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Sample records for 3hazidodantrolene photoaffinity labeling

  1. Photoaffinity Labeling of Plasma Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Otagiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful technique for identifying a target protein. A high degree of labeling specificity can be achieved with this method in comparison to chemical labeling. Human serum albumin (HSA and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP are two plasma proteins that bind a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances. The ligand binding mechanism of these two proteins is complex. Fatty acids, which are known to be transported in plasma by HSA, cause conformational changes and participate in allosteric ligand binding to HSA. HSA undergoes an N-B transition, a conformational change at alkaline pH, that has been reported to result in increased ligand binding. Attempts have been made to investigate the impact of fatty acids and the N-B transition on ligand binding in HSA using ketoprofen and flunitrazepam as photolabeling agents. Meanwhile, plasma AGP is a mixture of genetic variants of the protein. The photolabeling of AGP with flunitrazepam has been utilized to shed light on the topology of the protein ligand binding site. Furthermore, a review of photoaffinity labeling performed on other major plasma proteins will also be discussed. Using a photoreactive natural ligand as a photolabeling agent to identify target protein in the plasma would reduce non-specific labeling.

  2. Photoaffinity labeling of the lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); U. Rose (Ursula); R. Brossmer (Reinhard); F.W. Verheijen (Frans)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract ASA-NeuAc2en, a photoreactive arylazide derivative of sialic acid, is shown to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis (Ki ≈ 21 μM). Photoaffinity labeling and partial purification of preparations containing this lysosomal neuramin

  3. ( sup 125 I)Iodoazidococaine, a photoaffinity label for the haloperidol-sensitive sigma receptor

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    Kahoun, J.R.; Ruoho, A.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1992-02-15

    A carrier-free radioiodinated cocaine photoaffinity label, (-)-3-({sup 125}I)iodo-4-azidococaine (({sup 125}I)IACoc), has been synthesized and used as a probe for cocaine-binding proteins. Photoaffinity labeling with 0.5 nM ({sup 125}I)IACoc resulted in selective derivatization of a 26-kDa polypeptide with the pharmacology of a sigma receptor in membranes derived from whole rat brain, rat liver, and human placenta. ({sup 125}I)IACoc labeling of the 26-kDa polypeptide was also inhibited by 10 {mu}M imipramine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine, benztropine, and tetrabenazine. The size of the ({sup 125}I)I-ACoc-labeled proteins is consistent with the size of proteins photolabeled in guinea pig brain and liver membranes by using the sigma photolabel azido-({sup 3}H)DTG. Kinetic analysis of ({sup 125}I)IACoc binding to rat liver microsomes revealed two sites with K{sub d} values of 19 and 126 pM, respectively. The presence or absence of proteolytic inhibitors during membrane preparation did not alter the size of the photolabeled sigma receptor, indicating that the 26-kDa polypeptide was not derived from a larger protein. In summary, ({sup 125}I)IACoc is a potent and highly specific photoaffinity label for the haloperidol-sensitive sigma receptor and will be useful for its biochemical and molecular characterization.

  4. Photo-Affinity Labeling of Specific Acetylcholine-Binding Sites on Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Hansruedi; Lindstrom, Jon; Lennox, Edwin S.; Singer, S. J.

    1970-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase of intact red blood cell membranes and the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of whole-frog sartorius muscle have been irreversibly inactivated by photo-affinity labeling with two quaternary ammonium aryl azides. The inactivation requires that the azides, at the time of their photolytic conversion to highly reactive nitrenes, are reversibly bound to the specific acetylcholine-binding sites. PMID:5275370

  5. Specific photoaffinity labeling of two plasma membrane polypeptides with an azido auxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G. R.; Rayle, D. L.; Jones, A. M.; Lomax, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) hypocotyl tissue by aqueous phase partitioning and assessed for homogeneity by the use of membrane-specific enzyme assays. The highly pure (ca. 95%) plasma membrane vesicles maintained a pH differential across the membrane and accumulated a tritiated azido analogue of 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5-azido-[7-3H]IAA ([3H]N3IAA), in a manner similar to the accumulation of [3H]IAA. The association of the [3H]N3IAA with membrane vesicles was saturable and subject to competition by IAA and auxin analogues. Auxin-binding proteins were photoaffinity labeled by addition of [3H]N3IAA to plasma membrane vesicles prior to exposure to UV light (15 sec; 300 nm) and detected by subsequent NaDodSO4/PAGE and fluorography. When the reaction temperature was lowered to -196 degrees C, high-specific-activity labeling of a 40-kDa and a 42-kDa polypeptide was observed. Triton X-100 (0.1%) increased the specific activity of labeling and reduced the background, which suggests that the labeled polypeptides are intrinsic membrane proteins. The labeled polypeptides are of low abundance, as expected for auxin receptors. Further, the addition of IAA and auxin analogues to the photoaffinity reaction mixture resulted in reduced labeling that was qualitatively similar to their effects on the accumulation of radiolabeled IAA in membrane vesicles. Collectively, these results suggest that the radiolabeled polypeptides are auxin receptors. The covalent nature of the label should facilitate purification and further characterization of the receptors.

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of the pactamycin binding site on eubacterial ribosomes

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    Tejedor, F.; Amils, R.; Ballesta, J.P.

    1985-07-02

    Pactamycin, an inhibitor of the initial steps of protein synthesis, has an acetophenone group in its chemical structure that makes the drug a potentially photoreactive molecule. In addition, the presence of a phenolic residue makes it easily susceptible to radioactive labeling. Through iodination, one radioactive derivative of pactamycin has been obtained with biological activities similar to the unmodified drug when tested on in vivo and cell-free systems. With the use of (/sup 125/I)iodopactamycin, ribosomes of Escherichia coli have been photolabeled under conditions that preserve the activity of the particles and guarantee the specificity of the binding sites. Under these conditions, RNA is preferentially labeled when free, small ribosomal subunits are photolabeled, but proteins are the main target in the whole ribosome. This indicates that an important conformational change takes place in the binding site on association of the two subunits. The major labeled proteins are S2, S4, S18, S21, and L13. These proteins in the pactamycin binding site are probably related to the initiation step of protein synthesis.

  7. A photoaffinity analogue of discodermolide specifically labels a peptide in beta-tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shujun; Kenesky, Craig S; Rucker, Paul V; Smith, Amos B; Orr, George A; Horwitz, Susan Band

    2006-10-01

    Discodermolide is a potentially important antitumor agent that stabilizes microtubules and blocks cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle in a manner similar to that of Taxol. Discodermolide also has unique properties that distinguish it from Taxol. In the present study, photoaffinity-labeled discodermolide analogues are used to investigate their binding site in tubulin. Three photoaffinity-labeled discodermolide analogues were synthesized, all of which promoted microtubule polymerization in the absence of GTP. The analogue, C19-[4-(4-(3)H-benzoyl-phenyl)-carbamate]-discodermolide (C19-[3H]BPC-discodermolide), was selected for photolabeling studies because it had the highest extent of photoincorporation, approximately 1%, of the three radiolabeled discodermolide analogues explored. Although compared to discodermolide, C19-BPC-discodermolide revealed no hypernucleation effect in the in vitro microtubule polymerization assay, it was more cytotoxic than discodermolide, and, like discodermolide, demonstrated synergism with Taxol. These results suggest that the hypernucleation effect of discodermolide is not involved in its cytotoxic activity. Similar to discodermolide, C19-BPC-discodermolide can effectively displace [3H]Taxol from microtubules, but Taxol cannot effectively displace C19-[3H]BPC-discodermolide binding. Discodermolide can effectively displace C19-[3H]BPC-discodermolide binding. Formic acid hydrolysis, immunoprecipitation experiments, and subtilisin digestion indicate that C19-BPC-discodermolide labels amino acid residues 305-433 in beta-tubulin. Further digestion with Asp-N and Arg-C enzymes suggested that C19-BPC-discodermolide binds to amino acid residues, 355-359, in beta-tubulin, which is in close proximity to the Taxol binding site. Molecular modeling guided by the above evidence led to a putative binding model for C19-BPC-discodermolide in tubulin.

  8. Photoaffinity labelling of the rat liver nuclear thyroid hormone receptor with (/sup 125/I)triiodothyronine

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    David-Inouye, Y.; Somack, R.; Nordeen, S.K.; Apriletti, J.W.; Baxter, J.D.; Eberhardt, N.L.

    1982-11-01

    (/sup 125/I)Triiodothyronine (T3) was used as a photoreactive probe for the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor in photoaffinity labelling experiments. Autoradiograms of photolysis products electrophoresed on either one or two-dimensional gels showed that (/sup 125/I)T3 covalently, but nonspecifically, labelled many proteins in the partially purified receptor preparations used. However, one of these proteins with an estimated molecular weight of 47,000 and an isoelectric point of approximately 6.2 +/- 0.5 pH units appears to be the thyroid hormone receptor, since, in contrast to the other proteins, its photoinduced labelling was blocked by concentrations of T3 and thyroxine (T4) similar to those that inhibit binding of (/sup 125/I)T3 by the receptor in equilibrium binding assays. In addition, the isoelectric point of the photolabelled protein agrees with that determined in separate equilibrium isoelectric focusing studies. These results indicate that (/sup 125/)T3 can serve as a photoreactive probe for the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor, and they suggest that this receptor is a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 47,000 with an isoelectric point of 6.2 +/- 0.5 pH units.

  9. Photoaffinity labelling of the rat liver nuclear thyroid hormone receptor with (/sup 125/I)triiodothyronine

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    David-Inouye, Y. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Somack, R; Nordeen, S.K.; Apriletti, J.W.; Baxter, J.D.; Eberhardt, N.L.

    1982-11-01

    (/sup 125/I)Triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) was used as a photoreactive probe for the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor in photoaffinity labelling experiments. Autoradiograms of photolysis products electrophoresed on either one or two-dimensional gels showed that (/sup 125/I)T/sub 3/ covalently, but nonspecifically, labelled many proteins in the partially purified receptor preparations used. However, one of these proteins with an estimated molecular weight of 47,000 and an isoelectric point of approximately 6.2 +/- 0.5 pH units appears to be the thyroid hormone receptor, since, in contrast to the other proteins, its photoinduced labelling was blocked by concentrations of T/sub 3/ and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) similar to those that inhibit binding of (/sup 125/I)T/sub 3/ by the receptor in equilibrium binding assays. In addition, the isoelectric point of the photolabelled protein agrees with that determined in separate equilibrium isoelectric focusing studies. These results indicate that (/sup 125/I)T/sub 3/ can serve as a photoreactive probe for the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor, and they suggest that this receptor is a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 47,000 with an isoelectric point of 6.2 +/- 0.5 pH units.

  10. Photoaffinity labeling of cytochrome P4501A1 with azidocumene: identification of cumene hydroperoxide binding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvrk, T; Strobel, H W

    1998-01-01

    Cumene hydroperoxide can support cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions in the absence of molecular oxygen, NADPH, and cytochrome P450-NADPH oxidoreductase. Its binding at the cytochrome P450 active site is governed by the structure of the cumene hydroperoxide binding region. In order to define the region of cytochrome P4501A1 at which cumene hydroperoxide binds, we prepared an analog of cumene hydroperoxide for use as a photoaffinity label. p-Azido-isopro-pylbenzene (azidocumene) and its tritiated derivative were photolyzed in water solution by uv light with a half-life of 29 s. The 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylatation catalyzed by P450 using the cumene hydroperoxide-supported system was strongly inhibited by the presence of the label. Covalent binding to the protein after photoactivation was blocked by 50% in the presence of cumene hydroperoxide. HPLC analysis after trypsin digestion of the labeled protein showed that [3H]-azidocumene was attached covalently to the peptide VDMTPAYGLTLK corresponding to residues 492-503 in the 1A1 sequence. The radioactivity level of this fraction was reduced by 50% when the labeling was carried out in the presence of cumene hydroperoxide. To confirm the identified region the labeled protein was cleaved by cyanogen bromide. HPLC separation of the CNBr digest showed two peaks with a high level of radioactivity. The SDS/Tricine PAGE analysis of the radioactive fraction with an elution time of 43 min revealed a 2.4-kDa peptide carrying a high level of covalently bound radioactivity. The N-terminal sequence identified the labeled peptide to be a fragment generated by CNBr corresponding to residues 494-512. The N-terminal sequence of the labeled peptide with elution time of 27 min, TLKH, matches amino acid residues 501-504 in the P4501A1 sequence. We can conclude that in the overlapping region of all three identified peptides, T501-L502-K503, is the site where azidocumene covalently binds to P4501A1. The sequence alignment of cytochrome P4501A

  11. Photoaffinity labeling of Ras converting enzyme using peptide substrates that incorporate benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) residues: improved labeling and structural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyro, Kelly; Manandhar, Surya P; Mullen, Daniel; Schmidt, Walter K; Distefano, Mark D

    2011-12-15

    Rce1p catalyzes the proteolytic trimming of C-terminal tripeptides from isoprenylated proteins containing CAAX-box sequences. Because Rce1p processing is a necessary component in the Ras pathway of oncogenic signal transduction, Rce1p holds promise as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. However, its mechanism of proteolysis and active site have yet to be defined. Here, we describe synthetic peptide analogues that mimic the natural lipidated Rce1p substrate and incorporate photolabile groups for photoaffinity-labeling applications. These photoactive peptides are designed to crosslink to residues in or near the Rce1p active site. By incorporating the photoactive group via p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine (Bpa) residues directly into the peptide substrate sequence, the labeling efficiency was substantially increased relative to a previously-synthesized compound. Incorporation of biotin on the N-terminus of the peptides permitted photolabeled Rce1p to be isolated via streptavidin affinity capture. Our findings further suggest that residues outside the CAAX-box sequence are in contact with Rce1p, which has implications for future inhibitor design.

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver microsomal morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase by ( sup 3 H)flunitrazepam

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    Thomassin, J.; Tephly, T.R. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepines have been shown to competitively inhibit morphine glucuronidation in rat and human hepatic microsomes. Flunitrazepam exerted a potent competitive inhibition of rat hepatic morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activity (Ki = 130 microM). It has no effect on the activity of p-nitrophenol, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid, or 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGTs. Because flunitrazepam is an effective photoaffinity label for benzodiazepine receptors, studied were performed in solubilized rat hepatic microsomes and with partially purified preparations of morphine UDPGT to determine the enhancement of flunitrazepam inhibition and binding to morphine UDPGT promoted by exposure to UV light. Under UV light, flunitrazepam inhibition was markedly enhanced. UV light exposure also led to a marked increase in binding of (3H)flunitrazepam to microsomal protein, which was protected substantially by preincubation with morphine. Testosterone, androsterone, and UDP-glucuronic acid did not protect against UV-enhanced flunitrazepam binding, and morphine did not reverse flunitrazepam binding once binding had occurred. As morphine UDPGT was purified, a good correlation was found between the increases in specific activity of morphine UDPGT and flunitrazepam binding to protein. Chromatofocusing chromatography showed that flunitrazepam bound only to fractions containing active morphine UDPGT, and no binding to 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGT was observed. Fluorography of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel of solubilized hepatic microsomes that had been treated with (3H) flunitrazepam under UV light revealed a band with a monomeric molecular weight between 54,000 and 58,000. This monomeric molecular weight compares favorably with the reported monomeric molecular weight of homogeneous morphine UDPGT (56,000).

  13. Direct demonstration of unique mode of natural peptide binding to the type 2 cholecystokinin receptor using photoaffinity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maoqing; Miller, Laurence J

    2013-08-01

    Direct analysis of mode of peptide docking using intrinsic photoaffinity labeling has provided detailed insights for the molecular basis of cholecystokinin (CCK) interaction with the type 1 CCK receptor. In the current work, this technique has been applied to the closely related type 2 CCK receptor that also binds the natural full agonist peptide, CCK, with high affinity. A series of photolabile CCK analog probes with sites of covalent attachment extending from position 26 through 32 were characterized, with the highest affinity analogs that possessed full biological activity utilized in photoaffinity labeling. The position 29 probe, incorporating a photolabile benzoyl-phenylalanine in that position, was shown to bind with high affinity and to be a full agonist, with potency not different from that of natural CCK, and to covalently label the type 2 CCK receptor in a saturable, specific and efficient manner. Using proteolytic peptide mapping, mutagenesis, and radiochemical Edman degradation sequencing, this probe was shown to establish a covalent bond with type 2 CCK receptor residue Phe¹²⁰ in the first extracellular loop. This was in contrast to its covalent attachment to Glu³⁴⁵ in the third extracellular loop of the type 1 CCK receptor, directly documenting differences in mode of docking this peptide to these receptors.

  14. Photoaffinity labeling of pituitary GnRH receptors: significance of the position of photolabel on the ligand

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    Nikolics, K.; Szonyi, E.; Ramachandran, J.

    1988-03-08

    Photoreactive derivatives of GnRH and its analogues were prepared by incorporation of the 2-nitro-4(5)-azidophenylsulfenyl (2,4(5)-NAPS) group into amino acid residues at position 1, 3, 6, or 8 of the decapeptide sequence. The modification of Trp/sup 3/ by the 2,4-NAPS group led to a complete loss of the luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing as well as LH-release-inhibiting activity of the peptide. The (D-Lys(2,4-NAPS))/sup 6/ analog was a very potent agonist that, after covalent attachment by photoaffinity labeling, caused prolonged LH secretion at a submaximal rate. (Orn(2,4-NAPS))/sup 8/-GnRH, a full agonist with a relative potency of 7% of GnRH, after photoaffinity labeling caused prolonged maximal LH release from cultured pituitary cells. In contrast, (Orn(2,5-NAPS))/sup 8/-GnRH, although being equipotent with the 2,4-NAPS isomer in terms of LH releasing ability, was unable to cause prolonged LH release after photoaffinity labeling. Thus, (Orn(2,4-NAPS))/sup 8/GnRH is very effective photolabeling ligand of the functionally significant pituitary GnRH receptor. Based on this compound, a pituitary peptidase resistant derivative, D-Phe/sup 6/, (Orn(2,4-NAPS))/sup 8/-GnRH-(1-9)-ethylamide, was synthesized. This derivative showed high-affinity binding to pituitary membranes with a K/sub d/ comparable to those of other GnRH analogues. A radioiodinated form of this peptide was used for pituitary GnRH-receptor labeling. This derivative labeled 59- and 57-kDa proteins in rat and 58- and 56-kDa proteins in bovine pituitary membrane preparations, respectively. This peptide also labeled pituitary GnRH receptors in the solubilized state and therefore appears to be a suitable ligand for the isolation and further characterization of the receptor.

  15. Design and Synthesis of Matrix Metalloprotease Photoaffinity Trimodular Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU,Wenwei; XU,Jie; LI,Xin; ZHONG,Li; LI,Jingya; LI,Jia; NAN,Fajun

    2009-01-01

    To explore the molecular mechanism of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor processes,two photoaffinity trimodular probes were designed and synthesized based on the structure activity relationship and the following photoaffinity labelling experiments afforded positive results.

  16. Photoaffinity labeling of Ras converting enzyme 1 (Rce1p) using a benzophenone-containing peptide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyro, Kelly; Manandhar, Surya P; Mullen, Daniel; Schmidt, Walter K; Distefano, Mark D

    2010-08-01

    Isoprenylation is a post-translational modification that increases protein hydrophobicity and helps target certain proteins to membranes. Ras converting enzyme 1 (Rce1p) is an endoprotease that catalyzes the removal of a three residue fragment from the C-terminus of isoprenylated proteins. To obtain structural information about this membrane protein, photoaffinity labeling agents are being prepared and employed. Here, we describe the synthesis of a benzophenone-containing peptide substrate analogue for Rce1p. Using a continuous spectrofluorometric assay, this peptide was shown to be a substrate for Rce1p. Mass spectrometry was performed to confirm the site of cleavage and structure of the processed probe. Photolysis of the biotinylated compound in the presence of membranes containing Rce1p followed by streptavidin pull-down and Western blot analysis indicated that Rce1p had been labeled by the probe. Photolysis in the presence of both the biotinylated, benzophenone-containing probe and a farnesylated peptide competitor reduced the extent of labeling, suggesting that labeling is occurring in the active site.

  17. Effects of indole alkaloids on multidrug resistance and labeling of P-glycoprotein by a photoaffinity analog of vinblastine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, W T; Cirtain, M C; Glover, C J; Felsted, R L; Safa, A R

    1988-06-30

    Multidrug resistant cells are characterized by decreased drug accumulation and retention, thought to be mediated by a high molecular weight glycoprotein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Agents such as verapamil have been shown to increase anticancer drug cytotoxicity and increase the amount of drug accumulated and retained by such cells. We show here that in addition to verapamil, reserpine, chloroquine, quinine, quinacrine, yohimbine, vindoline, and catharanthine also enhance the cytotoxicity of vinblastine (VLB) in a multidrug resistant, human leukemic cell line, CEM/VLB1K, described here for the first time. These cells express P-gp as a doublet that is photoaffinity labeled by the analog of VLB, N(p-azido-[3-125I]salicyl)-N'-beta-aminoethylvindesine ([125I]NASV). Both reserpine and, to a lesser extent, verapamil, compete with [125I]NASV for binding to P-gp. We also found that chloroquine, quinacrine, vindoline, and catharanthine, each of which enhanced VLB cytotoxicity in CEM/VLB1K cells by 10- to 15-fold, similarly inhibited [125I]NASV labeling of P-gp. However, neither quinine nor yohimbine inhibited this labeling, and the inhibition produced by catharanthine and vindoline was the greatest or exclusively on the lower band of the P-gp doublet. Our results suggest a complex relationship between the ability of a compound to modulate MDR and its ability to compete for binding to P-gp.

  18. The effect of structural differences in the reducing terminus of sugars on the binding affinity of carbohydrates and proteins analyzed using photoaffinity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Isao; Sadakane, Yutaka; Higuchi, Mari; Hada, Noriyasu; Hada, Junko; Kakiuchi, Nobuko; Sakushima, Akiyo

    2011-01-15

    Because carbohydrates and proteins bind with such low affinity, the nature of their interactions is not clear. Photoaffinity labeling with diazirin groups is useful for elucidating the roles of carbohydrates in these binding processes. However, when carbohydrate probes are synthesized according to this conventional method, the reducing terminus of the sugar is opened to provide an acyclic structure. Because greater elucidation of carbohydrate-protein interactions requires a closed-ring carbohydrate in addition to the photoreactive group, we synthesized new molecular tools. The carbohydrate ligands were synthesized in three steps (glycosylation with allyl alcohol, deprotection, and ozonolysis). Specific binding proteins for carbohydrate ligands were obtained by photoaffinity labeling. Closed ring-type carbohydrate ligands, in which the reducing sugar is closed, bound to lectins more strongly than open ring-type sugars. Carbohydrate to protein binding was observed using AFM.

  19. Regulation of the GLUT1 glucose transporter in cultured myocytes: total number and subcellular distribution as determined by photoaffinity labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Kebbi, I M; Roser, S; Pollet, R J; Cushman, S W; Wilson, C M

    1994-01-01

    We have used the impermeant photoaffinity label 2-N-4-(1-azi-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)benzoyl-[2-3H] 1,3-bis-(D-mannos-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine (ATB-[2-3H]BMPA) to identify and quantify the glucose transporters on the surface of BC3H-1 cells, a continuously cultured skeletal-muscle cell line lacking the MyoD transcription factor required for cell fusion. ATB-[2-3H]BMPA was used in combination with immunoprecipitation of the GLUT1 glucose transporter, the only isoform expressed in these cells. The total cellular GLUT1 content was also determined by photolabelling and immunoprecipitation after cell permeabilization with digitonin (0.025%). In glucose-starved cells, 85% of the glucose transporters were present at the cell surface in the basal state, with little change in response to insulin (200 nM), correlating with lack of additional 2-deoxyglucose uptake in response to insulin. Feeding the cells with glucose (25 mM) for 24 h resulted in an 80% decrease in the total GLUT1 content relative to starved cells, of which only 25% were present on the cell surface. This was associated with an 85% decrease in 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In addition, acute stimulation of the fed cells with insulin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) led to an increase in GLUT1 at the cell surface, and, in correspondence, an increase in 2-deoxyglucose uptake by approx. 2- and 4-fold respectively. We conclude that exofacial photoaffinity labelling of glucose transporters with ATB-[2-3H]BMPA in the presence and absence of digitonin, followed by specific immunoprecipitation, provides an accurate measure of total and cell-surface glucose transporters in differentiated BC3H-1 muscle cells. This technique demonstrates that glucose pre-feeding (1) decreases the total number of GLUT1 and (2) redistributes the majority of the remaining transporters to an intracellular site, where they can now be translocated to the cell surface in response to insulin and PMA. PMID:8037688

  20. Azido-iodo-N-benzyl derivatives of threo-methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta): Rational design, synthesis, pharmacological evaluation, and dopamine transporter photoaffinity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinsky, David J; Velagaleti, Ranganadh; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Liu, Yi; Huang, Yurong; Surratt, Christopher K; Lever, John R; Foster, James D; Acharya, Rejwi; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Deutsch, Howard M

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to tropane-based compounds such as benztropine and cocaine, non-tropane-based photoaffinity ligands for the dopamine transporter (DAT) are relatively unexplored. Towards addressing this knowledge gap, ligands were synthesized in which the piperidine nitrogen of 3- and 4-iodomethylphenidate was substituted with a benzyl group bearing a photoreactive azide. Analog (±)-3a demonstrated modest DAT affinity and a radioiodinated version was shown to bind covalently to rat striatal DAT and hDAT expressed in cultured cells. Co-incubation of (±)-3a with nonradioactive d-(+)-methylphenidate or (-)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (β-CFT, WIN-35,428, a cocaine analog) blocked DAT labeling. Compound (±)-3a represents the first successful example of a DAT photoaffinity ligand based on the methylphenidate scaffold. Such ligands are expected to assist in mapping non-tropane ligand-binding pockets within plasma membrane monoamine transporters.

  1. Forskolin photoaffinity labels with specificity for adenylyl cyclase and the glucose transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.I.; Robbins, J.D.; Ruoho, A.E.; Sutkowski, E.M.; Seamon, K.B. (Division of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-07-15

    Two photolabels, N-(3-(4-azido-3-125I-phenyl)-propionamide)-6- aminoethylcarbamylforskolin(125I-6-AIPP-Fsk) and N-(3-(4-azido-3-125I-phenyl)propionamide)-7-aminoethylcarbamyl-7- desacetylforskolin (125I-7-AIPP-Fsk) were synthesized with specific activities of 2200 Ci/mmol and used to label adenylyl cyclase and the glucose transporter. The affinities of the photolabels for adenylyl cyclase were determined by their inhibition of (3H)forskolin binding to bovine brain membranes. 6-AIPP-Fsk and 7-AIPP-Fsk inhibited (3H)forskolin binding with IC50 values of 15 nM and 200 nM, respectively. 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk labeled a 115-kDa protein in control and GTP {gamma} S-preactivated bovine brain membranes. This labeling was inhibited by forskolin but not by 1,9-dideoxyforskolin or cytochalasin B. 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk labeling of partially purified adenylyl cyclase was inhibited by forskolin but not by 1,9-dideoxyforskolin. 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk specifically labeled a 45-kDa protein and not a 115-kDa protein in control and GTP {gamma} S-preactivated brain membranes. This labeling was inhibited by forskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, cytochalasin B, and D-glucose but not cytochalasin E or L-glucose. Human erythrocyte membranes were photolyzed with 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk and 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk. 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk, but not 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk, strongly labeled a broad 45-70-kDa band. Forskolin, 7-bromoacetyl-7-desacetylforskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, cytochalasin B, and D-glucose, but not cytochalasin E or L-glucose, inhibited 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk labeling of the 45-70-kDa band. 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk and 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk are high affinity photolabels with specificity for adenylyl cyclase and the glucose transporter, respectively.

  2. Photoaffinity labeling of alpha- and beta- scorpion toxin receptors associated with rat brain sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbon, H; Jover, E; Couraud, F; Rochat, H

    1983-09-15

    Azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin II from Centruroides suffusus suffusus, a beta-toxin, and azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin V from Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus, an alpha-toxin, have been covalently linked after binding to their receptor sites that are related to the voltage sensitive sodium channel present in rat brain synaptosomes. Both derivatives labeled two polypeptides of 253000 +/- 20000 and 35000 +/- 2000 mol. wt. Labeling was blocked for each derivative by a large excess of the corresponding native toxin but no cross inhibition was obtained. These results suggest that both alpha - and beta - scorpion toxin receptors are located on or near the same two membrane polypeptides which may be part of the voltage dependent sodium channel.

  3. Photoaffinity labelling of tobacco subcellular fractions with ( sup 32 P)-azido-UDP-glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.; Haley, B.E. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA)); Parker, K.W.; Salvucci, M.E.

    1989-04-01

    Subcellular fractions from tobacco (N. rustica) leaves were photolabelled with the UDPG analog, ({sup 32}P)-N{sub 3} UDPG. Two stromal polypeptides (M{sub r} = 42 and 21 kD) were the major photolabelled chloroplast polypeptides. UDPG protected the 42 but not the 21 kD polypeptide against photoincorporation of ({sup 32}P)-N{sub 3} UDPG. In a cytosol-enriched fraction, the major photolabelling polypeptides had M{sub r} of 92, 50, 42, 30 and 17 kD. Photolabelling of the 42, 30, and 17 kD polypeptides was unaffected by UDPG, but UDPG blocked incorporation into the 92 and 50 kD polypeptides. In addition to photolabelled polypeptides, a polypeptide identified as phosphoglucomutase (PGM) was labelled in both the chloroplast and cytosol fraction. {sup 32}P-labelling of PGM was independent of UV irradiation, occurring via phosphoryl transfer from contaminating ({sup 32}P)G-I-P. The plastid and cytosolic PGM isozymes had M{sub r} of 69 and 62.8 kD, respectively, and both were labelled in a leaf extract.

  4. Photoaffinity labeling of the erythropoietin receptor and its identification in a ligand-free form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoi, Takayuki; Sawyer, S.T.; Krantz, S.B. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Pure human recombinant erythropoietin (EP) was acylated through a primary amino residue with a cross-linking reagent, N-((3-((4-((p-azido-m-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)azo)benzoyl)amino)propanoyl)oxy)-succinimide (Denny-Jaffe reagent), which is photoreactive and cleavable at the azo residue. The resulting conjugated hormone (DJ-EP) was purified from unmodified EP by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and maintained its capacity to bind to receptors for EP on erythroid progenitor cells. The receptor for EP was previously identified as two related proteins of 100 and 85 kDa molecular mass by chemical cross-linking to {sup 125}I-EP. Recently, D'Andrea and co-workers cloned a cDNA that codes for a protein of 55-66 kDa, which is thought to be the EP receptor. In this report, cross-linking to the receptor through the monofunctional DJ-EP labeled the same 140- and 125-kDa molecular mass bands cross-linked with {sup 125}I-EP and disuccinimidyl suberate. Furthermore, cleavage of the azo bond of the DJ-EP receptor complex by sodium dithionite demonstrated that proteins of 105 and 90 kDa were labeled in ligand-free form by DJ-EP. This result demonstrates that artifactual cross-linking of multiple proteins or other artifacts of cross-linking do not explain the difference in molecular mass of the EP receptor identified by cross-linking and the receptor identified by expression cloning.

  5. Efficient photoaffinity labeling of the rat V1a vasopressin receptor using a linear azidopeptidic antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnazzi, E; Aumelas, A; Phalipou, S; Mouillac, B; Guillon, G; Barberis, C; Seyer, R

    1997-08-01

    We have synthesized and fully characterized by fast-atom-bombardment-mass, NMR and ultraviolet spectroscopies the vasopressin antagonist 3-azidophenylpropionyl-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr(3I )-NH2. Easily radioiodinatable just before use, it has a high affinity for the natural rat liver V1a receptor [dissociation constant (Kd) = 54 +/- 20 pM; Carnazzi, E., Aumelas, A., Barberis, C., Guillon, G. & Seyer, R. (1994) J. Med. Chem. 37, 1841-1849] and for both the rat vasopressin V1a receptor expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells (Sf9 cells, Kd = 688 +/- 35 pM) and in COS-7 cells (Kd = 320 +/- 20 pM). This probe labels specifically the V1a receptors in an ultraviolet-dependent manner, and binds covalently to about 12% of the receptors with high stability over several days, even in dissociation or solubilization conditions. SDS/PAGE studies and autoradiographic analyses of the photolabeled receptors reveal a single band (49.5 kDa) and two bands (63 kDa and 93.6 kDa) for receptor-probe associations obtained in Sf9 and COS-7 cells respectively. These molecular masses are consistent with non-glycosylated and highly glycosylated forms of the receptor, according to each expression system. In rat liver membranes, we have identified apparent molecular masses of about 32, 45 and more than 67 kDa. We finally demonstrated a proteolysis of the receptor that appeared to be Zn2+ and leupeptin sensitive. The high potency of this ligand is promising for the monitoring of the purification of the V1a receptor and for mapping its antagonist-binding site.

  6. [3H]Azidodantrolene photoaffinity labeling, synthetic domain peptides and monoclonal antibody reactivity identify the dantrolene binding sequence on RyR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pletzer, Kalanethee; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Bhat, Manju B.; Ma, Jianjie; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Jimenez, Leslie S.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Parness, Jerome

    2002-06-14

    Dantrolene is a drug that suppresses intracellular Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in normal skeletal muscle and is used as a therapeutic agent in individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. Though its precise mechanism of action has not been elucidated, we have identified the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-1400) of the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the primary Ca2+ release channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum, as a molecular target for dantrolene using the photoaffinity analog [3H]azidodantrolene(1). Here, we demonstrate that heterologously expressed RyR1 retains its capacity to be specifically labeled with [3H]azidodantrolene,indicating that muscle specific factors are not required for this ligand-receptor interaction. Synthetic domain peptides of RyR1, previously shown to affect RyR1 function in vitro and in vivo, were exploited as potential drug binding site mimics and used in photoaffinity labeling experiments. Only DP1 and DP1-2, peptide s containing the amino acid sequence corresponding to RyR1 residues 590-609, were specifically labeled by [3H]azidodantrolene. A monoclonal anti-RyR1 antibody which recognizes RyR1 and its 1400 amino acid N-terminal fragment, recognizes DP1 and DP1-2 in both Western blots and immunoprecipitation assays, and specifically inhibits [3H]azidodantrolene photolabeling of RyR1 and its N-terminal fragment in sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that synthetic domain peptides can mimic a native, ligand binding conformation in vitro, and that the dantrolene binding site and the epitope for the monoclonal antibody on RyR1 are equivalent and composed of amino-acids 590-609.

  7. Direct photoaffinity labeling of gizzard myosin with ( sup 3 H)uridine diphosphate places Glu185 of the heavy chain at the active site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, T.E.; Yount, R.G. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-12-25

    The active site of chicken gizzard myosin was labeled by direct photoaffinity labeling with ({sup 3}H)UDP. ({sup 3}H) UDP was stably trapped at the active site by addition of vanadate (Vi) and Co{sup 2+}. The extraordinary stability of the myosin.Co2+.(3H)UDP.Vi complex (t1/2 greater than 5 days at 0{degrees}C) allowed it to be purified free of extraneous ({sup 3}H)UDP before irradiation began. Upon UV irradiation, greater than 60% of the trapped ({sup 3}H)UDP was photoincorporated into the active site. Only the 200-kDa heavy chain was labeled, confirming earlier results using ({sup 3}H)UTP. Extensive tryptic digestion of photolabeled myosin subfragment 1 followed by high performance liquid chromatography separations and removal of nucleotide phosphates by treatment with alkaline phosphatase allowed two labeled peptides to be isolated. Sequencing of the labeled peptides and radioactive counting showed that Glu185 was the residue labeled. Since UDP is a zero-length cross-linker, Glu185 is located at the purine-binding pocket of the active site of smooth myosin and adjacent to the glycine-rich loop which binds the polyphosphate portion of ATP. This Glu residue is conserved in smooth and nonmuscle myosins and is the same residue identified previously by ({sup 3}H)UTP photolabeling in Acanthamoeba myosin II.

  8. Synthesis and Application of Prenyl-Derived Photoaffinity Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Lingdong; TANG, wei; ZHAO, Zongbao

    2009-01-01

    Three photoaffinity probes containing isoprenoid chains and an azide group were synthesized using one-pot coupling reaction as the key step. The capability of these probes as labeling agents for isoprenoid chain-interacting proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome was validated by photoaffinity reaction and "click" conjunction with the biotin reporter followed by streptavidin blot analysis.

  9. Photoaffinity Labeling via Nitrenium Ion Chemistry: Protonation of the Nitrene Derived from a 4-Amino-3-nitrophenylazide to Afford Reactive Nitrenium Ion Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenska, Valentyna; Wilson, R. Marshall; Panov, Maxim; Tarnovsky, Alexander N.; Krause, Jeanette A.; Vyas, Shubham; Winter, Arthur H.; Hadad, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Phenyl azides with powerful electron-donating substituents are known to deviate from the usual photochemical behavior of other phenyl azides. They do not undergo ring expansion, but form basic nitrenes that protonate to form nitrenium ions. The photochemistry of the widely used photoaffinity labeling system 4-amino-3-nitrophenyl azide, 5, has been studied by transient absorption spectroscopy from femtosecond to microsecond time domains and from a theoretical perspective. The nitrene generation from azide 5 occurs on the S2 surface, in violation of Kasha's rule. The resulting nitrene is a powerful base and abstracts protons extremely rapidly from a variety of sources to form a nitrenium ion. In methanol, this protonation occurs in about 5 ps, which is the fastest intermolecular protonation observed to date. Suitable proton sources include alcohols, amine salts, and even acidic C-H bonds such as acetonitrile. The resulting nitrenium ion is stabilized by the electron-donating 4-amino group to afford a diiminoquinone-like species that collapses relatively slowly to form the ultimate cross-linked product. In some cases in which the anion is a good hydride donor, cross-linking is replaced by reduction of the nitrenium ion to the corresponding amine. PMID:19624129

  10. Insights into interactions between the alpha-helical region of the salmon calcitonin antagonists and the human calcitonin receptor using photoaffinity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Vi; Dong, Maoqing; Wade, John D; Miller, Laurence J; Morton, Craig J; Ng, Hooi-Ling; Parker, Michael W; Sexton, Patrick M

    2005-08-05

    Fish-like calcitonins (CTs), such as salmon CT (sCT), are widely used clinically in the treatment of bone-related disorders; however, the molecular basis for CT binding to its receptor, a class II G protein-coupled receptor, is not well defined. In this study we have used photoaffinity labeling to identify proximity sites between CT and its receptor. Two analogues of the antagonist sCT(8-32) containing a single photolabile p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine (Bpa) residue in position 8 or 19 were used. Both analogues retained high affinity for the CT receptor and potently inhibited agonist-induced cAMP production. The [Bpa(19)]sCT(8-32) analogue cross-linked to the receptor at or near the equivalent cross-linking site of the full-length peptide, within the fragment Cys(134)-Lys(141) (within the amino terminus of the receptor, adjacent to transmembrane 1) (Pham, V., Wade, J. D., Purdue, B. W., and Sexton, P. M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 6720-6729). In contrast, proteolytic mapping and mutational analysis identified Met(49) as the cross-linking site for [Bpa(8)]sCT(8-32). This site differed from the previously identified cross-linking site of the agonist [Bpa(8)]human CT (Dong, M., Pinon, D. I., Cox, R. F., and Miller, L. J. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 31177-31182) and may provide evidence for conformational differences between interaction with active and inactive state receptors. Molecular modeling suggests that the difference in cross-linking between the two Bpa(8) analogues can be accounted for by a relatively small change in peptide orientation. The model was also consistent with cooperative interaction between the receptor amino terminus and the receptor core.

  11. 5-Azido-2-aminopyridine, a new nitrene/nitrenium ion photoaffinity labeling agent that exhibits reversible intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet nitrenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Maxim S; Voskresenska, Valentyna D; Ryazantsev, Mikhail N; Tarnovsky, Alexander N; Wilson, R Marshall

    2013-12-26

    The photochemistry of a new photoaffinity labeling (PAL) agent, 5-azido-2-(N,N-diethylamino)pyridine, was studied in aprotic and protic solvents using femtosecond-to-microsecond transient absorption and product analysis, in conjunction with ab initio multiconfigurational and multireference quantum chemical calculations. The excited singlet S1 state is spectroscopically dark, whereas photoexcitation to higher-lying singlet excited S2 and S3 states drives the photochemical reaction toward a barrierless ultrafast relaxation path via two conical intersections to S1, where N2 elimination leads to the formation of the closed-shell singlet nitrene. The singlet nitrene undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) to the triplet nitrene in aprotic and protic solvents as well as protonation to form the nitrenium ion. The ISC rate constants in aprotic solvents increase with solvent polarity, displaying a "direct" gap effect, whereas an "inverse" gap effect is observed in protic solvents. Transient absorption actinometry experiments suggest that a solvent-dependent fraction from 20% to 50% of nitrenium ions is generated on a time scale of a few tens of picoseconds. The closed-shell singlet and triplet nitrene are separated by a small energy gap in protic solvents. As a result, the unreactive triplet state nitrene undergoes delayed, thermally activated reverse ISC to reform the reactive closed-shell singlet nitrene, which subsequently protonates, forming the remaining fraction of nitrenium ions. The product studies demonstrate that the resulting nitrenium ion stabilized by the electron-donating 4-amino group yields the final cross-linked product with high, almost quantitative efficiency. The enhanced PAL function of this new azide with respect to the widely applied 4-amino-3-nitrophenyl azide is discussed.

  12. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruta, H.; Korn, E.D.

    1981-01-10

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 0/sup 0/C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain.

  13. Photoaffinity labeling with cholesterol analogues precisely maps a cholesterol-binding site in voltage-dependent anion channel-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelier, Melissa M; Cheng, Wayland W L; Bergdoll, Lucie; Chen, Zi-Wei; Janetka, James W; Abramson, Jeff; Krishnan, Kathiresan; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel; Covey, Douglas F; Whitelegge, Julian P; Evers, Alex S

    2017-06-02

    Voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1) is a highly regulated β-barrel membrane protein that mediates transport of ions and metabolites between the mitochondria and cytosol of the cell. VDAC1 co-purifies with cholesterol and is functionally regulated by cholesterol, among other endogenous lipids. Molecular modeling studies based on NMR observations have suggested five cholesterol-binding sites in VDAC1, but direct experimental evidence for these sites is lacking. Here, to determine the sites of cholesterol binding, we photolabeled purified mouse VDAC1 (mVDAC1) with photoactivatable cholesterol analogues and analyzed the photolabeled sites with both top-down mass spectrometry (MS), and bottom-up MS paired with a clickable, stable isotope-labeled tag, FLI-tag. Using cholesterol analogues with a diazirine in either the 7 position of the steroid ring (LKM38) or the aliphatic tail (KK174), we mapped a binding pocket in mVDAC1 localized to Thr(83) and Glu(73), respectively. When Glu(73) was mutated to a glutamine, KK174 no longer photolabeled this residue, but instead labeled the nearby Tyr(62) within this same binding pocket. The combination of analytical strategies employed in this work permits detailed molecular mapping of a cholesterol-binding site in a protein, including an orientation of the sterol within the site. Our work raises the interesting possibility that cholesterol-mediated regulation of VDAC1 may be facilitated through a specific binding site at the functionally important Glu(73) residue. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Specific binding of photoaffinity-labeling peptidomimetics of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 to the dopamine D2L receptor: evidence for the allosteric modulation of the dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Amandeep; Verma, Vaneeta; Basu, Dipannita; Skoblenick, Kevin J; Beyaert, Michael G R; Fisher, Abigail; Thomas, Nancy; Johnson, Rodney L; Mishra, Ram K

    2010-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanistic role of l-prolyl-l-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) in modulating agonist binding to the dopamine D(2L) receptor. Competition and displacement assays indicate that the photoaffinity-labeling peptidomimetics of PLG, 3(R)-[(4(S)-(4-azido-2-hydroxy-benzoyl) amino-2(S)-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)amino]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide hydrochloride (1a) and 3(R)-[(4(S)-(4-azido-2-hydroxy-5-iodo-benzoyl)amino-2(S)-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)amino]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide hydrochloride (1b) bind at the same site as PLG. Autoradiography was used to establish the covalent binding of [(125)I]-1b to an approximately 51kDa protein in bovine striatal membranes. Western blot analysis with a dopamine D(2L)-specific antibody, in combination with autoradiography, following a two-dimensional gel separation, suggested this approximately 51kDa protein to be the dopamine D(2L) receptor. Further evidence for binding of 1b to dopamine D(2L) was provided by samples immunoprecipitated with the D(2L) antibody. These samples were analyzed by western blotting in parallel with autoradiography of [(125)I]-1b labeled protein. Both methods revealed bands at approximately 51kDa. Furthermore, PLG is shown to compete with 1b for binding to the dopamine D(2L) receptor as determined by autoradiography, as well as competition experiments with PLG and 1a. Collectively, these findings suggest the successful development of a photoaffinity-labeling agent, compound 1b, that has been used to elucidate the interaction of PLG specifically with the dopamine D(2L) receptor.

  15. Design, synthesis, and characterization of a novel, 4-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-1-benzyl piperidine-based, dopamine transporter photoaffinity label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, A K; Fei, X S; Vaughan, R A; Gaffaney, J D; Wang, N; Lever, J R; Reith, M E

    2001-03-09

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) has been implicated strongly in cocaine's reinforcing effects. Many derivatives of piperidine analogs of GBR 12909 have been developed and were found to be quite potent and selective for the DAT. In this regard, most of these derivatives were found to be much more selective for the DAT than conventional GBR compounds e.g. GBR 12909 when their selectivity was compared with the serotonin transporter (SERT). A brief structure-activity relationship (SAR) study has been carried out in the development of a novel photoaffinity ligand which illustrated the effect of the presence of a sterically bulky iodine atom next to the azido group in activity and selectivity for the DAT. This SAR study also led to the development of the compound 4 which is one of the most potent and selective blockers for the DAT known today. The photoaffinity ligand [125I]AD-96-129 was incorporated into the DAT molecule as was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation with serum 16 which is specific for DAT. This photolabeling was antagonized by DAT-specific blockers and was unaffected by specific SERT and norepinephrine transporter (NET) blockers indicating interaction of this novel ligand with the DAT.

  16. Identification of specific sites involved in ligand binding by photoaffinity labeling of the receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Residues located at equivalent positions in uPAR domains I and III participate in the assembly of a composite ligand-binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M

    1998-01-01

    PA binding (SLNFSQYLWS) were previously tagged by specific site-directed photoaffinity labeling [Ploug, M., Ostergaard, S., Hansen, L. B. L., Holm, A., and Dano, K. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 3612-3622]. Replacement of the key functional residues Phe4 and Trp9 with either benzophenone or (trifluoromethyl......)aryldiazirine rendered this peptide antagonist photoactivatable, and as a consequence, it incorporated covalently upon photolysis into either uPAR domain I or domain III depending on the actual position of the photophore in the sequence. The residues of uPAR specifically targeted by photoaffinity labeling were...... identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry, NH2-terminal sequence analysis, and amino acid composition analysis after enzymatic fragmentation and HPLC purification. According to these data, the formation of the receptor-ligand complex positions Phe4 of the peptide antagonist very close...

  17. 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate: Photoaffinity ligand for sulfotransferase enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterness, D.M.; Powers, S.P.; Miller, L.J.; Weinshilboum, R.M. (Mayo Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Sulfation is an important pathway in the biotransformation of many drugs, xenobiotic compounds, neurotransmitters, and hormones. The sulfate donor for these reactions is 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). We set out to determine whether PAPS might serve as a photoaffinity ligand for sulfotransferase enzymes. UV irradiation of (35S)PAPS with partially purified human liver thermostable (TS) phenol sulfotransferase (PST) radioactively labeled a protein with a molecular mass of 35 kDa, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Photoaffinity labeling of TS PST with (35S) PAPS did not require the presence of a phenolic substrate but rather was inhibited by p-nitrophenol, a sulfate acceptor substrate for TS PST. Inhibitors of TS PST enzymatic activity, including 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate, ATP, ADP, and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol, also inhibited photoaffinity labeling of the 35-kDa protein with (35S)PAPS, in a concentration-dependent fashion, with IC50 values of 14 microM, 2.1 mM, 7.7 mM, and 91 microM, respectively. The 35-kDa protein that was radioactively labeled by (35S)PAPS in the presence of UV light coeluted with TS PST enzymatic activity during gel filtration high performance liquid chromatography. (35S)PAPS was then used to photoaffinity label another sulfotransferase enzyme, the thermolabile (TL) form of PST partially purified from human liver. Therefore, (35S)PAPS appears to be a photoaffinity ligand that could be used to study a variety of PAPS-dependent sulfotransferases. Photoaffinity labeling of TS and TL PST, as well as other PAPS-dependent sulfotransferases, should enhance our ability to purify this important group of enzymes and to determine amino acid sequences at or near their active sites.

  18. Photoaffinity ligands in the study of cytochrome p450 active site structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Carlos Augusto

    2003-04-01

    While photoaffinity ligands have been widely used to probe the structures of many receptors and nucleic acid binding proteins, their effective use in the study of cytochrome p450 structure is less established. Nevertheless, significant advances in this field have been made since the technique was first applied to p450cam in 1979. In several cases, especially studies involving p450s of the 1A and 2B families, peptides covalently modified with photoaffinity ligands have been isolated and characterized. Some of these peptides were predicted by molecular modeling to line substrate binding regions of the enzymes. Other data obtained from such studies were more difficult to reconcile with theory. This review addresses the status of photoaffinity labeling as a tool for studying cytochrome p450 structure. In addition, potential future directions in this field are discussed, including the development of heme-directed agents and validation of their effectiveness as photoaffinity ligands using sperm whale myoglobin as a test protein. The potential for hydroxyaromatic compounds to serve as photoactivated probes of active site nucleophiles is also discussed. This class of compounds and its derivatives has long been known in the fields of photochemistry and photophysics to be precursors of reactive radicals and quinone methides that are likely to serve as effective active site probes of the p450s.

  19. Design and Synthesis of Photoaffinity Probe Candidates for the GABA-gated Chloride Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shang-Zhong; LI Qing-X.

    2006-01-01

    In order to characterize binding sites of insecticidal compounds on GABA gated chloride channel, new photoaffinity probe candidates based on 5e-t-butyl-2e-[4-(substituted-propynyl)phenyl]-1,3-dithiane for the noncompetitive blocker (NCB) site of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel were designed and synthesized, and their potency as an inhibitor on NCB was measured by 4'-ethynyl-4-n-[2,3-3H2]-propylbicycloorthobenzoate (3H EBOB) assay. The synthesized compounds showed high inhibition activities with half maximum inhibition concentrations (IC50) of lower than 35 nmol/L and were very stable in binding conditions as well photoreacted quickly at 300 nm light. These new compounds are expected to be good photoaffinity labeling probes if radioisotope iodine is incorporated.

  20. Photoaffinity Labeling of Developing Jojoba Seed Microsomal Membranes with a Photoreactive Analog of Acyl-Coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) (Identification of a Putative Acyl-CoA:Fatty Alcohol Acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, J. M.; Rajasekharan, R.; Kemp, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis, Link) is the only plant known that synthesizes liquid wax. The final step in liquid wax biosynthesis is catalyzed by an integral membrane enzyme, fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):fatty alcohol acyltransferase, which transfers an acyl chain from acyl-CoA to a fatty alcohol to form the wax ester. To purify the acyltransferase, we have labeled the enzyme with a radioiodinated, photoreactive analog of acyl-CoA, 12-[N-(4-azidosalicyl)amino] dodecanoyl-CoA (ASD-CoA). This molecule acts as an inhibitor of acyltransferase activity in the dark and as an irreversible inhibitor upon exposure to ultraviolet light. Oleoyl-CoA protects enzymatic activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Photolysis of microsomal membranes with labeled ASD-CoA resulted in strong labeling of two polypeptides of 57 and 52 kD. Increasing concentrations of oleoyl-CoA reduced the labeling of the 57-kD polypeptide dramatically, whereas the labeling of the 52-kD polypeptide was much less responsive to oleoyl-CoA. Also, unlike the other polypeptide, the labeling of the 57-kD polypeptide was enhanced considerably when photolyzed in the presence of dodecanol. These results suggest that a 57-kD polypeptide from jojoba microsomes may be the acyl-CoA:fatty alcohol acyltransferase.

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of the human receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator using a decapeptide antagonist. Evidence for a composite ligand-binding site and a short interdomain separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Ostergaard, S; Hansen, L B

    1998-01-01

    labeling. Proteolytic domain mapping using chymotrypsin revealed a specific labeling of both uPAR domain I and domains II + III dependent on the position of the photoprobe in the antagonist. On the basis of these studies, we propose the existence of a composite ligand binding site in uPAR combined......Binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) to its cellular receptor (uPAR) renders the cell surface a favored site for plasminogen activation. Recently, a 15-mer peptide antagonist of the uPA-uPAR interaction, with an IC50 value of 10 nM, was identified using phage display technology...... [Goodson, R. J., Doyle, M. V., Kaufman, S. E., and Rosenberg, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91, 7129-7133]. In the present study, the molecular aspects of the interaction between this peptide and uPAR have been investigated. We have characterized the real-time receptor binding kinetics...

  2. γ-Secretase modulator (GSM) photoaffinity probes reveal distinct allosteric binding sites on presenilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakov, Nikolay; Murrey, Heather E; Crump, Christina J; Pettersson, Martin; Ballard, T Eric; Am Ende, Christopher W; Ahn, Kwangwook; Li, Yue-Ming; Bales, Kelly R; Johnson, Douglas S

    2013-04-05

    γ-Secretase is an intramembrane aspartyl protease that cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce neurotoxic β-amyloid peptides (i.e. Aβ42) that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Small molecule γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) have emerged as potential disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer disease because they reduce the formation of Aβ42 while not blocking the processing of γ-secretase substrates. We developed clickable GSM photoaffinity probes with the goal of identifying the target of various classes of GSMs and to better understand their mechanism of action. Here, we demonstrate that the photoaffinity probe E2012-BPyne specifically labels the N-terminal fragment of presenilin-1 (PS1-NTF) in cell membranes as well as in live cells and primary neuronal cultures. The labeling is competed in the presence of the parent imidazole GSM E2012, but not with acid GSM-1, allosteric GSI BMS-708163, or substrate docking site peptide inhibitor pep11, providing evidence that these compounds have distinct binding sites. Surprisingly, we found that the cross-linking of E2012-BPyne to PS1-NTF is significantly enhanced in the presence of the active site-directed GSI L-685,458 (L458). In contrast, L458 does not affect the labeling of the acid GSM photoprobe GSM-5. We also observed that E2012-BPyne specifically labels PS1-NTF (active γ-secretase) but not full-length PS1 (inactive γ-secretase) in ANP.24 cells. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that multiple binding sites within the γ-secretase complex exist, each of which may contribute to different modes of modulatory action. Furthermore, the enhancement of PS1-NTF labeling by E2012-BPyne in the presence of L458 suggests a degree of cooperativity between the active site of γ-secretase and the modulatory binding site of certain GSMs.

  3. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of potent discodermolide fluorescent and photoaffinity molecular probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amos B; Rucker, Paul V; Brouard, Ignacio; Freeze, B Scott; Xia, Shujun; Horwitz, Susan Band

    2005-11-10

    [structure: see text] The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of (+)-discodermolide molecular probes possessing photoaffinity and fluorescent appendages has been achieved. Stereoselective olefin cross-metathesis comprised a key tactic for construction of two of the molecular probes. Three photoaffinity probes were radiolabeled with tritium.

  4. Affinity Labeling of Membrane Receptors Using Tissue-Penetrating Radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Franklin C.; Boja, John; Ho, Beng; Kuhar, Michael J.; Wong, Dean F.

    2013-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling, a useful in vivo biochemical tool, is limited when applied in vivo because of the poor tissue penetration by ultraviolet (UV) photons. This study investigates affinity labeling using tissue-penetrating radiation to overcome the tissue attenuation and irreversibly label membrane receptor proteins. Using X-ray (115 kVp) at low doses (affinity labeling of membrane receptors in a manner similar to UV with photoreactive ligands of the dopamine transporter, D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBDZR). It may provide specific noninvasive irreversible block or stimulation of a receptor using tissue-penetrating radiation targeting selected anatomic sites. PMID:23936811

  5. Fipronil-based photoaffinity probe for Drosophila and human beta 3 GABA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisoma, N S; Ratra, G S; Tomizawa, M; Casida, J E

    2001-11-19

    Modification of the major insecticide fipronil (1) by replacing three pyrazole substituents (hydrogen for both cyano and amino and trifluoromethyldiazirinyl for trifluoromethylsulfinyl) gives a candidate photoaffinity probe (3) of high potency (IC(50) 2-28 nM) in blocking the chloride channel of Drosophila and human beta 3 GABA receptors.

  6. Photoaffinity antigens for human γδ T cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikonda, Ghanashyam; Wang, Hong; Puan, Kia-Joo; Liu, Xiao-hui; Lee, Hoi K.; Song, Yongcheng; Distefano, Mark D.; Oldfield, Eric; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Morita, Craig T.

    2009-01-01

    Vγ2Vδ2 T cells comprise the major subset of peripheral blood γ δ T cells in humans and expand during infections by recognizing small, nonpeptide prenyl pyrophosphates. These molecules include (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl-pyrophosphate (HMBPP), a microbial isoprenoid intermediate, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), an endogenous isoprenoid intermediate. Recognition of these nonpeptide antigens is mediated by the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell antigen receptor (TCR). Several findings suggest that prenyl pyrophosphates are presented by an antigen presenting molecule: contact between T cells and APCs is required; the antigens do not bind the Vγ2Vδ2 TCR directly; and antigen recognition is abrogated by TCR mutations in CDRs distant from the putative antigen recognition site. Identification of the putative antigen presenting molecule, however, has been hindered by the inability to achieve stable association of nonpeptide prenyl pyrophosphate antigens with the presenting molecule. In this study, we show that photoaffinity analogs of HMBPP, meta/para-benzophenone-(methylene)-prenyl pyrophosphates (m/p-BZ-(C)-C5-OPP), can cross-link to the surface of tumor cell lines and be presented as antigens to γ δ T cells. Mutant tumor cell lines lacking MHC class I, MHC class II, β2-microglobulin, and CD1, as well as tumor cell lines from a variety of tissues and individuals, will all crosslink to and present m-BZ-C5-OPP. Finally, pulsing of BZ-(C)-C5-OPP is inhibited by IPP and an inactive analog, suggesting that they bind to the same molecule. Taken together, these results suggest that nonpeptide antigens are presented by a novel antigen presenting molecule that is widely distributed, non-polymorphic, but not classical MHC class I, MHC class II, or CD1. This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript

  7. 2-Nitroimipramine: a photoaffinity probe for the serotonin uptake/tricyclic binding site complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Wennogle, L P; Ashton, R A; Schuster, D. I.; Murphy, R B; Meyerson, L R

    1985-01-01

    [3H]2-Nitroimipramine ([3H]2-NI), a compound with high affinity for the serotonin uptake system, is shown to be an effective photoaffinity probe which incorporates covalently into membrane homogenates prepared from human platelets, as well as rat brain and liver. In all cases, [3H]2-NI preferentially incorporated into a minor membrane component of 30 kd protein, as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent fluorography. A number of selective and general serotonin upt...

  8. Photoaffinity Probe Candidates for Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABAA)-Gated Chloride Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Zhong LIU; Qing Xiao LI

    2004-01-01

    New photoaffinity ligand candidates were synthesized based on 5-t-butyl-2-(4- (substituted-ethynyl)phenyl)-1, 3-dithiane for the noncompetitive blocker site on the gamma- aminobutyric acid -gated chloride channel. Their half-maximal inhibition concentrations ranged from 4 to 32 nmol/L as measured by 4'-ethynyl-4-n-[2,3-3H2]-propylbicycloorthobenzoate (3H EBOB) assay.

  9. Affinity labeling of the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific receptor of rat hepatocytes: preferential labeling of one of the subunits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.T.; Lee, Y.C.

    1987-10-06

    The galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific receptor (also known as asialoglycoprotein receptor) of rat hepatocytes consists of three subunits, one of which (43 kilodalton (kDa)) exists in a greater abundance (up to 70% of total protein) over the two minor species (52 and 60 kDa). When the receptor on the hepatocyte membranes was photoaffinity labeled with an /sup 125/I-labeled high-affinity reagent the labeling occurred mainly (51-80%) on one of the minor bands (52 kDa). Similarly, affinity-bound, N-acetylgalactosamine-modified lactoperoxidase radioiodinated the same 52-kDa band preferentially. In contrast, both the photoaffinity labeling and lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of the purified, detergent-solubilized receptor resulted in a distribution of the label that is comparable to the Coomassie blue staining pattern of the three bands; i.e., the 43-kDa band was the major band labeled. These and other experimental results suggest that the preferential labeling of the minor band and inefficient labeling of the major band on the hepatocyte membrane resulted from a specific topological arrangement of these subunits on the membranes. The authors postulate that in the native, membrane-bound state of the receptor, the 52-kDa minor band is topologically prominent, while the major (43 kDa) band is partially masked. This partial masking may result from a tight packing of the receptor subunits on the membranes to form a lattice work.

  10. Photoaffinity labeling of the tetrodotoxin binding component of Electrophorus electricus electroplax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, S; Uyemura, K

    1985-08-01

    Radioactive azide derivatives of tetrodotoxin (TTX) were synthesized using 2-nitro-4-azidephenyl-[3H]beta alanine for the purpose of photolabeling of the Na channel. Three azide derivatives, N1, N2 and N3, were separated by ion exchange chromatography on Bio-Rex 70 resin and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. N3 was more stable and obtained at a higher yield than the other two derivatives. Bioactivity of N3 was one-twentieth of that of TTX. N3 showed reversible binding to membranes of Electrophorus electricus electroplax in the dark with Kd = 30 nM and B max = 5.2 pmol/mg protein. By photoirradiation, irreversible binding of N3 to the membranes was observed. A N3 binding component was solubilized by lubrol PX and partially purified from the electroplax membranes by Sephadex G25 and Sepharose 6B column chromatography. The component, purified 500 fold from the starting membranes, showed molecular weight of 10,000.

  11. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of neurosteroid photoaffinity ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Chiara, David C.; Desai, Rooma; Stern, Alexander T.; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Ziemba, Alexis M.; Szabo, Andrea L.; Zhang, Yinghui; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Miller, Keith W.; Bruzik, Karol S.

    2017-08-01

    Neuroactive steroids are potent positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors (GABAAR), but the locations of their GABAAR binding sites remain poorly defined. To discover these sites, we synthesized two photoreactive analogs of alphaxalone, an anesthetic neurosteroid targeting GABAAR, 11β-(4-azido-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoyloxy)allopregnanolone, (F4N3Bzoxy-AP) and 11-aziallopregnanolone (11-AziAP). Both photoprobes acted with equal or higher potency than alphaxalone as general anesthetics and potentiators of GABAAR responses, left-shifting the GABA concentration – response curve for human α1β3γ2 GABAARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and enhancing [3H]muscimol binding to α1β3γ2 GABAARs expressed in HEK293 cells. With EC50 of 110 nM, 11-AziAP is one the most potent general anesthetics reported. [3H]F4N3Bzoxy-AP and [3H]11-AziAP, at anesthetic concentrations, photoincorporated into α- and β-subunits of purified α1β3γ2 GABAARs, but labeling at the subunit level was not inhibited by alphaxalone (30 μM). The enhancement of photolabeling by 3H-azietomidate and 3H-mTFD-MPAB in the presence of either of the two steroid photoprobes indicates the neurosteroid binding site is different from, but allosterically related to, the etomidate and barbiturate sites. Our observations are consistent with two hypotheses. First, F4N3Bzoxy-AP and 11-aziAP bind to a high affinity site in such a pose that the 11-photoactivatable moiety, that is rigidly attached to the steroid backbone, points away from the protein. Second, F4N3Bzoxy-AP, 11-aziAP and other steroid anesthetics, which are present at very high concentration at the lipid-protein interface due to their high lipophilicity, act via low affinity sites, as proposed by Akk et al. (Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009, 34S1, S59-S66).

  12. Affinity labeling of the active site and the reactive sulfhydryl associated with activation of rat liver phenylalanine hydroxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, B.S.; Benkovic, S.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1991-07-09

    A pterin analogue, 5-((3-azido-6-nitrobenzylidene)amino)-2,6-diamino-4-pyrimidinone (AN-BADP), was synthesized as a probe of the pterin binding site of phenylalanine hydroxylase. The photoaffinity label has been found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to 6,7-dimethyltetrahydropterin, having a K{sub i} of 8.8{plus minus}1.1 {mu}M. The irreversible labeling of phenylalanine hydroxylase by the photoaffinity label upon irradiation is both concentration and time dependent. phenylalanine hydroxylase is covalently labeled with a stoichiometry of 0.87{plus minus}0.08 mol of label/enzyme subunit. 5-Deaza-6-methyltetrahydropterin protects against inactivation and both 5-deaza-6-methyltetrahydropterin and 6-methyltetrahydropterin protect against covalent labeling, indicating that labeling occurs at the pterin binding site. Three tryptic peptides were isolated from ({sup 3}H)ANBADP-photolabeled enzyme and sequenced. All peptides indicated the sequence Thr-Leu-Lys-Ala-Leu-Tyr-Lys (residues 192-198). The residues labeled with ({sup 3}H)ANBADP were Lys198 and Lys194, with the majority of the radioactivity being associated with Lys198. Tryptic and chymotryptic peptides were isolated from fluorescein-labeled enzyme and sequenced. The modified residue was identified as Cys236.

  13. Insecticidal quinazoline derivatives with (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl and azido substituents as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors and candidate photoaffinity probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latli, B; Wood, E; Casida, J E

    1996-03-01

    Two candidate photoaffinity probes are designed from 4-substituted quinazolines known to be potent insecticides/acaricides and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors acting at or near the rotenone site. 4-(11-Azidoundecyl-2-amino)quinazoline, based on the undecylamino analog SAN 548A as a prototype, was synthesized in 18% overall yield from ethyl 10-undecenoate by oxidation of the terminal double bond, reductive amination, coupling to 4-chloroquinazoline, and functional group manipulation of the terminal ethyl ester to an alcohol, a mesylate and finally nucleophilic displacement with azide ions. 4-(4-(3-(Trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenethoxy)quinaz oline [the (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl analog of fenazaquin insecticide/acaricide] was prepared from 4-bromophenethyl alcohol in 31% overall yield by first introducing the trifluoromethylketone moiety followed by its conversion to the (trifluoromethyl)-diazirine and finally coupling to 4-chloroquinazoline as above. Both candidate photoaffinity probes have the inhibitory potency of rotenone (IC50 of 3-4 nM in each case). The azidoundecylamino compound has inadequate photoreactivity whereas that of the (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl analog is ideal at 350 nm. Radiosynthesis of the latter photoaffinity ligand included introduction of the diazirinyl moiety as the carbene precursor, oxidation of (trifluoromethyl)diazirinylphenethyl alcohol to the corresponding acid with Jones' reagent, and reduction of the phenacetyl chloride intermediate with sodium borotritide to incorporate tritium.

  14. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  15. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  16. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  17. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  18. Derivatization and photolysis of a photoaffinity reagent for probing protein and cell surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, H.; Harris, H.W. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The synthesis of the novel, heterobifunctional, cleavable, photoactivable crosslinking reagent, N-(4-(p-azido-m-(/sup 125/I) iodophenylazo)benzoyl)-3-aminopropyl-N'-oxysulfosuccinimide has been described by Denny and Blobel. This reagent is desirable because after photolysis and azo bond cleavage the /sup 125/I is transferred from the reagent to the crosslinked molecule. The authors demonstrate that using the reported synthesis 99% of the desired reagent is destroyed during the chloramine-T iodination step. They report a synthesis revision which produces high yields of the uniodinated (U) reagent. The derivatized reagent may be used in its iodinated (I) or U forms. To study the U reagent, a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecule is derivatized with nine reagent molecules. The derivatized HRP has 70% of its original enzymatic activity. After photolysis, 14% of this activity is retained and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis shows a crosslinked complex of HRP molecules. After endocytosis by cells, photolysis attaches the soluble derivatized HRP to membranes allowing them to be traced in the electron microscope. To study the I reagent, an amino-dextran (MW 73-400) molecule is derivatized with three U reagent molecules. The U reagent molecules are then iodinated by the chloramine-T method. With photolysis and cleavage, the /sup 125/I labeled reagent on dextran transfers its label to bovine serum albumin or ovalbumin. The authors conclude this reagent is a versatile probe for study of protein or cell surface topography.

  19. Synthesis of Arylazide‐ and Diazirine‐Containing CrAsH‐EDT2 Photoaffinity Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syeda, Shameem S.; Rice, Daren; Hook, Derek J.; Heckert, Leslie L.

    2016-01-01

    Two photo‐crosslinking biarsenical (CrAsH‐EDT2)‐modified probes were synthesized that are expected to be useful tools for tetracysteine‐labeled proteins to facilitate the co‐affinity purification of their DNA binding sequences and interacting proteins. In addition, improvements for the synthesis of CrAsH‐EDT2 and N 1‐(4‐azido‐2‐nitrophenyl)hexane‐1,6‐diamine are reported. Both photoprobes effectively entered HeLa cells (and the nucleus) and were dependent on the tetracysteine motif in recombinant DMRT1 (doublesex and Mab3‐related transcription factor) to induce fluorescence, suggesting that their crosslinking abilities can be exploited for the identification of nucleic acids and proteins associated with a protein of interest. PMID:26948688

  20. Identification of the binding subunit of the D/sub 1/-dopamine receptor by photoaffinity crosslinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amlaiky, N.; Berger, J.G.; Chang, W.; McQuade, R.D.; Caron, M.G.

    1986-03-01

    A derivative of the potent D/sub 1/ antagonist SCH-23390 has been synthesized. This compound, (R,S)-1-(m-aminophenyl)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SCH-38548), has been radioiodinated by a chloramine T procedure yielding 3 radioiodinated products. One of these separated isomers (R/sub f/ = 0.35; CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/:MEOH:TEA; 82.5:17.5:0.1 on TLC) binds reversibly to rat striatal membranes with high affinity (K/sub D/ approx. 80 pM) appropriate stereoselectivity and D/sub 1/-dopaminergic specificity. (/sup 125/I)SCH-38548 can be covalently incorporated into a peptide of M/sub r/ approx. 72,000 using the heterobifunctional crosslinking reagent N-succinimidyl-6-(4'-azido-2'-nitro-phenylamino) hexanoate. Covalent incorporation of (/sup 125/I) SCH-38548 into the M/sub r/ approx. 72,000 peptide can be blocked by dopaminergic agents with D/sub 1/-dopaminergic specificity (for agonists: SKF 38393 > apomorphine > dopamine; for antagonists: SCH-23390 > cis-flupentixol >>> trans-flupentixol). The D/sub 1/-dopaminergic selectivity and specificity of the labeling was further demonstrated by the fact that other antagonists such as domperidone, ketanserin, phentolamine and alprenolol did not compete for the covalent labeling of the M/sub r/ approx. 72,000 peptide. This new radioligand should be useful in the molecular characterization of the D/sub 1/-dopaminergic receptor from various sources.

  1. Two and 8-azido photoaffinity probes. 1. Enzymatic synthesis, characterization, and biological properties of 2- and 8-azido photoprobes of 2-5A and photolabeling of 2-5A binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhadolnik, R.J.; Kariko, K.; Sobol, R.W. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Reichenbach, N.L.; Haley, B.E.

    1988-11-29

    The 2- and 8-azido trimer 5'-triphosphate photoprobes of 2-5A have been enzymatically synthesized from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)2-azidoATP and (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)8-azidoAPT by 2-5A synthetase from rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Identification and structural determination of the 2- and 8-azido adenylate trimer 5'-triphosphates were accomplished by enzymatic hydrolyses with T2 RNase, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and bacterial alkaline phosphatase. Hydrolysis products were identified by HPLC and PEI-cellulose TLC analyses. The 8-azido photoprobe of 2-5A displaces p/sub 3/A/sub 4/(/sup 32/P)pCp from RNase L with affinity equivalent to p/sub 3/A/sub 3/. The 8-azido photoprobe also activates RNase L to hydrolyze poly(U)(/sup 32/P)pCp 50% at 7 /times/ 10/sup /minus/9/ M in core-cellulose assays. The 2- and 8-azido photoprobes and authentic p/sub 3/A/sub 3/ activate RNase L to cleave 28S and 18S rRNA to specific cleavage products at 10/sup /minus/9/ M in rRNA cleavage assays. The nucleotide binding site(s) of RNase L and/or other 2-5A binding proteins in extracts of interferon-treated L929 cells were investigated by photoaffinity labeling. Dramatically different photolabeling patterns were observed with the 2- and 8-azido photoprobes. The (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)2-azido adenylate trimer 5'-triphosphate photolabels only one polypeptide with a molecular weight of 185,000 as determined by SDS gel electrophoresis, whereas the (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)8-azido adenylate trimer 5'-triphosphate covalently photolabels six polypeptides with molecular weights of 46,000, 63,000, 80,000, 89,000, 109,000, and 158,000. Evidence that the photolabeling by 2- and 8-azido 2-5A photoprobes was highly specific for the p/sub 3/A/sub 3/ allosteric binding site was obtained.

  2. An auxin-binding protein is localized to the plasma membrane of maize coleoptile cells: Identification by photoaffinity labeling and purification of a 23-kDa polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldwisch, J.; Zettl, R.; Hesse, F.; Schell, J.; Palme, K. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Zuechtungsforschung, Koeln (West Germany))

    1992-01-15

    Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile tissue by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for homogeneity by the use of membrane-specific enzymatic assays. Using 5-azido-(7-{sup 3}H)indole-3-acetic acid (({sup 3}H)N{sub 3}IAA), the authors identified several IAA-binding proteins with the molecular masses of 60 kDa (pm60), 58 kDa (pm58), and 23 kDa (pm23). Using Triton X-114, they were able to selectively extract pm23 from the plasma membrane. They show that auxins and functional analogues compete with ({sup 3}H)N{sub 3}IAA for binding to pm23. They found that PAB130, a polyclonal antibody raised against auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP-1), recognized ABP-1 as well as pm23. This suggests that pm23 shares common epitopes with ABP-1. In addition, they identified an auxin-binding protein with a molecular mass of 24 kDa (pm24), which was detected in microsomal but not in plasma membrane vesicle preparations. Like pm23 this protein was extracted from membrane vesicles with Triton X-114. They designed a purification scheme allowing simultaneous purification of pm23 and pm24. Homogeneous pm23 and pm24 were obtained from coleoptile extracts after 7,000-fold purification.

  3. Photoaffinity labeling under non-energized conditions of a specific drug-binding site of the ABC multidrug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alqwai, O; Poelarends, G; Konings, WN; Georges, E

    2003-01-01

    The Lactococcus lactis multidrug resistance ABC transporter protein LmrA has been shown to confer resistance to structurally and functionally diverse antibiotics and anti-cancer drugs. Using a previously characterized photoreactive drug analogue of Rhodamine 123 (iodo-aryl azido-Rhodamine 123 or

  4. Identification of the reactive intermediates produced upon photolysis of p-azidoacetophenone and its tetrafluoro analogue in aqueous and organic solvents: implications for photoaffinity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Meredith R; Mandel, Sarah M; Platz, Matthew S

    2007-02-20

    Photolysis of p-azidoacetophenone (1a) or 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-p-azidoacetophenone (1b) releases the corresponding singlet nitrenes 2a and 2b. In aqueous solutions singlet nitrenes relax (1.1 ps and 43 ns, respectively) to the lower energy triplet nitrenes 3a and 3b, intermediates which do not react to form cross-links or adducts with typical amino acids and nucleic acids. In a hydrophobic environment singlet nitrene 2a partitions between forming triplet nitrene 3a and an acyl-substituted didehydroazepine 4a, which can be detected by LFP and time-resolved IR spectroscopy. The absolute rate constant of reaction of didehydroazepine 4a with water, in acetonitrile, was determined (3.5 x 10(4) M-1 s-1) by laser flash photolysis (LFP) techniques with IR detection at ambient temperature. Photolysis of tetrafluoro azide 1b releases singlet nitrene 2b, which has a lifetime of 172 ns in benzene and can readily be intercepted by pyridine to form ylide 10b (lambdamax = 415 nm). Singlet nitrene 2b reacts with the unactivated CH bonds of cyclohexane to form adduct 8b in 46% yield. Absolute rate constants of reaction of 1b with N-methylimidazole, phenol, dibutyl sulfide, indole, methanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide were determined using the pyridine ylide probe method. It is concluded that photolysis of p-azidoacetophenone (1a) will not lead to cross-link formation but that tetrafluorinated azide 1b can form useful singlet nitrene derived adducts upon photolysis.

  5. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  6. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  7. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share Tweet ... FDA has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, ...

  8. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    In the online labeling problem with parameters n and m we are presented with a sequence of nkeys from a totally ordered universe U and must assign each arriving key a label from the label set {1,2,…,m} so that the order of labels (strictly) respects the ordering on U. As new keys arrive it may be...

  9. Immunophotoaffinity labeling of binders of 1-methyladenine, the oocyte maturation-inducing hormone of starfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraya, Tetsuo; Kida, Tetsuo; Kuyama, Atsushi; Matsuda, Shinjiro; Tanaka, Seiichi; Komatsu, Yo; Tsurukai, Taro

    2017-02-04

    Starfish oocytes are arrested at the prophase stage of the first meiotic division in the ovary and resume meiosis by the stimulus of 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde), the oocyte maturation-inducing hormone of starfish. Putative 1-MeAde receptors on the oocyte surface have been suggested, but not yet been biochemically characterized. Immunophotoaffinity labeling, i.e., photoaffinity labeling combined with immunochemical detection, was attempted to detect unknown 1-MeAde binders including putative maturation-inducing hormone receptors in starfish oocytes. When the oocyte crude membrane fraction or its Triton X-100/EDTA extract was incubated with N(6)-[6-(5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl)aminohexyl]carboxamidomethyl-1-methyladenine and then photo-irradiated, followed by western blotting with antibody that was raised against a 1-MeAde hapten, a single band with Mr of 47.5 K was detected. The band was lost when extract was heated at 100 °C. A similar 47.5 K band was detected in the crude membrane fraction of testis as well. Upon labeling with whole cells, this band was detected in immature and maturing oocytes, but only faintly in mature oocytes. As judged from these results, this 1-MeAde binder might be a possible candidate of the starfish maturation-inducing hormone receptors.

  10. [Study of the photoaffinity modification of Escherichia coli ribosomes near the donor tRNA-binding center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausk, E V; Graĭfer, D M; Karpova, G G

    1985-01-01

    Affinity labelling of E. coli ribosomes near the donor tRNA-binding (P) site was studied with the use of photoreactive derivatives of tRNAPhe bearing arylazidogroups on N7 atoms of guanine residues (azido-tRNA). UV-irradiation of complexes 70S ribosome.poly(U).azido- tRNA(P-site) and 70S ribosome.poly(U).azido-tRNA(P-site).Phe- tRNAPhe(A-site) resulted in covalent attachment of azido-tRNA to ribosomes, both subunits being labelled. In both cases modification extent of 30S subunit was two-fold than that of the 50S one. It was shown that when the A-site was free the azido-tRNA located in P-site labelled proteins S9, S11, S12, S13, S21 and L14, L27, L31. Azido-tRNA located in P-site when the A-site was occupied with Phe-tRNAPhe labelled proteins S11, S12, S13, S14, S19, L32/L33 and possibly L23, L25. From the comparison of the sets of proteins labelled when A-site was free or occupied a conclusion was drawn that aminoacyl-tRNA located in ribosomal A-site affects the arrangement of deacylated tRNA in P-site. Data obtained allow to propose that proteins S5, S19, S20 and L24, L33 interact with guanine residues important for the tRNA tertiary structure formation.

  11. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  12. Deep Label Distribution Learning With Label Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin-Bin; Xing, Chao; Xie, Chen-Wei; Wu, Jianxin; Geng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) have achieved excellent recognition performance in various visual recognition tasks. A large labeled training set is one of the most important factors for its success. However, it is difficult to collect sufficient training images with precise labels in some domains such as apparent age estimation, head pose estimation, multi-label classification and semantic segmentation. Fortunately, there is ambiguous information among labels, which makes these tasks different from traditional classification. Based on this observation, we convert the label of each image into a discrete label distribution, and learn the label distribution by minimizing a Kullback-Leibler divergence between the predicted and ground-truth label distributions using deep ConvNets. The proposed DLDL (Deep Label Distribution Learning) method effectively utilizes the label ambiguity in both feature learning and classifier learning, which help prevent the network from over-fitting even when the training set is small. Experimental results show that the proposed approach produces significantly better results than state-of-the-art methods for age estimation and head pose estimation. At the same time, it also improves recognition performance for multi-label classification and semantic segmentation tasks.

  13. Labeling of Oxidizable Proteins with a Photoactivatable Analog of the Antitumor Agent DMXAA: Evidence for Redox Signaling in Its Mode of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Brauer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The signaling pathway(s and molecular target(s for 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA, a tumor vascular disrupting agent in late stages of clinical development, are still undefined. As an approach toward identifying potential targets for DMXAA, a tritiated azido-analog of DMXAA was used to probe for cellular binding proteins. More than 20 cytosolic proteins from murine splenocytes, RAW 264.7 cells, and the HECPP immortalized endothelial cells were photoaffinity-labeled. Although no protein domain, fold, or binding site for a specific ligand was found to be shared by all the candidate proteins, essentially all were noted to be oxidizable proteins, implicating a role for redox signaling in the action of DMXAA. Consistent with this hypothesis, DMXAA caused an increase in concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS in RAW264.7 cells during the first 2 hours. This increase in ROS was suppressed in the presence of the antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which also suppressed DMXAA-induced cytokine production in the RAW 264.7 cells with no effects on cell viability. Short interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated knockdown of one of the photoaffinity-labeled proteins, superoxide dismutase 1, an ROS scavenger, resulted in an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α production by RAW 264.7 cells in response to DMXAA compared with negative or positive controls transfected with nontargeting or lamin A/C-targeting siRNA molecules, respectively. The results from these lines of study all suggest that redox signaling plays a central role in cytokine induction by DMXAA.

  14. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  15. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, see Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label . FDA presents an entertaining and educational tool ...

  16. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  17. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  18. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  19. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...... experiment engaging 4 operations: stimulating market anticipations, focussing politicalconsultations, producing collective expertise and containing the regulatory transcription of the label....

  20. Labeling Schemes with Queries

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We study the question of ``how robust are the known lower bounds of labeling schemes when one increases the number of consulted labels''. Let $f$ be a function on pairs of vertices. An $f$-labeling scheme for a family of graphs $\\cF$ labels the vertices of all graphs in $\\cF$ such that for every graph $G\\in\\cF$ and every two vertices $u,v\\in G$, the value $f(u,v)$ can be inferred by merely inspecting the labels of $u$ and $v$. This paper introduces a natural generalization: the notion of $f$-...

  1. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not. In the ......It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not....... In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  2. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food ...

  3. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...... actors and institutions to develop practices associated with the NNC label. Third, organized dissemination allowed the excitement and engagement with the new label to spread quickly....

  4. Capacitive label reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  5. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sports show highlighting the importance of using the nutrition facts label to control portions, fat, calories and percent daily value. Two studio "sports announcers" describe the "game day" food action of ...

  6. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  7. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually appears on the back or side of packaging under the title "Nutrition Facts." It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a column of ...

  8. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use the Nutrition Facts Label to make informed food choices. You can view the new video in its ... two sites, comparing serving sizes, ingredients and overall food choices in this "Battle of the Dueling Dinner Parties". ...

  9. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  10. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main page content Skip to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department ... a contestant in food label knowledge. Questions cover topics such as Calories, Serving Size, Servings per Container, ...

  11. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  12. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  13. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  14. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta......(log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

  15. Omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) site distribution in the rat immune system: an autoradiographic study with the photoaffinity ligand (/sup 3/H)PK 14105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, J.; Dubois, A.; Dennis, T.; Hamel, E.; Scatton, B.

    1989-04-01

    The anatomical distribution of omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) sites in the immune system organs of the rat has been studied autoradiographically at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of resolution using either reversible or irreversible (UV irradiation) labeling with (/sup 3/H)PK 14105. In thymus sections, (/sup 3/H)PK 14105 labeled with high affinity (Kd, derived from saturation experiments = 10.8 nM) a single population of sites which possessed the pharmacological characteristics of omega 3 sites. In the thymus gland, higher omega 3 site densities were detected in the cortex than in the medulla; in these subregions, silver grains were associated to small (10-18 microns diameter) cells. In the spleen, omega 3 sites were more abundant in the white than in the red pulp. In the white pulp, silver grains were denser in the marginal zone than in the vicinity of the central artery and labeling was, as in the thymus, associated to small cytoplasm-poor cells. In the red pulp, omega 3 site associated silver grains were observed mainly in the Bilroth cords. In the lymph nodes, the medullary region showed a higher labeling than the surrounding follicles and paracortex. A significant accumulation of silver grains was observed in the lymph node medullary cords. In the intestine, Peyer patches were particularly enriched in omega 3 sites (especially in the periphery of the follicles). The distribution of omega 3 sites in the immune system organs suggests a preferential labeling of cells of T and monocytic lineages. This is consistent with the proposed immunoregulatory properties of some omega 3 site ligands.

  16. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  17. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    noted during the event that the actu.al number of near miss incidmts reported monthly was low due to laboratory personnel performing rounds each...specimens never leaves label and if moved it is labeled), All orders in system and all near misses and errors reported to patient safety Purchase/Install...Meeting 14 Aug 09, 1400 in lab break room thru out Develop TICK sheet to track near misses .JDI Ms. Clark Clinics will provide toPS 1st working day of

  18. Labelled Execution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    This is most starkly evident in the classical example used to demonstrate that, in the case of infinitely branching systems, a transfinite number of... transfinite number of iterations to converge, what can be shown to fail by appropriately embedding the labelled transition systems of [46, prop. 10.5

  19. Waisda?: video labeling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, M. van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the sa

  20. Multi-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating multi-label rules in associative classification (AC from single label data sets is considered a challenging task making the number of existing algorithms for this task rare. Current AC algorithms produce only the largest frequency class connected with a rule in the training data set and discard all other classes even though these classes have data representation with the rule’s body. In this paper, we deal with the above problem by proposing an AC algorithm called Enhanced Multi-label Classifiers based Associative Classification (eMCAC. This algorithm discovers rules associated with a set of classes from single label data that other current AC algorithms are unable to induce. Furthermore, eMCAC minimises the number of extracted rules using a classifier building method. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real world application data set related to website phishing and the results reveal that eMCAC’s accuracy is highly competitive if contrasted with other known AC and classic classification algorithms in data mining. Lastly, the experimental results show that our algorithm is able to derive new rules from the phishing data sets that end-users can exploit in decision making.

  1. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Label and You — Video Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print NOTE: FDA has issued final changes ... choices. You can view the new video in its entirety or select on any of the individual ...

  2. Health Labeling, and Consumption- Understanding Determinants To Health Label Use.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, David; Dossing, Jens; Zhuravleva, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior was explored through the understanding, and use of health labeling. Government and business forces were discovered to influence the ability of consumers to use health labels for improved health and life expectancy, and reduce the negative health care costs of food related diseases. Our survey results were compared to other papers and experiments in the field of consumption and labeling. We discovered high usage of labels, especially nutrition information, and a desire for fr...

  3. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  4. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable to...

  5. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  6. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  7. Scaffolding Visitors' Learning through Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joyce; Yoon, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In museum literature, labels have been found to increase visitor learning and contribute to greater cognitive gains. In this study, we seek to understand how various labels support the visitors' learning experience, and specifically in regards to conceptual and cognitive learning. We investigated the increasing use of three types of labels (visual…

  8. Map labeling and its generalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddi, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mirzaian, A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science; Moret, B.M.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Zhu, B. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  9. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  10. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...

  11. Towards Multi Label Text Classification through Label Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Classifying text data has been an active area of research for a long time. Text document is multifaceted object and often inherently ambiguous by nature. Multi-label learning deals with such ambiguous object. Classification of such ambiguous text objects often makes task of classifier difficult while assigning relevant classes to input document. Traditional single label and multi class text classification paradigms cannot efficiently classify such multifaceted text corpus. Through our paper we are proposing a novel label propagation approach based on semi supervised learning for Multi Label Text Classification. Our proposed approach models the relationship between class labels and also effectively represents input text documents. We are using semi supervised learning technique for effective utilization of labeled and unlabeled data for classification. Our proposed approach promises better classification accuracy and handling of complexity and elaborated on the basis of standard datasets such as Enron, Slashdot and Bibtex.

  12. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so

  13. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the

  14. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, Haitze J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph $G$ is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of $G$ such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least $2$. The radio labeling problem (\\mbox{\\sc RL}) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label

  15. GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. As part of a strategy to increase the involvement of the science and technology community in GEOSS, both as users and developers of GEOSS itself, GEO decided to develop a GEO label concept related to the scientific relevance, quality, acceptance and societal needs for services and data sets of GEOSS. The development of a GEO label is included in the GEO work plan and several projects address the challenges of developing a GEO label concept. Within the different projects developing the GEO label, various perspectives and approaches are being applied. In order to arrive at a generally accepted GEO label concept, a common understanding and basic knowledge of labeling is necessary. Assessment of quality of internationally standardized Earth observation data products implies possible certification. A general understanding of the framework for international standards and certification will also contribute to a more coherent discussion and more efficient development of a GEO label. We will describe the general labeling and certification framework emphasizing the relation to the three elements of the GEO label: quality, user acceptance and relevance. Based on a survey of international labels done by the EGIDA project, we have analyzed the legal framework and organization of labels and certification. We will discuss the frameworks for certification, user ratings, registration and analysis of user requirements. Quality assessment is a particular focus of the analysis and is based on the work done by the GeoViQua project. A GEO label will function both as a data distribution strategy and as a general management system for data. Through a label users can compare different data sets and get access to more information about the relevant data, including quality. A label will provide traceability of data both in the interest of users as well as data

  16. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  17. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book; does not bear any special claims, such as quality claims... addition, deletion, or amendment of recipe suggestions for the product; j. Any change in punctuation; k... Policy Book, and questions and answers on various topics, such as irradiation and the labeling...

  18. Quality Evaluation Model for Map Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong; ZHANG Zuxun; DU Daosheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses and sums up the basic criterions of guaranteeing the labeling quality and abstracts the four basic factors including the conflict for a label with a label, overlay for label with the features, position's priority and the association for a label with its feature. By establishing the scoring system, a formalized four-factors quality evaluation model is constructed. Last, this paper introduces the experimental result of the quality evaluation model applied to the automatic map labeling system-MapLabel.

  19. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...

  20. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  1. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  2. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  3. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels...

  4. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  5. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a...

  6. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  7. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  8. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For ...

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Contact ...

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For ...

  12. Labelling of benzocaine with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Sohail (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    A convenient method is described to label a local anesthetic, benzocaine, with tritium. The bromoester of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was prepared from para-nitrotoluene and was reduced with tritium. The generation of isotopic hydrogen and labelling of benzocaine was achieved in one-step. A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaB[sup 3]H[sub 4]) with cobalt (II) chloride was used to generate tritium gas. 5% Pd/C was used as a catalyst. This constitutes the first report of tritium labelled benzocaine. (author).

  13. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  14. General Compact Labeling Schemes for Dynamic Trees

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Let $F$ be a function on pairs of vertices. An {\\em $F$- labeling scheme} is composed of a {\\em marker} algorithm for labeling the vertices of a graph with short labels, coupled with a {\\em decoder} algorithm allowing one to compute $F(u,v)$ of any two vertices $u$ and $v$ directly from their labels. As applications for labeling schemes concern mainly large and dynamically changing networks, it is of interest to study {\\em distributed dynamic} labeling schemes. This paper investigates labelin...

  15. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related......With ever increasing size of graphs, many distributed graph systems emerged to store, preprocess and analyze them. While such systems ease up congestion on servers, they incur certain penalties compared to centralized data structure. First, the total storage required to store a graph...... in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...

  16. Off-Label Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it’s not legal for drug companies to market (advertise or promote) their drugs for off-label uses. ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  17. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK...... types of information available on food labels or as use inferred from the results of a choice-based conjoint analysis. Hierarchical regression indicated that use is related to both motivation and understanding, and that both motivation, understanding and use are affected by demographic characteristics...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smart About Social Media How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Games, and the Internet How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  20. DSm Vector Spaces of Refined Labels

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    In this book the authors introduce the notion of DSm vector spaces of refined labels. They also realize the refined labels as a plane and a n-dimensional space. Further, using these refined labels, several algebraic structures are defined. Finally DSm semivector space or refined labels is described. Authors also propose some research problems.

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the Internet How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en español ... video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ...

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  3. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 606.121 Section 606.121 Food and... Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed to facilitate the use of a uniform container label for blood and blood components (except Source Plasma) by all blood establishments. (b)...

  4. A brief history of cell labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M. [Royal Sussex Country Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling.

  5. An Optimal Labeling Scheme for Ancestry Queries

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    An ancestry labeling scheme assigns labels (bit strings) to the nodes of rooted trees such that ancestry queries between any two nodes in a tree can be answered merely by looking at their corresponding labels. The quality of an ancestry labeling scheme is measured by its label size, that is the maximal number of bits in a label of a tree node. In addition to its theoretical appeal, the design of efficient ancestry labeling schemes is motivated by applications in web search engines. For this p...

  6. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  7. Fibrinogen labelling with I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seminario, C.; Capillo, T.; Montanez, J. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    Of the different techniques of labelling liophylized human fibrinogen, the technique of mono-chloride with modified iodine was selected. The labelling of the molecule was performed in alkali media of buffalo glycine in which the solution of stable iodine will react as well as on a later stage will the radioactive isotope. The labelling processes which were undertaken with different activities had an efficiency of over 40%; when purification with resins amberlite was carried through, in none of the cases were the impurities over 5%. Daily controls till the seventh day showed that the average values of radiochemical purity decrease were lower than 1%. The specific activity as well as the concentration of I/sup 131/, the fibrinogen and other characteristics come up to the norms of the pharmacopoeia which are applied.

  8. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  9. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... product as ``organic'' or containing organic ingredients; (3) claims that are undefined in FSIS... labeling errors resulted from production mistakes, such as packaging the product in the wrong box. More... poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically...

  10. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep K Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  11. Connected Component Labeling Using Components Neighbors-Scan Labeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Rakhmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many approaches have been proposed in previous such as the classic sequential connected components labeling algorithm which is relies on two subsequent raster-scans of a binary image. This method produced good performance in terms of accuracy, but because of the implementation of the image processing systems now requires faster process of the computer, the speed of this technique’s process has become an important issue. Approach: A computational approach, called components neighbors-scan labeling algorithm for connected component labeling was presented in this study. This algorithm required scanning through an image only once to label connected components. The algorithm started by scanning from the head of the component’s group, before tracing all the components neighbors by using the main component’s information. This algorithm had desirable characteristics, it is simple while promoted accuracy and low time consuming. By using a table of components, this approach also gave other advantages as the information for the next higher process. Results: The approach had been tested with a collection of binary images. In practically all cases, the technique had successfully given the desired result. Averagely, from the results the algorithm increased the speed around 67.4% from the two times scanning method. Conclusion: Conclusion from the comparison with the previous method, the approach of components neighbors-scan for connected component labeling promoted speed, accuracy and simplicity. The results showed that the approach has a good performance in terms of accuracy, the time consumed and the simplicity of the algorithm.

  12. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  13. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  14. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  15. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  16. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  17. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    . A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very....... The remaining consumers, about 55%, trust the institutions guaranteeing the labels and they use the labels as a signal without actually knowing the content of each label. Segment composition will probably change depending on the food group studied. It is therefore recommended that the different consumer types...

  18. Ivabradine: A Review of Labeled and Off-Label Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Carrie S; Owens, Ryan E; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Jha, Sunil K

    2016-10-01

    Ivabradine is a unique medication recently approved in the USA for the treatment of select heart failure patients. It was first approved for use in several countries around the world over a decade ago as an anti-anginal agent, with subsequent approval for use in heart failure patients. Since ivabradine has selective activity blocking the I f currents in the sinus node, it can reduce heart rate without appreciable effects on blood pressure. Given this heart-rate-specific effect, it has been investigated in many off-label indications as an alternative to traditional heart-rate-reducing medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. We conducted searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for ivabradine, heart failure, HFrEF, HFpEF, angina, coronary artery disease, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, postural orthostatic hypotension, coronary computed tomography angiography and atrial fibrillation. We reviewed and included studies, case reports, and case series published between 1980 and June 2016 if they provided information relevant to the practicing clinician. In many cases, larger clinical trials are needed to solidify the benefit of ivabradine, although studies indicate benefit in most therapeutic areas explored to date. The purpose of this paper is to review the current labeled and off-label uses of ivabradine, with a focus on clinical trial data.

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & ... leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  20. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  1. Automatic Labelling of Topics with Neural Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Shraey; Lau, Jey Han; Baldwin, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Topics generated by topic models are typically represented as list of terms. To reduce the cognitive overhead of interpreting these topics for end-users, we propose labelling a topic with a succinct phrase that summarises its theme or idea. Using Wikipedia document titles as label candidates, we compute neural embeddings for documents and words to select the most relevant labels for topics. Compared to a state-of-the-art topic labelling system, our methodology is simpler, more efficient, and ...

  2. SOME ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF PUBLIC LABELING

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses economic issues related to public labeling. The main contributions in both the empirical and theoretical literatures are presented in order to motivate responses to the questions, when should a regulator promote public labeling, and what are the limits to and the possible market distortions from public labeling? Although the issues are complicated, there is already much economic guidance that can be given to inform the policy debate over food labeling.

  3. ANTIMAGIC LABELING OF GENERALIZED SAUSAGE GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudone Phanalasy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An antimagic labeling of a graph with q edges is a bijection from the set of edges to the set of positive integers {1,2,...,q} such that all vertex weights are pairwise distinct, where the vertex weight of a vertex is the sum of the labels of all the edges incident with that vertex. A graph is antimagic if it has an antimagic labeling. In this paper we construct antimagic labeling for the family of generalized sausage graphs.

  4. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  5. Labeling nuclear DNA using DAPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazotte, Brad

    2011-01-01

    A number of fluorescent stains are available that label DNA and allow easy visualization of the nucleus in interphase cells and chromosomes in mitotic cells, including Hoechst, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, and acridine orange. Although not as bright as the vital Hoechst stains for DNA, DAPI has greater photostability. It is believed that DAPI associates with the minor groove of double-stranded DNA, with a preference for the adenine-thymine clusters. Cells must be permeabilized and/or fixed for DAPI to enter the cell and to bind DNA. Fluorescence increases approximately 20-fold when DAPI is bound to double-stranded DNA. This protocol describes the use of DAPI to label nuclear DNA of cells grown in culture.

  6. Tissue Specific Labeling in Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Ramberger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a powerful tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in biological samples. While it is routinely used for the characterization of simple cell line systems, the analysis of the cell specific proteome in multicellular organisms and tissues poses a significant challenge. Isolating a subset of cells from tissues requires mechanical and biochemical separation or sorting, a process which can alter cellular signaling, and thus, the composition of the proteome. Recently, several approaches for cell selective labeling of proteins, that include bioorthogonal amino acids, biotinylating enzymes, and genetic tools, have been developed. These tools facilitate the selective labeling of proteins, their interactome, or of specific cell types within a tissue or an organism, while avoiding the difficult and contamination-prone biochemical separation of cells from the tissue. In this review, we give an overview of existing techniques and their application in cell culture models and whole animals.

  7. POS Tagging Using Relaxation Labelling

    CERN Document Server

    Padro, L

    1995-01-01

    Relaxation labelling is an optimization technique used in many fields to solve constraint satisfaction problems. The algorithm finds a combination of values for a set of variables such that satisfies -to the maximum possible degree- a set of given constraints. This paper describes some experiments performed applying it to POS tagging, and the results obtained. It also ponders the possibility of applying it to word sense disambiguation.

  8. 16 CFR 1209.9 - Labeling requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.9 Labeling requirement. (a) Manufacturers, importers, and private labelers of cellulose insulation shall place on all containers of cellulose... corrosiveness of cellulose insulation. To meet this requirement manufacturers, importers, and private labelers...

  9. Politique de label et commerce international

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of a public labelling system in a context of international trade. A simple framework allows to present some distortions linked to such a policy. A trade liberalisation situation may lead to a change in the label policy, where the foreign seller incurs the label cost. Classification JEL : F1, D8

  10. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size, posit

  11. DYNAMIC LABELING BASED FPGA DELAY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕宗伟; 林争辉; 张镭

    2001-01-01

    DAG-MAP is an FPGA technology mapping algorithm for delay optimization and the labeling phase is the algorithm's kernel. This paper studied the labeling phase and presented an improved labeling method. It is shown through the experimental results on MCNC benchmarks that the improved method is more effective than the original method while the computation time is almost the same.

  12. Fluorescent Labeling of Nanometer Hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHANG; Yuan YUAN; Changsheng LIU

    2008-01-01

    A novel surface treatment method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMPTES), was developed to immobilize the fluorescein molecule on nano-HAP (nanometer hydroxyapatite) powders. By pretreating the nano-HAP powders surface with AMPTES, fluorescein, chosen on the basis of the chemical structure of the nano- HAP powders, could be bound to the nano-HAP powders surface. The chemical compositions of nano-HAP before and after being labeled were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology, phase composition, and the fluorescence characteristics of the nano-HAP powders with and without staining were also investigated. The FTIR and XPS results revealed that fiuorescein had been successfully immobilized on the surface of AMPTES-bound nano-HAP powders via the acylamide bond formation between the -COOH of fluorescein and the -NH2 of AMPTES. The labeled nano-HAP powders possessed strong fluorescent intensity with a little deviation from the maximum emission wavelength of fluorescein. But the morphology and phase composition had no obvious alteration. Under fluorescence microscopy, the labeled nano-HAP powders., even after 24 h cell incubation, exhibited strong fluorescence.

  13. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Container... aspects of the container label and carton labeling design for prescription drug and biological...

  15. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

  16. An Optimal Labeling Scheme for Ancestry Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Fraigniaud, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    An ancestry labeling scheme assigns labels (bit strings) to the nodes of rooted trees such that ancestry queries between any two nodes in a tree can be answered merely by looking at their corresponding labels. The quality of an ancestry labeling scheme is measured by its label size, that is the maximal number of bits in a label of a tree node. In addition to its theoretical appeal, the design of efficient ancestry labeling schemes is motivated by applications in web search engines. For this purpose, even small improvements in the label size are important. In fact, the literature about this topic is interested in the exact label size rather than just its order of magnitude. As a result, following the proposal of a simple interval-based ancestry scheme with label size $2\\log_2 n$ bits (Kannan et al., STOC '88), a considerable amount of work was devoted to improve the bound on the size of a label. The current state of the art upper bound is $\\log_2 n + O(\\sqrt{\\log n})$ bits (Abiteboul et al., SODA '02) which is...

  17. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...... cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  18. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  19. Chemical kin label in seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célérier, Aurélie; Bon, Cécile; Malapert, Aurore; Palmas, Pauline; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Chemical signals yield critical socio-ecological information in many animals, such as species, identity, social status or sex, but have been poorly investigated in birds. Recent results showed that chemical signals are used to recognize their nest and partner by some petrel seabirds whose olfactory anatomy is well developed and which possess a life-history propitious to olfactory-mediated behaviours. Here, we investigate whether blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea) produce some chemical labels potentially involved in kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance. To overcome methodological constraints of chemical analysis and field behavioural experiments, we used an indirect behavioural approach, based on mice olfactory abilities in discriminating odours. We showed that mice (i) can detect odour differences between individual petrels, (ii) perceive a high odour similarity between a chick and its parents, and (iii) perceive this similarity only before fledging but not during the nestling developmental stage. Our results confirm the existence of an individual olfactory signature in blue petrels and show for the first time, to our knowledge, that birds may exhibit an olfactory kin label, which may have strong implications for inbreeding avoidance. PMID:21525047

  20. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  1. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  2. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi (Osaka National Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Cardiovascular Medicine and Radiological Science); Kimura, Kazufumi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu (Osaka Univ. (Japan). 1. Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1991-05-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using {sup 111}In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10{sup 6} platelets/{mu}l. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 {mu}M ADP but not in 5 {mu}M ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.).

  3. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  4. Optimal design of isotope labeling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Mandy, Dominic E; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling experiments (ILE) constitute a powerful methodology for estimating metabolic fluxes. An optimal label design for such an experiment is necessary to maximize the precision with which fluxes can be determined. But often, precision gained in the determination of one flux comes at the expense of the precision of other fluxes, and an appropriate label design therefore foremost depends on the question the investigator wants to address. One could liken ILE to shadows that metabolism casts on products. Optimal label design is the placement of the lamp; creating clear shadows for some parts of metabolism and obscuring others.An optimal isotope label design is influenced by: (1) the network structure; (2) the true flux values; (3) the available label measurements; and, (4) commercially available substrates. The first two aspects are dictated by nature and constrain any optimal design. The second two aspects are suitable design parameters. To create an optimal label design, an explicit optimization criterion needs to be formulated. This usually is a property of the flux covariance matrix, which can be augmented by weighting label substrate cost. An optimal design is found by using such a criterion as an objective function for an optimizer. This chapter uses a simple elementary metabolite units (EMU) representation of the TCA cycle to illustrate the process of experimental design of isotope labeled substrates.

  5. Synthesis of tritium labelled 24-epibrassinolide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, A.; Marquardt, V.; Adam, G. (Inst. of Plant Biochemistry Halle, Halle/Saale (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    Deuterium and tritium 5,7,7-tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolide were prepared by base catalyzed exchange reaction using 24-epicastasterone tetraacetate 1 or bis-isopropylidenedioxy-24-epicastasterone 8 and labelled water. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the obtained labelled 6-ketones 2 and 3 with CF[sub 3]CO[sub 3]H gave after alkaline deacetylation of the resulting 4 and 5 the desired tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolides 6 and 7, respectively, or starting from 9 under simultaneous oxidation and deprotection in one step the same final products. (author).

  6. METHOD AND MODULE FOR OPTICAL SUBCARRIER LABELLING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    ) transmitters. The payload and the label are encoded independently on optical carrier and subcarrier signals respectively, using electro-optical modulators. The invention applies single or double sideband carrier-suppressed modulation to generate subcarrier signals for encoding of the label. Thereby the payload......The present invention relates to optical labelling in WDM networks, in that it provides a method and a module to be used in subcarrier label generation and switching in network edge nodes and core switch nodes. The methods and modules are typically employed in Optical Subcarrier Multiplexing (OSCM...

  7. Organic labeling influences food valuation and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, N S; Uhl, G; Fliessbach, K; Trautner, P; Elger, C E; Weber, B

    2010-10-15

    Everyday we choose between a variety of different food items trying to reach a decision that fits best our needs. These decisions are highly dependent on the context in which the alternatives are presented (e.g. labeling). We investigate the influence of cognition on food evaluation, using an fMRI experiment in which subjects saw and bid on different foods labeled with (or without) a widely known German emblem for organically produced food. Increased activity in the ventral striatum was found for foods labeled "organic" in comparison to conventionally labeled food. Between-subject differences in activity were related to actual everyday consumption behavior of organic food.

  8. Simultaneous Segmentation and Statistical Label Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asman, Andrew J; Landmana, Bennett A

    2012-02-23

    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi- atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.

  9. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylation using bis(tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I]epidepride was stable under 4℃, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exihibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection.All these results suggest that[131I]epidepride may be usedd widely as a useful dopamineD2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT.

  10. Principles of food product labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Krysztofiak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the label of the food product is to provide information on ingredients and additionally on its origin, production method, storage conditions, date tagging, as well as to enable to identify the producer or distributor of this product. Legal regulations precisely give instructions on the range and the way of the presentation of these data, so they could be clear and understandable for the average consumer. Since 25th of November 2005, the information about allergens’ presence must be placed on the label, regardless of their content in the product (Directive 2003/89/WE... 2003 – Off. J. L 308: 15-18. The Regulation (WE No 1924/2006 about placing the nutritional information and medicinal claims concerning foods (Regulation (WE No 1924/2006... 2006 a is valid in all countries of European Union since 1st of July 2007 (Off. J. L 404: 9-25. It coordinates the legislative, executive and administrative regulations connected with this labelling. According to these regulations, “nutritional information” states, suggests or gives to understand that the food product has special properties concerning its ingredients. Those statements are of type: “the source of...”, “no... content”, “high content of...”, “low content of...”, “reduced content of...” with reference to calorie or selected ingredients’ content. “Medicinal claims” state, suggest or give to understand, that there is a connection between the food product or one of its ingredients and the health condition of the consumer. First type of these medicinal claims refers to the influence of the ingredient on the physiology. Such a statement is based on generally accepted scientific conclusions and could be properly understood by the average consumer, e.g. “calcium takes part in the process of building of strong bones”. “Statements about decreasing the risk of a disease” give information, that food product or one of its ingredients efficiently

  11. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  12. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  13. 76 FR 46671 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 RIN 0910-ZA26 Food Labeling; Gluten-Free... the comment period for the proposed rule on the ``gluten-free'' labeling of foods, published in the... ``gluten- free,'' for voluntary use in the labeling of foods, to mean that the food does not contain...

  14. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config...

  15. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  16. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  17. Multi-label Dictionary Learning for Image Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Wu, Fei; Li, Zhiqiang; Hu, Ruimin; Zhang, David

    2016-03-31

    Image annotation has attracted lots of research interest, and multi-label learning is an effective technique for image annotation. How to effectively exploit the underlying correlation among labels is a crucial task for multi-label learning. Most existing multi-label learning methods exploit the label correlation only in the output label space, leaving the connection between label and features of images untouched. Although recently some methods attempt towards exploiting the label correlation in the input feature space by using the label information, they cannot effectively conduct the learning process in both spaces simultaneously, and there still exists much room for improvement. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-label learning approach, named Multi-Label Dictionary Learning with label consistency regularization and partial-identical label embedding (MLDL), which conducts multi-label dictionary learning and partial-identical label embedding simultaneously. In the input feature space, we incorporate the dictionary learning technique into multi-label learning and design the label consistency regularization term to learn better representation of features. In the output label space, we design the partial-identical label embedding, in which samples with the exactly same label set can cluster together, and samples with partial-identical label sets can collaboratively represent each other. Experimental results on three widely used image datasets including Corel 5K, IAPR TC12 and ESP Game demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. 78 FR 2200 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... ensure consumers can view the labels when they are shopping online. In particular, it will provide retail... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16..., clarifying testing requirements and enforcement provisions, improving online energy label disclosures, and...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.830 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.830 Labeling. (a) At the time of remanufacture, affix a permanent and...) Written in English. (b) The label must— (1) Include the heading “EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION”....

  20. 78 FR 8362 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... EnergyGuide label.\\19\\ For example, ACCA stated that the new labels will facilitate compliance with the... Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) ( 560904-00011); Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration...://www.ftc.gov/os/comments/regionaldisclosurenprm/index.shtm . \\20\\ ACCA also supported the proposed...

  1. Synthesis of deuterium labeled plant ethylene precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, K.C. [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Rapoport, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of {beta}-deuterium labeled 2-keto-4-methylbutyric acid were investigated. Vinyl chloride was first reacted with the ethyl oxalyl chloride moiety using aluminum chloride as condensing agent and the addition of methyl mercaptan followed. Deuterium labeling was achieved by using NaBD{sub 4} reduction in pyridine. (author).

  2. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  3. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  4. 78 FR 18272 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... CFR Part 305 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission''). ACTION... in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Energy Label Ranges, Matter No. R611004'' on... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) until April 1, 2013. In the NPRM, the Commission proposed to amend the...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1- to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en español Cómo leer las etiquetas ...

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  7. On the Complexity of Labeled Oriented Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stephan Rosebrock

    2010-02-01

    We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study the complexity of torus knots.

  8. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  10. 7 CFR 65.400 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 65.400 Labeling. (a) Country of... country of origin of a product may be in the form of a statement such as “Product of USA,” “Produce of the...

  11. 9 CFR 101.4 - Labeling terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling terminology. 101.4 Section 101.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Labeling terminology. Terms pertaining to identification and packaging of biological products shall...

  12. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  13. Influence of Food Labels on Adolescent Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on food nutrition labels and discusses the benefits of adolescents' using them to plan healthy diets. Suggests that teachers and educators should encourage appropriate label reading education for adolescents to promote healthy eating practices. Provides definitions of nutrient content claims. (SG)

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Be Smart About Social Media How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en español Cómo leer las etiquetas ...

  15. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES... labeling a product. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0013)...

  16. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug... milligrams or less. (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for... substituted for the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print...

  17. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  18. Alternatives to radioimmunoassay: labels and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schall, R.F. Jr.; Tenoso, H.J.

    1981-07-01

    The following labels used as substitutes for radioisotopes in immunoassay systems are reviewed bacteriophages, chemiluminescence precursors, fluorochromes, fluorogens, fluorescence quenchers, enzymes, coenzymes, inhibitors, substrates, various particulates, metal atoms, and stable free radicals. New methods for performing immunoassays with these labels are described where appropriate. Methods that require no separation steps and offer special promise for easy automation are noted. 69 references cited.

  19. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Labeling of creatinine with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Durkan, K. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Buca, Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Technicianship Program, Izmir Vocational School; Soylu, A. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty

    2004-07-01

    Creatinine is a clinically important index of renal glomerular filtration rate. Urine creatinine levels can be used as a screening test to evaluate kidney function or can be part of the creatinine clearance test. In case of kidney dysfunction or muscle disorders the creatinine concentration in serum/plasma may rise to a higher value than in healthy body. Technetium- 99m has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. {sup 99m}Tc is utilized to label molecules and cells, used as radiopharmaceuticals, and also to label biological species. It presents many desirable characteristics. SnCl{sub 2} method is frequently used as a reducing agent in the {sup 99m}Tc- labeling process. Creatinine metabolism might be investigated by using labeled {sup 99m}Tc- creatinine in healthy or uremic rats. (orig.)

  1. 16 CFR 300.14 - Substitute label requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.14 Substitute label... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitute label requirement. 300.14 Section... product appearing on the stamp, tag, label, or other mark of identification affixed to such product shall...

  2. A Note on Prime and Sequential Labelings of Finite Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Varkey T.K; Sunoj. B.S

    2015-01-01

    A labeling or valuation of a graph G is an assignment f of labels to the vertices of G that induces for each edge xy a label depending on the vertex labels f(x) and f(y). In this paper, we study some classes of graphs and their corresponding labelings.

  3. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  4. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions...... of the problem. For the maximization version we give a -approximation algorithm and show that it is APX-hard. For the minimization version, we show that it is not approximable within n 1 − ε for every ε> 0. When every color appears in the graph at most r times and r is an increasing function of n the problem...... is not O(r 1 − ε )-approximable. For fixed constant r we analyze a polynomial-time (r + H r )/2-approximation algorithm (H r is the r-th harmonic number), and prove APX-hardness. Analysis of the studied algorithms is shown to be tight....

  5. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  6. 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金赫; 徐海峰; 邵秋菊; 袁梦晖; 周润锁; 周亮飞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method of 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin (AS) and investigate the stability and bioactivity of the 99Tcm-labeled AS in vitro. Methods: AS was extracted, validated, and then labeled with 99Tcm after having been reduced by 2-ME or SnCl2. The best labeling condition was screened by cross design. The labeling efficiency was measured by TLC and column chromatography. The stability of 99Tcm-AS was observed and compared when BSA, saline and different molar ratios of Cys∶AS were separately added. The bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS was observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (CEV304). Results: The labeling efficiency can reach (97±1.5)% for the 2-ME-reducing approach. Its best experimental condition was as follows: AS 100 μg,PB(0.5 mol/L, pH 7.3)1 ml, 2-ME 100 μg, MDP (dissolved in 1 ml saline) 10 μl, and 99TcmO4- 185 MBq. The labeling efficiency using SnCl2-reducing method can reach (90±3.0)%. The best experimental procedure was as follows: AS 100 μg,boric acid buffer(0.1 mol/L, pH 9.0)1 ml, 2%SnCl2 (dissolved in 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid) 20 μl, was added into MDP, which was diluted with 1 ml deoxygenized water, and then 20 μl, 99TcmO4- 185 MBq was added. The product of 99Tcm labeled AS was stable in vitro and had the same bioactivity as AS. Conclusion: 99Tcm direct labeling of AS is simple and efficient. And the bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS has no significant change compared with AS.

  7. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.306 Labeling of...

  8. 27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the brand label or separate front label, or on a back or side label, separate and apart from all other... of alcoholic beverages impairs your ability to drive a car or operate machinery, and may cause...

  9. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  10. Sublinear distance labeling for sparse graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs;

    2015-01-01

    between pairs of nodes that are at distance at least $D$ from each other. In this paper we consider distance labeling schemes for the classical case of unweighted and undirected graphs. We present the first distance labeling scheme of size $o(n)$ for sparse graphs (and hence bounded degree graphs......). This addresses an open problem by Gavoille et. al. [J. Algo. 2004], hereby separating the complexity from general graphs which require $\\Omega(n)$ size Moon [Proc. of Glasgow Math. Association 1965]. As an intermediate result we give a $O(\\frac{n}{D}\\log^2 D)$ $D$-preserving distance labeling scheme, improving...

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  12. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  13. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  14. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    The market share of New World wines sold in many European countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. More aggressive marketing, together with a more distinct and recognizable labeling scheme, are often regarded as the keys to the marketing success of these new wines. This article...... that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  15. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  16. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  17. 101 labeled brain images and a consistent human cortical labeling protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eKlein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://www.mindboggle.info/data/ website.

  18. A Study on Standards System of Chinese Environmental Labeling Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Implementing Outlines for the Chinese Environmental Labeling Program By awarding certificates and labels to related manufacturers in accordance with certain environmental labeling standards, environmental labeling,also called "Green Label"or "Eco-label", certifies via governmental departments or public and private organizations that the whole process of producing,using, recalling and disposing of manufacturers'products is in compliance with certain environmental requirements. Many countries are establishing and promoting environmental labeling plans. Environmental labeling, as an important promotion means for prevention and control of pollution in a market-oriented manner, is being extended and developed constantly across the world.

  19. Synthesis of exemestane labelled with (13)C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Erminia; Pignatti, Alberto; Giribone, Danilo; Di Salle, Enrico

    2008-08-01

    The synthesis of exemestane Aromasin, an irreversible steroidal aromatase inhibitor, specifically labelled with (13)C is reported. The preparation of [(13)C(3)]exemestane was achieved according to an eight-step procedure starting from the commercially available testosterone.

  20. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  1. Enzymic synthesis of labelled chiral substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, A R

    1985-01-01

    The enzymic synthesis of chiral substances in which one hydrogen atom of a methylene group has been replaced by deuterium or tritium is illustrated. Such labelled products can be used to determine the stereochemistry of other enzyme-catalysed reactions.

  2. Dynamic Visualization of Graphs with Extended Labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Eagan, James R.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, Jim

    2005-10-23

    The paper describes a novel technique to visualize graphs with extended node and link labels. The lengths of these labels range from a short phrase to a full sentence to an entire paragraph and beyond. Our solution is different from all the existing approaches that almost always rely on intensive computational effort to optimize the label placement problem. Instead, we share the visualization resources with the graph and present the label information in static, interactive, and dynamic modes without the requirement for tackling the intractability issues. This allows us to reallocate the computational resources for dynamic presentation of real-time information. The paper includes a user study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the visualization technique.

  3. Vertex-antimagic Labelings of Regular Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali AHMAD; Kashif ALI; Martin BA(C)A; Petr KOV(A)(R); Andrea SEMANI(C)OV(A)-FE(N)OV(C)(I)KOV(A)

    2012-01-01

    Let G =(V,E) be a finite,simple and undirected graph with p vertices and q edges.An (a,d)-vertex-antimagic total labeling of G is a bijection f from V(G).∪E(G) onto the set of consecutive integers 1,2,...,p + q,such that the vertex-weights form an arithmetic progression with the initial term a and difference d,where the vertex-weight of x is the sum of the value f(x) assigned to the vertex x together with all values f(xy) assigned to edges xy incident to x.Such labeling is called super if the smallest possible labels appear on the vertices.In this paper,we study the properties of such labelings and examine their existence for 2r-regular graphs when the difference d is 0,1,...,r + 1.

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections ... labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  7. Quantum dot labeling of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascio Wayne E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle cells and are being investigated for their utility in cell-based transplantation therapy. Yet, adequate methods to track transplanted MSCs in vivo are limited, precluding functional studies. Quantum Dots (QDs offer an alternative to organic dyes and fluorescent proteins to label and track cells in vitro and in vivo. These nanoparticles are resistant to chemical and metabolic degradation, demonstrating long term photostability. Here, we investigate the cytotoxic effects of in vitro QD labeling on MSC proliferation and differentiation and use as a cell label in a cardiomyocyte co-culture. Results A dose-response to QDs in rat bone marrow MSCs was assessed in Control (no-QDs, Low concentration (LC, 5 nmol/L and High concentration (HC, 20 nmol/L groups. QD yield and retention, MSC survival, proinflammatory cytokines, proliferation and DNA damage were evaluated in MSCs, 24 -120 hrs post QD labeling. In addition, functional integration of QD labeled MSCs in an in vitro cardiomyocyte co-culture was assessed. A dose-dependent effect was measured with increased yield in HC vs. LC labeled MSCs (93 ± 3% vs. 50% ± 15%, p 90% of QD labeled cells were viable in all groups, however, at 120 hrs increased apoptosis was measured in HC vs. Control MSCs (7.2% ± 2.7% vs. 0.5% ± 0.4%, p Conclusion Fluorescent QDs label MSC effectively in an in vitro co-culture model. QDs are easy to use, show a high yield and survival rate with minimal cytotoxic effects. Dose-dependent effects suggest limiting MSC QD exposure.

  8. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade; Larissa Santos França; Paulo Roberto Santana de Melo; Marcelo Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Su...

  9. Internal labelling problem: an algorithmic procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, Rutwig, E-mail: rutwig@mat.ucm.es [Departamento GeometrIa y TopologIa, Fac. CC. Matematicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-14

    Combining the decomposition of Casimir operators induced by the embedding of a subalgebra into a semisimple Lie algebra with the properties of commutators of subgroup scalars, an analytical algorithm for the computation of missing label operators with the commutativity requirement is proposed. Two new criteria for subgroups scalars to commute are given. The algorithm is completed with a recursive method to construct orthonormal bases of states. As examples to illustrate the procedure, four labelling problems are explicitly studied.

  10. Labelling of electricity; Kennzeichnung von Elektrizitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Markard, J. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed.

  11. Pharmacogenetic information for patients on drug labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Susanne B; Mills, Rachel; Moaddeb, Jivan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in pharmacogenetic research have improved our understanding of adverse drug responses and have led to the development of pharmacogenetic tests and targeted drugs. However, the extent of the communication process and provision of information to patients about pharmacogenetics is unclear. Pharmacogenetic information may be included in sections of a drug's package insert intended for patients, which is provided directly to patients or communicated via the health provider. To determine what pharmacogenetic information, if any, is included in patient-targeted sections of the drug label, we reviewed the labels listed in the US Food and Drug Administration's Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels. To date, 140 drugs include pharmacogenetic-related information in the approved label. Our analysis revealed that pharmacogenetic information is included in patient-targeted sections for a minority (n=29; 21%) of drug labels, with no obvious pattern associated with the inclusion of pharmacogenetic information. Therefore, patients are unlikely to learn about pharmacogenetics through written materials dispensed with the drug. Given that there are also inconsistencies with regard to inclusion of pharmacogenetic information in the patient counseling information section, it is also unlikely that patients are receiving adequate pharmacogenetic information from their provider. The inconsistent presence of pharmacogenetic information in patient-targeted sections of drug labels suggests a need to review the criteria for inclusion of information in patient-targeted sections in order to increase consistency and patient knowledge of pharmacogenetic information.

  12. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  13. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  14. GEO Label: User and Producer Perspectives on a Label for Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lush, V.; Lumsden, J.; Masó, J.; Díaz, P.; McCallum, I.

    2012-04-01

    One of the aims of the Science and Technology Committee (STC) of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) was to establish a GEO Label- a label to certify geospatial datasets and their quality. As proposed, the GEO Label will be used as a value indicator for geospatial data and datasets accessible through the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). It is suggested that the development of such a label will significantly improve user recognition of the quality of geospatial datasets and that its use will help promote trust in datasets that carry the established GEO Label. Furthermore, the GEO Label is seen as an incentive to data providers. At the moment GEOSS contains a large amount of data and is constantly growing. Taking this into account, a GEO Label could assist in searching by providing users with visual cues of dataset quality and possibly relevance; a GEO Label could effectively stand as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection. Currently our project - GeoViQua, - together with EGIDA and ID-03 is undertaking research to define and evaluate the concept of a GEO Label. The development and evaluation process will be carried out in three phases. In phase I we have conducted an online survey (GEO Label Questionnaire) to identify the initial user and producer views on a GEO Label or its potential role. In phase II we will conduct a further study presenting some GEO Label examples that will be based on Phase I. We will elicit feedback on these examples under controlled conditions. In phase III we will create physical prototypes which will be used in a human subject study. The most successful prototypes will then be put forward as potential GEO Label options. At the moment we are in phase I, where we developed an online questionnaire to collect the initial GEO Label requirements and to identify the role that a GEO Label should serve from the user and producer standpoint. The GEO Label Questionnaire consists of generic questions to identify whether

  15. [Role of rapid movement of spin labels in interpreting EPR spectra for spin-labelled macromolecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skiĭ, D O; Timofeev, V P

    2003-01-01

    The method of spin labeling was used to monitor quick movements of side residues in protein monocrystals. The EPR spectra of monocrystals of spin-labeled lysozyme at different orientations of the tetrahonal crystal relative to the direction of the magnetic field were interpreted using the molecular dynamics method. A simple model was proposed, which enables one to calculate the trajectory of movements of the spin label by the molecular dynamic method over a relatively short period of time. The entire "frozen" protein molecule and a "defrozen" spin-labeled amino acid residue were considered in the framework of the model. To calculate the trajectories in vacuum, a model of spin-labeled lysozyme was constructed, and the parameters of force potentials for the atoms of the protein molecule and the spin label were specified. It follows from the calculations that the protein environment sterically hinders the range of eventual angular reorientations of the reporter NO-group of nitroxyl incorporated into the spin label, thereby affecting the shape of the EPR spectrum. However, the scatter in the positions of the reporter group in the angular space turned out to correspond to the Gauss distribution. Using the atomic coordinates of the spin label, obtained in a chosen time interval by the method of molecular dynamics, and taking into account the distribution of the states of the spin label in the ensemble of spin-labeled macromolecules in the crystal, we simulated the EPR spectra of monocrystals of spin-labeled lysozyme. The theoretical EPR spectra coincide well with the experimental.

  16. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  17. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  18. 33 CFR 66.01-14 - Label affixed by manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label affixed by manufacturer. 66... Label affixed by manufacturer. (a) Each light, intended or used as a private aid to navigation authorized by this part, must bear a legible, indelible label (or labels) affixed by the manufacturer...

  19. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.23... percent (name of variety)” is shown on the brand label, back label, or a separate strip label, (except... variety; (ii) The statement “contains not less than 51 percent (name of variety)” is shown on the brand...

  20. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  1. 49 CFR 172.427 - ORGANIC PEROXIDE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ORGANIC PEROXIDE label. 172.427 Section 172.427... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.427 ORGANIC PEROXIDE label. (a) Except for size and color, the ORGANIC... on the ORGANIC PEROXIDE label must be red in the top half and yellow in the lower half....

  2. 27 CFR 4.32 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... October 6, 1984. (d) (e) Declaration of sulfites. There shall be stated on a front label, back label, strip label or neck label, the statement “Contains sulfites” or “Contains (a) sulfiting agent(s)” or a...

  3. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  4. 30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for container labels. 47.41 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41 Requirement for container labels. (a) The operator must ensure that each container of a hazardous chemical has a label. If...

  5. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that is... nutrition labeling a proprietary blend of dietary ingredients. (d) The source ingredient that supplies a...

  6. Compact Ancestry Labeling Schemes for Trees of Small Depth

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    An {\\em ancestry labeling scheme} labels the nodes of any tree in such a way that ancestry queries between any two nodes in a tree can be answered just by looking at their corresponding labels. The common measure to evaluate the quality of an ancestry labeling scheme is by its {\\em label size}, that is the maximal number of bits stored in a label, taken over all $n$-node trees. The design of ancestry labeling schemes finds applications in XML search engines. In the context of these applicatio...

  7. 78 FR 47154 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... beers subject to FDA's labeling requirements not brewed from gluten-containing grains may contain gluten... ``gluten-free'' labeling for FDA- regulated beers that currently make a ``gluten-free'' claim and that are... beer has been subject to processing that the manufacturer has determined will remove gluten below a 20...

  8. Stigma of a Label: Educational Expectations for High School Students Labeled with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of…

  9. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vroegh, J; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    2003-01-01

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons, alpha-bromo-alpha'-[F-18]fluoro-m-xy

  10. Official Labeling, Criminal Embeddedness, and Subsequent Delinquency: A Longitudinal Test of Labeling Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Krohn, Marvin D.; Rivera, Craig J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the short-term impact of formal criminal labeling on involvement in deviant social networks and increased likelihood of subsequent delinquency. According to labeling theory, formal criminal intervention should affect the individual's immediate social networks. In many cases, the stigma of the criminal status may increase the…

  11. A Labeling Model Based on the Region of Movability for Point-Feature Label Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic point-feature label placement (PFLP is a fundamental task for map visualization. As the dominant solutions to the PFLP problem, fixed-position and slider models have been widely studied in previous research. However, the candidate labels generated with these models are set to certain fixed positions or a specified track line for sliding. Thus, the whole surrounding space of a point feature is not sufficiently used for labeling. Hence, this paper proposes a novel label model based on the region of movability, which comes from plane collision detection theory. The model defines a complete conflict-free search space for label placement. On the premise of no conflict with the point, line, and area features, the proposed model utilizes the surrounding zone of the point feature to generate candidate label positions. By combining with heuristic search method, the model achieves high-quality label placement. In addition, the flexibility of the proposed model enables placing arbitrarily shaped labels.

  12. Stigma of a Label: Educational Expectations for High School Students Labeled with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of…

  13. Figuring out food labels. Young adults' understanding of nutritional information presented on food labels is inadequate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Miri; Sela, Ruti; Zentner, Gary; Shoob, Hanna; Shai, Iris; Stein-Zamir, Chen

    2012-04-01

    Nutritional labelling of packaged foods, mandated by law, includes details of the food content and composition - information that can affect individual and public lifestyle decisions and health status. We studied the comprehension of food labels among 120 young adults (mean age 24.1 years) attending an international travel immunization clinic. Each participant was presented with 10 food packages of common local products and was interviewed regarding the label's content. Most subjects (77.5%) reported that they took note of the food labels; women, the more educated and those engaging regularly in physical exercise were more inclined to do so. Out of a possible 10 points the overall median comprehension score was 6.0 (mean 5.7±1.8). The nutritional table section of the food label was understood the best, and the nutritional declaration section the least. The subjects thought they understood the food labels better than they actually did; 43.9% stated that they understood them very well, whereas only 27.2% achieved high scores. This inadequate comprehension of food labels represents a missed opportunity to provide essential information necessary for healthy food choices at the individual level. A combination of strategies is necessary, including improving food labels (simplification and standardization) combined with targeted educational programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ideal regularization for learning kernels from labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Binbin; Lai, Jianhuang; Shen, Lixin

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new form of regularization that is able to utilize the label information of a data set for learning kernels. The proposed regularization, referred to as ideal regularization, is a linear function of the kernel matrix to be learned. The ideal regularization allows us to develop efficient algorithms to exploit labels. Three applications of the ideal regularization are considered. Firstly, we use the ideal regularization to incorporate the labels into a standard kernel, making the resulting kernel more appropriate for learning tasks. Next, we employ the ideal regularization to learn a data-dependent kernel matrix from an initial kernel matrix (which contains prior similarity information, geometric structures, and labels of the data). Finally, we incorporate the ideal regularization to some state-of-the-art kernel learning problems. With this regularization, these learning problems can be formulated as simpler ones which permit more efficient solvers. Empirical results show that the ideal regularization exploits the labels effectively and efficiently.

  15. On label graphoidal covering number-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugaperumal Anitha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a graph with p vertices and q edges. An acyclicgraphoidal cover of G is a collection of paths in G which are internallydisjointand covering each edge of the graph exactly once. Let f : V !{1, 2, . . . , p} be a bijective labeling of the vertices of G. Let " Gf bethe directed graph obtained by orienting the edges uv of G from u tov provided f(u < f(v. If the set f of all maximal directed paths in"Gf , with directions ignored, is an acyclic graphoidal cover of G, then fis called a graphoidal labeling of G and G is called a label graphoidal graphand l = min{| f | : f is a graphoidal labeling of G} is called the labelgraphoidal covering number of G. In this paper we characterize graphsfor which (i l = q − m, where m is the number of vertices of degree 2and (ii l = q. Also, we determine the value of label graphoidal coveringnumber for unicyclic graphs.

  16. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  17. European energy labelling scheme for windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belling Skou, Mette (VELUX A/S (Denmark)); Kragh, Jesper (DTU Byg, Denmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    In their proposals for revision of the energy labelling directive the European Commission has suggested to include windows. The paper introduces a proposal for an European energy labelling scheme of windows for replacement of windows in the existing building stock taking into consideration the energy performance of windows in both the heating and cooling seasons. The labelling scheme evaluates a methodology where the energy performance in the heating period is established with focus on heat loss and utilization of passive solar energy, whereas the energy performance in the summer (cooling) season will focus on reduction of solar radiation into the building. The methodology is developed with focus on CEN and ISO standardization. With inspiration from the American Energy Star programme for windows, Europe is divided into climate zones where the methodology for each zone is developed on basis of a reference building and climate data. A proposal for labelling will be presented for both heating and cooling seasons in order to enable the user to choose the right product for a specific performance. Based on data from the building stock in the individual climate zones, an energy saving potential for replacement of old windows with new low energy windows will be presented. The possibility for using energy labelling of windows as reference and requirement in the building legislation as an alternative to U-values, will be presented with among others examples from legislation in UK and Denmark.

  18. A new era in retail : Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Private labels have witnessed considerable growth in grocery retailing. While existing academic studies have provided valuable insights concerning the evolution of private labels, several issues remain largely unexplored. First, in the face of these large private-label volumes, private-label

  19. 75 FR 52601 - Food Labeling; Labeling of Food Made From AquAdvantage Salmon; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    .... (Keep in mind that the use of genetic engineering does not, in and of itself, constitute a ``material... Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Food Labeling; Labeling of Food Made From Aqu...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Labeling; Labeling of Food...

  20. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing....... An example of a nearterm application is given, and a comparison of routing technologies is made regarding their cost and reliability aspects....

  1. ECOLOGICAL CERTIFICATION AND LABELLING OF TOURIST SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Stefanica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of ecological certification and labelling in the field of tourism. In a tourist company, the certification schemes evaluate the general approach of environmental problems, and impose to the tourist services the observance of pre-established principles and guiding lines concerning the environment. They become for the tourist companies a behavioural standard in the development of their activity. The requirements within such schemes are often flexible and open to interpretation, and generally less controversial than the eco-labelling schemes. As compared to the certification schemes, the eco-labels attributed to the tourist services emphasise the impact over the environment of the services of tourist companies, on the basis of certain European criteria. These criteria refer to the whole life cycle of these tourist services.

  2. Housewives’ Compliance in Reading Food Labels in Gorontalo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Tumenggung

    2016-06-01

    Di Indonesia, masalah label pada kemasan makanan kurang mendapat perhatian konsumen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari determinan kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan oleh ibu rumah tangga di Kota Gorontalo. Penelitian dengan metode survei ini dilakukan dari bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2013. Data dikumpulkan secara potong lintang dengan menggunakan angket. Variabel terikat adalah kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan yang terdiri dari label informasi nilai gizi, komposisi makanan, masa kedaluwarsa, harga, dan status halal. Variabel bebas adalah usia, tingkat pendidikan, dan keterpaparan dengan media informasi. Besar sampel 262 orang ditentukan secara accidental technique. Analisis data menggunakan uji kai kuadrat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar responden patuh membaca label kedaluwarsa, label harga, dan label halal. Faktor usia berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label kedaluwarsa dan label harga. Tingkat pendidikan berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label komposisi, label harga, dan lebel halal. Keterpaparan dengan media informasi berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label komposisi, kedaluwarsa, harga, dan halal. Disarankan kepada institusi terkait, yaitu dinas kesehatan untuk melakukan upaya meningkatkan pemahaman pentingnya membaca label kemasan makanan, terutama yang berkaitan dengan informasi nilai gizi dan komposisi bahan makanan.

  3. Pharmacogenetic information for patients on drug labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga SB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Susanne B Haga, Rachel Mills, Jivan Moaddeb Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Advances in pharmacogenetic research have improved our understanding of adverse drug responses and have led to the development of pharmacogenetic tests and targeted drugs. However, the extent of the communication process and provision of information to patients about pharmacogenetics is unclear. Pharmacogenetic information may be included in sections of a drug's package insert intended for patients, which is provided directly to patients or communicated via the health provider. To determine what pharmacogenetic information, if any, is included in patient-targeted sections of the drug label, we reviewed the labels listed in the US Food and Drug Administration's Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels. To date, 140 drugs include pharmacogenetic-related information in the approved label. Our analysis revealed that pharmacogenetic information is included in patient-targeted sections for a minority (n=29; 21% of drug labels, with no obvious pattern associated with the inclusion of pharmacogenetic information. Therefore, patients are unlikely to learn about pharmacogenetics through written materials dispensed with the drug. Given that there are also inconsistencies with regard to inclusion of pharmacogenetic information in the patient counseling information section, it is also unlikely that patients are receiving adequate pharmacogenetic information from their provider. The inconsistent presence of pharmacogenetic information in patient-targeted sections of drug labels suggests a need to review the criteria for inclusion of information in patient-targeted sections in order to increase consistency and patient knowledge of pharmacogenetic information. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics, US Food and Drug Administration, drug safety, patient education

  4. Visualizing dengue virus through Alexa Fluor labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Summer; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2011-07-09

    The early events in the interaction between virus and cell can have profound influence on the outcome of infection. Determining the factors that influence this interaction could lead to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and thus influence vaccine or therapeutic design. Hence, the development of methods to probe this interaction would be useful. Recent advancements in fluorophores development and imaging technology can be exploited to improve our current knowledge on dengue pathogenesis and thus pave the way to reduce the millions of dengue infections occurring annually. The enveloped dengue virus has an external scaffold consisting of 90 envelope glycoprotein (E) dimers protecting the nucleocapsid shell, which contains a single positive strand RNA genome. The identical protein subunits on the virus surface can thus be labeled with an amine reactive dye and visualized through immunofluorescent microscopy. Here, we present a simple method of labeling of dengue virus with Alexa Fluor succinimidyl ester dye dissolved directly in a sodium bicarbonate buffer that yielded highly viable virus after labeling. There is no standardized procedure for the labeling of live virus and existing manufacturer's protocol for protein labeling usually requires the reconstitution of dye in dimethyl sulfoxide. The presence of dimethyl sulfoxide, even in minute quantities, can block productive infection of virus and also induce cell cytotoxicity. The exclusion of the use of dimethyl sulfoxide in this protocol thus reduced this possibility. Alexa Fluor dyes have superior photostability and are less pH-sensitive than the common dyes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, making them ideal for studies on cellular uptake and endosomal transport of the virus. The conjugation of Alexa Fluor dye did not affect the recognition of labeled dengue virus by virus-specific antibody and its putative receptors in host cells. This method could have useful applications in virological studies.

  5. Literacy and misunderstanding prescription drug labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C; Wolf, Michael S; Bass, Pat F; Thompson, Jason A; Tilson, Hugh H; Neuberger, Marolee; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-12-19

    Health literacy has increasingly been viewed as a patient safety issue and may contribute to medication errors. To examine patients' abilities to understand and demonstrate instructions found on container labels of common prescription medications. Cross-sectional study using in-person, structured interviews. 3 primary care clinics serving mostly indigent populations in Shreveport, Louisiana; Jackson, Michigan; and Chicago, Illinois. 395 English-speaking adults waiting to see their providers. Correct understanding of instructions on 5 container labels; demonstration of 1 label's dosage instructions. Correct understanding of the 5 labels ranged from 67.1% to 91.1%. Patients reading at or below the sixth-grade level (low literacy) were less able to understand all 5 label instructions. Although 70.7% of patients with low literacy correctly stated the instructions, "Take two tablets by mouth twice daily," only 34.7% could demonstrate the number of pills to be taken daily. After potential confounding variables were controlled for, low (adjusted relative risk, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.26 to 4.28]) and marginal (adjusted relative risk, 1.94 [CI, 1.14 to 3.27]) literacy were significantly associated with misunderstanding. Taking a greater number of prescription medications was also statistically significantly associated with misunderstanding (adjusted relative risk, 2.98 [CI, 1.40 to 6.34] for > or =5 medications). The study sample was at high risk for poor health literacy and outcomes. Most participants were women, and all spoke English. The authors did not examine the association between misunderstanding and medication error or evaluate patients' actual prescription drug-taking behaviors. Lower literacy and a greater number of prescription medications were independently associated with misunderstanding the instructions on prescription medication labels.

  6. Superposition and alignment of labeled point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fober, Thomas; Glinca, Serghei; Klebe, Gerhard; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    2011-01-01

    Geometric objects are often represented approximately in terms of a finite set of points in three-dimensional euclidean space. In this paper, we extend this representation to what we call labeled point clouds. A labeled point cloud is a finite set of points, where each point is not only associated with a position in three-dimensional space, but also with a discrete class label that represents a specific property. This type of model is especially suitable for modeling biomolecules such as proteins and protein binding sites, where a label may represent an atom type or a physico-chemical property. Proceeding from this representation, we address the question of how to compare two labeled points clouds in terms of their similarity. Using fuzzy modeling techniques, we develop a suitable similarity measure as well as an efficient evolutionary algorithm to compute it. Moreover, we consider the problem of establishing an alignment of the structures in the sense of a one-to-one correspondence between their basic constituents. From a biological point of view, alignments of this kind are of great interest, since mutually corresponding molecular constituents offer important information about evolution and heredity, and can also serve as a means to explain a degree of similarity. In this paper, we therefore develop a method for computing pairwise or multiple alignments of labeled point clouds. To this end, we proceed from an optimal superposition of the corresponding point clouds and construct an alignment which is as much as possible in agreement with the neighborhood structure established by this superposition. We apply our methods to the structural analysis of protein binding sites.

  7. Electrochemical Label-Free Nucleotide Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Numerous researchers have devoted a great deal of effort over the last few decades to the development of electrochemical oligonucleotide detection techniques, owing to their advantages of simple design, inherently small dimensions, and low power requirements. Their simplicity and rapidity of detection makes label-free oligonucleotide sensors of great potential use as first-aid screening tools in the analytical field of environmental measurements and healthcare management. This review article covers label-free oligonucleotide sensors, focusing specifically on topical electrochemical techniques, including intrinsic redox reaction of bases, conductive polymers, the use of electrochemical indicators, and highly ordered probe structures.

  8. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applications in cell biology of label-free biosensors. Future perspectives are also discussed.

  9. Consumer interest in fish information and labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris

    2007-01-01

    mandatory information cues on fish labels, they express doubts whether information provided on the labels can be trusted. People who are more experienced and have higher familiarity with fish, seem to be more efficient in searching and using information. Instead of providing one message for the consumers...... of information cues with regard to fish. Qualitative exploratory research was performed in May 2004 through focus group discussions in two European countries: Belgium and Spain. Personal sources are found as the most important information sources with regard to fish. Although a majority of consumers use...

  10. Quality assurance, information tracking, and consumer labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Julie A

    2006-01-01

    Reducing marine-based public health risk requires strict control of several attributes of seafood products, often including location and conditions of catch or aquaculture, processing, and handling throughout the supply chain. Buyers likely will also be interested in other attributes of these products such as eco-friendliness or taste. Development of markets for improved safety, as well as for other quality attributes, requires an effective certification and tracking of these attributes as well as their communication to buyers. Several challenges must be met if labeling, particularly consumer labeling, is to support the development of markets for improved seafood safety.

  11. Conditional Random Fields for Image Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development and application of CRFs (Conditional Random Fields in computer vision, many researchers have made some outstanding progress in this domain because CRFs solve the classical version of the label bias problem with respect to MEMMs (maximum entropy Markov models and HMMs (hidden Markov models. This paper reviews the research development and status of object recognition with CRFs and especially introduces two main discrete optimization methods for image labeling with CRFs: graph cut and mean field approximation. This paper describes graph cut briefly while it introduces mean field approximation more detailedly which has a substantial speed of inference and is researched popularly in recent years.

  12. NMR studies of isotopically labeled RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardi, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    In summary, the ability to generate NMR quantities of {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs has led to the development of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques for simplifying the resonance assignment and structure determination of RNAs. These methods for synthesizing isotopically labeled RNAs are only several years old, and thus there are still relatively few applications of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques to RNA. However, given the critical role that RNAs play in cellular function, one can expect to see an increasing number of NMR structural studies of biologically active RNAs.

  13. Proposal for a New Energy Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    be easily understandable by everybody: the more recent the year the better the product. The scheme readily lends itself for an almost unlimited variety of products, and would also cover properties other than energy consumption. It is always up to date, it is globally applicable, and it encourages......Energy labeling is believed to have great impact on the energy efficiency of household appliances sold. Many different labeling schemes exist around the world. As far as is known, none of these facilitates the easy tightening of specifications to keep up with technological advancements. The present...

  14. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  15. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  16. Flexible-rate optical packet generation/detection and label swapping for optical label switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongying; Li, Juhao; Tian, Yu; Ge, Dawei; Zhu, Paikun; Chen, Yuanxiang; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical label switching (OLS) gains lots of attentions due to its intrinsic advantages to implement protocol, bit-rate, granularity and data format transparency packet switching. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to realize flexible-rate optical packet switching for OLS networks. At the transmitter node, flexible-rate packet is generated by parallel modulating different combinations of optical carriers generated from the optical multi-carrier generator (OMCG), among which the low-speed optical label occupies one carrier. At the switching node, label is extracted and re-generated in label processing unit (LPU). The payloads are switched based on routing information and new label is added after switching. At the receiver node, another OMCG serves as local oscillators (LOs) for optical payloads coherent detection. The proposed scheme offers good flexibility for dynamic optical packet switching by adjusting the payload bandwidth and could also effectively reduce the number of lasers, modulators and receivers for packet generation/detection. We present proof-of-concept demonstrations of flexible-rate packet generation/detection and label swapping in 12.5 GHz grid. The influence of crosstalk for cascaded label swapping is also investigated.

  17. Efficient Thread Labeling for Monitoring Programs with Nested Parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ok-Kyoon; Kim, Sun-Sook; Jun, Yong-Kee

    It is difficult and cumbersome to detect data races occurred in an execution of parallel programs. Any on-the-fly race detection techniques using Lamport's happened-before relation needs a thread labeling scheme for generating unique identifiers which maintain logical concurrency information for the parallel threads. NR labeling is an efficient thread labeling scheme for the fork-join program model with nested parallelism, because its efficiency depends only on the nesting depth for every fork and join operation. This paper presents an improved NR labeling, called e-NR labeling, in which every thread generates its label by inheriting the pointer to its ancestor list from the parent threads or by updating the pointer in a constant amount of time and space. This labeling is more efficient than the NR labeling, because its efficiency does not depend on the nesting depth for every fork and join operation. Some experiments were performed with OpenMP programs having nesting depths of three or four and maximum parallelisms varying from 10,000 to 1,000,000. The results show that e-NR is 5 times faster than NR labeling and 4.3 times faster than OS labeling in the average time for creating and maintaining the thread labels. In average space required for labeling, it is 3.5 times smaller than NR labeling and 3 times smaller than OS labeling.

  18. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Franklin gothic type. All type is centered. Spacing of the label is 1/4″ (.64 cm) between the top border... letterspace set at 101/2 points. The octane number is set in 96 point Franklin gothic condensed with 1/8″...

  19. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...; (d) The expiration date; (e) The preservative used and its concentration, or if no preservative...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If ... take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About KidsHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us ...

  1. Pitch memory, labelling and disembedding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2003-05-01

    Autistic musical savants invariably possess absolute pitch ability and are able to disembed individual musical tones from chords. Enhanced pitch discrimination and memory has been found in non-savant individuals with autism who also show superior performance on visual disembedding tasks. These experiments investigate the extent that enhanced disembedding ability will be found within the musical domain in autism. High-functioning children with autism, together with age- and intelligence-matched controls, participated in three experiments testing pitch memory, labelling and chord disembedding. The findings from experiment 1 showed enhanced pitch memory and labelling in the autism group. In experiment 2, when subjects were pre-exposed to labelled individual tones, superior chord segmentation was also found. However, in experiment 3, when disembedding performance was less reliant on pitch memory, no group differences emerged and the children with autism, like controls, perceived musical chords holistically. These findings indicate that pitch memory and labelling is superior in autism and can facilitate performance on musical disembedding tasks. However, when task performance does not rely on long-term pitch memory, autistic children, like controls, succumb to the Gestalt qualities of chords.

  2. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    employs hedonic price analysis to identify the values that marketers and consumers place on the information carried by the label of Australian wines in the British wine retail market. Although many grape varieties are given a highly distinct valuation by market participants, our results also suggest...

  3. 9 CFR 317.4 - Labeling approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling approval. 317.4 Section 317.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... by descriptive language the final colors, or submission with the sketch of previously approved final...

  4. 76 FR 45715 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ..., ceiling fans, and halogen fixtures, and use traditional incandescent, halogen, CFL, or LED technology.\\9... assumes that the label design change will be implemented by graphic designers at an hourly wage rate of... wages), http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ncswage2009.htm , at 3- 12. The Commission estimates that the annualized...

  5. 75 FR 41696 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 Appliance Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission... vary by region and consumer and change over time. In NEMA's view, unless shoppers make a...

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes En Español Teachers - Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in ... Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) ...

  7. 78 FR 54566 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB03 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a final rule on July 23, 2013 revising its...

  8. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.28 Section 660.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... adequate mixing when reconstituting. (9) Recommended storage temperature in degrees Celsius. (10) Source...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If ... take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About KidsHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us ...

  10. What’s in a label?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Pollock

    Full Text Available The profiling of people who move is being increasingly institutionalised. They may be labelled the ‘migrant worker’, the ‘refugee’ or the ‘trafficked person’ but people’s life experiences resist being so neatly categorised....

  11. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  12. 75 FR 81943 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... unusual configurations, such as extended side panels and blister packs, and because their small size makes... blister packs, space devoted to warnings, and space occupied by graphics in calculating whether a package... labeling on their packages, manufacturers should not include blister pack surfaces covering the...

  13. Disentangling Directand Indirect Effects of Credence Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of three credence labels (Australian, animal welfare and grass-fed) on US consumer attitudes toward buying beef steaks. Furthermore, it explores the impact of consumer attribute knowledge, usage frequency, education and opin

  14. Ranking with uncertain labels and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuicheng; WANG Huan; LIU Jianzhuang; TANG Xiao'ou; Thomas S.Huang

    2007-01-01

    The techniques for image analysis and classification generally consider the image sample labels fixed and without uncertainties.The rank regression problem studied in this paper is based on the training samples with uncertain labels,which often is the case for the manual estimated image labels.A core ranking model is designed first as the bilinear fusing of multiple candidate kernels.Then,the parameters for feature selection and kernel selection are learned simultaneously by maximum a posteriori for given samples and uncertain labels.The provable convergency Expectation Maximization(EM)method is used for inferring these parameters in an iterative manner.The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is finally validated by the extensive experiments on age ranking task and human trackingtask.The popular FG-NET and the large scale Yamaha aging database are used for the age estimation experiments,and our algorithm outperforms those state-of-the-art algorithms ever reported by other interrelated literatures significantly.The experiment result of human tracking task also validates its advantage over conventional linear regression algorithm.

  15. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled vigabatrin. [Antieplileptic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, A.J.; Wagner, E.R. (Marion Merrell Dow Inc, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Carbon-14 labeled vigabatrin was synthesized in 5 steps from 5-hydroxymethyl-2-pyrrolidone tosylate and NaCN-[[sup 14]C]. A key step involved reduction of the resulting nitrile in the presence of excess dimethylamine to give the dimethylamino-ethyl 2-pyrrolidone derivative in one step. This afforded an overall radiochemical yield of 22% and radiochemical purity greater than 98%. (Author).

  16. Have Food Allergies? Read the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Healthy Heart Nutrition Basics Help Fight Child Obesity Fabricant: Supplement Safety is Priority [ARCHIVED] Related Consumer Updates Finding Food Allergens Where They Shouldn't Be Nutrition Facts Label Better Informs Your Food Choices Food Serving Sizes Get a Reality Check Proposed ...

  17. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    -label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...

  18. Statically checking confidentiality via dynamic labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.P.F.; Pieters, Wolter; Warnier, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for verifying confidentiality for programs, based on abstract interpretation. The framework is formally developed and proved correct in the theorem prover PVS. We use dynamic labeling functions to abstractly interpret a simple programming language via modification

  19. The Positive Side of Negative Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Jonge, de J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical labels signal positive ethical quality of a product but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory, it is argued that negative signalling of low ethical quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of ethical products than th

  20. Atomoxetine Open-Label Trial in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine (originally named tomoxetine, a new therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD marketed by Eli Lilly, was compared to methylphenidate in a prospective, randomized, open-label study for 10 weeks duration, at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Carolinas Medical Center, and Lilly Research Laboratories.

  1. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.N.; Damodaran, K.M.

    1986-05-01

    Doxylamine succinate, N,N-dimethyl-2-(1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)-ethoxy)ethanamine succinate is an antihistamine used primarily as a sedative. Carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate, required for toxicological studies, was synthesized in two steps starting from 2-benzoyl pyridine.

  2. 76 FR 13550 - Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... misbranding and false advertising of fur products, and requires labeling of most fur products. 15 U.S.C. 69 et... advertising fur products. 16 CFR 301.38. Finally, to assist the Commission in enforcing these requirements... advertising of fur products, if any, are not covered by the Rules? (a) What evidence demonstrates the...

  3. Single Women Labor Under New Label

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Dating woes of single women in urban Chinai If you are a woman in China who is still single around 30, you can look forward to having your own label - shengnu, or "leftover woman." The origin of the word is hazy, but the

  4. Chemical labeling of electrochemically cleaved peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeser, Julien; Alting, Niels F. A.; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer P. H.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Cleavage of peptide bonds C-terminal to tyrosine and tryptophan after electrochemical oxidation may become a complementary approach to chemical and enzymatic cleavage. A chemical labeling approach specifically targeting reactive cleavage products is presented here and constitutes a promisi

  5. Biopatterning for label-free detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Julie M; Mandal, Sudeep; Nugen, Sam R; Baeumner, Antje J; Erickson, David

    2010-03-01

    We present a biopatterning technique suitable for applications which demand a high degree of surface cleanliness, such as immobilization of biological recognition elements onto label-free biosensors. In the case of label-free biosensing, the mechanism of signal transduction is based on surface bound matter, making them highly sensitive to surface contamination including residues left during the biopatterning process. In this communication we introduce a simple, rapid processing step that removes 98% of the residues that often remain after standard parylene lift-off patterning. Residue-free parylene biopatterning is combined with microfluidics to localize biomolecule immobilization onto the sensing region and to enable multiplexed biopatterning. We demonstrate the applicability of this method to multiplexed label-free detection platforms by patterning nucleic acid capture probes corresponding to the four different serotypes of Dengue virus onto parallel 1D photonic crystal resonator sensors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to quantify surface cleanliness and uniformity. In addition to label-free biosensors, this technique is well suited to other nanobiotechnology patterning applications which demand a pristine, residue-free surface, such as immobilization of enzymes, antibodies, growth factors, or cell cultures.

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about Nutrition Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labeled “ trans fat-free” may be high in saturated fats, which also raise your bad cholesterol levels and ... free” – does that mean the food contains no saturated fats or trans fats? Not necessarily. The U.S. Food ...

  7. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... donor code in the product labeling each donor of peripheral blood used for detection or identification... IDENTIFICATION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES” or “NOT FOR USE IN DETECTION OR IDENTIFICATION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES... antibodies shall identify the number of donors contributing to the pool. Products designed exclusively...

  8. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Davis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

  9. 21 CFR 530.12 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a veterinarian or dispensed by a pharmacist on the order of a veterinarian shall bear or be... information shall include the following: (a) The name and address of the prescribing veterinarian. If the drug is dispensed by a pharmacy on the order of a veterinarian, the labeling shall include the name of the...

  10. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  11. Neuropeptides labelled with [sup 35]S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Nispen, J.W. van; Sperling, E.M.G.; Vader, J.F. (Organon Int BV, Oss (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    Methionine and cysteine containing peptides can be labelled with [sup 35]S by coupling of [sup 35]S-cysteine or [sup 35]S-methionine with a large excess of suitability protected peptide precursors. This is illustrated for [pGlu[sup 4], Cyt[sup 6

  12. Orthogonal optical labeling based on a 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload and a 2.5 Gbit/s IM label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Xu, Lin; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva;

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate label encoding/erasure and transmission for an orthogonally labeled signal using a 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload and an IM label. The influence of the modulation depth and the label erasure are discussed....

  13. Graceful, harmonious and magic type labelings relations and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    López, Susana C

    2017-01-01

    Aimed toward upper undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, this book examines the foremost forms of graph labelings including magic, harmonious, and graceful labelings. An overview of basic graph theory concepts and notation is provided along with the origins of graph labeling. Common methods and techniques are presented introducing readers to links between graph labels. A variety of useful techniques are presented to analyze and understand properties of graph labelings. The classical results integrated with new techniques, complete proofs, numerous exercises, and a variety of open problems, will provide readers with a solid understanding of graph labelings.

  14. Cell-selective metabolic labeling of biomolecules with bioorthogonal functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ran; Hong, Senlian; Chen, Xing

    2013-10-01

    Metabolic labeling of biomolecules with bioorthogonal functionalities enables visualization, enrichment, and analysis of the biomolecules of interest in their physiological environments. This versatile strategy has found utility in probing various classes of biomolecules in a broad range of biological processes. On the other hand, metabolic labeling is nonselective with respect to cell type, which imposes limitations for studies performed in complex biological systems. Herein, we review the recent methodological developments aiming to endow metabolic labeling strategies with cell-type selectivity. The cell-selective metabolic labeling strategies have emerged from protein and glycan labeling. We envision that these strategies can be readily extended to labeling of other classes of biomolecules.

  15. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Nasui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.

  16. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasui Liana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.  

  17. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.

  18. An Algorithm for Connected-Component Labeling, Hole Labeling and Euler Number Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Feng He; Yu-Yan Chao; Kenji Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Labeling connected components and holes and computing the Euler number in a binary image are necessary for image analysis,pattern recognition,and computer (robot) vision,and are usually made independently of each other in conventional methods.This paper proposes a two-scan algorithm for labeling connected components and holes simultaneously in a binary image by use of the same data structure.With our algorithm,besides labeling,we can also easily calculate the number and the area of connected components and holes,as well as the Euler number.Our method is very simple in principle,and experimental results demonstrate that our method is much more efficient than conventional methods for various kinds of images in cases where both labeling and Euler number computing are necessary.

  19. Facial Action Unit Recognition under Incomplete Data Based on Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongqiang

    2016-07-07

    Facial action unit (AU) recognition has been applied in a wild range of fields, and has attracted great attention in the past two decades. Most existing works on AU recognition assumed that the complete label assignment for each training image is available, which is often not the case in practice. Labeling AU is expensive and time consuming process. Moreover, due to the AU ambiguity and subjective difference, some AUs are difficult to label reliably and confidently. Many AU recognition works try to train the classifier for each AU independently, which is of high computation cost and ignores the dependency among different AUs. In this work, we formulate AU recognition under incomplete data as a multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML) problem. Most existing MLML methods usually employ the same features for all classes. However, we find this setting is unreasonable in AU recognition, as the occurrence of different AUs produce changes of skin surface displacement or face appearance in different face regions. If using the shared features for all AUs, much noise will be involved due to the occurrence of other AUs. Consequently, the changes of the specific AUs cannot be clearly highlighted, leading to the performance degradation. Instead, we propose to extract the most discriminative features for each AU individually, which are learned by the supervised learning method. The learned features are further embedded into the instance-level label smoothness term of our model, which also includes the label consistency and the class-level label smoothness. Both a global solution using st-cut and an approximated solution using conjugate gradient (CG) descent are provided. Experiments on both posed and spontaneous facial expression databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in comparison with several state-of-the-art works.

  20. SITE-SPECIFIC LABELING OF A PROTEIN LYSINE RESIDUE BY NOVEL KINETIC LABELING COMBINATORIAL LIBRARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Krantz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The first example of a kinetic labeling library designed to enable the discovery of affinity labels is presented. Each library component (1 consists of a variable peptidyl component linked to a biotinyl moiety by a 4-mercaptobenzoyl linker in thioester format. We demonstrate that an affinity label can be uncovered by measuring reaction rates between library pools and the protein target, human serum albumin (HSA and identifying significant outliers. By choosing peptide functionality compatible with a potentially reactive thioester labeling entity, libraries can be screened in pools. It is noteworthy that a limited subset of amino acids (R, S, E, F, Y, l, M, W, and Q that compose the affinity moiety is sufficient to produce rate variances that guide the discovery process. After two rounds of deconvolution, J-FLYEE-NH2 (7-E emerges as a bona fide affinity label of HSA. Unlike known affinity labels, the affinity moiety is not retained in the protein product, but is extruded upon acylation of the protein. This feature affords a method of introducing various payloads, without extraneous elements, onto protein frameworks.

  1. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature...... of the control and label conditions in both the acceleration and velocity selective module. The cut-off acceleration (0.59 m/s(2)) or velocity (2 cm/s) was kept constant in one module, while it was varied over a large range in the other module. With the right subtractions this resulted in AccASL, VS......-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. RESULTS: The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. CONCLUSION: AccASL is able to label...

  2. Quantitative proteomics by amino acid labeling in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Julius; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Giessing, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate labeling of Caenorhabditis elegans with heavy isotope-labeled lysine by feeding them with heavy isotope-labeled Escherichia coli. Using heavy isotope-labeled worms and quantitative proteomics methods, we identified several proteins that are regulated in response to loss or RNAi-med......-mediated knockdown of the nuclear hormone receptor 49 in C. elegans. The combined use of quantitative proteomics and selective gene knockdown is a powerful tool for C. elegans biology.......We demonstrate labeling of Caenorhabditis elegans with heavy isotope-labeled lysine by feeding them with heavy isotope-labeled Escherichia coli. Using heavy isotope-labeled worms and quantitative proteomics methods, we identified several proteins that are regulated in response to loss or RNAi...

  3. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  4. Improving eco-labelling as an environmental policy instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Smed, Sinne; Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2014-01-01

    Eco-labels have an import role in promoting green consumption since most eco-labelled products are credence goods, implying that the valued process attributes they contain are not observable to the consumer even after purchase or consumption. Therefore, the consumers rely heavily on eco-labels as......Eco-labels have an import role in promoting green consumption since most eco-labelled products are credence goods, implying that the valued process attributes they contain are not observable to the consumer even after purchase or consumption. Therefore, the consumers rely heavily on eco......-labels as a reassurance that these attributes are actually delivered. We argue that the label will only have the desired effect if the consumers know the production standards underpinning it and have trust in the label. We test this argument using organic food as our example. The empirical results obtained on the basis...

  5. A novel method for optical subcarrier label generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva;

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel architecture for an optical subcarrier label transmitter. An optical signal consisting of a 10 Gb/s payload and a 156 Mb/s label was generated, and its performance was evaluated in a transmission link....

  6. Reduction-mediated technetium-99m labeling of monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, S.J.; Ellison, D. (St. Bartholomews Hospital, London (England))

    1990-05-01

    A simple and generally applicable method for labeling antibodies with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) is described. Following reduction of intrinsic disulphide bonds, the antibody is labeled with {sup 99m}Tc in the presence of a weak competing ligand methylene diphosphonate. High labeling efficiencies (greater than 97%), in a final labeling step taking only a few minutes, can be routinely obtained with high in-vitro stability over 24 hr. No effect upon antibody reactivity is seen.

  7. Application of product life cycle concept to private label management

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-01-01

    Private labels have recorded significant growth rates worldwide, becoming a serious threat to manufacturer brands. Development of private labels in many different product categories increased the complexity of their management. Therefore, this paper examines the possibility of using the product life cycle concept in private label management. Given that private labels are a specific brand type, it is necessary to adjust certain elements of the product life cycle concept, as it was developed on...

  8. Optical Packet Switching Scheme Using Multi-optical-code Labels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-wen; ZHANG Qi; YU Chong-xiu; XIN Xiang-jun; XIONG Fei

    2009-01-01

    Proposed is a novel optical code(OC) label switching scheme in which an optical label is constructed by multiple parallel optical codes. The performances of splitting loss and BER are simulated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed label can be correctly recognized to perform packet switching. Compared with reported schemes using one OC as a label, the splitting loss in our proposal is lowered.

  9. Consumer response to monochrome Guideline Daily Amount nutrition labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztuğ, Yasemin; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Ossama Elshiewy, Ossama x

    2015-01-01

    Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling has received extensive political attention in recent years. Most studies assessing the influence of nutrition labelling focus on consumer attention to labels, while few concentrate on its effects on actual purchase behaviour. In this study, we present results...... in terms of market share but does not affect product choice behaviour. Instead, price and habit exhibit a greater impact on purchase behaviour and product choice than the GDA label introduction....

  10. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  11. Supervised Sequence Labelling with Recurrent Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Supervised sequence labelling is a vital area of machine learning, encompassing tasks such as speech, handwriting and gesture recognition, protein secondary structure prediction and part-of-speech tagging. Recurrent neural networks are powerful sequence learning tools—robust to input noise and distortion, able to exploit long-range contextual information—that would seem ideally suited to such problems. However their role in large-scale sequence labelling systems has so far been auxiliary.    The goal of this book is a complete framework for classifying and transcribing sequential data with recurrent neural networks only. Three main innovations are introduced in order to realise this goal. Firstly, the connectionist temporal classification output layer allows the framework to be trained with unsegmented target sequences, such as phoneme-level speech transcriptions; this is in contrast to previous connectionist approaches, which were dependent on error-prone prior segmentation. Secondly, multidimensional...

  12. Matching isotopic distributions from metabolically labeled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, Sean; Page, David; Huttlin, Edward L; Sussman, Michael R

    2008-07-01

    In recent years stable isotopic labeling has become a standard approach for quantitative proteomic analyses. Among the many available isotopic labeling strategies, metabolic labeling is attractive for the excellent internal control it provides. However, analysis of data from metabolic labeling experiments can be complicated because the spacing between labeled and unlabeled forms of each peptide depends on its sequence, and is thus variable from analyte to analyte. As a result, one generally needs to know the sequence of a peptide to identify its matching isotopic distributions in an automated fashion. In some experimental situations it would be necessary or desirable to match pairs of labeled and unlabeled peaks from peptides of unknown sequence. This article addresses this largely overlooked problem in the analysis of quantitative mass spectrometry data by presenting an algorithm that not only identifies isotopic distributions within a mass spectrum, but also annotates matches between natural abundance light isotopic distributions and their metabolically labeled counterparts. This algorithm is designed in two stages: first we annotate the isotopic peaks using a modified version of the IDM algorithm described last year; then we use a probabilistic classifier that is supplemented by dynamic programming to find the metabolically labeled matched isotopic pairs. Such a method is needed for high-throughput quantitative proteomic metabolomic experiments measured via mass spectrometry. The primary result of this article is that the dynamic programming approach performs well given perfect isotopic distribution annotations. Our algorithm achieves a true positive rate of 99% and a false positive rate of 1% using perfect isotopic distribution annotations. When the isotopic distributions are annotated given 'expert' selected peaks, the same algorithm gets a true positive rate of 77% and a false positive rate of 1%. Finally, when annotating using machine selected peaks, which

  13. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-11-01

    Cross relaxation, and mI -dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We , are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We , the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI -dependent.

  14. Combination Strategies for Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Carreras, X; Marquez, L; Surdeanu, M; 10.1613/jair.2088

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyzes a battery of inference models for the problem of semantic role labeling: one based on constraint satisfaction, and several strategies that model the inference as a meta-learning problem using discriminative classifiers. These classifiers are developed with a rich set of novel features that encode proposition and sentence-level information. To our knowledge, this is the first work that: (a) performs a thorough analysis of learning-based inference models for semantic role labeling, and (b) compares several inference strategies in this context. We evaluate the proposed inference strategies in the framework of the CoNLL-2005 shared task using only automatically-generated syntactic information. The extensive experimental evaluation and analysis indicates that all the proposed inference strategies are successful -they all outperform the current best results reported in the CoNLL-2005 evaluation exercise- but each of the proposed approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. Sev...

  15. Bioassay Labels Based on Apoferritin Nanovehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Lea, Alan S.; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-09-04

    Here we report a nanoparticle label based on apoferritin nanovehicle loaded internally with markers for sensitive electrochemical DNA detection. The central cavity structure, the dissociation and reconstitute properties at different pHs of apoferritin provide a facile method to load and release markers. Hexacynoferrate(III) was used as model marker to load into the cavity of apoferritin protein cage. The loaded nanoparticle surface was functionalized with amino-modified DNA probe. Electrochemical DNA hybridization assay based on the hexacynoferrate loaded apoferritin nanovehicle could detect 23 atmol DNA targets in 50 ul sample solution. The concept could be readily extended to load other redox and fluorescence markers for bioassay applications. The new nanoparticle labels hold great promise for multi-target detection (in connection to nanoparticles loaded with different markers) and for enhancing the sensitivity of other bioassays.

  16. Labeled Antimicrobial Peptides for Detection of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Beer , C, Koka, R. and Wang, X., 2001: Solid-Phase Capture of Proteins, Spores, and Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology , 67: 1300-1307. Yu...detection but often lack stability and sensitivity. Current biosensor technologies using fluorescently labeled antibodies are generally capable of...biosensor. J. ofRapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology , 9: 241- 257. Demarco, D. R. and Lim, D. Y., 2002: Detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old ... > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ...

  18. Enzyme-inhibitor mediated red cell labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackery, D.M.; Singh, J.; Wyeth, P. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    Red blood cells contain 90% of the body's enzyme carbonic anhydrase to which aromatic sulphonamide inhibitors bind tightly. P-iodo-benzene sulphonamide (PIBS) is a lipophilic inhibitor which would afford rapid cell labelling. Radioiodinated PIBS was prepared, in high yield, by radio ion exchange in the presence of ammonium sulphate. After intravenous injection of /sup 131/I-PIBS the radiolabel was found in the blood pool.

  19. 9 CFR 112.5 - Review and approval of labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... errors; (v) Adding or changing label control numbers of bar codes; and (vi) Revising or updating logos... second sheet of paper may be used. The carton label and enclosure shall be mounted on separate individual.... ______. (iv) Addition to label No. ______. (v) License Application Pending ______. (vi) Foreign Language...

  20. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Labels. 183.514...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.514 Fuel tanks: Labels. (a) Each fuel tank must have a label that meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (d)...

  1. 78 FR 34565 - Modification of Mandatory Label Information for Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Information for Wine AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule; Treasury... the mandatory labeling requirements for wine. The regulatory change permits alcohol content to appear... regulatory change provides greater flexibility in wine labeling, and will conform the TTB wine labeling...

  2. 9 CFR 317.5 - Generically approved labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generically approved labeling. 317.5 Section 317.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... section), or guarantees, or which is not a domestic product labeled in a foreign language; (2) Labeling...

  3. Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, S.; Fernández Celemín, L.; Grunert, K.G.; Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling

  4. Labeling and Rating Systems: Greater Access or Censorship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    This article asks the question: How well versed are school librarians on issues related to labeling and rating systems? As school librarians continue to design and implement resource location schemes to assist patrons, they must recognize the difference between using labels to create interest in books or implementing labeling and rating systems…

  5. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan;

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....

  6. 21 CFR 101.10 - Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods. 101.10 Section 101.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.10 Nutrition labeling...

  7. 46 CFR 195.11-20 - Marking and label plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and label plate. 195.11-20 Section 195.11-20... plate. (a) All vans shall be provided with a label plate stating light weight, gross weight, and power requirements where applicable. (b) For vans subject to inspection label plates shall provide space for the date...

  8. 21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling operations. 211.130 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling Control § 211.130 Packaging and labeling operations. There shall be written procedures designed...

  9. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11... THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the United States shall be labeled or marked in accordance with...

  10. Consistency in the safety labeling of bioequivalent medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jon; Friedlin, Jeff; Li, Xiaochun

    2013-03-01

    Bioequivalent medications are required by the Food and Drug Administration to have identical warnings on their labels. This requirement has both clinical and legal importance, yet has never been validated. We sought to determine the real-world consistency of electronic labeling for bioequivalent drugs from different manufacturers. Using natural language processing, we indexed the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) found in the Adverse Reactions and Post-Marketing sections of 9105 structured product labels. We calculated the standard deviation in ADR labeling for each bioequivalent drug and the percent deviation of each generic label from its corresponding brand. We also analyzed the performance of individual generic manufacturers. For the 25 drugs with the greatest discrepancy in labeled ADRs, we performed manual review to identify causes of inconsistency. 68% of multi-manufacturer drugs had discrepancies in ADR labeling. For a given drug, the mean deviation in number of labeled ADRs was 4.4, and the median was 0.8 (IQR 0 to 3.2). The mean range in number of labeled ADRs was 12 +/- 0.9, and the median was 2 (IQR 0 to 9). Overall, 77.9% of generic manufacturers produced labels differing from brand. Causes of inconsistency included missing tables, outdated post-marketing reports, and formatting issues. Despite FDA mandate, bioequivalent drugs often differ in their safety labeling. Physicians should be aware of such differences and regulators should consider new strategies for harmonizing bioequivalent labels. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Role of Linguistic Labels in Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    What is the role of linguistic labels in inductive generalization? According to one approach labels denote categories and differ from object features, whereas according to another approach labels start out as features and may become category markers in the course of development. This issue was addressed in four experiments with 4- and 5-year-olds…

  12. Immunogold labels: cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Grooth, de Bart G.; Hansma, Paul K.; Hulst, van Niek F.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using immunogold labels as cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy is shown in this paper. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image the surface of immunogold-labeled human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and labeled by an indirect imm

  13. Effect of Labels on Memory in the Absence of Rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William C.; Legant, Patricia

    This study tests the hypothesis that labeling facilitates recall in nursery school children if and only if it leads to rehearsal. Subjects were 34 children ranging in age from 47 to 53 months. During pretraining, those children in the Label group named pictures of animals and fruits as they were presented, while those in the No Label group matched…

  14. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    and Korman (STOC'10) established that labels in ancestor labeling schemes have size log n + Θ(log log n), our new lower bound separates ancestor and NCA labeling schemes. Our upper bound improves the 10 log n upper bound by Alstrup, Gavoille, Kaplan and Rauhe (TOCS'04), and our theoretical result even...

  15. The Impact of Standard Nutrition Labels on Alcoholic Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Julia A.; Dale, Chelsea F.; Fontana, Victoria C.; Collier, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not to mandate nutrition labels on alcoholic beverages is a topic of debate. We examined the effect of nutrition labels on (1) plans for drinking and (2) alcohol expectancies. Study 1, n = 80 underage college drinkers responded to an image of a beer with or without a nutrition label. Study 2, n = 98 community drinkers responded to…

  16. 19 CFR 122.115 - Labeling of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cargo. 122.115 Section 122.115 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.115 Labeling of cargo. A warning label, as required by § 18.4(e) of this chapter, shall be attached to all transit air cargo...

  17. 9 CFR 317.400 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from nutrition labeling. 317.400 Section 317.400 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.400...

  18. 16 CFR 300.11 - Improper methods of labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Crowding, intermingling, or obscuring with designs, vignettes, or other written, printed or graphic matter. ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improper methods of labeling. 300.11 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.11 Improper methods...

  19. Are consumers influenced in their food choice by health labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Elshiewy, Ossama

    Front of pack (FOP) nutrition labeling has received extensive political attention within the last years. The European Commission is proposing to make FOP nutrition labeling mandatory in order to guide consumers to make healthier food choices. Most of the studies of the effects on nutrition labeling...

  20. Geodesic atlas-based labeling of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast and robust atlas-based algorithm for labeling airway trees, using geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for an unlabeled airway tree are evaluated using distances to a training set of labeled airway trees. In tree-space, airway tree t...

  1. 49 CFR 583.9 - Attachment and maintenance of label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attachment and maintenance of label. 583.9 Section 583.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC... Attachment and maintenance of label. (a) Attachment of the label. (1) Except as provided in (a)(2),...

  2. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees...

  3. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    and Korman (STOC'10) established that labels in ancestor labeling schemes have size log n + Θ(log log n), our new lower bound separates ancestor and NCA labeling schemes. Our upper bound improves the 10 log n upper bound by Alstrup, Gavoille, Kaplan and Rauhe (TOCS'04), and our theoretical result even...

  4. Production of Alexa Fluor 488-labeled reovirus and characterization of target cell binding, competence, and immunogenicity of labeled virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecek, Ronald J; Busch, Ryan; Lin, Hong; Pal, Kasturi; Cunningham, Cynthia A; Cuff, Christopher F

    2006-07-31

    Respiratory enteric orphan virus (reovirus) has been used to study many aspects of the biology and genetics of viruses, viral infection, pathogenesis, and the immune response to virus infection. This report describes the functional activity of virus labeled with Alexa Fluor 488, a stable fluorescent dye. Matrix assisted laser desorption-time of flight analysis indicated that Alexa Fluor 488 labeled the outer capsid proteins of reovirus. Labeled virus bound to murine L929 fibroblasts as determined by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, and the specificity of binding were demonstrated by competitive inhibition with non-labeled virus. Labeled reovirus induced apoptosis and cytopathic effect in infected L929 cells. Mice infected with labeled virus mounted robust serum antibody and CD8(+) T-cell responses, indicating that labeled virus retained immunogenicity in vivo. These results indicate that Alexa Fluor 488-labeled virus provides a powerful new tool to analyze reovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Transmission Properties and All-Optical Label Swapping of Orthogonal IM/FSK Labeled Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo; V.; Holm-Nielsen; Christophe; Peucheret; Idelfonso; Tafur; Monroy; Palle; Jeppesen

    2003-01-01

    OpticallylabeledIM/FSKsignalsaretransmittedover50kmofSMFunderdifferentcompensationschemes.All-optical label swapping based on MZ-SOA and EAM is presented. Transmission followed by label swapping shows a 2dB overall power penalty.

  6. k-Odd mean labeling of prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gayathri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ‎A $(p‎,‎q$ graph $G$ is said to have a $k$-odd mean‎ ‎labeling $(k ge 1$ if there exists an injection $f‎ : ‎V‎ ‎to {0‎, ‎1‎, ‎2‎, ‎ldots‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎2q‎ - ‎3}$ such that the‎ ‎induced map $f^*$ defined on $E$ by $f^*(uv =‎ ‎leftlceil frac{f(u+f(v}{2}rightrceil$ is a‎ ‎bijection from $E$ to ${2k - ‎‎‎1‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎1‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎3‎, ‎ldots‎, ‎2‎ ‎k‎ + ‎2q‎ - ‎3}$‎. ‎A graph that admits $k$-odd mean‎ ‎labeling is called $k$-odd mean graph‎. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we investigate $k$-odd mean labeling of prism $C_m times‎ ‎P_n$‎.

  7. Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of cytochromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Yao, Da-Kang; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-02-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has achieved submicron lateral resolution in showing subcellular structures; however, relatively few endogenous subcellular contrasts have so far been imaged. Given that the hemeprotein, mostly cytochromes in general cells, is optically absorbing around the Soret peak (˜420 nm), we implemented label-free PAM of cytochromes in cytoplasm for the first time. By measuring the photoacoustic spectra of the oxidized and reduced states of fibroblast lysate and fitting the difference spectrum with three types of cytochromes, we found that the three cytochromes account for more than half the optical absorption in the cell lysate at 420 nm wavelength. Fixed fibroblasts on slides were imaged by PAM at 422 and 250 nm wavelengths to reveal cytoplasms and nuclei, respectively, as confirmed by standard staining histology. PAM was also applied to label-free histology of mouse ear sections by showing cytoplasms and nuclei of various cells. PAM of cytochromes in cytoplasm is expected to be a high-throughput, label-free technique for studying live cell functions, which cannot be accomplished by conventional histology.

  8. Milk and Dairy Products Labeling in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present communication contains research and experimental investigations regarding the labelling process of dairy products in tight relation with the national and European legislative requirements. Two methods have been used during the marketing research regarding the information present on the labels of alimentary products: the method based on documentation-observation and comparative analysis of data and information collected from the consume market in Sibiu. The method based on documentation and observation has been carried out using the observation sheet and contained the following analysis criteria: The name of the product, Country origin of the product (location of the producer. Synthesizing the results and the conclusions emerged as a result of the marketing research carried out with the purpose of contouring a labelling model of alimentary products, it can be stated that the dynamics of the alimentary products market in Romania is moderate and restrained by the economical and social factors and even by the still reduces promotion of a healthy alimentary education, with the complementary protection of human health and environment.

  9. Semantic Labeling of Nonspeech Audio Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human communication about entities and events is primarily linguistic in nature. While visual representations of information are shown to be highly effective as well, relatively little is known about the communicative power of auditory nonlinguistic representations. We created a collection of short nonlinguistic auditory clips encoding familiar human activities, objects, animals, natural phenomena, machinery, and social scenes. We presented these sounds to a broad spectrum of anonymous human workers using Amazon Mechanical Turk and collected verbal sound labels. We analyzed the human labels in terms of their lexical and semantic properties to ascertain that the audio clips do evoke the information suggested by their pre-defined captions. We then measured the agreement with the semantically compatible labels for each sound clip. Finally, we examined which kinds of entities and events, when captured by nonlinguistic acoustic clips, appear to be well-suited to elicit information for communication, and which ones are less discriminable. Our work is set against the broader goal of creating resources that facilitate communication for people with some types of language loss. Furthermore, our data should prove useful for future research in machine analysis/synthesis of audio, such as computational auditory scene analysis, and annotating/querying large collections of sound effects.

  10. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xi; Peng, Jianxin [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Xu, Pingyong, E-mail: pyxu@ibp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Huan, Shuangyan, E-mail: shuangyanhuan@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Mingshu, E-mail: mingshu1984@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.

  11. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2016-06-06

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  12. The topology of metabolic isotope labeling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiechert Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA based on isotope labeling experiments (ILEs is a widely established tool for determining fluxes in metabolic pathways. Isotope labeling networks (ILNs contain all essential information required to describe the flow of labeled material in an ILE. Whereas recent experimental progress paves the way for high-throughput MFA, large network investigations and exact statistical methods, these developments are still limited by the poor performance of computational routines used for the evaluation and design of ILEs. In this context, the global analysis of ILN topology turns out to be a clue for realizing large speedup factors in all required computational procedures. Results With a strong focus on the speedup of algorithms the topology of ILNs is investigated using graph theoretic concepts and algorithms. A rigorous determination of all cyclic and isomorphic subnetworks, accompanied by the global analysis of ILN connectivity is performed. Particularly, it is proven that ILNs always brake up into a large number of small strongly connected components (SCCs and, moreover, there are natural isomorphisms between many of these SCCs. All presented techniques are universal, i.e. they do not require special assumptions on the network structure, bidirectionality of fluxes, measurement configuration, or label input. The general results are exemplified with a practically relevant metabolic network which describes the central metabolism of E. coli comprising 10390 isotopomer pools. Conclusion Exploiting the topological features of ILNs leads to a significant speedup of all universal algorithms for ILE evaluation. It is proven in theory and exemplified with the E. coli example that a speedup factor of about 1000 compared to standard algorithms is achieved. This widely opens the door for new high performance algorithms suitable for high throughput applications and large ILNs. Moreover, for the first time the global

  13. Labeling of mental disorders and stigma in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Annemarie; Jorm, Anthony F; Mackinnon, Andrew J

    2011-08-01

    Mental disorders are common in young people, yet many do not seek help. The use of psychiatric labels to describe mental disorders is associated with effective help-seeking choices, and is promoted in community awareness initiatives designed to improve help-seeking. However these labels may also be coupled with stigmatizing beliefs and therefore inhibit help-seeking: lay mental health or non-specific labels may be less harmful. We examined the association between labeling of mental disorders and stigma in youth using data from a national telephone survey of 2802 Australians aged 12-25 years conducted from June 2006 to August 2006. Label use and stigmatizing beliefs were assessed in response to vignettes of a young person experiencing depression, psychosis or social phobia. Logistic regressions examined the association between a range of labels commonly used, including psychiatric labels, and a range of stigma components. There were no significant associations between label use and the stigma components of "stigma perceived in others", "reluctance to disclose" and for the most part "social distance". Most mental health labels were associated with seeing the person as "sick" rather than "weak" and accurate psychiatric labels had the strongest effect sizes. However, for the psychosis vignette, the "dangerous/unpredictable" component was predicted by the labels "schizophrenia/psychosis", "mental illness" and "psychological problem", and the accurate psychiatric label showed the strongest association. For all vignettes, generic lay labels were not associated with stigma, but also rarely had a counter stigma effect. These findings suggest that the use of accurate psychiatric labels by young people is seldom associated with stigma and may assist young people by reducing perceptions of weakness. However, community education that promotes accurate labeling of psychosis should proceed with caution and address beliefs about dangerousness and unpredictability. Copyright

  14. Progressive multi-atlas label fusion by dictionary evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yantao; Wu, Guorong; Bahrami, Khosro; Sun, Quansen; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-02-01

    Accurate segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is important in recent imaging based studies. In the past years, multi-atlas patch-based label fusion methods have achieved a great success in medical image segmentation. In these methods, the appearance of each input image patch is first represented by an atlas patch dictionary (in the image domain), and then the latent label of the input image patch is predicted by applying the estimated representation coefficients to the corresponding anatomical labels of the atlas patches in the atlas label dictionary (in the label domain). However, due to the generally large gap between the patch appearance in the image domain and the patch structure in the label domain, the estimated (patch) representation coefficients from the image domain may not be optimal for the final label fusion, thus reducing the labeling accuracy. To address this issue, we propose a novel label fusion framework to seek for the suitable label fusion weights by progressively constructing a dynamic dictionary in a layer-by-layer manner, where the intermediate dictionaries act as a sequence of guidance to steer the transition of (patch) representation coefficients from the image domain to the label domain. Our proposed multi-layer label fusion framework is flexible enough to be applied to the existing labeling methods for improving their label fusion performance, i.e., by extending their single-layer static dictionary to the multi-layer dynamic dictionary. The experimental results show that our proposed progressive label fusion method achieves more accurate hippocampal segmentation results for the ADNI dataset, compared to the counterpart methods using only the single-layer static dictionary.

  15. FAST LABEL: Easy and efficient solution of joint multi-label and estimation problems

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2014-06-01

    We derive an easy-to-implement and efficient algorithm for solving multi-label image partitioning problems in the form of the problem addressed by Region Competition. These problems jointly determine a parameter for each of the regions in the partition. Given an estimate of the parameters, a fast approximate solution to the multi-label sub-problem is derived by a global update that uses smoothing and thresholding. The method is empirically validated to be robust to fine details of the image that plague local solutions. Further, in comparison to global methods for the multi-label problem, the method is more efficient and it is easy for a non-specialist to implement. We give sample Matlab code for the multi-label Chan-Vese problem in this paper! Experimental comparison to the state-of-the-art in multi-label solutions to Region Competition shows that our method achieves equal or better accuracy, with the main advantage being speed and ease of implementation.

  16. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Abroskin, Dmitry P.; Badun, Gennady A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Korobkov, Viktor I.; Beer, Anton S.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.; Senik, Svetlana V.; Klein, Olga I.; Perminova, Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions.

  17. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  18. Quantitative metabolism using AMS: Choosing a labeled precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Links, Jennifer [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Palmblad, Magnus [Department of Parasitology, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Ognibene, Ted; Turteltaub, Ken [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bench, Graham, E-mail: bench1@llnl.go [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Biological radioisotope studies suffer from a lack of sensitive measurement techniques and therefore traditionally require large amounts of labeled material to produce a measurable signal. Such quantities of materials are often significantly higher than naturally-occurring levels preventing these studies from replicating physiological conditions. AMS affords the sensitivity necessary to perform biological radioisotope studies with low levels of labeled material that preserve physiological conditions. The choice of labeled material can substantially affect the ease of interpretation and comprehensiveness of these studies. Here, the benefits and limitations of whole-cell labeling with {sup 14}C-glucose and targeted pathway labeling with {sup 14}C-nicotinic acid are discussed and compared.

  19. Synthesis of carbon-14 and tritium labeled methylprednisolone suleptanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolle, W.T.; Runge, T.A.; Hsi, R.S.P. (Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI (United States))

    1990-05-01

    Methylprednisolone suleptanate was initially labeled with tritium in the A-ring of the steroid portion of the molecule, and with carbon-14 at both carboxylic carbons of the suberic acid portion of the side chain. However these labels proved to lack total metabolic stability after administration to rats. Subsequently a second pair of labeled methylprednisolone suleptanates was synthesized, with tritium at C-7 in the B-ring of the steroid and carbon-14 exclusively at the carboxamide carbon in the side chain. These labeled compounds showed excellent metabolic stability of both the tritium and carbon-14 labels, and should be well suited for conducting drug disposition studies. (author).

  20. Prime labeling of families of trees with Gaussian integers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Klee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A graph on n vertices is said to admit a prime labeling if we can label its vertices with the first n natural numbers such that any two adjacent vertices have relatively prime labels. Here we extend the idea of prime labeling to the Gaussian integers, which are the complex numbers whose real and imaginary parts are both integers. We begin by defining an order on the Gaussian integers that lie in the first quadrant. Using this ordering, we show that several families of trees admit a prime labeling with the Gaussian integers.

  1. Are consumers influenced in their food choice by health labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Elshiewy, Ossama

    focus on consumer attention to labels and very few studies concentrate on effects on actual purchase behavior. In this study we report the results from an analysis of scanner data provided by a large UK retailer and the conclusion is that GDA label introduction does not have the expected consequences......Front of pack (FOP) nutrition labeling has received extensive political attention within the last years. The European Commission is proposing to make FOP nutrition labeling mandatory in order to guide consumers to make healthier food choices. Most of the studies of the effects on nutrition labeling...

  2. Probabilistic atlas based labeling of the cerebral vessel tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Giessen, Martijn; Janssen, Jasper P.; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2015-03-01

    Preoperative imaging of the cerebral vessel tree is essential for planning therapy on intracranial stenoses and aneurysms. Usually, a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) is acquired from which the cerebral vessel tree is segmented. Accurate analysis is helped by the labeling of the cerebral vessels, but labeling is non-trivial due to anatomical topological variability and missing branches due to acquisition issues. In recent literature, labeling the cerebral vasculature around the Circle of Willis has mainly been approached as a graph-based problem. The most successful method, however, requires the definition of all possible permutations of missing vessels, which limits application to subsets of the tree and ignores spatial information about the vessel locations. This research aims to perform labeling using probabilistic atlases that model spatial vessel and label likelihoods. A cerebral vessel tree is aligned to a probabilistic atlas and subsequently each vessel is labeled by computing the maximum label likelihood per segment from label-specific atlases. The proposed method was validated on 25 segmented cerebral vessel trees. Labeling accuracies were close to 100% for large vessels, but dropped to 50-60% for small vessels that were only present in less than 50% of the set. With this work we showed that using solely spatial information of the vessel labels, vessel segments from stable vessels (>50% presence) were reliably classified. This spatial information will form the basis for a future labeling strategy with a very loose topological model.

  3. Redundant spoken labels facilitate perception of multiple items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupyan, Gary; Spivey, Michael J

    2010-11-01

    Because of the strong associations between verbal labels and the visual objects that they denote, hearing a word may quickly guide the deployment of visual attention to the named objects. We report six experiments in which we investigated the effect of hearing redundant (noninformative) object labels on the visual processing of multiple objects from the named category. Even though the word cues did not provide additional information to the participants, hearing a label resulted in faster detection of attention probes appearing near the objects denoted by the label. For example, hearing the word chair resulted in more effective visual processing of all of the chairs in a scene relative to trials in which the participants attended to the chairs without actually hearing the label. This facilitation was mediated by stimulus typicality. Transformations of the stimuli that disrupted their association with the label while preserving the low-level visual features eliminated the facilitative effect of the labels. In the final experiment, we show that hearing a label improves the accuracy of locating multiple items matching the label, even when eye movements are restricted. We posit that verbal labels dynamically modulate visual processing via top-down feedback--an instance of linguistic labels greasing the wheels of perception.

  4. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwu; Fu, Zhenyong; Xiang, Tao; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Gao, Xin

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these 'free' tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  5. Reading the Small Print – Labelling Recommendations for Orthopaedic Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haene, Roger A; Sandhu, Ranbir S; Baxandall, Richard

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There exist, currently, no clear guidelines regarding standards for surgical implant labelling. Dimensions of the laminar flow canopies in orthopaedic use fixes the distance at which implant labels can be read. Mistakes when reading the label on an implant box can pose health risks for patients, and financial consequences for medical institutions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Using scientifically validated tools such as the Snellen Chart Formula, a theoretical minimum standard for text on implant labels was reached. This theoretical standard was then tested under real operating conditions. After discovering a minimum practical standard for implant labels, the authors then audited current labels in use on a wide range of orthopaedic implant packages. Furthermore, other non-text-related labelling problems were also noted. RESULTS There is a definite minimum standard which should be observed when implant labels are manufactured. Implants in current use bear labels on the packaging that are of an insufficient standard to ensure patient safety in theatre. CONCLUSIONS The authors have established text parameters that will increase the legibility of implant labels. In the interests of improving risk management in theatre, therefore, the authors propose a standard for orthopaedic implant labelling, and believe this will provide a useful foundation for further discussion between the orthopaedic community and implant manufacturers. PMID:19686615

  6. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  7. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation.

  8. Multiplexed Spectral Imaging of 120 Different Fluorescent Labels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M Valm

    Full Text Available The number of fluorescent labels that can unambiguously be distinguished in a single image when acquired through band pass filters is severely limited by the spectral overlap of available fluorophores. The recent development of spectral microscopy and the application of linear unmixing algorithms to spectrally recorded image data have allowed simultaneous imaging of fluorophores with highly overlapping spectra. However, the number of distinguishable fluorophores is still limited by the unavoidable decrease in signal to noise ratio when fluorescence signals are fractionated over multiple wavelength bins. Here we present a spectral image analysis algorithm to greatly expand the number of distinguishable objects labeled with binary combinations of fluorophores. Our algorithm utilizes a priori knowledge about labeled specimens and imposes a binary label constraint on the unmixing solution. We have applied our labeling and analysis strategy to identify microbes labeled by fluorescence in situ hybridization and here demonstrate the ability to distinguish 120 differently labeled microbes in a single image.

  9. Research on consumer reactions to nutrition labelling (FLABEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. Recent and ongoing research, including research in the European Union (EU)-funded FP7 project FLABEL (Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life), is accumulating evidence not only on consumer liking of labels and on self-reported use, but also on labels......Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies......' attention-getting potential, on the way consumers draw inferences on product healthiness from them, and on how they actually affect choices. Based on the findings from this project, best practice guidelines will be developed for use of nutrition labelling in EU policy and the food industry, especially SMEs...

  10. The relationship among expressions, labels, and descriptions of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Ekman, Paul

    2004-10-01

    This article reports 4 studies that demonstrate that the contempt expression is reliably associated with situations that elicit contempt and that the inability to label the contempt expression reflects a problem with its label or concept and not with the relationship between its expression and emotion. In Study I, the labeling of contempt in fixed-choice judgment tasks did not occur because of a process of elimination. In Studies 2 and 3, the contempt expression was associated with situations that elicit contempt, but participants did not label the situations in an open-ended response. In Study 3, participants also more reliably labeled the contempt expression with situations rather than with labels and did not generate contempt situations from labels. In Study 4, participants reported using, hearing, and reading about contempt the least among 7 emotions tested. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Food Labeling and Consumer Associations with Health, Safety, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K; Doran, Neal

    2016-12-01

    The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO. Findings indicated that respondents consistently believed that foods labeled GMO are less healthy, safe and environmentally-friendly compared to all other labels (ps GMO food. These findings may provide insight for the development of labels that provide information that consumers seek.

  12. Quantifying emphysema extent from weakly labeled CT scans of the lungs using label proportions learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of emphysema extent is important in diagnosing and monitoring patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several studies have shown that emphysema quantification by supervised texture classification is more robust and accurate than traditional densitometry. Current...... techniques require highly time consuming manual annotations of patches or use only weak labels indicating overall disease status (e.g, COPD or healthy). We show how visual scoring of regional emphysema extent can be exploited in a learning with label proportions (LLP) framework to both predict presence...

  13. Synthesis of {sup 14}C-labeled levamisole and {sup 13}C-labeled tetramisole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feil, V.J. [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Biosciences Research Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The syntheses of {sup 14}C-ring labeled levamisole ([-]-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-6-phenyl [{sup 14}C]-UL imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole) from acetophenone-ring-UL-{sup 14}C in 5 steps plus resolution with a 7.5% overall yield, and {sup 13}C{sub 6}-ring labeled tetramisole ([{+-}]-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-6-phenyl [{sup 13}C{sub 6}]imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole) from benzene-{sup 13}C{sub 6} in 6 steps with a 9.0% overall yield are described. (author).

  14. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  15. Off-label drug in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cuzzolin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specific drugs and labelling recommendations for the neonatal population is a long-standing problem throughout the world. With the introduction of the Paediatric Regulation in 2007, in Europe tangible steps have been made to increase clinical research in children, but only a limited number of clinical trials included neonates that remain therapeutic orphans. This leads to a widespread use of medicines outside the terms indicated in the product license (off-label as regards dose, route of administration, indication, age group or in an unlicensed manner (formulations modified, extemporaneous preparations, imported medicines, chemicals used as drugs. This use, often made on the basis of a consolidated clinical experience in absence of other authorized options, does not imply that a drug is contraindicated or disapproved, but simply means that insufficient data are available to grant approval status and the risks and benefits of using a drug in a particular situation have not been examined. Given the importance that neonatal population not be denied of drugs that are clearly beneficial, an updated overview of the worldwide situation of off-label and unlicensed drug use in the newborn will be presented, by analyzing also the impact of recent legislative initiatives and the well recognized problems (increased risk of ineffective or toxic treatments, adverse drug reactions and medication errors. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  16. Neutron encoded labeling for peptide identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Christopher M; Merrill, Anna E; Bailey, Derek J; Hebert, Alexander S; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J

    2013-05-21

    Metabolic labeling of cells using heavy amino acids is most commonly used for relative quantitation; however, partner mass shifts also detail the number of heavy amino acids contained within the precursor species. Here, we use a recently developed metabolic labeling technique, NeuCode (neutron encoding) stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), which produces precursor partners spaced ~40 mDa apart to enable amino acid counting. We implement large scale counting of amino acids through a program, "Amino Acid Counter", which determines the most likely combination of amino acids within a precursor based on NeuCode SILAC partner spacing and filters candidate peptide sequences during a database search using this information. Counting the number of lysine residues for precursors selected for MS/MS decreases the median number of candidate sequences from 44 to 14 as compared to an accurate mass search alone (20 ppm). Furthermore, the ability to co-isolate and fragment NeuCode SILAC partners enables counting of lysines in product ions, and when the information is used, the median number of candidates is reduced to 7. We then demonstrate counting leucine in addition to lysine results in a 6-fold decrease in search space, 43 to 7, when compared to an accurate mass search. We use this scheme to analyze a nanoLC-MS/MS experiment and demonstrate that accurate mass plus lysine and leucine counting reduces the number of candidate sequences to one for ~20% of all precursors selected, demonstrating an ability to identify precursors without MS/MS analysis.

  17. Pseudocontact shifts from mobile spin labels

    CERN Document Server

    Suturina, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the pseudocontact shift (PCS) field induced by a mobile spin label that is viewed as a probability density distribution with an associated magnetic susceptibility. It is demonstrated that anisotropy in this density can lead to significant deviations from the commonly used point dipole approximation for PCS. Analytical and numerical solutions are presented for the general partial differential equation that describes the non-point case. It is also demonstrated that it is possible to reconstruct paramagnetic centre probability distributions from experimental PCS data.

  18. Modifying Orthogonal Drawings for Label Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Kakoulis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate how one can modify an orthogonal graph drawing to accommodate the placement of overlap-free labels with the minimum cost (i.e., minimum increase of the area and preservation of the quality of the drawing. We investigate computational complexity issues of variations of that problem, and we present polynomial time algorithms that find the minimum increase of space in one direction, needed to resolve overlaps, while preserving the orthogonal representation of the orthogonal drawing when objects have a predefined partial order.

  19. USA: California rejects mandatory GMO labelling

    OpenAIRE

    PAULL, JOHN

    2012-01-01

    Buying organic remains the best strategy for US consumers to avoid eating GM food. The voters of California have rejected the proposal to label GMO food. The proposition was narrowly lost, 47% to 53% (4,326,770 ‘Yes’ votes vs. 4,884,961 ‘No’ votes). Proposition 47 was supported by the organic sector but opposed by a coalition of GMO companies and US multinational food companies. Californians were invited to vote into law ‘The California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act’. Section ...

  20. Thailand: Country Report on Labelling and Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Chitanondh, Hatai; World Health Organization

    2003-01-01

    Thailand: Country Report on Labelling and Packaging Introduction From 1981 to 2001 there were dramatic changes in tobacco consumption in Thailand. The total number of smokers rose from 9.7 million in 1981 to 10.6 million two decades later. Smoking prevalence declined from 35.2% to 22.5% during the same period. The male smoking rate decreased from 63.2% to 42.9%, while female prevalence fell from 5.4% to 2.4.%. Per capita consumption rose from about 774 in 1970 to 1 087 in 1980. Since that t...

  1. Preparation of radioiodine labelled thiouracil derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, T.J.; Klootwijk, W. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1981-05-01

    2-Thiouracil and 6-propyl-2-thiouracil are radioiodinated with high yield using the chloramine-T method at low pH to prevent oxidation of the sulfur. The radioiodine-labelled derivatives are purified by adsorption chromatography on Sephadex G-10. The identity and purity of the products obtained are demonstrated by both normal- and reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The specific activity of the tracers amounts to approximately 1750 Ci mmol/sup -1/. Conditions for storage are described as well. These radioactive compounds may be used in the investigation of the mechanism of action of thyroid peroxidase as well as of iodothyronine deiodinases.

  2. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  3. The Brazilian programme for labelling photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco Antonio; Lima, Jorge Henrique [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcoag@cepel.br; Novgorodcev, Alexandre [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (PBE/INMETRO), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa Brasileiro de Etiquetagem; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Zanesco, Izete; Moehlecke, Adriano [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Krenzinger, Arno [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir de Faro [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A great increase in the installation of stand-alone PV systems for rural electrification is expected in Brazil for the next years due to a government program named Luz para Todos. However, there is a major concern for the quality of the equipment and systems to be acquired and installed, which led to an initiative, coordinated by INMETRO - Brazilian Institute for Metrology, Standardisation and Industrial Quality (Instituto Brasileiro de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial), joining several institutions to establish a programme for labelling these equipment. The adopted requirements are discussed in the present article. (author)

  4. [Medicalization I. 'Disease labeling: All business.'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerecedo Pérez, María Jesús; Tovar Bobo, Margarita; Rozadilla Arias, Aurora

    2013-10-01

    Western societies have displaced problems from the subjective and social fields over to medicine, and the search for the perfect health has become an obsession and a pathogenic predominant factor. Paradoxically, the number of ilnesses and sick people arises proportionally with health levels. We now tend to add «disease labels» in daily clinical practice to behaviors and events that are nothing but elements of character or even healthy reactions to laboral and familial conflicts or mourning. In this article, we analyze the factors that determine this «medicalization» process and its consequences, with a particular emphasis in the iatrogenesis of unnecessary medical interventions.

  5. Carboxyfluorescein Diacetate Succinimidyl Ester Fluorescent Dye for Cell Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qi WANG; Xiu-Mei DUAN; Li-Hua LIU; Yan-Qiu FANG; Yan TAN

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to study the properties of the carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE) and the methodology of cell labeling using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. First, we analyzed the kinetics of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye intensity over time. Second, we determined the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling. Third, we tested the toxicity of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye on labeled cells. Finally, we determined the optimal staining time of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling.The results show that the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling varies according to different cell types. CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is non-toxic to cells as the cell death rate caused by CFDASE labeling is below 5%. The optimal cell labeling time was determined to be 8 min of incubation with CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. We concluded that the advantages of using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling are as follows: (1) the binding of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye to cells is stable; (2) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is not toxic and does not modify the viability of labeled cells; and (3) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is a suitable fluorochrome for cell labeling.

  6. Compact Ancestry Labeling Schemes for Trees of Small Depth

    CERN Document Server

    Fraigniaud, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    An {\\em ancestry labeling scheme} labels the nodes of any tree in such a way that ancestry queries between any two nodes in a tree can be answered just by looking at their corresponding labels. The common measure to evaluate the quality of an ancestry labeling scheme is by its {\\em label size}, that is the maximal number of bits stored in a label, taken over all $n$-node trees. The design of ancestry labeling schemes finds applications in XML search engines. In the context of these applications, even small improvements in the label size are important. In fact, the literature about this topic is interested in the exact label size rather than just its order of magnitude. As a result, following the proposal of an original scheme of size $2\\log n$ bits, a considerable amount of work was devoted to improve the bound on the label size. The current state of the art upper bound is $\\log n + O(\\sqrt{\\log n})$ bits which is still far from the known $\\log n + \\Omega(\\log\\log n)$ lower bound. Moreover, the hidden constan...

  7. Robust multi-atlas label propagation by deep sparse representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Chen; Wang, Zhengxia; Zhang, Daoqiang; Liang, Peipeng; Shi, Yonghong; Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Guorong

    2017-03-01

    Recently, multi-atlas patch-based label fusion has achieved many successes in medical imaging area. The basic assumption in the current state-of-the-art approaches is that the image patch at the target image point can be represented by a patch dictionary consisting of atlas patches from registered atlas images. Therefore, the label at the target image point can be determined by fusing labels of atlas image patches with similar anatomical structures. However, such assumption on image patch representation does not always hold in label fusion since (1) the image content within the patch may be corrupted due to noise and artifact; and (2) the distribution of morphometric patterns among atlas patches might be unbalanced such that the majority patterns can dominate label fusion result over other minority patterns. The violation of the above basic assumptions could significantly undermine the label fusion accuracy. To overcome these issues, we first consider forming label-specific group for the atlas patches with the same label. Then, we alter the conventional flat and shallow dictionary to a deep multi-layer structure, where the top layer (label-specific dictionaries) consists of groups of representative atlas patches and the subsequent layers (residual dictionaries) hierarchically encode the patchwise residual information in different scales. Thus, the label fusion follows the representation consensus across representative dictionaries. However, the representation of target patch in each group is iteratively optimized by using the representative atlas patches in each label-specific dictionary exclusively to match the principal patterns and also using all residual patterns across groups collaboratively to overcome the issue that some groups might be absent of certain variation patterns presented in the target image patch. Promising segmentation results have been achieved in labeling hippocampus on ADNI dataset, as well as basal ganglia and brainstem structures, compared

  8. Compressive Sequential Learning for Action Similarity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yunhong; Shao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Human action recognition in videos has been extensively studied in recent years due to its wide range of applications. Instead of classifying video sequences into a number of action categories, in this paper, we focus on a particular problem of action similarity labeling (ASLAN), which aims at verifying whether a pair of videos contain the same type of action or not. To address this challenge, a novel approach called compressive sequential learning (CSL) is proposed by leveraging the compressive sensing theory and sequential learning. We first project data points to a low-dimensional space by effectively exploring an important property in compressive sensing: the restricted isometry property. In particular, a very sparse measurement matrix is adopted to reduce the dimensionality efficiently. We then learn an ensemble classifier for measuring similarities between pairwise videos by iteratively minimizing its empirical risk with the AdaBoost strategy on the training set. Unlike conventional AdaBoost, the weak learner for each iteration is not explicitly defined and its parameters are learned through greedy optimization. Furthermore, an alternative of CSL named compressive sequential encoding is developed as an encoding technique and followed by a linear classifier to address the similarity-labeling problem. Our method has been systematically evaluated on four action data sets: ASLAN, KTH, HMDB51, and Hollywood2, and the results show the effectiveness and superiority of our method for ASLAN.

  9. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel economy estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel economy estimates for the creation of Economy Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel economy confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel economy information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel economy, te

  10. 18F-Labeling Using Click Cycloadditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kettenbach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to expanding applications of positron emission tomography (PET there is a demand for developing new techniques to introduce fluorine-18 (t1/2=109.8 min. Considering that most novel PET tracers are sensitive biomolecules and that direct introduction of fluorine-18 often needs harsh conditions, the insertion of 18F in those molecules poses an exceeding challenge. Two major challenges during 18F-labeling are a regioselective introduction and a fast and high yielding way under mild conditions. Furthermore, attention has to be paid to functionalities, which are usually present in complex structures of the target molecule. The Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC and several copper-free click reactions represent such methods for radiolabeling of sensitive molecules under the above-mentioned criteria. This minireview will provide a quick overview about the development of novel 18F-labeled prosthetic groups for click cycloadditions and will summarize recent trends in copper-catalyzed and copper-free click 18F-cycloadditions.

  11. Biosynthetic labeling of hypusine in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.H.; Folk, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    Using a dual-label technique in which /sup 3/H - and /sup 14/C-labeled forms of putrescine and of spermidine were employed as biosynthetic precursors of hypusine, two -C-H bond cleavages were detected during production of this unique amino acid in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One of these cleavages occurs at the C-1 position of the 4-aminobutyl group during its transfer from the secondary amine nitrogen of spermidine to the nitrogen at the upsilon-position of a specific lysine residue in the polypeptide precursor of eukaryotic initiation factor 4D. Breakage of the other -C-H bond takes place at the C-2 position in this aminobutyl segment after it has been coupled to lysine to form the intermediate deoxyhypusine residue. Hydroxylation at this carbon atom, which constitutes the last step in hypusine biosynthesis, is the cause of bond cleavage. The data obtained are consistent with a notion that no additional -C-H bond fissions occur during hypusine biosynthesis. The authors findings permit a suggestion of a mechanism for enzymic aminobutyl group transfer in which 4-amino-butyraldehyde produced by oxidative cleavage of spermidine is coupled with the upsilon-amino group of a specific lysine residue to form an enzyme-bound imine intermediate.

  12. Labelling and Self-Esteem: The Impact of Using Specific vs. Generic Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura Marie; Hume, Ian Robert; Welsh, Nikki

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between being labelled either as having dyslexia or as having general special educational needs (SEN) and a child's self-esteem. Seventy-five children aged between 8 and 15 years categorised as having dyslexia (N = 26), as having general SEN (N = 26) or as having no learning difficulties (N…

  13. Tritium labeled amino acid conjugates of prostaglandins and thromboxanes as labeled ligands in prostanoid radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautebin, L.; Kindahl, H.; Kumlin, M.; Granstroem, E.

    1985-09-01

    Conjugates of prostaglandins and thromboxanes with tritium labeled amino acids were prepared and employed as labeled ligands in prostaglandin and thromboxane radioimmunoassays. Assays for PGF2 alpha, 15-keto-13, 14-dihydro-PGF2 alpha, TXB2 and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-TXB2 were evaluated in comparative studies using either these heterologous ligands or the corresponding homologous tritiated eicosanoid as tracers. Binding properties for the respective antibodies were found to be similar using either tracer. Three biological studies were also conducted, viz. study of the release of TXB2 during collagen induced platelet aggregation, of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-TXB2 during guinea pig pulmonary anaphylaxis, and of PGF2 alpha during bovine luteolysis. The analyses gave comparable results using either the heterologous or the homologous assay. Thus, this type of labeled prostanoid conjugates may serve as a convenient alternative to homologous tracers in radioimmunoassay. Heterologous tracers may even in certain cases provide the only simple solution to the problem of preparing a labeled ligand of high specific activity.

  14. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  15. SU-E-I-14: Comparison of Iodine-Labeled and Indium-Labeled Antibody Biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is often assumed that animal biodistributions of novel proteins are not dependent upon the radiolabel used in their determination. In units of percent injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), organ uptake results (u) may be obtained using either iodine or metal as radioactive labels. Iodination is preferred as it is a one-step process whereas metal labeling requires two chemical procedures and therefore more protein material. It is important to test whether the radioactive tag leads to variation in the uptake value. Methods: Uptakes of 3antibodies to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearing 150 to 300 mg LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. Antibodies included diabody (56 kDa), minibody (80kDa) and intact M5A (150 kDa) anti-CEA cognates. Both radioiodine and indium-111 labels were used with uptakes evaluated at 7 time(t) points out to 96 h. Ratios (R) of u(iodine-label)/u(indium-label) were determined for liver, spleen, kidneys, lung and tumor. Results: Hepatic loss was rapid for diabody and minibody; by 24 h their R values were only 2%; i.e., uptake of iodine was 2% of that of indium for these 2 antibodies. By contrast, R for the intact cognate was 50% at that time point. Splenic results were similar. Tumor uptake ratios did not depend upon the antibody type and were 50% at 24 h. Conclusions: Relatively rapid loss of iodine relative to indium in liver and spleen was observed in lower mass antibodies. Tumor ratios were larger and independent of antibody type. Aside from tumor, the R ratio of uptakes depended on the antibody type. R values decreased monotonically with time in all tissues and for all cognates. Using this ratio, one can possibly correct iodine-based u (t) results so that they resemble radiometal-derived biodistributions.

  16. LABELING OPTIONS FOR POSTAL SHIPMENTS BY PASSIVE RFID TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Maslák

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the topic of labeling postal shipments by passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags. Every delivery company needs to have all necessary information for every single postal shipment package it carries. Shipment package labeling is essential for processing and tracking the postal shipments along its delivery process. Using RFID technology for the process brings advantages in more efficient delivery and data collection along with regular information updates of shipment status across complete delivery chain.In this article, we focused on the problem of logical log of key shipment package information into EPC memory of the RFID smart label. We have taken into account the National postal administrator and its current system of shipment labeling. In the end, we presented a design for conversion of contemporary labeling using bar codes into labeling using RFID tags.

  17. Two Strategies to Speed up Connected Component LabelingAlgorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Suzuki, Kenji

    2005-11-13

    This paper presents two new strategies to speed up connectedcomponent labeling algorithms. The first strategy employs a decisiontreeto minimize the work performed in the scanning phase of connectedcomponent labeling algorithms. The second strategy uses a simplifiedunion-find data structure to represent the equivalence information amongthe labels. For 8-connected components in atwo-dimensional (2D) image,the first strategy reduces the number of neighboring pixels visited from4 to7/3 on average. In various tests, using a decision tree decreases thescanning time by a factor of about 2. The second strategy uses a compactrepresentation of the union-find data structure. This strategysignificantly speeds up the labeling algorithms. We prove analyticallythat a labeling algorithm with our simplified union-find structure hasthe same optimal theoretical time complexity as do the best labelingalgorithms. By extensive experimental measurements, we confirm theexpected performance characteristics of the new labeling algorithms anddemonstrate that they are faster than other optimal labelingalgorithms.

  18. MULTI-LABEL CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCT REVIEWS USING STRUCTURED SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincy B. Chrystal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the text classification problems are associated with multiple class labels and hence automatic text classification is one of the most challenging and prominent research area. Text classification is the problem of categorizing text documents into different classes. In the multi-label classification scenario, each document is associated may have more than one label. The real challenge in the multi-label classification is the labelling of large number of text documents with a subset of class categories. The feature extraction and classification of such text documents require an efficient machine learning algorithm which performs automatic text classification. This paper describes the multi-label classification of product review documents using Structured Support Vector Machine.

  19. Labeling in Food Industries – a Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Neacºu Nicoleta Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The objective of foodstuff labeling is to guarantee that consumers have access to complete information on the content and composition of products, in order to protect their health and their interests. Other information may provide details on a particular aspect of the product, such as its origin or production method. Marketers use food labeling as a strategy to attract customers and promote products. In this paper we present role of food labeling for consumers, but also in marketing.

  20. Issues Regarding Origin Labeling of Food in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ligita Melece

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies which are connected with the establishment and development of quality trademarks (labels) of food products and of organically produced food products in Latvia. Also the place and importance of the food sector in total, and organic production in particular, is accented. The interpretation of EU quality mark is done and possibilities to obtain EU labels to Latvian food products are outlined At present there are two types of trademarks (labels) of food which...

  1. Analysis of Marketing Margins in Eco-Labeled Products

    OpenAIRE

    Carambas, Maria Cristina D.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article aims to explain the marketing margins in the eco-labeled products market in Thailand and the Philippines. It focuses on labeled organic agricultural commodities that are commonly exported especially in Europe, which has demand for this type of products. Understanding the interplay of economic variables influencing marketing margins in the eco-labeled market as compared to its conventional counterpart is relevant in understanding how this growing niche market works. The analytical...

  2. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  3. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  4. Label-Embedding for Attribute-Based Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Akata, Zeynep; Perronnin, Florent; Harchaoui, Zaid; Schmid, Cordelia

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Attributes are an intermediate representation, which enables parameter sharing between classes, a must when training data is scarce. We propose to view attribute-based image classification as a label-embedding problem: each class is embedded in the space of attribute vectors. We introduce a function which measures the compatibility between an image and a label embedding. The parameters of this function are learned on a training set of labeled samples to ensure that, gi...

  5. Data-Dependent Label Distribution Learning for Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouzhou; Li, Xi; Zhang, Zhongfei; Wu, Fei; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Yaqing; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Zhuang, Yueting

    2017-01-18

    As an important and challenging problem in computer vision, face age estimation is typically cast as a classification or regression problem over a set of face samples with respect to several ordinal age labels, which have intrinsically cross-age correlations across adjacent age dimensions. As a result, such correlations usually lead to the age label ambiguities of the face samples. Namely, each face sample is associated with a latent label distribution that encodes the cross-age correlation information on label ambiguities. Motivated by this observation, we propose a totally data-driven label distribution learning approach to adaptively learn the latent label distributions. The proposed approach is capable of effectively discovering the intrinsic age distribution patterns for cross-age correlation analysis on the basis of the local context structures of face samples. Without any prior assumptions on the forms of label distribution learning, our approach is able to flexibly model the sample-specific context aware label distribution properties by solving a multi-task problem, which jointly optimizes the tasks of age-label distribution learning and age prediction for individuals. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  6. Research on consumer reactions to nutrition labelling (FLABEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    ' attention-getting potential, on the way consumers draw inferences on product healthiness from them, and on how they actually affect choices. Based on the findings from this project, best practice guidelines will be developed for use of nutrition labelling in EU policy and the food industry, especially SMEs......Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies...

  7. Techniques for labeling of optical signals in bust switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Koonen, A. M. J.; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2003-01-01

    multiplexed (WDM) networks due to its single forwarding algorithm, thus yielding low latency, and it enables scaling to terabit rates. Moreover, LOBS is compatible with the general multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) framework for a unified control plane. We present a review on techniques for labeling......We present a review of significant issues related to labeled optical burst switched (LOBS) networks and technologies enabling future optical internet networks. Labeled optical burst switching provides a quick and efficient forwarding mechanism of IP packets/bursts over wavelength division...

  8. Quantitative proteomics using reductive dimethylation for stable isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Haas, Wilhelm

    2014-07-01

    Stable isotope labeling of peptides by reductive dimethylation (ReDi labeling) is a method to accurately quantify protein expression differences between samples using mass spectrometry. ReDi labeling is performed using either regular (light) or deuterated (heavy) forms of formaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride to add two methyl groups to each free amine. Here we demonstrate a robust protocol for ReDi labeling and quantitative comparison of complex protein mixtures. Protein samples for comparison are digested into peptides, labeled to carry either light or heavy methyl tags, mixed, and co-analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Relative protein abundances are quantified by comparing the ion chromatogram peak areas of heavy and light labeled versions of the constituent peptide extracted from the full MS spectra. The method described here includes sample preparation by reversed-phase solid phase extraction, on-column ReDi labeling of peptides, peptide fractionation by basic pH reversed-phase (BPRP) chromatography, and StageTip peptide purification. We discuss advantages and limitations of ReDi labeling with respect to other methods for stable isotope incorporation. We highlight novel applications using ReDi labeling as a fast, inexpensive, and accurate method to compare protein abundances in nearly any type of sample.

  9. Enhancing product label effectiveness by increasing attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    Fast moving consumer goods often carry product labels intended to guide and persuade consumers in their purchase decisions. However, past research indicates that these labels are rarely attended to during the consumer's decision process. In order to enhance the effectiveness of such labels...... are larger and more visually salient. The effect on attention also carries over into increased purchase likelihood. Both marketers and policy makers can benefit from the methodology and findings which provide directions for designing product labels that enhance attention capture and purchase decisions....

  10. Interval prediction for graded multi-label classification

    CERN Document Server

    Lastra, Gerardo; Bahamonde, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Multi-label was introduced as an extension of multi-class classification. The aim is to predict a set of classes (called labels in this context) instead of a single one, namely the set of relevant labels. If membership to the set of relevant labels is defined to a certain degree, the learning task is called graded multi-label classification. These learning tasks can be seen as a set of ordinal classifications. Hence, recommender systems can be considered as multi-label classification tasks. In this paper, we present a new type of nondeterministic learner that, for each instance, tries to predict at the same time the true grade for each label. When the classification is uncertain for a label, however, the hypotheses predict a set of consecutive grades, i.e., an interval. The goal is to keep the set of predicted grades as small as possible; while still containing the true grade. We shall see that these classifiers take advantage of the interrelations of labels. The result is that, with quite narrow intervals, i...

  11. Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells by bioconjugated quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhranti S; Clark, Paul A; Moioli, Eduardo K; Stroscio, Michael A; Mao, Jeremy J

    2007-10-01

    Long-term labeling of stem cells during self-replication and differentiation benefits investigations of development and tissue regeneration. We report the labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with RGD-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) during self-replication, and multilineage differentiations into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cells. QD-labeled hMSCs remained viable as unlabeled hMSCs from the same subpopulation. These findings suggest the use of bioconjugated QDs as an effective probe for long-term labeling of stem cells.

  12. Noncovalent Labeling of Biomolecules with Red and Near- Infrared Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids can be labeled with a fluorescent marker to allow for their detection. Covalent labeling is achieved by the reaction of an appropriately functionalized dye marker with a reactive group on a biomolecule. The recent trend, however, is the use of noncovalent labeling that results from strong hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions between the marker and biomolecule of interest. The main advantage of noncovalent labeling is that it affects the functional activity of the biomolecule to a lesser extent. The applications of luminescent cyanine and squarylium dyes are reviewed.

  13. Guide to good practices for equipment and piping labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Equipment and Piping Labeling, Chapter XVIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing labeling programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Equipment and Piping Labeling is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a coordinated labeling program to promote safe and efficient operations.

  14. 18F-Labelling of electron rich iodonium ylides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, I N; Villadsen, J; Hansen, H D

    2017-01-01

    (18)F-Labelling of aromatic moieties was limited to electron deficient aromatic systems for many years but recent developments have provided access to the direct labelling of electron rich aromatic systems. Herein we report the synthesis and (18)F-labelling of iodonium ylide precursors...... in the pursuit of (18)F-labelled 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET-ligands. Subsequent evaluation in pigs showed high brain uptake of the PET ligands but a blocking dose of ketanserin did not significantly reduce the signal in relevant brain regions - indicating that the ligands do not interact specifically with the 5...

  15. Synthesis of pentamidine labelled with tritium and carbon-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesk, D.; Jones, J.R. (Surrey Univ., Guildford (UK). Dept. of Chemistry); Lockley, W.J.S.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1990-11-01

    Tritium labelled pentamidine has been prepared with a specific activity of 90 mCi mmol{sup -1} using a one-step exchange reaction between the unlabelled drug and tritiated water. The labelling utilised a homogeneous rhodium trichloride catalyst and yielded pentamidine regiospecifically labelled in the positions ortho to the amidine groups. Carbon-14 labelled pentamidine was prepared via a seven-step procedure in which the isotope was introduced via a nucleophilic substitution of 4-bromo-phenol with copper(I) ({sup 14}C)cyanide. (author).

  16. Labeling the plasma membrane with TMA-DPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazotte, Brad

    2011-05-01

    INTRODUCTION TMA-DPH (trimethylamine-diphenylhexatriene) is a fluorescent membrane probe that has classically been used to label the outer leaflet of a membrane bilayer, to label the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in cells, and to report on membrane dynamics using the techniques of fluorescence polarization and/or fluorescence lifetime. This probe has also been used to follow exocytosis and endocytosis of labeled plasma membranes. The interaction of the aqueous environment with mitochondrial inner membrane dynamics has also been studied following the fluorescence polarization and the lifetime of TMA-DPH. This protocol describes the use of TMA-DPH to label the plasma membrane.

  17. Immediate bromodeoxyuridine labelling of unseparated human bone marrow cells ex vivo is superior to labelling after routine laboratory processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Mortensen, B T; Christensen, I J

    1998-01-01

    a reliable and reproducible technique for estimation of the fraction of cells that incorporated BrdUrd into DNA during S-phase. We have compared immediate BrdUrd labelling of unseparated bone marrow cells with the previously used labelling in the laboratory after routine separation of the mononuclear cells....... Bone marrow aspirates from seven lymphoma patients without bone marrow involvement were studied with these two methods. We found higher BrdUrd labelling indices (LI) in the mononuclear cells, when cells were labelled immediately. A large variation in LI was found between patients. Our results suggest...... that ex vivo BrdUrd labelling of bone marrow cells should be performed immediately after aspiration and before separation, because these data are closer to values reported from in vivo labelling with BrdUrd....

  18. Making sense of a generic label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Making sense of a generic label through linguistic context analysis: A study of genre (re)cognition among novices’ Considerable work has been done on written and spoken genres characterized by a high degree of ritualization with “predictable elements occurring in a predictable order” (Fairclough...... (Bhatia 2008) assist the analytical process? Inspired by Sommers and Saltz (2004), Bhatia (2008) and Tardy (2009), these research questions will be addressed on the basis of 55 exam papers written in January 2014 by 3rd year undergraduate students. The exam tested students’ competences in genre......) that the students had studied during the course leading up to the exam. Given the lack of situated cognition (Bawarshi and Reiff, 2010: 79) of one of these genres, the students were requested to produce arguments and justification for assigning the genres presented to them to two different genre colonies...

  19. Synthesis of some useful tritium labelled auxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchman, O.; Pri-Bar, I.; Shimoni, M.; Azran, J. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev)

    1992-06-01

    The synthesis of six useful auxins labelled with tritium is described. The following compounds were prepared: 3-indoleacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (28.9 Ci-1.07 TBq/mmol), 3-indolebutyric acid-5-[sup 3]H (7.3 Ci-270 GBq/mmol), 1-naphthylacetic acid-4-[sup 3]H (27.6 Ci-1.02 TBq/mmol), 2,4-dichloropheno-xyacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (18.5 Ci-685 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy-5-[sup 3]H) -propionic acid (20.7 Ci-766 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid-3-[sup 3]H (0.39 Ci-14.4 GMq/mmol), and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-2-[sup 3]H (13.3 Ci-492 GBq/mmol). (author).

  20. New opioid affinity labels containing maleoyl moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, I; Orosz, G; Rónai, A Z; Makó, E; Medzihradszky, K; Borsodi, A

    1999-01-01

    Opioid receptor binding properties and pharmacological profiles of novel peptides containing maleoyl function were determined in order to develop new affinity labels. Based on the enkephalin structure peptide ligands were synthesized and tested. Both in in vitro receptor binding experiments and pharmacological studies, all ligands showed agonist character with relatively high affinity (Ki values in the nanomolar range) and good to moderate selectivity. Replacement of Gly2 in the enkephalin frame with D-Ala led to higher affinities with a small decrease in selectivity. The longer peptide chains resulted in compounds with high percentage (up to 86%) of irreversible binding. The selectivity pattern of the ligands is in good agreement with the data obtained from the pharmacological assays (guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens bioassays). The newly synthesized peptides could be used in further studies in order to determine more detailed characteristics of the ligand-receptor interaction.

  1. Biochemistry Teaching Through Food Label Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Barbosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional classes of Basic Biochemistry often rely on memorization of facts and concepts.  For  this  reason,  many  educators  have  evaluated  new  strategies  and tools  to  enrich  learning  and  motivate  undergraduate  students.  As  a  result  of different  methodologies  used  for  this  purpose,  several  commited  professors  are convinced  that  students  learn  more  effectively  if  the  knowledge  they  acquire  are inserted and contextualized in relevant real-life. This work aimed to report the use of  a  new  strategy  to  provide  first-semester  physiotherapy  students  with  a  more practical  and  interesting  approach  to  Biochemistry.The  method  consisted  in  the use  of  food  label  analysis  as  an  approach  to  study  the  structure  and  function  of biomolecules.The  activity  was  developed  at  Faculdade  Christus  (located  in Fortaleza  using  15h  of  extra  classes.  Firstly,  the  students  were  requested  to collect  food  labels  during  a  week.  Secondly,  they  were  teached  to  read  and interpret  a  food  label  according  the  dietary  recommendations  of  World  Health Organization  and  National  Health  Surveillance  Agency  -  Brazil,  contrasting different  types  of  foods  with  regard  to  their  calories  and  nutrient  content.  In  this activity, the analysis of structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins was made to support the understanding of basic concepts. The last activity aimed to organize a healthy breakfast, considering the concepts learned during the food label  analysis.  The  activities  were  evaluated  by  the  students  through  written questionaires  and  informal  conversations,  indicating  good  acceptance  and approval of this method and showing that this activity is a valid

  2. The labeled systems of multiple neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemissi, M; Seridi, H; Akdag, H

    2008-08-01

    This paper proposes an implementation scheme of K-class classification problem using systems of multiple neural networks. Usually, a multi-class problem is decomposed into simple sub-problems solved independently using similar single neural networks. For the reason that these sub-problems are not equivalent in their complexity, we propose a system that includes reinforced networks destined to solve complicated parts of the entire problem. Our approach is inspired from principles of the multi-classifiers systems and the labeled classification, which aims to improve performances of the networks trained by the Back-Propagation algorithm. We propose two implementation schemes based on both OAO (one-against-all) and OAA (one-against-one). The proposed models are evaluated using iris and human thigh databases.

  3. Zirconia nanocrystals as submicron level biological label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, K.; Liepins, J.; Gavare, M.; Patmalnieks, A.; Gruduls, A.; Jankovica, D.

    2012-08-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals are of increasing interest for their usage in biology and pharmacology research. Our interest was to justify ZrO2 nanocrystal usage as submicron level biological label in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia culture. For the first time (to our knowledge) images with sub micro up-conversion luminescent particles in biologic media were made. A set of undoped as well as Er and Yb doped ZrO2 samples at different concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The up-conversion luminescence for free standing and for nanocrystals with baker's yeast cells was studied and the differences in up-conversion luminescence spectra were analyzed. In vivo toxic effects of ZrO2 nanocrystals were tested by co-cultivation with baker's yeast.

  4. label.switching: An R Package for Dealing with the Label Switching Problem in MCMC Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Papastamoulis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Label switching is a well-known and fundamental problem in Bayesian estimation of mixture or hidden Markov models. In case that the prior distribution of the model parameters is the same for all states, then both the likelihood and posterior distribution are invariant to permutations of the parameters. This property makes Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC samples simulated from the posterior distribution non-identifiable. In this paper, the label.switching package is introduced. It contains one probabilistic and seven deterministic relabeling algorithms in order to post-process a given MCMC sample, provided by the user. Each method returns a set of permutations that can be used to reorder the MCMC output. Then, any parametric function of interest can be inferred using the reordered MCMC sample. A set of user-defined permutations is also accepted, allowing the researcher to benchmark new relabeling methods against the available ones.

  5. Novel 99mTc labeled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Caiyun

    2006-01-01

    [1]Quirion,R.,Bowen,W.D.,Itzhak,Y.et al.,A proposal for the classification of sigma binding sites,Trends Pharmacol.Sci.,1992,13:85-86.[2]Su,T.P.,Sigma receptors:Putative links between nervous,endocrine and immune systems,Eur.J.Biochem.,1991,200:633-642.[3]Guitart,X.,Codony,X.,Monroy,X.,Sigma receptors:Biology and therapeutic potential,Psychopharmacology,2004,174:301-319.[4]Vilner,B.J.,John,C.S.,Bowen,W.D.,Sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors are expressed in a wide variety of human and rodent tumor cell lines,Cancer Res.,1995,55:408-413.[5]Mach,R.H.,Smith,C.R.,al-Nabulsi,I.et al.,σ2 receptors as potential biomarkers of proliferation in breast cancer,Cancer Res.,1997,57:156-161.[6]Shiue,C.Y.,Shiue,G.G.,Zhang,S.X.et al.,N-(N-benzylpi-peridin-4-yl)-2-[18F]fluorobenzamide:A potential ligand for PET imaging of σ receptors,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1997,24:671-676.[7]Dence,C.S.,John,C.S.,Bowen,W.D.et al.,Synthesis and evaluation of [18F] labeled benzamides:High affinity sigma receptor ligands for PET imaging,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1997,24:333-340.[8]Shiue,C.Y.,Shiue,G.G.,Benard,F.et al.,N-(N-benzylpi-peridin-4-yl)-2-[18F]fluorobenzamide:A potential ligand for PET imaging of breast cancer,Nucl.Med.Biol.,2000,27:763-767.[9]Rowland,D.J.,Tu,Z.,Mach,R.H.et al.,Investigation of a new sigma-2 receptor ligand for detection of breast cancer,J.Labelled Cpd.Radiopharm.,2003,46:S6.[10]Everaert,H.,Flamen,P.,Franken,P.R.et al.,Sigma receptor imaging by means of 123-IDAB scintigraphy;clinical application in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer,Anticancer Res.,1997,17:1577-1582.[11]John,C.S.,Gulden,M.E.,Li,J.et al.,Synthesis,in vitro binding,and tissue distribution of radioiodinated 2-[125I]N-(N-benzylpip-eridin-4-yl)-2-iodobenzamide,2-[125I]BP:A potential σ receptor marker for human prostate tumors,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1998,25:189-194.[12]Staelens,L.,Oltenfreiter,R.,Dumont,F.et al.,In vivo evaluation of [123I]-4-iodo-N-(4-(4-(2-me-thoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-benzamide:A potential sigma receptor ligand

  6. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its labeling regulations for conventional foods and dietary supplements to provide updated nutrition information on the label to assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices. The updated information is consistent with current data on the associations between nutrients and chronic diseases, health-related conditions, physiological endpoints, and/or maintaining a healthy dietary pattern that reflects current public health conditions in the United States, and corresponds to new information on consumer understanding and consumption patterns. The final rule updates the list of nutrients that are required or permitted to be declared; provides updated Daily Reference Values and Reference Daily Intake values that are based on current dietary recommendations from consensus reports; amends requirements for foods represented or purported to be specifically for children under the age of 4 years and pregnant and lactating women and establishes nutrient reference values specifically for these population subgroups; and revises the format and appearance of the Nutrition Facts label.

  7. Facial age estimation by learning from label distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xin; Yin, Chao; Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2013-10-01

    One of the main difficulties in facial age estimation is that the learning algorithms cannot expect sufficient and complete training data. Fortunately, the faces at close ages look quite similar since aging is a slow and smooth process. Inspired by this observation, instead of considering each face image as an instance with one label (age), this paper regards each face image as an instance associated with a label distribution. The label distribution covers a certain number of class labels, representing the degree that each label describes the instance. Through this way, one face image can contribute to not only the learning of its chronological age, but also the learning of its adjacent ages. Two algorithms, named IIS-LLD and CPNN, are proposed to learn from such label distributions. Experimental results on two aging face databases show remarkable advantages of the proposed label distribution learning algorithms over the compared single-label learning algorithms, either specially designed for age estimation or for general purpose.

  8. 77 FR 75400 - Labeling Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC84 Labeling Requirements for Commercial and Industrial... conservation standards for certain commercial and industrial equipment, and requires the Department of Energy... potential for establishing labeling requirements for covered commercial and industrial equipment,...

  9. 9 CFR 317.2 - Labels: definition; required features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels: definition; required features. 317.2 Section 317.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... labeling shall appear thereon in the English language: Provided, however, That in the case of products...

  10. 21 CFR 606.120 - Labeling, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling, general requirements. 606.120 Section 606.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Finished Product Control § 606.120 Labeling, general requirements....

  11. Empirical measurements on a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raborife, M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the empirical assessments employed on two versions of a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm. This algorithm uses linguistically-defined Sesotho tonal rules to predict the tone labels on the syllables of Sesotho words. The two...

  12. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400...

  13. 46 CFR 160.072-7 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer certification and labeling. 160.072-7..., Orange Flag § 160.072-7 Manufacturer certification and labeling. (a) Each distress flag intended as a Day Visual Distress Signal required by 33 CFR Part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as...

  14. 46 CFR 161.013-13 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer certification and labeling. 161.013-13... § 161.013-13 Manufacturer certification and labeling. (a) Each electric light intended as a Night Visual Distress Signal required by 33 CFR part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying with...

  15. Consumer response to food labels in an emerging market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festila, Alexandra Florina; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates consumer response to food labels in an emerging market. More specifically, it measures the levels of awareness, objective and perceived understanding, perceived usefulness and perceived trustworthiness of the most prominent food labels found in the Romanian market. An onli...

  16. Transmission performance of the double-sideband SCM optical label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhou, Weiqing; Jia, Zhensheng; Xie, Shizhong

    2002-09-01

    Transmission performance of the optical label with the double-sideband subcarrier multiplexing is investigated using Volterra transfer function approach. It is shown that the phase shifts of the two sideband signal is induced jointly by the interaction between SCM component and payload component due to fiber dispersion and nonlinearity. This will cause the SCM label fading, and then harm to system performance.

  17. An educational program enhances food label understanding of young adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    While much research has focused on intake and eating behaviors of young adolescents, few studies have examined their knowledge of the Nutrition Facts label. The goals of this project were to assess the understanding of Nutrition Facts labels and the response of young adolescents to an educational pr...

  18. 75 FR 51058 - Web-Distributed Labeling User Acceptance Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Web-Distributed Labeling User Acceptance Pilot AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... announcing its intention to conduct a web- distributed labeling ``User Acceptance Pilot'' and is soliciting interest from entities potentially willing to participate in this pilot program. Through the User...

  19. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  20. 49 CFR 569.9 - Labeling of regroovable tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling of regroovable tires. 569.9 Section 569.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGROOVED TIRES § 569.9 Labeling of regroovable tires. (a) Regroovable tires. After August 30, 1969, each tire designed and constructed for regrooving shall be...

  1. Japan food allergen labeling regulation--history and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Imai, Takanori; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    According to a national survey of food allergy cases, the food-labeling system for specific allergenic ingredients (i.e., egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, and peanut) in Japan was mandated under law on April 1, 2002. By Japanese law, labeling of allergens is designated as mandatory or recommended based on the number of cases of actual illness and the degree of seriousness. Mandatory labeling is enforced by the ministerial ordinance, and the ministerial notification recommends that foods containing walnut and soybean be labeled with subspecific allergenic ingredients. Additional labeling of shrimp/prawn and crab has also become mandatory since 2008. To monitor the validity of the labeling system, the Japanese government announced the official methods for detection of allergens in a November 2002 ministry notification. These official methods, including two kinds of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for screening, Western blotting analyses for egg and milk, and polymerase chain reaction analyses for wheat, buckwheat, peanut, shrimp/prawn and crab as confirmation tests, have provided a means to monitor the labeling system. To standardize the official methods, the Japanese government described the validation protocol criteria in the 2006 official guidelines. The guidelines stipulate that any food containing allergen proteins at greater than 10mg/kg must be labeled under the Law. This review covers the selection of the specific allergenic ingredients by the Japanese government, the implementation of regulatory action levels and the detection methods to support them, and the assessment of the effectiveness of this approach.

  2. 9 CFR 381.500 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from nutrition labeling. 381.500 Section 381.500 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.500...

  3. Learning to Recognize Human Activities from Soft Labeled Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, N.; Lou, Z.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.; Fox, D.; Kavraki, L.E.; Kurniawati, H.

    2014-01-01

    An activity recognition system is a very important component for assistant robots, but training such a system usually requires a large and correctly labeled dataset. Most of the previous works only allow training data to have a single activity label per segment, which is overly restrictive because

  4. 40 CFR 86.1807-01 - Vehicle labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1807-01 Vehicle labeling. (a) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle subject to the applicable emission standards of this subpart, shall, at the time of... under 40 CFR 85.1505 must comply with the labeling requirements contained in 40 CFR 85.1510; (ix)...

  5. Detecting danger labels with RAM-based neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.M.; Christensen, S.S.; Andersen, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing system for the automatic location of danger labels on the back of containers is presented. The system uses RAM-based neural networks to locate and classify labels after a pre-processing step involving specially designed non-linear edge filters and RGB-to-HSV conversion. Results...

  6. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.35 Labeling, storage, and transportation....

  7. How descriptive menu labels influence attitudes and repatronage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.; Painter, J.; Ittersum, van K.

    2002-01-01

    How do descriptive menu labels influence customers? In a six-week field experiment involving 140 customers, descriptive menu labels (such as "Grandma's zucchini cookies" or "succulent Italian seafood filet") increased sales by 27% and improved attitudes towards the food, attitudes towards the restau

  8. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  9. On the Power of Labels in Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of labels in transition systems with regard to bisimilarity and model checking problems. We suggest a general reduction from labelled transition systems to unlabelled ones, preserving bisimilarity and satisfiability of μ-calculus formulas. We apply the reduction ...

  10. 21 CFR 701.2 - Form of stating labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling shall appear thereon in the English language: Provided, however, That in the case of articles distributed solely in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or in a Territory where the predominant language is one other than English, the predominant language may be substituted for English. (2) If the label...

  11. Are Teens "Post-Gay"? Contemporary Adolescents' Sexual Identity Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Clarke, Thomas J.; Clary, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that historically typical sexual identity labels--"gay," "lesbian" and "bisexual"--have lost meaning and relevance for contemporary adolescents. Yet there is little empirical evidence that contemporary teenagers are "post-gay." In this brief study we investigate youths' sexual identity labels. The Preventing School…

  12. How descriptive menu labels influence attitudes and repatronage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.; Painter, J.; Ittersum, van K.

    2002-01-01

    How do descriptive menu labels influence customers? In a six-week field experiment involving 140 customers, descriptive menu labels (such as "Grandma's zucchini cookies" or "succulent Italian seafood filet") increased sales by 27% and improved attitudes towards the food, attitudes towards the restau

  13. Two New Standards Further Enhanced the Authenticity of Food Labels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Recently, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine and the Standardization Administration of China approved and promulgated two compulsory national standards: the General Principles for the Labeling of Prepackaged Foods and the General Principles for the Labeling of Prepackaged Foods for Special Dietary Uses. These two standards will come into force from October 1, 2005.

  14. Simpler, faster and shorter labels for distances in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gavoille, Cyril; Halvorsen, Esben Bistrup;

    2016-01-01

    -old result, which uses labels of size $(\\log 3)n$ and $\\Oh(n / \\log n)$ decoding time, and Gavoille et al.\\ (SODA'01), which uses labels of size $11n+o(n)$ and $O(\\log\\log n)$ decoding time. In addition, our algorithm is simpler than the previous ones. In the case of integral edge weights of size at most $W...

  15. An analysis of the Bayesian track labelling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aoki, E.H.; Boers, Y.; Svensson, Lennart; Mandal, Pranab K.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    In multi-target tracking (MTT), the problem of assigning labels to tracks (track labelling) is vastly covered in literature, but its exact mathematical formulation, in terms of Bayesian statistics, has not been yet looked at in detail. Doing so, however, may help us to understand how Bayes-optimal

  16. 16 CFR 305.15 - Labeling for lighting products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...” printed within a circle and followed by an asterisk. The label shall also clearly and conspicuously disclose, either in close proximity to that asterisk or elsewhere on the label, the following statement... principal display panel, the asterisk shall be followed by the following statement: See panel for...

  17. Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahim, F. Abdel; Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    , and differences in dose rate and radiation type (gamma rays and electron beams) were made on 15 kinds of labels. The results show that, for many types of indicators, diverse effects may give misleading conclusions unless countermeasures are taken. For example, some of the most commonly used labels, which contain...

  18. Wiring of heme enzymes by methylene-blue labeled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh; Ferapontova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    - and molibdopterin-containing sulfite oxidase (SOx), wired to gold by the methylene blue (MB)-labeled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. The enzymes’ electrochemical transformation and bioelectrocatalytic function could be followed at both unlabeled and MB-labeled dendrimer-modified electrodes with the formal redox...

  19. How descriptive menu labels influence attitudes and repatronage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.; Painter, J.; Ittersum, van K.

    2002-01-01

    How do descriptive menu labels influence customers? In a six-week field experiment involving 140 customers, descriptive menu labels (such as "Grandma's zucchini cookies" or "succulent Italian seafood filet") increased sales by 27% and improved attitudes towards the food, attitudes towards the

  20. 16 CFR 1500.125 - Labeling requirements for accompanying literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. 1500.125 Section 1500.125 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.125 Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. When any accompanying...