time-resolved fluorescence. An analytic model shows the dependence of the coherent dynamics on the energy splitting between atomic eigenstates, transition dipole moments, and coherence time of the radiation. Experimental detection of the fluorescence signal from a trapped ensemble of 108 Rydberg atoms is discussed, but shown to be technically challenging at present, requiring cosmic-microwave-background amplification somewhat beyond current practice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerous infrared transitions between Rydberg states of neon and argon have been measured by optogalvanic spectroscopy in commercial hollow cathode lamps using a color center laser operating in the range 3600-4100 cm-1. Transitions in lithium and barium atoms sputtered from the cathodes were also detected. The generality and high sensitivity of this technique indicates potential applications for frequency calibration in the infrared, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, and plasma diagnostics. (orig.)
Efimov, D K
2016-05-18
We consider Penning ionization of Rydberg atom pairs as an Auger-type process induced by the dipole-dipole interaction and employ semiclassical formulae for dipole transitions to calculate the autoionization width as a function of the principal quantum numbers, n d, n i, of both atoms. While for symmetric atom pairs with the well-known increase of the autoionization width with increasing n 0 is obtained, the result for asymmetric pairs is counterintuitive - for a fixed n i of the ionizing atom of the pair, the autoionization width strongly increases with decreasing n d of the de-excited atom. For H Rydberg atoms this increase reaches two orders of magnitude at the maximum of the n d dependence, and the same type of counterintuitive behavior is exhibited also by Na, Rb and Cs atoms. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect, which points towards existence of optimal (we call them \\'Tom\\' and \\'Jerry\\' for \\'big\\' and \\'small\\') pairs of Rydberg atoms with respect to autoionization efficiency. Building on the model of population redistribution in cold Rydberg gases proposed in [1], we demonstrate that population evolution following the initial laser excitation of Rydberg atoms in state n 0 would eventually lead to the formation of such Tom-Jerry pairs with which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate of Tom-Jerry pairs can be substantially larger than the blackbody radiation-induced photoionization rate. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Efimov, D. K.; Miculis, K.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ekers, A.
2016-06-01
We consider Penning ionization of Rydberg atom pairs as an Auger-type process induced by the dipole–dipole interaction and employ semiclassical formulae for dipole transitions to calculate the autoionization width as a function of the principal quantum numbers, n d , n i , of both atoms. While for symmetric atom pairs with {n}d={n}i={n}0 the well-known increase of the autoionization width with increasing n 0 is obtained, the result for asymmetric pairs is counterintuitive—for a fixed n i of the ionizing atom of the pair, the autoionization width strongly increases with decreasing n d of the de-excited atom. For H Rydberg atoms this increase reaches two orders of magnitude at the maximum of the n d dependence, and the same type of counterintuitive behavior is exhibited also by Na, Rb and Cs atoms. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect, which points towards existence of optimal (we call them ‘Tom’ and ‘Jerry’ for ‘big’ and ‘small’) pairs of Rydberg atoms with respect to autoionization efficiency. Building on the model of population redistribution in cold Rydberg gases proposed in [1], we demonstrate that population evolution following the initial laser excitation of Rydberg atoms in state n 0 would eventually lead to the formation of such Tom–Jerry pairs with {n}i\\gt {n}0\\gt {n}d which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate of Tom–Jerry pairs can be substantially larger than the blackbody radiation-induced photoionization rate.
Effective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons
Gullans, M J; Thompson, J D; Liang, Q -Y; Vuletic, V; Lukin, M D; Gorshkov, A V
2016-01-01
We study non-perturbative effects in N-body scattering of Rydberg polaritons using effective field theory (EFT). We develop an EFT in one dimension and show how a suitably long medium can be used to prepare shallow N-body bound states. We then derive the effective N-body interaction potential for Rydberg polaritons and the associated N-body contact force that arises in the EFT. We use the contact force to find the leading order corrections to the binding energy of the N-body bound states and determine the photon number at which the EFT description breaks down. We find good agreement throughout between the predictions of EFT and numerical simulations of the exact two and three photon wavefunction transmission.
Dipole-Dipole coupled double Rydberg molecules
Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui; Gallagher, Tom F
2012-01-01
We show that the dipole-dipole interaction between two Rydberg atoms can give rise to long range molecules. The binding potential arises from two states that converge to different separated atom asymptotes. These states interact weakly at large distances, but start to repel each other strongly as the van der Waals interaction turns into a resonant dipole-dipole interaction with decreasing separation between the atoms. This mechanism leads to the formation of an attractive well for one of the potentials. If the two separated atom asymptotes come from the small Stark splitting of an atomic Rydberg level, which lifts the Zeeman degeneracy, the depth of the well and the location of its minimum are controlled by the external electric field. We discuss two different geometries that result in a localized and a donut shaped potential, respectively.
Spin Transport in Ultracold Rydberg Atoms
Hollingsworth, Jacob; Mukherjee, Rick; Killian, Thomas; Hazzard, Kaden
2016-05-01
We devise a scheme to use ultracold Rydberg atoms to study models of transport where Rydberg excitations play the role of tunneling particles. In contrast to previous schemes, where ``tunnelings'' between atoms separated by a distance r often scale as 1 /r3 , ours scale as 1 /r6 , for which the physics is more similar to short-ranged hopping models. We theoretically demonstrate that current experiments exist in a regime that allows significant transport well within the experimental lifetime - several microns in a microsecond, and derive the experimental parameters for strontium atoms that are necessary to access this regime. We also show how disorder may be introduced and controlled precisely via the depth of an applied optical lattice. We explore the dynamics, looking for signatures of ballistic, diffusive, and localized behavior as a function of the types and strength of disorder applied.
Many-body Physics of Rydberg Polaritons
Edelman, Alexander; Littlewood, Peter
2014-03-01
Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in cold dense atomic gasses with Rydberg states in has attracted considerable interest as a means of realizing strong nonlinear photon-photon interactions. The coherent light-matter coupling provided by the EIT medium combined with interactions between Rydberg states whose strength and shape can be engineered provide a parameter space with rich phenomenology including photon bound states and spatially ordered structures. Past theoretical treatments of these systems have relied on equations of motion to predict dynamics in particular limits. Here we present progress towards a full many-body path integral description that considers interaction effects beyond the Dicke model as well as the intrinsically non-equilibrium nature of the system, and explore a tentative phase diagram.
Rydberg ensemble based CNOTN gates using STIRAP
Gujarati, Tanvi; Duan, Luming
2016-05-01
Schemes for implementation of CNOT gates in atomic ensembles are important for realization of quantum computing. We present here a theoretical scheme of a CNOTN gate with an ensemble of three-level atoms in the lambda configuration and a single two-level control atom. We work in the regime of Rydberg blockade for the ensemble atoms due to excitation of the Rydberg control atom. It is shown that using STIRAP, atoms from one ground state of the ensemble can be adiabatically transferred to the other ground state, depending on the state of the control atom. A thorough analysis of adiabatic conditions for this scheme and the influence of the radiative decay is provided. We show that the CNOTN process is immune to the decay rate of the excited level in ensemble atoms. This work is supported by the ARL, the IARPA LogiQ program, and the AFOSR MURI program.
Thermal ionization of Cs Rydberg states
Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.
2009-01-01
Rates Pnl of photoionization from Rydberg ns-, np-, nd-states of a valence electron in Cs, induced by black-body radiation, were calculated on the basis of the modified Fues model potential method. The numerical data were approximated with a three-term expression which reproduces in a simple analytical form the dependence of Pnl on the ambient temperature T and on the principal quantum number n. The comparison between approximate and exactly calculated values of the thermal ionization rate demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approximation for highly excited states with n from 20 to 100 in a wide temperature range of T from 100 to 10,000 K. We present coefficients of this approximation for the s-, p- and d-series of Rydberg states.
Formation of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states in Rydberg atom collisions with attaching targets
Wang, Changhao; Kelley, Michael; Buathong, Sitti; Dunning, F. Barry
2014-05-01
Electron transfer in collisions between K(np)Rydberg atoms and electron attaching molecules can lead to formation of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states comprising a weakly-bound positive-negative ion pair orbiting at large internuclear separations. In the present work ion-pair states are created in a small collision cell and allowed to exit into an analysis region where their binding energy and velocity distributions are determined with the aid of electric-field-induced dissociation and a position sensitive detector. Ion pair production is analyzed using a Monte Carlo collision code that models both the initial Rydberg electron capture and the subsequent behavior of the product ion pair. The data demonstrate that collisions with SF6 and CCl4 lead to formation of long-lived ion pair states with a broad distribution of binding energies whose velocity distribution is strongly peaked in the forward direction. Research supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chibisov, M.I. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov strasse 1, Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Moscow 123182 (Russia); Mitchell, J.B.; Van der Donk, P.J. [Department of Physics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A3K7 (CANADA); Yousif, F.B. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Cuernavaca, (Mexico) 62191; Morgan, T.J. [Physics Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459-0155 (United States)
1997-07-01
The dissociative recombination (DR) of vibrationally excited H{sub 2}{sup +} ions to form products in high Rydberg states has been investigated experimentally and theoretically for small (0.01{minus}0.1 eV) center-of-mass energies of the projectile electron. The merged beam method was used in the experiment and very large cross sections were found for DR from highly vibrationally excited states. The Rydberg states population was analyzed by the application of an electric field ionizer with an axial electric field in excess of 70 kV/cm, which is sufficient to ionize Rydberg states with n{ge}10. Experiments with and without the ionizer were performed and cross sections {sigma}(0{lt}n{le}21), {sigma}(n{lt}10), and {sigma}(10{le}n{le}21) were measured. The dipole approximation was used for the interpretation of the experimental results. Molecular rovibrational transitions were considered quantum mechanically. At low collision energy (0.01 eV), DR cross sections with high n=10{minus}21 Rydberg products arise from initial vibrational states v{ge}15. Absolute values of these cross sections are found to be of the order of magnitude of 10{sup {minus}12}{minus}10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2}. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results has shown that the modified back autoionization (involving transitions to the continuum and to very high n; that is the {open_quotes}indirect{close_quotes} mechanism of DR) plays a significant role for all cross sections. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade
Fleischhauer, Michael; Pohl, Thomas; Gorshkov, Alexey Vyacheslavovich; Otterbach, Johannes; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2011-01-01
We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-phot...
Nonlinear quantum optics mediated by Rydberg interactions
Firstenberg, O.; Adams, C. S.; Hofferberth, S.
2016-08-01
By mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg excitations in ultra-cold atomic ensembles onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency, it is now possible to realize a medium which exhibits a strong optical nonlinearity at the level of individual photons. We review the theoretical concepts and the experimental state-of-the-art of this exciting new field, and discuss first applications in the field of all-optical quantum information processing.
Dipole-Dipole coupled double Rydberg molecules
Kiffner, Martin; Park, Hyunwook; Li, Wenhui; Gallagher, Tom F.
2012-01-01
We show that the dipole-dipole interaction between two Rydberg atoms can give rise to long range molecules. The binding potential arises from two states that converge to different separated atom asymptotes. These states interact weakly at large distances, but start to repel each other strongly as the van der Waals interaction turns into a resonant dipole-dipole interaction with decreasing separation between the atoms. This mechanism leads to the formation of an attractive well for one of the ...
Driven Rydberg atoms reveal quartic level repulsion
Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2001-01-01
The dynamics of Rydberg states of a hydrogen atom subject simultaneously to uniform static electric field and two microwave fields with commensurate frequencies is considered in the range of small fields amplitudes. In the certain range of the parameters of the system the classical secular motion of the electronic ellipse reveals chaotic behavior. Quantum mechanically, when the fine structure of the atom is taken into account, the energy level statistics obey predictions appropriate for the s...
Driven Rydberg atoms reveal quartic level repulsion
Sacha, K; Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2001-01-01
The dynamics of Rydberg states of a hydrogen atom subject simultaneously to uniform static electric field and two microwave fields with commensurate frequencies is considered in the range of small fields amplitudes. In the certain range of the parameters of the system the classical secular motion of the electronic ellipse reveals chaotic behavior. Quantum mechanically, when the fine structure of the atom is taken into account, the energy level statistics obey predictions appropriate for the symplectic Gaussian random matrix ensemble.
Effective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons
Gullans, M. J.; Wang, Y.; Thompson, J. D.; Liang, Q.-Y.; Vuletic, V.; Lukin, M. D.; Gorshkov, A. V.
2016-05-01
Photons can be made to strongly interact by dressing them with atomic Rydberg states under conditions of electromagnetic induced transparency. Probing Rydberg polaritons in the few-body limit, recent experiments were able to observe non-perturbative two-body effects including: single photon switching and the formation of bound states. Although the two-body problem is amenable to exact solutions, such approaches quickly become intractable for more than two particles. To overcome this problem, we study non-perturbative effects in N-body scattering of Rydberg polaritons using effective field theory (EFT). For attractive interactions, we show how a suitably long medium can be used to prepare shallow N-body bound states in one dimension. We verify this prediction for two and three photons using full numerical simulations. We then consider conditions under which the effective interactions are repulsive and study two and three photon transmission. Finally, we show how to go beyond EFT by measuring the three-body contact force or, alternatively, scattering at high relative momenta.
He, Hua; Tyson, Chauntae; Saito, Maia; Bobev, Svilen
2013-01-01
The new Zintl compounds Ba(3)Al(3)P(5), Ba(3)Al(3)As(5,) and Ba(3)Ga(3)P(5) have been synthesized using molten metal fluxes. They are isoelectronic and isotypic, crystallizing with a novel rhombohedral structure type in the space group R3c with unit cell constants a = 14.5886(9) Å, c = 28.990(3) Å for Ba(3)Al(3)P(5), a = 14.613(3) Å, c = 28.884(8) Å for Ba(3)Ga(3)P(5), and a = 14.9727(13) Å, c = 29.689(4) Å for Ba(3)Al(3)As(5), respectively. The structures are based on TrPn(4) (Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As) tetrahedra that share both edges and corners, leading to intricate arrangements embodied in the [Tr(4)Pn(9)](15-) and [Tr(3)Pn(6)](9-) strands, interconnected by dimeric [Tr(2)Pn(6)](12-) units. The Ba(2+) cations reside within cylindrical channels within the polyanionic framework and provide the valence electrons needed for Tr-Pn covalent bonding. In spite of the large and complex structure, there are no homoatomic Tr-Tr or Pn-Pn interactions, hence, the structures can be readily rationalized in the context of the Zintl-Klemm formalism as follows [Ba(2+)](3)[Tr(3+)](3)[Pn(3-)](5); calculations on their electronic band-structures confirm this reasoning and reveal about 1.4-1.9 eV energy band gaps, that is, semiconducting behavior. Structural parallels with other known Zintl compounds are also presented.
Experimental investigations of the dipolar interactions between single Rydberg atoms
Browaeys, Antoine; Lahaye, Thierry
2016-01-01
This review summarizes experimental works performed over the last decade by several groups on the manipulation of a few individual interacting Rydberg atoms. These studies establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a promising platform for quantum state engineering, with potential applications to quantum metrology, quantum simulation and quantum information.
Correlated Photon Emission from Multiatom Rydberg Dark States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pritchard, J.D.; Adams, C.S.; Mølmer, Klaus
2012-01-01
We consider three-level atoms driven by two resonant light fields in a ladder scheme where the upper level is a highly excited Rydberg state. We show that the dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg excited atoms prevents the formation of single particle dark states and leads to strongly...
A Rydberg impurity in a dense background gas (Conference Presentation)
Liebisch, Tara; Schlagmüller, Michael; Engel, Felix; Westphal, Karl; Kleinbach, Kathrin; Böttcher, Fabian; Loew, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Perez-Rios, Jesus; Greene, Chris
2016-04-01
A single Rydberg atom impurity excited in a BEC is a system that can be utilized to measure the quantum mechanical properties of electron - neutral scattering andthe electron probability density of a Rydberg atom. The Rydberg electron - neutral atom scattering process, is a fundamental scattering process, which can be described via Fermi's pseudopotential as V{ěc{r},ěc{R} )=2pi {a}[k(R)]&delta^{(3)}(ěc{r}-ěc{R}). The scattering length is dependent on the momentum of the Rydberg electron, and therefore is dependent on the separation of the Rydberg electron from the ion core. At the classical outermost turning point of the electron, it has the slowest momentum leading to s-wave dominated scattering potentials 10's of MHz in depth for nJournal of Physics 17, 053046 (2015)).
Rydberg atoms in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres
Epple, G; Euser, T G; Joly, N Y; Pfau, T; Russell, P St J; Löw, R
2014-01-01
The exceptionally large polarisability of highly excited Rydberg atoms (six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms) makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. If however they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturised devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n = 40. Besides small energy level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel ...
Rydberg atom interactions from 300 K to 300 K
Pillet, P.; Gallagher, T. F.
2016-09-01
Cold Rydberg atoms provide novel approaches to many-body problems and quantum simulation. To introduce the recent work presented in this special issue, we present here a quick history of a half-century research activity in the Rydberg-atom field, focusing our attention on the giant interactions between Rydberg atoms and other atoms. These interactions are the origin of many effects observed with Rydberg atoms: pressure shifts, dipole–dipole energy transfer, and avalanche-ionization. These effects have led to evidence of new bound chemical states, such as trilobites states, many-body effects in frozen Rydberg gases, and the spontaneous formation of ultra-cold plasmas. They open exciting new prospects at the intersection of atomic physics, condensed matter physics, and plasma physics.
Rydberg Electrons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Wang, Jia; Gacesa, Marko; Côté, R
2015-06-19
We investigate a hybrid system composed of ultracold Rydberg atoms immersed in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The coupling between Rydberg electrons and BEC atoms leads to excitations of phonons, the exchange of which induces a Yukawa interaction between Rydberg atoms. Because of the small electron mass, the effective charge associated with this quasiparticle-mediated interaction can be large. Its range, equal to the BEC healing length, is tunable using Feshbach resonances to adjust the scattering length between BEC atoms. We find that for small healing lengths, the distortion of the BEC can "image" the Rydberg electron wave function, while for large healing lengths the induced attractive Yukawa potentials between Rydberg atoms are strong enough to bind them. PMID:26196974
Pulsed Rydberg four-wave mixing with motion-induced dephasing in a thermal vapor
Chen, Yi-Hsin; Löw, Robert; Pfau, Tilman
2015-01-01
We report on time-resolved pulsed four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in a thermal Rubidium vapor involving a Rydberg state. We observe FWM signals with dephasing times up to 7 ns, strongly dependent on the excitation bandwidth to the Rydberg state. The excitation to the Rydberg state is driven by a pulsed two-photon transition on ns time scales. Combined with a third cw de-excitation laser, a strongly directional and collective emission is generated according to a combination of the phase matching effect and averaging over Doppler classes. In contrast to a previous report [1] using off-resonant FWM, at a resonant FWM scheme we observe additional revivals of the signal shortly after the incident pulse has ended. We infer that this is a revival of motion-induced constructive interference between the coherent emissions of the thermal atoms. The resonant FWM scheme reveals a richer temporal structure of the signals, compared to similar, but off-resonant excitation schemes. A simple explanation lies in the selectivity...
Coherent Excitation of Lithium to Rydberg States and Application to Rydberg Atom Optics
Stevens, G.; Widmer, M.; Tudorica, F.; Iu, C.-H.; Metcalf, H.
1996-05-01
We present a theoretical analysis of several schemes for coherently exciting lithium atoms in a thermal beam to Rydberg states in a four level/three laser system, previously discussed by Oreg et al.(J. Oreg et al.), Phys. Rev. A 45, 4888 (1992). The time evolution of the dressed states and their populations are calculated numerically, solving the optical Bloch equations by a fourth order Runge-Kutta integration. Our code closely models actual experimental conditions, including spontaneous decay, beam profiles, intensities and detunings. Large Rydberg populations (50%) around n=15 may be obtained by non-adiabatic excitation, with each laser power on the order of 1 mW. We discuss the effects of an externally controlled time dependent detuning in the Rydberg state, for example as produced by atoms traversing an inhomogeneous electric field. An understanding of this excitation mechanism is important for large angle reflection of coherently excited atoms using field gradients. Some primitive ideas of Stark-Rydberg atom optics are presented.
Role of ion-pair states in the predissociation dynamics of Rydberg states of molecular iodine.
von Vangerow, J; Bogomolov, A S; Dozmorov, N V; Schomas, D; Stienkemeier, F; Baklanov, A V; Mudrich, M
2016-07-28
Using femtosecond pump-probe ion imaging spectroscopy, we establish the key role of I(+) + I(-) ion-pair (IP) states in the predissociation dynamics of molecular iodine I2 excited to Rydberg states. Two-photon excitation of Rydberg states lying above the lowest IP state dissociation threshold (1st tier) is found to be followed by direct parallel transitions into IP states of the 1st tier asymptotically correlating to a pair of I ions in their lowest states I(+)((3)P2) + I(-)((1)S0), of the 2nd tier correlating to I(+)((3)P0) + I(-)((1)S0), and of the 3rd tier correlating to I(+)((1)D2) + I(-)((1)S0). Predissociation via the 1st tier proceeds presumably with a delay of 1.6-1.7 ps which is close to the vibrational period in the 3rd tier state (3rd tier-mediated process). The 2nd tier IP state is concluded to be the main precursor for predissociation via lower lying Rydberg states proceeding with a characteristic time of 7-8 ps and giving rise to Rydberg atoms I(5s(2)5p(4)6s(1)). The channel generating I((2)P3/2) + I((2)P1/2) atoms with total kinetic energy corresponding to one-photon excitation is found to proceed via a pump - dump mechanism with dramatic change of angular anisotropy of this channel as compared with earlier nanosecond experiments. PMID:27353150
Atomic Fock State Preparation Using Rydberg Blockade
Ebert, Matthew; Gibbons, Michael; Zhang, Xianli; Saffman, Mark; Walker, Thad G
2013-01-01
We use coherent excitation of 3-16 atom ensembles to demonstrate collective Rabi flopping mediated by Rydberg blockade. Using calibrated atom number measurements, we quantitatively confirm the expected $\\sqrt{N}$ Rabi frequency enhancement to within 4%. The resulting atom number distributions are consistent with essentially perfect blockade. We then use collective Rabi $\\pi$ pulses to produce ${\\cal N}=1,2$ atom number Fock states with fidelities of 62% and 48% respectively. The ${\\cal N}=2$ Fock state shows the collective Rabi frequency enhancement without corruption from atom number fluctuations.
Anomalous excitation facilitation in inhomogeneously broadened Rydberg gases
Letscher, Fabian; Niederprüm, Thomas; Ott, Herwig; Fleischhauer, Michael
2016-01-01
When atomic gases are laser driven to Rydberg states in an off resonant way, a single Rydberg atom may enhance the excitation rate of surrounding atoms. This leads to a facilitated excitation referred to as Rydberg anti-blockade. In the usual facilitation scenario, the detuning of the laser from resonance compensates the interaction shift. Here, we discuss a different excitation mechanism, which we call anomalous facilitation. This occurs on the "wrong side" of the resonance and originates from inhomogeneous broadening. The anomalous facilitation may be seen in experiments of attractively interacting atoms on the blue detuned side, where facilitation is not expected to appear.
Filtering single atoms from Rydberg blockaded mesoscopic ensembles
Petrosyan, David; Mølmer, Klaus
2015-01-01
We propose an efficient method to filter out single atoms from trapped ensembles with unknown number of atoms. The method employs stimulated adiabatic passage to reversibly transfer a single atom to the Rydberg state which blocks subsequent Rydberg excitation of all the other atoms within the ensemble. This triggers the excitation of Rydberg blockaded atoms to short lived intermediate states and their subsequent decay to untrapped states. Using an auxiliary microwave field to carefully engineer the dissipation, we obtain a nearly deterministic single-atom source. Our method is applicable to small atomic ensembles in individual microtraps and in lattice arrays.
Deterministic entanglement of Rydberg ensembles by engineered dissipation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus
2014-01-01
We propose a scheme that employs dissipation to deterministically generate entanglement in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms. With a combination of microwave driving between different Rydberg levels and a resonant laser coupling to a short lived atomic state, the ensemble can...... be driven towards a dark steady state that entangles all atoms. The long-range resonant dipole-dipole interaction between different Rydberg states extends the entanglement beyond the van der Walls interaction range with perspectives for entangling large and distant ensembles....
Quasi-Magic optical traps for Rydberg atoms
Zhang, S; Saffman, M
2011-01-01
We propose blue-detuned optical traps that are suitable for trapping of both ground state and Rydberg excited atoms. Addition of a background compensation field or suitable choice of the trap geometry provides a magic trapping condition for ground and Rydberg atoms at the trap center. Deviations from the magic condition at finite temperature are calculated. Designs that achieve less than 200 kHz differential trap shift between Cs ground and 125s Rydberg states for 10 {\\mu}K Cs atoms are presented. Consideration of the trapping potential and photoionization rates
Van der Waals explosion of cold Rydberg clusters
Faoro, R.; Simonelli, C; Archimi, M.; Masella, G.; Valado, M. M.; Arimondo, E; Mannella, R.; Ciampini, D.; Morsch, O.
2015-01-01
We report on the direct measurement in real space of the effect of the van der Waals forces between individual Rydberg atoms on their external degrees of freedom. Clusters of Rydberg atoms with inter-particle distances of around 5 {\\mu}m are created by first generating a small number of seed excitations in a magneto-optical trap, followed by off-resonant excitation that leads to a chain of facilitated excitation events. After a variable expansion time the Rydberg atoms are field ionized, and ...
Electron Rydberg wave packets in one-dimensional atoms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Supriya Chatterjee; Amitava Choudhuri; Aparna Saha; B Talukdar
2010-09-01
An expression for the transition probability or form factor in one-dimensional Rydberg atom irradiated by short half-cycle pulse was constructed. In applicative contexts, our expression was found to be more useful than the corresponding result given by Landau and Lifshitz. Using the new expression for the form factor, the motion of a localized quantum wave packet was studied with particular emphasis on its revival and super-revival properties. Closed form analytical expressions were derived for expectation values of the position and momentum operators that characterized the widths of the position and momentum distributions. Transient phase-space localization of the wave packet produced by the application of a single impulsive kick was explicitly demonstrated. The undulation of the uncertainty product as a function of time was studied in order to visualize how the motion of the wave packet in its classical trajectory spreads throughout the orbit and the system becomes nonclassical. The process, however, repeats itself such that the atom undergoes a free evolution from a classical, to a nonclassical, and back to a classical state.
Atom-surface studies with Rb Rydberg atoms
Chao, Yuanxi; Sheng, Jiteng; Sedlacek, Jonathon; Shaffer, James
2015-05-01
We report on experimental and theoretical progress studying atom-surface interactions using rubidium Rydberg atoms. Rydberg atoms can be strongly coupled to surface phonon polariton (SPhP) modes of a dielectric material. The coherent interaction between Rydberg atoms and SPhPs has potential applications for quantum hybrid devices. Calculations of TM-mode SPhPs on engineered surfaces of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and lithium tantalate (PPLT) for different periodic domains and surface orientations, as well as natural materials such as quartz, are presented. Our SPhP calculations account for the semi-infinite anisotropic nature of the materials. In addition to theoretical calculations, we show experimental results of measurements of adsorbate fields and coupling of Rydberg atoms to SPhPs on quartz.
Role of Rydberg States In High-order Harmonic Generation
Beaulieu, Samuel; Comby, Antoine; Wanie, Vincent; Petit, Stéphane; Légaré, François; Catoire, Fabrice; Mairesse, Yann
2016-01-01
The role of Rydberg states in strong field physics has known a renewed interest in the past few years with the study of resonant high-order harmonic generation. In addition to its fundamental in- terest, this process could create bright sources of coherent vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation with controlled polarization state. We investigate the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the radiation produced near the ionization threshold of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. The intensity-dependence of the emission shows that two different pathways interfere to populate the Rydberg states. Furthermore, we show that the population of Rydberg states can lead to different emission mecanisms: either direct emission through XUV Free Induction Decay, or sequentially with absorption of additional photons, in processes similar to resonance-enhanced multiphoton above- threshold ionization. Last, using the attosecond lighthouse technique we show that the resonant emission from Rydberg states is not temporal...
Rydberg-interaction-based quantum gates free from blockade error
Shi, Xiao-Feng
2016-01-01
Accurate quantum gates are basic elements for building quantum computers. There has been great interest in designing quantum gates by using blockade effect of Rydberg atoms recently. The fidelity and operation speed of these gates, however, are fundamentally limited by the blockade error. Here we propose another type of quantum gates, which are based on Rydberg blockade effect, yet free from any blockade error. In contrast to the `blocking' method in previous schemes, we use Rydberg energy shift to realise a rational generalised Rabi frequency so that a novel $\\pi$ phase for one input state of the gate emerges. This leads to an accurate Rydberg-blockade based two-qubit quantum gate that can operate in a $0.1\\mu s$ timescale or faster thanks to that it operates by a Rabi frequency which is comparable to the blockade shift.
Rydberg molecule-induced remote spin-flips
Niederprüm, Thomas; Eichert, Tanita; Ott, Herwig
2016-01-01
We have performed high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg molecules in the vicinity of the 25P state. Due to the hyperfine interaction in the ground state perturber atom, the emerging mixed singlet-triplet potentials contain contributions from both hyperfine states. We show that this can be used to induce remote spin-flips in the perturber atom upon excitation of a Rydberg molecule. When furthermore the spin-orbit splitting of the Rydberg state is comparable to the hyperfine splitting in the ground state, the orbital angular momentum of the Rydberg electron is entangled with the nuclear spin of the perturber atom. Our results open new possibilities for the implementation of spin-dependent short and long-range interactions for ultracold atoms in bulk systems and in optical lattices.
van der Waals explosion of cold Rydberg clusters
Faoro, R.; Simonelli, C.; Archimi, M.; Masella, G.; Valado, M. M.; Arimondo, E.; Mannella, R.; Ciampini, D.; Morsch, O.
2016-03-01
We report on the direct measurement in real space of the effect of the van der Waals forces between individual Rydberg atoms on their external degrees of freedom. Clusters of Rydberg atoms with interparticle distances of around 5 μ m are created by first generating a small number of seed excitations in a magneto-optical trap, followed by off-resonant excitation that leads to a chain of facilitated excitation events. After a variable expansion time the Rydberg atoms are field ionized, and from the arrival time distributions the size of the Rydberg cluster after expansion is calculated. Our experimental results agree well with a numerical simulation of the van der Waals explosion.
Van der Waals explosion of cold Rydberg clusters
Faoro, R; Archimi, M; Masella, G; Valado, M M; Arimondo, E; Mannella, R; Ciampini, D; Morsch, O
2015-01-01
We report on the direct measurement in real space of the effect of the van der Waals forces between individual Rydberg atoms on their external degrees of freedom. Clusters of Rydberg atoms with inter-particle distances of around 5 {\\mu}m are created by first generating a small number of seed excitations in a magneto-optical trap, followed by off-resonant excitation that leads to a chain of facilitated excitation events. After a variable expansion time the Rydberg atoms are field ionized, and from the arrival time distributions the size of the Rydberg cluster after expansion is calculated. Our experimental results agree well with a numerical simulation of the van der Waals explosion.
Dipole blockade in a cold Rydberg atomic sample
Comparat, Daniel; 10.1364/JOSAB.27.00A208
2010-01-01
We review here the studies performed about interactions in an assembly of cold Rydberg atoms. We focus more specially the review on the dipole-dipole interactions and on the effect of the dipole blockade in the laser Rydberg excitation, which offers attractive possibilities for quantum engineering. We present first the various interactions between Rydberg atoms. The laser Rydberg excitation of such an assembly is then described with the introduction of the dipole blockade phenomenon. We report recent experiments performed in this subject by starting with the case of a pair of atoms allowing the entanglement of the wave-functions of the atoms and opening a fascinating way for the realization of quantum bits and quantum gates. We consider then several works on the blockade effect in a large assembly of atoms for three different configurations: blockade through electric-field induced dipole, through F\\"orster resonance and in van der Waals interaction. The properties of coherence and cooperativity are analyzed. ...
Borromean three-body FRET in frozen Rydberg gases
Faoro, R.; Pelle, B.; Zuliani, A.; Cheinet, P.; Arimondo, E.; Pillet, P.
2015-09-01
Controlling the interactions between ultracold atoms is crucial for quantum simulation and computation purposes. Highly excited Rydberg atoms are considered in this prospect for their strong and controllable interactions known in the dipole-dipole case to induce non-radiative energy transfers between atom pairs, similarly to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in biological systems. Here we predict few-body FRET processes in Rydberg atoms and observe the first three-body resonance energy transfer in cold Rydberg atoms using cold caesium atoms. In these resonances, additional relay atoms carry away an energy excess preventing the two-body resonance, leading thus to a Borromean type of energy transfer. These few-body processes present strong similarities with multistep FRET between chromophores sometimes called donor-bridge-acceptor or superexchange. Most importantly, they generalize to any Rydberg atom and could lead to new implementations of few-body quantum gates or entanglement.
Newton's cradle and entanglement transport in a flexible Rydberg chain
Wüster, S; Eisfeld, A; Rost, J -M
2010-01-01
In a regular, flexible chain of Rydberg atoms, a single electronic excitation localizes on two atoms that are in closer mutual proximity than all others. We show how the interplay between excitonic and atomic motion causes electronic excitation and diatomic proximity to propagate through the Rydberg chain as a combined pulse. In this manner entanglement is transferred adiabatically along the chain, reminiscent of momentum transfer in Newton's cradle.
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in strongly interacting Rydberg Gases
Ates, C.; Sevinçli, S.; Pohl, T.
2011-01-01
We develop an efficient Monte-Carlo approach to describe the optical response of cold three-level atoms in the presence of EIT and strong atomic interactions. In particular, we consider a "Rydberg-EIT medium" where one involved level is subject to large shifts due to strong van der Waals interactions with surrounding Rydberg atoms. We find excellent agreement with much more involved quantum calculations and demonstrate its applicability over a wide range of densities and interaction strengths...
Borromean three-body FRET in frozen Rydberg gases
Faoro, R.; Pelle, B.; A. Zuliani; Cheinet, P.; Arimondo, E.; Pillet, P.
2015-01-01
Controlling the interactions between ultracold atoms is crucial for quantum simulation and computation purposes. Highly excited Rydberg atoms are considered in this prospect for their strong and controllable interactions known in the dipole-dipole case to induce non-radiative energy transfers between atom pairs, similarly to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in biological systems. Here we predict few-body FRET processes in Rydberg atoms and observe the first three-body resonance e...
Recent advances in Rydberg physics using alkaline-earth atoms
Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.
2016-06-01
In this brief review, the opportunities that the alkaline-earth elements offer for studying new aspects of Rydberg physics are discussed. For example, the bosonic alkaline-earth isotopes have zero nuclear spin which eliminates many of the complexities present in alkali Rydberg atoms, permitting simpler and more direct comparison between theory and experiment. The presence of two valence electrons allows the production of singlet and triplet Rydberg states that can exhibit a variety of attractive or repulsive interactions. The availability of weak intercombination lines is advantageous for laser cooling and for applications such as Rydberg dressing. Excitation of one electron to a Rydberg state leaves behind an optically active core ion allowing, for high-L states, the optical imaging of Rydberg atoms and their (spatial) manipulation using light scattering. The second valence electron offers the possibility of engineering long-lived doubly excited states such as planetary atoms. Recent advances in both theory and experiment are highlighted together with a number of possible directions for the future.
Rydberg atoms in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres
Epple, G.; Kleinbach, K. S.; Euser, T. G.; Joly, N. Y.; Pfau, T.; Russell, P. St. J.; Löw, R.
2014-06-01
The exceptionally large polarizability of highly excited Rydberg atoms—six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms—makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. However, if they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturized devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n=40. Besides small energy-level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel applications based on integrated room temperature Rydberg systems.
Direct excitation of butterfly states in Rydberg molecules
Lippe, Carsten; Niederpruem, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Eichert, Tanita; Ott, Herwig
2016-05-01
Since their first theoretical prediction Rydberg molecules have become an increasing field of research. These exotic states originate from the binding of a ground state atom in the electronic wave function of a highly-excited Rydberg atom mediated by a Fermi contact type interaction. A special class of long-range molecular states, the butterfly states, were first proposed by Greene et al.. These states arise from a shape resonance in the p-wave scattering channel of a ground state atom and a Rydberg electron and are characterized by an electron wavefunction whose density distribution resembles the shape of a butterfly. We report on the direct observation of deeply bound butterfly states of Rydberg molecules of 87 Rb. The butterfly states are studied by high resolution spectroscopy of UV-excited Rydberg molecules. We find states bound up to - 50 GHz from the 25 P1/2 , F = 1 state, corresponding to binding lengths of 50a0 to 500a0 and with permanent electric dipole moments of up to 500 Debye. This distinguishes the observed butterfly states from the previously observed long range Rydberg molecules in rubidium.
Attosecond pulse characterization with coherent Rydberg wavepackets
Pabst, Stefan
2016-01-01
We propose a new technique to fully characterize the temporal structure of extreme ultraviolet pulses by ionizing a bound coherent electronic wavepacket. The populated energy levels make it possible to interfere different spectral components leading to quantum beats in the photoelectron spectrum as a function of the delay between ionization and initiation of the wavepacket. The influence of the dipole phase, which is the main obstacle for state-of-the-art pulse characterization schemes, can be eliminated by angle integration of the photoelectron spectrum. We show that particularly atomic Rydberg wavepackets are ideal and that wavepackets involving multiple electronic states provide redundant information which can be used to cross-check the consistency of the phase reconstruction.
Atomic Rydberg Reservoirs for Polar Molecules
Zhao, Bo; Pupillo, Guido; Zoller, Peter
2011-01-01
We discuss laser dressed dipolar and Van der Waals interactions between atoms and polar molecules, so that a cold atomic gas with laser admixed Rydberg levels acts as a designed reservoir for both elastic and inelastic collisional processes. The elastic scattering channel is characterized by large elastic scattering cross sections and repulsive shields to protect from close encounter collisions. In addition, we discuss a dissipative (inelastic) collision where a spontaneously emitted photon carries away (kinetic) energy of the collision partners, thus providing a significant energy loss in a single collision. This leads to the scenario of rapid thermalization and cooling of a molecule in the mK down to the \\mu K regime by cold atoms.
Atomic Rydberg Reservoirs for Polar Molecules
Zhao, B.; Glaetzle, A. W.; Pupillo, G.; Zoller, P.
2012-05-01
We discuss laser-dressed dipolar and van der Waals interactions between atoms and polar molecules, so that a cold atomic gas with laser admixed Rydberg levels acts as a designed reservoir for both elastic and inelastic collisional processes. The elastic scattering channel is characterized by large elastic scattering cross sections and repulsive shields to protect from close encounter collisions. In addition, we discuss a dissipative (inelastic) collision where a spontaneously emitted photon carries away (kinetic) energy of the collision partners, thus providing a significant energy loss in a single collision. This leads to the scenario of rapid thermalization and cooling of a molecule in the mK down to the μK regime by cold atoms.
Limão-Vieira, P.; Duflot, D.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Śmiałek, M. A.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.
2016-07-01
We present the experimental high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoabsorption spectra of phenol covering for the first time the full 4.3-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross sections determined. Theoretical calculations on the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths were performed using time-dependent density functional theory and the equation-of-motion coupled cluster method restricted to single and double excitations level. These have been used in the assignment of valence and Rydberg transitions of the phenol molecule. The VUV spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature, with particular reference to the 6.401 eV transition, which is here assigned to the 3sσ/σ∗(OH)←3π(3a″) transition. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of phenol in the earth's atmosphere (0-50 km).
Giant cross section for molecular ion formation in ultracold Rydberg gases
Niederprüm, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Manthey, Torsten; Weber, Tobias M.; Ott, Herwig
2015-01-01
We have studied the associative ionization of a Rydberg atom and a ground state atom in an ultracold Rydberg gas. The measured scattering cross section is three orders of magnitude larger than the geometrical size of the produced molecule. This giant enhancement of the reaction kinetics is due to an efficient directed mass transport which is mediated by the Rydberg electron. We also find that the total inelastic scattering cross section is given by the geometrical size of the Rydberg electron...
Giant cross section for molecular ion formation in ultracold Rydberg gases
Niederprüm, Thomas; Manthey, Torsten; Weber, Tobias M; Ott, Herwig
2015-01-01
We have studied the associative ionization of a Rydberg atom and a ground state atom in an ultracold Rydberg gas. The measured scattering cross section is three orders of magnitude larger than the geometrical size of the produced molecule. This giant enhancement of the reaction kinetics is due to an efficient directed mass transport which is mediated by the Rydberg electron. We also find that the total inelastic scattering cross section is given by the geometrical size of the Rydberg electron's wavefunction.
Rydberg atoms in low-frequency fields : fundamental aspects and applications
Gürtler, Andreas Stefan
2003-01-01
In this thesis we investigate highly excited atoms, so-called Rydberg atoms, in oscillating fields with frequencies from the megahertz to the terahertz domain. The strong interaction of Rydberg atoms with external fields is used to establish a connection between the ionization of Rydberg atoms by ra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies – Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)
2015-11-05
We explored the influence of changing the pnicogens by substituting As by Sb on the optical properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb). Calculation show that there exists subtle difference in the electronic structures when we substitute As by Sb, which lead to significant influence on the optical properties, taking into account the size and the electro-negativity differences between As and Sb atoms. The full potential method within the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential explore that the Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) compounds are narrow band gap semiconductors of about 0.49 and 0.32 eV. The optical properties explore that these material have negative uniaxial anisotropy, negative birefringence and considerable anisotropy between the optical components in the polarization directions [100], [010] and [001] with respect to the crystal axis. Furthermore, the optical properties confirm that Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} possess a band gap which is smaller than that of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}As{sub 3}. The optical properties helps to get deep insight into the electronic structure. - Highlights: • The optical properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) were investigated. • The subtle difference in electronic structures influence the optical properties. • Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) are narrow band gap semiconductors. • The investigated compounds exhibit negative uniaxial anisotropy and birefringence.
Controlling Rydberg atom excitations in dense background gases
Cubel Liebisch, Tara; Schlagmüller, Michael; Engel, Felix; Nguyen, Huan; Balewski, Jonathan; Lochead, Graham; Böttcher, Fabian; Westphal, Karl M.; Kleinbach, Kathrin S.; Schmid, Thomas; Gaj, Anita; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.
2016-09-01
We discuss the density shift and broadening of Rydberg spectra measured in cold, dense atom clouds in the context of Rydberg atom spectroscopy done at room temperature, dating back to the experiments of Amaldi and Segrè in 1934. We discuss the theory first developed in 1934 by Fermi to model the mean-field density shift and subsequent developments of the theoretical understanding since then. In particular, we present a model whereby the density shift is calculated using a microscopic model in which the configurations of the perturber atoms within the Rydberg orbit are considered. We present spectroscopic measurements of a Rydberg atom, taken in a Bose–Einstein condensate and thermal clouds with densities varying from 5 × 1014 to 9 × 1012 cm‑3. The density shift measured via the spectrum’s center of gravity is compared with the mean-field energy shift expected for the effective atom cloud density determined via a time of flight image. Lastly, we present calculations and data demonstrating the ability of localizing the Rydberg excitation via the density shift within a particular density shell for high principal quantum numbers.
Rydberg excitation of a Bose–Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have performed two-photon excitation via the 62P3/2 state to the n = 50–80 S or D Rydberg state in Bose–Einstein condensates of rubidium atoms. The Rydberg excitation was performed in a quartz cell, where electric fields generated by plates external to the cell created electric charges on the cell walls. Avoiding accumulation of the charges and realizing good control over the applied electric field was achieved when the fields were applied for only a short time, typically a few microseconds. Rydberg excitations of the Bose–Einstein condensates loaded into quasi-one-dimensional traps and in optical lattices have been investigated. The results for condensates expanded to different sizes in the one-dimensional trap agree well with the intuitive picture of a chain of Rydberg excitations controlled by the dipole–dipole interaction. The optical lattice applied along the one-dimensional geometry produces localized, collective Rydberg excitations controlled by the nearest-neighbour blockade. (paper)
Lifetimes of ultra-long-range strontium Rydberg molecules
Camargo, F.; Whalen, J. D.; Ding, R.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdorfer, J.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.
2016-05-01
The lifetimes of the lower-lying vibrational states of ultralong-range strontium Rydberg molecules comprising one ground-state 5s2 1S0 atom and one Rydberg atom in the 5s 38s3S1 state are reported. The molecules are created in an ultracold gas held in an optical dipole trap and their numbers determined using field ionization, the product electrons being detected by a microchannel plate. The measurements show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This results because the strong p-wave resonance in low-energy electron-rubidium scattering, which strongly influences the rubidium molecular lifetimes, is not present for strontium. The absence of this resonance offers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing theories of molecular formation and decay. This research was supported by the AFOSR, NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, the FWF (Austria), FWF-SFB049 NextLite. H.R.S. was supported by a Grant to ITAMP from the NSF.
Lifetimes of ultra-long-range strontium Rydberg molecules
Camargo, F; Ding, R; Sadeghpour, H R; Yoshida, S; Burgdörfer, J; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C
2015-01-01
The lifetimes of the lower-lying vibrational states of ultralong-range strontium Rydberg molecules comprising one ground-state 5s2 1S0 atom and one Rydberg atom in the 5s38s 3S1 state are reported. The molecules are created in an ultracold gas held in an optical dipole trap and their numbers determined using ?eld ionization, the product electrons being detected by a microchannel plate. The measurements show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This results because the strong p-wave resonance in low-energy electronrubidium scattering, which plays an important role in determining the molecular lifetimes, is not present for strontium. The absence of this resonance o?ers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing theories of molecular formation and decay.
Ionization photophysics and Rydberg spectroscopy of diacetylene
Schwell, Martin
2012-11-01
Photoionization of diacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the range 8-24 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) and threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) techniques. Mass spectra, ion yields, total and partial ionization cross-sections were measured. The adiabatic ionization energy of diacetylene was determined as IE ad=(10.17±0.01) eV, and the appearance energy of the principal fragment ion C4H+ as AE=(16.15±0.03) eV. Calculated appearance energies of other fragment ions were used to infer aspects of dissociation pathways forming the weaker fragment ions C+ 4, C3H+, C+3 and C 4H+. Structured autoionization features observed in the PEPICO spectrum of diacetylene in the 11-13 eV region were assigned to vibrational components of three new Rydberg series, R1(nsσg, n=4-11), R2(ndσg, n=4-7) and R3(ndδg, n=4-6) converging to the A2Πu state of the cation, and to a new series R01(nsσg, n=3) converging to the B\\' 2Σ+u state of the cation. The autoionization mechanisms and their consistence with specific selection rules are discussed. © 2012 Taylor and Francis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mironchuk, E. S.; Narits, A. A.; Lebedev, V. S., E-mail: vlebedev@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-11-15
The resonant mechanism of interaction of alkaline-earth atoms having a low electron affinity to Rydberg atoms in circular (l = vertical bar m vertical bar = n–1) and near-circular states has been studied. To describe the dynamics of resonant processes accompanied by nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule, an approach based on the integration of coupled equations for the probability amplitudes has been developed taking into account the possibility of the decay of an anion in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core of a highly excited atom. The approach involves the specific features of the problem associated with the structure of the wavefunction of a Rydberg electron in states with high orbital angular momenta l ∼ n–1. This approach provides a much more accurate description of the dynamics of electronic transitions at collisions between atoms than that within the modified semiclassical Landau–Zener model. In addition, this approach makes it possible to effectively take into account many channels of the problem. The cross sections for resonant quenching of Rydberg states of the Li(nlm) atom with given principal n, orbital l = n–1, and magnetic m quantum numbers at thermal collisions with the Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms have been calculated. The dependences of the results on n, m, and angle α between the relative velocity of the atoms and the normal to the plane of the orbit of the Rydberg electron have been obtained. The influence of orientational effects on the efficiency of the collisional destruction of circular and near-circular states has been studied. The results indicate a higher stability of such states to their perturbations by neutral particles as compared to usually studied nl states with low values of l (l ≪ n)
Rydberg atoms inside hollow-core photonic crystal fibres
Löw, Robert; Epple, Georg; Kleinbach, Kathrin; Euser, Tijmen; Joly, Nicolas; Pfau, Tilman; Russell, Philip
2014-05-01
Rydberg atoms have peculiar properties as enhanced sensitivities to AC/DC electric fields or exaggerated strong interactions between them, leading to optical non-linearities on the single photon level. These properties are mostly studied with spectroscopic methods often limited by the free space diffraction limit. This can be avoided by confining Rydberg atoms inside hollow core fibres offering a perfect match of guided light modes with the atomic gas in terms of atom-light coupling. Additionally we choose Kagome type fibres due to their extremely thin structures, promising a reduced atom wall coupling. With coherent three photon spectroscopy we can show that Rydberg atoms can be excited within these fibres up to states of n = 46 without severe perturbations by the fibre environment.
Radio-frequency-modulated Rydberg states in a vapor cell
Miller, Stephanie A; Raithel, Georg
2016-01-01
We measure strong radio-frequency (RF) electric fields using rubidium Rydberg atoms prepared in a room-temperature vapor cell as field sensors. Electromagnetically induced transparency is employed as an optical readout. We RF-modulate the 60$S_{1/2}$ and 58$D_{5/2}$ Rydberg states with 50~MHz and 100~MHz fields, respectively. For weak to moderate RF fields, the Rydberg levels become Stark-shifted, and sidebands appear at even multiples of the driving frequency. In high fields, the adjacent hydrogenic manifold begins to intersect the shifted levels, providing rich spectroscopic structure suitable for precision field measurements. A quantitative description of strong-field level modulation and mixing of $S$ and $D$ states with hydrogenic states is provided by Floquet theory. Additionally, we estimate the shielding of DC electric fields in the interior of the glass vapor cell.
Crystallization in Ising quantum magnets and Rydberg superatoms
Schauss, Peter
2016-05-01
Dominating finite-range interactions in many-body systems can lead to intriguing self-ordered phases of matter. For quantum magnets, Ising models with power-law interactions are among the most elementary systems that support such phases. These models can be implemented by laser coupling ensembles of ultracold atoms to Rydberg states. In this talk, I will report on the experimental preparation of crystalline ground states of such spin systems. We observe a magnetization staircase as a function of the system size and show directly the emergence of crystalline states with vanishing susceptibility. Recent results connect these findings with the picture of Rydberg superatoms. We investigated their scalability and observed collective Rabi oscillations with the perspective of using Rydberg superatoms as collective qubits. Experiments performed at Max-Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching, Germany.
Imaging the evolution of an ultracold strontium Rydberg gas
McQuillen, P; Strickler, T; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C
2012-01-01
Clouds of ultracold strontium 5s48s 1S0 or 5s47d 1D2 Rydberg atoms are created by two photon excitation of laser cooled 5s2 1S0 atoms. The spontaneous evolution of the cloud of low orbital angular momentum (low-l) Rydberg states towards an ultracold neutral plasma is observed by imaging resonant light scattered from core ions, a technique that provides both spatial and temporal resolution. Evolution is observed to be faster for the S-states, which display isotropic attractive interactions, than for the D-states, which exhibit anisotropic, principally repulsive interactions. Immersion of the atoms in a dilute ultracold neutral plasma speeds up the evolution and allows the number of Rydberg atoms initially created to be determined.
Charge-induced optical bistability in thermal Rydberg vapor
Weller, Daniel; Rico, Andy; Löw, Robert; Kübler, Harald
2016-01-01
We investigate the phenomenon of optical bistability in a driven ensemble of Rydberg atoms. By performing two experiments with thermal vapors of rubidium and cesium, we are able to shed light onto the underlying interaction mechanisms causing such a non-linear behavior. Due to the different properties of these two atomic species, we conclude that the large polarizability of Rydberg states in combination with electric fields of spontaneously ionized Rydberg atoms is the relevant interaction mechanism. In the case of rubidium, we directly measure the electric field in a bistable situation via two-species spectroscopy. In cesium, we make use of the different sign of the polarizability for different l-states and the possibility of applying electric fields. Both these experiments allow us to rule out dipole-dipole interactions, and support our hypothesis of a charge-induced bistability.
Interaction-Enhanced Imaging of Rydberg P states
Gavryusev, Vladislav; Kekić, Armin; Zürn, Gerhard; Signoles, Adrien
2016-01-01
The Interaction Enhanced Imaging technique allows to detect the spatial distribution of strongly interacting impurities embedded within a gas of background atoms used as a contrast medium. Here we present a detailed study of this technique, applied to detect Rydberg $P$ states. We experimentally realize fast and efficient three-photon excitation of $P$ states, optimized according to the results of a theoretical effective two-level model. Few Rydberg $P$-state atoms, prepared in a small cloud with dimensions comparable to the blockade radius, are detected with a good sensitivity by averaging over 50 shots. The main aspects of the technique are described with a hard-sphere model, finding good agreement with experimental data. This work paves the way to a non-destructive optical detection of single Rydberg atoms with high spatial and temporal resolution.
Towards Rydberg quantum optics in a hollow core fiber
Noaman, Mohammad; Langbecker, Maria; Windpassinger, Patrick
2016-05-01
Cold atoms inside hollow-core fibers present a promising candidate to study strongly coupled light-matter systems. Adding coherent quantum state control and the intriguing features of Rydberg atoms, i.e. long range dipolar interactions leading to a dipole blockade, to the system should allow for the generation of exotic polaritonic and photonic states. This talk will review the current status of our experimental setup where laser cooled Rubidium atoms are transported into a hollow-core fiber. We present the first measurements of Rydberg EIT in the dipole trap in front of the fiber and discuss the progress towards Rydberg physics in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry. This work is supported by FP7, Marie Curie ITN 317485, QTea.
Implementation of chiral quantum optics with Rydberg and trapped-ion setups
Vermersch, Benoît; Ramos, Tomás; Hauke, Philipp; Zoller, Peter
2016-06-01
We propose two setups for realizing a chiral quantum network, where two-level systems representing the nodes interact via directional emission into discrete waveguides, as introduced in T. Ramos et al. [Phys. Rev. A 93, 062104 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.062104]. The first implementation realizes a spin waveguide via Rydberg states in a chain of atoms, whereas the second one realizes a phonon waveguide via the localized vibrations of a string of trapped ions. For both architectures, we show that strong chirality can be obtained by a proper design of synthetic gauge fields in the couplings from the nodes to the waveguide. In the Rydberg case, this is achieved via intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the dipole-dipole interactions, while for the trapped ions it is obtained by engineered sideband transitions. We take long-range couplings into account that appear naturally in these implementations, discuss useful experimental parameters, and analyze potential error sources. Finally, we describe effects that can be observed in these implementations within state-of-the-art technology, such as the driven-dissipative formation of entangled dimer states.
Preparation of circular Rydberg states in helium using the crossed-fields method
Zhelyazkova, V.; Hogan, S. D.
2016-08-01
Helium atoms have been prepared in the circular |n =55 ,ℓ =54 , mℓ=+54 > Rydberg state using the crossed electric and magnetic fields method. The atoms, initially traveling in pulsed supersonic beams, were photoexcited from the metastable 1 s 2 s S31 level to the outermost, mℓ=0 Rydberg-Stark state with n =55 in the presence of a strong electric field and weak perpendicular magnetic field. Following excitation, the electric field was adiabatically switched off causing the atoms to evolve into the circular state with mℓ=+54 defined with respect to the magnetic-field quantization axis. The circular states were detected by ramped electric-field ionization along the magnetic-field axis. The dependence of the circular state production efficiency on the strength of the excitation electric field, and the electric-field switch-off time was studied, and microwave spectroscopy of the circular-to-circular |55 ,54 ,+54 >→|56 ,55 ,+55 > transition at ˜38.5 GHz was performed.
Preparation of circular Rydberg states in helium using the crossed fields method
Zhelyazkova, V
2016-01-01
Helium atoms have been prepared in the circular $|n=55,\\ell=54,m_{\\ell}=+54\\rangle$ Rydberg state using the crossed electric and magnetic fields method. The atoms, initially travelling in pulsed supersonic beams, were photoexcited from the metastable $1s2s\\,^3S_1$ level to the outermost, $m_{\\ell}=0$ Rydberg-Stark state with $n=55$ in the presence of a strong electric field and weak perpendicular magnetic field. Following excitation, the electric field was adiabatically switched off causing the atoms to evolve into the circular state with $m_{\\ell}=+54$ defined with respect to the magnetic field quantization axis. The circular states were detected by ramped electric field ionization along the magnetic field axis. The dependence of the circular state production efficiency on the strength of the excitation electric field, and the electric-field switch-off time was studied, and microwave spectroscopy of the circular-to-circular $|55,54,+54\\rangle\\rightarrow|56,55,+55\\rangle$ transition at $\\sim38.5$~GHz was perf...
Non-equilibrium physics of Rydberg lattices in the presence of noise and dissipative processes
Abdussalam, Wildan
2016-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of driven spin lattices in the presence of decoherence caused by either laser phase noise or strong decay. In the first case, we discriminate between correlated and uncorrelated noise and explore their effect on the mean density of Rydberg states and the full counting statistics (FCS). We find that while the mean density is almost identical in both cases, the FCS differ considerably. The main method employed is the Langevin equation (LE) but for the sake of efficiency in certain regimes, we use a Markovian master equation and Monte Carlo rate equations, respectively. In the second case, we consider dissipative systems with more general power-law interactions. We determine the phase diagram in the steady state and analyse its generation dynamics using Monte Carlo rate equations. In contrast to nearest-neighbour models, there is no transition to long-range-ordered phases for realistic interactions and resonant driving. Yet, for finite laser detunings, we show that Rydberg l...
Implementation of Chiral Quantum Optics with Rydberg and Trapped-ion Setups
Vermersch, Benoît; Hauke, Philipp; Zoller, Peter
2016-01-01
We propose two setups for realizing a chiral quantum network, where two-level systems representing the nodes interact via directional emission into discrete waveguides, as introduced in Ref.~[T.\\ Ramos \\emph{et al.}, arXiv:1602.00926]. The first implementation realizes a spin waveguide via Rydberg states in a chain of atoms, whereas the second one realizes a phonon waveguide via the localized vibrations of a string of trapped ions. For both architectures, we show that strong chirality can be obtained by a proper design of synthetic gauge fields in the couplings from the nodes to the waveguide. In the Rydberg case, this is achieved via intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the dipole-dipole interactions, while for the trapped ions it is obtained by engineered sideband transitions. We take long-range couplings into account that appear naturally in these implementations, discuss useful experimental parameters, and analyze potential error sources. Finally, we describe effects that can be observed in these implementati...
Periodic Orbit Theory for Rydberg Atoms in External Fields
Dando, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.; Owen, S. M.
1998-03-01
Although hydrogen in external fields is a paradigm for the application of periodic orbits and the Gutzwiller trace formula to a real system, the trace formula has never been applied successfully to other Rydberg atoms. We show that spectral fluctuations of general Rydberg atoms are given with remarkable precision by the addition of diffractive terms. Previously unknown features in atomic spectra are exposed: there are new modulations that are neither periodic orbits nor combinations of periodic orbits; ``core shadowing'' generally decreases primitive periodic orbit amplitudes but can also lead to increases.
Periodic Orbit Theory for Rydberg Atoms in External Fields
Dando, P A; Owen, S M
1998-01-01
Although hydrogen in external fields is a paradigm for the application of periodic orbits and the Gutzwiller trace formula to a real system, the trace formula has never been applied successfully to other Rydberg atoms. We show that spectral fluctuations of general Rydberg atoms are given with remarkable precision by the addition of diffractive terms. Previously unknown features in atomic spectra are exposed: there are new modulations that are neither periodic orbits nor combinations of periodic orbits; `core-shadowing' generally decreases primitive periodic orbit amplitudes but can also lead to increases.
Non-Markovian dynamics in ultracold Rydberg aggregates
Genkin, M.; Schönleber, D. W.; Wüster, S.; Eisfeld, A.
2016-07-01
We propose a setup of an open quantum system in which the environment can be tuned such that either Markovian or non-Markovian system dynamics can be achieved. The implementation uses ultracold Rydberg atoms, relying on their strong long-range interactions. Our suggestion extends the features available for quantum simulators of molecular systems employing Rydberg aggregates and presents a new test bench for fundamental studies of the classification of system–environment interactions and the resulting system dynamics in open quantum systems.
Three-Body Interaction of Rydberg Slow-Light Polaritons
Jachymski, Krzysztof; Bienias, Przemysław; Büchler, Hans Peter
2016-07-01
We study a system of three photons in an atomic medium coupled to Rydberg states near the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. Based on the analytical analysis of the microscopic set of equations in the far-detuned regime, the effective three-body interaction for these Rydberg polaritons is derived. For slow light polaritons, we find a strong three-body repulsion with the remarkable property that three polaritons can become essentially noninteracting at short distances. This analysis allows us to derive the influence of the three-body repulsion on bound states and correlation functions of photons propagating through a one-dimensional atomic cloud.
Ionization of Rydberg energy levels of ions at low temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper is aimed at finding the efficiency of radiation-collision ionization/recombination with Rydberg energy levels of ions in the wide range of density values both at high and low values of the electron temperature, as well as at studying dynamics of the processes given. The problem on evaluation of time distribution of populations at plasma constant parameters and initial δ-like level distribution of populations is solved. The mechanism of stage ionization of the Rydberg levels of ions in the dense plasma is established to be effective up to comparatively low temperatures, at which direct ionization by the p level is impossible
Polarization-selective optical nonlinearities in cold Rydberg atoms
Wu, Jin-Hui; Artoni, M.; La Rocca, G. C.
2015-12-01
We study the interaction between a probe and a trigger weak fields in a sample of cold rubidium atoms in the presence of a coupling and a dressing strong fields. Dipole Rydberg blockade may occur and can be set to depend on the probe and trigger polarizations giving rise to diverse regimes of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with a concomitant small probe and trigger absorption and dispersion. This is shown to be relevant to the implementation of polarization conditional probe and trigger cross nonlinearities in cold Rydberg atoms.
Fermionic collective excitations in a lattice gas of Rydberg atoms
Olmos, B; González-Férez, R.; Lesanovsky, I.
2009-01-01
We investigate the many-body quantum states of a laser-driven gas of Rydberg atoms confined to a large spacing ring lattice. If the laser driving is much stronger than the van-der-Waals interaction among the Rydberg sates, these many-body states are collective fermionic excitations. The first excited state is a spin-wave that extends over the entire lattice. We demonstrate that our system permits to study fermions in the presence of disorder although no external atomic motion takes place. We ...
Relativistic Multichannel Treatment of Ionic Rydberg States of Lanthanum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xin-Feng; JIA Feng-Dong; ZHONG Zhi-Ping; XUE Ping; XU Xiang-Yuan; YAN Jun
2007-01-01
Ionic Rydberg energy levels of lanthanum are calculated from first principles by relativistic multichannel theory within the framework of multichannel quantum defect theory. The present calculated results are in better agreement with the experimental measurements than the previous calculations [J. Phys. B 34 (2001)369] due to the consideration of dynamical polarizations. Moreover, in the experimental spectra achieved by a five-laser resonance excitation via the intermediate state 5d6d3 F2, a series of weak ionic Rydberg states and some of perturbing states are found and assigned in this work.
High Rydberg atoms: newcomers to the atomic physics scene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A description is given of high Rydberg atoms which have a greatly increased size due to their having been perturbed in certain ways. The production, detection, and research on these atoms are considered. The motivation for such studies, apart from their intrinsic interest, includes laser development, laser isotope separation, energy deposition in gases, plasma diagnostics, and radio astronomy
Engineered Rydberg Atom-Surface Interactions Using Metamaterials
Chao, Yuanxi; Sheng, Jiteng; Sedlacek, Jonathan; Shaffer, James
2016-05-01
We report on studies of Rydberg atom-surface interactions aimed at engineering Rydberg atom coupling to metamaterials. Rydberg atoms posses large electric dipole moments that can be strongly coupled to the tightly confined electromagnetic fields of surface phonon polariton (SPhP) modes of a properly constructed piezoelectric superlattice (PSL). Coupling of Rb87 Rydberg atoms, typically in microwave range, to real SPhP resonances on a periodically poled lithium niobate surface is studied theoretically for different periodic domain and surface orientations. Coupling constants, much larger than the dissipation of the atom-surface system, are calculated for atom-surface separations in the near field. This remarkable result opens up a simple way to design and conduct experiments to study the atom-surface interactions in the strong coupling regime which is usually hard to reach in other systems. The light-matter interaction described can be used for a quantum hybrid system that has potential applications for quantum photonic devices. Experimental studies of surfaces showing the efficacy of our calculations are also presented. This work is supported by AFOSR.
Controlling Rydberg atom excitations in dense background gases
Liebisch, Tara Cubel; Engel, Felix; Nguyen, Huan; Balewski, Jonathan; Lochead, Graham; Böttcher, Fabian; Westphal, Karl M; Kleinbach, Kathrin S; Schmid, Thomas; Gaj, Anita; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H
2016-01-01
We discuss the density shift and broadening of Rydberg spectra measured in cold, dense atom clouds in the context of Rydberg atom spectroscopy done at room temperature, dating back to the experiments of Amaldi and Segr\\`e in 1934. We discuss the theory first developed in 1934 by Fermi to model the mean-field density shift and subsequent developments of the theoretical understanding since then. In particular, we present a model whereby the density shift is calculated using a microscopic model in which the configurations of the perturber atoms within the Rydberg orbit are considered. We present spectroscopic measurements of a Rydberg atom, taken in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and thermal clouds with densities varying from $5\\times10^{14}\\textrm{cm}^{-3}$ to $9\\times10^{12}\\textrm{cm}^{-3}$. The density shift measured via the spectrum's center of gravity is compared with the mean-field energy shift expected for the effective atom cloud density determined via a time of flight image. Lastly, we present calcul...
Lifetime Measurement for 6snp Rydberg States of Barium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Li; WANG Lei; YANG Hai-Feng; LIU Xiao-Jun; LIU Hong-Ping
2011-01-01
@@ We present a simple and efficient method for measuring the atomic lifetimes in order of tens of microseconds and demonstrate it in the lifetime determination of barium Rydberg states.This method extracts the lifetime information from the time-of-flight spectrum directly, which is much more efficient than other methods such as the time-delayed field ionization and the traditional laser induced fluorescence.The lifetimes determined with our method for barium Rydberg 6snp(n=37-59)series are well coincident with the values deduced from the absolute oscillator strengths of barium which were given in the literature [J.Phys.B 14(1981)4489, 29(1996)655]on experiments.%We present a simple and efficient method for measuring the atomic lifetimes in order of tens of microseconds and demonstrate it in the lifetime determination of barium Rydberg states. This method extracts the lifetime information from the time-of-flight spectrum directly, which is much more efficient than other methods such as the time-delayed field ionization and the traditional laser induced fluorescence. The lifetimes determined with our method for barium Rydberg 6snp (n=37-59) series are well coincident with the values deduced from the absolute oscillator strengths of barium which were given in the literature [J. Phys. B 14 (1981) 4489, 29 (1996) 655] onexperiments.
Entanglement of two ground state neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Browaeys, Antoine; Evellin, Charles;
2011-01-01
We report on our recent progress in trapping and manipulation of internal states of single neutral rubidium atoms in optical tweezers. We demonstrate the creation of an entangled state between two ground state atoms trapped in separate tweezers using the effect of Rydberg blockade. The quality...... of the entanglement is measured using global rotations of the internal states of both atoms....
Control of spatial correlations between Rydberg excitations using rotary echo
Thaicharoen, N; Raithel, G
2016-01-01
We manipulate correlations between Rydberg excitations in cold atom samples using a rotary-echo technique. The correlations are due to interactions between the Rydberg atoms. In the rotary-echo excitation sequence, the phase of the excitation pulse is flipped at a selected time during the pulse. We measure the resultant change in the spatial pair correlation function of the excitations via direct position-sensitive atom imaging. For zero detuning of the lasers from the interaction-free Rydberg-excitation resonance, the pair-correlation value at the most likely nearest-neighbor Rydberg-atom distance is substantially enhanced when the phase is flipped at the middle of the excitation pulse. In this case, the rotary echo eliminates most uncorrelated (un-paired) atoms, leaving an abundance of correlated atom pairs at the end of the sequence. In off-resonant cases, a complementary behavior is observed. We further characterize the effect of the rotary-echo excitation sequence on the excitation-number statistics of t...
Bistability vs. Metastability in Driven Dissipative Rydberg Gases
Letscher, Fabian; Niederprüm, Thomas; Fleischhauer, Michael; Ott, Herwig
2016-01-01
We investigate the possibility of a bistable phase in an open many-body system. To this end we discuss the microscopic dynamics of a continuously off-resonantly driven Rydberg lattice gas in the regime of strong decoherence. Our experimental results reveal a prolongation of the temporal correlations with respect to the lifetime of a single Rydberg excitation and show strong evidence for the formation of finite-sized Rydberg excitation clusters in the steady state. We simulate our data using a simplified and a full many-body rate-equation model. The results are compatible with the formation of metastable states associated with a bimodal counting distribution as well as dynamic hysteresis. A scaling analysis reveals however, that the correlation times remain finite for all relevant system parameters. This suggest that the Rydberg aggregate is composed of many small clusters and all correlation lengths remain finite. This is a strong indication for the absence of a global bistable phase, previously suggested to ...
Multiple time scales in the microwave ionization of Rydberg atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchleitner, A.; Delande, D.; Zakrzewski, J.; Mantegna, R.N.; Arndt, M.; Walther, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]|[Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, 4 place Jussieu, Tour 12, 1 etage, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)]|[Instytut Fizyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, ul. Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland)]|[Dipartimento di Energetica ed Applicazioni di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, I-90128 Palermo (Italy)]|[Sektion Physik der Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
1995-11-20
We investigate the time dependence of the ionization probability of Rydberg atoms driven by microwave fields, both numerically and experimentally. Our exact quantum results provide evidence for an algebraic decay law on suitably chosen time scales, a phenomenon that is considered to be the signature of nonhyperbolic scattering in unbounded classically chaotic motion. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.
Woutersen, S.; Milan,, M; Lange; Buma, W.J.
1997-01-01
Several previously unobserved Rydberg states of the sulphur atom above the lowest ionization threshold are identified and assigned using (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionization photoelectron spectroscopy. All states were accessed by two-photon transitions from either the 3P ground or the 1D excited state, prepared by in situ photodissociation of H2S. The observed states derive from the (2Do)5p and (2Po)4p configurations. For the (2Do)5p 3F and (2Po)4p 3D triplets, extensive photoele...
Prospects of charged-oscillator quantum-state generation with Rydberg atoms
Stevenson, Robin; Minář, Jiří; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-10-01
We explore the possibility of engineering quantum states of a charged mechanical oscillator by coupling it to a stream of atoms in superpositions of high-lying Rydberg states. Our scheme relies on the driving of a two-phonon resonance within the oscillator by coupling it to an atomic two-photon transition. This approach effectuates a controllable open system dynamics on the oscillator that in principle permits versatile dissipative creation of squeezed and other nonclassical states which are central to sensing applications or for studies of fundamental questions concerning the boundary between classical and quantum-mechanical descriptions of macroscopic objects. We show that these features survive thermal coupling of the oscillator with the environment. We perform a detailed feasibility study finding that current state-of-the-art parameters result in atom-oscillator couplings which are too weak to efficiently implement the proposed oscillator state preparation protocol. Finally, we comment on ways to circumvent the present limitations.
Stark spectra of Rydberg states in atomic cesium in the vicinity of n=18
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Hui-Jie; Wang Ting; Li Chang-Yong; Zhao Jian-Ming; Zhang Lin-Jie
2013-01-01
The Stark structures in a cesium atom around n =18 are numerically calculated.The results show that the components of 20D states with a small azimuthal quantum number |m| shift upward a lot,and those with a large |m| shift downward a little within 1100 V/cm.All components of P states shift downward.Experimental work has been performed in ultracold atomic cesium.Atoms initially in 6P3/2 state are excited to high-n Rydberg states by a polarization light perpendicular to the field,and Stark spectra with 丨m丨=1/2,3/2,5/2 are simultaneously observed with a large linewidth for the first time.The observed spectra are analyzed in detail.The relative transition probability is calculated.The experimental results are in good agreement with our numerical computation.
Seiler, Ch; Agner, J. A.; Pillet, P.; Merkt, F.
2016-05-01
of the magnetic quantum number m than the optically prepared Rydberg–Stark states, and this observation led to the conclusion that a much more efficient mechanism than a purely radiative one must exist to induce transitions to Rydberg–Stark states of higher | m| values. While searching for such a mechanism, we discovered that resonant dipole–dipole collisions between Rydberg atoms in the trap represent an extremely efficient way of inducing transitions to states of higher | m| values. The efficiency of the mechanism is a consequence of the almost perfectly linear nature of the Stark effect at the moderate field strengths used to trap the atoms, which permits cascades of transitions between entire networks of near-degenerate Rydberg-atom-pair states. To include such cascades of resonant dipole–dipole transitions in the numerical simulations, we have generalized the two-state Förster-type collision model used to describe resonant collisions in ultracold Rydberg gases to a multi-state situation. It is only when considering the combined effects of collisional and radiative processes that the observed decay of the population of Rydberg atoms in the trap could be satisfactorily reproduced for all n values studied experimentally.
Coincidence spectroscopy of high-lying Rydberg states produced in strong laser fields
Larimian, Seyedreza; Erattupuzha, Sonia; Lemell, Christoph; Yoshida, Shuhei; Nagele, Stefan; Maurer, Raffael; Baltuška, Andrius; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Kitzler, Markus; Xie, Xinhua
2016-09-01
We demonstrate the detection of high-lying Rydberg states produced in strong laser fields with coincidence spectroscopy. Electron emission after the interaction of strong laser pulses with atoms and molecules is measured together with the parent ions in coincidence measurements. These electrons originate from high-lying Rydberg states with quantum numbers from n ˜20 up to n ≲120 formed by frustrated field ionization. Ionization rates are retrieved from the measured ionization signal of these Rydberg states. Simulations show that both tunneling ionization by a weak dc field and photoionization by blackbody radiation contribute to delayed electron emission on the nano- to microsecond scale. Furthermore, the dependence of the Rydberg-state production on the ellipticity of the driving laser field indicates that such high-lying Rydberg states are populated through electron recapture. The present experiment provides detailed quantitative information on Rydberg production in strong-field interaction.
Two-dimensional crystals of Rydberg excitations in a resonantly driven lattice gas
Petrosyan, David
2013-01-01
The competition between resonant optical excitation of Rydberg states of atoms and their strong, long-range van der Waals interaction results in spatial ordering of Rydberg excitations in a two-dimensional lattice gas, as observed in a recent experiment of Schau{\\ss} et al. [Nature 491, 87 (2012)]. Here we use semiclassical Monte Carlo simulations to obtain stationary states for hundreds of atoms in finite-size lattices. We show the formation of regular spatial structures of Rydberg excitatio...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Deng Li; Chen Ai-Xi; Zhang Jian-Song
2011-01-01
We provide a scheme with which the transfer of the entangled state and the entanglement swapping can be realized in a system of neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade.Our idea can be extended to teleport an unknown atomic state.According to the latest theoretical research of the Rydberg excitation and experimental reports of the Rydberg blockade effect in quantum information processing,we discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.
Velocity-selective electromagnetically-induced-transparency measurements of potassium Rydberg states
Xu, Wenchao; DeMarco, Brian
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a velocity selection scheme that mitigates suppression of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) by Doppler shifts for coupling wavelengths larger than the probe wavelength. An optical pumping beam counterpropagating with the EIT probe beam transfers atoms between hyperfine states in a velocity-selective fashion. Measurement of the transmitted probe beam synchronous with chopping of the optical pumping beam enables a Doppler-free EIT signal to be detected. Transition frequencies between 5 P1 /2 and n S1 /2 states for n =26 , 27, and 28 in 39K are obtained via EIT spectroscopy in a heated vapor cell with a probe beam stabilized to the 4 S1 /2→5 P1 /2 transition. Using previous high-resolution measurements of the 4 S1 /2→n S1 /2 transitions, we make a determination of the absolute frequency of the 4 S1 /2→5 P1 /2 transition. Our measurement is shifted by 560 MHz from the currently accepted value with a twofold improvement in uncertainty. These measurements will enable novel experiments with Rydberg-dressed ultracold Fermi gases composed of 40K atoms.
Rydberg dressing of a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate
Płodzień, Marcin; van Druten, N J; Kokkelmans, Servaas
2016-01-01
We study the influence of Rydberg dressed interactions in a one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). We show that 1D is advantageous over 3D for observing BEC Rydberg dressing. The effects of dressing are studied by investigating collective BEC dynamics after a rapid switch-off of the Rydberg dressing interaction. The results can be interpreted as an effective modification of the $s$-wave scattering length. We include this modification in an analytical model for the 1D BEC, and compare it to numerical calculations of Rydberg dressing under realistic experimental conditions.
Polarized Autler–Townes splitting of Rydberg six-wave mixing
Che, Junling; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yufei; Liu, Jun; Cheng, Qiyuan; Zhang, Yanpeng
2016-09-01
Polarized Autler–Townes (AT) splitting of six-wave mixing (SWM) involving Rydberg atoms is for the first time observed in a thermal vapor cell. By scanning the frequency detuning of the dressing field, AT splitting of Rydberg SWM is compared with that of non-Rydberg SWM with an elliptically polarized probe field. It is demonstrated that the AT spectra are strongly dependent on the interaction between Rydberg atoms. Moreover, AT splitting of SWM is cyclically modulated via a multi-dark state and presented by the corresponding spatial SWM AT splitting images. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Alignment of high Rydberg states in hydrogen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berry, H.G.; DeHaes, J.C.; Neek, D.K.; Somerville, L.P.
1984-01-01
We have measured the light yields and polarizations of the light emitted from several Balmer transitions in atomic hydrogen following beam foil excitation of protons at energies of 50 to 150 keV. The polarizations have been measured as a function of distance downbeam from the exciter foil for several transitions. The measurements indicate a very strong initial alignment which is then perturbed by surface fields out to several mm from the surface. 8 references, 7 figures.
Rydberg-Stark deceleration of atoms and molecules
Hogan, Stephen D
2016-01-01
The large electric dipole moments associated with highly excited Rydberg states of atoms and molecules make gas-phase samples in these states very well suited to deceleration and trapping using inhomogeneous electric fields. The methods of Rydberg-Stark deceleration with which this can be achieved are reviewed here. Using these techniques, the longitudinal motion of beams of atoms and molecules moving at speeds as high as 2500~m/s have been manipulated, with changes in kinetic energy of up to $|\\Delta E_{\\mathrm{kin}}|=1.3\\times10^{-20}$~J ($|\\Delta E_{\\mathrm{kin}}|/e=80$~meV or $|\\Delta E_{\\mathrm{kin}}|/hc=650$~cm$^{-1}$) achieved, while decelerated and trapped samples with number densities of $10^6$--$10^7$~cm$^{-3}$ and translational temperatures of $\\sim150$~mK have been prepared. Applications of these samples in areas of research at the interface between physics and physical chemistry are discussed.
Intrinsic Optical Bistability in a Strongly-Driven Rydberg Ensemble
de Melo, Natalia R; Sibalic, Nikola; Kondo, Jorge M; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J
2016-01-01
We observe and characterize intrinsic optical bistability in a dilute Rydberg vapor. The bistability is characterized by sharp jumps between states of low and high Rydberg occupancy with jump up and down positions displaying hysteresis depending on the direction in which the control parameter is changed. We find that the shift in frequency of the jump point scales with the fourth power of the principal quantum number. Also, the width of the hysteresis window increases with increasing principal quantum number, before reaching a peak and then closing again. The experimental results are consistent with predictions from a simple theoretical model based on semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch equations including the effect of broadening and frequency shifts. These results provide insight to the dynamics of driven dissipative systems.
L\\'evy statistics of interacting Rydberg gases
Vogt, Thibault; Thiery, Alexandre; Li, Wenhui
2016-01-01
A statistical analysis of the laser excitation of cold and randomly distributed atoms to Rydberg states is developed. We first demonstrate with a hard ball model that the distribution of energy level shifts in an interacting gas obeys L\\'evy statistics, in any dimension $d$ and for any interaction $-C_p/R^p$ under the condition $d/p<1$. This result is confirmed with a Monte Carlo rate equations simulation of the actual laser excitation in the particular case $p=6$ and $d=3$. With this finding, we develop a statistical approach for the modeling of probe light transmission through a cold atom gas driven under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency involving a Rydberg state. The simulated results are in good agreement with experiment.
Intrinsic optical bistability in a strongly driven Rydberg ensemble
de Melo, Natalia R.; Wade, Christopher G.; Šibalić, Nikola; Kondo, Jorge M.; Adams, Charles S.; Weatherill, Kevin J.
2016-06-01
We observe and characterize intrinsic optical bistability in a dilute Rydberg vapor. The bistability is characterized by sharp jumps between states of low and high Rydberg occupancy with jump-up and -down positions displaying hysteresis depending on the direction in which the control parameter is changed. We find that the shift in frequency of the jump point scales with the fourth power of the principal quantum number. Also, the width of the hysteresis window increases with increasing principal quantum number, before reaching a peak and then closing again. The experimental results are consistent with predictions from a simple theoretical model based on semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch equations including the effects of interaction-induced broadening and level shifts. These results provide insight into the dynamics of driven dissipative systems.
Fermionic collective excitations in a lattice gas of Rydberg atoms
Olmos, B; Lesanovsky, I
2009-01-01
We investigate the many-body quantum states of a laser-driven gas of Rydberg atoms confined to a large spacing ring lattice. If the laser driving is much stronger than the van-der-Waals interaction among the Rydberg sates, these many-body states are collective fermionic excitations. The first excited state is a spin-wave that extends over the entire lattice. We demonstrate that our system permits to study fermions in the presence of disorder although no external atomic motion takes place. We analyze how this disorder influences the excitation properties of the fermionic states. Our work shows a route towards the creation of complex many-particle states with atoms in lattices.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-01
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (cz) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a cz gate in <10 μ s with error probability on the order of 10-3.
Single-photon absorber based on strongly interacting Rydberg atoms
Tresp, Christoph; Mirgorodskiy, Ivan; Gorniaczyk, Hannes; Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Hofferberth, Sebastian
2016-01-01
Removing exactly one photon from an arbitrary input pulse is an elementary operation in quantum optics and enables applications in quantum information processing and quantum simulation. Here we demonstrate a deterministic single-photon absorber based on the saturation of an optically thick free-space medium by a single photon due to Rydberg blockade. Single-photon subtraction adds a new component to the Rydberg quantum optics toolbox, which already contains photonic logic building-blocks such as single-photon sources, switches, transistors, and conditional $\\pi$-phase shifts. Our approach is scalable to multiple cascaded absorbers, essential for preparation of non-classical light states for quantum information and metrology applications, and, in combination with the single-photon transistor, high-fidelity number-resolved photon detection.
Few-body quantum physics with strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons
Bienias, Przemyslaw
2016-01-01
We present an extension of our recent paper [Bienias et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 053804 (2014)] in which we demonstrated the scattering properties and bound-state structure of two Rydberg polaritons, as well as the derivation of the effective low-energy many-body Hamiltonian. Here, we derive a microscopic Hamiltonian describing the propagation of Rydberg slow light polaritons in one dimension. We describe possible decoherence processes within a Master equation approach, and derive equations of motion in a Schroedinger picture by using an effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We illustrate diagrammatic methods on two examples: First, we show the solution for a single polariton in an external potential by exact summation of Feynman diagrams. Secondly, we solve the two body problem in a weakly interacting regime exactly.
Generating non-Gaussian states using collisions between Rydberg polaritons
Stanojevic, Jovica; Parigi, Valentina; Bimbard, Erwan; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Pillet, Pierre; Grangier, Philippe
2012-01-01
We investigate theoretically the deterministic generation of quantum states with negative Wigner functions, by using giant non-linearities due to collisional interactions between Rydberg polaritons. The state resulting from the polariton interactions may be transferred with high fidelity into a photonic state, which can be analyzed using homodyne detection followed by quantum tomography. Besides generating highly non-classical states of the light, this method can also provide a very sensitive...
Femtosecond-pulse-train ionization of Rydberg wave packets
Simonsen, Sigrid Ina; Sørngård, Stian Astad; Førre, Morten; Hansen, Jan Petter
2012-01-01
We calculate, based on first-order perturbation theory, the total and differential ionization probabilities from a dynamic periodic Rydberg wave packet of a given n-shell exposed to a train of femtosecond laser pulses. The total probability is shown to depend crucially on the laser repetition rate: For certain frequencies the ionization probability vanishes, while for others it becomes very large. The origin of this effect is the strong dependence of the ionization probability on ...
Seeded excitation avalanches in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases
Simonelli, Cristiano; Valado, Maria Martinez; Masella, Guido; Asteria, Luca; Arimondo, Ennio; Ciampini, Donatella; Morsch, Oliver
2016-01-01
We report an experimental investigation of the facilitated excitation dynamics in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases by separating the initial off-resonant excitation phase from the facilitation phase, in which successive facilitation events lead to excitation avalanches. We achieve this by creating a controlled number of initial seed excitations. Greater insight into the avalanche mechanism is obtained from an analysis of the full counting distributions. We also present simple mathematical ...
Spontaneous emission of non-dispersive Rydberg wave packets
Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub
1998-01-01
Non dispersive electronic Rydberg wave packets may be created in atoms illuminated by a microwave field of circular polarization. We discuss the spontaneous emission from such states and show that the elastic incoherent component (occuring at the frequency of the driving field) dominates the spectrum in the semiclassical limit, contrary to earlier predictions. We calculate the frequencies of single photon emissions and the associated rates in the "harmonic approximation", i.e. when the wave p...
Rydberg phases of Hydrogen and low energy nuclear reactions
Olafsson, Sveinn; Holmlid, Leif
2016-03-01
For over the last 26 years the science of cold fusion/LENR has been researched around the world with slow pace of progress. Modest quantity of excess heat and signatures of nuclear transmutation and helium production have been confirmed in experiments and theoretical work has only resulted in a large flora of inadequate theoretical scenarios. Here we review current state of research in Rydberg matter of Hydrogen that is showing strong signature of nuclear processes. In the presentation experimental behavior of Rydberg matter of hydrogen is described. An extensive collaboration effort of surface physics, catalysis, atomic physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum information is need to tackle the surprising experimental results that have so far been obtained. Rydberg matter of Hydrogen is the only known state of matter that is able to bring huge collection of protons to so short distances and for so long time that tunneling becomes a reasonable process for making low energy nuclear reactions. Nuclear quantum entanglement can also become realistic process at theses conditions.
Generation of tunable coherent far-infrared radiation using atomic Rydberg states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A source of tunable far-infrared radiation has been constructed. The system has been operated at 91.6 cm-1 with a demonstrated tunability of .63 cm-1. The system is based on a Rydberg state transition in optically pumped potassium vapor. The transition energy is tuned by the application of an electric field to the excited vapor. The transition wavelength and the shifted wavelength were detected and measured by the use of a Michelson interferometer and a liquid helium cooled Ga:Ge bolometer and the data was reduced using Fast Fourier transform techniques. Extensive spectroscopy was done on the potassium vapor to elucidate the depopulation paths and rates of the excited levels. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to support the conclusions of the research effort. Additionally, possible alternative approaches to the population of the excited state are explored and recommendations are made for the future development of this source as well as the potential uses of it in molecular spectroscopy
Generation of tunable coherent far-infrared radiation using atomic Rydberg states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bookless, W.
1980-12-01
A source of tunable far-infrared radiation has been constructed. The system has been operated at 91.6 cm/sup -1/ with a demonstrated tunability of .63 cm/sup -1/. The system is based on a Rydberg state transition in optically pumped potassium vapor. The transition energy is tuned by the application of an electric field to the excited vapor. The transition wavelength and the shifted wavelength were detected and measured by the use of a Michelson interferometer and a liquid helium cooled Ga:Ge bolometer and the data was reduced using Fast Fourier transform techniques. Extensive spectroscopy was done on the potassium vapor to elucidate the depopulation paths and rates of the excited levels. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to support the conclusions of the research effort. Additionally, possible alternative approaches to the population of the excited state are explored and recommendations are made for the future development of this source as well as the potential uses of it in molecular spectroscopy.
Arakelyan, Ilya
In this dissertation we report the results of two experimental projects with laser-cooled rubidium atoms: I. Application of Bessel beams for atom optics, and II. Spectroscopic measurements of Rydberg blockade effect. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the development of new elements of atom optics based on blue-detuned high-order Bessel beams. Properties of a 4thorder Bessel beam as an atomic guide were investigated for various parameters of the hollow beam, such as the detuning from an atomic resonance, size and the order of the Bessel beam. We extended its application to create more complicated interferometer-type structures by demonstrating a tunnel lock, a novel device that can split an atomic cloud, transport it, delay, and switch its propagation direction between two guides. We reported a first-time demonstration of an atomic beam switch based on the combination of two crossed Bessel beams. We achieved the 30% efficiency of the switch limited by the geometrical overlap between the cloud and the intersection volume of the two tunnels, and investigate the heating processes induced by the switch. We also showed other applications of crossed Bessel beams, such as a 3-D optical trap for atoms confined in the intersection volume of two hollow beams and a splitter of the atomic density. The second part of this dissertation is devoted to the spectroscopic measurements of the Rydberg blockade effect, a conditional suppression of Rydberg excitations depending on the state of a control atom. We assembled a narrow-linewidth, tunable, frequency stabilized laser system at 480 nm to excite laser-cooled rubidium atoms to Rydberg states with a high principal quantum number n ˜ 50 through a two-photon transition. We applied the laser system to observe the Autler-Townes splitting of the intermediate 5p3/2 state and used the broadening of the resonance features to investigate the enhancement of Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in the presence of an external electric field.
Rydberg Wave Packets and Half-Cycle Electromagnetic Pulses
Raman, Chandra S.
1998-05-01
This dissertation summarizes an examination of the dynamics of atomic Rydberg wave packets with coherent pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation consisting of less than a single cycle of the electric field. The bulk of the energy is contained in just a half-cycle. Previous work ( R. Jones, D. You, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 70, 1993. had shown how these half-cycle pulses can be used to ionize the highly excited states of an atom, and that a classical view of electronic motion in the atom explains the ionization mechanism. To further probe the boundary between classical trajectories and quantum mechanics, in this work I investigate dynamical combinations of Rydberg states, or Rydberg wave packets, and how they ionize under the influence of a half-cycle electromagnetic pulse. With time-domain techniques I am able to extract the dynamics of the wave packet from the ionization rate, and to observe wave packet motion in both the electronic radial ( C. Raman, C. Conover, C. Sukenik, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg wavepackets by sub-picosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 76, 1996.and angular ( C. Raman, T. Weinacht, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Stark wavepackets viewed with half cycle pulses.'' Phys. Rev. A), vol. 55, No. 6, 1997. coordinates. This is the first time a wavepacket technique has been used to view electron motion everywhere on its trajectory, and not just at the nucleus. This is the principal feature of half-cycle pulse ionization. Semiclassical ideas of ionization in conjunction with quantum descriptions of the wave packet, are capable of reproducing the main trends in the data, and in the absence of a rigorous model I rely on these. Experiments of this nature provide examples of the ongoing effort to use the coherent properties of radiation to control electronic motion in an atom, as well as to probe the boundaries between
Rydberg-Blockade Effects in Autler-Townes Spectra of Ultracold Strontium
DeSalvo, B J; Gaul, C; Pohl, T; Yoshida, S; Burgdörfer, J; Hazzard, K R A; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C
2015-01-01
We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the effects of Rydberg interactions on Autler-Townes spectra of ultracold gases of atomic strontium. Realizing two-photon Rydberg excitation via a long-lived triplet state allows us to probe the thus far unexplored regime where Rydberg state decay presents the dominant decoherence mechanism. The effects of Rydberg interactions are observed in shifts, asymmetries, and broadening of the measured atom-loss spectra. The experiment is analyzed within a one-body density matrix approach, accounting for interaction-induced level shifts and dephasing through nonlinear terms that approximately incorporate correlations due to the Rydberg blockade. This description yields good agreement with our experimental observations for short excitation times. For longer excitation times, the loss spectrum is altered qualitatively, suggesting additional dephasing mechanisms beyond the standard blockade mechanism based on pure van der Waals interactions.
Stretching and bending dynamics in triatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules
Fey, Christian; Kurz, Markus; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-07-01
We investigate polyatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules consisting of three ground-state atoms bound to a Rydberg atom via s - and p -wave interactions. By employing the finite basis set representation of the unperturbed Rydberg electron Green's function we reduce the computational effort to solve the electronic problem substantially. This method is subsequently applied to determine the potential energy surfaces of triatomic systems in electronic s - and p -Rydberg states. Their molecular geometry and resulting vibrational structure are analyzed within an adiabatic approach that separates the vibrational bending and stretching dynamics. This procedure yields information on the radial and angular arrangement of the nuclei and indicates in particular that kinetic couplings between bending and stretching modes induce a linear structure in triatomic l =0 ultralong-range Rydberg molecules.
Stretching and bending dynamics in triatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules
Fey, Christian; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-01-01
We investigate polyatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules consisting of three ground state atoms bound to a Rydberg atom via $s$- and $p$-wave interactions. By employing the finite basis set representation of the unperturbed Rydberg electron Green's function we reduce the computational effort to solve the electronic problem substantially. This method is subsequently applied to determine the potential energy surfaces of triatomic systems in electronic $s$- and $p$-Rydberg states. Their molecular geometry and resulting vibrational structure are analyzed within an adiabatic approach that separates the vibrational bending and stretching dynamics. This procedure yields information on the radial and angular arrangement of the nuclei and indicates in particular that kinetic couplings between bending and stretching modes induce a linear structure in triatomic $l=0$ ultralong-range Rydberg molecules.
Semiclassical calculation of ionisation rate for Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang De-Hua
2011-01-01
The ionisation of Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field above the classical ionisation threshold has been examined using the semiclassical method, with particular emphasis on discussing the influence of the core scattering on the escape dynamics of electrons. The results show that the Rydberg helium atoms ionise by emitting a train of electron pulses. Unlike the case of the ionisation of Rydberg hydrogen atom in parallel electric and magnetic fields,where the pulses of the electron are caused by the external magnetic field, the pulse trains for Rydberg helium atoms are created through core scattering. Each peak in the ionisation rate corresponds to the contribution of one core-scattered combination trajectory. This fact further illustrates that the ionic core scattering leads to the chaotic property of the Rydberg helium atom in external fields. Our studies provide a simple explanation for the escape dynamics in the ionisation of nonhydrogenic atoms in external fields.
Qian, Jing
2016-01-01
We investigate the collective excitation effect in a scheme where three identical Rydberg atoms are arranged in an equilateral triangular lattice. By using a static electric field polarizing the atomic dipoles, the dipole-dipole interactions between two Rydberg atoms are essentially anisotropic and can even disappear in the several special resonance cases. For that fact, we observe collectively enhanced excitation probability of single Rydberg atom in resonant areas in the case of strong blockade, and that of double or triple Rydberg atoms in the case of partial blockade. To give more evidences for this collective excitation enhancement, we study the two-body quantum correlation between three Rydberg atoms, as well as the dependence of the blockade radius on the length of triangle sides, which present a good agreement with the excitation properties.
Two-body interactions and decay of three-level Rydberg-dressed atoms
Helmrich, S; Pehoviak, N; Whitlock, S
2015-01-01
We theoretically analyze the interactions and decay rates for atoms dressed by multiple laser fields to strongly interacting Rydberg states using a quantum master equation approach. In this framework a comparison of two-level and three-level Rydberg-dressing schemes is presented. We identify a resonant enhancement of the three-level dressed interaction strength which originates from cooperative multiphoton couplings as well as small distance dependent decay rates. In this regime the soft-core shape of the potential is independent of the sign of the bare Rydberg-Rydberg interaction, while its sign can be repulsive or attractive depending on the intermediate state detuning. As a consequence, near-resonant Rydberg dressing in three-level atomic systems may enable the realization of laser driven quantum fluids with long-range and anisotropic interactions and with controllable dissipation.
Two-body interactions and decay of three-level Rydberg-dressed atoms
Helmrich, S.; Arias, A.; Pehoviak, N.; Whitlock, S.
2016-02-01
We theoretically analyze the interactions and decay rates for atoms dressed by multiple laser fields to strongly interacting Rydberg states using a quantum master equation approach. In this framework a comparison of two-level and three-level Rydberg-dressing schemes is presented. We identify a resonant enhancement of the three-level dressed interaction strength which originates from cooperative multiphoton couplings as well as small distance dependent decay rates. In this regime the soft-core shape of the potential is independent of the sign of the bare Rydberg-Rydberg interaction, while its sign can be repulsive or attractive depending on the intermediate state detuning. As a consequence, near-resonant Rydberg dressing in three-level atomic systems may enable the realization of laser driven quantum fluids with long-range and anisotropic interactions and with controllable dissipation.
Phase-Imprinting of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Rydberg Impurities.
Mukherjee, Rick; Ates, Cenap; Li, Weibin; Wüster, Sebastian
2015-07-24
We show how the phase profile of Bose-Einstein condensates can be engineered through its interaction with localized Rydberg excitations. The interaction is made controllable and long range by off-resonantly coupling the condensate to another Rydberg state with laser light. Our technique allows the mapping of entanglement generated in systems of few strongly interacting Rydberg atoms onto much larger atom clouds in hybrid setups. As an example we discuss the creation of a spatial mesoscopic superposition state from a bright soliton. Additionally, the phase imprinted onto the condensate using the Rydberg excitations is a diagnostic tool for the latter. For example, a condensate time-of-flight image would permit reconstructing the pattern of an embedded Rydberg crystal. PMID:26252669
Coincidence spectroscopy of high-lying Rydberg states produced in strong laser fields
Larimian, Seyedreza; Lemell, Christoph; Yoshida, Shuhei; Nagele, Stefan; Maurer, Raffael; Baltuška, Andrius; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Kitzler, Markus; Xie, Xinhua
2016-01-01
We report on the measurement of electron emission after the interaction of strong laser pulses with atoms and molecules. These electrons originate from high-lying Rydberg states with quantum numbers up to $n \\lesssim 120$ formed by frustrated field ionization. Simulations show that both tunneling ionization by a weak dc field and photoionization by the black-body radiation contribute to delayed electron emission on the nano- to microsecond scale. We measured ionization rates from these Rydberg states by coincidence spectroscopy. Further, the dependence of the Rydberg-state production on the ellipticity of the driving laser field proves that such high-lying Rydberg states are populated through electron recapture. The present experiment provides detailed quantitative information on Rydberg production by frustrated field ionization.
Schmidt-May, Alice F; Grütter, Monika; Neugebohren, Jannis; Kitsopoulos, T N; Wodtke, Alec M; Harding, Dan J
2016-07-14
We present a 1 + 1' resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme for acetylene via the linear G̃ 4sσ (1)Πu Rydberg state, offering partial rotational resolution and the possibility to detect excitation in both the cis- and trans-bending modes. The resonant transition to the G̃ state is driven by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon, generated by resonant four-wave mixing (FWM) in krypton. Ionization from the short-lived G̃ state then occurs quickly, driven by the high intensity of the residual light from the FWM process. We have observed nine bands in the region between 79 200 cm(-1) and 80 500 cm(-1) in C2H2 and C2D2. We compare our results with published spectra in this region and suggest alternative assignments for some of the Renner-Teller split bands. Similar REMPI schemes should be applicable to other small molecules with picosecond lifetime Rydberg states. PMID:27073931
Asymptotics of Rydberg states for the hydrogen atom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, L.E. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Villegas-Blas, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Matematicas, Unidad Cuernavaca, A. P. 273-3 Admon. 3, Cuernavaca Morelos 62251 (Mexico)
1997-08-01
The asymptotics of Rydberg states, i.e., highly excited bound states of the hydrogen atom Hamiltonian, and various expectations involving these states are investigated. We show that suitable linear combinations of these states, appropriately rescaled and regarded as functions either in momentum space or configuration space, are highly concentrated on classical momentum space or configuration space Kepler orbits respectively, for large quantum numbers. Expectations of momentum space or configuration space functions with respect to these states are related to time-averages of these functions over Kepler orbits. (orig.)
Transporting Rydberg Electron Wave Packets with Chirped Trains of Pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A protocol for steering Rydberg electrons towards targeted final states is realized with the aid of a chirped train of half-cycle pulses (HCPs). Its novel capabilities are demonstrated experimentally by transporting potassium atoms excited to the lowest-lying quasi-one-dimensional states in the ni=350 Stark manifold to a narrow range of much higher-n states. We demonstrate that this coherent state transfer is, to a high degree, reversible. The protocol allows for remarkable selectivity and is highly efficient, with typically over 80% of the parent atoms surviving the HCP sequence
Seeded excitation avalanches in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases
Simonelli, Cristiano; Masella, Guido; Asteria, Luca; Arimondo, Ennio; Ciampini, Donatella; Morsch, Oliver
2016-01-01
We report an experimental investigation of the facilitated excitation dynamics in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases by separating the initial off-resonant excitation phase from the facilitation phase, in which successive facilitation events lead to excitation avalanches. We achieve this by creating a controlled number of initial seed excitations. Greater insight into the avalanche mechanism is obtained from an analysis of the full counting distributions. We also present simple mathematical models and numerical simulations of the excitation avalanches that agree well with our experimental results.
Seeded excitation avalanches in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases
Simonelli, C.; Valado, M. M.; Masella, G.; Asteria, L.; Arimondo, E.; Ciampini, D.; Morsch, O.
2016-08-01
We report an experimental investigation of the facilitated excitation dynamics in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases by separating the initial off-resonant excitation phase from the facilitation phase, in which successive facilitation events lead to excitation avalanches. We achieve this by creating a controlled number of initial seed excitations. Greater insight into the avalanche mechanism is obtained from an analysis of the full counting distributions. We also present simple mathematical models and numerical simulations of the excitation avalanches that agree well with our experimental results.
Control of multiple excited Rydberg states around segmented carbon nanotubes
Schmelcher, Peter; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Knoerzer, Johannes; Fey, Christian
2016-05-01
Electronic image Rydberg states around segmented carbon nanotubes can be confined and shaped along the nanotube axis by engineering the image potential. We show how several such image states can be prepared simultaneously along the same nanotube. The inter-electronic distance can be controlled a priori by engineering tubes of specific geometries. High sensitivity to external electric and magnetic fields can be exploited to manipulate these states and their mutual long-range interactions. These building blocks provide access to a new kind of tailored long-range interacting quantum systems.
Annulled van der Waals interaction and nanosecond Rydberg quantum gates
Shi, Xiao-Feng; Kennedy, T. A. B.
2016-01-01
A pair of neutral atoms separated by several microns and prepared in identical s-states of large principal quantum number experience a van der Waals interaction. If microwave fields are used to generate a superposition of s-states with different principal quantum numbers, a null point may be found at which a specific superposition state experiences no van der Waals interaction. An application of this novel Rydberg state in a quantum controlled-Z gate is proposed, which takes advantage of GHz ...
Exploiting Rydberg Atom Surface Phonon Polariton Coupling for Single Photon Subtraction
Kübler, H; Sedlacek, J; Zabawa, P; Shaffer, J P
2013-01-01
We investigate a hybrid quantum system that consists of a superatom coupled to a surface phonon-polariton. We apply this hybrid quantum system to subtract individual photons from a beam of light. Rydberg atom blockade is used to attain absorption of a single photon by an atomic microtrap. Surface phonon-polariton coupling to the superatom then triggers the transfer of the excitation to a storage state, a single Rydberg atom. The approach utilizes the interaction between a superatom and a Markovian bath that acts as a controlled decoherence mechanism to irreversibly project the superatom state into a single Rydberg atom state that can be read out.
Rydberg atom detection of the temporal coherence of cosmic microwave background radiation
Tscherbul, Timur V
2013-01-01
Rydberg atoms immersed in cold blackbody radiation are shown to display long-lived quantum coherence effects on timescales of tens of picoseconds. By solving non-Markovian equations of motion with no free parameters we obtain the time evolution of the density matrix, and demonstrate that the blackbody-induced temporal coherences manifest as quantum beats in time-resolved fluorescence intensities of the Rydberg atoms. A measurable fluorescence signal can be obtained with a cold trapped ensemble of 1e8 Rydberg atoms subject to 2.7 K cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), allowing for novel insights into previously unexamined quantum coherence properties of CMB.
Surface wake field model of beam-foil circular Rydberg states
Sharma, Gaurav; Mishra, Adya Prasad; Nandi, Tapan
2015-01-01
Production of projectile Rydberg states in fast ion-solid collisions in H-like ions exhibits a pronounce target thickness dependence in spite of these states forming at the last layers. This occurs due to important role of the surface wake field which varies with the target foil thickness. Further, according to the proposed model Rydberg states with low angular momentum are transformed into a circular Rydberg states while passing through the field. The transfer occurs by a single multiphoton process with high probability depending upon the projectile ion velocity with respect to the Fermi velocity of the target electrons.
Controlled long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms and ions
Secker, T.; Gerritsma, R.; Glaetzle, A. W.; Negretti, A.
2016-07-01
We theoretically investigate trapped ions interacting with atoms that are coupled to Rydberg states. The strong polarizabilities of the Rydberg levels increase the interaction strength between atoms and ions by many orders of magnitude, as compared to the case of ground-state atoms, and may be mediated over micrometers. We calculate that such interactions can be used to generate entanglement between an atom and the motion or internal state of an ion. Furthermore, the ion could be used as a bus for mediating spin-spin interactions between atomic spins in analogy to much employed techniques in ion-trap quantum simulation. The proposed scheme comes with attractive features as it maps the benefits of the trapped-ion quantum system onto the atomic one without obviously impeding its intrinsic scalability. No ground-state cooling of the ion or atom is required and the setup allows for full dynamical control. Moreover, the scheme is to a large extent immune to the micromotion of the ion. Our findings are of interest for developing hybrid quantum information platforms and for implementing quantum simulations of solid-state physics.
Rydberg-Stark deceleration of atoms and molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogan, Stephen D. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom)
2016-12-15
The large electric dipole moments associated with highly excited Rydberg states of atoms and molecules make gas-phase samples in these states very well suited to deceleration and trapping using inhomogeneous electric fields. The methods of Rydberg-Stark deceleration with which this can be achieved are reviewed here. Using these techniques, the longitudinal motion of beams of atoms and molecules moving at speeds as high as 2500 m/s have been manipulated, with changes in kinetic energy of up to vertical stroke ΔE{sub kin} vertical stroke = 1.3 x 10{sup -20} J (vertical stroke ΔE{sub kin} vertical stroke /e = 80 meV or vertical stroke ΔE{sub kin} vertical stroke /hc = 650 cm{sup -1}) achieved, while decelerated and trapped samples with number densities of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} and translational temperatures of ∝150 mK have been prepared. Applications of these samples in areas of research at the interface between physics and physical chemistry are discussed. (orig.)
Multichannel quantum defect theory of strontium bound Rydberg states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the reactance matrix approach, we systematically develop new multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) models for the singlet and triplet S, P, D and F states of strontium below the first ionization limit, based on improved energy level measurements. The new models reveal additional insights into the character of doubly excited perturber states, and the improved energy level measurements for certain series allow fine structure to be resolved for those series’ perturbers. Comparison between the predictions of the new models and those of previous empirical and ab initio studies reveals good agreement with most series; however, some discrepancies are highlighted. Using the MQDT wave functions derived from our models we calculate other observables such as Landé gJ-factors and radiative lifetimes. The analysis reveals the impact of perturbers on the Rydberg state properties of divalent atoms, highlighting the importance of including two-electron effects in the calculations of these properties. The work enables future investigations of properties such as Stark maps and long-range interactions of Rydberg states of strontium. (paper)
Controlled long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms and ions
Secker, Thomas; Glaetzle, Alexander W; Negretti, Antonio
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate trapped ions interacting with atoms that are coupled to Rydberg states. The strong polarizabilities of the Rydberg levels increases the interaction strength between atoms and ions by many orders of magnitude, as compared to the case of ground state atoms, and may be mediated over micrometers. We calculate that such interactions can be used to generate entanglement between an atom and the motion or internal state of an ion. Furthermore, the ion could be used as a bus for mediating spin-spin interactions between atomic spins in analogy to much employed techniques in ion trap quantum simulation. The proposed scheme comes with attractive features as it maps the benefits of the trapped ion quantum system onto the atomic one without obviously impeding its intrinsic scalability. No ground state cooling of the ion or atom is required and the setup allows for full dynamical control. Moreover, the scheme is to a large extent immune to the micromotion of the ion. Our findings are of interest...
The dynamics of high autoionizing Rydberg states of Ar
Bixon, M.; Jortner, Joshua
1995-09-01
In this paper we present a theoretical study of the autoionization dynamics of high 2P1/2np'[3/2]1 Rydbergs (with the principal quantum numbers n=100-280) of Ar in weak homogeneous electric fields (F=0.01-1.0 V/cm), which were experimentally interrogated by time-resolved zero-electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy [M. Mühlpfordt and U. Even, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 4427 (1995)], and which exhibit a marked dilution (i.e., ˜2 orders of magnitude lengthening) of the lifetimes relative to those inferred on the basis of the n3 scaling law for the spectral linewidths of the np' (n=12-24) Rydbergs. The multichannel effective Hamiltonian (Heff) with several doorway state(s) (for excitation and decay) and pure escape states (for decay) was advanced and utilized to treat the dynamics of the mixed Stark manifold of the ZEKE Rydbergs. Heff of dimension 2n-1 is then constructed for a n Rydberg manifold using independent experimental information on the (l dependent) quantum defects δ(l) and the (l, K, J dependent) decay widths, which are of the form Γ0(lKJ)/(n-δ(l))3, with Γ0(lKJ) being the decay widths constants. Here, l, K, and J are the azimuthal, the electronic and the total electronic angular momentum quantum numbers, respectively. Two coupling ranges are distinguished according to the strength of the reduced electric field F¯(n,p')=(F/V cm-1)n5/ 3.4×109[δ(p')(mod1)]. Range (A); The onset of the effective coupling of the doorway and escape states, i.e., 0.7≤F¯(n,p')≤2. Range (B); The strong mixing domain F¯(n,p')≥3. The lifetimes in range (B) can be well represented by a nearly democratic mixing of all the doorway and escape states (lKJ), with the average value ≂= 2n4ℏ/[J(lJK)Γ0(lJK)]. In range (B) increases with increasing n and is only weakly F dependent. Range (A) is characterized by a hierarchy of two time scales for the decay, with a short decay component, which manifests the residue of the doorway state, and a distribution of very long lifetimes
Holmlid, Leif
2011-01-01
The interpretation of the more than 300 diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) is one of the most long-standing problems in interstellar spectra since the two first bands were reported in 1921. We now predict the frequencies of 260 diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) using the Rydberg Matter model we have developed previously. These transitions involve mainly He atoms, but other two-electron atoms like Ca and other metals can take part in the absorption processes. Approximately 70% of the total intensity of the DIBs is due to absorption in doubly excited states and 30% in singly excited He atoms. The doubly excited states are in inverted states while the He atoms are thermal. The possibilities to observe DIBs in the UV and NIR ranges are discussed and band positions are predicted.
Adsorbate dynamics on a silica-coated gold surface measured by Rydberg Stark spectroscopy
Naber, J.; Machluf, S.; Torralbo-Campo, L.; Soudijn, M. L.; van Druten, N. J.; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.
2016-05-01
Trapping a Rydberg atom close to a surface is an important step towards the realisation of many proposals for quantum information processing or hybrid quantum systems. One of the challenges in these experiments is posed by the electric field emanating from contaminations on the surface. Here we report on measurements of an electric field created by 87Rb atoms adsorbed on a 25 nm thick layer of SiO2, covering a 90 nm layer of Au. The electric field is measured using a two-photon transition to the 23{D}5/2 and 25{S}1/2 states. The electric field value that we measure is higher than typical values measured above metal surfaces, but is consistent with a recent measurement above a SiO2 surface. In addition, we measure the temporal behaviour of the field and observe that we can reduce it in a single experimental cycle, using ultraviolet light or by mildly locally heating the surface with one of the excitation lasers, whereas the buildup of the field takes thousands of cycles. We explain these results by a change in the adatom distribution on the surface. These results indicate that, while the stray electric field can be reduced, achieving field-free conditions above a silica-coated gold chip remains challenging.
Adsorbate dynamics on a silica-coated gold surface measured by Rydberg Stark spectroscopy
Naber, J; Torralbo-Campo, L; Soudijn, M L; van Druten, N J; Heuvell, H B van Linden van den; Spreeuw, R J C
2015-01-01
Trapping a Rydberg atom close to a surface is an important step towards the realisation of many proposals of quantum information or hybrid quantum systems. One of the challenges in these experiments is to overcome the electric field emanating from contaminations on the surface. Here we report on measurements of an electric field created by $^{87}$Rb atoms absorbed on a 25$\\,$nm thick layer of SiO$_2$, covering a 90$\\,$nm layer of Au. The electric field is measured using a two-photon transition to the 23$D_{5/2}$ and 25$S_{1/2}$ state. The electric field value that we measure is higher than typical values measured above metal surfaces, but is consistent with other measurements above SiO$_2$ surfaces. In addition, we measure the temporal behaviour of the field and observe that we can reduce it in a single experimental cycle, using UV light or by mildly heating the surface, whereas the buildup of the field takes thousands of cycles. We explain these results by a change in the ad-atoms distribution on the surface...
Spin mixing in Cs ultralong-range Rydberg molecules: a case study
Markson, Samuel; Schmidt, Richard; Shaffer, James P; Sadeghpour, H R
2016-01-01
We calculate vibrational spectra of ultralong-range Cs(32p) Rydberg molecules which form in an ultracold gas of Cs atoms. We account for the partial-wave scattering of the Rydberg electrons from the ground Cs perturber atoms by including the full set of spin-resolved ${}^{1,3}S_J$ and ${}^{1,3}P_J$ scattering phase shifts, and allow for the mixing of singlet (S=0) and triplet (S=1) spin states through Rydberg electron spin-orbit and ground electron hyperfine interactions. Excellent agreement with observed data in Sa{\\ss}mannshausen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 133201(2015)] in line positions and profiles is obtained. We also determine the spin-dependent permanent electric dipole moments for these molecules. This is the first such calculation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules in which all of the relativistic contributions are accounted for.
Spectroscopy of cold rubidium Rydberg atoms for applications in quantum information
Ryabtsev, I I; Tretyakov, D B; Entin, V M; Yakshina, E A
2016-01-01
Atoms in highly excited (Rydberg) states have a number of unique properties which make them attractive for applications in quantum information. These are large dipole moments, lifetimes and polarizabilities, as well as strong long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms. Experimental methods of laser cooling and precision spectroscopy enable the trapping and manipulation of single Rydberg atoms and applying them for practical implementation of quantum gates over qubits of a quantum computer based on single neutral atoms in optical traps. In this paper, we give a review of the experimental and theoretical work performed by the authors at the Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS and Novosibirsk State University on laser and microwave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap and on their possible applications in quantum information. We also give a brief review of studies done by other groups in this area.
Quantum repeater with Rydberg-blocked atomic ensembles in fiber-coupled cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brion, Etienne; Carlier, F.; Akulin, M.;
2012-01-01
We propose and analyze a quantum repeater architecture in which Rydberg-blocked atomic ensembles inside optical cavities are linked by optical fibers. Entanglement generation, swapping, and purification are achieved through collective laser manipulations of the ensembles and photon transmission...
Accessing Rydberg-dressed interactions using many-body Ramsey dynamics
Mukherjee, Rick; Hazzard, Kaden R A
2015-01-01
We demonstrate that Ramsey spectroscopy can be used to observe Rydberg-dressed interactions. In contrast to many prior proposals, our scheme operates comfortably within experimentally measured lifetimes, and accesses a regime where quantum superpositions are crucial. The key idea is to build a spin-1/2 from one level that is Rydberg-dressed and another that is not. These levels may be hyperfine or long-lived electronic states. An Ising spin model governs the Ramsey dynamics, for which we derive an exact solution. Due to the structure of Rydberg interactions, the dynamics differs significantly from that in other spin systems. As one example, spin echo can increase the rate at which coherence decays. The results also apply to bare (undressed) Rydberg states as a special case, for which we quantitatively reproduce recent ultrafast experiments without fitting.
Radio-frequency Electrometry Using Rydberg Atoms in Vapor Cells: Towards the Shot Noise Limit
Kumar, Santosh; Fan, Haoquan; Jahangiri, Akbar; Kuebler, Harald; Shaffer, James P.; 5. Physikalisches Institut, Universitat Stuttgart, Germany Collaboration
2016-05-01
Rydberg atoms are a promising candidate for radio frequency (RF) electric field sensing. Our method uses electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms in vapor cells to read out the effect that the RF electric field has on the Rydberg atoms. The method has the potential for high sensitivity (pV cm-1 Hz- 1 / 2) and can be self-calibrated. Some of the main factors limiting the sensitivity of RF electric field sensing from reaching the shot noise limit are the residual Doppler effect and the sensitivity of the optical read-out using the probe laser. We present progress on overcoming the residual Doppler effect by using a new multi-photon scheme and reaching the shot noise detection limit using frequency modulated spectroscopy. Our experiments also show promise for studying quantum optical effects such as superradiance in vapor cells using Rydberg atoms. This work is supported by DARPA, ARO, and NRO.
Kuznetsova, Elena; Sadeghpour, H R; Yelin, Susanne F
2016-01-01
We analyze in detail the possibility to use charge-dipole interaction between a single polar molecule or a 1D molecular array and a single Rydberg atom to read out rotational populations. The change in the Rydberg electron energy is conditioned on the rotational state of the polar molecules, allowing for realization of a CNOT quantum gate between the molecules and the atom. Subsequent readout of the atomic fluorescence results in a non-destructive measurement of the rotational state. We study the interaction between a 1D array of polar molecules and an array or a cloud of atoms in a Rydberg superatom (blockaded) state and calculate the resolved energy shifts of Rb(60s) with KRb and RbYb molecules, with N=1, 3, 5 molecules. We show that collective molecular rotational states can be read out using the conditioned Rydberg energy shifts.
Field ionization process of Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张婧; 沈礼; 戴长建
2015-01-01
The field ionization process of the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states, converging to the first ionization limit, 4f76s 9S4, is systematically investigated. The spectra of the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states are populated with three-step laser excitation, and detected by electric field ionization (EFI) method. Two different kinds of the EFI pulses are applied after laser excitation to observe the possible impacts on the EFI process. The exact EFI ionization thresholds for the 4f76snp Rydberg states can be determined by observing the corresponding EFI spectra. In particular, some structures above the EFI threshold are found in the EFI spectra, which may be interpreted as the effect from black body radiation (BBR). Finally, the scaling law of the EFI threshold for the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states with the effective quantum number is built.
Strong coupling of Rydberg atoms and surface phonon polaritons on piezoelectric superlattices
Sheng, Jiteng; Chao, Yuanxi; Shaffer, James P.
2016-01-01
We propose a hybrid quantum system where the strong coupling regime can be achieved between a Rydberg atomic ensemble and propagating surface phonon polaritons on a piezoelectric superlattice. By exploiting the large electric dipole moment and long lifetime of Rydberg atoms as well as tightly confined surface phonon polariton modes, it is possible to achieve a coupling constant far exceeding the relevant decay rates. The frequency of the surface mode can be selected so it is resonant with a R...
Exploiting Rydberg Atom Surface Phonon Polariton Coupling for Single Photon Subtraction
Kübler, H.; Booth, D.; Sedlacek, J.; Zabawa, P.; Shaffer, J. P.
2013-01-01
We investigate a hybrid quantum system that consists of a superatom coupled to a surface phonon-polariton. We apply this hybrid quantum system to subtract individual photons from a beam of light. Rydberg atom blockade is used to attain absorption of a single photon by an atomic microtrap. Surface phonon-polariton coupling to the superatom then triggers the transfer of the excitation to a storage state, a single Rydberg atom. The approach utilizes the interaction between a superatom and a Mark...
The regularities of the Rydberg energy levels of many-valence electron atom Al
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑能武; 孙育杰
2000-01-01
Within the scheme of the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the concept of spectral-level-like series is presented by reasonably classifying the Rydberg energy level of atom Al. Based on this concept, the regularities of the Rydberg energy levels are systematically studied. The deviations of the calculated values from the experimental values are generally about several percent of 1 cm, which is of high accuracy.
Takei, Nobuyuki; Genes, Claudiu; Pupillo, Guido; Goto, Haruka; Koyasu, Kuniaki; Chiba, Hisashi; Weidemüller, Matthias; Ohmori, Kenji
2015-01-01
Many-body interactions govern a variety of important quantum phenomena ranging from superconductivity and magnetism in condensed matter to solvent effects in chemistry. Understanding those interactions beyond mean field is a holy grail of modern sciences. AMO physics with advanced laser technologies has recently emerged as a new platform to study quantum many-body systems. One of its latest developments is the study of long-range interactions among ultracold particles to reveal the effects of many-body correlations. Rydberg atoms distinguish themselves by their large dipole moments and tunability of dipolar interactions. Most of ultracold Rydberg experiments have been performed with narrow-band lasers in the Rydberg blockade regime. Here we demonstrate an ultracold Rydberg gas in a complementary regime, where electronic coherence is created using a broadband picosecond laser pulse, thus circumventing the Rydberg blockade to induce strong many-body correlations. The effects of long-range Rydberg interactions h...
Quantum teleportation and computation with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutral atoms excited to Rydberg states can interact with each other via dipole–dipole interaction, which results in a physical phenomenon called the Rydberg blockade mechanism. The effect attracts much attention due to its potential applications in quantum computation and quantum simulation. Quantum teleportation has been the core protocol in quantum information science playing a key role in efficient long-distance quantum communication. Here, we first propose the implementation of a teleportation scheme with neutral atoms via Rydberg blockade, in which the entangled states of qubits can readily be prepared and the Bell state measurements just require single qubit operations without precise control of Rydberg interaction. The rapid experimental progress of coherent control of Rydberg excitation, optical trapping techniques and state-selective atomic detection promise the application of the teleportation scheme for scalable quantum computation and many-body quantum simulation using the protocol proposed by Gottesman and Chuang (1999 Nature 402 390) with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice. (paper)
Simulating Quantum Spin Models using Rydberg-Excited Atomic Ensembles in Magnetic Microtrap Arrays
Whitlock, Shannon; Hannaford, Peter
2016-01-01
We propose a scheme to simulate lattice spin models based on strong and long-range interacting Rydberg atoms stored in a large-spacing array of magnetic microtraps. Each spin is encoded in a collective spin state involving a single $nP$ Rydberg atom excited from an ensemble of ground-state alkali atoms prepared via Rydberg blockade. After the excitation laser is switched off the Rydberg spin states on neighbouring lattice sites interact via general isotropic or anisotropic spin-spin interactions. To read out the collective spin states we propose a single Rydberg atom triggered avalanche scheme in which the presence of a single Rydberg atom conditionally transfers a large number of ground-state atoms in the trap to an untrapped state which can be readily detected by site-resolved absorption imaging. Such a quantum simulator should allow the study of quantum spin systems in almost arbitrary two-dimensional configurations. This paves the way towards engineering exotic spin models, such as spin models based on tr...
Stark effect in Rydberg states of helium and barium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis, which deals with the effect of an electric field up to moderate field strengths on atoms with two valence electrons outside closed shells, in casu helium and barium, contains chapter in which the linear Stark effect in the 1 snp 1,3p Rydberg states of helium (n around 40) has been studied in a CW laser-atomic beam experiment. The evolution of the angular momentum manifolds into the n-mixing regime was followed and avoided level crossings were observed. Stark manifolds were also calculated by diagonalization of the complete energy matrix in the presence of an electric field. It turned out to be necessary to include up to five n-values in the calculations already at moderate values of the field to reproduce the data within the experimental accuracy (a few MHz), especially in the regime of the avoided crossings. (author). 147 refs.; 30 figs.; 8 tabs
Driven-dissipative dynamics of a strongly interacting Rydberg gas
Glaetzle, A W; Zhao, B; Pupillo, G; Zoller, P
2012-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium many-body dynamics of a cold gas of ground state alkali atoms weakly admixed by Rydberg states with laser light. On a timescale shorter than the lifetime of the dressed states, effective dipole-dipole or van der Waals interactions between atoms can lead to the formation of strongly correlated phases, such as atomic crystals. Using a semiclassical approach, we study the long-time dynamics where decoherence and dissipative processes due to spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation dominate, leading to heating and melting of atomic crystals as well as particle losses. These effects can be substantially mitigated by performing active laser cooling in the presence of atomic dressing.
Lensing effect of electromagnetically induced transparency involving a Rydberg state
Han, Jingshan; Vogt, Thibault; Manjappa, Manukumara; Guo, Ruixiang; Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui
2015-12-01
We study the lensing effect experienced by a weak probe field under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) involving a Rydberg state. A Gaussian coupling beam tightly focused on a laser-cooled atomic cloud produces an inhomogeneity in the coupling Rabi frequency along the transverse direction and makes the EIT area acting like a gradient-index medium. We image the probe beam at the position where it exits the atomic cloud and observe that a red-detuned probe light is strongly focused with a greatly enhanced intensity whereas a blue-detuned one is defocused with a reduced intensity. Our experimental results agree very well with the numerical solutions of Maxwell-Bloch equations.
Lensing effect of electromagnetically induced transparency involving a Rydberg state
Han, Jingshan; Manjappa, Manukumara; Guo, Ruixiang; Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui
2015-01-01
We study the lensing effect experienced by a weak probe field under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) involving a Rydberg state. A Gaussian coupling beam tightly focused on a laser-cooled atomic cloud produces an inhomogeneity in the coupling Rabi frequency along the transverse direction and makes the EIT area acting like a gradient-index medium. We image the probe beam at the position where it exits the atomic cloud, and observe that a red-detuned probe light is strongly focused with a greatly enhanced intensity whereas a blue-detuned one is de-focused with a reduced intensity. Our experimental results agree very well with the numerical solutions of Maxwell-Bloch equations.
Ultracold molecular Rydberg physics in a high density environment
Eiles, Matthew T.; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Robicheaux, F.; Greene, Chris H.
2016-06-01
Sufficiently high densities in Bose–Einstein condensates provide favorable conditions for the production of ultralong-range polyatomic molecules consisting of one Rydberg atom and a number of neutral ground state atoms. The chemical binding properties and electronic wave functions of these exotic molecules are investigated analytically via hybridized diatomic states. The effects of the molecular geometry on the system’s properties are studied through comparisons of the adiabatic potential curves and electronic structures for both symmetric and randomly configured molecular geometries. General properties of these molecules with increasing numbers of constituent atoms and in different geometries are presented. These polyatomic states have spectral signatures that lead to non-Lorentzian line-profiles.
Attractive Coulomb interaction of two-dimensional Rydberg excitons
Shahnazaryan, V.; Shelykh, I. A.; Kyriienko, O.
2016-06-01
We analyze theoretically the Coulomb scattering processes of highly excited excitons in the direct-band-gap semiconductor quantum wells. We find that contrary to the interaction of ground-state excitons, the electron and hole exchange interaction between excited excitons has an attractive character both for s - and p -type two-dimensional (2D) excitons. Moreover, we show that similar to the three-dimensional highly excited excitons, the direct interaction of 2D Rydberg excitons exhibits van der Waals-type long-range interaction. The results predict the linear growth of the absolute value of exchange interaction strength with an exciton principal quantum number and point the way towards enhancement of optical nonlinearity in 2D excitonic systems.
Ultracold molecular Rydberg physics in a high density environment
Eiles, Matthew T; Robicheaux, F; Greene, Chris H
2016-01-01
Sufficiently high densities in Bose-Einstein condensates provide favorable conditions for the production of ultralong-range polyatomic molecules consisting of one Rydberg atom and a number of neutral ground state atoms. The chemical binding properties and electronic wave functions of these exotic molecules are investigated analytically via hybridized diatomic states. The effects of the molecular geometry on the system's properties are studied through comparisons of the adiabatic potential curves and electronic structures for both symmetric and randomly configured molecular geometries. General properties of these molecules with increasing numbers of constituent atoms and in different geometries are presented. These polyatomic states have spectral signatures that lead to non-Lorentzian line-profiles.
Designing frustrated quantum magnets with laser-dressed Rydberg atoms.
Glaetzle, Alexander W; Dalmonte, Marcello; Nath, Rejish; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Zoller, Peter
2015-05-01
We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1/2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1/2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop," and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments. PMID:25978228
Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory of Strontium Rydberg Series
Vaillant, C L; Potvliege, R M
2014-01-01
Using the reactance matrix approach, we systematically develop new multichannel quantum defect theory models for the singlet and triplet S, P, D and F states of strontium based on improved energy level measurements. The new models reveal additional insights into the character of doubly excited perturber states, and the improved energy level measurements for certain series allow fine structure to be resolved for those series' perturbers. Comparison between the predictions of the new models and those of previous empirical and \\emph{ab initio} studies reveals good agreement with most series, however some discrepancies are highlighted. Using the multichannel quantum defect theory wave functions derived from our models we calculate other observables such as Land\\'e $g_J$-factors and radiative lifetimes. The analysis reveals the impact of perturbers on the Rydberg state properties of divalent atoms, highlighting the importance of including two-electron effects in the calculations of these properties. The work enabl...
Population coherent control of Rydberg potassium atom via adiabatic passage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Li-Juan; Zhang Xian-Zhou; Jia Guang-Rui; Zhang Yong-Hui; Xia Li-Hua
2013-01-01
The time-dependent multilevel approach (TDMA) and B-spline expansion technique are used to study the coherent population transfer between the quantum states of a potassium atom by a single frequency-chirped microwave pulse.The Rydberg potassium atom energy levels of n =6-15,l =0-5 states in zero field are calculated and the results are in good agreement with other theoretical values.The time evolutions of the population transfer of the six states from n =70 to n =75 in different microwave fields are obtained.The results show that the coherent control of the population transfer from the lower states to the higher ones can be accomplished by optimizing the microwave pulse parameters.
Magic wavelengths for the $5s-18s$ transition in rubidium
Goldschmidt, E A; Koller, S B; Wyllie, R; Brown, R C; Porto, J V; Safronova, U I; Safronova, M S
2015-01-01
Magic wavelengths, for which there is no differential ac Stark shift for the ground and excited state of the atom, allow trapping of excited Rydberg atoms without broadening the optical transition. This is an important tool for implementing quantum gates and other quantum information protocols with Rydberg atoms, and reliable theoretical methods to find such magic wavelengths are thus extremely useful. We use a high-precision all-order method to calculate magic wavelengths for the $5s-18s$ transition of rubidium, and compare the calculation to experiment by measuring the light shift for atoms held in an optical dipole trap at a range of wavelengths near a calculated magic value.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, V.; Bimbard, E.; Stanojevic, J.;
2012-01-01
We observe and measure dispersive optical nonlinearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental results are in agreement with a simple model where the optical nonlinearities are due to the progressive appearance of a Rydberg blockaded volume within...
Gorniaczyk, H; Tresp, C; Bienias, P; Paris-Mandoki, A; Li, W; Mirgorodskiy, I; Büchler, H P; Lesanovsky, I; Hofferberth, S
2016-01-01
Mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg atoms onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency enables manipulation of light at the single-photon level and few-photon devices such as all-optical switches and transistors operated by individual photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that Stark-tuned Förster resonances can substantially increase this effective interaction between individual photons. This technique boosts the gain of a single-photon transistor to over 100, enhances the non-destructive detection of single Rydberg atoms to a fidelity beyond 0.8, and enables high-precision spectroscopy on Rydberg pair states. On top, we achieve a gain larger than 2 with gate photon read-out after the transistor operation. Theory models for Rydberg polariton propagation on Förster resonance and for the projection of the stored spin-wave yield excellent agreement to our data and successfully identify the main decoherence mechanism of the Rydberg transistor, paving the way towards photonic quantum gates. PMID:27515278
Spectroscopy of cesium Rydberg atoms in strong radio-frequency fields
Jiao, Yuechun; Li, Jingkui; Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang
2016-01-01
We study Rydberg atoms modulated by strong radio-frequency (RF) fields with a frequency of 70 MHz. The Rydberg atoms are prepared in a room temperature cesium cell, and their level structure is probed using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). As the RF field increases from the weak- into the strong-field regime, the range of observed RF-induced phenomena progresses from AC level shifts through increasingly pronounced and numerous RF-modulation sidebands to complex state-mixing and level-crossings with high-l hydrogen-like states. Weak anharmonic admixtures in the RF field generate clearly visible modifications in the Rydberg-EIT spectra. A Floquet analysis is employed to model the Rydberg spectra, and good agreement with the experimental observations is found. Our results show that all-optical spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms in vapor cells can serve as an antenna-free, atom-based and calibration-free technique to measure and map RF electric fields and to analyze their higher-harmonic contents.
Probing a scattering resonance in Rydberg molecules with a Bose-Einstein condensate
Schlagmüller, Michael; Nguyen, Huan; Lochead, Graham; Engel, Felix; Böttcher, Fabian; Westphal, Karl M; Kleinbach, Kathrin S; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H
2015-01-01
We present spectroscopy of a single Rydberg atom excited within a Bose-Einstein condensate. We not only observe the density shift as discovered by Amaldi and Segre in 1934, but a line shape which changes with the principal quantum number n. The line broadening depends precisely on the interaction potential energy curves of the Rydberg electron with the neutral atom perturbers. In particular, we show the relevance of the triplet p-wave shape resonance in the Rydberg electron-Rb(5S) scattering, which significantly modifies the interaction potential. With a peak density of 5.5x10^14 cm^-3, and therefore an inter-particle spacing of 1300 a0 within a Bose-Einstein condensate, the potential energy curves can be probed at these Rydberg ion - neutral atom separations. We present a simple microscopic model for the spectroscopic line shape by treating the atoms overlapped with the Rydberg orbit as zero-velocity, uncorrelated, point-like particles, with binding energies associated with their ion-neutral separation, and ...
Bhowmick, Arup; Mohapatra, Ashok K
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the phenomenon of blockade in two-photon excitations to the Rydberg state in thermal vapor. A technique based on optical heterodyne is used to measure the dispersion of a probe beam far off resonant to the D2 line of rubidium in the presence of a strong laser beam that couples to the Rydberg state via two-photon resonance. Density dependent suppression of the dispersion peak is observed while coupling to the Rydberg state with principal quantum number, n = 60. The experimental observation is explained using the phenomenon of Rydberg blockade. The blockade radius is measured to be about 2.2 {\\mu}m which is consistent with the scaling due to the Doppler width of 2-photon resonance in thermal vapor. Our result promises the realization of single photon source and strong single photon non-linearity based on Rydberg blockade in thermal vapor.
Non-Hydrogenic Rydberg Atroms in Magnetic Fields
Dando, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.; Jans, W.; Schweizer, W.
The classical and quantal dynamics of non-hydrogenic Rydberg atoms in magnetic fields are investigated. Previous attempts to infer classical behaviour from quantum properties produced conflicting results: at low scaled energies (ɛ = -0.5) the nearest-neighbour statistics (NNS) were found to be at the chaotic (Wigner) limit while quantum phase-space distributions suggested a high degree of regularity. Here the classical limit is investigated directly by solving the equations of motion of the Diamagnetic Kepler problem (DKP) with an additional non-Coulombic model potential. It is found that typically trajectories are, over a long time-scale, ergodic. However over a shorter time-scale--in between collisions with the core--classical trajectories remain confined on the tori of the DKP. The origin of a well-known resonance in the NNS of hydrogen at ɛ = -0.316 is clarified by the comparison with the non-hydrogenic behaviour. However, the classical model only partially explains the quantum behaviour. The difficulties of quantizing such a system are discussed.
Rydberg states in a microwave field: regularity and chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a theoretical formalism which provides a powerful tool for the detailed numerical analysis of the interaction of three-dimensional hydrogen atoms with an intense radiation field. The application of this approach to the microwave ionization of Rydberg states of hydrogen provides the most realistic numerical experiments ever made in this area. A thorough analysis of ionization signals and thresholds, of level dynamics and of the phase space projections of associated wave functions is provided for a one-dimensional model of the atom. The comparison to the ionization of three-dimensional atoms confirms the validity of the one-dimensional model for extended initial states and, hence, dynamical localization theory, as far as the ionization threshold is concerned. Three classes of three-dimensional initial states with distinct symmetries are identified and they appear to be more or less adapted to the symmetries of the eigenstates of the microwave problem. 'Scarred' wavefunctions of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom exposed to microwave field are shown. Finally, the dynamics of a circular state in a microwave and in an intense laser field are compared. (author)
Localization phenomena in interacting Rydberg lattice gases with position disorder
Marcuzzi, Matteo; Barredo, Daniel; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Labuhn, Henning; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine; Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-01-01
Disordered systems provide paradigmatic instances of ergodicity breaking and localization phenomena. Here we explore the dynamics of excitations in a system of Rydberg atoms held in optical tweezers. The finite temperature produces an intrinsic uncertainty in the atomic positions, which translates into quenched correlated disorder in the interatomic interaction strengths. In a simple approach, the dynamics in the many-body Hilbert space can be understood in terms of a one-dimensional Anderson-like model with disorder on every other site, featuring both localized and delocalized states. We conduct an experiment on an eight-atom chain and observe a clear suppression of excitation transfer. Our experiment accesses a regime which is described by a two-dimensional Anderson model on a "trimmed" square lattice. Our results thus provide a concrete example in which the absence of excitation propagation in a many-body system is directly related to Anderson-like localization in the Hilbert space, which is believed to be...
Resonant Rydberg Dressing of Alkaline-Earth Atoms via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
Gaul, C.; DeSalvo, B. J.; Aman, J. A.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Pohl, T.
2016-06-01
We develop an approach to generate finite-range atomic interactions via optical Rydberg-state excitation and study the underlying excitation dynamics in theory and experiment. In contrast to previous work, the proposed scheme is based on resonant optical driving and the establishment of a dark state under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Analyzing the driven dissipative dynamics of the atomic gas, we show that the interplay between coherent light coupling, radiative decay, and strong Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions leads to the emergence of sizable effective interactions while providing remarkably long coherence times. The latter are studied experimentally in a cold gas of strontium atoms for which the proposed scheme is most efficient. Our measured atom loss is in agreement with the theoretical prediction based on binary effective interactions between the driven atoms.
A high fidelity Rydberg blockade entangling gate using shaped, analytic pulses
Theis, L S; Wilhelm, F K; Saffmann, M
2016-01-01
We show that the use of shaped pulses improves the fidelity of a Rydberg blockade two-qubit entangling gate by several orders of magnitude compared to previous protocols based on square pulses or optimal control pulses. Using analytical Derivative Removal by Adiabatic Gate (DRAG) pulses that reduce excitation of primary leakage states and an analytical method of finding the optimal Rydberg blockade we generate Bell states with a fidelity of $F>0.9999$ in a 300 K environment for a gate time of only $50\\;{\\rm ns}$, which is an order of magnitude faster than previous protocols. These results establish the potential of neutral atom qubits with Rydberg blockade gates for scalable quantum computation.
Universal time-evolution of a Rydberg lattice gas with perfect blockade
Olmos, B; Lesanovsky, I; Velázquez, L
2012-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of a strongly interacting spin system that is motivated by current experimental realizations of strongly interacting Rydberg gases in lattices. In particular we are interested in the temporal evolution of quantities such as the density of Rydberg atoms and density-density correlations when the system is initialized in a fully polarized state without Rydberg excitations. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the expectation values of these observables converge at least logarithmically to universal functions and outline a method to obtain these functions. We prove that a finite one-dimensional system follows this universal behavior up to a given time. The length of this universal time period depends on the actual system size. This shows that already the study of small systems allows to make precise predictions about the thermodynamic limit provided that the observation time is sufficiently short. We discuss this for various observables and for systems with different dimensions, int...
Semiclassical calculation of recurrence spectra of Rydberg He2+ molecular ion in a magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang De-Hua; Song Xin-Xiu; Ding Shi-Liang
2008-01-01
Making use of the molecular clceed-orbit theory and a new model potential for the Rydberg molecule,we have calculated the recurrence spectra of He2+ molecular ion in a magnetic field for different quantum defects.The Fourier transform spectra of He2+ molecular ion may be used to perform a direct comparison between peaks in the spectra and the scaled action values of closed orbits of the excited electron in external fields.We find that the spectral modulations can be analysed in terms of the scattering of the excited electron on the molecular core.Unlike the case of the Rydberg atom where the elastic scattering is predominant,modulations produced by inelastic scattering are also vital to the photoabsorption spectrum of the Rydberg molecule.Our results are in good agreement with the quantum results,which suggests that our method is correct.
Accessing Rydberg-dressed interactions using many-body Ramsey dynamics
Mukherjee, Rick; Killian, Thomas; Hazzard, Kaden
2016-05-01
We demonstrate that Ramsey spectroscopy can be used to observe Rydberg-dressed interactions in a many-body system. Our scheme operates comfortably within experimentally measured lifetimes, and accesses a regime where quantum superpositions are crucial. We build a spin-1/2 from one level that is Rydberg-dressed and another that is not. These levels may be hyperfine or long-lived electronic states. An Ising spin model governs the Ramsey dynamics, for which we derive an exact solution. Due to the structure of Rydberg interactions, the dynamics differs significantly from that in other spin systems. As one example, spin echo can increase the rate at which coherence decays. The results are relevant for the current ongoing experiments, including those at Rice University.
Resonant Rydberg-dressing of Alkaline-Earth Atoms via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
Gaul, C; Aman, J A; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C; Pohl, T
2015-01-01
We develop an approach to generate finite-range atomic interactions via optical Rydberg-state excitation and study the underlying excitation dynamics in theory and experiment. In contrast to previous work, the proposed scheme is based on resonant optical driving and the establishment of a dark state under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. Analyzing the driven dissipative dynamics of the atomic gas, we show that the interplay between coherent light coupling, radiative decay and strong Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions leads to the emergence of sizeable effective interactions while providing remarkably long coherence times. The latter are studied experimentally in a cold gas of Strontium atoms for which the proposed scheme is most efficient. Our measured atom loss is in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction based on binary effective interactions between the driven atoms.
Semiclassical Calculation of Recurrence Spectra of Rydberg Hydrogen Atom Near a Metal Surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG De-Hua
2009-01-01
Using closed orbit theory, we give a clear physical picture description of the Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface and calculate the Fourier transformed recurrence spectra of this system at different scaled energies below ionization threshold.The results show that with the increase of the scaled energy, the number of the closed orbit increases greatly.Some of the orbits are created by the bifurcation of the perpendicular orbit.This case is quite similar to the Rydberg atom in an electric field.When the scaled energy increases furthermore, chaotic orbits appear.This study provides a different perspective on the dynamical behavior of the Rydberg atom near a metal surface.
High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse
Zhai, Zhen; Zhu, Qiren; Chen, Jing; Yan, Zong-Chao; Fu, Panming; Wang, Bingbing
2011-04-01
We demonstrate that high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with both high cutoff frequency and high conversion efficiency can be realized by using a Rydberg atom in a few-cycle laser pulse. This is because a Rydberg state has a large electron orbital radius and small binding energy; therefore an electron in the Rydberg state can be ionized easily and accelerated directly toward the core under the interaction of a few-cycle laser pulse, leading to emission of harmonic photons. In this case, the tunneling process of the electron is not involved and, hence, the conversion efficiency and the cutoff frequency of harmonic generation can be higher than that predicted by the conventional three-step model.
Observation of Rydberg-Atom Macrodimers: Micrometer-Sized Diatomic Molecules.
Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Deiglmayr, Johannes
2016-08-19
Long-range metastable molecules consisting of two cesium atoms in high Rydberg states have been observed in an ultracold gas. A sequential three-photon two-color photoassociation scheme is employed to form these molecules in states, which correlate to np(n+1)s dissociation asymptotes. Spectral signatures of bound molecular states are clearly resolved at the positions of avoided crossings between long-range van der Waals potential curves. The experimental results are in agreement with simulations based on a detailed model of the long-range multipole-multipole interactions of Rydberg-atom pair states. We show that a full model is required to accurately predict the occurrence of bound Rydberg macrodimers. The macrodimers are distinguished from repulsive molecular states by their behavior with respect to spontaneous ionization and possible decay channels are discussed. PMID:27588856
Implementation of an experimentally feasible controlled-phase gate on two blockaded Rydberg atoms
Müller, Matthias M.; Murphy, Michael; Montangero, Simone; Calarco, Tommaso; Grangier, Philippe; Browaeys, Antoine
2014-03-01
We investigate the implementation of a controlled-Z gate on a pair of Rydberg atoms in spatially separated dipole traps where the joint excitation of both atoms into the Rydberg level is strongly suppressed (the Rydberg blockade). We follow the adiabatic gate scheme of Jaksch et al. [D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2208], where the pair of atoms is coherently excited using lasers, and apply it to the experimental setup outlined by Gaëtan et al. [A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009), 10.1038/nphys1183]. We apply optimization to the experimental parameters to improve gate fidelity and consider the impact of several experimental constraints on the gate success.
Van der Waals Interactions among Alkali Rydberg Atoms with Excitonic States
Zoubi, Hashem
2015-01-01
We investigate the influence of the appearance of excitonic states on van der Waals interactions among two Rydberg atoms. The atoms are assumed to be in different Rydberg states, e.g., in the $|ns\\rangle$ and $|np\\rangle$ states. The resonant dipole-dipole interactions yield symmetric and antisymmetric excitons, with energy splitting that give rise to new resonances as the atoms approach each other. Only far from these resonances the van der Waals coefficients, $C_6^{sp}$, can be defined. We calculate the $C_6$ coefficients for alkali atoms and present the results for lithium by applying perturbation theory. At short interatomic distances of several $\\mu m$, we show that the widely used simple model of two-level systems for excitons in Rydberg atoms breaks down, and the correct representation implies multi-level atoms. Even though, at larger distances one can keep the two-level systems but in including van der Waals interactions among the atoms.
Yakshina, E A; Beterov, I I; Entin, V M; Andreeva, C; Cinins, A; Markovski, A; Iftikhar, Z; Ekers, A; Ryabtsev, I I
2016-01-01
The observation of the Stark-tuned F\\"orster resonances between Rydberg atoms excited by narrowband cw laser radiation requires usage of a Stark-switching technique in order to excite the atoms first in a fixed electric field and then to induce the interactions in a varied electric field, which is scanned across the F\\"orster resonance. In our experiments with a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms we have found that the transients at the edges of the electric pulses strongly affect the line shapes of the F\\"orster resonances, since the resonances occur mainly on a time scale of ~100 ns, which is comparable with the duration of the transients. For example, a short-term ringing at a certain frequency causes additional radio-frequency-assisted F\\"orster resonances, while non-sharp edges lead to asymmetry. The intentional application of the radio-frequency field induces transitions between collective states, whose line shape depends on the interaction strengths and time. Spatial averaging over the atom positions in a singl...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop practical formulas for the calculation of the matrix elements of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with an atomic state, beyond the long-wavelength approximation. The atom-plus-field Hamiltonian is chosen to have the multipolar form, containing the electric, paramagnetic, and diamagnetic operators. The final workable expressions include the interactions to all orders and are derived by first expanding the fields in partial waves. The electric-field operator reaches a constant value as the radial variable becomes large, contrary to the result of the electric-dipole approximation (EDA) where the value of the corresponding operator increases indefinitely. Applications are given for Rydberg states of hydrogen up to n=50 and for free-free transitions in a Coulomb potential. Such matrix elements are relevant to a number of real and virtual processes occurring during laser-atom interactions. The computation is done numerically, using a combination of analytic with numerical techniques. By comparing the results of the EDA with those of the exact treatment, it is shown that the former is inadequate in such cases. This finding has repercussions on the theory and understanding of the physics of quantum systems in high-lying Rydberg levels and wave packets or in scattering states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchleitner, A
1993-12-15
We develop a theoretical formalism which provides a powerful tool for the detailed numerical analysis of the interaction of three-dimensional hydrogen atoms with an intense radiation field. The application of this approach to the microwave ionization of Rydberg states of hydrogen provides the most realistic numerical experiments ever made in this area. A thorough analysis of ionization signals and thresholds, of level dynamics and of the phase space projections of associated wave functions is provided for a one-dimensional model of the atom. The comparison to the ionization of three-dimensional atoms confirms the validity of the one-dimensional model for extended initial states and, hence, dynamical localization theory, as far as the ionization threshold is concerned. Three classes of three-dimensional initial states with distinct symmetries are identified and they appear to be more or less adapted to the symmetries of the eigenstates of the microwave problem. 'Scarred' wavefunctions of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom exposed to microwave field are shown. Finally, the dynamics of a circular state in a microwave and in an intense laser field are compared. (author)
An optically resolvable Schroedinger's cat from Rydberg dressed cold atom clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In Rydberg dressed ultra-cold gases, ground state atoms inherit properties of a weakly admixed Rydberg state, such as sensitivity to long-range interactions. We show that through hyperfine-state dependent interactions, a pair of atom clouds can evolve into a spin and subsequently into a spatial Schroedinger's cat state: The pair, containing 40 atoms in total, is in a coherent superposition of two configurations, with cloud locations separated by micrometers. The mesoscopic nature of the superposition state can be proven with absorption imaging, while the coherence can be revealed though recombination and interference of the split wave packets.
An optically resolvable Schr\\"odinger's cat from Rydberg dressed cold atom clouds
Möbius, S; Eisfeld, A; Wüster, S; Rost, J -M
2012-01-01
In Rydberg dressed ultra-cold gases, ground state atoms inherit properties of a weakly admixed Rydberg state, such as sensitivity to long-range interactions. We show that through hyperfine-state dependent interactions, a pair of atom clouds can evolve into a spin and subsequently into a spatial Schr\\"odinger's cat state: The pair, containing 20 atoms in total, is in a coherent superposition of two configurations, with cloud locations separated by micrometers. The mesoscopic nature of the superposition state can be proven with absorption imaging, while the coherence can be revealed though recombination and interference of the split wave packets.
The interaction potential of NO-H2 in ground and A Rydberg state
Pajón-Suárez, Pedro; Valentín-Rodríguez, Mónica; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón
2016-08-01
The interaction potential for the ground and A Rydberg state of NO-H2 has been calculated using high level ab initio methods. The complex is very floppy in nature and large amplitude motions are expected to characterize its dynamics. The ground state is characterized by two very close-lying states which exhibit crossings. By analogy with other complexes the Rydberg state is characterized by much smaller well depth and larger intermolecular distance. We compare with model potentials used in previous molecular dynamics simulations of photoexcitation and relaxation and conclude on the importance of performing new studies.
Calculation of the fine structure of the level in Rydberg state of lithium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The level shift and level formula of lithium atom in Rydberg states are achieved by means of the calculation of polarization of the atomic core (including the contribution of dipole moment, quadrupole moment and octupole moment);meanwhile, the effect of relativity theory, the orbital angular momentum L and the spin angular momentum S coupling (LS coupling), and high order correction of the effective potential are considered. The some fine structures (N=5～12,L=4～9,J=L±1/2) and the corresponding level intervals in Rydberg states can be calculated by the above-mentioned level formula and compared with correlated experimental data.
Rydberg atoms with a reduced sensitivity to dc and low-frequency electric fields
Jones, L A; Martin, J D D
2013-01-01
A non-resonant microwave dressing field at 38.465 GHz was used to eliminate the static electric dipole moment difference between the $49s_{1/2}$ and $48s_{1/2}$ Rydberg states of $^{87}$Rb in dc fields of approximately 1 V/cm. The reduced susceptibility to electric field fluctuations was measured using 2-photon microwave spectroscopy. An anomalous spectral doublet is attributed to polarization ellipticity in the dressing field. The demonstrated ability to inhibit static dipole moment differences --- while retaining sensitivity to high frequency fields --- is applicable to sensors and/or quantum devices using Rydberg atoms.
Optical-optical double-resonant multiphoton ionization spectra of Rydberg states of nitrogen dioxide
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Gui-Yin; Zhang Lian-Shui; Sun Bo; Han Xiao-Feng; Yu Wei
2005-01-01
The optical-optical double-resonant multiphoton ionization(OODR-MPI) technique has been applied to the study of the Rydberg states of nitrogen dioxide. The results show that ,althougy the OODR-MPI spectra of NO2 are composed of regular progression bands at different pump laser intensities, their ionization pathways are different.The NO2 mollecule is ionized through the (3+1+1)double-resonant process as the pump laser intensity is in a high value, or else it is through the (1+2+1)rpocess.The final resonant states in the two ionizing processes have been attributed to different Rydberg states.
Multiphoton Ionization of Formaldehyde: Observation of 3py and 3pz Rydberg States
Bomse, D. S.; Dougal, S.
1987-01-01
Multiphoton ionization (MPI) of CH2O and CD2O is reported for dye laser wavelengths between 445 and 470 nm. The ionization pathway starts with three-photon resonant absorption to 3py and 3pz Rydberg states. One or two additional photons are required, depending on wavelength, to reach threshold. MPI spectra agree well with VUV absorption measurements of the same Rydberg levels. MPI yields are small and photoacoustic measurements imply the initial three-photon excitation has low probability. Tr...
Rydberg states in the strong field ionization of hydrogen by 800, 1200 and 1600 nm lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the population of Rydberg excited states in the strong field interaction of atomic hydrogen with 800, 1200 and 1600 nm laser pulses. The total excitation probability displays strong out-of-phase modulation with respect to the weak modulation in the total ionization probability as the laser intensity is increased. The results are explained in terms of channel closing, to demonstrate multiphoton ionization features in the strong tunnel ionization regime. We also explain the stability of high Rydberg states in strong laser fields in contrast to other previous ionization stabilization models. (paper)
Spin-charge separation of dark-state polaritons in a Rydberg medium
Shi, Xiao-Feng; Svetlichnyy, P.; Kennedy, T. A. B.
2016-04-01
The propagation of light fields through a quasi one-dimensional cold atomic gas, exciting atomic Rydberg levels of large principal quantum number under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency, can lead to a stable two-mode Luttinger liquid system. Atomic van der Waals interactions induce a coupling of bosonic field modes that display both photonic and atomic character, the Rydberg dark-state polaritons (RDPs). It is shown that by tunable control of the van der Waals coupling, the RDP may decouple into independent ‘spin’ and ‘charge’ fields which propagate at different speeds, analogous to spin-charge separation of electrons in a one-dimensional metal.
Ultracold Chemical Reactions of a Single Rydberg Atom in a Dense Gas
Schlagmüller, Michael; Liebisch, Tara Cubel; Engel, Felix; Kleinbach, Kathrin S.; Böttcher, Fabian; Hermann, Udo; Westphal, Karl M.; Gaj, Anita; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.
2016-07-01
Within a dense environment (ρ ≈1014 atoms /cm3 ) at ultracold temperatures (T collision time leading to increased lifetimes of the Rydberg state independent of the densities investigated. Even at very high densities (ρ ≈4.8 ×1014 cm-3 ), the lifetime of a Rydberg atom exceeds 10 μ s at n >140 compared to 1 μ s at n =90 . In addition, a second observed reaction mechanism, namely, Rb2+ molecule formation, was studied. Both reaction products are equally probable for n =40 , but the fraction of Rb2+ created drops to below 10% for n ≥90 .
Rydberg Excitation of Single Atoms for Applications in Quantum Information and Metrology
Hankin, Aaron Michael
With the advent of laser cooling and trapping, neutral atoms have become a foundational source of accuracy for applications in metrology and are showing great potential for their use as qubits in quantum information. In metrology, neutral atoms provide the most accurate references for the measurement of time and acceleration. The unsurpassed stability provided by these systems make neutral atoms an attractive avenue to explore applications in quantum information and computing. However, to fully investigate the field of quantum information, we require a method to generate entangling interactions between neutral-atom qubits. Recent progress in the use of highly-excited Rydberg states for strong dipolar interactions has shown great promise for controlled entanglement using the Rydberg blockade phenomenon. I report the use of singly-trapped cesium-133 atoms as qubits for applications in metrology and quantum information. Each atom provides a physical basis for a single qubit by encoding the required information into the ground-state hyperfine structure of cesium-133. Through the manipulation of these qubits with microwave and optical frequency sources, we demonstrate the capacity for arbitrary single-qubit control by driving qubit rotations in three orthogonal directions on the Bloch sphere. With this control, we develop an atom interferometer that far surpasses the force sensitivity of other approaches by applying the well-established technique of light-pulsed atom-matterwave interferometry to single atoms. Following this, we focus on two-qubit interactions using highly-excited Rydberg states. Through the development of a unique single-photon approach to Rydberg excitation using an ultraviolet laser at 319 nm, we observe the Rydberg blockade interaction between atoms separated by 6.6(3) μm. Motivated by the observation of Rydberg blockade, we study the application of Rydberg-dressed states for a quantum controlled-phase gate. Using a realistic simulation of the
Quantum computing with atomic qubits and Rydberg interactions: progress and challenges
Saffman, M.
2016-10-01
We present a review of quantum computation with neutral atom qubits. After an overview of architectural options and approaches to preparing large qubit arrays we examine Rydberg mediated gate protocols and fidelity for two- and multi-qubit interactions. Quantum simulation and Rydberg dressing are alternatives to circuit based quantum computing for exploring many body quantum dynamics. We review the properties of the dressing interaction and provide a quantitative figure of merit for the complexity of the coherent dynamics that can be accessed with dressing. We conclude with a summary of the current status and an outlook for future progress.
Magic wavelengths for the 5s-18s transition in rubidium
Goldschmidt, E.A.; Norris, D.G.; Koller, S.B.; Wyllie, R.; Brown, R.C.; Porto, J.; Safronova, M.S.; Safronova, U.I.
2015-01-01
Magic wavelengths, for which there is no differential ac Stark shift for the ground and excited state of the atom, allow trapping of excited Rydberg atoms without broadening the optical transition. This is an important tool for implementing quantum gates and other quantum information protocols with
Time and frequency resolved spectra of high molecular Rydberg states by dynamical computations
Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.
1997-09-01
The absorption spectrum of bound Rydberg states which can be detected by a delayed, pulsed field ionization is computed. The spectrum, measured for various delay times, provides information on the short and the longer time dynamics of high molecular Rydberg states. A quantitative dynamical theory, based on an effective Hamiltonian formalism is applied, illustrating the role of the Rydberg electron-core coupling and of an external electrical field in the delay-time dependent spectra. The sharpening of the spectra for longer delay times is reproduced by the dynamical computations. It is found that the overall intensity, as a function of the delay time before detection, is well described by a double exponential decay where the short lifetime is primarily a manifestation of the direct autoionization to the continuum, while the long lifetime is due to interseries coupling. Both lifetimes increase with the principal quantum number of the Rydberg states. The notion of trapped "reservoir states" is illustrated by the computational results, with special reference to a kinetic model analysis. The role of the initially optically accessed state(s) and of the depth of detection, in particular with regard to the intensity, is demonstrated. The effect of varying the strength of an external dc field in the time interval prior to the detection is illustrated by the dynamical computations, with respect to both the decay kinetics and the intensity of the spectrum.
Gavryusev, V.; Signoles, A.; Ferreira-Cao, M.; Zürn, G.; Hofmann, C. S.; Günter, G.; Schempp, H.; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Whitlock, S.; Weidemüller, M.
2016-08-01
We present combined measurements of the spatially resolved optical spectrum and the total excited-atom number in an ultracold gas of three-level atoms under electromagnetically induced transparency conditions involving high-lying Rydberg states. The observed optical transmission of a weak probe laser at the center of the coupling region exhibits a double peaked spectrum as a function of detuning, while the Rydberg atom number shows a comparatively narrow single resonance. By imaging the transmitted light onto a charge-coupled-device camera, we record hundreds of spectra in parallel, which are used to map out the spatial profile of Rabi frequencies of the coupling laser. Using all the information available we can reconstruct the full one-body density matrix of the three-level system, which provides the optical susceptibility and the Rydberg density as a function of spatial position. These results help elucidate the connection between three-level interference phenomena, including the interplay of matter and light degrees of freedom and will facilitate new studies of many-body effects in optically driven Rydberg gases.
Quantum computing with atomic qubits and Rydberg interactions: Progress and challenges
Saffman, Mark
2016-01-01
We present a review of quantum computation with neutral atom qubits. After an overview of architectural options we examine Rydberg mediated gate protocols and fidelity for two- and multi-qubit interactions. We conclude with a summary of the current status and give an outlook for future progress.
Lifetimes of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules in vibrational ground and excited states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butscher, Bjoern; Bendkowsky, Vera; Nipper, Johannes; Balewski, Jonathan B; Kukota, Ludmila; Loew, Robert; Pfau, Tilman [5. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Li, Weibin; Pohl, Thomas; Rost, Jan Michael, E-mail: b.butscher@physik.uni-stuttgart.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)
2011-09-28
Since their first experimental observation, ultralong-range Rydberg molecules consisting of a highly excited Rydberg atom and a ground state atom [1, 2] have attracted the interest in the field of ultracold chemistry [3, 4]. Especially the intriguing properties such as size, polarizability and type of binding they inherit from the Rydberg atom are of interest. An open question in the field is the reduced lifetime of the molecules compared to the corresponding atomic Rydberg states [2]. In this paper we present an experimental study on the lifetimes of the {sup 3}{Sigma}(5s - 35s) molecule in its vibrational ground state and in an excited state. We show that the lifetimes depend on the density of ground state atoms and that this can be described in the frame of a classical scattering between the molecules and ground state atoms. We also find that the excited molecular state has an even more reduced lifetime compared to the ground state which can be attributed to an inward penetration of the bound atomic pair due to imperfect quantum reflection that takes place in the special shape of the molecular potential [5].
Pulsed excitation of Rydberg-atom-pair states in an ultracold Cs gas
Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Deiglmayr, Johannes
2015-01-01
Pulsed laser excitation of a dense ultracold Cs vapor has been used to study the pairwise interactions between Cs atoms excited to $n$p$_{3/2}$ Rydberg states of principal quantum numbers in the range $n=22-36$. Molecular resonances were observed that correspond to excitation of Rydberg-atom-pair states correlated not only to the $n$p$_{3/2}+n$p$_{3/2}$ dissociation asymptotes, but also to $n$s$_{1/2}+(n+1)$s$_{1/2}$, $n$s$_{1/2}+n'$f$_{j}$, and $(n-4)$f$_{j}+(n-3)$f$_{j}$ $(j=5/2,7/2)$ dissociation asymptotes. These pair resonances are interpreted as arising from dipole-dipole, and higher long-range-interaction terms between the Rydberg atoms on the basis of i) their spectral positions, ii) their response to static and pulsed electric fields, and iii) millimeter-wave spectra between pair states correlated to different pair-dissociation asymptotes. The Rydberg-atom--pair states were found to spontaneously decay by Penning ionization and the dynamics of the ionization process were investigated during the first...
Probing an Electron Scattering Resonance using Rydberg Molecules within a Dense and Ultracold Gas.
Schlagmüller, Michael; Liebisch, Tara Cubel; Nguyen, Huan; Lochead, Graham; Engel, Felix; Böttcher, Fabian; Westphal, Karl M; Kleinbach, Kathrin S; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H
2016-02-01
We present spectroscopy of a single Rydberg atom excited within a Bose-Einstein condensate. We not only observe the density shift as discovered by Amaldi and Segrè in 1934, but a line shape that changes with the principal quantum number n. The line broadening depends precisely on the interaction potential energy curves of the Rydberg electron with the neutral atom perturbers. In particular, we show the relevance of the triplet p-wave shape resonance in the e^{-}-Rb(5S) scattering, which significantly modifies the interaction potential. With a peak density of 5.5×10^{14} cm^{-3}, and therefore an interparticle spacing of 1300 a_{0} within a Bose-Einstein condensate, the potential energy curves can be probed at these Rydberg ion-neutral atom separations. We present a simple microscopic model for the spectroscopic line shape by treating the atoms overlapped with the Rydberg orbit as zero-velocity, uncorrelated, pointlike particles, with binding energies associated with their ion-neutral separation, and good agreement is found. PMID:26894707
Field ionization process of Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states
Zhang, Jing; Shen, Li; Dai, Chang-Jian
2015-11-01
The field ionization process of the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states, converging to the first ionization limit, 4f76s 9S4, is systematically investigated. The spectra of the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states are populated with three-step laser excitation, and detected by electric field ionization (EFI) method. Two different kinds of the EFI pulses are applied after laser excitation to observe the possible impacts on the EFI process. The exact EFI ionization thresholds for the 4f76snp Rydberg states can be determined by observing the corresponding EFI spectra. In particular, some structures above the EFI threshold are found in the EFI spectra, which may be interpreted as the effect from black body radiation (BBR). Finally, the scaling law of the EFI threshold for the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states with the effective quantum number is built. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11004151 and 11174218).
Cooperative Excitation and Many-Body Interactions in a Cold Rydberg Gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Viteau, Matthieu; Huillery, Paul; Bason, Mark George;
2012-01-01
The dipole blockade of Rydberg excitations is a hallmark of the strong interactions between atoms in these high-lying quantum states [ M. Saffman, T. G. Walker and K. Mølmer Rev. Mod. Phys. 82 2313 (2010); D. Comparat and P. Pillet J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27 A208 (2010)]. One of the consequences of th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A high sensitivity single photon counting method using Rydberg atoms is discussed and shown to be a promissing technique for detecting microwave photons converted from cosmic axions in a strong magnetic field by the Primakov effect. This method could give much better results compared with conventional methods. (author)
Ionization of H Rydberg atoms by microwaves: Pulse-shape influence on the algebraic decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gebarowski, R.; Zakrzewski, J. (Instytut Fizyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland))
1994-11-01
A classical study is performed of the ionization of hydrogen Rydberg atoms by [ital circularly] polarized microwaves. It is shown that the electron survival probability may decay algebraically for long microwave pulses. The character of the decay is sensitive to the initial atomic state as well as to the assumed shape of the microwave pulse.
Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Holloway, Christopher L.; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Raithel, Georg
2016-04-01
In this work, we demonstrate an approach for improved sensitivity in weak radio frequency (RF) electric-field strength measurements using Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an atomic vapor. This is accomplished by varying the RF frequency around a resonant atomic transition and extrapolating the weak on-resonant field strength from the resulting off-resonant Autler-Townes (AT) splittings. This measurement remains directly traceable to SI compared to previous techniques, precluding any knowledge of experimental parameters such as optical beam powers as is the case when using the curvature of the EIT line shape to measure weak fields. We use this approach to measure weak RF fields at 182 GHz and 208 GHz demonstrating improvement greater than a factor of 2 in the measurement sensitivity compared to on-resonant AT splitting RF electric field measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The optical properties of an isolated firefly luciferin anion are investigated by using first-principles calculations, employing the many-body perturbation theory to take into account the excitonic effect. The calculated photoabsorption spectra are compared with the results obtained using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) employing the localized atomic orbital (AO) basis sets and a recent experiment in vacuum. The present method well reproduces the line shape at the photon energy corresponding to the Rydberg and resonance excitations but overestimates the peak positions by about 0.5 eV. However, the TDDFT-calculated positions of some peaks are closer to those of the experiment. We also investigate the basis set dependency in describing the free electron states above vacuum level and the excitons involving the transitions to the free electron states and conclude that AO-only basis sets are inaccurate for free electron states and the use of a plane wave basis set is required
Zaouris, Dimitris; Kartakoullis, Andreas; Glodic, Pavle; Samartzis, Peter C; Rafn Hróðmarsson, Helgi; Kvaran, Ágúst
2015-04-28
Photoexcitation dynamics of the E((1)Σ(+)) (v' = 0) Rydberg state and the V((1)Σ(+)) (v') ion-pair vibrational states of HBr are investigated by velocity map imaging (VMI). H(+) photoions, produced through a number of vibrational and rotational levels of the two states were imaged and kinetic energy release (KER) and angular distributions were extracted from the data. In agreement with previous work, we found the photodissociation channels forming H*(n = 2) + Br((2)P3/2)/Br*((2)P1/2) to be dominant. Autoionization pathways leading to H(+) + Br((2)P3/2)/Br*((2)P1/2) via either HBr(+)((2)Π3/2) or HBr(+)*((2)Π1/2) formation were also present. The analysis of KER and angular distributions and comparison with rotationally and mass resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra revealed the excitation transition mechanisms and characteristics of states involved as well as the involvement of the E-V state interactions and their v' and J' dependence. PMID:25801122
Noguchi, Yoshifumi; Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Koga, Nobuaki
2014-07-28
The optical properties of an isolated firefly luciferin anion are investigated by using first-principles calculations, employing the many-body perturbation theory to take into account the excitonic effect. The calculated photoabsorption spectra are compared with the results obtained using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) employing the localized atomic orbital (AO) basis sets and a recent experiment in vacuum. The present method well reproduces the line shape at the photon energy corresponding to the Rydberg and resonance excitations but overestimates the peak positions by about 0.5 eV. However, the TDDFT-calculated positions of some peaks are closer to those of the experiment. We also investigate the basis set dependency in describing the free electron states above vacuum level and the excitons involving the transitions to the free electron states and conclude that AO-only basis sets are inaccurate for free electron states and the use of a plane wave basis set is required. PMID:25084912
Parigi, Valentina; Bimbard, Erwan; Stanojevic, Jovica; Hilliard, Andrew; Nogrette, Florence; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Grangier, Philippe
2012-01-01
International audience We observe and measure dispersive optical nonlinearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental results are in agreement with a simple model where the optical nonlinearities are due to the progressive appearance of a Rydberg blockaded volume within the medium. The measurements allow a direct estimation of the ''blockaded fraction'' of atoms within the atomic ensemble.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donovan, Robert J., E-mail: R.Donovan@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Lawley, Kenneth P., E-mail: k.p.lawley@ed.ac.uk; Ridley, Trevor, E-mail: R.Donovan@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black Building, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ (United Kingdom)
2015-05-28
We report the identification of heavy Rydberg resonances in the ion-pair spectra of I{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, ICl, and IBr. Extensive vibrational progressions are analysed in terms of the energy dependence of the quantum defect δ(E{sub b}) rather than as Dunham expansions. This is shown to define the heavy Rydberg region, providing a more revealing fit to the data with fewer coefficients and leads just as easily to numbering data sets separated by gaps in the observed vibrational progressions. Interaction of heavy Rydberg states with electronic Rydberg states at avoided crossings on the inner wall of the ion-pair potential is shown to produce distinctive changes in the energy dependence of δ(E{sub b}), with weak and strong interactions readily distinguished. Heavy Rydberg behaviour is found to extend well below near-dissociation states, down to vibrational levels ∼18 000-20 000 cm{sup −1} below dissociation. The rapid semi-classical calculation of δ(E{sub b}) for heavy Rydberg states is emphasised and shows their absolute magnitude to be essentially the volume of phase space excluded from the vibrational motion by avoiding core-core penetration of the ions.
Konar, Arkaprabha; Shu, Yinan; Levine, Benjamin; Lozovoy, Vadim; Dantus, Marcos
2015-05-01
Here, we report on quantum coherent control of a large (>20 atoms) polyatomic molecule. In particular, we explore the time resolved dynamics of dicyclopentadiene when excited by a pair of phase-locked intense 800nm femtosecond pulses by monitoring changes in ion yield of the parent and fragments. Long-lived oscillations are observed for ~ 500 fs in the parent ion yield indicating the presence of long lived-electronic states. We take advantage of the long-lived electronic coherence to control the yield of different fragment ions. The presence of Rydberg states is further supported by ab initio calculations at the EOM-CCSD/6-31 +G** level of theory which identified five low-lying electronic states of neutral DCPD in the regions between 6.4 and 7.0 eV in vertical excitation energy. States of both pure Rydberg and mixed π --> π */Rydberg character are observed in this low energy region and are known to originate from ethylene. The multiphoton excitation of two or more Rydberg states, separated by the photon energy is the key to the observed long-lived electronic coherence in DCPD with a quantum beat at the difference frequency. Rydberg states are expected to have very similar potential energy surfaces and the Rydberg electron is relatively uncoupled to the nuclear dynamics, therefore supporting long electronic coherence time.
Grimau Puigibert, Marcel·lí
2012-01-01
[ANGLÈS] Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n>>1 have extraordinary atomic properties including tunable long range dipole-dipole interactions that lead to the so called Rydberg blockade. Atoms excited to these particular levels have been shown to be excellent candidates to implement several quantum information tasks, from two-qubit gates to single photon sources. In this work, we demonstrate Electromagnetic Induced Transparency (EIT) using Rydberg levels in a hot gas of rubidium atom...
On the non-equilibrium dynamics of dissipative Rydberg gases in the presence of dephasing noise
Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-01-01
In the presence of strong dephasing noise the dynamics of Rydberg gases becomes effectively classical, due to the rapid decay of quantum superpositions between atomic levels. Recently a great deal of attention has been devoted to the stochastic dynamics that emerges in that limit, revealing several interesting features, including kinetically-constrained glassy behaviour, self-similarity and aggregation effects. However, the non-equilibrium physics of these systems, in particular in the regime where coherent and dissipative processes contribute on equal footing, is yet far from being understood. To explore this we study the dynamics of a small one-dimensional Rydberg lattice gas subject to dephasing noise by numerically integrating the quantum Master equation. We find indications that the main features observed in the strongly dissipative limit persist when the dissipation is not strong enough to annihilate quantum coherences at the dynamically relevant time scales. These features include a power law growth of...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyabe, Masabumi; Ohba, Masaki; Wakaida, Ikuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1997-10-01
Autoionizing Rydberg series converging to six states (0, 261.841, 633.273, 3082.011, 3427.274, 3444.235 cm{sup -1}) of Gd ion have been observed by using three-color three-step photoionization via ten different 2nd-step levels of J=0 or 1. While the perturbations with interlopers become significant in the region of n=30-35 for most of the observed series, long and well-defined series structures appeared in higher energy region. From an analysis of such unperturbed structures, the first ionization potential of Gd atom was estimated to be 49601.45 (30) cm{sup -1}. This is in good agreement with the previous value, but the accuracy is improved by about one order of magnitude. In addition, isotope effect on the ionization potential was also determined by isotope shifts of some Rydberg series. (author)
High-order harmonic generation from Rydberg atoms driven by plasmonic-enhanced laser fields
Tikman, Y; Ciappina, M F; Chacon, A; Altun, Z; Lewenstein, M
2015-01-01
We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in Rydberg atoms driven by spatially inhomogeneous laser fields, induced, for instance, by plasmonic enhancement. It is well known that the laser intensity should to exceed certain threshold in order to generate HHG, when noble gas atoms in their ground state are used as an active medium. One way to enhance the coherent light coming from a conventional laser oscillator is to take advantage of the amplification obtained by the so-called surface plasmon polaritons, created when a low intensity laser field is focused onto a metallic nanostructure. The main limitation of this scheme is the low damage threshold of the materials employed in the nanostructures engineering. In this work we propose to use Rydberg atoms, driven by spatially inhomogeneous, plasmonic-enhanced laser fields, for HHG. We exhaustively discuss the behaviour and efficiency of these systems in the generation of coherent harmonic emission. To this aim we numerically solve the time...
Quasi-forbidden 2-body F\\"orster resonances in cold Cs Rydberg gas
Pelle, Bruno; Billy, Juliette; Arimondo, Ennio; Pillet, Pierre; Cheinet, Patrick
2015-01-01
Cold Rydberg atoms are known to display dipole-dipole interaction allowed resonances, also called F\\"orster resonances, which lead to an efficient energy transfer when the proper electric field is used. This electric field also enables resonances which do not respect the dipole-dipole selection rules under zero field. A few of these quasi-forbidden resonances have been observed but they are often overlooked. Here we show that in cold $^{133}$Cs atoms there is a large number of these resonances that display a significant transfer efficiency due to their strong interactions, even at low electric field. We also develop a graphical method enabling to find all possible resonances simultaneously. The resulting dramatic increase in the total number of addressable resonant energy transfers at different electric fields could have implications in the search for few-body interactions or macro-molecules built from Rydberg atoms.
Scaled-energy spectroscopy of a |M|=1 Rydberg barium atom in an electric field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Lei; Quan Wei; Shen Li; Yang Hai-Feng; Shi Ting-Yun; Liu Xiao-Jun; Liu Hong-Ping; Zhan Ming-Sheng
2009-01-01
We observe strong energy-dependent quantum defects in the scaled-energy Stark spectra for |M|=1 Rydberg states of barium atoms at three scaled energies: ε= -2.000, ε= -2.500 and ε=-3.000. In an attempt to explain the observations, theoretical calculations of closed orbit theory based on a model potential including core effect are performed for non-hydrogenic atoms. While such a potential has been uniformly successful for alkali atoms with a single valence electron, it fails to match experimental results for barium atoms in the 6snp Rydberg states with two valence electrons. Our study points out that this discrepancy is due to the strong perturbation from the 5d8p state, which voids the simple approximation for constant quantum defects of principle quantum number n.
Motion of Rydberg atoms with strong permanent-electric-dipole interactions
Gonçalves, Luís Felipe; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg
2016-08-01
Using classical trajectories simulations, we investigate the dynamics of a cold sample of Rydberg atoms with high permanent electric dipole moments. The dipolar state can be created using an adiabatic passage through an avoided crossing between an S-like state and a linear Stark state. The simulations yield the pair-correlation functions (PCF) of the atom samples, which allow us to extract the motion of Rydberg-atom pairs in the many-body system. The results reveal the strength and the anisotropic character of the underlying interaction. The simulation is employed to test the suitability of experimental methods designed to derive interaction parameters from PCF. Insight is obtained about the stability of the method against variation of experimentally relevant parameters. Transient correlations due to interaction-induced heating are observed.
Two-channel emission model for collective quantum jumps in Rydberg atoms
Cayayan, Lyndon; Clemens, James
2016-05-01
We consider a system of driven, damped Rydberg atoms with dipole-dipole energy shifts which can give rise to a Rydberg blockade when the atoms are driven on resonance and collective quantum jumps when the atoms are driven off resonance. For the damping we consider a two-channel emission model with competition between fully independent and fully collective spontaneous emission. For independent emission a quasiclassical model predicts a bistable steady state and quantum fluctuations drive collective jumps between the two bistable branches. We show that the collective emission is enhanced, relative to the independent emission, which shifts the total effective spontaneous emission rate and impacts the presence or absence of bistability predicted by the quasiclassical model.
Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a measurement of the time-resolved photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum of ethylene using 156 nm and 260 nm laser pulses. The 156 nm pulse first excites ethylene to the 1B1u (ππ∗) electronic state where 260 nm light photoionizes the system to probe the relaxation dynamics with sub-30 fs resolution. Recent ab initio calculations by Mori et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2808-2818 (2012)] have predicted an ultrafast population transfer from the initially excited state to a low-lying Rydberg state during the relaxation of photoexcited ethylene. The measured photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum reveals wave packet motion on the valence state and shows indications that the low-lying π3s Rydberg state is indeed transiently populated via internal conversion following excitation to the ππ∗ state, supporting the theoretical predictions
Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Champenois, Elio G., E-mail: elio@berkeley.edu [Graduate Group in Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Shivaram, Niranjan H.; Belkacem, Ali [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wright, Travis W. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Yang, Chan-Shan [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Cryan, James P. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); PULSE Institute for Ultrafast Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
2016-01-07
We present a measurement of the time-resolved photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum of ethylene using 156 nm and 260 nm laser pulses. The 156 nm pulse first excites ethylene to the {sup 1}B{sub 1u} (ππ{sup ∗}) electronic state where 260 nm light photoionizes the system to probe the relaxation dynamics with sub-30 fs resolution. Recent ab initio calculations by Mori et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2808-2818 (2012)] have predicted an ultrafast population transfer from the initially excited state to a low-lying Rydberg state during the relaxation of photoexcited ethylene. The measured photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum reveals wave packet motion on the valence state and shows indications that the low-lying π3s Rydberg state is indeed transiently populated via internal conversion following excitation to the ππ{sup ∗} state, supporting the theoretical predictions.
Absorption and Recurrence Spectra of Nonhydrogenic Rydberg Atom Near a Metal Surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Jun; WANG De-Hua; XUE Chun-Hua; QI Yi-Hong; LOU Sen-Yue
2008-01-01
Multielectron atoms near a metal surface are essentially more complicated than hydrogen atom with regard to theoretical treatments. By using the semicalssical closed orbit theory generalized to the multielecton atoms, we study the dynamical properties of the Rydberg lithium atom near a metal surface. The photoabsorption spectra and recurrence spectra of this system have also been calculated. Considering the effect of the ionic core potential of the Rydberg lithium atom, the number of the closed orbits increases, which leads to more peaks in the recurrence spectra than the case of hydrogen atom near a metal surface. This result shows that the core-scattered effects play an important role in nonhydrogenic atoms. This study is a new application of the dosed-orbit theory and is of potential experimental interest.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang De-Hua; Lin Sheng-Lu
2004-01-01
Closed orbit theory is a semiclassical technique for explaining the spectra of Rydberg atoms in external fields. By developing the closed orbit theory from two degrees of freedom to three non-separable degrees of freedom, we calculated the recurrence spectra of He Rydberg atom in perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. The closed orbits in the corresponding classical system have also been obtained. Fourier transformed spectra of He atoms have allowed direct comparison between the resonance peaks and the scaled action values of closed orbits, whereas the nonhydrogenic resonance can be explained in terms of the new orbits created by the core scattering. The semiclassical result is in good agreement with the quantum spectra, which suggests that our method is correct.
Formation of positron-atom bound states in collisions between Rydberg Ps and neutral atoms
Swann, A R; Deller, A; Gribakin, G F
2016-01-01
Predicted twenty years ago, positron binding to neutral atoms has not yet been observed experimentally. A new scheme is proposed to detect positron-atom bound states by colliding Rydberg positronium (Ps) with neutral atoms. Estimates of the charge-transfer-reaction cross section are obtained using the first Born approximation for a selection of neutral atom targets and a wide range of incident Ps energies and principal quantum numbers. We also estimate the corresponding Ps ionization cross section. The accuracy of the calculations is tested by comparison with earlier predictions for Ps charge transfer in collisions with hydrogen and antihydrogen. We describe an existing Rydberg Ps beam suitable for producing positron-atom bound states and estimate signal rates based on the calculated cross sections and realistic experimental parameters. We conclude that the proposed methodology is capable of producing such states and of testing theoretical predictions of their binding energies.
Robust and High Fidelity Quantum Logic with the Rydberg-Dressed Blockade
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert; Deutsch, Ivan; Hankin, Aaron; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant
2015-05-01
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By adiabatically dressing the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise from atomic thermal motion. The adiabatic protocol also allows for a Doppler-free configuration with counterpropagating lasers in a σ+ /σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in logic.
Can we measure the gravitational free fall of cold Rydberg state positronium?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mills, A.P. E-mail: apmjr@citrus.ucr.edu; Leventhal, M. E-mail: leventhal@astro.umd.edu
2002-05-01
In this paper we examine the possibilities for detecting the free fall of Rydberg positronium atoms. In our scheme, cold positronium atoms are emitted from a 'point' source and excited to the n=25 circular Rydberg state with L=n-1. The positronium atoms are allowed to travel horizontally 10 m in a field free vacuum and focused onto a detector using an elliptical Van der Waals mirror. A free fall distance of order 50 {mu}m and a few detected atoms per hour are anticipated. Various extraneous influences on the positronium, such as collisions with residual gas atoms, Stark mixing in stray electric and magnetic fields, photoionization due to thermal radiation, and accelerations due to patch potentials are estimated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU ZHENG-FA; ZHOU SHI-KANG; GONG SHUN-SHENG; ZHAN MING-SHENG
2000-01-01
The potential model method for computation of Stark structure of Cs Rydberg states atoms and oscillator strength is described,for external electric fields varying from 0 to 600V/cm.Anticrossing,l-mixing and n-mixing phenomena are observed clearly from the map of Stark.Corresponding experiment is performed under the same condition,and the two results are in good agreement with each other within the experimental uncertainty.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Detection of single atoms Yb has been achieved using the method of electric-field ionization from the high-lying Rydberg states. Atoms of Yb in a beam were excited in three steps to a 17-p state by radiation of three pulsed dye lasers. The statistics of an atom's appearance in the interaction volume have been studied in the single-ion counting regime at low beam density
Consequences of Zeeman Degeneracy for van der Waals Blockade between Rydberg Atoms
Walker, Thad G.; Saffman, M.
2007-01-01
We analyze the effects of Zeeman degeneracies on the long-range interactions between like Rydberg atoms, with particular emphasis on applications to quantum information processing using van der Waals blockade. We present a general analysis of how degeneracies affect the primary error sources in blockade experiments, emphasizing that blockade errors are sensitive primarily to the weakest possible atom-atom interactions between the degenerate states, not the mean interaction strength. We presen...
Adiabatic rapid passage two-photon excitation of a Rydberg atom
Kuznetsova, Elena; Malinovskaya, Svetlana A
2015-01-01
We considered the two-photon adiabatic rapid passage excitation of a single atom from the ground to a Rydberg state. Three schemes were analyzed: both pump and Stokes fields chirped and pulsed, only the pump field is chirped, and only the pump field is pulsed and chirped while the Stokes field is continuous wave (CW). In all three cases high transfer efficiencies $>99\\%$ were achieved for the experimentally realizable Rabi frequencies and the pulse durations of the fields.
An effective quantum defect theory for the diamagnetic spectrum of a barium Rydberg atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Bo; Liu Hong-Ping
2013-01-01
A theoretical calculation is carried out to investigate the spectrum of a barium Rydberg atom in an external magnetic field.Using an effective approach incorporating quantum defect into the centrifugal term in the Hamiltonian,we reexamine the reported spectrum of the barium Rydberg atom in a magnetic field of 2.89 T [J.Phys.B 28 L537 (1995)].Our calculation employs B-spline basis expansion and complex coordinate rotation techniques.For single photon absorption from the ground 6s2 to 6snp Rydberg states,the spectrum is not influenced by quantum defects of channels ns and nd.The calculation is in agreement with the experimental observations until the energy reaches E =-60 cm-1.Beyond this energy,closer to the threshold,the calculated and experimental results do not agree with each other.Possible reasons for their discrepancies are discussed.Our study affirms an energy range where the diamagnetic spectrum of the barium atom can be explained thoroughly using a hydrogen model potential.
Gavryusev, V; Ferreira-Cao, M; Zürn, G; Hofmann, C S; Günter, G; Schempp, H; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M; Whitlock, S; Weidemüller, M
2016-01-01
We present combined measurements of the spatially-resolved optical spectrum and the total excited-atom number in an ultracold gas of three-level atoms under electromagnetically induced transparency conditions involving high-lying Rydberg states. The observed optical transmission of a weak probe laser at the center of the coupling region exhibits a double peaked spectrum as a function of detuning, whilst the Rydberg atom number shows a comparatively narrow single resonance. By imaging the transmitted light onto a charge-coupled-device camera, we record hundreds of spectra in parallel, which are used to map out the spatial profile of Rabi frequencies of the coupling laser. Using all the information available we can reconstruct the full one-body density matrix of the three-level system, which provides the optical susceptibility and the Rydberg density as a function of spatial position. These results help elucidate the connection between three-level interference phenomena, including the interplay of matter and li...
Philip, G.
2008-03-01
An efficient atomic jet setup offering many unprecedented advantages over a conventional heat pipe setup used in multi-photon spectroscopy, mainly of alkaline-earth metals, has been constructed by a scheme in which the sample material is encapsulated in a disposable cartridge oven located inside a thermally stabilised heat-pipe and is made to effuse in to a row of atomic beams merging to form a jet target. This novel scheme combines the advantages of both high density atomic beam with convenient geometry for orthogonal excitation and high sensitive ionisation detection capabilities of thermionic diodes, besides eliminating several problems inherent in the usual heat-pipe operation. Out of various designs, typical results are presented for a linear heat-pipe with vertical atomic jet used in two-photon spectroscopy of highly excited states of Sr I. Controlled excitations of both Rydberg and non-Rydberg states, which cannot otherwise be accessed from the ground state due to parity and spectroscopic selection rules, have been achieved by employing a weak electric field complimented by collisions. The atomic jet setup is also found very useful for the study of collisional broadening and shift of excited states and time evolution of Rydberg atoms.
Classical Monte-Carlo simulation for Rydberg states ionization in strong field
Carrat, Vincent; Magnuson, Eric; Gallagher, Thomas
2016-05-01
The resilience of Rydberg states against ionization has fascinated physicists for a long time. One might expect that the loosely bound electron would be ionized by modest electromagnetic field. However, experiments show that a notable fraction of neutral atoms survive in Rydberg states when exposed to strong microwave or laser fields. Energy transfer between the field and the photoelectron occurs when the electron is close to the ionic core and depends on the phase of the field. Since those states have orbital times that can be larger than the field pulse duration, these energy exchanges will only occur a few times. While we can experimentally control the initial time when we create the Rydberg states and as a consequence the initial energy transfer from the field, our classical calculation suggests that the phase when the electron is returning to the ionic core on the next orbit is chaotic. Statistically the electron only has a 50% chance to gain energy which may lead to ionization. Additionally the population tends to accumulate in very high n states where ionization is less likely due to fewer rescattering events. Though incomplete, this classical Monte-Carlo simulation provides useful insights for understanding the experimental observations. This work has been entirely performed at University of Virginia and is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic energy Sciences.
Investigation of odd-parity Rydberg states of Eu I with autoionization detection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Ying; Dai Chang-Jian; Qin Wen-Jie
2009-01-01
Isolated-core-excitation (ICE) scheme and autoionization detection are employed to study the bound Rydberg states of europium atom. The high-lying states with odd parity have been measured using the autoionization detection method with three different excitation paths via 4f~76s6p[~8P_(5/2)], 4f~76s6p[~8P_(7/2)]and 4f~76s6p[~8P_(9/2)]intermediate states, s respectively. In this paper the spectra of bound Rydberg states of Eu atom are reported, which cover the energy regions from 36000 cm~(-1) to 38250 cm~(-1) and from 38900 cm~(-1) to 39500 cm~(-1). The study provides the information about level energy, the possible J values and relative line intensity as well as the effective principal quantum number n~* for these states. This work not only confirms the previous results of many states, but also discovers 11 new Rydberg states of Eu atom.
Velocity-selective EIT measurement of potassium Rydberg states
Xu, Wenchao
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a velocity selection scheme that mitigates suppression of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) by Doppler shifts for low--high EIT probe--coupling wavelength ordering. An optical pumping beam counter-propagating with the EIT probe beam transfers atoms between hyperfine states in a velocity selective fashion. Measurement of the transmitted probe beam synchronous with chopping of the optical pumping beam enables a Doppler-free EIT signal to be detected. Transition frequencies between 5P$_{1/2}$ and $n$S$_{1/2}$ states for $n=$26, 27, and 28 in $^{39}$K are obtained via EIT spectroscopy in a heated vapor cell with a probe beam stabilized to the 4S$_{1/2}\\rightarrow$5P$_{1/2}$ transition. Using previous high-resolution measurements of the 4S$_{1/2}\\rightarrow$nS$_{1/2}$ transitions, we make a determination of the absolute frequency of the 4S$_{1/2}\\rightarrow$5P$_{1/2}$ transition. Our measurement is shifted by 560 MHz from the currently accepted value with a two-fold improvement in uncer...
Imaging the photodissociation dynamics of the methyl radical from the 3s and 3pz Rydberg states.
Marggi Poullain, Sonia; Chicharro, David V; Zanchet, Alexandre; González, Marta G; Rubio-Lago, Luis; Senent, María L; García-Vela, Alberto; Bañares, Luis
2016-06-22
The photodissociation dynamics of the methyl radical from the 3s and 3pz Rydberg states have been studied using the velocity map and slice ion imaging in combination with pump-probe nanosecond laser pulses. The reported translational energy and angular distributions of the H((2)S) photofragment detected by (2+1) REMPI highlight different dissociation mechanisms for the 3s and 3pz Rydberg states. A narrow peak in the translational energy distribution and an anisotropic angular distribution characterize the fast 3s photodissociation, while for the 3pz state Boltzmann-type translational energy and isotropic angular distributions are found. High level ab initio calculations have been performed in order to elucidate the photodissociation mechanisms from the two Rydberg states and to rationalize the experimental results. The calculated potential energy curves highlight a typical predissociation mechanism for the 3s state, characterized by the coupling between the 3s Rydberg state and a valence repulsive state. On the other hand, the photodissociation on the 3pz state is initiated by a predissociation process due to the coupling between the 3pz Rydberg state and a valence repulsive state and constrained, later on, by two conical intersections that allow the system to relax to lower electronic states. Such a mechanism opens up different reaction pathways leading to CH2 photofragments in different electronic states and inducing a transfer of energy between translational and internal modes.
Chougale, Yashwant; Nath, Rejish
2016-07-01
We obtain ab initio the Hubbard parameters for Rydberg-dressed atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal optical lattice on the basis of maximally-localized Wannier states. Finite range, soft-core interatomic interactions become the trait of Rydberg admixed atoms, which can be extended over many neighboring lattice sites. In contrast to dipolar gases, where the interactions follow an inverse cubic law, the key feature of Rydberg-dressed interactions is the possibility of making neighboring couplings to the same magnitude as that of the onsite ones. The maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) are typically calculated via a spread-minimization procedure (Marzari N and Vanderbilt D 1997 Phys. Rev. B 56 12847) and are always found to be real functions apart from a trivial global phase when an isolated set of Bloch bands are considered. For an isolated single Bloch band, the above procedure reduces to a simple quasi-momentum-dependent unitary phase transformation. Here, instead of minimizing the spread, we employ a diagonal phase transformation which eliminates the imaginary part of the Wannier functions. The resulting Wannier states are found to be maximally localized and in exact agreement with those obtained via a spread-minimization procedure. Using these findings, we calculate the Hubbard couplings from the Rydberg admixed interactions, including dominant density-assisted tunneling (DAT) coefficients. Finally, we provide realistic lattice parameters for the state-of-the-art experimental Rydberg-dressed rubidium setup.
Resonant charge transfer of hydrogen Rydberg atoms incident at a Cu(100) projected band-gap surface
Gibbard, J A; Kohlhoff, M; Rennick, C J; So, E; Ford, M; Softley, T P
2015-01-01
The charge transfer (ionization) of hydrogen Rydberg atoms (principal quantum number $n=25-34$) incident at a Cu(100) surface is investigated. Unlike fully metallic surfaces, where the Rydberg electron energy is degenerate with the conduction band of the metal, the Cu(100) surface has a projected bandgap at these energies, and only discrete image states are available through which charge transfer can take place. Resonant enhancement of charge transfer is observed at hydrogen principal quantum numbers for which the Rydberg energy matches the energy of one of the image states. The integrated surface ionization signals show clear periodicity as the energies of states with increasing $n$ come in and out of resonance with the image states. The velocity dependence of the surface ionization dynamics is also investigated. Decreased velocity of the incident H atom leads to a greater mean distance of ionization and a lower field required to extract the ion. The surface-ionization profiles (signal versus applied field) ...
Kessler, T.; Brück, K.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J. R.; Geppert, Ch; Havener, C. C.; Krause, H. F.; Liu, Y.; Schultz, D. R.; Stracener, D. W.; Vane, C. R.; Wendt, K.
2007-12-01
In preparation of a laser ion source, we have investigated multi-step laser ionization via Rydberg and autoionizing states for atomic Ni and Ge using a mass separator with an ion beam energy of 20 keV. For both elements resonant three-step excitation schemes suitable for modern Ti:sapphire laser systems were developed. Rydberg series in the range of principal quantum numbers 20 Ionization potentials (IP) were extracted from fits of the individual series and quantum defects of individual levels were analysed for confirmation of series assignment. For Ni the ionization potential could be extracted with significantly increased precision compared to literature with a value of EIP (Ni) = 61 619.77(14) cm-1. Also, at least one notable autoionizing state above the first IP was discovered for both elements, and the different ionization schemes via Rydberg or autoionizing states were compared with respect to line shape, ionization efficiency and selectivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hydrogen and helium Rydberg atoms (H** and He**), with principal quantum number n ranging from 10 to 20, have been used in collision experiments from 1 to 40 keV/amu. These were produced by electron capture in a charge-exchange cell and analyzed by ionization in a modulated electric field combined with phase-sensitive detection. Three experiments have been conducted. In the first, spectra of the band of H and He Rydberg states from electron capture were produced by the modulated field technique and compared. Considerable differences were found between the two. Both types of spectra were analyzed with calculations of Stark energies and field ionization rates. Attempts were made to simulate the spectra using this information and some assumptions about the state distribution produced in the electron capture. In the second experiment, destruction cross sections for H** incident on N2, Ar, and SF6 were measured. This was a further test of the independent-particle model for Rydberg atom scattering; in this model, the atom is destroyed by quasi-free scattering of either the ionic core or the outer electron. Already proven valid for n = 20-35, this has been extended to n as low as 10, as measurements with n = 10 showed full compliance with the model. In the third experiment, not only destruction cross sections but also ionization cross sections for H** and He** incident on Xe, AR, and N2 were measured. The ionization measurement is a more sensitive test of the quasi-free scattering of the Rydberg electron. This was especially important for the Xe and Ar targets, which exhibits a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in their free-electron scattering cross sections. The quasi-free Rydberg electron should reproduce these data. Unmistakable deviations from the quasi-free prediction were seen in Xe and N2 but not in Ar. This represents the first measurement of a breakdown of the Independent Particle Model for fast Rydberg atom scattering
Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A.; Beterov, I. I.; Andreeva, C.; Ryabtsev, I. I.
2014-01-01
Long-range interactions between cold Rydberg atoms, which are used in many important applications, can be enhanced using F\\"orster resonances between collective many-body states controlled by an external electric field. Here we report on the first experimental observation of highly-resolved radio-frequency-assisted F\\"orster resonances in a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms. We also observed radio-frequency-induced F\\"orster resonances which cannot be tuned by a dc electric field. They imply an effic...
Evolution from a molecular Rydberg gas to an ultracold plasma in a seeded supersonic expansion of NO
Morrison, J P; Keller, J S; Grant, E R
2008-01-01
We report the spontaneous formation of a plasma from a gas of cold Rydberg molecules. Double-resonant laser excitation promotes nitric oxide, cooled to 1 K in a seeded supersonic molecular beam, to single Rydberg states extending as deep as 80 cm$^{-1}$ below the lowest ionization threshold. The density of excited molecules in the illuminated volume is as high as 1 x 10$^{13}$ cm$^{-3}$. This population evolves to produce prompt free electrons and a durable cold plasma of electrons and intact NO$^{+}$ ions.
STARK STRUCTURE OF THE RYDBERG STATES OF ALKALINE-EARTH ATOMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郅妙婵; 戴长建; 李士本
2001-01-01
The Stark effects of the Rydberg states in the alkaline-earth atoms are studied theoretically. Using a method similar to the treatment of alkali atoms, the properties of the Stark states of Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba atoms in the regions far away from the perturbers are investigated. The Stark maps for Mg (n=16, M=0), Ca (n=10, M=0), Sr (n=12,M=0) and Ba (n=13, |M|=0,1) are presented. Topics such as the general methods of calculation, the treatment of fine structure, and the structure of level anti-crossings are discussed. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental Stark maps is satisfactory.
Scaled-energy spectroscopy of helium \\|M\\|=1 Rydberg atoms in a static electric field
Kips, Annemieke; Vassen, Wim; Hogervorst, Wim; Dando, Paul A.
1998-10-01
We present scaled-energy spectra on helium Rydberg atoms in a static electric field. \\|M\\|=1 states were studied in excitation from the 2 1S0 metastable state. Spectra were recorded for ɛ=-2.940(4), ɛ=-2.350(4), both below the saddle point, and ɛ=-1.760(4), above the saddle point. Closed-orbit theory was applied to interpret the spectra. A recent extension to closed-orbit theory, incorporating core effects, was used. This significantly improved agreement between experiment and theory.
Quantum beats in the field ionization of Rydberg atoms in the presence of magnetic fields
Gregoric, Vincent C.; Hastings, Hannah; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.
2016-05-01
By exciting a coherent superposition and varying its phase evolution, quantum beats in the selective field ionization of Rydberg atoms have been observed. Here, we present a study exploring the effect of electric and magnetic fields on quantum beats. Beginning with a single excited state, a coherent superposition is created by a short electric field pulse in the presence of a static magnetic field. The resulting quantum beats are then observed in the field ionization spectrum. Additionally, millimeter-wave spectroscopy is used to probe the state populations in this superposition. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1205895 and No. 1205897.
Eliminating the dipole phase in attosecond pulse characterization using Rydberg wave packets
Pabst, Stefan; Dahlström, Jan Marcus
2016-07-01
We propose a technique to fully characterize the temporal structure of extreme ultraviolet pulses by ionizing a bound coherent electronic wave packet. The influence of the dipole phase, which is the main obstacle for state-of-the-art pulse characterization schemes, can be eliminated by angle integration of the photoelectron spectrum. We show that in particular, atomic Rydberg wave packets are ideal and that wave packets involving multiple electronic states provide redundant information that can be used to cross-check the consistency of the phase reconstruction.
Unified theory of bound and scattering molecular Rydberg states as quantum maps
Dietz, B; Dietz, Barbara; Lombardi, Maurice; Proxy, Thomas H Seligman
2004-01-01
Using a representation of multichannel quantum defect theory in terms of a quantum Poincar\\'e map for bound Rydberg molecules, we apply Jung's scattering map to derive a generalized quantum map, that includes the continuum. We show, that this representation not only simplifies the understanding of the method, but moreover produces considerable numerical advantages. Finally we show under what circumstances the usual semi-classical approximations yield satisfactory results. In particular we see that singularities that cause problems in semi-classics are irrelevant to the quantum map.
Electric field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms
Carter, J D; Martin, J D D
2012-01-01
The electric fields near the heterogeneous metal/dielectric surface of an atom chip were measured using cold atoms. The atomic sensitivity to electric fields was enhanced by exciting the atoms to Rydberg states that are 10^8 times more polarizable than the ground state. We attribute the measured fields to charging of the insulators between the atom chip wires. Surprisingly, it is observed that these fields may be dramatically lowered with appropriate voltage biasing, suggesting configurations for the future development of hybrid quantum systems.
Measurement of Ionization Threshold of Ultracold Cesium Rydberg Atoms in Static Electric Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG Zhi-Gang; ZHANG Lin-Jie; ZHAO Jian-Ming; LI Chang-Yong; LI An-Ling; JIA Suo-Tang
2008-01-01
We investigate the field ionization spectra of ultracold cesium Rydberg atoms in dc electric field. The ionization thresholds of different electric fields are measured and shift of the ionization threshold relative to field-free ionization threshold is accurately described by (6.06±0.14) F1/2, which is in good agreement with the classical saddle-point model for field ionization. We obtain the field-free ionization threshold of cesium (6P,3/2) as 19674.89士2.99cm-1 by fitting experimental data.
The dynamical properties of a Rydberg hydrogen atom between two parallel metal surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Wei; Li Hong-Yun; Yang Shan-Ying; Lin Sheng-Lu
2011-01-01
This paper presents the dynamical properties of a Rydberg hydrogen atom between two metal surfaces using phase space analysis methods. The dynamical behaviour of the excited hydrogen atom depends sensitively on the atom-surface distance d. There exists a critical atom-surface distance dc = 1586 a.u. When the atom-surface distance d is larger than the critical distance dc, the image charge potential is less important than the Coulomb potential, the system is near-integrable and the electron motion is regular. As the distance d decreases, the system will tend to be non-integrable and unstable, and the electron might be captured by the metal surfaces.
Unified theory of bound and scattering molecular Rydberg states as quantum maps
Dietz, Barbara; Lombardi, Maurice; Seligman, Thomas H.
2004-08-01
Using a representation of multichannel quantum defect theory in terms of a quantum Poincaré map for bound Rydberg molecules, we apply Jung's scattering map to derive a generalized quantum map, that includes the continuum. We show that this representation not only simplifies the understanding of the method, but moreover produces considerable numerical advantages. Finally we show under what circumstances the usual semi-classical approximations yield satisfactory results. In particular we see that singularities that cause problems in semi-classics are irrelevant to the quantum map.
The ionized electron return phenomenon of Rydberg atom in crossed-fields
Dong, Chengwei; Wang, Peijie; Du, Mengli; Uzer, Turgay; Lan, Yueheng
2016-05-01
Rydberg atom is highly excited with one valence electron being in a high quantum state, which is very far away from the nucleus. The energy level is similar to that of the hydrogen atom. Introducing externally perpendicular electric and magnetic fields breaks the rotation symmetry and the traditional view is that the ionized electron crosses from the bound into the unbound region and will never return. However, we find that when the field is strong enough, the electron does not move off to infinity and there is a certain possibility of return. Three new periodic orbits are found by the variational method and the physical significance of the phenomenon is also discussed.
Electron capture and ionization for ion-Rydberg atom collisions in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) model, we calculate electron transfer and ionization cross sections for 1.3-130 eV amu-1 singly charged ions colliding with Rydberg atoms in the presence of a laboratory-strength magnetic field of 4 tesla. A new method for generating a stationary microcanonical ensemble for a quasi-integrable initial-state Hamiltonian is presented. The calculated cross sections show signatures of electron capture and ionization mechanisms for the field-free case, e.g. multiple swaps and saddle-point electrons; their structure as well as their magnitude, however, are strongly modified by the presence of the magnetic field. (Author)
Unified theory of bound and scattering molecular Rydberg states as quantum maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using a representation of multichannel quantum defect theory in terms of a quantum Poincare map for bound Rydberg molecules, we apply Jung's scattering map to derive a generalized quantum map, that includes the continuum. We show that this representation not only simplifies the understanding of the method, but moreover produces considerable numerical advantages. Finally we show under what circumstances the usual semi-classical approximations yield satisfactory results. In particular we see that singularities that cause problems in semi-classics are irrelevant to the quantum map
Buma, W.J.; Wales, N. P. L.; Lange
1996-01-01
(3 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization-photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to investigate the spectroscopy and ionization dynamics of the E, F, and G Rydberg states of ClO. The results establish that the E and F Rydberg states converge upon the X3- ground ionic state, while the G state belongs to a Rydberg series with an excited a 1D ioni core. Improved ionization thresholds of these two ionic states are determined as 10.887 ± 0.005 and 11.750 ± 0.005 eV.
Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Tresp, Christoph; Mirgorodskiy, Ivan; Hofferberth, Sebastian
2016-01-01
F\\"orster resonances provide a highly flexible tool to tune both the strength and the angular shape of interactions between two Rydberg atoms. We give a detailed explanation about how F\\"orster resonances can be found by searching through a large range of possible quantum number combinations. We apply our search method to $SS$, $SD$ and $DD$ pair states of $^{87}$Rb with principal quantum numbers from 30 to 100, taking into account the fine structure splitting of the Rydberg states. We find various strong resonances between atoms with a large difference in principal quantum numbers. We quantify the strength of these resonances by introducing a figure of merit $\\tilde C_3$ which is independent of the magnetic quantum number and geometry to classify the resonances by interaction strength. We further predict to what extent interaction exchange is possible on different resonances and point out limitations of the coherent hopping process. Finally, we discuss the angular dependence of the dipole-dipole interaction ...
High teleportation rates using cold-atom-ensemble-based quantum repeaters with Rydberg blockade
Solmeyer, Neal; Li, Xiao; Quraishi, Qudsia
2016-04-01
We present a simplified version of a repeater protocol in a cold neutral-atom ensemble with Rydberg excitations optimized for two-node entanglement generation and describe a protocol for quantum teleportation. Our proposal draws from previous proposals [B. Zhao et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 052329 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.052329; Y. Han et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 052311 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.052311] that described efficient and robust protocols for long-distance entanglement with many nodes. Using realistic experimental values, we predict an entanglement generation rate of ˜25 Hz and a teleportation rate of ˜5 Hz . Our predicted rates match the current state-of-the-art experiments for entanglement generation and teleportation between quantum memories. With improved efficiencies we predict entanglement generation and teleportation rates of ˜7.8 and ˜3.6 kHz, respectively, representing a two-order-of-magnitude improvement over the currently realized values. Cold-atom ensembles with Rydberg excitations are promising candidates for repeater nodes because collective effects in the ensemble can be used to deterministically generate a long-lived ground-state memory which may be efficiently mapped onto a directionally emitted single photon.
Ionisation of Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface by short pulse laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Lei; Yang Hai-Feng; Liu Xiao-Jun; Liu Hong-Ping
2010-01-01
In the ionisation of Rydberg hydrogen atoms near a metal surface,the electron will escape from the nucleus and arrive at the detector in a time sequence.This probability flux train relies on the initial electron wave packet irradiated by the laser pulse.For simplicity,the laser pulse is usually simplified to a delta function in energy domain,resulting in a sharp initial arrival time with an exponentially decaying tail at the detector.Actually and semiclassically,the initial outgoing wave should be modeled as an ensemble of trajectories propagating away from the atomic core in all directions with a range of launch times and a range of energies.In this case,each pulse in the pulse train is averaged out rather than a sharp profile.We examine how energy and time averaging of the electron wave packet affects the resolution of escaping electron pulses and study the energy dependence of the arrival time for each pulse in the ionisation train.An optimization condition for the laser pulse shape to generate narrow ionisation electron pulse in the train is obtained.The ionisation rates with various excitation energy are calculated also,which show the excitation to higher N Rydberg states will narrow the electron pulse as well.
Rydberg states of helium in electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary relative orientation
Tkáč, Ondřej; Žeško, Matija; Agner, Josef A.; Schmutz, Hansjürg; Merkt, Frédéric
2016-05-01
A spectroscopic study of Rydberg states of helium (n = 30 and 45) in magnetic, electric and combined magnetic and electric fields with arbitrary relative orientations of the field vectors is presented. The emphasis is on two special cases where (i) the diamagnetic term is negligible and both paramagnetic Zeeman and Stark effects are linear (n = 30, B ≤ 120 mT and F = 0–78 V cm‑1), and (ii) the diamagnetic term is dominant and the Stark effect is linear (n = 45, B = 277 mT and F = 0–8 V cm‑1). Both cases correspond to regimes where the interactions induced by the electric and magnetic fields are much weaker than the Coulomb interaction, but much stronger than the spin–orbit interaction. The experimental spectra are compared to spectra calculated by determining the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian matrix describing helium Rydberg states in the external fields. The spectra and the calculated energy-level diagrams in external fields reveal avoided crossings between levels of different m l values and pronounced m l -mixing effects at all angles between the electric- and magnetic-field vectors other than 0. These observations are discussed in the context of the development of a method to generate dense samples of cold atoms and molecules in a magnetic trap following Rydberg–Stark deceleration.
Electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms across the Breit-Rabi regime
Naber, J B; Heuvell, H B van Linden van den; Spreeuw, R J C
2016-01-01
We present experimental results on the influence of magnetic fields and laser polarization on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using Rydberg levels of $^{87}$Rb atoms. The measurements are performed in a room temperature vapor cell with two counter-propagating laser beams at 480nm and 780nm in a ladder-type energy level scheme. We measure the EIT spectrum of a range of $ns_{1/2}$ Rydberg states for $n=19-27$, where the hyperfine structure can still be resolved. Our measurements span the range of magnetic fields from the low field linear Zeeman regime to the high field Paschen-Back regimes. The observed spectra are very sensitive to small changes in magnetic fields and the polarization of the laser beams. We model our observations using optical Bloch equations that take into account the full multi-level structure of the atomic states involved and the decoupling of the electronic $J$ and nuclear $I$ angular momenta in the Breit-Rabi regime. The numerical model yields excellent agreement with the o...
Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Gorniaczyk, Hannes; Tresp, Christoph; Mirgorodskiy, Ivan; Hofferberth, Sebastian
2016-08-01
Förster resonances provide a highly flexible tool to tune both the strength and the angular shape of interactions between two Rydberg atoms. We give a detailed explanation about how Förster resonances can be found by searching through a large range of possible quantum number combinations. We apply our search method to SS, SD and DD pair states of 87Rb with principal quantum numbers from 30 to 100, taking into account the fine structure splitting of the Rydberg states. We find various strong resonances between atoms with a large difference in principal quantum numbers. We quantify the strength of these resonances by introducing a figure of merit {\\tilde{C}}3 which is independent of the magnetic quantum numbers and geometry to classify the resonances by interaction strength. We further predict to what extent excitation exchange is possible on different resonances and point out limitations of the coherent hopping process. Finally, we discuss the angular dependence of the dipole–dipole interaction and its tunability near resonances.
Handshake electron transfer from hydrogen Rydberg atoms incident at a series of metallic thin films
Gibbard, Jemma A
2016-01-01
Thin metallic films have a 1D quantum well along the surface normal direction, which yields particle-in-a-box style electronic quantum states. However the quantum well is not infinitely deep and the wavefunctions of these states penetrate outside the surface where the electron is bound by its own image-charge attraction. Therefore a series of discrete, vacant states reach out from the thin film into the vacuum increasing the probability of electron transfer from an external atom or molecule to the thin film, especially for the resonant case where the quantum well energy matches that of the Rydberg atom. We show that `handshake' electron transfer from a highly excited Rydberg atom to these thin-film states is experimentally measurable. Thicker films, have a wider 1D box, changing the energetic distribution and image-state contribution to the thin film wavefunctions, resulting in more resonances. Calculations successfully predict the number of resonances and the nature of the thin-film wavefunctions for a given...
Highly excited even Rydberg series of Lu I studied by two-step laser photoionisation spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The highly excited even levels of the lutetium atom are studied by two-step resonance ionisation spectroscopy. Four Rydberg series, 6s2ns 2S1/2 (n=17-76), 6s2nd 2D3/2 (n=14-105), 6s2nd 2D5/2 (n=19-87) and 6s2ng 2G9/2 (n=21-61), are measured and analysed. A very weak perturbation from an unassigned J=3/2 even valence level is observed around 6s252d 2D3/2 as a dip of ion signals induced by a decrease of radiative lifetimes in the perturbed RTydberg states. Small dips observed in nearby 6s2ns 2S1/2 and 6s2nd 2D5/2 Rydberg states are interpreted as the influence of the quadrupole hyperfine interaction of 175Lu (I=7/2). (author)
Long-term evolution and revival structure of Rydberg wave packets
Bluhm, R; Bluhm, Robert; Kostelecky, Alan
1995-01-01
It is known that, after formation, a Rydberg wave packet undergoes a series of collapses and revivals within a time period called the revival time, t_{\\rm rev}, at the end of which it is close to its original shape. We study the behavior of Rydberg wave packets on time scales much greater than t_{\\rm rev}. We show that after a few revival cycles the wave packet ceases to reform at multiples of the revival time. Instead, a new series of collapses and revivals commences, culminating after a time period t_{\\rm sr} \\gg t_{\\rm rev} with the formation of a wave packet that more closely resembles the initial packet than does the full revival at time t_{\\rm rev}. Furthermore, at times that are rational fractions of t_{\\rm sr}, the square of the autocorrelation function exhibits large peaks with periodicities that can be expressed as fractions of the revival time t_{\\rm rev}. These periodicities indicate a new type of fractional revival occurring for times much greater than t_{\\rm rev}. A theoretical explanation of th...
The revival structure of Rydberg wave packets beyond the revival time
Bluhm, R; Bluhm, Robert; Kostelecky, Alan
1995-01-01
After a Rydberg wave packet forms, it is known to undergo a series of collapses and revivals within a time period called the revival time t_{\\rm rev}, at the end of which it resembles its original shape. We study the behavior of Rydberg wave packets on time scales much greater than t_{\\rm rev}. We find that after a few revival cycles the wave packet ceases to reform at multiples of the revival time. Instead, a new series of collapses and revivals commences, culminating after a time period t_{\\rm sr} \\gg t_{\\rm rev} with the formation of a wave packet that more closely resembles the initial packet than does the full revival at time t_{\\rm rev}. Furthermore, at times that are rational fractions of t_{\\rm sr}, we show that the motion of the wave packet is periodic with periodicities that can be expressed as fractions of the revival time t_{\\rm rev}. These periodicities indicate a new type of fractional revival, occurring for times much greater than t_{\\rm rev}. We also examine the effects of quantum defects and ...
Photoionization microscopy of Rydberg hydrogen atom in a non-uniform electrical field
Shao-Hao, Cheng; De-Hua, Wang; Zhao-Hang, Chen; Qiang, Chen
2016-06-01
In this paper, we investigate the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg hydrogen atom in a gradient electric field for the first time. The observed oscillatory patterns in the photoionization microscopy are explained within the framework of the semiclassical theory, which can be considered as a manifestation of interference between various electron trajectories arriving at a given point on the detector plane. In contrast with the photoionization microscopy in the uniform electric field, the trajectories of the ionized electron in the gradient electric field will become chaotic. An infinite set of different electron trajectories can arrive at a given point on the detector plane, which makes the interference pattern of the electron probability density distribution extremely complicated. Our calculation results suggest that the oscillatory pattern in the electron probability density distribution depends sensitively on the electric field gradient, the scaled energy and the position of the detector plane. Through our research, we predict that the interference pattern in the electron probability density distribution can be observed in an actual photoionization microscopy experiment once the external electric field strength and the position of the electron detector plane are reasonable. This study provides some references for the future experimental research on the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg atom in the non-uniform external fields. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374133) and the Project of Shandong Provincial Higher Educational Science and Technology Program, China (Grant No. J13LJ04).
Quantum simulation of a topological Mott insulator with Rydberg atoms in a Lieb lattice
Dauphin, A.; Müller, M.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2016-04-01
We propose a realistic scheme to quantum simulate the so-far experimentally unobserved topological Mott insulator phase—an interaction-driven topological insulator—using cold atoms in an optical Lieb lattice. To this end, we study a system of spinless fermions in a Lieb lattice, exhibiting repulsive nearest- and next-to-nearest-neighbor interactions and derive the associated zero-temperature phase diagram within mean-field approximation. In particular, we analyze how the interactions can dynamically generate a charge density wave ordered, a nematic, and a topologically nontrivial quantum anomalous Hall phase. We characterize the topology of the different phases by the Chern number and discuss the possibility of phase coexistence. Based on the identified phases, we propose a realistic implementation of this model using cold Rydberg-dressed atoms in an optical lattice. The scheme, which allows one to access, in particular, the topological Mott insulator phase, robustly and independently of its exact position in parameter space, merely requires global, always-on off-resonant laser coupling to Rydberg states and is feasible with state-of-the-art experimental techniques that have already been demonstrated in the laboratory.
Entanglement and the Jaynes-Cummings model with Rydberg-dressed atoms
Biedermann, Grant
2016-05-01
Controlling quantum entanglement between parts of a many-body system is the key to unlocking the power of quantum information processing for applications such as quantum computation, high-precision sensing, and simulation of many-body physics. Spin degrees of freedom of ultracold neutral atoms in their ground electronic state provide a natural platform given their long coherence times and our ability to control them with magneto-optical fields, but creating strong coherent coupling between spins has been challenging. We demonstrate for the first time a strong and tunable Rydberg-dressed interaction between spins of individually trapped cesium atoms with energy shifts of order 1 MHz in units of Planck's constant. We spectroscopically demonstrate that this system is isomorphic to a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian, and observe the √{ N} nonlinearity of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder with a single symmetric Rydberg excitation. This interaction enables a ground-state spin-flip blockade, whereby simultaneous hyperfine spin flips of two atoms are blockaded due to their mutual interaction. We employ this spin-flip blockade to rapidly produce single-step Bell-state entanglement between atoms. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories and through the National Science Foundation's Center for Quantum Information and Control NSF-1212445.
Kips, A.; Vassen, W.; Hogervorst, W.; Dando, P.A.
1998-01-01
We present scaled-energy spectra on helium Rydberg atoms in a static electric field. /M/ = 1 states were studied in excitation from the 2 S-1(0) metastable state. Spectra were recorded for epsilon = -2.940(4), epsilon = -2.350(4), both below the saddle point, and epsilon = -1.760(4), above the saddl
Satellites to Delta n = 1 transitions between high-lying levels of multiply ionized atoms
Koenig, R.; Kolk, K.-H.; Koshelev, K. N.; Kunze, H.-J.
1989-04-01
In a theta pinch discharge satellites to Delta n = 1 transitions between high-lying levels are observed for the ions Si IX, Si X, and Si XI, but not for Si XII. They are identified as Delta n = 1 transitions between the corresponding levels of doubly excited systems. At high densities, the series of Rydberg levels above their respective thermal limit are collisionally coupled to their ionization limit. The intensity ratio of a transition to that of its satellite thus offers the unique possibility of measuring the ratio of the population density in the ground energy level of the next ionization stage to that in the lowest excited levels of this ion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudmundsdóttir, Hildur [Science Institute and Faculty of Physical Sciences VR-III, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Zhang, Yao; Weber, Peter M. [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Jónsson, Hannes [Science Institute and Faculty of Physical Sciences VR-III, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)
2014-12-21
Theoretical calculations of Rydberg excited states of molecular clusters consisting of N,N-dimethylisopropylamine molecules using a Perdew-Zunger self-interaction corrected energy functional are presented and compared with results of resonant multiphoton ionization measurements. The binding energy of the Rydberg electron in the monomer is calculated to be 2.79 eV and 2.27 eV in the 3s and 3p state, respectively, which compares well with measured values of 2.88 eV and 2.21 eV. Three different stable configurations of the dimer in the ground state were found using an energy functional that includes van der Waals interaction. The lowest ground state energy conformation has the two N-atoms widely separated, by 6.2 Å, while the Rydberg state energy is lowest for a configuration where the N-atoms of the two molecules come close together, separated by 3.7 Å. This conformational change is found to lower the Rydberg electron binding energy by 0.2 eV. The self-interaction corrected functional gives a highly localized hole on one of the two molecules, unlike results obtained using the PBE functional or the hybrid B3LYP functional which give a delocalized hole. For the trimer, the self-interaction corrected calculation gives a Rydberg electron binding energy lowered further by 0.13 eV as compared with the dimer. The calculated results compare well with trends observed in experimental measurements. The reduction of the Rydberg electron binding energy with cluster size can be ascribed to an effective delocalization of the positive charge of the hole by the induced and permanent dipole moments of the neighboring molecules. A further decrease observed to occur on a time scale of tens of ps can be ascribed to a structural rearrangement of the clusters in the Rydberg state where molecules rotate to orient their dipoles in response to the formation of the localized hole.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theoretical calculations of Rydberg excited states of molecular clusters consisting of N,N-dimethylisopropylamine molecules using a Perdew-Zunger self-interaction corrected energy functional are presented and compared with results of resonant multiphoton ionization measurements. The binding energy of the Rydberg electron in the monomer is calculated to be 2.79 eV and 2.27 eV in the 3s and 3p state, respectively, which compares well with measured values of 2.88 eV and 2.21 eV. Three different stable configurations of the dimer in the ground state were found using an energy functional that includes van der Waals interaction. The lowest ground state energy conformation has the two N-atoms widely separated, by 6.2 Å, while the Rydberg state energy is lowest for a configuration where the N-atoms of the two molecules come close together, separated by 3.7 Å. This conformational change is found to lower the Rydberg electron binding energy by 0.2 eV. The self-interaction corrected functional gives a highly localized hole on one of the two molecules, unlike results obtained using the PBE functional or the hybrid B3LYP functional which give a delocalized hole. For the trimer, the self-interaction corrected calculation gives a Rydberg electron binding energy lowered further by 0.13 eV as compared with the dimer. The calculated results compare well with trends observed in experimental measurements. The reduction of the Rydberg electron binding energy with cluster size can be ascribed to an effective delocalization of the positive charge of the hole by the induced and permanent dipole moments of the neighboring molecules. A further decrease observed to occur on a time scale of tens of ps can be ascribed to a structural rearrangement of the clusters in the Rydberg state where molecules rotate to orient their dipoles in response to the formation of the localized hole
Gudmundsdóttir, Hildur; Zhang, Yao; Weber, Peter M; Jónsson, Hannes
2014-12-21
Theoretical calculations of Rydberg excited states of molecular clusters consisting of N,N-dimethylisopropylamine molecules using a Perdew-Zunger self-interaction corrected energy functional are presented and compared with results of resonant multiphoton ionization measurements. The binding energy of the Rydberg electron in the monomer is calculated to be 2.79 eV and 2.27 eV in the 3s and 3p state, respectively, which compares well with measured values of 2.88 eV and 2.21 eV. Three different stable configurations of the dimer in the ground state were found using an energy functional that includes van der Waals interaction. The lowest ground state energy conformation has the two N-atoms widely separated, by 6.2 Å, while the Rydberg state energy is lowest for a configuration where the N-atoms of the two molecules come close together, separated by 3.7 Å. This conformational change is found to lower the Rydberg electron binding energy by 0.2 eV. The self-interaction corrected functional gives a highly localized hole on one of the two molecules, unlike results obtained using the PBE functional or the hybrid B3LYP functional which give a delocalized hole. For the trimer, the self-interaction corrected calculation gives a Rydberg electron binding energy lowered further by 0.13 eV as compared with the dimer. The calculated results compare well with trends observed in experimental measurements. The reduction of the Rydberg electron binding energy with cluster size can be ascribed to an effective delocalization of the positive charge of the hole by the induced and permanent dipole moments of the neighboring molecules. A further decrease observed to occur on a time scale of tens of ps can be ascribed to a structural rearrangement of the clusters in the Rydberg state where molecules rotate to orient their dipoles in response to the formation of the localized hole. PMID:25527936
Bezuglov, N N; Mihajlov, A A; Sreckovic, V A
2013-01-01
Radiative and collisional constants of excited atoms contain the matrix elements of the dipole transitions and when they are blocked one can expect occurring a number of interesting phenomena in radiation-collisional kinetics. In recent astrophysical studies of IR emission spectra it was revealed a gap in the radiation emitted by Rydberg atoms ($RA$) with values of the principal quantum number of $n\\approx10$. Under the presence of external electric fields a rearrangement of $RA$ emission spectra is possible to associate with manifestations of the Stark effect. The threshold for electric field ionization of $RA$ is $E\\approx3\\cdot10^{4}$ V/cm for states with $n>10$. This means that the emission of $RA$ with $n\\ge10$ is effectively blocked for such fields. In the region of lower electric field intensities the double Stark resonance (or F\\"{o}rster resonance) becomes a key player. On this basis it is established the fact that the static magnetic or electric fields may strongly affect the radiative constants of ...
Transition probabilities at threshold for the photoionization of molecular nitrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The relative transition probabilities at threshold for the photoemission of molecular nitrogen to vibrational levels of the N2+ ion have been determined with high resolution photoelectron resonance spectroscopy using synchroton radiation. These threshold cross sections are found to be strongly influenced by ionizing Rydberg states which are not necessarily apparent in the absorption or photoion spectrum of nitrogen. In addition to the cross section data, the molecular parameters for the X, A and B states of N2 have been determined. (orig./BJ)
Palmer, Michael H.; Ridley, Trevor; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C.; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk A.
2016-03-01
New photoelectron (PE) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for chlorobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work and are subjected to detailed analysis. In addition, we report on the mass-resolved (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of a jet-cooled sample. Both the VUV and REMPI spectra have enabled identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The use of ab initio calculations, which include both multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles configuration interaction (MRD-CI) and time dependent density functional theoretical (TDDFT) methods, has led to major advances in interpretation of the vibrational structure of the ionic and electronically excited states. Franck-Condon (FC) analyses of the PE spectra, including both hot and cold bands, indicate much more complex envelopes than previously thought. The sequence of ionic states can be best interpreted by our multi-configuration self-consistent field computations and also by comparison of the calculated vibrational structure of the B and C ionic states with experiment; these conclusions suggest that the leading sequence is the same as that of iodobenzene and bromobenzene, namely: X2B1(3b1-1) Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. The other low-lying absorption band near 5.8 eV is dominated by a 1A1 state, but an underlying weak 1B1 state (πσ∗) is also found. The strongest band in the VUV spectrum near 6.7 eV is poorly resolved and is analyzed in terms of two ππ∗ states of 1A1 (higher oscillator strength) and 1B2 (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The calculated vertical excitation energies of these two states are critically dependent upon the presence of Rydberg functions in the basis set, since both manifolds are strongly perturbed by the Rydberg states in this energy range. A number of equilibrium structures of the ionic and singlet
Palmer, Michael H; Ridley, Trevor; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk A
2016-05-28
New photoelectron spectra (PES) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) absorption spectra of fluorobenzene recorded at higher resolution than previously, have been combined with mass-resolved (2 + 1) and (3 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra; this has led to the identification of numerous Rydberg states. The PES have been compared with earlier mass-analyzed threshold ionization and photoinduced Rydberg ionization (PIRI) spectra to give an overall picture of the ionic state sequence. The analysis of these spectra using both equations of motion with coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) configuration interaction and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been combined with vibrational analysis of both the hot and cold bands of the spectra, in considerable detail. The results extend several earlier studies on the vibronic coupling leading to conical intersections between the X(2)B1 and A(2)A2 states, and a further trio (B, C, and D) of states. The conical intersection of the X and A states has been explicitly identified, and its structure and energetics evaluated. The energy sequence of the last group is only acceptable to the present study if given as B(2)B2
Palmer, Michael H; Ridley, Trevor; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk A
2016-03-28
New photoelectron (PE) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for chlorobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work and are subjected to detailed analysis. In addition, we report on the mass-resolved (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of a jet-cooled sample. Both the VUV and REMPI spectra have enabled identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The use of ab initio calculations, which include both multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles configuration interaction (MRD-CI) and time dependent density functional theoretical (TDDFT) methods, has led to major advances in interpretation of the vibrational structure of the ionic and electronically excited states. Franck-Condon (FC) analyses of the PE spectra, including both hot and cold bands, indicate much more complex envelopes than previously thought. The sequence of ionic states can be best interpreted by our multi-configuration self-consistent field computations and also by comparison of the calculated vibrational structure of the B and C ionic states with experiment; these conclusions suggest that the leading sequence is the same as that of iodobenzene and bromobenzene, namely: X(2)B1(3b1 (-1)) < A(2)A2(1a2 (-1)) < B(2)B2(6b2 (-1)) < C(2)B1(2b1 (-1)). The absorption onset near 4.6 eV has been investigated using MRD-CI and TDDFT calculations; the principal component of this band is (1)B2 and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. The other low-lying absorption band near 5.8 eV is dominated by a (1)A1 state, but an underlying weak (1)B1 state (πσ(∗)) is also found. The strongest band in the VUV spectrum near 6.7 eV is poorly resolved and is analyzed in terms of two ππ(∗) states of (1)A1 (higher oscillator strength) and (1)B2 (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The calculated vertical
Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas.
Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei
2016-07-15
We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup. PMID:27472121
Feldmaier, Matthias; Schweiner, Frank; Cartarius, Holger; Wunner, Günter
2016-01-01
Exceptional points are special parameter points in spectra of open quantum systems, at which resonance energies degenerate and the associated eigenvectors coalesce. Typical examples are Rydberg systems in parallel electric and magnetic fields, for which we solve the Schr\\"odinger equation in a complete basis to calculate the resonances and eigenvectors. Starting from an avoided crossing within the parameter-dependent spectra and using a two-dimensional matrix model, we develop an iterative algorithm to calculate the field strengths and resonance energies of exceptional points and to verify their basic properties. Additionally, we are able to visualise the wave functions of the degenerate states. We report the existence of various exceptional points. For the hydrogen atom these points are in an experimentally inaccessible regime of field strengths. However, excitons in cuprous oxide in parallel electric and magnetic fields, i. e., the corresponding hydrogen analogue in a solid state body, provide a suitable sy...
Absorption and Recurrence Spectra of Sodium Rydberg Atom in a Strong External Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG De-Hua; LIN Sheng-Lu
2004-01-01
Using core-scattered closed-orbit theory, we calculate the photoabsorption and the scaled recurrence spectra of sodium Rydberg atom in strong magnetic field below ionization threshold. The non-Coulombic nature of the ionic core have been modified by a model potential, which includes an attractive Coulomb potential and a short-ranged core potential. A family of core-scattered nonhydrogenic closed orbits have also been discovered. The Fourier transformed spectra of sodium atom have allowed direct comparison between peaks in such plot and the scaled action values of closed orbits. The new peaks in the recurrence spectra of sodium atom have been considered as effects caused by the core scattering of returning waves at the ionic core. The results are compared with those of hydrogen case, which show that the core-scattered effects play an important role in alkali-metal atoms.
Absorption and Recurrence Spectra of Sodium Rydberg Atom in a Strong External Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGDe-Hua; LINSheng-Lu
2004-01-01
Using core-scattered closed-orbit theory, we calculate the photoabsorption and the scaled recurrence spectra of sodium Rydberg atom in strong magnetic fied below ionization threshoM. The non-Coulombic nature of the ionic core have been modified by a model potential, which includes an attractive Coulomb potential and a short-ranged core potential. A family of core-scattered nonhydrogenic closed orbits have also been discovered. The Fourier transformed spectra of sodium atom have allowed direct comparison between peaks in such plot and the scaled action values of closed orbits. The new peaks in the recurrence spectra of sodium atom have been considered as effects caused by the core scattering of returning waves at the ionic core. The results are compared with those of hydrogen case, which show that the core-scattered effects play an important role in alkali-metal atoms.
Excitation of high orbital angular momentum Rydberg states with Laguerre-Gauss beams
Rodrigues, J D; Mendonça, J T
2015-01-01
We consider the excitation of Rydberg states through photons carrying an intrinsic orbital angular momentum degree of freedom. Laguerre-Gauss modes, with a helical wave-front structure, correspond to such a set of laser beams, which carry some units of orbital angular momentum in their propagation direction. We demonstrate that, in a proper geometrical setting, this orbital angular momentum can be transferred to the internal degrees of freedom of the atoms, thus violating the standard dipolar selection rules. Higher orbital angular momentum states become accessible through a single photon excitation process. We investigate how the spacial structure of the Laguerre-Gauss beam affects the radial coupling strength, assuming the simplest case of hydrogen-like wavefunctions. Finally we discuss a generalization of the angular momentum coupling, in order to include the effects of the fine and hyperfine splitting, in the context of the Wigner-Eckart theorem.
Sub- and super-luminal light propagation using a Rydberg state
Bharti, Vineet
2016-01-01
We present a theoretical study to investigate sub- and super-luminal light propagation in a rubidium atomic system consisting of a Rydberg state by using density matrix formalism. The analysis is performed in a 4-level vee+ladder system interacting with a weak probe, and strong control and switching fields. The dispersion and absorption profiles are shown for stationary atoms as well as for moving atoms by carrying out Doppler averaging at room temperature. We also present the group index variation with control Rabi frequency and observe that a transparent medium can be switched from sub- to super-luminal propagation in the presence of switching field. Finally, the transient response of the medium is discussed, which shows that the considered 4-level scheme has potential applications in absorptive optical switching.
Baker, Kevin; Yu, Zhaoning; Ebert, Matthew; Sun, Yuan; Saffman, Mark
2016-05-01
One of the outstanding challenges facing neutral atom qubit approaches to quantum computation is suppression of crosstalk between proximal qubits due to scattered light that is generated during optical pumping and measurement operations. We have recently proposed a dual species approach to solving this challenge whereby computational qubits encoded in Cs atoms are entangled with Rb atoms via an interspecies Rydberg interaction. The quantum state of a Cs atom can then be readout by measuring the state of a Rb atom. The difference in resonant wavelengths of the two species effectively suppresses crosstalk. We will present progress towards experimental demonstration of dual species entanglement using Rb and Cs atoms cotrapped in a single beam optical trap. Work supported by the ARL CDQI.
The fine structure splitting of the level of lithium in Rydberg states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡先权; 胡文江; 孔春阳
2002-01-01
The Hamiltonian of the four-body problem for a lithium atom is expanded in series. The level shift and levelformula of a lithium atom in Rydberg states are achieved by means of the calculation of polarization of the atomic core(including the contribution of dipole, quadrupole and octupole components). We also consider the effect of relativitytheory, the orbital angular momentum L and the spin angular momentum S coupling scheme (LS coupling) and high-order correction of the effective potential to the level shift. The fine structure splitting (N＝5-12, L＝4-9, J＝L±l/2)and level intervals in B ydberg states have been calculated by the above-mentioned formula and compared with recentexperimental data.
Generalized local frame transformation theory for Rydberg atoms in external fields
Giannakeas, P; Robicheaux, F
2016-01-01
A rigorous theoretical framework is developed for a generalized local frame transformation theory (GLFT). A first test application to the photoionization spectra of Rydberg atoms in an external electric field demonstrates dramatic improvement over the first version of the local frame transformation theory developed initially by Fano and Harmin. This revised GLFT theory yields non-trivial corrections because it now includes the full on-shell Hilbert space without adopting the truncations in the original theory. Comparisons of the semi-analytical GLFT Stark spectra with {\\it ab initio} numerical simulations yields errors in the range of a few tens of MHz, an improvement over the original Fano-Harmin theory whose errors are 10-100 times larger. Our analysis provides a systematic pathway to precisely describe the corresponding photoabsorption spectra that should be accurate enough to meet most modern experimental standards.
Excitation of high orbital angular momentum Rydberg states with Laguerre-Gauss beams
Rodrigues, J. D.; Marcassa, L. G.; Mendonça, J. T.
2016-04-01
We consider the excitation of Rydberg states through photons carrying an intrinsic orbital angular momentum degree of freedom. Laguerre-Gauss modes, with a helical wave-front structure, correspond to such a set of laser beams, which carry {{\\ell }}0 units of orbital angular momentum in their propagation direction, with ℓ 0 the winding number. We demonstrate that, in a proper geometry setting, this orbital angular momentum can be transferred to the internal degrees of freedom of the atoms, thus violating the standard dipole selection rules. Higher orbital angular momentum states become accessible through a single photon excitation process. We investigate how the spacial structure of the Laguerre-Gauss beam affects the radial coupling strength, assuming the simplest case of hydrogen-like wavefunctions. Finally we discuss a generalization of the angular momentum coupling, in order to include the effects of the fine and hyperfine splitting, in the context of the Wigner-Eckart theorem.
A Controlled-Phase Gate via Adiabatic Rydberg Dressing of Neutral Atoms
Keating, Tyler; Deutsch, Ivan; Cook, Robert; Biederman, Grant; Jau, Yuan-Yu
2014-05-01
The dipole blockade effect between Rydberg atoms is a promising tool for quantum information processing in neutral atoms. So far, most efforts to perform a quantum logic gate with this effect have used resonant laser pulses to excite the atoms, which makes the system particularly susceptible to decoherence through thermal motional effects. We explore an alternative scheme in which the atomic ground states are adiabatically ``dressed'' by turning on an off-resonant laser. We analyze the implementation of a CPHASE gate using this mechanism and find that fidelities of >99% should be possible with current technology, owing primarily to the suppression of motional errors. We also discuss how such a scheme could be generalized to perform more complicated, multi-qubit gates; in particular, a simple generalization would allow us to perform a Toffoli gate in a single step.
Booth, Donald; Yang, Jin; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Shaffer, James
2014-01-01
We observe that when an ultracold ground state cesium (Cs) atom becomes bound within the electronic cloud of an extended Cs electronic orbit, ultralong-range molecules with giant (kilo-Debye) permanent electric dipole moments form. Large molecular permanent electric dipole moments are challenging to experimentally realize. Meeting this challenge has garnered significant interest because permanent electric dipole moments are important for understanding symmetry breaking in molecular physics, control of chemical reactions and realization of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. These new hybrid class of `trilobite' molecules are predominated with degenerate Rydberg manifolds, making them difficult to produce with conventional optical association. Their behavior is quantitatively reproduced with detailed coupled-channel calculations.
Femtosecond predissociation dynamics of the methyl radical from the 3p(z) Rydberg state.
Balerdi, Garikoitz; Woodhouse, Joanne; Zanchet, Alexander; de Nalda, Rebeca; Senent, María L; García-Vela, Alberto; Bañares, Luis
2016-01-01
The real time dynamics of electronic predissociation of the CH3 radical (and its deuterated variant CD3) from selected vibrational states of the 3pz Rydberg state have been measured for the first time using a novel methodology based on a femtosecond three-color experiment to generate, two-photon excite and ionize methyl radicals as a function of time in combination with velocity map imaging detection. Subpicosecond lifetimes have been measured, showing a decreasing trend as vibrational excitation in the symmetric stretch and bending umbrella modes increases for both species. High-level ab initio calculations have been carried out in order to elucidate the CH3 3pz predissociation mechanism and support the lifetime measurements. The observed lifetimes are relevant for the understanding of the resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of this radical. PMID:26473180
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGDe-Hua; DINGShi-Liang
2003-01-01
Closed-orbit theory is a semiclassical technique for explaining the spectra of Rydberg atoms in external fields. Using the dosed-orblt theory and classical perturbation theory, we calculate the scaled recurrence spectra of Lithium atom in magnetic field plus a weak perpendicular electric field. The results show when the crossed electric field is added, the recurrence spectra are weakened greatly. As the scaled electric field f increases, the peaks of the recurrence spectra lose strength. Some recurrences are very sensitive and fall off rapidly as f increases, others persist till much higher f. As the electric field is stronger, some of the peaks revive. This phenomenon, caused by the interference among the electron waves that return to the nucleus, can be computed from the azimuthal dependence of the classical closed orbits.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG De-Hua; DING Shi-Liang
2003-01-01
Closed-orbit theory is a semiclassical technique for explaining the spectra of Rydberg atoms in external fields. Using the closed-orbit theory and classical perturbation theory, we calculate the scaled recurrence spectra of Lithium atom in magnetic field plus a weak perpendicular electric field. The results show when the crossed electric field is added, the recurrence spectra are weakened greatly. As the scaled electric field f increases, the peaks of the recurrence spectra lose strength. Some recurrences are very sensitive and fall off rapidly as f increases; others persist till much higher f . As the electric field is stronger, some of the peaks revive. This phenomenon, caused by the interference among the electron waves that return to the nucleus, can be computed from the azimuthal dependence of the classical closed orbits.
Dispersive radio frequency electrometry using Rydberg atoms in a prism-shaped atomic vapor cell
Fan, H. Q.; Kumar, S.; Kübler, H.; Shaffer, J. P.
2016-05-01
We introduce a method to measure radio frequency (RF) electric fields (E-fields) using atoms contained in a prism-shaped vapor cell. The method utilizes the concept of electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms. The RF E-field induces changes in the index of refraction of the vapor resulting in deflection of the probe laser beam as it passes through the prism-shaped vapor cell. We measured a minimum RF E-field of 8.25 μ {{Vcm}}-1 with a sensitivity of ∼ 46.5 μ {{Vcm}}-1 {{Hz}}-1/2. The experimental results agree with a numerical model that includes dephasing effects. We discuss possible improvements to obtain higher sensitivity for RF E-field measurements.
Shifts and broadenings of barium Rydberg states perturbed by inert gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marafi, M; Suji, Z; Bhatia, K; Makdisi, Y; Mathew, J [Department of Physics, Kuwait University, PO Box-5969, 13060-Safat (Kuwait)
2007-11-14
Collisional broadening and shift data for even parity states of neutral barium are presented. A two-photon absorption technique is used to populate Rydberg states of nd {sup 1}D{sub 2}, {sup 3}D{sub 2} and {sup 1}S{sub 0} series. High-resolution Ba excitation spectra were measured using a diode detector while scanning the frequency of an excimer pumped dye laser. Inert gases Ar, Kr and Xe were used as perturbers at pressures ranging from 10 mb to 400 mb. Shifts and broadenings of spectral lines were measured as a function of pressure and principal quantum number n. Several perturbations and deviations from expected results are discussed in this paper.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Kr atoms were produced in their metastable states 4p55s [3/2]2 and 4p55s’ [1/2]0 in a pulsed DC dis-charge in a beam,and subsequently excited to the even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states 4p5np’ [3/2]1,2,[1/2]1 and 4p5nf’ [5/2]3 using single photon excitation.The excitation spectra of the even-parity autoionizing resonance series from the metastable Kr were obtained by recording the autoionized Kr+ ions with time-of-flight ion detection in the photon energy range of 29000-40000 cm1.A wealth of autoionizing resonances were newly observed,from which more precise and more systematic spec-troscopic data of the level energy and quantum defects were derived.
Millimeter Wave Detection via Autler-Townes Splitting in Rubidium Rydberg Atoms
Gordon, Joshua A; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg
2014-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in 85Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric- field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 waveguide band is measured for frequencies of 93 GHz, and 104 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measure the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.
Measuring the van der Waals forces between a Rydberg atom and a metallic surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have observed the deflection of Rydberg atoms towards a metallic surface by the van der Waals force. Cs and Na atoms in states of principal quantum number n were sent between two parallel gold-coated mirrors, spaced by a gap w (2.1 μm≤w≤8.5 μm). We measured the value n/sub m/ at which the transmission cuts off and from the variation of n/sub m/ versus w, we obtained a measure of the atom-surface interaction. For 12< n<30 this interaction is 3--4 orders of magnitude larger than for ground-state atoms, and it obeys the scaling laws of the Lennard-Jones model
Electrostatic trapping and in situ detection of Rydberg atoms above chip-based transmission lines
Lancuba, P
2016-01-01
Beams of helium atoms in Rydberg-Stark states with principal quantum number $n=48$ and electric dipole moments of 4600~D have been decelerated from a mean initial longitudinal speed of 2000~m/s to zero velocity in the laboratory-fixed frame-of-reference in the continuously moving electric traps of a transmission-line decelerator. In this process accelerations up to $-1.3\\times10^{7}$~m/s$^2$ were applied, and changes in kinetic energy of $\\Delta E_{\\mathrm{kin}}=1.3\\times10^{-20}$~J ($\\Delta E_{\\mathrm{kin}}/e = 83$~meV) per atom were achieved. Guided and decelerated atoms, and those confined in stationary electrostatic traps, were detected in situ by pulsed electric field ionisation. The results of numerical calculations of particle trajectories within the decelerator have been used to characterise the observed deceleration efficiencies, and aid in the interpretation of the experimental data.
Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas
Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei
2016-07-01
We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI ChunYan; WANG TingTing; ZHEN JunFeng; ZHANG Qun; CHEN Yang
2009-01-01
Kr atoms were produced in their metastable states 4p55s [3/2]2 and 4p55s' [1/2]0 in a pulsed DC discharge in a beam, and subsequently excited to the even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states 4p5np' [3/2]1,2, [1/2]1 and 4p5nf' [5/2]3 using single photon excitation. The excitation spectra of the even-parity autoionizing resonance series from the metastable Kr were obtained by recording the autoionized Kr+ ions with time-of-flight ion detection in the photon energy range of 29000-40000 cm-1. A wealth of autoionizing resonances were newly observed, from which more precise and more systematic spec-troscopic data of the level energy and quantum defects were derived.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chun-yan Li; Ting-ting Wang; Jun-feng Zhen; Qun Zhang; Yang Chen
2008-01-01
Xenon atoms were produced in their metastable states 5p56s[3/2]2 and 5p56s'[1/2]0 in a pulsed DC discharge in a beam, and subsequently excited to the even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states 5p5np' [3/2] 1 ,[1/2]1, t, and 5p5 nf'[5/2]3 using single photon excitation. The excitation spectra of the even-parity autoionizing resonance series from the metastable 129Xe were obtained by recording the autoionized Xe+ with time-of-flight ion detection in the photon energy range of 28000-42000 cm-1. A wealth of autoionizing resonances were newly observed, from which more precise and systematic spectroscopic data of the level energies and quantum defects were derived.
Simulations of the angular dependence of the dipole–dipole interaction among Rydberg atoms
Bigelow, Jacob L.; Paul, Jacob T.; Peleg, Matan; Sanford, Veronica L.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.
2016-08-01
The dipole–dipole interaction between two Rydberg atoms depends on the relative orientation of the atoms and on the change in the magnetic quantum number. We simulate the effect of this anisotropy on the energy transport in an amorphous many atom system subject to a homogeneous applied electric field. We consider two experimentally feasible geometries and find that the effects should be measurable in current generation imaging experiments. In both geometries atoms of p character are localized to a small region of space which is immersed in a larger region that is filled with atoms of s character. Energy transfer due to the dipole–dipole interaction can lead to a spread of p character into the region initially occupied by s atoms. Over long timescales the energy transport is confined to the volume near the border of the p region which suggests Anderson localization. We calculate a correlation length of 6.3 μm for one particular geometry.
Quantum chaos and breaking of all anti-unitary symmetries in Rydberg excitons.
Aßmann, Marc; Thewes, Johannes; Fröhlich, Dietmar; Bayer, Manfred
2016-07-01
Symmetries are the underlying principles of fundamental interactions in nature. Chaos in a quantum system may emerge from breaking these symmetries. Compared to vacuum, crystals are attractive for studying quantum chaos, as they not only break spatial isotropy, but also lead to novel quasiparticles with modified interactions. Here we study yellow Rydberg excitons in cuprous oxide which couple strongly to the vacuum light field and interact significantly with crystal phonons, leading to inversion symmetry breaking. In a magnetic field, time-reversal symmetry is also broken and the exciton states show a complex splitting pattern, resulting in quadratic level repulsion for small splittings. In contrast to atomic chaotic systems in a magnetic field, which show only a linear level repulsion, this is a signature of a system where all anti-unitary symmetries are broken simultaneously. This behaviour can otherwise be found only for the electro-weak interaction or engineered billiards. PMID:27064527
Application of electric field ionization method to detect the high-lying Rydberg states of Eu I
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun Xie; Changjian Dai; Ming Li
2011-01-01
@@ The 4f76s(9S)np 8PJ (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2) Rydberg series converging to the first ionization limit 4f76s 9S4 of the Eu atom using the three-step laser excitation and electric-field-ionization (EFI) method are studied.First, the Eu atom is excited from the 4f76s2 8So7/2 ground state to the 4f76s7s 8So7/2 state through the 4f76s6p 10P9/2 state by the first two dye lasers.Next, it is populated to many higher-n members of the 4f76s(9S)np 8pJ Rydberg series by the third dye laser whose wavelength is scanned within a certain range.%The 4f76s(9S)np 8PJ (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2) Rydberg series converging to the first ionization limit 4f76s 9S4 of the Eu atom using the three-step laser excitation and electric-field-ionization (EFI) method are studied.First, the Eu atom is excited from the 4f76s2 8S7o/2 ground state to the 4f76s7s 8S7o/2 state through the 4f76s6p 10P9/2 state by the first two dye lasers. Next, it is populated to many higher-n members of the 4f76s(9S)np 8pJ Rydberg series by the third dye laser whose wavelength is scanned within a certain range.Finally, the atom in these higher-n states is ionized by the external pulsed electric field. With the field strength up to 2 kV/cm, we can detect the atom in 4f76s(9S)np 8pJ states with n ≥ 40. With the given laser line width, the level energies of Rydberg states with n as high as 72 can be determined. We not only confirm the previous data on the 4f76s(9S) np 8pJ Rydberg series, but also extend the n-value assignment significantly by detecting more states.
Electric dipole versus full interaction in the dynamics of laser excitation of Rydberg wavepackets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the resonant excitation of the hydrogen 1s state to Rydberg states and wavepackets using the electric dipole approximation (EDA) in the length form as well as the full electric interaction of the multipolar Hamiltonian. The time-dependent wavefunctions are expanded in a hydrogenic basis and the TDSE is transformed into a system of coupled integro-differential equations. The truncation of this expansion is done systematically and judiciously within a scheme which we call the multimanifold intrashell approximation, according to which the intershell matrix elements are ignored. The ensuing drastic reduction in the size of the overall calculation allows an economic and meaningful solution of the problem when the multipolar interaction to all orders is taken into account. Three categories of calculations were carried out, all involving many hydrogenic n-manifolds, without and with intrashell couplings. A series of computations dealt with resonant excitation of manifolds up to nres=85. The first two categories of calculations involved the EDA and multimanifold expansions without and with intrashell matrix elements. The third category involved the full multipolar interaction and multimanifold expansions with intrashell matrix elements. The reported time-dependent survival probabilities revealed that, even for the weak field used (8.75x107 W cm-2), as the level of the resonant excitation rises beyond n≥10, the EDA fails to describe the correct dynamics of such processes. The results herein provide quantitative information and demonstrate beyond doubt the limitations and inaccuracies of the EDA when the field-atom coupling involves extended wavefunctions, such as the high-lying Rydberg states. (author)
Ionization Potentials and Quantum Defects of 1s2np2P Rydberg States of Lithium Atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Chao
2008-01-01
In this work,ionization potentials and quantum effects of 1s2np2p Rydberg states of lithium are calculated based on the calibrated quantum defect function.Energy levels and quantum defects for 1s2np2P bound states and their adjacent continuum states are calculated with the R-matrix theory,and then the quantum defect function of the 1s2np (n ≥ 7) channel is obtained,which varies smoothly with the energy based on the quantum defect theory.The accurate quantum defect of the 1s27p2P state derived from the experimental data is used to calibrate the original quantum defect function.The new function is used to calculate ionization potentials and quantum effects of 1s2np2P (n ≥ 7) Rydberg states.Present calculations are in agreement with recent experimental data in whole.
Adiabatic potential energy curves of long-range Rydberg molecules: Two-electron R-matrix approach
Tarana, Michal
2016-01-01
We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. Only diatomic molecules are considered. The method is based on a two-electron \\rmath approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is put into a test by its application to a study of Rydberg states of the hydrogen molecule for internuclear distances $R$ from 20 to 400 bohrs and energies corresponding to $n$ from 3 to 22. The results are compared with previous quantum chemical calculations (lower quantum numbers $n$) and computations based on contact potential models (higher quantum numbers $n$).
Yang, Yang; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Weitao
2013-12-14
Double, Rydberg, and charge transfer (CT) excitations have been great challenges for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Starting from an (N ± 2)-electron single-determinant reference, we investigate excitations for the N-electron system through the pairing matrix fluctuation, which contains information on two-electron addition/removal processes. We adopt the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the particle-particle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (pp-TDA) to approximate the pairing matrix fluctuation and then determine excitation energies by the differences of two-electron addition/removal energies. This approach captures all types of interesting excitations: single and double excitations are described accurately, Rydberg excitations are in good agreement with experimental data and CT excitations display correct 1/R dependence. Furthermore, the pp-RPA and the pp-TDA have a computational cost similar to TDDFT and consequently are promising for practical calculations.
Simons, Matt T; Holloway, Christopher L
2016-01-01
We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) Rydberg atoms in the same vapor cell with coincident (overlapping) optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) electric (E) field strengths through modification of the EIT signal (Autler-Townes (AT) splitting), which leads to a direct SI traceable RF E-field measurement. We show that these two systems can detect the same the RF E-field strength simultaneously, which provides a direct in situ comparison of Rb and Cs RF measurements in Rydberg atoms. In effect, this allows us to perform two independent measurements of the same quantity in the same laboratory, providing two different immediate and independent measurements. This gives two measurements that helps rule out systematic effects and uncertainties in this E-field metrology approach, which are important when establishing an international measurement standard for an E-field strength and is a necessary step for this method to...
Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J. -Q.; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco
2015-01-01
The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For exam...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider problems of short-time dynamics of a polyelectronic atomic nonstationary state, V, assumed to be formed as a wave packet at t=0. We focus on two cases, for which the role of the quasicontinuum of the upper part of the Rydberg states, with which the V state has nonzero coupling matrix elements, is investigated. In the first case, the position of the V state is just above the ionization threshold, E=0, and so V dissipates into the free electron continuum as an autoionizing state. The question is how the presence of the Rydberg series converging to E=0 affects the time evolution of the autoionizing V. In the second case, the position of V is embedded in the quasicontinuum of the Rydberg series below threshold. The question is whether there are distinct features in the time evolution of this V, although its position is in the discrete part of the energy spectrum. In this case, by focusing on short times and by evaluating analytically certain infinite sums, analogous to Fourier integrations, the following result is obtained: For small times, the V state evolves as an exponentially decaying state. However, in addition to the term describing exponential decay, there is a term, entering with a small coefficient, which describes exponential growth and eventually dominates. It is shown that exponential decay holds for times shorter than the time tp needed by the wave packet to reach the outer classical turning point. For the decay to be physically meaningful, this time must be smaller than the time td which equals the inverse of the half-width in atomic units. We examined a model system of V-Rydberg state interaction based on the Boron 2S spectrum. The results indicate that the effect is observable on the scale of femtoseconds
Satellites to. delta. n = 1 transitions between high-lying levels of multiply ionized atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konig, R.; Kolk, K.; Koshelev, K. N.; Kunze, H.
1989-04-10
In a theta pinch discharge satellites to ..delta../ital n/=1 transitionsbetween high-lying levels are observed for the ions Si ix, Six, and Si xi, but not for Si xii. They areidentified as ..delta../ital n/=1 transitions between the corresponding levels ofdoubly excited systems. At high densities, the series of Rydberg levels abovetheir respective thermal limit are collisionally coupled to their ionizationlimit: The intensity ratio of a transition to that of its satellite thus offersthe unique possibility of measuring the ratio of the population density in theground energy level of the next ionization stage to that in the lowest excitedlevels of this ion.
Levi, Emanuele; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-09-01
In the presence of strong dephasing noise the dynamics of Rydberg gases becomes effectively classical, due to the rapid decay of quantum superpositions between atomic levels. Recently a great deal of attention has been devoted to the stochastic dynamics that emerges in that limit, revealing several interesting features, including kinetically constrained glassy behaviour, self-similarity and aggregation effects. However, the non-equilibrium physics of these systems, in particular in the regime where coherent and dissipative processes contribute on equal footing, is yet far from being understood. To explore this we study the dynamics of a small one-dimensional Rydberg lattice gas subject to dephasing noise by numerically integrating the quantum master equation. We interpolate between the coherent and the strongly dephased regime by defining a generalised concept of a blockade length. We find indications that the main features observed in the strongly dissipative limit persist when the dissipation is not strong enough to annihilate quantum coherences at the dynamically relevant time scales. These features include the existence of a time-dependent Rydberg blockade radius, and a growth of the density of excitations which is compatible with the power-law behaviour expected in the classical limit.
Tarana, Michal; Čurík, Roman
2016-05-01
We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. The method is based on a two-electron R-matrix approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via a multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is applied to a study of Rydberg states of Rb2 for internuclear separations R from 40 to 320 bohrs and energies corresponding to n from 7 to 30. We report bound states associated with the low-lying 3Po resonance and with the virtual state of the rubidium atom that turn into ion-pair-like bound states in the Coulomb potential of the atomic Rydberg core. The results are compared with previous calculations based on single-electron models employing a zero-range contact-potential and short-range modele potential. Czech Science Foundation (Project No. P208/14-15989P).
Hogan, S. D.; Seiler, Ch; Merkt, F.
2013-02-01
Hydrogen and deuterium Rydberg atoms, initially moving at velocities of 600 and 560 m s-1, respectively, in pulsed supersonic beams, have been decelerated and electrostatically trapped following adiabatic 90° deflection from their initial axis of propagation to minimize collisions with the trailing edge of the gas pulses. The time evolution of the potential energy surfaces, over which the atoms undergoing deceleration travel during the trap-loading process, is analogous to that of a moving electrodynamic trap. It has been studied in the laboratory-fixed frame of reference and in the continuously moving frame of reference defined by the instantaneous position of the electric-field minimum around which the atoms are located. The importance of the quadratic Stark effect in the deceleration of samples in Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers above 35 has also been investigated by comparison of experimental results with predictions resulting from the numerical calculation of particle trajectories. The data presented for deuterium atoms represent the first application of Rydberg-Stark deceleration and trapping for this atom. Comparison of the rate of loss of n = 30 H and D atoms from the trap enables one to conclude that it is not affected by the particle dynamics during deceleration and trap loading.
Zhang, Qun; Li, Quanxin; Yu, Shuqin; Ma, Xingxiao
2008-01-01
Sulfur difluoride radicals in their ground state have been produced by a "laser-free" pulsed dc discharge of the SF$_{6}$/Ar gas mixtures in a supersonic molecular beam and detected by mass-selective resonance-enhanced multilphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 408 - 420 nm. Analyses of the (3 + 1) REMPI excitation spectrum have enabled identification of three hitherto unknown Rydberg states of this radical. Following the Rydberg state labeling in our previous work [see J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 7233 (1998)], these we label the K(5p$_{1}$) [$nu_{0-0}$ = 71 837 cm$^{-1}$, $omega_{1}^{'}$(a$_{1}$ sym str) = 915 cm$^{-1}$], L(5p$_{2}$) [$nu_{0-0}$ = 72 134 cm$^{-1}$, $omega_{1}^{'}$(a$_{1}$ sym str) = 912 cm$^{-1}$], and M(5p$_{3}$) [$nu_{0-0}$ = 72 336 cm$^{-1}$, $omega_{1}^{'}$(a$_{1}$ sym str) = 926 cm$^{-1}$] Rydberg states, respectively. [Origins, relative to the lowest vibrational level of the X$^{1}$A$_{1}$ ground state, and vibrational frequencies of the symmetric S-F stretching ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In preparation of a laser ion source, we have investigated multi-step laser ionization via Rydberg and autoionizing states for atomic Ni and Ge using a mass separator with an ion beam energy of 20 keV. For both elements resonant three-step excitation schemes suitable for modern Ti:sapphire laser systems were developed. Rydberg series in the range of principal quantum numbers 20 ≤ n ≤ 80 were localized, assigned and quantum numbers were allocated to the individual resonances. Ionization potentials (IP) were extracted from fits of the individual series and quantum defects of individual levels were analysed for confirmation of series assignment. For Ni the ionization potential could be extracted with significantly increased precision compared to literature with a value of EIP (Ni) = 61 619.77(14) cm-1. Also, at least one notable autoionizing state above the first IP was discovered for both elements, and the different ionization schemes via Rydberg or autoionizing states were compared with respect to line shape, ionization efficiency and selectivity
Morisawa, Yusuke; Tachibana, Shin; Ehara, Masahiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro
2012-12-01
Attenuated total reflection far-ultraviolet (ATR-FUV) spectra containing Rydberg states of n-alkanes (C(m)H(2m+2); m varies in the range 5-9) and branched alkanes observed in the liquid phase were investigated by quantum chemical calculations with the aim of elucidating electronic transitions from σ orbitals of liquid n- and branched alkanes. New assignments are proposed based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction (SAC-CI) calculations, and the differences in these spectra are analyzed in detail. The FUV spectra of n-alkanes show a broad asymmetric feature near 8.3 eV. The strong band at ∼8.3 eV shows a red shift with a significant increase in intensity as the carbon chain length increases, which is attributed to the overlapping transitions from the third (or fourth) highest occupied molecular orbitals HOMO-2 (or HOMO-3) and HOMO-1 to Rydberg 3p(y) by the TD-DFT and SAC-CI calculations. This band was previously assigned to the overlap of two peaks arising from the transition from the HOMO to 3p and from the HOMO-1 to 3s based on their term values. Although the most intense transition, T1, is from HOMO-2 for m = 5 and 6 and HOMO-3 for m varying in the range of 7-9, the shape of Kohn-Sham molecular orbital for T1 is similar among the all-alkanes investigated. The theoretical result also has demonstrated that the red shift originates in both stabilization of the Rydberg 3p(y) and destabilization of the occupied orbitals. The intensity of the shoulder at 7.7 eV drastically increases in the spectra of the branched alkanes, especially for those with quaternary carbon atoms such as 2,2-dimethyl butane. This increase in intensity is caused by a reduction in symmetry in the branched alkanes, which leads the forbidden transitions to Rydberg 3s to allowed transitions. In this way, the present study has provided new insight into the existence of their Rydberg transitions and the shape of the relevant
Dynamics of Bloch State Positronium Emission from MOF Targets Studied via Rydberg TOF Spectroscopy
Piñeiro Escalera, Alina; Jones, Adric; Mills, Allen
2016-05-01
Recent advances in the efficient production and detection of Rydberg positronium (Ps) have made it possible to perform energy- and angle- resolved time-of-flight (TOF) spectroscopy with Ps. We report here TOF measurements of Ps emission from the metal-oxide framework (MOF) targets, MOF-5 and ZIF-8. MOFs are a recently synthesized class of chemical structures, characterized by high long-range order and large surface area to volume ratios (i.e., they are highly porous and uniform, crystalline materials). Ps is found to be emitted predominantly in a series of monoenergetic peaks, providing clear evidence of Ps Bloch states. Measuring the relative populations of the monoenergetic peaks, as a function of implantation energy and target temperature, provides insight into the target-dependent dynamics of Bloch state Ps. Work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grants No. PHY 1206100 and No. PHY 1040590 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Progam (NSF-GRFP). DOE BES DE-FG02-13ER46972 (MOF-5 synthesis and characterization).
Ionization of Rydberg atoms by the kicks of half-cycle pulses
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chatterjee Supriya; Saha Aparna; Talukdar B
2016-04-01
We present a quantum mechanical model to study the ionization of quasione dimensional Rydberg atoms interacting with half-cycle pulses (HCPs) and use it to demonstrate the inadequacy of semiclassical approaches to calculate ionization probabilities of such atoms subject to the impact of more than one HCP. For a single-kicked atom both models correctly reproduce the experimentally observed ‘s-curve’ as can be seen by plotting the ionization probability $P$ as a function of momentum transfer $q_1$.We demonstrate that for a twice-kicked atom, the semiclassical model yields numbers for $P$ which are not physically realizable. For fixed values of momentum transfers $q_1$and $q_2$, in a twice-kicked atom, the ionization probability as a function of time delay between the kicks exhibits periodic decay and revival. The results of the semiclassical approach appear to agree with the quantum mechanical values at the times of revival of P, else these show considerable deviation. We attempt to provide a physical explanation for the limitation of the semiclassical approach.
The dynamical properties of Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GE Meihua; ZHANG Yanhui; WANG Dehua; DU Mengli; LIN Shenglu
2005-01-01
The dynamical properties of Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface are presented by using the methods of phase space analysis and closed orbit theory. Transforming the coordinates of the Hamiltonian, we find that the phase space of the system is divided into vibrational and rotational region. Both the Poincaré surface of section and the closed orbit theory verify the same conclusion clearly. In this paper we choose the atomic principal quantum number as n = 20. The dynamical character of the exited hydrogen atom depends sensitively on the atom-surface distance d. When d is sufficiently large, the atom-surface potential can be expressed by the traditional van der Waals force and the system is integrable. When d becomes smaller, there exists a critical value dc. For d > dc, the system is near-integrable and the motion is regular. While chaotic motion appears for d < dc, and the system tends to be non-integrable. The trajectories become unstable and the electron might be captured onto the metal surface.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lombardi, M.; Seligman, T.H. (Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique-Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble, Boite Postale No. 87, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, CEDEX (France))
1993-05-01
We study Rydberg molecules taking into account the interaction between the rotational motion of the nuclei and the radial motion of the electron. This situation can be treated to a good approximation in quantum mechanics by the multichannel quantum-defect method which in turn has a well-defined classical limit. We are able to calculate very long sequences of levels and the corresponding amplitudes of wave packets. This allows us to study the statistical properties of both in detail. Our interest focuses on aspects of quantum chaos'' that can be particularly well understood in this case. Our main result is that, in a completely chaotic classical situation, where statistics of quantum-level spacings follow the expected universal Gaussian-orthogonal-ensemble behavior, and statistics of line intensities display the expected universal Porter-Thomas behavior, nonuniversal properties are explicitly contained in correlations between intensities and spacings, determined by the time needed for the classical system to mix on a length scale given by the quantum wavelength.
Exploring the high-order harmonic generation from Rydberg states with a fixed Keldysh parameter
Ata Bleda, Erdi; Yavuz, Ilhan; Altun, Zikri; Topcu, Turker
2012-06-01
The commonly adopted viewpoint that the Keldysh parameter γ determines the dynamical regime of ionization in strong field physics has long been demonstrated to be a misleading one. One can then ask what happens in strong field ionization as relevant parameters, such as laser intensity and frequency, are varied while keeping γ fixed. We present results from our simulations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from Rydberg states of a hydrogen atom. We calculate high harmonic spectra from various initial states with n up to 42, where the laser intensities and the frequencies are scaled from those for n=1 in order to maintain a fixed Keldysh parameter γthree-step model for n=1. However, a secondary cut-off structure forms below this, which moves to lower harmonics as n is increased. This second cut-off splits the plateau into two regions, one higher in yield and below the second cut-off, and the second with lower yield following it. We further investigate the final n-distributions for some of the interesting cases to elucidate the physical mechanism leading to this structure
Rydberg state, metastable, and electron dynamics in the low-pressure argon afterglow
Tsankov, Tsanko V.; Johnsen, Rainer; Czarnetzki, Uwe
2015-12-01
In this work a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for recombining plasmas is developed. It tracks the collisional and radiative capture of electrons into highly-excited (Rydberg) states and their consecutive deexcitation through collisions and radiation to the ground or the metastable state. The model allows the calculation of the net recombination rate and the electron energy gain by recombination. It is coupled to the volume-averaged balance equations for the electron density and temperature. The numerical solution of these equations includes a model for the diffusion cooling of the electrons (Celik et al 2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 046407) and a simplified model for the gas cooling. Using as only input the experimentally determined initial values of the electron density and temperature, gas temperature and metastable density, the temporal evolution of all parameters in the afterglow is calculated and compared with measurements. The results reproduce very well the measured quantities (electron density, light emission and metastable density) without the need to invoke adjustable parameters. This gives confidence in the validity of the model that allows it to be used not only to deepen the understanding of afterglow plasmas but also to tailor their properties as required for applications. The analysis of the model results further shows that gas heating and cooling must be explicitly taken into account to reproduce experimental observations. The electron heating by recombination is another process that is important for the good agreement. Both of these effects were largely ignored in previous works on afterglows.
Jungen, Ch; Jungen, M; Pratt, S T
2012-11-13
The dissociative recombination (DR) of H(3)(+) ions with electrons, producing neutral atomic and molecular fragments, is driven primarily by the vibronic Jahn-Teller (JT) interaction between the electronic components of the pe' e(-)-H(3)(+) collision (Rydberg) channel. The JT parameters characterizing this interaction are therefore of great interest as they are required for the theoretical predictions of the DR cross section. In this contribution, we review various determinations of these quantities that have been made previously, based both on spectroscopic studies of 3pe' Rydberg-excited H(3) states, and on the analysis of the corresponding ab initio H(3) Rydberg potential surfaces near the conical intersection (D(3h) symmetry) for n=3-5. The highly correlated theoretical 3pe' potential surfaces of Mistrík et al. are used for a new determination of both the linear and quadratic JT terms. PMID:23028155
Dynamics of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair formation in K(14p,20p)-SF6, CCl4 collisions
Wang, C. H.; Kelley, M.; Buathong, S.; Dunning, F. B.
2014-06-01
The dynamics of formation of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states through electron transfer in K(np)-SF6, CCl4 collisions is examined by measuring the velocity, angular, and binding energy distributions of the product ion pairs. The results are analyzed with the aid of a Monte Carlo collision code that models both the initial electron capture and the subsequent evolution of the ion pairs. The model simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data and highlight the factors such as Rydberg atom size, the kinetic energy of relative motion of the Rydberg atom and target particle, and (in the case of attaching targets that dissociate) the energetics of dissociation that can be used to control the properties of the product ion-pair states.
Oscillator strengths for allowed and intercombination transitions in neutral sulfur
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, IA 50311 (United States)
2006-06-28
A B-spline box-based multi-channel method for treating Rydberg series is applied for systematic calculations of transition probabilities in neutral sulfur for energy levels up to n = 12. Extensive configuration-interaction wavefunctions in close-coupling form are used to represent the atomic levels. Special attention is paid to the treatment of inner-core and core-valence correlations at the same level of accuracy for all states. Non-orthogonal sets of one-electron radial functions are used to account for the strong term dependence of these orbitals. Relativistic effects are included through correction terms of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The agreement in the length and velocity gauges of the transition data and the accuracy of the binding energies are used to estimate the accuracy of our results, which are also compared with previous theoretical predictions, experimental measurements, and values predicted from astrophysical data.
Dai, Zhenwen; Jiang, ZK; Xu, Huailiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Svanberg, Sune; Biemont, E.; Lefebvre, PH; Quinet, P.
2003-01-01
Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements have been performed for ten odd Rydberg states of neutral lutetium, belonging to the 6s(2)(S-1)np(n = 8-9) and 6 s(2)(S-1)nf (n = 5-8) series. For 6S(2)(S-1)8p and 6s(2)(S-1)7f, the experimental lifetimes corresponding to the two J values within the doublet differ substantially. Comparison with theoretical values, calculated with extensive configuration interaction and core-polarization effects included, shows that the experimental trends ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The energies of 190 Rydberg and autoionization 4f136 snp-states of the Tm atom (ground electron configuration 4f136s2, nuclear charge Z=69) have been measured by the laser multistep excitation with subsequent electric field ionization method. The investigation range of these states has been extended towards states with higher and lower values of the principal quantum number. As a result the energies of 160 states have been obtained for the first time. The experiment has been carried out on an automated laser photoionization spectrometer. The measurement accuracy has been ±0.5 cm-1. (orig.)
Forbidden atomic transitions driven by an intensity-modulated laser trap.
Moore, Kaitlin R; Anderson, Sarah E; Raithel, Georg
2015-01-20
Spectroscopy is an essential tool in understanding and manipulating quantum systems, such as atoms and molecules. The model describing spectroscopy includes the multipole-field interaction, which leads to established spectroscopic selection rules, and an interaction that is quadratic in the field, which is not often employed. However, spectroscopy using the quadratic (ponderomotive) interaction promises two significant advantages over spectroscopy using the multipole-field interaction: flexible transition rules and vastly improved spatial addressability of the quantum system. Here we demonstrate ponderomotive spectroscopy by using optical-lattice-trapped Rydberg atoms, pulsating the lattice light and driving a microwave atomic transition that would otherwise be forbidden by established spectroscopic selection rules. This ability to measure frequencies of previously inaccessible transitions makes possible improved determinations of atomic characteristics and constants underlying physics. The spatial resolution of ponderomotive spectroscopy is orders of magnitude better than the transition frequency would suggest, promising single-site addressability in dense particle arrays for quantum computing applications.
A coupled microwave-cavity system in the Rydberg-atom cavity detector for dark matter axions
Tada, M; Shibata, M; Kominato, K; Ogawa, I; Funahashi, H; Yamamoto, K; Matsuki, S
2001-01-01
A coupled microwave-cavity system of cylindrical TM$_{010}$ single-mode has been developed to search for dark matter axions around 10 $\\mu {\\rm eV}$(2.4 GHz) with the Rydberg-atom cavity detector at 10 mK range temperature. One component of the coupled cavity (conversion cavity) made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper is used to convert an axion into a single photon with the Primakoff process in the strong magnetic field, while the other component (detection cavity) made of Nb is utilized to detect the converted photons with Rydberg atoms passed through it without magnetic field. Top of the detection cavity is attached to the bottom flange of the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator, thus the whole cavity is cooled down to 10 mK range to reduce the background thermal blackbody-photons in the cavity. The cavity resonant frequency is tunable over $\\sim$ 15% by moving dielectric rods inserted independently into each part of the cavities along the cylindrical axis. In order to reduce the heat load from ...
l- and n-changing collisions during interaction of a pulsed beam of Li Rydberg atoms with CO2
Dubreuil, B.; Harnafi, M.
1989-07-01
The pulsed Li atomic beam produced in our experiment is based on controlled transversely-excited-atmospheric CO2 laser-induced ablation of a Li metal target. The atomic beam is propagated in vacuum or in CO2 gas at low pressure. Atoms in the beam are probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. This allows the determination of time-of-flight and velocity distributions. Li Rydberg states (n=5-13) are populated in the beam by two-step pulsed-laser excitation. The excited atoms interact with CO2 molecules. l- and n-changing cross sections are deduced from the time evolution of the resonant or collision-induced fluorescence following this selective excitation. l-changing cross sections of the order of 104 AṦ are measured; they increase with n as opposed to the plateau observed for Li* colliding with a diatomic molecule. This behavior is qualitatively well explained in the framework of the free-electron model. n-->n' changing processes with large cross sections (10-100 AṦ) are also observed even in the case of large electronic energy change (ΔEnn'>103 cm-1). These results can be interpreted in terms of resonant-electronic to vibrational energy transfers between Li Rydberg states and CO2 vibrational modes.
l- and n-changing collisions during interaction of a pulsed beam of Li Rydberg atoms with CO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pulsed Li atomic beam produced in our experiment is based on controlled transversely-excited-atmospheric CO2 laser-induced ablation of a Li metal target. The atomic beam is propagated in vacuum or in CO2 gas at low pressure. Atoms in the beam are probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. This allows the determination of time-of-flight and velocity distributions. Li Rydberg states (n=5--13) are populated in the beam by two-step pulsed-laser excitation. The excited atoms interact with CO2 molecules. l- and n-changing cross sections are deduced from the time evolution of the resonant or collision-induced fluorescence following this selective excitation. l-changing cross sections of the order of 104 A2 are measured; they increase with n as opposed to the plateau observed for Li/sup */ colliding with a diatomic molecule. This behavior is qualitatively well explained in the framework of the free-electron model. n yields n' changing processes with large cross sections (10--100 A2) are also observed even in the case of large electronic energy change (ΔE/sub nn'/>103 cm/sup -1/). These results can be interpreted in terms of resonant-electronic to vibrational energy transfers between Li Rydberg states and CO2 vibrational modes
Holloway, Christopher L; Jefferts, Steven; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A; Miller, Stephanie A; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg
2014-01-01
We discuss a fundamentally new approach for the measurement of electric (E) fields that will lead to the development of a broadband, direct SI-traceable, compact, self-calibrating E-field probe (sensor). This approach is based on the interaction of radio frequency (RF) fields with alkali atoms excited to Rydberg states. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In effect, alkali atoms placed in a vapor cell act like an RF-to-optical transducer, converting an RF E-field strength measurement to an optical frequency measurement. We demonstrate the broadband nature of this approach by showing that one small vapor cell can be used to measure E-field strengths over a wide range of frequencies: 1 GHz to 500 GHz. The technique is validated by comparing experimental data to both numerical simulations and far-field calculations for various frequencies. We also discuss various applications, in...
Chiao, Raymond Y
2010-01-01
Freely falling point-like objects converge towards the center of the Earth. Hence the gravitational field of the Earth is inhomogeneous, and possesses a tidal component. The free fall of an extended quantum object such as a hydrogen atom prepared in a high principal-quantum-number stretch state, i.e., a circular Rydberg atom, is predicted to fall more slowly that a classical point-like object, when both objects are dropped from the same height from above the Earth. This indicates that, apart from "quantum jumps," the atom exhibits a kind of "quantum incompressibility" during free fall in inhomogeneous, tidal gravitational fields like those of the Earth. A superconducting ring-like system with a persistent current circulating around it behaves like the circular Rydberg atom during free fall. Like the electronic wavefunction of the freely falling atom, the Cooper-pair wavefunction is "quantum incompressible." The ions of the ionic lattice of the superconductor, however, are not "quantum incompressible," since t...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The experimental values of the cross sections of elementary collision processes involving neutral atoms and covering the energy range 01.-1,000 keV are of interest because they can be used to model some phenomena which occur under laboratory conditions and in outer space, and also to check the precision of various models and methods used in the theory of atomic collisions. The latter task is particularly important at moderate collision energies (usually below 100 keV) where the Born approximation for the cross sections of collisional processes gives results greatly at variance with the experimental data and the precision of the more complex theoretical methods being developed at present requires a careful experimental check. Here, the cross sections for ionization and excitation into Rydberg states (n = 21-27) were determined for fast (accelerated to 3.9 keV) metastable helium atoms colliding with He, Ne, and N2. An analysis of the collisionally excited helium atoms in terms of their principal quantum number was carried out using for the ionization by an electric field a system capable of separation in accordance with n and was calibrated using signals from Rydberg states excited selectively by laser radiation
Gurtler, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Vrakking, M.J.J.; Zande, W.J. van der; Noordam, L.D.
2004-01-01
We report time-resolved electron emission in experiments on ionization of rubidium Rydberg atoms (n=90) by few-cycle radio-frequency (RF) (1-10 MHz) pulses. The electron emission occurs in multiple bursts and strongly depends on the carrier-envelope phase as well as the duration and amplitude of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Chunwoo [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
Convergent all-electron multi-reference configuration-interaction (MRCI) calculations are performed for a lithium dimer with Kaufmann's Rydberg basis functions. A comparison of the results of these calculations with those of the effective core potential/core polarization potential (ECP/CPP) method and experimental data reveals the deficiency of the all-electron ab initio method. The deficiency is related to the mere 51.9% attainment of electron correlation for the ground state. The percent attainment of electron correlation for the first excited state is slightly better than that for the ground state, preventing us from obtaining better agreements with experimental data by means of increasing the size of basis sets. The Kaufmann basis functions are then used with the ECP/CPP method to obtain the accurate convergent potential energy curves for the {sup 1}Π{sub u} states correlated to Li(2p) + Li(2p) and Li(2s) + Li(n = 2, 3, 4). Quantum defect curves (QDCs) calculated for both the X {sup 2}Σ{sub g} and 1 {sup 2}Π{sub u} states of the Li{sub 2}{sup +} ion and the Lu-Fano plot reveal a strong series-series interaction between the two 2snpΠ and 2pnpΠ Rydberg series. The QDCs are then used to resolve assignment problems in the literature. The reassignments, performed by Jedrzejewski-Szemek et al., of the dissociation product of the D {sup 1}Π{sub u} state from (2s+3d) to (2s+3p) and that of the 6 {sup 1}Π{sub u} from (2s+4d) to (2s+4p) are found to be incorrect. It may be more natural to assign their 2snpΠ Rydberg series as a 2sndΠ series. The state, assigned as 5p {sup 1}Π{sub u} by Ross et al. and 4d 1Π by Jedrzejewski-Szemek et al., is assigned as the 7 {sup 1}Π{sub u} state, correlated to the Li(2s) + Li(4f) limit.
铕原子Rydberg态的场电离研究%Field Ionization of Eu Rydberg States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张婧; 沈礼; 戴长建
2015-01-01
利用三步激光共振激发结合场电离探测技术，系统地研究了铕原子归属于第一电离限4f76s 9S4的4f76snp Rydberg态的场电离过程，得到了铕原子4f76snp Rydberg 态的场电离光谱图。在光激发之后施加脉宽为0.2μs的脉冲电场，连续扫描电压得到场电离过程图。从4f76snp Rydberg态的场电离过程图谱中，可以精确地获得态的场电离阈，观察电场逐步从0到3 kV变化时原子的演化过程。特别是，受黑体辐射的影响，一些结构出现在了场电离光谱图上。%The field ionization process of Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states converging to the first ionization limit 4f76s 9 S4 was systematically investigated. Firstly, the spectra of Rydberg states 4f76snp of Eu atom were measured using the three-step laser excitation and electric field ionization ( EFI) method. Secondly, the EFI pulse(pulse width of 0. 2μs)was applied after laser excitation. Then, we contin-uously scan field ionization voltage to observe the EFI process, and to realize the potential of field ionization we need to understand what happens to the atoms as the pulse field rises from 0 to 3 kV. The exact location of ionization threshold can be obtained when the peak of ionization field changes. Especially, above the threshold, some structures are found due to black body radiation ( BBR) .
Lawley, Kenneth P.; Donovan, Robert J.
2016-08-01
Heavy Rydberg behaviour in the B(u+1Σ) and B″ B ‾ (u+1Σ) ion-pair states of H2 and the B(u+1Σ) state of D2, is analysed in terms of the absolute quantum defects of the vibronic levels. The influence of the inner repulsive wall of ion-pair potentials on heavy Rydberg behaviour is considered and shown to determine the size of both absolute quantum defects and their energy dependence.
Forbidden atomic transitions driven by an intensity-modulated laser trap
Moore, Kaitlin R; Raithel, Georg
2014-01-01
Spectroscopy is an essential tool in understanding and manipulating quantum systems, such as atoms and molecules. The model describing spectroscopy includes a multipole-field interaction, which leads to established spectroscopic selection rules, and an interaction that is quadratic in the field, which is often neglected. However, spectroscopy using the quadratic (ponderomotive) interaction promises two significant advantages over spectroscopy using the multipole-field interaction: flexible transition rules and vastly improved spatial addressability of the quantum system. For the first time, we demonstrate ponderomotive spectroscopy by using optical-lattice-trapped Rydberg atoms, pulsating the lattice light at a microwave frequency, and driving a microwave atomic transition that would otherwise be forbidden by established spectroscopic selection rules. This new ability to measure frequencies of previously inaccessible transitions makes possible improved determinations of atomic characteristics and constants un...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang De-Hua
2007-01-01
Using the closed orbit theory,we study the classical motion and calculate the photoabsorption spectra of Rydberg hydrogen atom between two parallel metallic surfaces.The results show that the metallic surfaces have a significant effect on the photoabsorption process.When the distances between the hydrogen atom and the two metallic surfaces are close to a critical value dc,the number of the closed orbits is the greatest.When the distance larger or smaller than dc,the number of the closed orbits decreases and the absorption spectra are shown to exhibit a damping oscillation.This work is an interesting new application of closed-orbit theory and is of potential experimental interest.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an improved ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) approach to electronic excitations. A conventional TDDFT scheme within the local-density approximation (LDA) inaccurately predicts Rydberg and charge-transfer excitation energies, mainly because the electron-hole (e-h) interaction is inappropriately described in these excitations, as can be found by analyzing the linear response formula [M. Petersilka, U. J. Gossmann, and E. K. U. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1212 (1996)]. When the formula is averaged over the electron occupation, the inappropriate e-h interaction within LDA is corrected to become explicitly similar to that of the exact exchange system. As anticipated from the similarity, our proposed scheme of modified linear response greatly improves the prediction of the problematic excitations, which are exemplified for typical molecules
Letscher, Fabian; Linzner, Dominik; Fleischhauer, Michael
2016-05-01
Motivated by recent experiments, we study spatial and temporal correlations of Rydberg excitations of optically driven ultra-cold atoms in the anti-blockade regime. In particular, we discuss the influence of dissipation on the excitation dynamics of a linear chain of atoms, described by the dissipative, transverse-field Ising model. Using t-DMRG simulations of the density matrix we identify parameter regimes with diverging correlation lengths in the coherent regime of weak dissipation. Correlation lengths remain short-ranged in the incoherent regime of strong dissipation, where classical rate equations can be employed. We discuss the different physical mechanisms determining the many-body dynamics in the two regimes and compare theoretical predictions with recent experimental results. In particular we discuss the formation of excitation cluster in the incoherent regime and explain the observed slow-down of the relaxation process due to cluster formation.
Schippers, S; Buhr, T; Hellhund, J; Holste, K; Kilcoyne, A L D; Klumpp, S; Martins, M; Müller, A; Ricz, S; Fritzsche, S
2014-01-01
Triple photoionization of Xe3+, Xe4+ and Xe5+ ions has been studied in the energy range 670-750 eV, including the 3d ionization threshold. The photon-ion merged-beam technique was used at a synchrotron light source to measure the absolute photoionization cross sections. These cross sections exhibit a progressively larger number of sharp resonances as the ion charge state is increased. This clearly visualizes the re-ordering of the $\\epsilon$f continuum into a regular series of (bound) Rydberg orbitals as the ionic core becomes more attractive. The energies and strengths of the resonances are extracted from the experimental data and are further analyzed by relativistic atomic-structure calculations.
Bridge, Elizabeth M; Keegan, Niamh C; Bounds, Alistair D; Boddy, Danielle; Sadler, Daniel P; Jones, Matthew P A
2016-02-01
We present a solid-state laser system that generates over 200 mW of continuous-wave, narrowband light, tunable from 316.3 nm - 317.7 nm and 318.0 nm - 319.3 nm. The laser is based on commercially available fiber amplifiers and optical frequency doubling technology, along with sum frequency generation in a periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal. The laser frequency is stabilized to an atomic-referenced high finesse optical transfer cavity. Using a GPS-referenced optical frequency comb we measure a long term frequency instability of application we perform spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states from n = 37 - 81, demonstrating mode-hop-free scans of 24 GHz. In a cold atomic sample we measure Doppler-limited linewidths of 350 kHz. PMID:26906804
Bridge, Elizabeth M; Bounds, Alistair D; Boddy, Danielle; Sadler, Daniel P; Jones, Matthew P A
2015-01-01
We present a solid-state laser system that generates over 200 mW of continuous-wave, narrowband light, tunable between 316.3 nm and 319.3 nm. The laser is based on commercially available fiber amplifiers and optical frequency doubling technology, along with sum frequency generation in a periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal. The laser frequency is stabilized to an atomic-referenced high finesse optical transfer cavity. Using a GPS-referenced optical frequency comb we measure a long term frequency instability of <35 kHz. As an application we perform spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states from n = 37 - 81, demonstrating mode-hop-free scans of 24 GHz. In a cold atomic sample we measure Doppler-limited linewidths of 350 kHz.
Wavelength and oscillator strength of dipole transition 1s22p-1s2nd for Mn22+ ion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG ZhiWen; WANG YaNan; HU MuHong; LI XinRu; LIU Ying
2008-01-01
The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3≤n≤9) for Mn22+. ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤9) states for this ion are also evaluated. In calculating energy, the higher-order relativistic contribution is estimated under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experi-mental data available in literatures.
Wavelength and oscillator strength of dipole transition 1s22p—1s2nd for Mn22+ ion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3≤n≤9) for Mn22+ ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n≤9) states for this ion are also evaluated. In calculating energy, the higher-order relativistic contribution is estimated under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experi-mental data available in literatures.
Di Noto, Lea
This experimental thesis has been done in the framework of AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy), an experiment installed at CERN, whose primary goal is the measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on anti-hydrogen. The antiatoms will be produced by the charge exchange reaction, where a cloud of Ps in Rydberg states interacts with cooled trapped antiprotons. Since the charge exchange cross section depends on Ps velocity and quantum number, the velocity distribution of Ps emitted by a positron-positronium converter as well as its excitation in Rydberg states have to be studied and optimized. In this thesis Ps cooling and emission into vacuum from nanochannelled silicon targets was studied by performing Time of Flight measurements with a dedicated apparatus conceived to receive the slow positron beam as produced at the Trento laboratory or at the NEPOMUC facility at Munich. Measurements were done by varying the positron implantation energy, the sample temperature and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results of rotationally resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy-pulsed field ionization studies on HBr via various rotational levels of the F1Δ2 and f3Δ2 Rydberg states are reported. These studies lead to an accurate determination of the lowest ionization threshold as 94098.9±1 cm-1. Observed rotational and spin endash orbit branching ratios are compared to the results of ab initio calculations. The differences between theory and experiment highlight the dominant role of rotational and spin endash orbit interactions for the dynamic properties of the high-n Rydberg states involved in the pulsed field ionization process. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Mihajlov, A. A.; Srećković, V. A.; Ignjatović, Lj. M.; Dimitrijević, M. S.
2016-05-01
In this paper, the rate coefficients of the chemi-ionization processes in H(1s) + H*(n, l) and He(1s2) + He*(n, l) collisions (where the principal quantum number n ≫ 1) are determined for the first time, taking into account the influence of the corresponding (n - n')-mixing processes. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of (n - n') mixing in the calculation influences the values of chemi-ionization rate coefficients significantly, particularly in the lower part of the block of Rydberg states. The interpretation of this influence is based on two existing methods of describing inelastic processes in symmetrical atom-Rydberg-atom collisions. The calculations of the chemi-ionization rate coefficients are performed for the temperature region that is characteristic of solar and DB white-dwarf atmospheres.
Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Lerch, Eliza-Beth W; Wen, Patrick; Leone, Stephen R
2007-09-28
A two-color (3+1(')) pump-probe scheme is employed to investigate Rydberg wave packet dynamics in carbon disulfide (CS(2) (*)). The state superpositions are created within the 4f and 5p Rydberg manifolds by three photons of the 400 nm pump pulse, and their temporal evolution is monitored with femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using an 800 nm ionizing probe pulse. The coherent behavior of the non-stationary superpositions are observed through wavepacket revivals upon ionization to either the upper (12) or lower (32) spin-orbit components of CS(2) (+). The results show clearly that the composition of the wavepacket can be efficiently controlled by the power density of the excitation pulse over a range from 500 GWcm(2) to 10 TWcm(2). The results are consistent with the anticipated ac-Stark shift for 400 nm light and demonstrate an effective method for population control in molecular systems. Moreover, it is shown that Rydberg wavepackets can be formed in CS(2) with excitation power densities up to 10 TWcm(2) without significant fragmentation. The exponential 1e population decay (T(1)) of specific excited Rydberg states are recovered by analysis of the coherent part of the signal. The dissociation lifetimes of these states are typically 1.5 ps. However, a region exhibiting a more rapid decay ( approximately 800 fs) is observed for states residing in the energy range of 74 450-74 550 cm(-1), suggestive of an enhanced surface crossing in this region. PMID:17902914
Dai, ZW; Li, Zhongshan; Zhankui, J
2002-01-01
Multichannel-quantum-defect theory analyses of J = 0, 1, and 2 even-parity Rydberg series 6pnp and 6pnf of neutral lead have been performed for the experimental energy levels, The channel admixture coefficients were deduced and used to evaluate theoretical lifetimes and Lande (g(J)) factors. Lifetime and g(J) values for higher-lying excited states have also been predicted.
Zhang, Jian-zu; He, Li-Ming; Zhu, Yun-Xia
2005-01-01
In the combination of crossed electric and magnetic fields and the Coulomb field of the atomic nucleus the spectrum of the Rydberg electron in the vicinity of the Stark saddle-point are investigated at a quantum mechanical level. The results expose a quantum anomaly dissociation: quasibound states near and above the saddle-point ionization limit predicted at the semi-classical level disappear at a quantum mechanical level.
Naubereit, P.; Marín-Sáez, J.; Schneider, F.; Hakimi, A.; Franzmann, M.; Kron, T.; Richter, S.; Wendt, K.
2016-05-01
The generation of tunable laser light in the green to orange spectral range has generally been a deficiency of solid-state lasers. Hence, the formalisms of difference frequency generation (DFG) and optical parametric processes are well known, but the DFG of pulsed solid-state lasers was rarely efficient enough for its use in resonance ionization spectroscopy. Difference frequency generation of high-repetition-rate Ti:sapphire lasers was demonstrated for resonance ionization of sodium by efficiently exciting the well-known D1 and D2 lines in the orange spectral range (both ≈589 nm). In order to prove the applicability of the laser system for its use at resonance ionization laser ion sources of radioactive ion beam facilities, the first ionization potential of Na was remeasured by three-step resonance ionization into Rydberg levels and investigating Rydberg convergences. A result of EIP=41449.455 (6) stat(7) syscm-1 was obtained, which is in perfect agreement with the literature value of EIPlit =41449.451(2)cm-1 . A total of 41 level positions for the odd-parity Rydberg series n f 2F5/2,7/2o for principal quantum numbers of 10 ≤n ≤60 were determined experimentally.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When a liquid droplet is put onto a surface, two situations distinguishable by the contact angle may result. If the contact angle is zero, the droplet spreads across the surface, a situation referred to as complete wetting. On the other hand, if the contact angle is between 0 deg. and 180 deg., the droplet does not spread, a situation called partial wetting. A wetting transition is a surface phase transition from partial wetting to complete wetting. We review the key experimental findings on this transition, together with simple theoretical models that account for the experiments. The wetting transition is generally first order (discontinuous), implying a discontinuity in the first derivative of the surface free energy. In this case, if one measures the thickness of the adsorbed film beside the droplet, at the wetting transition a discontinuous jump in film thickness occurs from a microscopically thin to a thick film. We show that this can lead to the observation of metastable surface states and an accompanying hysteresis. The observed hysteresis poses, in turn, a number of questions concerning the nucleation of wetting films that we also consider here. In addition, we consider the equilibrium wetting film thickness that results from a competition between the long-range van der Waals forces and gravity. Finally, the first-order character of the wetting transition can lead to a similar transition even when the phase that does the wetting is not (yet) stable in the bulk. For such prewetting transitions, a discontinuous thin-to-thick film transition occurs off bulk coexistence. We show that, for the large variety of systems for which prewetting transitions have been observed, the behaviour is surprisingly uniform, and can be mapped onto a simple generic phase diagram. The second part of the review deals with the exceptions to the first-order nature of the wetting transition. Two different types of continuous or critical wetting transition have been reported, for which
Solé, Ricard V
2011-01-01
Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o
Transition energy and dipole oscillator strength for 1s22p-1s2nd of Cr21+ ion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Zhi-Wen; Liu Ying; Hu Mu-Hong; Li Xin-Ru; Wang Ya-Nan
2008-01-01
The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3 ≤ n ≤ 9) for Cr21+ ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤ 9) states for this ion are also calculated. In calculating energy, we have estimated the higher-order relativistic contribution under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experimental data available in the literature. Combining the quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths, the discrete oscillator strengths for the transitions from initial state 1s22p to highly excited 1s2nd states (n ≥ 10) and the oscillator strength density corresponding to the bound-free transitions are obtained.
Gao, W; Cheng, H; Zhang, S S; Liu, H P
2015-01-01
We have investigated the wave-function feature of Rydberg sodium in a uniform electric field and found that the core-induced interaction of non-hydrogenic atom in electric field can be directly visualized in the wave-function. As is well known, the hydrogen atom in electric field can be separated in parabolic coordinates (\\eta, \\xi), whose eigen-function can show a clear pattern towards negative and positive directions corresponding to the so-called red and blue states without ambiguity, respectively. It can be served as a complete orthogonal basis set to study the core-induced interaction of non-hydrogenic atom in electric field. Owing to complete different patterns of the probability distribution for red and blue states, the interaction can be visualized in the wave-function directly via superposition. Moreover, the constructive and destructive interferences between red and blue states are also observed in the wave-function, explicitly explaining the experimental measurement for the spectral oscillator stre...
Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J-Q; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco
2015-01-01
The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil's staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence. PMID:26108705
Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J.-Q.; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco
2015-06-01
The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil’s staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence.
Nedeljković, N. N.; Majkić, M. D.; Božanić, D. K.; Dojčilović, R. J.
2016-06-01
We consider the population dynamics of the intermediate Rydberg states of highly charged ions (core charge Z\\gg 1, principal quantum number {n}{{A}}\\gg 1) interacting with solid surfaces at arbitrary collision geometry. The recently developed resonant two-state vector model for the grazing incidence (2012 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 215202) is extended to the quasi-resonant case and arbitrary angle of incidence. According to the model, the population probabilities depend both on the projectile parallel and perpendicular velocity components, in a complementary way. A cascade neutralization process for {{{Xe}}}Z+ ions, for Z=15{--}45, interacting with a conductive-surface is considered by taking into account the population dynamics. For an arbitrary collision geometry and given range of ionic velocities, a micro-staircase model for the simultaneous calculation of the kinetic energy gain and the charge state of the ion in front of the surface is proposed. The relevance of the obtained results for the explanation of the formation of nanostructures on solid surfaces by slow highly charged ions for normal incidence geometry is briefly discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marafi, M; Afrousheh, K; Makdisi, Y; Suji, Z; Mathew, J [Department of Physics, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969, 13060 Safat (Kuwait)], E-mail: marafim@kuc01.kuniv.edu.kw
2009-07-28
An excimer pumped dye laser was used to measure collisional shift and broadening rates of the nd {sup 1}D{sub 2} (n = 4-50) and ns {sup 1}S{sub 0} series (n = 5-30) of calcium Rydberg states. Two-photon absorption techniques were used to populate the Rydberg states. High-resolution Ca excitation spectra were measured using a diode detector while scanning the frequency of the dye laser. Inert gases Ar, Kr and Xe were used as perturbers at pressures of 100 mbar. Shifts and broadenings of spectral lines were measured as functions of the principal quantum number n. The pressure-dependence behaviour of the 4s63d {sup 1}D{sub 2} Rydberg state as well as its configuration interactions is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collision strengths and Maxwellian averaged collision rates are calculated for intercombination and forbidden transitions from the 1s21S ground state to the 1s2l and 1s3l levels in He-like Ni XXVII, using the Dirac and Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes. The collision strength data at energies of E = 574 and E = 674 Rydbergs, and the collision rate data at log Te = 7.2 and log Te = 8.1 are compared with previous calculations and are generally found to be in good agreement, but to differ significantly in a few cases. (orig.)
Luppi, Eleonora; Head-Gordon, Martin
2013-10-28
We study the role of Rydberg bound-states and continuum levels in the field-induced electronic dynamics associated with the High-Harmonic Generation (HHG) spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom. Time-dependent configuration-interaction (TD-CI) is used with very large atomic orbital (AO) expansions (up to L = 4 with sextuple augmentation and off-center functions) to describe the bound Rydberg levels, and some continuum levels. To address the lack of ionization losses in TD-CI with finite AO basis sets, we employed a heuristic lifetime for energy levels above the ionization potential. The heuristic lifetime model is compared against the conventional atomic orbital treatment (infinite lifetimes), and a third approximation which is TD-CI using only the bound levels (continuum lifetimes go to zero). The results suggest that spectra calculated using conventional TD-CI do not converge with increasing AO basis set size, while the zero lifetime and heuristic lifetime models converge to qualitatively similar spectra, with implications for how best to apply bound state electronic structure methods to simulate HHG. The origin of HHG spectral features including the cutoff and extent of interference between peaks is uncovered by separating field-induced coupling between different types of levels (ground state, bound Rydberg levels, and continuum) in the simulated electronic dynamics. Thus the origin of deviations between the predictions of the semi-classical three step model and the full simulation can be associated with particular physical contributions, which helps to explain both the successes and the limitations of the three step model.
Shiozaki, Yoshimitsu; TANAKA, Yasuo; Hokugo, Akihiko; Bettencourt, Sofia
2013-01-01
Transitional shelter can play a crucial role in housing reconstruction following a mega disaster. Reconstruction of permanent housing cannot move forward until a number of complex issues are settled, such as relocation planning and removal of debris. Even after plans are agreed on and reconstruction begins, it may take several years for permanent housing to be completed. In this context, a...
Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S
2015-10-14
Ammonia adopts sp(3) hybridization (HNH bond angle 108°) whereas the other members of the XH3 series PH3, AsH3, SbH3, and BiH3 instead prefer octahedral bond angles of 90-93°. We use a recently developed general diabatic description for closed-shell chemical reactions, expanded to include Rydberg states, to understand the geometry, spectroscopy and inversion reaction profile of these molecules, fitting its parameters to results from Equation of Motion Coupled-Cluster Singles and Doubles (EOM-CCSD) calculations using large basis sets. Bands observed in the one-photon absorption spectrum of NH3 at 18.3 eV, 30 eV, and 33 eV are reassigned from Rydberg (formally forbidden) double excitations to valence single-excitation resonances. Critical to the analysis is the inclusion of all three electronic states in which two electrons are placed in the lone-pair orbital n and/or the symmetric valence σ* antibonding orbital. An illustrative effective two-state diabatic model is also developed containing just three parameters: the resonance energy driving the high-symmetry planar structure, the reorganization energy opposing it, and HXH bond angle in the absence of resonance. The diabatic orbitals are identified as sp hybrids on X; for the radical cations XH3(+) for which only 2 electronic states and one conical intersection are involved, the principle of orbital following dictates that the bond angle in the absence of resonance is acos(-1/5) = 101.5°. The multiple states and associated multiple conical intersection seams controlling the ground-state structure of XH3 renormalize this to acos[3 sin(2)(2(1/2)atan(1/2))/2 - 1/2] = 86.7°. Depending on the ratio of the resonance energy to the reorganization energy, equilibrium angles can vary from these limiting values up to 120°, and the anomalously large bond angle in NH3 arises because the resonance energy is unexpectedly large. This occurs as the ordering of the lowest Rydberg orbital and the σ* orbital swap, allowing
Wales, N.P.L.; Buma, W.J.; Lange; Lefebvre-Brion, H.; Wang, K.; McKoy, V.
1996-01-01
The results of rotationally resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy‐pulsed field ionization studies on HBr via various rotational levels of the F^ 1Δ_2 and f^ 3Δ_2 Rydberg states are reported. These studies lead to an accurate determination of the lowest ionization threshold as 94 098.9±1 cm^(−1). Observed rotational and spin–orbit branching ratios are compared to the results of ab initio calculations. The differences between theor...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broderick, Bernadette M.; Lee, Yumin; Doyle, Michael B.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Suits, Arthur G., E-mail: asuits@wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Vasyutinskii, Oleg S. [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021, Russia and St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation)
2014-05-15
We have developed a new experimental method allowing direct detection of the velocity dependent spin-polarization of hydrogen atoms produced in photodissociation. The technique, which is a variation on the H atom Rydberg time-of-flight method, employs a double-resonance excitation scheme and experimental geometry that yields the two coherent orientation parameters as a function of recoil speed for scattering perpendicular to the laser propagation direction. The approach, apparatus, and optical layout we employ are described here in detail and demonstrated in application to HBr and DBr photolysis at 213 nm. We also discuss the theoretical foundation for the approach, as well as the resolution and sensitivity we achieve.
Alcock-Zeilinger, Judith
2016-01-01
In this paper, we give a generic algorithm of the transition operators between Hermitian Young projection operators corresponding to equivalent irreducible representations of SU(N), using the compact expressions of Hermitian Young projection operators derived in a companion paper. We show that the Hermitian Young projection operators together with their transition operators constitute a fully orthogonal basis for the algebra of invariants of $V^{\\otimes m}$ that exhibits a systematically simplified multiplication table. We discuss the full algebra of invariants over $V^{\\otimes 3}$ and $V^{\\otimes 4}$ as explicit examples. In our presentation we make use of various standard concepts such as Young projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan operators, and invariants (in birdtrack notation). We tie these perspectives together and use them to shed light on each other.
Šibalić, Nikola; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J; Pohl, Thomas
2015-01-01
We investigate the non-equilibrium dynamics of a driven-dissipative spin ensemble with competing power-law interactions. Contrary to previous work on pure van der Waals systems, we demonstrate that the emergence of a dynamical phase transition and bistable steady states critically relies on the presence of a finite dipolar potential-core. Upon introducing random particle motion, we show that a finite gas temperature can drive a phase transition with regards to the spin degree of freedom and eventually leads to mean-field behaviour in the high-temperature limit. Our work reconciles contrasting observations of recent experiments with Rydberg atoms in the cold-gas and hot-vapour domain, and establishes an efficient theoretical framework in the latter regime.
Experimental study of bound and autoionizing Rydberg states of the europium atom
Xiao, Ying; Dai, Chang-Jian; Qin, Wen-Jie
2010-06-01
An isolated-core-excitation (ICE) scheme and stepwise excitation are employed to study the highly excited states of the europium atom. The bound europium spectrum with odd parity in a region of 42400-43500 cm-1 is measured, from which spectral information on 38 transitions, such as level position and relative intensity, can be deduced. Combined with information about excitation calibration and the error estimation process, the selection rules enable us to determine the possible values of total angular momentum J for the observed states. The autoionization spectra of atomic europium, belonging to the 4f76pnl (l = 0, 2) configurations, are systematically investigated by using the three-step laser resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) approach. With the ICE scheme, all the experimental spectra of the autoionizing states have nearly symmetric profiles whose peak positions and widths can be easily obtained. A comparison between our results and those from the relevant literature shows that our work not only confirms many reported states, but also discovers 14 bound states and 16 autoionizing states.
Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Holloway, Christopher L.
2016-09-01
We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) Rydberg atoms in the same vapor cell with coincident (overlapping) optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) electric (E) field strengths through the modification of the EIT signal (Autler-Townes (AT) splitting), which leads to a direct International System of Unit traceable RF E-field measurement. We show that these two systems can detect the same RF E-field strength simultaneously, which provides a direct in situ comparison of Rb and Cs RF measurements in Rydberg atoms. In effect, this allows us to perform two measurements of the same E-field strength, providing a relative comparison of the dipole moments of the two atomic species. This gives two measurements that help rule out systematic effects and uncertainties in this E-field metrology approach, which are important when establishing an international measurement standard for an E-field strength, and is a necessary step for this method to be accepted as a standard calibration technique. We use this approach to measure E-fields at 9.2 GHz, 11.6 GHz, and 13.4 GHz, which correspond to three different atomic states (different principal atomic numbers and angular momentums) for the two atom species.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effective isotope-selective excitation and field ionization of the 16F5/2 thallium Rydberg states have been studied experimentally. The 16F5/2 states were excited by the two-step scheme 6P1/2→6D3/2→nF5/2 in a dense collimated atomic beam by means of monochromatic radiation from two frequency tunable lasers (λ1 = 276.9 nm, λ2 = 773–808 nm) with a mean power density of more than 1 W. The largest selectivity of excitation in this scheme takes place in the first step 6P1/2→6D3/2. The experiments showed that the main reason for the limiting selectivity excitation of the Rydberg states is the field broadening of the absorption resonances at the first and second steps of the excitation scheme. The excitation efficiency of this scheme is considerably governed by the parameters of the laser radiation at the second step and an electric field pulse. (paper)
Liu, Chunqing; Tian, Yanshan; Yu, Qi; Bai, Wanshuang; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Chong; Dai, Zhenwen
2016-05-01
The hyperfine structure (HFS) constants of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=6-18) Rydberg sequence and the 4s26p 2P3/2 level for two isotopes of 69Ga and 71Ga atoms were measured by means of the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) technique and the quantum beat method. The observed hyperfine quantum beat spectra were analyzed and the magnetic-dipole HFS constants A as well as the electric-quadrupole HFS constants B of these levels were obtained by Fourier transform and a program for multiple regression analysis. Also using TR-LIF method radiative lifetimes of the above sequence states were determined at room temperature. The measured lifetime values range from 69 to 2279 ns with uncertainties no more than 10%. To our knowledge, the HFS constants of this Rydberg sequence and the lifetimes of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=10-18) levels are reported for the first time. Good agreement between our results and the previous is achieved.
Song, Hui; Dai, Dongxu; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Chia Chen; Harich, Steven A; Hayes, Michael Y; Wang, Xiuyan; Gerlich, Dieter; Yang, Xueming; Skodje, Rex T
2005-08-15
Recent molecular-beam experiments have probed the dynamics of the Rydberg-atom reaction, H(n)+D2-->HD+D(n) at low collision energies. It was discovered that the rotationally resolved product distribution was remarkably similar to a much more limited data set obtained at a single scattering angle for the ion-molecule reaction H++D2-->D++HD. The equivalence of these two problems would be consistent with the Fermi-independent-collider model (electron acting as a spectator) and would provide an important new avenue for the study of ion-molecule reactions. In this work, we employ a classical trajectory calculation on the ion-molecule reaction to facilitate a more extensive comparison between the two systems. The trajectory simulations tend to confirm the equivalence of the ion+molecule dynamics to that for the Rydberg-atom+molecule system. The theory reproduces the close relationship of the two experimental observations made previously. However, some differences between the Rydberg-atom experiments and the trajectory simulations are seen when comparisons are made to a broader data set. In particular, the angular distribution of the differential cross section exhibits more asymmetry in the experiment than in the theory. The potential breakdown of the classical model is discussed. The role of the "spectator" Rydberg electron is addressed and several crucial issues for future theoretical work are brought out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent molecular-beam experiments have probed the dynamics of the Rydberg-atom reaction, H(n)+D2→HD+D(n) at low collision energies. It was discovered that the rotationally resolved product distribution was remarkably similar to a much more limited data set obtained at a single scattering angle for the ion-molecule reaction H++D2→D++HD. The equivalence of these two problems would be consistent with the Fermi-independent-collider model (electron acting as a spectator) and would provide an important new avenue for the study of ion-molecule reactions. In this work, we employ a classical trajectory calculation on the ion-molecule reaction to facilitate a more extensive comparison between the two systems. The trajectory simulations tend to confirm the equivalence of the ion+molecule dynamics to that for the Rydberg-atom+molecule system. The theory reproduces the close relationship of the two experimental observations made previously. However, some differences between the Rydberg-atom experiments and the trajectory simulations are seen when comparisons are made to a broader data set. In particular, the angular distribution of the differential cross section exhibits more asymmetry in the experiment than in the theory. The potential breakdown of the classical model is discussed. The role of the 'spectator' Rydberg electron is addressed and several crucial issues for future theoretical work are brought out
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jungen, C. (Laboratoire de Photophysique Moleculaire du CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France (FR)); Dabrowski, I.; Herzberg, G.; Kendall, D.J.W. (National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Canada K1A OR6)
1989-10-01
A group of lines accompanying the first line of the Pfund series of the H atom has been observed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The lines are due to transitions in molecular hydrogen of a nonpenetrating Rydberg electron possessing a high-orbital angular momentum, which is coupled only loosely to the vibrations and rotations of the H{sup +}{sub 2} core. Lines belonging to the 6{ital h}--5{ital g} and 6{ital g}--5{ital f} ({ital v}=0--3) transitions of H{sub 2} have been identified. The identifications are based on a calculation of the spectrum from first principles by multichannel quantum defect theory. The interaction between the nonpenetrating electron and the core was evaluated in terms of the permanent and induced molecular moments of H{sup +}{sub 2} as calculated by Bishop and collaborators. The analogous transitions in D{sub 2} have also been observed and assigned.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Kirsten Marie
2008-01-01
This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...
Sanayei, Ali; Schopohl, Nils
2016-07-01
We present numerically accurate calculations of the bound-state spectrum of the highly excited valence electron in the heavy alkali-metal atoms solving the radial Schrödinger eigenvalue problem with a modern spectral collocation method that applies also for a large principal quantum number n ≫1 . As an effective single-particle potential we favor the reputable potential of Marinescu et al. [Phys. Rev. A 49, 982 (1994)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.49.982. Recent quasiclassical calculations of the quantum defect of the valence electron agree for orbital angular momentum l =0 ,1 ,2 ,... overall remarkably well with the results of the numerical calculations, but for the Rydberg states of rubidium and also cesium with l =3 this agreement is less fair. The reason for this anomaly is that in rubidium and cesium the potential acquires for l =3 deep inside the ionic core a second classical region, thus invalidating a standard Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) calculation with two widely spaced turning points. Comparing then our numerical solutions of the radial Schrödinger eigenvalue problem with the uniform analytic WKB approximation of Langer constructed around the remote turning point rn,j ,l (" close=")n -δ0)">+ we observe everywhere a remarkable agreement, apart from a tiny region around the inner turning point rn,j ,l (-). For s states the centrifugal barrier is absent and no inner turning point exists: rn,j ,0 (-)=0 . With the help of an ansatz proposed by Fock we obtain for the s states a second uniform analytic approximation to the radial wave function complementary to the WKB approximation of Langer, which is exact for r →0+ . From the patching condition, that is, for l =0 the Langer and Fock solutions should agree in the intermediate region 0 application we consider recent spectroscopic data for the hyperfine splittings of the isotopes 85Rb and 87Rb and find a remarkable agreement with the predicted scaling relation An,j ,0 (HFS )=const .
Gravitational-wave phasing for low-eccentricity inspiralling compact binaries to 3PN order
Moore, Blake; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant
2016-01-01
[abridged] Although gravitational radiation causes inspiralling compact binaries to circularize, a variety of astrophysical scenarios suggest that binaries might have small but nonnegligible orbital eccentricities when they enter the low-frequency bands of ground and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. If not accounted for, even a small orbital eccentricity can cause a potentially significant systematic error in the mass parameters of an inspiralling binary. Gravitational-wave search templates typically rely on the quasi-circular approximation, which provides relatively simple expressions for the gravitational-wave phase to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order. The quasi-Keplerian formalism provides an elegant but complex description of the post-Newtonian corrections to the orbits and waveforms of inspiralling binaries with any eccentricity. Here we specialize the quasi-Keplerian formalism to binaries with low eccentricity. In this limit the non-periodic contribution to the gravitational-wave phasing can be ex...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Renato Zacharias
2013-03-01
Full Text Available 2013 is going to be an interesting year for the High Dilution research field. There is a tendency to revise basic concepts and common beliefs, while refining models and theories. The fundamental research team seems to be open to deeper discussions, aiming to reinforce some hypothesis and discharge others. In somehow, we are stuck in a vicious way of think, trying to manage and describe an informational phenomenon into a molecular framework. The challenge offered to those researchers involved with basic science is to figure out how to deal with such phenomenon, since previous theories and models have not shown to be matched! In the other hand, there is a tendency to explore the HD phenomenon in its technological branch. While basic research is important to describe how things work, the applied research has a more intense social and economic appeal. To develop technology based on HD means to give a different kind of visibility to the field, attracting sponsors, companies, entrepreneurs, always committed to the market regulatory laws. I am expecting for this year some important movements, both in the basic and applied research. Of course, it will be only a new beginning, as these changes require a lot of work, discussions and insights. But this transition time is very welcome!
Kivimäki, Antti; Stråhlman, Christian; Wasowicz, Tomasz J; Kettunen, J A; Richter, Robert
2016-06-30
We have studied the production of neutral fragments in high-Rydberg (HR) states at the C 1s and O 1s edges of the CO2 molecule by performing two kinds of experiments. First, the yields of neutral HR fragments were measured indirectly by ionizing such fragments in a static electric field and by collecting resulting singly charged positive ions as a function of the photon energy. Such measurements reveal not only excitations below the core ionization thresholds but also thresholds for single core-hole and shakeup photoionization. Second, we obtained the mass spectra of neutral HR fragments at selected photon energies by exploiting pulsed field ionization; they show atomic fragments C(HR) and O(HR). We discuss dissociation pathways leading to the production of neutral HR fragments in core excitation and ionization of CO2. PMID:27276338
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jia Feng-Dong; Wang Jing-Yang; Zhong Zhi-Ping
2008-01-01
Based on relativistic multichannel theory, this paper calculates the energy levels of autoionization Rydberg series 4s2nf(n = 4 - 23)Jπ =(7/2)° of scandium at different levels of approximation within the framework of multichannel quantum defect theory. The present results show that the dipole polarizations play an important role. Considering the dynamical dipole polarization effects, this paper finds that the difference between calculated and experimental quantum defects for the 4s2nf(n = 4 - 23)Jπ = (7/2)° series is generally about 0.01-0.03. Furthermore, the reason that 4s216f is obscured in experimental spectra is suggested to be the interaction with the neighbouring resonance state converged to 3d2(1G4) of Sc+.
Olofson, Frans; Holmlid, Leif
2010-01-01
A material exists which links together the influx of meteoritic matter from interplanetary space, the polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE), the sporadic sodium layers, the polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs, NLCs), and the observed ion chemistry in the mesosphere. The evidence in these research fields is here analyzed and found to agree well with the properties of Rydberg Matter (RM). This material has been studied with numerous methods in the laboratory. Alkali atoms, mainly Na, reach the mesosphere in the form of interplanetary (meteoritic, cometary) dust. The planar RM clusters NaN usually contain N = 19, 37 or 61 atoms, and have the density of air at 90 km altitude where they float. The diameters of the clusters are 10-100 nm from laboratory high precision radio frequency spectroscopic studies. Such experiments show that RM clusters interact strongly with radar frequencies: this explains the radio frequency heating and reflection studies of PMSE layers. The clusters give the low temperature in the mesosphere...