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Sample records for 3d-fem frequency domain

  1. Determination of the spatial TDR-sensor characteristics in strong dispersive subsoil using 3D-FEM frequency domain simulations in combination with microwave dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Trinks, Eberhard; Kupfer, Klaus

    2007-04-01

    The spatial sensor characteristics of a 6 cm TDR flat band cable sensor section was simulated with finite element modelling (high frequency structure simulator—HFSS) under certain conditions: (i) in direct contact with the surrounding material (air, water of different salinities, different synthetic and natural soils (sand-silt-clay mixtures)), (ii) with consideration of a defined gap of different size filled with air or water and (iii) the cable sensor pressed at a borehole-wall. The complex dielectric permittivity ɛsstarf(ω, τi) or complex electrical conductivity σsstarf(ω, τi) = iωɛsstarf(ω, τi) of the investigated saturated and unsaturated soils was examined in the frequency range 50 MHz-20 GHz at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with a HP8720D-network analyser. Three soil-specific relaxation processes are assumed to act in the investigated frequency-temperature-pressure range: one primary α-process (main water relaxation) and two secondary (α', β)-processes due to clay-water-ion interactions (bound water relaxation and the Maxwell-Wagner effect). The dielectric relaxation behaviour of every process is described with the use of a simple fractional relaxation model. 3D finite element simulation is performed with a λ/3 based adaptive mesh refinement at a solution frequency of 1 MHz, 10 MHz, 0.1 GHz, 1 GHz and 12.5 GHz. The electromagnetic field distribution, S-parameter and step responses were examined. The simulation adequately reproduces the spatial and temporal electrical and magnetic field distribution. High-lossy soils cause, as a function of increasing gravimetric water content and bulk density, an increase in TDR signal rise time as well as a strong absorption of multiple reflections. An air or water gap works as a quasi-waveguide, i.e. the influence of the surrounding medium is strongly reduced. Appropriate TDR-travel-time distortions can be quantified.

  2. MAXWELL3, 3-D FEM Electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: MAXWELL3 is a linear, time domain, finite element code designed for simulation of electromagnetic fields interacting with three-dimensional objects. The simulation region is discretized into 6-sided, 8-nodded elements which need not form a logically regular grid. Scatterers may be perfectly conducting or dielectric. Restart capability and a Muer-type radiating boundary are included. MAXWELL3 can be run in a two-dimensional mode or on infinitesimally thin geometries. The output of time histories on surfaces, or shells, in addition to volumes, is allowed. Two post-processors are included - HIST2XY, which splits the MAXWELL3 history file into simple xy data files, and FFTABS, which performs fast Fourier transformations on the xy data. 2 - Method of solution: The numerical method requires that the model be discretized with a mesh generator. MAXWELL3 then uses the mesh and computes the time domain electric and magnetic fields by integrating Maxwell's divergence-free curl equations over time. The output from MAXWELL3 can then be used with a post-processor to get the desired information in a graphical form. The explicit time integration is done with a leap-frog technique that alternates evaluating the electric and magnetic fields at half time steps. This allows for centered time differencing accurate in second order. The algorithm is naturally robust and requires no parameters. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: MAXWELL3 has no mesh generation capabilities. Anisotropic, nonlinear, and magnetic materials cannot be modeled. Material interfaces only account for dielectric changes and neglect any surface charges that would be present at the surface of a partially conducting material. The radiation boundary algorithm is only accurate for normally incident fields and becomes less accurate as the angle of incidence increases. Thus, only models using scattered fields should use the radiation boundary. This limits MAXWELL3's

  3. 3D-FEM electrical–thermal–mechanical analysis and experiment of Si-based MEMS infrared emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Na; Chen, Ran-Bin; San, Hai-Sheng; Chen, Xu-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Designs, simulations, and fabrications of silicon-based MEMS infrared (IR) emitters for gas sensing application are presented. A 3D finite element method (3D-FEM) was used to analyze the coupled electrical–thermal–mechanical properties of a bridge hotplate structure (BHS) IR emitter and closed hotplate structure (CHS) IR emitter using Joule heating and thermal expansion models of COMSOL™. The IR absorptions of n- and p-silicon were calculated for the design of self-heating structure. The BHS and CHS IR emitters were fabricated synchronously using micro-electromechanical systems technology for a direct performance comparison. Both types of IR emitters were characterized by electrical and optical measurements. The experimental results show that BHS IR emitters have higher radiation density, lower power consumption, and faster frequency-response than CHS IR emitters due to the use of a thermal isolation structure and self-heating structure. Meanwhile, the simulated results agree well with the corresponding measured results, which indicate that the 3D-FEM-model is effective and can be used in the optimal design of electro-thermal devices.

  4. ESTABLISHMENT OF 3D FEM MODEL OF MULTI-PASS SPINNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Mei; ZHOU Qiang; YANG He; ZHANG Jinhui

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the computational accuracy and efficiency, it is necessary to establish a reasonable 3D FEM model for multi-pass spinning including not only spinning process but also springback and annealing processes. A numerical model for multi-pass spinning is established using the combination of explicit and implicit FEM, with the advantages of them in accuracy and efficiency. The procedures for model establishment are introduced in detail, and the model is validated. The application of the 3D FEM model to a two-pass spinning shows the following: The field variables such as the stress, strahl and wall thickness during the whole spinning process can be obtained, not only during spinning process but also during springback and annealing processes, and the trends of their distributions and variations are in good agreement with a practical multi-spinning process. Thus the 3D FEM model for multi-pass spinning may be a helpful tool for determination and optimization of process Parameters of multi-pass spinning process.

  5. 3D FEM Simulation of Rolling Load Working on Piercer Plug in Mannesmann Piercing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Motohisa

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents 3D FEM simulation of piercer plug in Mannesmann piercing process. Target is establishment of a virtual piercing experiment tool to assistant piercer plug development. FEM simulation analysis has been applied to Mannesmann piercing process previously. Aspect of those studies is how to simulate material flow in piercing process, especially focused on how to describe ductile fracture which is known as Mannesmann effect. Thus far, simulation of rolling tools has not been focused. Present piercer plugs, made of special alloys, are damaged severely and quickly in case of piercing higher Cr contented alloys in seamless steel tube production process. Therefore, development of FEM simulation on rolling tools has been demanded in production side. 3D FEM analysis of piercer plug is performed with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian—Eulerian) method by using ABAQUS/Explicit 6.9. Simulations are thermo-mechanical, elasto-plastic coupled, and dynamic calculation. Piercer plug and the billet are modeled by solid elements to analyze various factors on stress, strain and temperature. Ductile fracture is not considered in the simulations. Simulation results are correlated sufficiently to experimental results on damage of piercer plugs. Verifying absolute value of simulated factors is hard since there are few empirical methods to measure them. As a conclusion, studied simulations are sufficient as a virtual piercing experiment tool to develop higher performance piercer plugs.

  6. Welding distortion analysis of multipass joint combination with different sequences using 3D FEM and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an investigation of the welding sequence effect on induced angular distortion using FEM and experiments. The specimen of a combined joint geometry was modeled and simulated using Multipass Welding Advisor (MWA) in SYSWELD 2010 based on the thermal-elastic-plastic approach with low manganese carbon steel S3355J2G3 as specimen material and Goldak's double ellipsoid as heat source model. To validate the simulation results, a series of experiments was conducted with two different welding sequences using automated welding process, low carbon steel as parent metal, digital GMAW power source with premixed shielding gas and both-sided clamping technique. Based on the results, it was established that the thermo-elastic-plastic 3D FEM analysis shows good agreement with experimental results and the welding sequence “from outside to inside” induced less angular distortion compared to “from inside to outside”. -- Highlights: • 3D FEM was used to analyze the welding distortion on two different sequences. • Simulation results were validated with experiments using automated welding system. • Simulation results and experiments showed acceptable accuracy. • Welding sequence “outside–inside” showed less distortion than “inside–outside”

  7. A 2D-3D FEM approach of fuel rod thermomechanical behaviour during a RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For better understanding of the fuel rod behaviour during a RIA and to extrapolate the CABRI tests results to PWR conditions, a pellet and its corresponding cladding part have been modelled by means of a 2D axisymmetric meshing, with EDF's finite element code ASTER. The pellet rim region, which is modelled with a 3D meshing, is represented in the global 2D-model with an equivalent homogenized material. The stress distribution is calculated by applying a thermal radial profile computed with the CEA/IPSN SCANAIR code. Then, the local stresses are determined in the rim region, in the neighbourhood of a gas bubble. This 2D-3D FEM approach has been applied successively to REP Na1 rod, at the time and location of the first failure, and to the postulated RCCA ejection accident in a PWR. (R.P.)

  8. Structural optimization of wind turbine rotor blades by multilevel sectional/multibody/3D-FEM analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Campagnolo, F.; Croce, A.;

    2014-01-01

    model fully-populated cross sectional stiffness matrices. Next, a "fine"-level 3D FEM model is used for the refinement of the coarse-level solution. Improved results obtained at the level of the 3D model are utilized at the following coarse-level iteration through a heuristic modification of the design...... level. At first, a "coarse"-level constrained design optimization is performed by using a 1D spatial geometrically exact beam model for aero-servo-elastic multibody analysis and load calculation, integrated with a 2D FEM cross sectional model for stress/strain analysis, and the evaluation of the 1D...

  9. Pragmatic circuits frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC

  10. 3D FEM numerical simulation and experimental study on symmetric thin-wall tube neck-spinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Wei-hua; XIA Qin-xiang; RUAN Feng

    2006-01-01

    A 3D FEM model for symmetric thin-wall tube neck-spinning is established. The spinning process is simulated by means of ANSYS software, and the dynamic boundary and contact problems in simulation are solved. The transient stress distribution of contact area, the transient strain distribution of nodes in typical section and the strain distribution of the whole part at last are attained, and the place and the cause of crack are analyzed. Simulation results show how the strain distribution of typical section, the thickness of some typical nodes, the Z coordinate in typical section and the spinning force of three rollers change with the time. According to study the variation curve, the material flow law along radial, tangential and axial direction is attained and the whole spinning process is studied. The experiment data reflect how the spinning force is influenced by different process parameters, such as feed rate, roundness radius and pass reduction. The simulation and the experiment results supply criteria for optimum design and reasonable parameter selection.

  11. 3D-FEM analysis of SPP excitation through nanoholes in asymmetric metal-insulator-metal structure at tip of circular truncated conical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikane, Y.; Murai, K.; Nakano, M.

    2014-09-01

    3D-electromagnetic (EM) analysis of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excited by a single-mode (SM) propagation of visible lightwave in an optical fiber has been studied with a 3D-FEM package based on a finite element method. End of the fiber is formed to be a circular cone by wet etching process, and is FIBed to make a circular truncated conical shape with a flat circular surface a few micrometers in diameter. The flat end is covered with three layers of asymmetric metalinsulator- metal structure, thin metallic layer (M1), thick insulator layer (I), and thick metallic layer (M2), respectively. The outermost M2 layer has FIBed nanoholes to convert light waves at the extremity of the fiber into SPPs efficiently, and a bright tiny point light source will be generated on the surface of the M2 layer. In this study, the 3D-FEM models consists of both the MIM structure and the shrinking optical fiber tip coated with a metallic thin film has been designed and analyzed numerically. By applying perfect electric conductor and perfect magnetic conductor to planes containing the axis of rotation, the FEM model has a quarter of the circular truncated conical shape. The FEM analysis is formed in two steps. At the first step, a FEM mode analysis is performed to obtain a solution corresponding to the SM propagation in the fiber. The second level of action is the FEM analysis of EM field in the whole of model to find a stationary solution with the solution of mode analysis. Characteristic of wavelength-dependent excitation, propagation, and focusing of the SPPs will be presented with several experimental results of trial products of the fiber tip.

  12. Postseismic Displacement Following the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Detected by Continuous GPS Observation and the Effect of Viscoelastic Relaxation Using 3D- FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Hashizume, M.; Choosakul, N.; Takemoto, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Fujimori, K.; Satomura, M.; Wu, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Takiguchi, H.; Saito, S.; Maruyama, T.; Kato, T.

    2007-12-01

    We have studied postseismic displacement following the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries using continuous GPS observation. We will report the results of our GPS analysis from the beginning of 2001 to the end of October 2007. We have also constructed 3D-FEM to evaluate the effect of viscoelastic relaxation following the earthquake. We will also report this result. We used continuous GPS data from 6 sites operated by Chulalongkorn Univ. and Kyoto Univ. or JAMSTEC, 2 sites by Shizuoka Univ. and JAMSTEC, 3 sites by NICT in Thailand and Myanmar, 1 site by STE-Lab, Nagoya Univ., and IGS sites which are located in countries surrounding the Indian Ocean include Japan, China and Australia. Bernese 5.0 was used for the processing of 30 sec. sampling data to obtain static solutions. From our analysis, no significant motions were detected at each site until the day of the earthquake. Although postseismic displacements still have been detected at CHMI and SIS2 in northern Thailand, far from the epicenter, they seem to be decelerated. On the other hand, at SAMP and PHKT, close to the epicenter, where postseismic displacements also became smaller, but still may take a time to stop. An about 29 cm SW-ward motion was detected at PHKT from just after the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake to June 2007, which is larger than its coseismic displacement, about 26 cm. We have constructed 3D-FEM model to estimate how much viscoelastic relaxation affects postseismic displacements after the earthquake. We adopted a Maxwell viscoelastic body as well as Katagi et al. (2006), and modeled around the Andaman-Sea area using isoparametric hexahedral elements with 8 nodes (Zienkiewicz and Cheng, 1967). The Andaman-Sea is well known as a back arc basins, and its ocean floor is still spreading. Therefore, the mantle viscosity under the Sunda-plate may be smaller because of upwelling warm mantle. We are going to investigate and report the

  13. 三维有限元刚度矩阵的压缩存储算法%Compressed storage algorithm of 3D-FEM stiffness matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠雷; 赵国群; 马新武

    2012-01-01

    为提高有限元分析效率、减少存储空间消耗,对刚度矩阵的压缩存储算法进行了研究.研究了"广义相邻节点对"与刚度矩阵中非零子矩阵的关系,确定了刚度矩阵中非零子矩阵的分布规律;提出了一种新的刚度矩阵压缩存储方法—"改进的CSR存储方法",给出了基于压缩存储的刚度矩阵的生成过程以及线性方程组迭代解法方法,并将提出的算法应用于三维体积成形有限元分析软件.有限元分析实例表明,该算法可以有效地减少存储空间,提高计算效率.%To improve the efficiency and reduce the storage space of finite element analysis,compression and storage algorithm of 3D-FEM stiffness matrix is studied.The relationship between "generalized adjacent double nodes" and the non-zero sub-matrix in stiffness matrix is researched for getting distribution of non-zero sub-matrix in stiffness matrix.A new algorithm of stiffness matrix of compressed storage-"improved CSR storage method" is proposed.Based on the algorithm,the generation process of stiffness matrix is given and iterative solution of linear equations method is proposed to improve the efficiency of solving linear equations.The algorithm is applied to the three-dimensional bulk forming finite element analysis software and the numerical results show that the algorithm can effectively decrease the storage space and improve the computation efficiency.

  14. Optimization of force-cooled power transmission cables by means of 3D FEM simulations; Optimierung zwangsgekuehlter Energiekabel durch dreidimensionale FEM-Simulationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongping

    2009-10-26

    Lateral forced cooling can significantly increase the temporary overload capacity of a cable system, but the design of such systems requires a time-dependent 3D analysis of the nonlinear thermal behavior as the cooling water along the cable is heated up, resulting in position-dependent and time-dependent heat uptake. For this, a new calculation method was developed on the basis of an available 3D FEM software. The new method enables 3D simulation of force-cooled cables in consideration of the potential partial dryout of soil and of thermal stabilizations. The new method was first applied to a 110 kV wind power transmission cable for different configurations and grid conditions. It was found that with lateral forced cooling, the 110 kV will have a temporal 50 percent overload capacity. Further, the thermal characteristics and limiting capacity of a force-cooled 380 kV cable system were investigated. According to the results so far, laterally cooled cable systems open up new operating options, with advantages in terms of availability, economic efficiency, and flexibility. (orig.) [German] Eine laterale Zwangskuehlung kann die temporaere Ueberlastbarkeit einer Kabelanlage signifikant erhoehen. Der Entwurf solcher zwangsgekuehlter Kabelanlagen erfordert jedoch eine zeitabhaengige, dreidimensionale Analyse des nichtlinearen thermischen Verhaltens, da sich das Kuehlwasser entlang der Trasse erwaermt und sich so eine orts- und zeitabhaengige Waermeaufnahme ergibt. Zu diesem Zweck wurde auf der Basis eines vorhandenen zweidimensionalen FEM-Programms ein neues Berechnungsverfahren entwickelt, das die dreidimensionale Simulation zwangsgekuehlter Kabelanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung einer moeglicherweise auftretenden partiellen Bodenaustrocknung und von thermischen Stabilisierungen erlaubt. Mit Hilfe dieses Berechnungsverfahrens wurde zuerst eine 110-kV-Kabelanlage zur Windenergieuebertragung bei unterschiedlichen Anordnungen und unterschiedlichen Netzsituationen untersucht

  15. Time- vs. frequency-domain femtosecond surface sum frequency generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, S.; Kleyn, A. W.; Bonn, M.

    2003-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical investigation into time- vs. frequency-domain ferntosecond sum frequency spectroscopy at the metal-liquid interface. Although frequency and time-domain measurements are theoretically equivalent it is demonstrated here experimentally that the two approaches

  16. Frequency Domain Image Filtering Using CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais Rajput

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA?s CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture. In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA?s parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butterworth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output image quality on both the processing architectures

  17. System Identification A Frequency Domain Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pintelon, Rik

    2012-01-01

    System identification is a general term used to describe mathematical tools and algorithms that build dynamical models from measured data. Used for prediction, control, physical interpretation, and the designing of any electrical systems, they are vital in the fields of electrical, mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering. Focusing mainly on frequency domain techniques, System Identification: A Frequency Domain Approach, Second Edition also studies in detail the similarities and differences with the classical time domain approach. It high??lights many of the important steps in the identi

  18. Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Copeland, Dylan

    2010-10-05

    The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Damping Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ventura, C. E.; Andersen, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is explained how the damping can be estimated using the Frequency Domain Decomposition technique for output-only modal identification, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters is to be estimated without knowing the forces exciting the system. Also it is explained how the natural...... frequencies can be accurately estimated without being limited by the frequency resolution of the discrete Fourier transform. It is explained how the spectral density matrix is decomposed into a set of single degree of freedom systems, and how the individual SDOF auto spectral density functions are transformed...... back to time domain to identify damping and frequency. The technique is illustrated on a simple simulation case with 2 closely spaced modes. On this example it is illustrated how the identification is influenced by very closely spacing, by non-orthogonal modes, and by correlated input. The technique...

  20. APPLICATION OF FREQUENCY DOMAIN TECHNIQUE IN HLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baogen; Qiu Ling

    2002-01-01

    The paper introduce the measurement of some beam parameters for Hefei Light Source (HLS) by frequency domain technique, which include the betatron tune, average beta function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, and center frequency. Additionally, the measurement of the influence of DC clearing electrodes on the betatron tune shift is also described.Some measurement results are given. The measurement results are compared with the theoretical values and shown to be in good agreement.

  1. APPLICATION OF FREQUENCY DOMAIN TECHNIQUE IN HLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunBaogen; QiuLing

    2002-01-01

    The paper introduce the measurement of some beam parameters for Hefei Light Source(HLS)by frequency domain technique ,which include the betatron tune, average beta function ,natural chromaticity,corrected chromaticity ,and center frequency.Additionally ,the measurement of the influence of DC clearing electrodes on the betatron tune shift is also described.Some measurement results are given .The measurement results are compared with the theoretical values and shoen to be in good agreement.

  2. Robust Image Watermarking in Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dayalin Leena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The spreading out of internet these days has raised the worth of digital media all over the planet. Digital watermarking has been a boon to digital media world as it endows various benefits like authentication, copy control and rights management of digital media. Digital images a category under digital media can be watermarked either in time domain or in frequency domain. The goal is to produce an efficient, secure and invisible watermarked image using digital watermarking thereby improving the quality and increasing the robustness of watermarked image. Here, digital image is watermarked using wavelet transforms which is an efficient multi-resolution frequency domain techniques. The low frequencies of wavelet decomposition of the carrier image which is a color image is watermarked with a color logo shuffled using a chaotic map technique. Embedding process is highly secured as chaotic map technique shuffles the watermark in order to confuse any unauthorized person who tries to modify or remove the corresponding watermark. The Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR of watermarked image has proved that the original image and the watermarked image are visually indistinguishable by human observers. Robustness is checked well by extracting the original watermark perfectly without any degradation in the original image.

  3. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune;

    2007-01-01

    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated...... of the mass change method. The problem of inverting the often singular or nearly singular transfer function matrix is solved by the singular value decomposition technique using a limited number of singular values. The dependence of the eigenfrequencies on the accuracy of the scaling factors is investigated...

  4. Time delay measurement in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Stephen M., E-mail: durbin@purdue.edu; Liu, Shih-Chieh [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dufresne, Eric M.; Li, Yuelin; Wen, Haidan [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-08-06

    A simple frequency domain technique for determining the time delay between laser pump and X-ray probe pulses achieves 1 ps resolution even for ∼100 ps synchrotron pulses, permitting improved pump–probe characterization of ultrafast processes. Pump–probe studies at synchrotrons using X-ray and laser pulses require accurate determination of the time delay between pulses. This becomes especially important when observing ultrafast responses with lifetimes approaching or even less than the X-ray pulse duration (∼100 ps). The standard approach of inspecting the time response of a detector sensitive to both types of pulses can have limitations due to dissimilar pulse profiles and other experimental factors. Here, a simple alternative is presented, where the frequency response of the detector is monitored versus time delay. Measurements readily demonstrate a time resolution of ∼1 ps. Improved precision is possible by simply extending the data acquisition time.

  5. Biomechanical Study of Rigid Internal Fixation for Mandibular Angle Fracture Through 3-D FEM Simulation%三维有限元法对下颌角骨折内固定的生物力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代燕; 张超; 赵华强

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用三维有限元方法,对不同固定方式的下颌角骨折进行生物力学分析,为临床选择下颌角骨折固定方式提供理论依据.方法 应用螺旋CT扫描及相关软件,建立下颌角骨折内固定系统三维有限元模型,并利用MSC.Marc软件对模型进行应力分析.结果 张力带固定时应力集中分布于钛板中部,而双列小型板固定时最大应力位于上缘钛板中部.张力带固定时骨折断端的最大相对位移大于双列小型板固定.在健侧后牙咬(牙合)和前牙咬(牙合)情况下,张力带固定的安全咬(牙合)力范围分别在102.7 N和40.3 N以下.结论 下颌角骨折时,双列小型板固定的稳定性优于张力带固定.选取适当的咬(牙合)方式,张力带固定也可以达到下颌骨骨折固定的安全范围.%Objective To observe the stress distribution of mandibular angle fracture under different rigid internal fixation (RIF) methods by developing a three-dimensional finite-element method (3-D FEM). Methods CT scan technology and related software were used to develop a 3 -D FEM of mandibular angle fracture under different RIF. On this basis, the mandibular stress distributions were analyzed by MSC.Marc software. Results The von Mises stress mainly concentrated on the middle of the titanium plate in tension band fixation, while in two mini-plate fixation, it concentrated on the middle of the superior titanium plate. In the tension band fixation, the max-values of displacement was more than that in the two mini-plate fixation. When the biting force dropped to 102.7 N (LMOL) and 40.3 N (ICP), the furthest fracture mobility got into margin of safety under the tension band fixation. Conclusion The two mini-plate fixation was more stable than the tension band fixation. Choosing the suitable occlusion, tension band fixation could also provide sufficient stability for the mandibular angle fracture.

  6. Communicating oscillatory networks: frequency domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihekwaba Adaoha EC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constructing predictive dynamic models of interacting signalling networks remains one of the great challenges facing systems biology. While detailed dynamical data exists about individual pathways, the task of combining such data without further lengthy experimentation is highly nontrivial. The communicating links between pathways, implicitly assumed to be unimportant and thus excluded, are precisely what become important in the larger system and must be reinstated. To maintain the delicate phase relationships between signals, signalling networks demand accurate dynamical parameters, but parameters optimised in isolation and under varying conditions are unlikely to remain optimal when combined. The computational burden of estimating parameters increases exponentially with increasing system size, so it is crucial to find precise and efficient ways of measuring the behaviour of systems, in order to re-use existing work. Results Motivated by the above, we present a new frequency domain-based systematic analysis technique that attempts to address the challenge of network assembly by defining a rigorous means to quantify the behaviour of stochastic systems. As our focus we construct a novel coupled oscillatory model of p53, NF-kB and the mammalian cell cycle, based on recent experimentally verified mathematical models. Informed by online databases of protein networks and interactions, we distilled their key elements into simplified models containing the most significant parts. Having coupled these systems, we constructed stochastic models for use in our frequency domain analysis. We used our new technique to investigate the crosstalk between the components of our model and measure the efficacy of certain network-based heuristic measures. Conclusions We find that the interactions between the networks we study are highly complex and not intuitive: (i points of maximum perturbation do not necessarily correspond to points of maximum

  7. On frequency and time domain models of traveling wave tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Théveny, Stéphane; Elskens, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the envelope modulation assumption of frequency-domain models of traveling wave tubes (TWTs) and test its consistency with the Maxwell equations. We compare the predictions of usual frequency-domain models with those of a new time domain model of the TWT.

  8. Linear dispersion codes in space-frequency domain for SCFDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Nicola; Cianca, Ernestina; Prasad, Ramjee

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for applying the Linear Dispersion Codes (LDC) in the space and frequency domains to Single Carrier - Frequency Domain Equalization (SCFDE) systems. Space-Frequency (SF)LDC are more suitable than Space-Time (ST)-LDC in high mobility environment. However, th...

  9. Transformation Algorithm of Dielectric Response in Time-Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A transformation algorithm of dielectric response from time domain to frequency domain is presented. In order to shorten measuring time of low or ultralow frequency dielectric response characteristics, the transformation algorithm is used in this paper to transform the time domain relaxation current to frequency domain current for calculating the low frequency dielectric dissipation factor. In addition, it is shown from comparing the calculation results with actual test data that there is a coincidence for both results over a wide range of low frequencies. Meanwhile, the time domain test data of depolarization currents in dry and moist pressboards are converted into frequency domain results on the basis of the transformation. The frequency domain curves of complex capacitance and dielectric dissipation factor at the low frequency range are obtained. Test results of polarization and depolarization current (PDC in pressboards are also given at the different voltage and polarization time. It is demonstrated from the experimental results that polarization and depolarization current are affected significantly by moisture contents of the test pressboards, and the transformation algorithm is effective in ultralow frequency of 10−3 Hz. Data analysis and interpretation of the test results conclude that analysis of time-frequency domain dielectric response can be used for assessing insulation system in power transformer.

  10. Time-domain modeling of electromagnetic diffusion with a frequency-domain code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.; Wirianto, M.; Slob, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    We modeled time-domain EM measurements of induction currents for marine and land applications with a frequency-domain code. An analysis of the computational complexity of a number of numerical methods shows that frequency-domain modeling followed by a Fourier transform is an attractive choice if a s

  11. Estimated Frequency Domain Model Uncertainties used in Robust Controller Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the combination of system identification and robust controller design. Recent results on estimation of frequency domain model uncertainty are......This paper deals with the combination of system identification and robust controller design. Recent results on estimation of frequency domain model uncertainty are...

  12. Frequency Domain Electroretinography in Retinitis Pigmentosa versus Normal Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Hassan-Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare electroretinogram (ERG characteristics in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP and normal subjects using frequency domain analysis. Methods: Five basic ERG recordings were performed in normal subjects and patients with a clinical diagnosis of RP according to the ISCEV (International Society of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision protocol. Frequency domain analysis was performed by MATLAB software. Different frequency domain parameters were compared between the study groups. Results: Peak frequency (Fmod of flicker and oscillatory responses in RP patients showed significant (P<0.0001 high pass response as compared to normal controls. Peak frequency (Fmod of the other responses was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: In addition to conventional ERG using time domain methods, frequency domain analysis may be useful for diagnosis of RP. Oscillatory and flicker responses may be analyzed in frequency domain. Fast Fourier transform may reveal two distinct high pass responses (shift to higher frequencies in Fmod. Time and frequency domain analyses may be performed simultaneously with many modern ERG machines and may therefore be recommended in RP patients.

  13. Frequency-domain method for separating signal and noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正明; 段晓君

    2000-01-01

    A new method for separation of signal and noise (SSN) is put forward. Frequency is redefined according to the features of signal and its derivative in the sampling time interval, thus double orthogonal basis (DOB) is constructed so that a signal can be precisely signified with a linear combination of low-frequency DOB. Under joint consideration in time domain (TD) and frequency domain (FD), a method on SSN with high accuracy is derived and a matched algorithm is designed and analyzed. This method is applicable to SSN in multiple frequency bands, and convenient in applying signal characteristics in TD and FD synthetically with higher accuracy.

  14. Frequency-domain method for separating signal and noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new method for separation of signal and noise (SSN) is put forward. Frequency is redefined according to the features of signal and its derivative in the sampl ing time interval, thus double orthogonal basis (DOB) is constructed so that a signal can be precisely signified with a linear combination of low-frequency DOB . Under joint consideration in time domain (TD) and frequency domain (FD), a method on SSN with high accuracy is derived and a matched algorithm is designed and analyzed. This method is applicable to SSN in multiple frequency bands, and convenient in applying signal characteristics in TD and FD synthetically with highe raccuracy.

  15. Incoherent Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry for Distributed Thermal Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Karamehmedovic, Emir; Jeppesen, Palle; Peucheret, Christophe; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports the main results from an investigation of a fibre-optic distributed temperature sensor based on spontaneous Raman scattering. The technique used for spatial resolving is the incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry, where a pump laser is sine modulated with a stepwise increasing frequency, after which the inverse Fourier transform is applied to the signal from the backscattered light. This technique is compared with the more conventional optical time domain reflec...

  16. Estimation of luminescence lifetime in frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fu-Jun; Xu Zheng; Zhao Su-Ling; Lou Zhi-Dong; Yang Sheng-Yi; Xu Xu-Rong

    2006-01-01

    Absorption is the origin of luminescence. But it must be noticed that the lifetime of luminescence might reversely influence the rate of absorption. In this paper, it is reported that the luminescence intensity of copper and manganese changes with the driving frequency at constant voltage. The variation of luminescent intensity depends only on the lifetime of luminescence but not on the type of quenching or other factors. Generally the rate of absorption is dominantly determined by the material property and the lifetime of luminescence centres, the absorption of shorter lifetime centre will be larger than that of the longer lifetime centre at the same excited condition.

  17. Conversion of Dielectric Data from the Time Domain to the Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Durman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarisation and conduction processes in dielectric systems can be identified by the time domain or the frequency domain measurements. If the systems is a linear one, the results of the time domain measurements can be transformed into the frequency domain, and vice versa. Commonly, the time domain data of the absorption conductivity are transformed into the frequency domain data of the dielectric susceptibility. In practice, the relaxation are mainly evaluated by the frequency domain data. In the time domain, the absorption current measurement were prefered up to now. Recent methods are based on the recovery voltage measurements. In this paper a new method of the recovery data conversion from the time the frequency domain is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of the recovery voltage transient based on the Maxwell equation for the current density in a dielectric. Unlike the previous published solutions, the Laplace fransform was used to derive a formula suitable for practical purposes. the proposed procedure allows also calculating of the insulation resistance and separating the polarisation and conduction losses.

  18. Error Analysis in Frequency Domain for Linear Multipass Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Error analysis methods in frequency domain are developed in this paper for determining the characteristic root and transfer function errors when the linear multipass algorithms are used to solve linear differential equations.the relation between the local truncation error in time domain and the error in frequency domain is established, which is the basis for developing the error estimation methods. The error estimation methods for the digital simulation model constructed by using the Runge-Kutta algorithms and the linear multistep predictor-corrector algorithms are also given.

  19. Methodology of time-domain and frequency-domain calibration and equivalence for EMP sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to measure the waveform and amplitude of EMP accurately, the sensors need to be calibrated under the standard fields in the TEM or GTEM cell. A set of calibration system is discussed. A highly accurate method of calibrating such sensors is applicable to techniques in both the frequency domain and in the time domain. The complete frequency-domain transfer function or the time-domain impulse response function of sensor system can be obtained, thus allowing deconvolution processes to be used to remove perturbations from the measurement waveform by the instrumentation and TEM cell. (authors)

  20. Time delay measurement in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Stephen M.; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Dufresne, Eric M.; Li, Yuelin; Wen, Haidan

    2015-01-01

    Pump–probe studies at synchrotrons using X-ray and laser pulses require accurate determination of the time delay between pulses. This becomes especially important when observing ultrafast responses with lifetimes approaching or even less than the X-ray pulse duration (∼100 ps). The standard approach of inspecting the time response of a detector sensitive to both types of pulses can have limitations due to dissimilar pulse profiles and other experimental factors. Here, a simple alternative is presented, where the frequency response of the detector is monitored versus time delay. Measurements readily demonstrate a time resolution of ∼1 ps. Improved precision is possible by simply extending the data acquisition time. PMID:26289282

  1. Rotating black hole orbit functionals in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, S A

    2003-01-01

    In many astrophysical problems, it is important to understand the behavior of functions that come from rotating (Kerr) black hole orbits. It can be particularly useful to work with the frequency domain representation of those functions, in order to bring out their harmonic dependence upon the three fundamental orbital frequencies of Kerr black holes, $\\Omega_r$, $\\Omega_\\theta$, and $\\Omega_\\phi$. Although, as has recently been proven by W. Schmidt, such a frequency domain representation must exist, the coupled nature of a black hole orbit's $r$ and $\\theta$ motions makes it difficult to construct such a representation in practice. Combining Schmidt's description with a clever choice of timelike coordinate suggested by Y. Mino, we have developed a simple procedure that sidesteps this difficulty. One first Fourier transforms all quantities using Mino's time coordinate $\\lambda$. In particular, the observer's time $t$ is decomposed with $\\lambda$. The frequency domain description is then built from the $\\lambda...

  2. Thermal Loss of High-Q Antennas in Time Domain vs. Frequency Domain Solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    High-Q structures pose great challenges to their loss simulations in Time Domain Solvers (TDS). Therefore, in this work the thermal loss of high-Q antennas is calculated both in TDS and Frequency Domain Solver (FDS), which are then compared with each other and with the actual measurements...

  3. An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tong; Zhang Lingmi; Tamura Yukio

    2005-01-01

    A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.

  4. Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method in Nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra

    often indispensable. This thesis presents the development of rigorous finite-difference method, a very general tool to solve Maxwell’s equations in arbitrary geometries in three dimensions, with an emphasis on the frequency-domain formulation. Enhanced performance of the perfectly matched layers is...... obtained through free space squeezing technique, and nonuniform orthogonal grids are built to greatly improve the accuracy of simulations of highly heterogeneous nanostructures. Examples of the use of the finite-difference frequency-domain method in this thesis range from simulating localized modes in a...

  5. Hybrid time/frequency domain modeling of nonlinear components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Lykkegaard, Jan; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2007-01-01

    and the periodic steady state is identified. Obtained harmonic currents are assigned to current sources and used in the frequency domain calculation in the linear network. The obtained three-phase bus voltage is then inverse Fourier transformed and assigned to the voltage source and the time domain simulation...... is performed again. This process is repeated until the change in the magnitudes and phase angles of the fundamental and low order characteristic harmonics of the bus voltage is smaller then predefined precision indexes. The method is verified against precise time domain simulation. The convergence properties...

  6. Frequency domain optical tomography using a Monte Carlo perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki

    2016-04-01

    A frequency domain Monte Carlo method is applied to near-infrared optical tomography, where an intensity-modulated light source with a given modulation frequency is used to reconstruct optical properties. The frequency domain reconstruction technique allows for better separation between the scattering and absorption properties of inclusions, even for ill-posed inverse problems, due to cross-talk between the scattering and absorption reconstructions. The frequency domain Monte Carlo calculation for light transport in an absorbing and scattering medium has thus far been analyzed mostly for the reconstruction of optical properties in simple layered tissues. This study applies a Monte Carlo calculation algorithm, which can handle complex-valued particle weights for solving a frequency domain transport equation, to optical tomography in two-dimensional heterogeneous tissues. The Jacobian matrix that is needed to reconstruct the optical properties is obtained by a first-order "differential operator" technique, which involves less variance than the conventional "correlated sampling" technique. The numerical examples in this paper indicate that the newly proposed Monte Carlo method provides reconstructed results for the scattering and absorption coefficients that compare favorably with the results obtained from conventional deterministic or Monte Carlo methods.

  7. Fast Cycle Frequency Domain Feature Detection for Cognitive Radio Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Shan; Xiaoying, Gan; Hsiao-Hwa, Chen; Liang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    In cognitive radio systems, one of the main requirements is to detect the presence of the primary users' transmission, especially in weak signal cases. Cyclostationary detection is always used to solve weak signal detection, however, the computational complexity prevents it from wide usage. In this paper, a fast cycle frequency domain feature detection algorithm has been proposed, in which only feature frequency with significant cyclic signature is considered for a certain modulation mode. Si...

  8. Frequency Domain Storage Ring Method for Electric Dipole Moment Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Talman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurement of the electric dipole moments (EDM) of fundamental charged particles would provide a significant probe of physics beyond the standard model. Any measurably large EDM would imply violation of both time reversal and parity conservation, with implications for the matter/anti-matter imbalance of the universe, not currently understood within the standard model. A frequency domain (i.e. difference of frequencies) method is proposed for measuring the EDM of electrons or protons ...

  9. A Frequency Domain Design Method For Sampled-Data Compensators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to the design of a sampled-data compensator in the frequency domain is investigated. The starting point is a continuous-time compensator for the continuous-time system which satisfy specific design criteria. The new design method will graphically show how the discrete...

  10. A Frequency-domain test for long range dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Gromykov, G; Ould Haye, M; Philippe, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A new frequency-domain test statistic is introduced to test for short memory versus long memory. We provide its asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis and show that it is consistent under any long memory alternative. Some simulation studies show that this test is more robust than various standard tests in terms of empirical size when the normality of observed process is lost.

  11. Frequency-domain thermal modelling of power semiconductor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andresen, Markus;

    2015-01-01

    to correctly predict the device temperatures, especially when considering the thermal grease and heat sink attached to the power semiconductor devices. In this paper, the frequency-domain approach is applied to the modelling of thermal dynamics for power devices. The limits of the existing RC lump...

  12. A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoulluec, Peter; Liu, Hanli; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-09-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging techniques have recently attracted much attention and can be used for noninvasive imaging of biological tissues. Most PA imaging systems in research laboratories use the time domain method with expensive nanosecond pulsed lasers that are not affordable for most educational laboratories. Using an intensity modulated light source to excite PA signals is an alternative technique, known as the frequency domain method, with a much lower cost. In this paper, we describe a simple frequency domain PA system and demonstrate its imaging capability. The system provides opportunities not only to observe PA signals in tissue phantoms but also to acquire hands-on skills in PA signal detection. It also provides opportunities to explore the underlying mechanisms of the PA effect.

  13. Time-domain control of ultrahigh-frequency nanomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N; Giesen, F; Belov, M; Losby, J; Moroz, J; Fraser, A E; McKinnon, G; Clement, T J; Sauer, V; Hiebert, W K; Freeman, M R

    2008-12-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems could have applications in fields as diverse as ultrasensitive mass detection and mechanical computation, and can also be used to explore fundamental phenomena such as quantized heat conductance and quantum-limited displacement. Most nanomechanical studies to date have been performed in the frequency domain. However, applications in computation and information storage will require transient excitation and high-speed time-domain operation of nanomechanical systems. Here we show a time-resolved optical approach to the transduction of ultrahigh-frequency nanoelectromechanical systems, and demonstrate that coherent control of nanomechanical oscillation is possible through appropriate pulse programming. A series of cantilevers with resonant frequencies ranging from less than 10 MHz to over 1 GHz are characterized using the same pulse parameters. PMID:19057589

  14. Time-domain and frequency-domain approaches to identification of bridge flutter derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengqing CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Flutter derivatives are essential for flutter analysis of long-span bridges, and they are generally identified from the vibration testing data of a sectional model suspended in a wind tunnel. Making use of the forced vibration testing data of three sectional models,namely, a thin-plate model, a nearly streamlined model,and a bluff-body model, a comparative study was made to identify the flutter derivatives of each model by using a time-domain method and a frequency-domain method. It was shown that all the flutter derivatives of the thin-plate model identified with the frequency-domain method and time-domain method, respectively, agree very well. Moreover, some of the flutter derivatives of each of the other two models identified with the two methods deviate to some extent. More precisely, the frequency-domain method usually results in smooth curves of the flutter derivatives.The formulation of time-domain method makes the identification results of flutter derivatives relatively sensitive to the signal phase lag between vibration state vector and aerodynamic forces and also prone to be disturbed by noise and nonlinearity.

  15. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xiaobing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  16. Statistical multiresolution analysis in amplitude-frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong; GUAN Bao; Henri Maitre

    2004-01-01

    A concept of statistical multiresolution analysis in amplitude-frequency domain is proposed, which is to employ the wavelet transform on the statistical character of a signal in amplitude domain. In terms of the theorem of generalized ergodicity, an algorithm to estimate the transform coefficients based on the amplitude statistical multiresolution analysis (AMA) is presented. The principle of applying the AMA to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image processing is described, and the good experimental results imply that the AMA is an efficient tool for processing of speckled signals modeled by the multiplicative noise.

  17. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-09-26

    Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from the wrapping effect, its inversion has the potential of providing a robust and reliable inversion result. We propose a new waveform inversion algorithm using the phase derivative in the frequency domain along with the exponential damping term to attenuate reflections. We estimate the phase derivative, or what we refer to as the instantaneous traveltime, by taking the derivative of the Fourier-transformed wavefield with respect to the angular frequency, dividing it by the wavefield itself and taking the imaginary part. The objective function is constructed using the phase derivative and the gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm. Numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm with a strong damping generates a tomographic result even for a high ‘single’ frequency, which can be a good initial model for full waveform inversion and migration.

  18. Speaker Identification using Frequency Dsitribution in the Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. H B Kekre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose Speaker Identification using the frequency distribution of various transforms like DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform, DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform, DST (Discrete Sine Transform, Hartley, Walsh, Haar and Kekre transforms. The speech signal spoken by a particular speaker is converted into frequency domain by applying the different transform techniques. The distribution in the transform domain is utilized to extract the feature vectors in the training and the matching phases. The results obtained by using all the seven transform techniques have been analyzed and compared. It can be seen that DFT, DCT, DST and Hartley transform give comparatively similar results (Above 96%. The results obtained by using Haar and Kekre transform are very poor. The best results are obtained by using DFT (97.19% for a feature vector of size 40.

  19. Buried object location based on frequency-domain UWB measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a wideband ground penetrating radar (GPR) system and a proposed frequency-domain data analysis technique are presented for the detection of shallow buried objects such as anti-personnel landmines. The GPR system uses one transmitting antenna and an array of six monopole receiving antenna elements and operates from 1 GHz to 20 GHz. This system is able to acquire, save and analyse data in the frequency domain. A common source or wide-angle reflection and refraction technique has been used for acquiring and processing the data. This technique is effective for the rejection of ground surface clutter. By applying the C-scan scheme, metallic and plastic mine-like targets buried in dry soil will be located

  20. Research on the frequency domain ∑△-DPCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Mingwei; Zhu Daiyin; Zhu Zhaoda

    2008-01-01

    The frequency domain ∑△-DPCA processing (F-∑△-DPCA) is investigated in detail, and an im-proved scheme for the F-]EA-DPCA is proposed, which can significantly reduce the computational burden. In practice, because of the sum and difference beam pattern designed independently and other system errors, the clutter suppression of the time domain ∑△-DPCA processing (T-∑△-DPCA) is significantly degraded. However,the F-∑△-DPCA adaptively calculates the optimum gain ratio for motion compensation within each Doppler cell,which is robust to system errors. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are presented to validate that the F-∑△-DPCA can achieve superior performance of clutter cancellation than the time domain processing, and its performance can be significantly increased if more pulses are used for the Doppler filtering. The improved approach is efficient, and feasible for real-time application.

  1. Frequency domain stability criteria for fractional-order control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns about the frequency domain stability criteria for fractional-order control systems. On the base of characteristics of the fractional-order equations solutions, we consider the Nyquist stability criterion in a wider sense and obtain a more common means to analyze the stability of fractional-order systems conveniently. Finally, this paper illustrates the generalized stability criteria with an example to show the effect of the parameters variation on the fractional-order control systems.

  2. Fluorescence lifetime detection in turbid media using spatial frequency domain filtering of time domain measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anand T. N.

    2013-01-01

    It is demonstrated that high spatial frequency filtering of time domain fluorescence signals can allow efficient detection of intrinsic fluorescence lifetimes from turbid media and the rejection of diffuse excitation leakage. The basis of this approach is the separation of diffuse fluorescence signals into diffuse and fluorescent components with distinct spatiotemporal behavior.

  3. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion, with reduced local minima. We propose a waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase objective function in the frequency-domain. The unwrapped phase, or what we call the instantaneous traveltime, is given by the imaginary part of dividing the derivative of the wavefield with respect to the angular frequency by the wavefield itself. As a result, the objective function is given a traveltime-like function, which allows us to smooth it and reduce its nonlinearity. The gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique. We apply both our waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase and the conventional waveform inversion and show that our inversion algorithm gives better convergence to the true model than the conventional waveform inversion. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  4. Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Felix; Lünenschloss, Peter; Mai, Juliane; Wagner, Norman; Töpfer, Hannes; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections. Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric

  5. Suppressing interfering scattered signals in swept-frequency radar measurements by using frequency domain Wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David E.; Staton, Leo D.

    1991-01-01

    A novel approach to the reduction of scattered, interfering signals that corrupt measurements of the signal backscattered from radar targets of interest is being developed. It is being explored with sphere measurements in an indoor microwave radar range. This method is based on the concept of Wiener filtering (which minimizes the difference between the signal plus noise and the desired signal in the time domain). In contrast to the traditional Wiener filter, in which the time domain error between two sequences are minimized, the approach reported uses the frequency domain phasor amplitudes of a swept frequency signal. It minimizes the difference (least-mean-square-magnitude) between the signal-plus-noise and the signal complex phasors, across the entire spectrum.

  6. A review of time-domain and frequency-domain component mode synthesis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Hurty (1965) has conducted a dynamic analysis of structural systems using component modes. The component mode synthesis (CMS) procedure considered by him represents a form of substructure coupling analysis which is often utilized in structural dynamics. Time-domain CMS methods employing real modes are discussed, taking into account real component modes, normal modes, redundant constraint modes, rigid-body modes, attachment modes, inertia-relief modes, statically-complete interface mode sets, dynamic component mode supersets, component modal models, the coupling of components, and the classification of methods. Attention is also given to the experimental determination of component mode synthesis parameters, time-domain CMS methods for damped systems, and frequency-domain CMS methods for damped systems.

  7. Numerical methods for time-domain and frequency-domain analysis: applications in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, R. D.

    2015-11-01

    Numerical methods are widely used for modeling different physical phenomena in engineering, especially when an analytic approach is not possible. Time-domain or frequency- domain type variations are generally investigated, depending on the nature of the process under consideration. Some methods originate from mechanics, although most of their applications belong to other fields, such as electromagnetism. Conversely, other methods were firstly developed for electromagnetism, but their field of application was extended to other fields. This paper presents some results that we have obtained by using a general purpose method for solving linear equations, i.e., the method of moments (MoM), and a time-domain method derived for electromagnetism, i.e., the Transmission Line Matrix method (TLM).

  8. Frequency Domain LED Compensation for Nonlinearity Mitigation in DMT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Linning; Haese, Sylvain; Hélard, Maryline

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, a novel linear frequency-domain compensation (FDC) of the resonant cavity light emitting diode (RC-LED) for discrete multi-tone (DMT) modulation has been used for the first time in the nonlinearity mitigation of step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) communication systems. The proposed FDC method can be easily implemented in any multi-carrier communication system. Compared to the classical DMT scheme, FDC DMT benefits from higher power efficiency in terms of clipping for pe...

  9. A frequency domain approach to handling qualities design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for designing linear multivariable feedback control systems based on desired closed loop transfer matrix information is introduced. The technique which was employed to achieve the final design was based on a theoretical result, known as the structure theorem. The structure theorem was a frequency domain relationship which simplified the expression for the transfer matrix (matrix of transfer functions) of a linear time-invariant multivariable system. The effect of linear state variable feedback on the closed loop transfer matrix of the system was also clarified.

  10. A frequency-domain derivation of shot-noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A formula for shot-noise is derived in the frequency-domain. The derivation is complete and reasonably rigorous while being appropriate for undergraduate students; it models a sequence of random pulses using Fourier sine and cosine series, and requires some basic statistical concepts. The text here may serve as a pedagogic introduction to the spectral analysis of random processes and may prove useful to introduce students to the logic behind stochastic problems. The concepts of noise power spectral density and equivalent noise bandwidth are introduced.

  11. Remote Strain Sensing of CFRP Using Microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Project is investigating technologies that increase automated remote inspection of aircraft composite structures. Therefore, microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) is being investigated as a method of enabling rapid remote measurement of strain occurring at the first ply of a composite fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) structure using Radio Frequency (RF) Electro-Magnetic (EM) radiation. While microwave reflectometry has been used to detect disbonds in CFRP structures, its use in detecting strain has been limited. This work will present data demonstrating the measurement of the reactance changes due to loading conditions that are indicative of strain in a CFRP structure. In addition, the basic EM signature will be presented along with an analysis of temperature and humidity effects.

  12. Distributed dynamic strain measurement using optical frequency-domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Da-Peng; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-08-20

    Distributed dynamic strain measurement based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry is proposed. The technique makes use of the wide scanning range of a tunable laser source in a short sweeping time, and subdivides the overall spectrum into narrower frequency windows. The advantage of subdividing the laser spectral range is to improve the measurement uncertainty induced by the laser wavelength difference between repeated scans. The noise-limited dynamic strain resolution is investigated experimentally, indicating that a minimum detectable strain is less than 200 nε for a spatial resolution of 20 cm. By measuring the subdivided spectral shifts in the time sequence along the sensing fiber, the dynamic strain can be properly quantified over a 30 m measurement range for a highest sampling rate of up to 50 Hz. PMID:27556996

  13. Causality between regional stock markets: A frequency domain approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradojević Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a data set from five regional stock exchanges (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Hungary and Germany, this paper presents a frequency domain analysis of a causal relationship between the returns on the CROBEX, SBITOP, CETOP and DAX indices, and the return on the major Serbian stock exchange index, BELEX 15. We find evidence of a somewhat dominant effect of the CROBEX and CETOP stock indices on the BELEX 15 stock index across a range of frequencies. The results also indicate that the BELEX 15 index and the SBITOP index interact in a bi-directional causal fashion. Finally, the DAX index movements consistently drive the BELEX 15 index returns for cycle lengths between 3 and 11 days without any feedback effect.

  14. Frequency Domain Storage Ring Method for Electric Dipole Moment Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurement of the electric dipole moments (EDM) of fundamental charged particles would provide a significant probe of physics beyond the standard model. Any measurably large EDM would imply violation of both time reversal and parity conservation, with implications for the matter/anti-matter imbalance of the universe, not currently understood within the standard model. A frequency domain (i.e. difference of frequencies) method is proposed for measuring the EDM of electrons or protons or, with modifications, deuterons. Anticipated precision (i.e. reproducibility) is $10^{-30}\\,$e-cm for the proton EDM, with comparable accuracy (i.e. including systematic error). This would be almost six orders of magnitude smaller than the present upper limit, and will provide a stringent test of the standard model. Resonant polarimetry, made practical by the large polarized beam charge, is the key (most novel, least proven) element of the method. Along with the phase-locked, rolling polarization "Koop spin wheel," reso...

  15. Damping identification in frequency domain using integral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiwei; Sheng, Meiping; Ma, Jiangang; Zhang, Wulin

    2015-03-01

    A new method for damping identification of linear system in frequency domain is presented, by using frequency response function (FRF) with integral method. The FRF curve is firstly transformed to other type of frequency-related curve by changing the representations of horizontal and vertical axes. For the newly constructed frequency-related curve, integral is conducted and the area forming from the new curve is used to determine the damping. Three different methods based on integral are proposed in this paper, which are called FDI-1, FDI-2 and FDI-3 method, respectively. For a single degree of freedom (Sdof) system, the formulated relation of each method between integrated area and loss factor is derived theoretically. The numeral simulation and experiment results show that, the proposed integral methods have high precision, strong noise resistance and are very stable in repeated measurements. Among the three integral methods, FDI-3 method is the most recommended because of its higher accuracy and simpler algorithm. The new methods are limited to linear system in which modes are well separated, and for closely spaced mode system, mode decomposition process should be conducted firstly.

  16. Frequency-wavenumber domain phase inversion along reflection wavepaths

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-12-01

    A background velocity model containing the correct low-wavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. To achieve this goal, the velocity is updated along the reflection wavepaths, rather than along both the reflection ellipses and transmission wavepaths as in conventional FWI. This method allows for reconstructing the low-wavenumber part of the background velocity model, even in the absence of long offsets and low-frequency component of the data. Moreover, in gradient-based iterative updates, instead of forming the data error conventionally, we propose to exploit the phase mismatch between the observed and the calculated data. The phase mismatch emphasizes a kinematic error and varies quasi-linearly with respect to the velocity error. The phase mismatch is computed (1) in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain replacing the magnitudes of the calculated common shot gather by those of the observed one, and (2) in the temporal-spatial domain to form the difference between the transformed calculated common-shot gather and the observed one. The background velocity model inverted according to the proposed methods can serve as an improved initial velocity model for conventional waveform inversion. Tests with synthetic and field data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.

  17. Propagation of Optical Pulses and Pulsed Beams in the Frequency Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林强; 王立刚

    2001-01-01

    The diffraction integral formulae in the temporal and spatial-temporal frequency domains are derived by using a Fourier transform and tensor analysis method. Based on these formulae, the abcd law in the temporal frequency domain and the tensor ABCD law in the four-dimensional spatial-temporal frequency domain are derived. An application example of the derived formulae is provided.

  18. 3D FEM Simulations of a shape rolling process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, J.; Dijk, van M.H.H.; Leeuwen, van A.J.

    2001-01-01

    A finite element model has been developed for the simulation of the shape rolling of stator vanes. These simulations should support the design of rolling tools for new vane types. For the time being only straight vanes (vanes with a constant cross-section over the length) are studied. In that case t

  19. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: electromyography in a frequency domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelli, D. S.; Kuriki, H. U.; Polito, L. F.; Azevedo, F. M.; Negrão Filho, R. F.; Alves, N.

    2011-09-01

    The Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), has a multifactorial etiology and affects approximately 7 to 15% of the population, mostly women, youth, adults and active persons. PFPS causes anterior or retropatelar pain that is exacerbated during functional motor gestures, such as up and down stairs or spending long periods of time sitting, squatting or kneeling. As the diagnostic evaluation of this syndrome is still indirect, different mechanisms and methodologies try to make a classification that distinguishes patients with PFPS in relation to asymptomatic. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of the electromyographic (EMG) signal in the frequency domain of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) in patients with PFPS, during the ascent of stairs. 33 young women (22 control group and 11 PFPS group), were evaluated by EMG during ascent of stairs. The VMO mean power frequency (MPF) and the VL frequency 95% (F95) were lower in symptomatic individuals. This may be related to the difference in muscle recruitment strategy exerted by each muscle in the PFPS group compared to the control group.

  20. TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF TRUSS STRUCTURE WITH FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN DYNAMIC RESPONSE CONSTRAINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jin; Wang De-yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) is applied to topology optimization of truss structure with frequency domain excitations. The optimization constraints include fundamental frequency, displacement responses under force excitations and acceleration responses under foundation acceleration excitations. The roulette wheel selection operator, adaptive crossover and mutation operators are used as genetic operators. Some heuristic strategies are put forward to direct the deletion of the extra bars and nodes on truss structures. Three examples demonstrate that the proposed method can yield the optimum structure form and the lightest weight of the given ground structure while satisfying dynamic response constraints.

  1. Spike sorting in the frequency domain with overlap detection

    CERN Document Server

    Rinberg, D; Davidowitz, H; Tishby, N; Rinberg, Dima; Bialek, William; Davidowitz, Hanan; Tishby, Naftali

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of extracting the activity of individual neurons from multi-electrode recordings. Important aspects of this work are: 1) the sorting is done in two stages - a statistical model of the spikes from different cells is built and only then are occurrences of these spikes in the data detected by scanning through the original data, 2) the spike sorting is done in the frequency domain, 3) strict statistical tests are applied to determine if and how a spike should be classiffed, 4) the statistical model for detecting overlaping spike events is proposed, 5) slow dynamics of spike shapes are tracked during long experiments. Results from the application of these techniques to data collected from the escape response system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, are presented.

  2. An Improved Frequency Domain Technique for Determining Soil Water Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu-Rui; MA Dao-Kun; LIN Jian-Hui; P. SCHULZE LAMMERS; L. DAMEROW

    2005-01-01

    For many years a soil water content sensor with low cost, reliability and sufficient accuracy has been desirable. Thus,an improved measurement method based on the frequency domain (FD) principle for determining soil water content was considered. Unlike other measurement principles, a new measurable index, η, which was independent of the output impedance and the amplitude of the oscillator while relying on the electrical impedance of a multi-pin probe, was proposed. Moreover, a model for processing the impedance of the multi-pin soil probe was developed, and several important electrical parameters for establishing their operating ranges applicable to this probe were evaluated. In order to confirm the theoretical analysis, an experiment was conducted with a 4-pin probe. Using the developed model, the relationship between the proposed indexηand soil volumetric water content was shown to be linear (R2 = 0.9921). Thus, as the measurable index, ηseemed satisfactory.

  3. Incoherent Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry for Distributed Thermal Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Emir

    2006-01-01

    increasing frequency, after which the inverse Fourier transform is applied to the signal from the backscattered light. This technique is compared with the more conventional optical time domain reflectometry, where a short pulse is sent through the fibre, and the location of the scattering section...... developed and implemented in Matlab. The computer model is calibrated and tested, and describes the entire system with high precision. Noise analysis and digital processing of the detected signal are discussed as well. An equation describing the standard deviation of the measured temperature is derived...... resolution of order 1m is strived to be achieved. These demands are attempted to be reached by employing a low-loss telecom-grade transmission single-mode fibre or an alternative fibre as the sensing fibre, and a pump laser operating in the low loss region of silica. An analysis of the optical module...

  4. Spectrally balanced detection for optical frequency domain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yueli; de Bruin, Daniel M; Kerbage, Charles; de Boer, Johannes F

    2007-12-10

    In optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) or swept-source optical coherence tomography, balanced detection is required to suppress relative intensity noise (RIN). A regular implementation of balanced detection by combining reference and sample arm signal in a 50/50 coupler and detecting the differential output with a balanced receiver is however, not perfect. Since the splitting ratio of the 50/50 coupler is wavelength dependent, RIN is not optimally canceled at the edges of the wavelength sweep. The splitting ratio has a nearly linear shift of 0.4% per nanometer. This brings as much as +/-12% deviation at the margins of wavelength-swept range centered at 1060nm. We demonstrate a RIN suppression of 33dB by spectrally corrected balanced detection, 11dB more that regular balanced detection. PMID:19550929

  5. Iterative procedures for wave propagation in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongjai [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Symes, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    A parallelizable two-grid iterative algorithm incorporating a domain decomposition (DD) method is considered for solving the Helmholtz problem. Since a numerical method requires choosing at least 6 to 8 grid points per wavelength, the coarse-grid problem itself is not an easy task for high frequency applications. We solve the coarse-grid problem using a nonoverlapping DD method. To accelerate the convergence of the iteration, an artificial damping technique and relaxation parameters are introduced. Automatic strategies for finding efficient parameters are discussed. Numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of the method. It is numerically verified that the rate of convergence of the algorithm depends on the wave number sub-linearly and does not deteriorate as the mesh size decreases.

  6. A Frequency Domain Steganography using Z Transform (FDSZT)

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, J K

    2012-01-01

    Image steganography is art of hiding information onto the cover image. In this proposal a transformed domain based gray scale image authentication/data hiding technique using Z transform (ZT) termed as FDSZT, has been proposed. ZTransform is applied on 2x2 masks of the source image in row major order to transform original sub image (cover image) block to its corresponding frequency domain. One bit of the hidden image is embedded in each mask of the source image onto the fourth LSB of transformed coefficient based on median value of the mask. A delicate handle has also been performed as post embedding operation for proper decoding. Stego sub image is obtained through a reverse transform as final step of embedding in a mask. During the process of embedding, dimension of the hidden image followed by the content of the message/hidden image are embedded. Reverse process is followed during decoding. High PSNR obtained for various images conform the quality of invisible watermark of FDSZT.

  7. Broadband MC DS-CDMA Using Space-Time and Frequency-Domain Spreading

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L-L.; Hanzo, L.

    2002-01-01

    In this contribution multicarrier direct-sequence codedivision multiple-access (MC DS-CDMA) using space-time spreading (STS) assisted transmit diversity and frequency-domain (F-domain) spreading is investigated in the context of broadband communications over frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels. We consider the attainable capacity extension of broadband MC DS-CDMA with the advent of using Time-Frequency-domain (TF-domain) spreading. The BER performance of STS assisted broadband MC DS-...

  8. An Analog Filter Approach to Frequency Domain Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainham, R; O'Neill, M; McKenna, I J

    2015-11-01

    The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modelled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as SPICE can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modelling of the entire system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. The techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response. The simplification of the analysis mathematics, and the ability to model the entire detection chain, make it possible to develop more compact instruments for remote sensing applications. PMID:26429345

  9. On time-domain and frequency-domain MMSE-based TEQ design for DMT transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Vanbleu, K; Moonen, M; Ysebaert, G; 10.1109/TSP.2005.851161

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the minimum mean square error (MMSE) time-domain equalizer (TEQ), bitrate maximizing TEQ (BM-TEQ), and per-tone equalizer design (PTEQ) for discrete multitone (DMT) transmission and cast them in a common least-squares (LS) based framework. The MMSE- TEQ design criterion can be formulated as a constrained linear least-squares (CLLS) criterion that minimizes a time-domain (TD) error energy. From this CLLS-based TD-MMSE-TEQ criterion, we derive two new least-squares (LS) based frequency-domain (FD) MMSE-TEQ design criteria: a CLLS-based FD-MMSE-TEQ criterion and a so-called separable nonlinear LS (SNLLS) based FD-MMSE-TEQ design. Finally, the original BM-TEQ design is shown to be equivalent to a so-called iteratively-reweighted (IR) version of the SNLLS-based FD-MMSE-TEQ design. This LS-based framework then results in the following contributions. The new, IR-SNLLS-based BM-TEQ design criterion gives rise to an elegant, iterative, fast converging, Gauss-Newton-based design algorithm that exploits th...

  10. Time and frequency domain characteristics of detrending-operation-based scaling analysis: Exact DFA and DMA frequency responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyono, Ken; Tsujimoto, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    We develop a general framework to study the time and frequency domain characteristics of detrending-operation-based scaling analysis methods, such as detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and detrending moving average (DMA) analysis. In this framework, using either the time or frequency domain approach, the frequency responses of detrending operations are calculated analytically. Although the frequency domain approach based on conventional linear analysis techniques is only applicable to linear detrending operations, the time domain approach presented here is applicable to both linear and nonlinear detrending operations. Furthermore, using the relationship between the time and frequency domain representations of the frequency responses, the frequency domain characteristics of nonlinear detrending operations can be obtained. Based on the calculated frequency responses, it is possible to establish a direct connection between the root-mean-square deviation of the detrending-operation-based scaling analysis and the power spectrum for linear stochastic processes. Here, by applying our methods to DFA and DMA, including higher-order cases, exact frequency responses are calculated. In addition, we analytically investigate the cutoff frequencies of DFA and DMA detrending operations and show that these frequencies are not optimally adjusted to coincide with the corresponding time scale.

  11. Non-stationary frequency domain system identification using time-frequency representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanlin; Kareem, Ahsan

    2016-05-01

    System properties of buildings and bridges may vary with time due to temperature changes, aging or extreme loadings. To identify these time-varying system properties, this study proposes a new output-only non-stationary system identification (SI) framework based on instantaneous or marginal spectra derived from the time-frequency representation, e.g., short time Fourier or wavelet transform. Spectra derived from these time-frequency representations are very popular in tracking time-varying frequencies; however, they have seldom been used to identify the time-varying damping ratio because a short window needed to capture the time-varying information amplifies the bandwidth significantly, which may lead to considerably overestimating the damping ratio. To overcome this shortcoming, this study modifies the theoretical frequency response function (FRF) to explicitly account for the windowing effect, and therefore enables SI directly using instantaneous or marginal spectra derived from the wavelet or short time Fourier transform. The response spectrum estimated using the short time window and the modified FRF are both influenced by the same time window, thus the instantaneous or time-localized marginal spectrum of response can be fitted to the modified FRF to identify frequency and damping ratio at each time instant. This spectral-based SI framework can reliably identify damping in time-varying systems under non-stationary excitations. The efficacy of the proposed framework is demonstrated by both numerical and full-scale examples, and also compared to the time-domain SI method, stochastic subspace identification (SSI), since the time-domain SI approaches and their extensions are popular in identifying time-varying systems utilizing recursive algorithms or moving windows.

  12. Interpretations of Frequency Domain Analyses of Neural Entrainment: Periodicity, Fundamental Frequency, and Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Melloni, Lucia; Poeppel, David; Ding, Nai

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity can follow the rhythms of dynamic sensory stimuli, such as speech and music, a phenomenon called neural entrainment. It has been hypothesized that low-frequency neural entrainment in the neural delta and theta bands provides a potential mechanism to represent and integrate temporal information. Low-frequency neural entrainment is often studied using periodically changing stimuli and is analyzed in the frequency domain using the Fourier analysis. The Fourier analysis decomposes a periodic signal into harmonically related sinusoids. However, it is not intuitive how these harmonically related components are related to the response waveform. Here, we explain the interpretation of response harmonics, with a special focus on very low-frequency neural entrainment near 1 Hz. It is illustrated why neural responses repeating at f Hz do not necessarily generate any neural response at f Hz in the Fourier spectrum. A strong neural response at f Hz indicates that the time scales of the neural response waveform within each cycle match the time scales of the stimulus rhythm. Therefore, neural entrainment at very low frequency implies not only that the neural response repeats at f Hz but also that each period of the neural response is a slow wave matching the time scale of a f Hz sinusoid. PMID:27375465

  13. Multiscale Point Correspondence Using Feature Distribution and Frequency Domain Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Shun Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid scheme is proposed to find the reliable point-correspondences between two images, which combines the distribution of invariant spatial feature description and frequency domain alignment based on two-stage coarse to fine refinement strategy. Firstly, the source and the target images are both down-sampled by the image pyramid algorithm in a hierarchical multi-scale way. The Fourier-Mellin transform is applied to obtain the transformation parameters at the coarse level between the image pairs; then, the parameters can serve as the initial coarse guess, to guide the following feature matching step at the original scale, where the correspondences are restricted in a search window determined by the deformation between the reference image and the current image; Finally, a novel matching strategy is developed to reject the false matches by validating geometrical relationships between candidate matching points. By doing so, the alignment parameters are refined, which is more accurate and more flexible than a robust fitting technique. This in return can provide a more accurate result for feature correspondence. Experiments on real and synthetic image-pairs show that our approach provides satisfactory feature matching performance.

  14. Frequency domain methods applied to forecasting electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes taking place in electricity markets during the last two decades have produced an increased interest in the problem of forecasting, either load demand or prices. Many forecasting methodologies are available in the literature nowadays with mixed conclusions about which method is most convenient. This paper focuses on the modeling of electricity market time series sampled hourly in order to produce short-term (1 to 24 h ahead) forecasts. The main features of the system are that (1) models are of an Unobserved Component class that allow for signal extraction of trend, diurnal, weekly and irregular components; (2) its application is automatic, in the sense that there is no need for human intervention via any sort of identification stage; (3) the models are estimated in the frequency domain; and (4) the robustness of the method makes possible its direct use on both load demand and price time series. The approach is thoroughly tested on the PJM interconnection market and the results improve on classical ARIMA models. (author)

  15. Numerical Solution for Fractional-Order Differential Systems with Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Xiao; Shang-Bo Zhou; Wei-Wei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    For a general nonlinear fractional-order differential equation, the numerical solution is a good way to approximate the trajectory of such systems. In this paper, a novel algorithm for numerical solution of fractional-order differential equations based on the definition of Grunwald-Letnikov is presented. The results of numerical solution by using the novel method and the frequency-domain method are compared, and the limitations of frequency-domain method arediscussed.

  16. Numerical Solution for Fractional-Order Differential Systems with Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Xiao; Shang-Bo Zhou; Wei-Wei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    For a general nonlinear fractional-orderdifferential equation, the numerical solution is a goodway to approximate the trajectory of such systems. Inthis paper, a novel algorithm for numerical solution offractional-order differential equations based on thedefinition of Grunwald-Letnikov is presented. Theresults of numerical solution by using the novel methodand the frequency-domain method are compared, and the limitations of frequency-domain method arediscussed.

  17. Polyphase decompositions and shift-invariant discrete wavelet transforms in the frequency domain

    OpenAIRE

    Wink, Alle Meije; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Given a signal and its Fourier transform, we derive formulas for its polyphase decomposition in the frequency domain and for the reconstruction from the polyphase representation back to the Fourier representation. We present two frequency-domain implementations of the shift-invariant periodic discrete wavelet transform (SI-DWT) and its inverse: one that is based on frequency-domain polyphase decomposition and a more efficient 'direct' implementation, based on a reorganisation of the a trous a...

  18. Comparison of pulse and SFCW GPR in time, frequency and wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pue, Jan; Van De Vijver, Ellen; Cornelis, Wim; Van Meirvenne, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems operating in the time- or frequency domain are two fundamentally different concepts, pursuing the same objective: non-invasive characterization of the subsurface. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of these two GPR systems in the time, frequency and wavelet domain. The time domain GPR investigated is the Utilityscan DF. This is a ground coupled GPR with a digital dual-frequency antenna (300 and 800 MHz). The Geoscope GS3F and VX1213 antenna array from 3DRadar is the frequency domain GPR used in this comparison. It is an air coupled stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) GPR with a frequency bandwidth from 200 MHz to 3000 MHz. Using data from several test sites of various soil types, the data is evaluated in the time domain, the frequency domain and the wavelet domain. Each of these domains contains specific information regarding the data quality. Presenting the data in the time domain, allows visualizing the subsurface reflections. This makes it visible how strong the data is affected by internal interference, ringing and other noise. To compensate for the attenuation of the signal in time, automatic gain control is applied. The maximum of this gain function indicates the time where the signal is attenuated completely and noise becomes more dominant, corresponding with the maximal penetration depth of the different GPR systems. In the frequency domain, the data allows to investigate which frequencies contain most valuable information and which ones are affected by noise. Finally, by performing a wavelet transformation the data is transformed to the time-frequency domain. Due to frequency dependent attenuation of electromagnetic signals in the soil, low frequencies will be more dominant in deeper layers, and high frequencies will not be present anymore. This is determining for the range resolution of the data throughout the traveltime of the signal. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil

  19. Characterization of static bifurcations for n-dimensional flows in the frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZENG; Yi ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    In this paper n-dimensional flows (described by continuous-time system) with static bifurcations are considered with the aim of classification of different elementary bifurcations using the frequency domain formalism. Based on frequency domain approach, we prove some criterions for the saddle-node bifurcation, transcritical bifurcation and pitchfork bifurcation, and give an example to illustrate the efficiency of the result obtained.

  20. Fatigue Damage Assessment by Considering Mean Value Effect in Frequency Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁红岩; 朱奇; 张浦阳

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue damage assessment is carried out considering mean value effect by applying four criteria of failure. Three frequency domain methods, i.e., level crossing counting (LCC), range counting (RC) and a new proposed method, are applied. The core of frequency domain method is the construction of probability density function for the mean stress and stress range of the stress process. The applicability of these frequency domain methods are inspected by comparing with time domain method. Numerical simulations verify the applicability of LCC and the proposed method, while RC gives poor estimations.

  1. IQ Imbalance Estimation Scheme in the Presence of DC Offset and Frequency Offset in the Frequency Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, Mamiko; Takayama, Shuzo; Sanada, Yukitoshi

    Direct conversion receivers in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems suffer from direct current (DC) offset, frequency offset, and IQ imbalance. We have proposed an IQ imbalance estimation scheme in the presence of DC offset and frequency offset, which uses preamble signals in the time domain. In this scheme, the DC offset is eliminated by a differential filter. However, the accuracy of IQ imbalance estimation is deteriorated when the frequency offset is small. To overcome this problem, a new IQ imbalance estimation scheme in the frequency domain with the differential filter has been proposed in this paper. The IQ imbalance is estimated with pilot subcarriers. Numerical results obtained through computer simulation show that estimation accuracy and bit error rate (BER) performance can be improved even if the frequency offset is small.

  2. Multiple Binary Images Watermarking in Spatial and Frequency Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ganesan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Editing, reproduction and distribution of the digital multimedia are becoming extremely easier and faster with the existence of the internet and the availability of pervasive and powerful multimedia tools. Digital watermarking has emerged as a possible method to tackle these issues. This paper proposes a scheme using which more data can be inserted into an image in different domains using different techniques. This increases the embedding capacity. Using the proposed scheme 24 binary images can be embedded in the DCT domain and 12 binary images can be embedded in the spatial domain using LSB substitution technique in a single RGB image. The proposed scheme also provides an extra level of security to the watermark image by scrambling the image before embedding it into the host image. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking method results in almost invisible difference between the watermarked image and the original image and is also robust against various image processing attacks.

  3. Multiple Binary Images Watermarking in Spatial and Frequency Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ganesan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Editing, reproduction and distribution of the digital multimedia are becoming extremely easier and fasterwith the existence of the internet and the availability of pervasive and powerful multimedia tools. Digitalwatermarking has emerged as a possible method to tackle these issues. This paper proposes a schemeusing which more data can be inserted into an image in different domains using different techniques. Thisincreases the embedding capacity. Using the proposed scheme 24 binary images can be embedded in theDCT domain and 12 binary images can be embedded in the spatial domain using LSB substitutiontechnique in a single RGB image. The proposed scheme also provides an extra level of security to thewatermark image by scrambling the image before embedding it into the host image. Experimental resultsshow that the proposed watermarking method results in almost invisible difference between thewatermarked image and the original image and is also robust against various image processing attacks.

  4. Calculating thin-bed thickness in frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianyang, Y. (Shanghai Offshore Geological Survey Bureau, Ministry of Geology and Minerals, No. 340 Shenjia lu Alley, Pudong District, Shanghai City (CN))

    1991-01-01

    Thin-bed thickness can be quantitatively calculated by using amplitude information when the seismic waves were recorded in simple surface seismic-geological condition and stable shot-receiving condition. However, Seismic waves are rarely recorded on such ideal conditions. In this paper a method for calculating thin-bed thickness with the use of frequency information is proposed as a result of thin-bed model research. This method uses amplitude spectrum values of low frequency contents in seismic frequency spectrum to determine bed thickness error is minutely analyzed which may be caused by thin interbedding and different wavelets. This method is proved feasible.

  5. Microwave Frequency Ferroelectric Domain Imaging of Deuterated Triglycine Sulfate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, David E.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2001-03-01

    We have used a near-field scanning microwave microscope(D. E. Steinhauer, C. P. Vlahacos, F. C. Wellstood, Steven M. Anlage, C. Canedy, R. Ramesh, A. Stanishevsky, and J. Melngailis, "Quantitative Imaging of Dielectric Permittivity and Tunability with a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71), 2751-2758 (2000). to image domain structure and quantitatively measure dielectric permittivity and nonlinearity in ferroelectric crystals at 8.1 GHz with a spatial resolution of 1 μm. We imaged ferroelectric domains in periodically-poled LiNbO_3, BaTiO_3, and deuterated triglycine sulfate (DTGS) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7. Measurement of the permittivity and nonlinearity of DTGS in the temperature range 300--400 K shows a peak at the Curie temperature, TC ≈ 340 K, as well as reasonable agreement with thermodynamic theory. In addition, the domain growth relaxation time shows a minimum near T_C. We observe coarsening of ferroelectric domains in DTGS after a temperature quench from 360 K to 330 K, and evaluate the structure factor.

  6. Hybrid time-frequency domain equalization for LED nonlinearity mitigation in OFDM-based VLC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhitong; Liu, Xiaoshuang; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-01-12

    A novel hybrid time-frequency domain equalization scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate the white light emitting diode (LED) nonlinearity in visible light communication (VLC) systems based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). We handle the linear and nonlinear distortion separately in a nonlinear OFDM system. The linear part is equalized in frequency domain and the nonlinear part is compensated by an adaptive nonlinear time domain equalizer (N-TDE). The experimental results show that with only a small number of parameters the nonlinear equalizer can efficiently mitigate the LED nonlinearity. With the N-TDE the modulation index (MI) and BER performance can be significantly enhanced. PMID:25835706

  7. Wideband Radar Echo Frequency-domain Simulation and Analysis for High Speed Moving Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A frequency-domain method is proposed for wideband radar echo simulation of high-speed moving targets. Based on the physical process of electromagnetic waves observing a moving target, a frequency-domain echo model of wideband radar is constructed, and the block diagram of the radar echo simulation in frequency-domain is presented. Then, the impacts of radial velocity and slant range on the matching filtering of LFM radar are analyzed, and some quantitative conclusions on the shift and expansion of the radar profiles are obtained. Simulation results illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Frequency-Domain Identification of XV-15 Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Dynamics in Hovering Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Mark B.; Leung, Joseph G. M.; Dugan, Daniel C.

    1985-01-01

    Frequency-domain methods are used to identify the open-loop dynamics of the XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft from flight tests. Piloting and data analysis techniques are presented to determine frequency response plots and equivalent transfer function models. The open-loop pitch and roll dynamics for the hover flight condition exhibit unstable low-frequency oscillations, whereas the dynamics in the remaining degrees of freedom are lightly damped and generally decoupled. Comparisons of XV-15 flight-test and simulator data are more favorable for high-frequency inputs (omega greater than 1.0 rad/sec) than low-frequency inputs. Time-domain comparisons of the extracted transfer functions with step response flight data are very favorable, even for large amplitude motions. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the utility of the frequency-domain techniques for dynamics identification and simulator fidelity studies.

  9. Frequency-domain generelaized singular peruturbation method for relative error model order reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Reza SHAKER

    2009-01-01

    A new mixed method for relative error model order reduction is proposed.In the proposed method the frequency domain balanced stochastic truncation method is improved by applying the generalized singular perturbation method to the frequency domain balanced system in the reduction procedure.The frequency domain balanced stochastic truncation method,which was proposed in [15] and [17] by the author,is based on two recently developed methods,namely frequency domain balanced truncation within a desired frequency bound and inner-outer factorization techniques.The proposed method in this paper is a carry over of the frequency-domain balanced stochastic truncation and is of interest for practical model order reduction because in this context it shows to keep the accuracy of the approximation as high as possible without sacrificing the computational efficiency and important system properties.It is shown that some important properties of the frequency domain stochastic balanced reduction technique are extended to the proposed reduction method by using the concept and properties of the reciprocal systems.Numerical results show the accuracy,simplicity and flexibility enhancement of the method.

  10. Structural eigenfrequency optimization based on local sub-domain "frequencies"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    eigenfrequencies may also be controlled in this manner.The presented examples are based on 2D finite element models with the use of subspace iteration for analysis and a recursive design procedure based on the derived optimality condition. The design that maximize a frequency depend on the total amount...

  11. Investigation of Frequency-Domain Link Adaptation for a 5-MHz OFDMA/HSDPA system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Kolding, Troels E.; Frederiksen, Frank;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate frequency domain link adaptation (FDLA), e.g. utilizing the frequency selectivity of the channel in an OFDMA system. To make the study specific and based on realistic parameters, we re-use the specifications from a recent 3GPP 5-MHz OFDMA study item. The link...... adaptation and the frequency domain link adaptation are developed in a way compliant with the basic HSDPA specifications. With FDLA we show up to 75% cell throughput gain over the OFDMA reference system at the cost of increased uplink channel quality signaling overhead for frequency selective channels. We...

  12. Frequency domain analysis and synthesis of lumped parameter systems using nonlinear least squares techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Lumped parametric system models are simplified and computationally advantageous in the frequency domain of linear systems. Nonlinear least squares computer program finds the least square best estimate for any number of parameters in an arbitrarily complicated model.

  13. A MATLAB GUI for learning controller design in the frequency domain

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A MATLAB GUI is presented which is used to help students learn to design controllers in the frequency domain. It complements the author’s two previous GUIs for plotting and identification of systems in the frequency domain. It also incorporates the concept used in the “electronic calculator that makes students think” to assist learning. Positive student feedback affirms that the GUI has helped their understanding.

  14. BER Performance of Frequency Domain Differential Demodulation OFDM in Flat Fading Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Lijun; TANG Youxi; LI Shaoqian; HUANG Shunji

    2003-01-01

    A closed form expression for the bit error rate (BER) performance of frequency domain differential demodulation(FDDD) for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system in flat fading channel is derived. The performance is evaluated by computer simulation and compared with the time domain differential demodulation(TDDD). The results indicate that the performance of FDDD is better than that of TDDD, and the lower band of BER in the former is lower than that of the latter.

  15. Acoustic diagnosis of mechanical fault feature based on reference signal frequency domain semi-blind extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Zeguang YI; Pan, Nan; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at fault diagnosis problems caused by complex machinery parts, serious background noises and the application limitations of traditional blind signal processing algorithm to the mechanical acoustic signal processing, a failure acoustic diagnosis based on reference signal frequency domain semi-blind extraction is proposed. Key technologies are introduced: Based on frequency-domain blind deconvolution algorithm, the artificial fish swarm algorithm which is good for global optimization is ...

  16. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.

  17. Direction of arrival estimation using array model in time-frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun; LI Zhishun

    2004-01-01

    Time-frequency analysis is combined with array processing to develop a direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method. The array data model is constructed in time-frequency domain by cross time-frequency distribution between the output of a reference sensor and those of two symmetric sub-arrays. Accordingly a subspace method is presented based on the average of two sub-arrays' time-frequency data vector model instead of the conventional array model, to estimate DOAs of multiple signals. Because the array data is processed both in spatial domain and 2-D time-frequency domain, the proposed method has an ability to select the signal of interesting, and is suitable for non-stationary signal. Additionally, the method is robust to noise and holds an advantage of low computational load. Simulations are conducted to verify the efficiency of the method and comparision is made with other methods.

  18. Soil-structure interaction analysis of NPP containments: substructure and frequency domain methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substructure and frequency domain methods for soil-structure interaction are addressed in this paper. After a brief description of mathematical models for the soil and of excitation, the equations for dynamic soil-structure interaction are developed for a rigid surface foundation and for an embedded foundation. The equations for the frequency domain analysis of MDOF systems are provided. An example of soil-structure interaction analysis with frequency-dependent soil properties is given and examples of identification of foundation impedance functions and soil properties are presented. (orig.)

  19. Soil-structure interaction analysis of NPP containments: substructure and frequency domain methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio-Filho, F.; Almeida, M.C.F.; Ferreira, W.G. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); De Barros, F.C.P. [IME/CNEN, Pc. General Tiburcio, 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    Substructure and frequency domain methods for soil-structure interaction are addressed in this paper. After a brief description of mathematical models for the soil and of excitation, the equations for dynamic soil-structure interaction are developed for a rigid surface foundation and for an embedded foundation. The equations for the frequency domain analysis of MDOF systems are provided. An example of soil-structure interaction analysis with frequency-dependent soil properties is given and examples of identification of foundation impedance functions and soil properties are presented. (orig.) 17 refs.

  20. Dynamic Analysis of Cable Roofs Under Transient Wind:A Comparison Between Time Domain and Frequency Domain Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Ali Ghafari Oskoei; Ghyslaine McClure

    2008-01-01

    At present,high.speed computing capabilities and advanced nonlinear dynamic finite element procedures enable detailed dynamic analysis of cable structures.Although deterministic approaches require considerable analysis time and effort in relation to modeling,running,and data processing,they seem to be the only alternative to obtain high accuracy.Detailed dynamic analysis of cable roof networks is sophisticated and requires advanced modeling expertise.This paper presents a comparison between detailed nonlinear dynamic analysis and a simplified frequency domain approach to estimate the maximum probable response of weakly nonlinear cable roofs.The approach can be considered as alternative to detailed time-domain analysis in the preliminary design phase,or can be used to validate results obtained from more elaborated numerical models.The proposed method is illustrated with two examples of cable net roofs that were also analysed in the time domain.

  1. Comparison of Frequency-Domain Array Methods for Studying Earthquake Rupture Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Y.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic array methods, in both time- and frequency- domains, have been widely used to study the rupture process and energy radiation of earthquakes. With better spatial resolution, the high-resolution frequency-domain methods, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) (Schimdt, 1986; Meng et al., 2011) and the recently developed Compressive Sensing (CS) technique (Yao et al., 2011, 2013), are revealing new features of earthquake rupture processes. We have performed various tests on the methods of MUSIC, CS, minimum-variance distortionless response (MVDR) Beamforming and conventional Beamforming in order to better understand the advantages and features of these methods for studying earthquake rupture processes. We use the ricker wavelet to synthesize seismograms and use these frequency-domain techniques to relocate the synthetic sources we set, for instance, two sources separated in space but, their waveforms completely overlapping in the time domain. We also test the effects of the sliding window scheme on the recovery of a series of input sources, in particular, some artifacts that are caused by the sliding window scheme. Based on our tests, we find that CS, which is developed from the theory of sparsity inversion, has relatively high spatial resolution than the other frequency-domain methods and has better performance at lower frequencies. In high-frequency bands, MUSIC, as well as MVDR Beamforming, is more stable, especially in the multi-source situation. Meanwhile, CS tends to produce more artifacts when data have poor signal-to-noise ratio. Although these techniques can distinctly improve the spatial resolution, they still produce some artifacts along with the sliding of the time window. Furthermore, we propose a new method, which combines both the time-domain and frequency-domain techniques, to suppress these artifacts and obtain more reliable earthquake rupture images. Finally, we apply this new technique to study the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake

  2. Online Identification of a Mechanical System in the Frequency Domain with Short-Time DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Nevaranta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A proper system identification method is of great importance in the process of acquiring an analytical model that adequately represents the characteristics of the monitored system. While the use of different time-domain online identification techniques has been widely recognized as a powerful approach for system diagnostics, the frequency domain identification techniques have primarily been considered for offline commissioning purposes. This paper addresses issues in the online frequency domain identification of a flexible two-mass mechanical system with varying dynamics, and a particular attention is paid to detect the changes in the system dynamics. An online identification method is presented that is based on a recursive Kalman filter configured to perform like a discrete Fourier transform (DFT at a selected set of frequencies. The experimental online identification results are compared with the corresponding values obtained from the offline-identified frequency responses. The results show an acceptable agreement and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed identification method.

  3. Fatigue of wind turbines in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, N.W.M. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    Fatigue damage is traditionally determined from time signals of loading, usually in the form of stress or strain. However, there are three design scenarios when a spectral form of loading is more appropriate. In this case the loading is defined in terms of its magnitude at different frequencies in the form of a Power Spectral Density (PSD) plot. First, the measurement engineer recording responses from in-service components or structures may be interested in PSD`s because they are a efficient way of defining a random stress or strain time history. Secondly, the test engineer assessing the reliability of prototypes may be interested in spectral tools because such an approach allows the structural condition of the component to be monitored by continuous inspection of the system transfer function. However, the most important benefit of working with PSD`s is relevant to the structural analysis or designer because of the more sophisticated analysis options with which they can be use. For all three of these design scenarios the fatigue designer is presented with a PSD of stress or strain with which to perform his fatigue calculation. There is therefore a requirement for a reliable, accurate and robust spectral fatigue design tool. Such a tool allows the designer to estimate the rainflow range content and hence content and hence fatigue damage from the PSD. (EG)

  4. Digital Frequency Domain Multiplexer for mm-Wavelength Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, Matt; Spieler, Helmuth

    2007-01-01

    An FPGA based digital signal processing (DSP) system for biasing and reading out multiplexed bolometric detectors for mm-wavelength telescopes is presented. This readout system is being deployed for balloon-borne and ground based cosmology experiments with the primary goal of measuring the signature of inflation with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The system consists of analog superconducting electronics running at 250mK and 4K, coupled to digital room temperature backend electronics described here. The digital electronics perform the real time functionality with DSP algorithms implemented in firmware. A soft embedded processor provides all of the slow housekeeping control and communications. Each board in the system synthesizes multi-frequency combs of 8 to 32 carriers in the MHz band to bias the detectors. After the carriers have been modulated with the sky-signal by the detectors, the same boards digitize the comb directly. The carriers are mixed down to base-band and low pass filtered. The sig...

  5. Characterization of an intraluminal differential frequency-domain photoacoustics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Bahman; Son, Jungik; Liang, Simon; Castelino, Robin; Foster, F. Stuart; Courtney, Brian; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular related diseases are ranked as the second highest cause of death in Canada. Among the most important cardiovascular diseases is atherosclerosis. Current methods of diagnosis of atherosclerosis consist of angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). None of these methods possesses adequate sensitivity, as the ideal technique should be capable of both depth profiling, as well as functional imaging. An alternative technique is photoacoustics (PA) which can perform deep imaging and spectroscopy. The presented study explores the application of wavelength-modulated differential photoacoustic radar (WM-DPAR) for characterizing arterial vessels. The wavelength-modulated differential photoacoustic technique was shown to be able to substantially increase the dynamic range and sensitivity of hemoglobin oxygenation level detection. In this work the differential PA technique was used with a very high frequency modulation range. To perform spectroscopic PA imaging, at least two wavelengths are required. The selected wavelengths for this work are 1210 nm and 980 nm. 1210 nm corresponds to the maximum optical absorption coefficient of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters which are the main constituents of plaques. Since water, elastin and collagen also have high absorption coefficients at 1210 nm, this wavelength alone cannot provide very high sensitivity and specificity. The additional wavelength, 980 nm corresponds to high absorption coefficient of those constituents of healthy artery tissue. The simultaneous application of the abovementioned wavelengths can provide higher sensitivity and improved specificity in detecting lipids in the arterial vessels.

  6. Frequency-domain deviational Monte Carlo method for linear oscillatory gas flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladiges, Daniel R.; Sader, John E.

    2015-10-01

    Oscillatory non-continuum low Mach number gas flows are often generated by nanomechanical devices in ambient conditions. These flows can be simulated using a range of particle based Monte Carlo techniques, which in their original form operate exclusively in the time-domain. Recently, a frequency-domain weight-based Monte Carlo method was proposed [D. R. Ladiges and J. E. Sader, "Frequency-domain Monte Carlo method for linear oscillatory gas flows," J. Comput. Phys. 284, 351-366 (2015)] that exhibits superior statistical convergence when simulating oscillatory flows. This previous method used the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) kinetic model and contains a "virtual-time" variable to maintain the inherent time-marching nature of existing Monte Carlo algorithms. Here, we propose an alternative frequency-domain deviational Monte Carlo method that facilitates the use of a wider range of molecular models and more efficient collision/relaxation operators. We demonstrate this method with oscillatory Couette flow and the flow generated by an oscillating sphere, utilizing both the BGK kinetic model and hard sphere particles. We also discuss how oscillatory motion of arbitrary time-dependence can be simulated using computationally efficient parallelization. As in the weight-based method, this deviational frequency-domain Monte Carlo method is shown to offer improved computational speed compared to the equivalent time-domain technique.

  7. Comparison of back projection methods of determining earthquake rupture process in time and frequency domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Back projection is a method to back project the seismic energy recorded in a seismic array back to the earthquake source region and determine the rupture process of a large earthquake. The method takes advantage of the coherence of seismic energy in a seismic array and is quick in determining some important properties of earthquake source. The method can be performed in both time and frequency domains. In time domain, the most conventional procedure is beam forming with some measures of suppressing the noise, such as the Nth root stacking, etc. In the frequency domain, the multiple signal classification method (MUSIC) estimates the direction of arrivals of multiple waves propagating through an array using the subspace method. The advantage of this method is the ability to study rupture properties at various frequencies and to resolve simultaneous arrivals making it suitable for detecting biliteral rupture of an earthquake source. We present a comparison of back projection results on some large earthquakes between the methods in time domain and frequency domain. The time-domain procedure produces an image that is smeared and exhibits some artifacts, although some enhancing stacking methods can at some extent alleviate the problem. On the other hand, the MUSIC method resolves clear multiple arrivals and provides higher resolution of rupture imaging.

  8. GMAW process stability evaluation through acoustic emission by time and frequency domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Huanca Cayo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present work was made the comparative analysis in time domain and frequency domain to the acoustical pressure generate by the electric arc to determinate which of the two analysis methods is better to evaluates the stability in GMAW process.Design/methodology/approach: Welds had been made with the parameters adjusted to get the highest stability. In these conditions, were simulated instabilities that had been generated by the grease presence in the weld trajectory. In both experimental groups was acquired the acoustical pressure signal produced by electric arc to made analysis based in time domain and frequency domain.Findings: After this comparative study we conclude that the acoustical evaluation of the stability on the GMAW process presents more clarity for the analysis based in the time domain that the frequency domain.Research limitations/implications: In the gotten results, the time domain analysis method could represent adequately the stability and the instability of the process. The stability characterizes for the continuity and minim variation of the statistical parameters, but in the presence of instabilities, these parameters present chaotic changes. In the frequency domain method the variations are imperceptible for steady and unstable regions, but it presents little definite variations in the amplitude of determined bands of frequencies.Originality/value: The stability evaluation in welding is crucial because it is responsible in the weld quality. The non contact methods as the acoustical method have a potentiality extraordinary to monitoring and detect instabilities in welding. The acoustical sensing has the capacity to make an on-line monitoring of the weld process.

  9. Fractional Fourier transform for partially coherent beam in spatial-frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Yang-Jian; Lin Qiang

    2004-01-01

    By using Fourier transform and the tensor analysis method, the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) in the spatialfrequency domain for partially coherent beams is derived. Based on the FRT in the spatial-frequency domain, an analytical transform formula is derived for a partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beam passing through the FRT system. The connections between the FRT formula and the generalized diffraction integral formulae for partially coherent beams through an aligned optical system and a misaligned optical system in the spatialfrequency domain are discussed, separately. By using the derived formula, the intensity distribution of partially coherent twisted anisotropic GSM beams in the FRT plane are studied in detail. The formula derived provide a convenient tool for analysing and calculating the FRTs of the partially coherent beams in spatial-frequency domain.

  10. A hybrid analysis method for linear dynamic soil-structure interaction in time and frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海平; 廖振鹏

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid analysis method in time and frequency domains for linear soil-structure interaction is presented. First, the time domain solution of the system with Rayleigh damping excited by a short time impulse is obtained by the decoupling numerical simulation technique of near-field wave motion. Then, the corresponding frequency domain solution can be got by Fourier transform. According to the relationship between damping value and dynamic re-sponse of a system, the solution of the system with complex damping can be got by Taylor expansion. The hybrid method makes the best of decoupling and explicit algorithm in time domain, and increases the calculation efficien-cy for linear soil-structure interaction analysis.

  11. Frequency Domain Criteria for Absolute Stability A Delay-integral-quadratic Constraints Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Altshuller, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Frequency Domain Criteria for Absolute Stability focuses on recently-developed methods of delay-integral-quadratic constraints to provide criteria for absolute stability of nonlinear control systems. The known or assumed properties of the system are the basis from which stability criteria are developed. Through these methods, many classical results are naturally extended, particularly to time-periodic but also to nonstationary systems. Mathematical prerequisites including Lebesgue-Stieltjes measures and integration are first explained in an informal style with technically more difficult proofs presented in separate sections that can be omitted without loss of continuity. The results are presented in the frequency domain – the form in which they naturally tend to arise. In some cases, the frequency-domain criteria can be converted into computationally tractable linear matrix inequalities but in others, especially those with a certain geometric interpretation, inferences concerning stability can be made direc...

  12. USING CROSS-CORRELATION THEORY TO EXTRACT MODAL PARAMETERS IN FREQUENCY-DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Conventional modal parameter identifications are usually based on frequency response functions, which require measurements of both the input force and the resulting response. However, in many cases, only response data are available while the actual excitations (such as wind/wave load) are not measurable. Modal parameters estimation must base itself on response-only data. Over the past years, many time-domain modal parameter identification techniques from output-only are proposed. A poly-reference frequency-domain modal identification scheme on response-only is presented. It is based on coupling the cross-correlation theory with conventional frequency-domain modal parameter extraction. An experiment using an airplane model is performed to verify the proposed method.

  13. Four-channel magnetic resonance imaging receiver using frequency domain multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wang; Qin, Xu; Jiejing, Ren; Gengying, Li

    2007-01-01

    An alternative technique that uses frequency domain multiplexing to acquire phased array magnetic resonance images is discussed in detail. The proposed method has advantages over traditional independent receiver chains in that it utilizes an analog-to-digital converter and a single-chip multicarrier receiver with high performance to reduce the size and cost of the phased array receiver system. A practical four-channel digital receiver using frequency domain multiplexing was implemented and verified on a home-built 0.3T magnetic resonance imaging system. The experimental results confirmed that the cross talk between each channel was below -60dB, the phase fluctuations were about 1°, and there was no obvious signal-to-noise ratio degradation. It is demonstrated that the frequency domain multiplexing is a valuable and economical technique, particularly for array coil systems where the multichannel receiver is indispensable and dynamic range is not a critical problem.

  14. Frequency-Domain Thermal Modelling and Characterization of Power Semiconductor Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; He, Ning; Liserre, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    The thermal behavior of power electronics devices has being a crucial design consideration because it is closely related to the reliability and also the cost of the converter system. Unfortunately, the widely used thermal models based on lumps of thermal resistances and capacitances have...... their limits to correctly predict the device temperatures, especially when considering the thermal grease and heat sink attached to the power semiconductor devices. In this paper, frequency-domain approach is applied to the modelling of the thermal dynamics for power devices. The limits of the existing RC lump......-based thermal networks are explained from a point of view of frequency domain. Based on the discovery, a more advanced thermal model developed in the frequency domain is proposed, which can be easily established by characterizing the slope variation from the bode diagram of the typically used Foster thermal...

  15. Characterization of ZnSe(Te) scintillators by frequency domain luminescence lifetime measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickevicius, J. [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: juras.mickevicius@ff.vu.lt; Tamulaitis, G; Vitta, P.; Zukauskas, A. [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Starzhinskiy, N.; Ryzhikov, V. [STC for Radiation Instruments, ST Complex ' Institute for Single Crystals' of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave., 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-10-21

    Dynamics of photoluminescence (PL) decay in Te-doped ZnSe scintillator crystal is studied using frequency domain luminescence lifetime measurement technique, which enables simultaneous characterization of components in multicomponent PL decay in a wide time window ranging from millisecond to nanosecond domain. Evolution of decay times and relative contributions of the decay components corresponding to different PL decay mechanisms was revealed as a function of temperature.

  16. Frequency-domain ultrasonic NDE of three-layered media : the inverse problem

    OpenAIRE

    Kinra, V.; Zhu, C

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a frequency-domain ultrasonic technique for a simultaneous determination of the thickness (h) and wavespeed (c) of the individual layers comprising a multilayered medium using the entire complex spectrum. Each of the layers may be "thin" ; by thin we mean that the successive reflections of an ultrasonic pulse from the two faces of a layer are non-separable in the time domain. Plane longitudinal waves which are normally incident upon the medium are considered. A systematic ...

  17. Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detoma, Enrico; Tromborg, Bjarne; Montrosset, Ivo

    The stability properties of an external cavity laser with strong grating-filtered optical feedback to an anti-reflection coated facet are studied with a general frequency domain model. The model takes into account non-linear effects like four wave mixing and gain compression. A small-signal analy...... copression in the lasing mode. An integral equation for the electrical field is derived from the frequency domain model and used for time domain simulations of large-signal behavior.......The stability properties of an external cavity laser with strong grating-filtered optical feedback to an anti-reflection coated facet are studied with a general frequency domain model. The model takes into account non-linear effects like four wave mixing and gain compression. A small......-signal analysis in the frequency domain allows a calculation of the range of operation without mode hopping around the grating reflectivity peak. This region should be as large as possible for proper operation of the tunable laser source. The analysis shows this stabilizing effect of mode coupling and gain...

  18. Performance of Downlink Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling for the UTRAN Long Term Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Kolding, Troels E.; Mogensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

     In this paper we investigate the potential of downlink frequency-domain packet scheduling (FDPS) for the 3GPP UTRAN long term evolution. Utilizing frequency-domain channel quality reports, the scheduler flexibly multiplexes users on different portions of the system bandwidth. Compared to frequen...... Urban channel profile, studies show that the scheduling resolution should preferably be as low as 375 kHz to yield significant FDPS gain and the std. of the error of radio state reports need to be kept within 1.5-2 dB....

  19. Nonlinear system identification NARMAX methods in the time, frequency, and spatio-temporal domains

    CERN Document Server

    Billings, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear System Identification: NARMAX Methods in the Time, Frequency, and Spatio-Temporal Domains describes a comprehensive framework for the identification and analysis of nonlinear dynamic systems in the time, frequency, and spatio-temporal domains. This book is written with an emphasis on making the algorithms accessible so that they can be applied and used in practice. Includes coverage of: The NARMAX (nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs) modelThe orthogonal least squares algorithm that allows models to be built term by

  20. Gastric Emptying Assessment in Frequency and Time Domain Using Bio-impedance: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Sosa, M.; Gutiérrez, G.; Reyes, P.; Mendiola, C.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance assessment to measure gastric emptying and in general gastric activity has been reported since 1985. The physiological interpretation of these measurements, is still under research. This technique usually uses a single frequency, and the conductivity parameter. The frequency domain and the Fourier analysis of the time domain behavior of the gastric impedance in different gastric conditions (fasting state, and after food administration) has not been explored in detail. This work presents some insights of the potentiality of these alternative methodologies to measure gastric activity.

  1. Time-domain representation of frequency dependent inertial forces on offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    waves and drag forces. The inertia coefficient has been determined within linear wave theory in terms of the wave-number by MacCamy and Fuchs. For diameters less than about half the water depth this solution can be transformed to frequency form by use of the deep-water dispersion relation. The frequency...... located above the peak frequency of the wave spectrum, and the frequency dependence of the inertial force coefficient can then result in a substantial reduction of the resonant part of the response. It is of interest to represent this effect in the time domain for response analysis including finite height...... dependence is then approximated by a rational function, corresponding to a set of ordinary differential equations in the time domain. The MacCamy-Fuchs solution leads to a representation of the inertial force coefficient as a complex function with argument mainly corresponding to a 'phase lead', in contrast...

  2. A frequency domain radar interferometric imaging (FII) technique based on high-resolution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Helal, D.; Crochet, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work, we propose a frequency-domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique for a better knowledge of the vertical distribution of the atmospheric scatterers detected by MST radars. This is an extension of the dual frequency-domain interferometry (FDI) technique to multiple frequencies. Its objective is to reduce the ambiguity (resulting from the use of only two adjacent frequencies), inherent with the FDI technique. Different methods, commonly used in antenna array processing, are first described within the context of application to the FII technique. These methods are the Fourier-based imaging, the Capon's and the singular value decomposition method used with the MUSIC algorithm. Some preliminary simulations and tests performed on data collected with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan) are also presented. This work is a first step in the developments of the FII technique which seems to be very promising.

  3. Bayesian optimal classification of metallic objects: a comparison of time-domain and frequency-domain EMI performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Collins, Leslie M.; Carin, Lawrence

    2000-08-01

    Traditionally, field EMI sensors are operated in the time- domain. The time-domain (TD) EMI sensor usually is a pulsed system. It contains both a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. After transmitting an excitation pulse, which generates the primary field, the receiving coil records the secondary field in the late time. Since a TD EMI sensor measures only the late-time responses, the information contained in the early time response is lost thus limiting the types of objects that can be discriminated. Alternatively, EMI sensors can be operated in the frequency- domain (FD). In this case, the excitations are sinusoidal signals and the sensor measures the static response. The advantages and disadvantages of TD and FD EMI sensors are reviewed in this paper. For landmine and UXO detection, discrimination of targets of interest from clutter is required, since the cost of large false alarm rates is substantial amounts of money, labor and time. In order to discriminate targets from clutter, Bayesian optimal classifiers are derived. Traditional detectors for these applications only utilize the energy of the signal at the position under test or the output of a matched world scenario, the depth of the underground objects is uncertain. The optimal classifier that we utilize takes these uncertainties into account also. In this paper, we present classification performance for four metal objects using TD and FD EMI data. Experimental data were taken with the PSS- 12, a standard army issued metal detector, and the GEM-3, a prototype frequency-domain EMI sensor. Although the optimal classifier improves performance for both TD and FD data, FD classification rate are higher than those for TD systems. The theoretical basis for this result is explored.

  4. Zero-Forcing Frequency-Domain Equalization for Generalized DMT Transceivers with Insufficient Guard Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautmann Steffen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a zero-forcing frequency domain block equalizer for discrete multitone (DMT systems with a guard interval of insufficient length. In addition to the insufficient guard interval in the time domain, the equalizer takes advantage of frequency domain redundancy in the form of subcarriers that do not transmit any data. After deriving sufficient conditions for zero-forcing equalization, that is, complete removal of intersymbol and intercarrier interference, we calculate the noise enhancement of the equalizer by evaluating the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for each subcarrier. The SNRs are used by an adaptive loading algorithm. It decides how many bits are assigned to each subcarrier in order to achieve a maximum data rate at a fixed error probability. We show that redundancy in the time domain can be traded off for redundancy in the frequency domain resulting in a transceiver with a lower system latency time. The derived equalizer matrix is sparse, thus resulting in a low computational complexity.

  5. Totally Coded Algorithm for Switched-Current Network Analysis in Frequency Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-bo

    2007-01-01

    Based on mirror-blocks, a totally coded algorithm (TCA) for switched-current (SI) network analysis in frequency domain is presented. The algorithm is simple, available, and suitable for any switched-current networks.A basis of analysis and design for switched-current networks via this algorithm is provided.

  6. Plastique: A synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Zema, N.; Antonangeli, F.; Savoia, A.; Parasassi, T.; Rosato, N.

    1991-06-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beamline in the world that performs time resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and dynamics of molecules. We describe the beamline and some initial data.

  7. Frequency-Domain Green's Functions for Radar Waves in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green’s functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, ...

  8. Attenuation-corrected fluorescence extraction for image-guided surgery in spatial frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Sharma, Manu; Tunnell, James W

    2013-08-01

    A new approach to retrieve the attenuation-corrected fluorescence using spatial frequency-domain imaging is demonstrated. Both in vitro and ex vivo experiments showed the technique can compensate for the fluorescence attenuation from tissue absorption and scattering. This approach has potential in molecular image-guided surgery. PMID:23955392

  9. Attenuation-corrected fluorescence extraction for image-guided surgery in spatial frequency domain

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bin; Sharma, Manu; Tunnell, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A new approach to retrieve the attenuation-corrected fluorescence using spatial frequency-domain imaging is demonstrated. Both in vitro and ex vivo experiments showed the technique can compensate for the fluorescence attenuation from tissue absorption and scattering. This approach has potential in molecular image-guided surgery.

  10. Frequency-Domain Criterion for the Speech Distortion Weighted Multichannel Wiener Filter for Robust Noise Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Doclo, Simon; Spriet, Ann; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Frequency-Domain Criterion for the Speech Distortion Weighted Multichannel Wiener Filter for Robust Noise Reduction correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +32 16 32 1899; fax: +32 16 32 1970. (Doclo, Simon) (Doclo, Simon) Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Dept. of Electrical Engineering (ESAT - SCD) - Kasteelpark Arenberg 10 bus 2446--> , 3001 Heverlee (Leuven)--> - BELGIUM (Doclo, Simon) B...

  11. On frequency domain adaptive filters using the overlap-add method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommen, P.C.W.; Jayasinghe, J.A.K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors introduce a frequency-domain adaptive filter (FDAF) configuration using the overlap-add method which has the same complexity and convergence behavior as the overlap-save configuration. It is shown that an FDAF using the overlap-add method can be realized with the same number of DFTs (dis

  12. Frequency domain volume rendering by the wavelet X-ray transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, Michel A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a wavelet-based X-ray rendering method in the frequency domain with a smaller time complexity than wavelet splatting. Standard Fourier volume rendering is summarized and interpolation and accuracy issues are briefly discussed. We review the implementation of the fast wavelet transform in

  13. Simultaneous storage of medical images in the spatial and frequency domain: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya U Rajendra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital watermarking is a technique of hiding specific identification data for copyright authentication. This technique is adapted here for interleaving patient information with medical images, to reduce storage and transmission overheads. Methods The patient information is encrypted before interleaving with images to ensure greater security. The bio-signals are compressed and subsequently interleaved with the image. This interleaving is carried out in the spatial domain and Frequency domain. The performance of interleaving in the spatial, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT coefficients is studied. Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM is employed for data compression as well as encryption and results are tabulated for a specific example. Results It can be seen from results, the process does not affect the picture quality. This is attributed to the fact that the change in LSB of a pixel changes its brightness by 1 part in 256. Spatial and DFT domain interleaving gave very less %NRMSE as compared to DCT and DWT domain. Conclusion The Results show that spatial domain the interleaving, the %NRMSE was less than 0.25% for 8-bit encoded pixel intensity. Among the frequency domain interleaving methods, DFT was found to be very efficient.

  14. Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum at electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Florez, H M; Martinelli, M

    2016-01-01

    Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in time domain the steep dispersion in EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a $\\Lambda$-transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first oder term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sidebands resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.

  15. Frequency-domain seismic-wave modeling, migration, and full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun

    In the dissertation, I have proposed and developed new approaches for seismic modeling, migration, and full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain. For 3D scalar-wave simulations in the frequency-space domain, we develop a fourth-order compact finite-difference (FD) form with a high-order spatial accuracy (4-5 grid points per shortest wavelength), and optimal one-way wave-equation (OWWE) absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) with only one outer layer; these strategies greatly reduce the total number of the model grid points, and thus the overall computational cost. For reverse-time migration (RTM) using the cross-correlation imaging condition in the time domain, extra disk storage or wavefield simulations are required to make the forward propagated source and backward-propagated receiver wavefields available at the same time. We propose a new method to implement RTM in the frequency domain. Using virtual sources for the backward propagation of the receiver wavefield, we can straightforwardly implement the excitation-time and cross-correlation imaging conditions at each frequency without any disk storage or I/O and with complete spatial coverage of the migrated images. As both time and frequency domains have their own advantages for the inversion, we implement a hybrid scheme to combine both advantages in elastic full-waveform inversion (FWI). We simulate the wavefields using a time-domain high-precision finite-element (FE) modeling parallelized over shots with the message passing interface (MPI), and implement the inversion in the frequency domain via Fourier transform. Thus, we can easily apply both frequency-selection and time-windowing techniques to reduce the nonlinearity in inversion. To decouple different parameters in elastic FWI, we propose a new multi-steplength gradient approach to assign individual weights separately for each parameter gradient, and search for an optimal steplength along the composite gradient direction. As variations in the results

  16. Frequency domain modeling and dynamic characteristics evaluation of existing wind turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is quite well accepted that frequency domain procedures are suitable for the design and dynamic analysis of wind turbine structures, especially for floating offshore wind turbines, since random wind loads and wave induced motions are most likely simulated in the frequency domain. This paper presents specific applications of an effective frequency domain scheme to the linear analysis of wind turbine structures in which a 1-D spectral element was developed based on the axially-loaded member. The solution schemes are summarized for the spectral analyses of the tower, the blades, and the combined system with selected frequency-dependent coupling effect from foundation-structure interactions. Numerical examples demonstrate that the modal frequencies obtained using spectral-element models are in good agreement with those found in the literature. A 5-element mono-pile model results in less than 0.3% deviation from an existing 160-element model. It is preliminarily concluded that the proposed scheme is relatively efficient in performing quick verification for test data obtained from the on-site vibration measurement using the microwave interferometer.

  17. The PolyMAX Frequency-Domain Method: A New Standard for Modal Parameter Estimation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Peeters

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new non-iterative frequency-domain parameter estimation method was proposed. It is based on a (weighted least-squares approach and uses multiple-input-multiple-output frequency response functions as primary data. This so-called “PolyMAX” or polyreference least-squares complex frequency-domain method can be implemented in a very similar way as the industry standard polyreference (time-domain least-squares complex exponential method: in a first step a stabilisation diagram is constructed containing frequency, damping and participation information. Next, the mode shapes are found in a second least-squares step, based on the user selection of stable poles. One of the specific advantages of the technique lies in the very stable identification of the system poles and participation factors as a function of the specified system order, leading to easy-to-interpret stabilisation diagrams. This implies a potential for automating the method and to apply it to “difficult” estimation cases such as high-order and/or highly damped systems with large modal overlap. Some real-life automotive and aerospace case studies are discussed. PolyMAX is compared with classical methods concerning stability, accuracy of the estimated modal parameters and quality of the frequency response function synthesis.

  18. Bilateral collicular interaction: modulation of auditory signal processing in frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Mei, H-X; Tang, J; Fu, Z-Y; Jen, P H-S; Chen, Q-C

    2013-04-01

    In the ascending auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) receives and integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from a variety of lower auditory nuclei, intrinsic projections within the IC, contralateral IC through the commissure of the IC and the auditory cortex. All these connections make the IC a major center for subcortical temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. In this study, we examine bilateral collicular interaction in the modulation of frequency-domain signal processing of mice using electrophysiological recording and focal electrical stimulation. Focal electrical stimulation of neurons in one IC produces widespread inhibition and focused facilitation of responses of neurons in the other IC. This bilateral collicular interaction decreases the response magnitude and lengthens the response latency of inhibited IC neurons but produces an opposite effect on the response of facilitated IC neurons. In the frequency domain, the focal electrical stimulation of one IC sharpens or expands the frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of neurons in the other IC to improve frequency sensitivity and the frequency response range. The focal electrical stimulation also produces a shift in the best frequency (BF) of modulated IC (ICMdu) neurons toward that of electrically stimulated IC (ICES) neurons. The degree of bilateral collicular interaction is dependent upon the difference in the BF between the ICES neurons and ICMdu neurons. These data suggest that bilateral collicular interaction is a part of dynamic acoustic signal processing that adjusts and improves signal processing as well as reorganizes collicular representation of signal parameters according to the acoustic experience.

  19. Adaptive grid artifact reduction in the frequency domain with spatial properties for x-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Sik; Lee, Sanggyun

    2012-03-01

    By applying band-rejection filters (BRFs) in the frequency domain, we can efficiently reduce the grid artifacts, which are caused by using the antiscatter grid in obtaining x-ray digital images. However, if the frequency component of the grid artifact is relatively close to that of the object, then simply applying a BRF may seriously distort the object and cause the ringing artifacts. Since the ringing artifacts are quite dependent on the shape of the object to be recovered in the spatial domain, the spatial property of the x-ray image should be considered in applying BRFs. In this paper, we propose an adaptive filtering scheme, which can cooperate such different properties in the spatial domain. In the spatial domain, we compare several approaches, such as the mangnitude, edge, and frequency-modulation (FM) model-based algorithms, to detect the ringing artifact or the grid artifact component. In order to perform a robust detection whether the ringing artifact is strong or not, we employ the FM model for the extracted signal, which corresponds to a specific grid artifact. A detection of the position for the ringing artifact is then conducted based on the slope detection algorithm, which is commonly used as an FM discriminator in the communication area. However, the detected position of the ringing artifact is not accurate. Hence, in order to obtain an accurate detection result, we combine the edge-based approach with the FM model approach. Numerical result for real x-ray images shows that applying BRFs in the frequency domain in conjunction with the spatial property of the ringing artifact can successfully remove the grid artifact, distorting the object less.

  20. Linearized Aeroelastic Computations in the Frequency Domain Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Amsallem, David; Choi, Youngsoo; Farhat, Charbel

    2015-01-01

    An iterative, CFD-based approach for aeroelastic computations in the frequency domain is presented. The method relies on a linearized formulation of the aeroelastic problem and a fixed-point iteration approach and enables the computation of the eigenproperties of each of the wet aeroelastic eigenmodes. Numerical experiments on the aeroelastic analysis and design optimization of two wing configurations illustrate the capability of the method for the fast and accurate aeroelastic analysis of aircraft configurations and its advantage over classical time-domain approaches.

  1. Simultaneous storage of patient information with medical images in the frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Rajendra; Niranjan, U C; Iyengar, S S; Kannathal, N; Min, Lim Choo

    2004-10-01

    Digital watermarking is a technique of hiding specific identification data for copyright authentication. Most of the medical images are compressed by joint photographic experts group (JPEG) standard for storage. The watermarking is adapted here for interleaving patient information with medical images during JPEG compression, to reduce storage and transmission overheads. The text data is encrypted before interleaving with images in the frequency domain to ensure greater security. The graphical signals are also interleaved with the image. The result of this work is tabulated for a specific example and also compared with the spatial domain interleaving.

  2. Simulation of power fluctuation of wind farms based on frequency domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Sun, Yuanzhang; Li, Guojie;

    2011-01-01

    With the capacity of installed wind power generators steadily increasing in China, power fluctuation from wind farms will significantly affect the security and reliability of the power system. Traditional modeling of power fluctuation is based on the time domain or statistics methodology which...... the power spectral density of wind speed, the frequency domain model of a wind power generator and the information on weather and geography of the wind farms. The correctness and effectiveness of the model are verified by comparing the measurement data with simulation results of a certain wind farm. © 2011...

  3. Direct observation of low frequency confined acoustic phonons in silver nanoparticles: Terahertz time domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kamaraju, N; Karthikeyan, B; Tondusson, M; Freysz, E; Sood, A K

    2010-07-01

    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy has been used to study low frequency confined acoustic phonons of silver nanoparticles embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix in the spectral range of 0.1-2.5 THz. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function show two bands at 0.60 and 2.12 THz attributed to the spheroidal and toroidal modes of silver nanoparticles, thus demonstrating the usefulness of terahertz time domain spectroscopy as a complementary technique to Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the nanoparticles.

  4. Frequency-domain correction of sensor dynamic error for step response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang-Long; Xu, Ke-Jun

    2012-11-01

    To obtain accurate results in dynamic measurements it is required that the sensors should have good dynamic performance. In practice, sensors have non-ideal dynamic characteristics due to their small damp ratios and low natural frequencies. In this case some dynamic error correction methods can be adopted for dealing with the sensor responses to eliminate the effect of their dynamic characteristics. The frequency-domain correction of sensor dynamic error is a common method. Using the existing calculation method, however, the correct frequency-domain correction function (FCF) cannot be obtained according to the step response calibration experimental data. This is because of the leakage error and invalid FCF value caused by the cycle extension of the finite length step input-output intercepting data. In order to solve these problems the data splicing preprocessing and FCF interpolation are put forward, and the FCF calculation steps as well as sensor dynamic error correction procedure by the calculated FCF are presented in this paper. The proposed solution is applied to the dynamic error correction of the bar-shaped wind tunnel strain gauge balance so as to verify its effectiveness. The dynamic error correction results show that the adjust time of the balance step response is shortened to 10 ms (shorter than 1/30 before correction) after frequency-domain correction, and the overshoot is fallen within 5% (less than 1/10 before correction) as well. The dynamic measurement accuracy of the balance is improved significantly.

  5. Finite Difference Time Marching in the Frequency Domain: A Parabolic Formulation for the Convective Wave Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Kreider, K. L.

    1996-01-01

    An explicit finite difference iteration scheme is developed to study harmonic sound propagation in ducts. To reduce storage requirements for large 3D problems, the time dependent potential form of the acoustic wave equation is used. To insure that the finite difference scheme is both explicit and stable, time is introduced into the Fourier transformed (steady-state) acoustic potential field as a parameter. Under a suitable transformation, the time dependent governing equation in frequency space is simplified to yield a parabolic partial differential equation, which is then marched through time to attain the steady-state solution. The input to the system is the amplitude of an incident harmonic sound source entering a quiescent duct at the input boundary, with standard impedance boundary conditions on the duct walls and duct exit. The introduction of the time parameter eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with frequency domain solutions, and time marching attains the steady-state quickly enough to make the method favorable when compared to frequency domain methods. For validation, this transient-frequency domain method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D hard wall duct with plug flow.

  6. Finite Difference Time Marching in the Frequency Domain: A Parabolic Formulation for Aircraft Acoustic Nacelle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1996-01-01

    An explicit finite difference iteration scheme is developed to study harmonic sound propagation in aircraft engine nacelles. To reduce storage requirements for large 3D problems, the time dependent potential form of the acoustic wave equation is used. To insure that the finite difference scheme is both explicit and stable, time is introduced into the Fourier transformed (steady-state) acoustic potential field as a parameter. Under a suitable transformation, the time dependent governing equation in frequency space is simplified to yield a parabolic partial differential equation, which is then marched through time to attain the steady-state solution. The input to the system is the amplitude of an incident harmonic sound source entering a quiescent duct at the input boundary, with standard impedance boundary conditions on the duct walls and duct exit. The introduction of the time parameter eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with frequency domain solutions, and time marching attains the steady-state quickly enough to make the method favorable when compared to frequency domain methods. For validation, this transient-frequency domain method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D hard wall duct with plug flow.

  7. Methods of EEG signal features extraction using linear analysis in frequency and time-frequency domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fahoum, Amjed S; Al-Fraihat, Ausilah A

    2014-01-01

    Technically, a feature represents a distinguishing property, a recognizable measurement, and a functional component obtained from a section of a pattern. Extracted features are meant to minimize the loss of important information embedded in the signal. In addition, they also simplify the amount of resources needed to describe a huge set of data accurately. This is necessary to minimize the complexity of implementation, to reduce the cost of information processing, and to cancel the potential need to compress the information. More recently, a variety of methods have been widely used to extract the features from EEG signals, among these methods are time frequency distributions (TFD), fast fourier transform (FFT), eigenvector methods (EM), wavelet transform (WT), and auto regressive method (ARM), and so on. In general, the analysis of EEG signal has been the subject of several studies, because of its ability to yield an objective mode of recording brain stimulation which is widely used in brain-computer interface researches with application in medical diagnosis and rehabilitation engineering. The purposes of this paper, therefore, shall be discussing some conventional methods of EEG feature extraction methods, comparing their performances for specific task, and finally, recommending the most suitable method for feature extraction based on performance. PMID:24967316

  8. Spatial-Resolution Improvement in Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry System Based on Tunable Linear Fiber Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guoyu; Li Yan [Institute of Information Engineering, Handan College, Handan, 056005 (China); Zhao Peng, E-mail: guoyu_li@yahoo.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) system, the spatial resolution is obtained by using the total frequency-sweep span of the tunable laser. However, in practice, the spatial resolution is severely limited by nonlinearity in the lightwave-frequency sweep of the tunable laser. A closed-loop PZT modulated DBR linear fiber laser is proposed to improve the spatial resolution of the OFDR system. Experimental results show that the spatial resolution of OFDR system has improved greatly. When the frequency sweep excursion is 66GHz and the fiber under test (FUT) is 7 m, the OFDR system has a spatial resolution of 1.5 m with open-loop PZT modulated laser. But the spatial resolution increases to 35 cm with closed-loop PZT modulated laser.

  9. Data-Aided Frequency-Domain Channel Estimation for CD and DGD Monitoring in Coherent Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittalà, Fabio; Hauske, Fabian N.; Ye, Yabin;

    2011-01-01

    CD and DGD monitoring from Frequency- Domain Zero-Forcing and MMSE filter functions adapted with the aid of short CAZAC training sequences is demonstrated.......CD and DGD monitoring from Frequency- Domain Zero-Forcing and MMSE filter functions adapted with the aid of short CAZAC training sequences is demonstrated....

  10. Clinical skin imaging using color spatial frequency domain imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Moy, Austin J.; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-02-01

    Skin diseases are typically associated with underlying biochemical and structural changes compared with normal tissues, which alter the optical properties of the skin lesions, such as tissue absorption and scattering. Although widely used in dermatology clinics, conventional dermatoscopes don't have the ability to selectively image tissue absorption and scattering, which may limit its diagnostic power. Here we report a novel clinical skin imaging technique called color spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI) which enhances contrast by rendering color spatial frequency domain (SFD) image at high spatial frequency. Moreover, by tuning spatial frequency, we can obtain both absorption weighted and scattering weighted images. We developed a handheld imaging system specifically for clinical skin imaging. The flexible configuration of the system allows for better access to skin lesions in hard-to-reach regions. A total of 48 lesions from 31 patients were imaged under 470nm, 530nm and 655nm illumination at a spatial frequency of 0.6mm^(-1). The SFD reflectance images at 470nm, 530nm and 655nm were assigned to blue (B), green (G) and red (R) channels to render a color SFD image. Our results indicated that color SFD images at f=0.6mm-1 revealed properties that were not seen in standard color images. Structural features were enhanced and absorption features were reduced, which helped to identify the sources of the contrast. This imaging technique provides additional insights into skin lesions and may better assist clinical diagnosis.

  11. Microwave signal processing in two-frequency domain for ROF systems implementation: training course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Morozov, Gennady A.

    2014-04-01

    This article is presented materials from two tutorials: "Optical two-frequency domain reflectometry1, 2" and "Microwave technologies in industry, living systems and telecommunications3". These materials were prepared for master training courses and listed in the "SPIE Optical Education Directory" for 2013/2014. The main its theme is microwave photonics. Microwave photonics has been defined as the study of photonic devices operating at microwave frequencies and their application to microwave and optical systems. Its initial rationale was to use the advantages of photonic technologies to provide functions in microwave systems that are very complex or even impossible to carry out directly in the radiofrequency domain. But microwave photonics is also succeeding in incorporating a variety of techniques used in microwave engineering to improve the performance of photonic communication networks and systems. Three parts of this chapter are devoted to applications and construction principles of systems forming microwave photonic filters, measuring instantaneous frequency of microwave heterodyne signals and characterizing stimulated Mandelstam- Brillouin scattering spectrum in ROF systems. The main emphasis is on the use of the two-frequency symmetric radiation, generated by the Il'in-Morozov's method4, in given systems. It is forming radiation for the synthesis of optical filters coefficients, it's application and processing determine the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio during heterodyne frequencies monitoring and characterization of nonlinear effects spectrum.

  12. Comparison of intensity discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the envelope and audio-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.;

    on the masking waveform in both domains. A significant release from masking of a 32-Hz signal in the modulation frequency domain was obtained only when the venelope fluctuations were slower than 1–2 Hz. Both experiments suggest a relatively weak contribution of venelope cues in the AM domain when compared......In the audio-frequency domain, the envelope apparently plays an important role in detection of intensity increments and in comodulation masking release (CMR). The current study addressed the question whether the second-order envelope ("venelope") contributes similarly for comparable experiments...... in the envelope-frequency domain. One set of experiments examined the relationship between gated intensity discrimination and continuous-carrier increment detection. In contrast to the asymmetry observed in the audio-frequency domain (listeners are more sensitive to increments), AM-depth discrimination thresholds...

  13. Statistical significance of task related deep brain EEG dynamic changes in the time-frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chládek, J; Brázdil, M; Halámek, J; Plešinger, F; Jurák, P

    2013-01-01

    We present an off-line analysis procedure for exploring brain activity recorded from intra-cerebral electroencephalographic data (SEEG). The objective is to determine the statistical differences between different types of stimulations in the time-frequency domain. The procedure is based on computing relative signal power change and subsequent statistical analysis. An example of characteristic statistically significant event-related de/synchronization (ERD/ERS) detected across different frequency bands following different oddball stimuli is presented. The method is used for off-line functional classification of different brain areas. PMID:24109865

  14. Reducing Dataset Size in Frequency Domain for Brain Computer Interface Motor Imagery Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.Aparna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface is an emerging area of research where the BCI system is able to detect and interpret the mental activity into computer interpretable signals opening a wide area of applications where activities can be completed without using muscular movement. In Brain Computer Interface research, for classification of EEG signals the raw signals captured has to undergo some preprocessing, to obtain the right attributes for classification. In this paper, we present a system which allows for classification of mental tasks based on a statistical data obtained in frequency domain using Discrete cosine transform and extracting useful frequencies from the same with application of decision tree algorithms for classification.

  15. Distributed vibration sensing with time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Da-Peng; Qin, Zengguang; Li, Wenhai; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2012-06-01

    The distributed vibration or dynamic strain information can be obtained using time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry. Time-domain information is resolved by measuring Rayleigh backscatter spectrum in different wavelength ranges which fall in successive time sequence due to the linear wavelength sweep of the tunable laser source with a constant sweeping rate. The local Rayleigh backscatter spectrum shift of the vibrated state with respect to that of the non-vibrated state in time sequence can be used to determine dynamic strain information at a specific position along the fiber length. Standard single-mode fibers can be used as sensing head, while the measurable frequency range of 0-32 Hz with the spatial resolution of 10 cm can be achieved up to the total length of 17 m. PMID:22714342

  16. The research on recognition and extraction of river feature in IKNOS based on frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Feng, Xuezhi; Xiao, Pengfeng; Wu, Guoping

    2009-10-01

    Because the resolution of remotely sensed imagery becomes higher, new methods are introduced to process the high-resolution remotely sensed imagery. The algorithms introduced in this paper to recognize and extract the river features based on the frequency domain. This paper uses the Gabor filter in frequency domain to enhance the texture of river and remove the noise from remotely sensed imagery. And then according to the theory of phase congruency, this paper retrieves the PC of every point such that features such as edge of river, building and farmland in the remotely sensed imagery. Lastly, the skeletal methodology is introduced to determine the edge of river within the help of the trend of river.

  17. Spatial and frequency domain interferometry using the MU radar - A tutorial and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, Shoichiro; Palmer, Robert D.

    Fundamental notions of spatial and frequency-domain interferometry are reviewed, and a novel method is proposed for steering the antenna beam after the data are stored. Also presented is a comparison of techniques for wind-vector determination with emphasis given to a method based on the linear variation of the phase of the cross-spectra. Recent applications of spatial interferometry (SI) and frequency-domain interferometry (FDI) are listed including an implementation of FDI with MU radar. The vertical wind velocity estimated from the Doppler technique is shown to be a measure of the wind perpendicular to tilted refractivity surfaces. The bias generated by horizontal wind is found to have a significant effect on the Doppler estimate in SI. The use of MU radar in FDI can facilitate measurements of the positions of high reflectivity layers smaller than the resolution volume.

  18. Power System Harmonic Detection Using Frequency-Domain Interpolation Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Tian-jun; CHEN Guang-ju

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at harmonic detection, fast Fourier transform can only detect integer harmonics precisely, short time Fourier transform can detect non-integer harmonics with low resolution, and some former wavelet based methods have no aliasing-reduction scheme which result in low measurement precision and poor robustness. A frequency-domain interpolation algorithm to detect harmonics is proposed by choosing Shannon wavelet. Shannon wavelet is an orthogonal wavelet possessing best ideal frequency domain localization ability, it can restrict wavelet aliasing but bring about Gibbs oscillation phenomenon simultaneously. An interpolation algorithm is developed to overcome this problem. Simulation reveals that the proposed method can effectively cancel aliasing, spectral leakage and Gibbs phenomenon, so it provides an effective means for power system harmonic analysis.

  19. Frequency and time domain inspiral templates for comparable mass compact binaries in eccentric orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Tanay, Sashwat; Gopakumar, Achamveedu

    2016-01-01

    Inspiraling compact binaries with non-negligible orbital eccentricities are plausible gravitational wave (GW) sources for the upcoming network of GW observatories. In this paper, we present two prescriptions to compute post-Newtonian (PN) accurate inspiral templates for such binaries. First, we adapt and extend the post-circular scheme of Yunes {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] to obtain a Fourier-domain inspiral approximant that incorporates the effects of PN-accurate orbital eccentricity evolution. This results in a fully analytic frequency-domain inspiral waveform with Newtonian amplitude and 2PN order Fourier phase while incorporating eccentricity effects up to sixth order at each PN order. The importance of incorporating eccentricity evolution contributions to the Fourier phase in a PN consistent manner is also demonstrated. Second, we present an accurate and efficient prescription to incorporate orbital eccentricity into the quasi-circular time-domain {\\texttt{TaylorT4}} approximant at 2PN o...

  20. Improvement of Reading Performance of Frequency-Domain Chipless RFID Transponders

    OpenAIRE

    Havlicek, J.; Svanda, M.; J. Machac; M. Polivka

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents the summary of our investigations in several topics of frequency-domain chipless RFID transponders. The performance comparison of various types of scatterers used in the literature and recently proposed by the authors is presented. The issue of proper location of adjacent resonant elements in the scatterer array to reduce the mutual coupling and consequently ensure the robust RCS response for reliable reading of coded information is addressed. A major improvement in...

  1. NEW FREQUENCY DOMAIN POST-FILTERS FOR NOISE CANCELLATION USING TWO CLOSELY SPACED MICROPHONES

    OpenAIRE

    Djendi, Mohamed; Gilloire, A.; Pascal, Scalart

    2009-01-01

    International audience This paper addresses the problem of speech enhancement in a moving car through a blind source separation (BSS) scheme involving two closely spaced microphones. We propose two frequency domain methods to reduce the distortion caused by the forward BSS structure, which is most important when microphones are closely spaced. Both methods aim at estimating post-filters to compensate for the distortion by equalization. The first method is based on an open-loop estimation. ...

  2. Is Bitcoin business income or speculative bubble? Unconditional vs. conditional frequency domain analysis

    OpenAIRE

    bouoiyour, jamal; Selmi, Refk; Tiwari, Aviral

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses one of the most problematic phenomena: Bitcoin price. We explore the Granger causality for two relationships (Bitcoin price and transactions; Bitcoin price and investors’ attractiveness) from a frequency domain perspective using Breitung and Candelon’s (2006) approach. Intuitively, this research gauges empirically the causal links between these variables unconditionally on the one hand and conditionally to the Chinese stock market and the processing power of Bitcoi...

  3. IS BITCOIN BUSINESS INCOME OR SPECULATIVE FOOLERY? NEW IDEAS THROUGH AN IMPROVED FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    JAMAL BOUOIYOUR; REFK SELMI; AVIRAL KUMAR TIWARI

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses one of the most problematic phenomena: Bitcoin price. We explore the Granger causality for two relationships (Bitcoin price and trade transactions; Bitcoin price and investors' attractiveness) from a frequency domain perspective-based on unconditional and conditional data analysis. Accurately, this research empirically assesses the causal links between these variables unconditionally on the one hand and conditioning upon relevant control variables (recorded in lite...

  4. Using Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition as a Robust Technique to Harmonic Excitation in Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen; Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune

    2006-01-01

    The presence of harmonic components in the measured responses is unavoidable in many applications of Operational Modal Analysis. This is especially true when measuring on mechanical structures containing rotating or reciprocating parts. This paper describes a new method based on the popular...... Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique for eliminating the influence of these harmonic components in the modal parameter extraction process. For various experiments, the quality of the method is assessed and compared to the results obtained using broadband stochastic excitation forces. Good...

  5. Soil-structure-interaction analysis in frequency domain using fixed base eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic soil-structure-interaction analyses are usually performed in the frequency domain. Solutions for large buildings require much computer time because of the many degrees of freedom that are needed to represent the dynamic behaviour of the structure. The method presented takes advantage of the fact, that for seismic loading the behaviour of the structure can be represented by only a few natural modes. Thus the number of the equations of motion that have to be solved are drastically reduced. (author)

  6. High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing

    OpenAIRE

    MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2009-01-01

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large ...

  7. Propagation of Partially Coherent Twisted Anisotropic Gaussian-Schell Model Beams in the Spatial-Frequency Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡阳健; 林强

    2002-01-01

    The generalized Collins formula for partially coherent beams through axially non-symmetrical optical systems in the spatial-frequency domain is derived by means of the tensor method. Based on this formula, the tensor ABCD law in the spatial-frequency domain for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beams is derived, which governs the transformation of the twisted anisotropic GSM beams in the spatialfrequency domain. An example of an application is provided.

  8. Suspension parameter estimation in the frequency domain using a matrix inversion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thite, A. N.; Banvidi, S.; Ibicek, T.; Bennett, L.

    2011-12-01

    The dynamic lumped parameter models used to optimise the ride and handling of a vehicle require base values of the suspension parameters. These parameters are generally experimentally identified. The accuracy of identified parameters can depend on the measurement noise and the validity of the model used. The existing publications on suspension parameter identification are generally based on the time domain and use a limited degree of freedom. Further, the data used are either from a simulated 'experiment' or from a laboratory test on an idealised quarter or a half-car model. In this paper, a method is developed in the frequency domain which effectively accounts for the measurement noise. Additional dynamic constraining equations are incorporated and the proposed formulation results in a matrix inversion approach. The nonlinearities in damping are estimated, however, using a time-domain approach. Full-scale 4-post rig test data of a vehicle are used. The variations in the results are discussed using the modal resonant behaviour. Further, a method is implemented to show how the results can be improved when the matrix inverted is ill-conditioned. The case study shows a good agreement between the estimates based on the proposed frequency-domain approach and measurable physical parameters.

  9. Quantifying Stability Using Frequency Domain Data from Wireless Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Slaughter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of gait stability can provide valuable information when evaluating subjects for age related and neuromuscular disease changes. Using tri-axial inertial measurement units (IMU for acceleration and rotational data provide a non-linear profile for this type of movement. As subjects traverse various surfaces representing decreasing stability, the different phasing of gait data make comparisons difficult. By converting from time to frequency domain data, the phase effects can be ignored, allowing for significant correlations. In this study, 12 subjects provided gait information over various surfaces while wearing an IMU. Instabilities were determined by comparing frequency domain data over less stable surfaces to frequency domain data of neural network (NN models representing the normal gait for any given participant. Time dependent data from 2 axes of acceleration and 2 axes of rotation were converted using a discrete Fourier transform (FFT algorithm. The data over less stable surfaces were compared to the normal gait NN model by averaging the Pearson product moment correlation (r values. This provided a method to quantify the decreased stability. Data showed progressively decreasing correlation coefficient values as subjects encountered progressively less stable surface environments. This methodology has allowed for the quantification of instability in gait situations for application in real-time fall prevention situations.

  10. Quantifying Stability Using Frequency Domain Data from Wireless Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Slaughter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of gait stability can provide valuable information when evaluating subjects for age related and neuromuscular disease changes. Using tri-axial inertial measurement units (IMU for acceleration and rotational data provide a non-linear profile for this type of movement. As subjects traverse various surfaces representing decreasing stability, the different phasing of gait data make comparisons difficult. By converting from time to frequency domain data, the phase effects can be ignored, allowing for significant correlations. In this study, 12 subjects provided gait information over various surfaces while wearing an IMU. Instabilities were determined by comparing frequency domain data over less stable surfaces to frequency domain data of neural network (NN models representing the normal gait for any given participant. Time dependent data from 2 axes of acceleration and 2 axes of rotation were converted using a discrete Fourier transform (FFT algorithm. The data over less stable surfaces were compared to the normal gait NN model by averaging the Pearson product moment correlation (r values. This provided a method to quantify the decreased stability. Data showed progressively decreasing correlation coefficient values as subjects encountered progressively less stable surface environments. This methodology has allowed for the quantification of instability in gait situations for application in real-time fall prevention situations.

  11. Frequency Domain Analysis for Assessing Fluid Responsiveness by Using Instantaneous Pulse Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the ICU, fluid therapy is conventional strategy for the patient in shock. However, only half of ICU patients have well-responses to fluid therapy, and fluid loading in non-responsive patient delays definitive therapy. Prediction of fluid responsiveness (FR has become intense topic in clinic. Most of conventional FR prediction method based on time domain analysis, and it is limited ability to indicate FR. This study proposed a method which predicts FR based on frequency domain analysis, named instantaneous pulse rate variability (iPRV. iPRV provides a new indication in very high frequency (VHF range (0.4-0.8Hz of spectrum for peripheral responses. Twenty six healthy subjects participated this study and photoplethysmography signal was recorded in supine baseline, during head-up tilt (HUT, and passive leg raising (PLR, which induces variation of venous return and helps for quantitative assessment of FR individually. The result showed the spectral power of VHF decreased during HUT (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 348.00±434.92 ms2 in HUT and increased during PLR (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 718.92±973.70 ms2 in PLR, which present the compensated regulation of venous return and FR. This study provides an effective indicator for assessing FR in frequency domain and has potential to be a reliable system in ICU.

  12. Time and Frequency-Domain Cross-Verification of SLS 6DOF Trajectory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen; Johnson, Matthew D.; McCullough, John P.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    The SLS GNC team and its partners have developed several time- and frequency-based simulations for development and analysis of the proposed SLS launch vehicle. The simulations differ in fidelity and some have unique functionality that allows them to perform specific analyses. Some examples of the purposes of the various models are: trajectory simulation, multi-body separation, Monte Carlo, hardware in the loop, loads, and frequency domain stability analyses. While no two simulations are identical, many of the models are essentially six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) representations of the SLS plant dynamics, hardware implementation, and flight software. Thus at a high level all of those models should be in agreement. Comparison of outputs from several SLS trajectory and stability analysis tools are ongoing as part of the program's current verification effort. The purpose of these comparisons is to highlight modeling and analysis differences, verify simulation data sources, identify inconsistencies and minor errors, and ultimately to verify output data as being a good representation of the vehicle and subsystem dynamics. This paper will show selected verification work in both the time and frequency domain from the current design analysis cycle of the SLS for several of the design and analysis simulations. In the time domain, the tools that will be compared are MAVERIC, CLVTOPS, SAVANT, STARS, ARTEMIS, and POST 2. For the frequency domain analysis, the tools to be compared are FRACTAL, SAVANT, and STARS. The paper will include discussion of these tools including their capabilities, configurations, and the uses to which they are put in the SLS program. Determination of the criteria by which the simulations are compared (matching criteria) requires thoughtful consideration, and there are several pitfalls that may occur that can severely punish a simulation if not considered carefully. The paper will discuss these considerations and will present a framework for responding to

  13. Spectral analysis of GEOS-3 altimeter data and frequency domain collocation. [to estimate gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, K.

    1980-01-01

    The mathematical background in spectral analysis as applied to geodetic applications is summarized. The resolution (cut-off frequency) of the GEOS 3 altimeter data is examined by determining the shortest wavelength (corresponding to the cut-off frequency) recoverable. The data from some 18 profiles are used. The total power (variance) in the sea surface topography with respect to the reference ellipsoid as well as with respect to the GEM-9 surface is computed. A fast inversion algorithm for matrices of simple and block Toeplitz matrices and its application to least squares collocation is explained. This algorithm yields a considerable gain in computer time and storage in comparison with conventional least squares collocation. Frequency domain least squares collocation techniques are also introduced and applied to estimating gravity anomalies from GEOS 3 altimeter data. These techniques substantially reduce the computer time and requirements in storage associated with the conventional least squares collocation. Numerical examples given demonstrate the efficiency and speed of these techniques.

  14. Spectral evolution of two-dimensional kinetic plasma turbulence in the wavenumber-frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Comişel, H; Narita, Y; Motschmann, U

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for studying the evolution of plasma turbulence by tracking dispersion relations in the energy spectrum in the wavenumber-frequency domain. We apply hybrid plasma simulations in a simplified two-dimensional geometry to demonstrate our method and its applicability to plasma turbulence in the ion kinetic regime. We identify four dispersion relations: ion-Bernstein waves, oblique whistler waves, oblique Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves, and a zero-frequency mode. The energy partition and frequency broadening are evaluated for these modes. The method allows us to determine the evolution of decaying plasma turbulence in our restricted geometry and shows that it cascades along the dispersion relations during the early phase with an increasing broadening around the dispersion relations.

  15. Punch stretching process monitoring using acoustic emission signal analysis. II - Application of frequency domain deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven Y.; Dornfeld, David A.; Nickerson, Jackson A.

    1987-01-01

    The coloring effect on the acoustic emission signal due to the frequency response of the data acquisition/processing instrumentation may bias the interpretation of AE signal characteristics. In this paper, a frequency domain deconvolution technique, which involves the identification of the instrumentation transfer functions and multiplication of the AE signal spectrum by the inverse of these system functions, has been carried out. In this way, the change in AE signal characteristics can be better interpreted as the result of the change in only the states of the process. Punch stretching process was used as an example to demonstrate the application of the technique. Results showed that, through the deconvolution, the frequency characteristics of AE signals generated during the stretching became more distinctive and can be more effectively used as tools for process monitoring.

  16. A Ray-Tracing Technique to Characterize GPS Multipath in the Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S. Gowdayyanadoddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipath propagation is one of the major sources of error in GPS measurements. In this research, a ray-tracing technique is proposed to study the frequency domain characteristics of multipath propagation. The Doppler frequency difference, also known as multipath phase rate and fading frequency, between direct (line-of-sight, LOS and reflected (non-line-of-sight, NLOS signals is studied as a function of satellite elevation and azimuth, as well as distance between the reflector and the static receiver. The accuracy of the method is verified with measured Doppler differences from real data collected in a downtown environment. The use of ray-tracing derived predicted Doppler differences in a receiver, as a means of alleviating the multipath induced errors in the measurement, is presented and discussed.

  17. Effects of laser frequency drift in phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry fiber sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirnov, Andrey; Stepanov, Konstantin; Nesterov, Evgeny; Karasik, Valery; Svelto, Cesare; Pnev, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The present work studies the influence of laser frequency drifts on operating of phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry ($\\Phi$-OTDR) fiber sensors. A mathematical model and numerical simulations are employed to highlight the influence of frequency drifts of light sources on two characteristic scales: large-time (minutes) and short-time (milliseconds) frequency drifts. Numerical simulation results are compared with predictions given by the fluctuation ratio coefficient (FRC), and they are in a qualitative agreement. In addition to qualitative criteria for light sources given by the FRC, quantitive requirements for optimal light sources for $\\Phi$-OTDR sensors are obtained. Numerical simulation results are verified by comparison with experimental data for three significantly different types of light source.

  18. Evaluating highly resolved paleoclimate records in the frequency domain for multidecadal-scale climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, K.L.; Quinn, T.M.; Mitchum, G.T.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Do the chronological methods used in the construction of paleoclimate records influence the results of the frequency analysis applied to them? We explore this phenomenon using the Dongge Cave speleothem record (U-series chronology with variable time steps, ??t) and the El Malpais tree-ring index (cross-dating of ring-width series). Interpolation of the Dongge Cave record to a constant ??t resulted in the suppression of periodicities (analysis of temporal subsets of the El Malpais tree-ring index revealed that concentrations of variance varied with the number of ring-width series. Frequency analyses of these records identified significant periodicities, some common to both (???25 and ???69 years). Cross-wavelet analysis, which examines periodicities in the time domain, revealed that coherency between these records occurs intermittently. We found the chronology methods can influence the ability of frequency analysis to detect periodicities and tests for coherency. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Photon acceleration versus frequency-domain interferometry for laser wakefield diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, J.M.; Oliveira e Silva, L.; Mendonca, J.T. [GoLP/Centro de Fisica de Plasmas, Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    1998-03-01

    A detailed comparison between the photon acceleration diagnostic technique and the frequency-domain interferometric technique for laser wakefield diagnostics, by using ray-tracing equations is presented here. The dispersion effects on the probe beam and the implications of an arbitrary phase velocity of the plasma wave are discussed for both diagnostic techniques. In the presence of large amplitude plasma wave and long interaction distances significant frequency shifts can be observed. The importance of this effect on the determination of the phase and frequency shifts measurements given by each of the two diagnostic techniques, is also analyzed. The accuracy of both diagnostic techniques is discussed and some of their technical problems are reviewed. (author)

  20. Quantification of magnetic nanoparticles with broadband measurements of magnetic susceptibility in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Kazuto; An, Zhisheng; Chang, Hong; Qiang, Xiaoke

    2015-04-01

    Measurement of low-field magnetic susceptibility over a wide band of frequencies spanning four orders of magnitude is a useful method for the assessment of the grain size distribution of ultrafine magnetic particles smaller than the SP/SSD boundary. This method has been applied to a loess/paleosol sequence at Luochuan in the Chinese Loess Plateau. The studied succession consists of sequences from the latest paleosol unit to the upper part of the loess unit, spanning the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Reconstructed grain size distributions (GSDs) consist of volume fractions on the order of 10-24 m3, and the mean GSDs are modal but with distinctive skewness among the loess, the weakly developed paleosol (weak paleosol), and the mature paleosol. This indicates that the mean volume of SP particles in this sequence tends to increase during the transition from the loess to the paleosol. An index, defined as the difference between χ130 at the lowest (130 Hz) and χ500k at the highest (500 kHz) frequencies normalized to χ130, is judged to be a more suitable index than previous frequency dependence parameters for the concentration of SP particles. This index has a strong correlation with χ130, showing a continuous 'growth curve' with the rate of increase being highest for the loess, moderate for the weak paleosol, and saturated for the paleosol. The characteristic curve suggests that smaller SP particles are preferentially formed in the earlier stage of pedogenesis rather than the later phase when even larger particles are formed in the mature paleosol. These results demonstrate that the broad-band-frequency susceptibility measurement will be useful for the quantitative assessment of magnetic nanoparticles in soils and sediments. Additionally, we point out that the measurement in the frequency domain generally requires time and may not be most suitable to routine measurements. We thus propose an alternative manner, the measurement in the time domain that can be

  1. Resolution enhancement of robust Bayesian pre-stack inversion in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xingyao; Li, Kun; Zong, Zhaoyun

    2016-10-01

    AVO/AVA (amplitude variation with an offset or angle) inversion is one of the most practical and useful approaches to estimating model parameters. So far, publications on AVO inversion in the Fourier domain have been quite limited in view of its poor stability and sensitivity to noise compared with time-domain inversion. For the resolution and stability of AVO inversion in the Fourier domain, a novel robust Bayesian pre-stack AVO inversion based on the mixed domain formulation of stationary convolution is proposed which could solve the instability and achieve superior resolution. The Fourier operator will be integrated into the objective equation and it avoids the Fourier inverse transform in our inversion process. Furthermore, the background constraints of model parameters are taken into consideration to improve the stability and reliability of inversion which could compensate for the low-frequency components of seismic signals. Besides, the different frequency components of seismic signals can realize decoupling automatically. This will help us to solve the inverse problem by means of multi-component successive iterations and the convergence precision of the inverse problem could be improved. So, superior resolution compared with the conventional time-domain pre-stack inversion could be achieved easily. Synthetic tests illustrate that the proposed method could achieve high-resolution results with a high degree of agreement with the theoretical model and verify the quality of anti-noise. Finally, applications on a field data case demonstrate that the proposed method could obtain stable inversion results of elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in conformity with the real logging data.

  2. Cerebral autoregulation in the preterm newborn using near-infrared spectroscopy: a comparison of time-domain and frequency-domain analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Vibeke R.; Hahn, Gitte H.; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to compare two conventional methods used to describe cerebral autoregulation (CA): frequency-domain analysis and time-domain analysis. We measured cerebral oxygenation (as a surrogate for cerebral blood flow) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in 60 preterm infants. In the frequency domain, outcome variables were coherence and gain, whereas the cerebral oximetry index (COx) and the regression coefficient were the outcome variables in the time domain. Correlation between coherence and COx was poor. The disagreement between the two methods was due to the MAP and cerebral oxygenation signals being in counterphase in three cases. High gain and high coherence may arise spuriously when cerebral oxygenation decreases as MAP increases; hence, time-domain analysis appears to be a more robust-and simpler-method to describe CA.

  3. Dynamic analysis of offshore structures with non-zero initial conditions in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fushun; Lu, Hongchao; Li, Huajun

    2016-03-01

    The state of non-zero conditions is typically treated as fact when considering the dynamic analysis of offshore structures. This article extends a newly proposed method [1] to manage the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures in the frequency domain, including new studies on original environmental loads reconstruction, response comparisons with the commercial software ANSYS, and a demonstration using an experimental cantilever beam. The original environmental loads, such as waves, currents, and winds, that act on a structure are decomposed into multiple complex exponential components are represented by a series of poles and corresponding residues. Counter to the traditional frequency-domain method, the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures could be solved in the frequency domain. Compared with reference [1], an improvement reported in this article is that practical issues, including the choice of model order and central-processing-unit (CPU) time consumption, are further studied when applying this new method to offshore structures. To investigate the feasibility of the representation of initial environmental loads by their poles and corresponding residues, a measured random wave force collected from a column experiment at the Lab of Ocean University of China is used, decomposed, reconstructed and then compared with the original wave force; then, a numerical offshore platform is used to study the performance of the proposed method in detail. The numerical results of this study indicate that (1) a short duration of environmental loads are required to obtain their constitutive poles and residues, which implies good computational efficiency; and (2) the proposed method has a similar computational efficiency to traditional methods due to the use of the inverse Fourier transform technique. To better understand the performance, of time consumption and accuracy of the proposed method, the commercial software ANSYS is used to determine responses

  4. A hybrid absorbing boundary condition for frequency-domain finite-difference modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Liu and Sen (2010 Geophysics 75 A1-6 2012 Geophys. Prospect. 60 1114-32) proposed an efficient hybrid scheme to significantly absorb boundary reflections for acoustic and elastic wave modelling in the time domain. In this paper, we extend the hybrid absorbing boundary condition (ABC) into the frequency domain and develop specific strategies for regular-grid and staggered-grid modelling, respectively. Numerical modelling tests of acoustic, visco-acoustic, elastic and vertically transversely isotropic (VTI) equations show significant absorptions for frequency-domain modelling. The modelling results of the Marmousi model and the salt model also demonstrate the effectiveness of the hybrid ABC. For elastic modelling, the hybrid Higdon ABC and the hybrid Clayton and Engquist (CE) ABC are implemented, respectively. Numerical simulations show that the hybrid Higdon ABC gets better absorption than the hybrid CE ABC, especially for S-waves. We further compare the hybrid ABC with the classical perfectly matched layer (PML). Results show that the two ABCs cost the same computation time and memory space for the same absorption width. However, the hybrid ABC is more effective than the PML for the same small absorption width and the absorption effects of the two ABCs gradually become similar when the absorption width is increased.

  5. Feasible Frequency-domain Compensation Scheme for IQ Imbalances in OFDM Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Shu; Xiajie, Shi; Weixin, Sheng; Renhong, Xie

    2011-01-01

    A pilot pattern across two OFDM symbols with special structure is devised for channel estimation in OFDM systems with IQ imbalance at receiver. Based on this pilot pattern, a high-efficiency time-domain (TD) least square (LS) channel estimator is proposed to significantly suppress channel noise by a factor N/(L+1) in comparison with the frequency-domain LS one in [1] where N and L+1 are the total number of subcarriers and the length of cyclic prefix, respectively. Following this, a low-complexity frequency-domain (FD) Gaussian elimination (GE) equalizer is proposed to eliminate IQ distortion by using only 2N complex multiplications per OFDM symbol. From simulation, the proposed scheme TD-LS/FD-GE using only two pilot OFDM symbols achieves the same bit error rate (BER) performance under ideal channel knowledge and no IQ imbalances at low and medium signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regions whereas these compensation schemes including FD-LS/Post-FFT LS, FD-LS/Pre-FFT Corr, and SPP/Pre-FFT Corr in [1] require about tw...

  6. Not extinct yet: innovations in frequency domain HEM triggered by sea ice studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffhuber, Andreas A.; Hendricks, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The last 15 years have brought major innovations in helicopter towed time domain electromagnetics (EM), while few further developments have been made within the classic frequency domain segment. Operational use of frequency domain EM for sea ice thickness mapping acted as a driving force to develop new concepts such as the system under our consideration. Since its introduction we have implemented new concepts aiming at noise reduction and drift elimination. We decreased signal noise base levels by one to two orders of magnitude with changes to the signal transmission concept. Further, we increased the receiver coil dynamic range creating an EM setup without the need for primary field bucking. Finally, we implemented control signals inside the receiver coils to potentially eliminate system drift. Ground tests demonstrate the desired noise reduction and demonstrate drift control, leading to essentially drift free data. Airborne field data confirm these results, yet also show that the procedures can still be improved. The remaining quest is whether these specialised system improvements could also be implemented in exploration helicopter EM (HEM) systems to increase accuracy and efficiency.

  7. Parameter Selection Guidelines for a Parabolic Sliding Mode Filter Based on Frequency and Time Domain Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhai Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of quantitative performance evaluation of an authors’ new parabolic sliding mode filter, which is for removing noise from signals in robotics and mechatronics applications, based on the frequency and time domain characteristics. Based on the evaluation results, the paper presents selection guidelines of two parameters of the filter. The evaluation results show that, in the frequency domain, the noise removing capability of the filter is almost the same as that of the second-order Butterworth low-pass filter (2-LPF, but its phase lag is smaller (maximum 150 degree than that of 2-LPF (maximum 180 degree. Moreover, the filter produces smaller phase lag than a conventional parabolic sliding mode filter with appropriate selection of the parameters. In the time domain, the filter produces smaller overshoot than 2-LPF and the conventional one, while maintaining short transient time, by using an appropriately selected parameter. The presented parameter selection guidelines state that the values of the parameters should be chosen according to some estimated characteristics of the input and some desired characteristics of the output. The effectiveness of the filter and the presented guidelines is validated through numerical examples and their application to a closed-loop, force control of a robot manipulator.

  8. Automated frequency domain analysis of oxygen saturation as a screening tool for SAHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, Daniel Sánchez; Gross, Nicole; León, Antonio; Crespo, Luis F

    2012-09-01

    Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is significantly underdiagnosed and new screening systems are needed. The analysis of oxygen desaturation has been proposed as a screening method. However, when oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) is used as a standalone single channel device, algorithms working in time domain achieve either a high sensitivity or a high specificity, but not usually both. This limitation arises from the dependence of time-domain analysis on absolute SpO(2) values and the lack of standardized thresholds defined as pathological. The aim of this study is to assess the degree of concordance between SAHS screening using offline frequency domain processing of SpO(2) signals and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and the diagnostic performance of such a new method. SpO(2) signals from 115 subjects were analyzed. Data were divided in a training data set (37) and a test set (78). Power spectral density was calculated and related to the desaturation index scored by physicians. A frequency desaturation index (FDI) was then estimated and its accuracy compared to the classical desaturation index and to the apnea-hypopnea index. The findings point to a high diagnostic agreement: the best sensitivity and specificity values obtained were 83.33% and 80.44%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed method does not rely on absolute SpO(2) values and is highly robust to artifacts.

  9. Time and frequency domain analyses of high-frequency hydrologic and chloride data in an east Tennessee watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Shesh R.; Gentry, Randall W.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Perfect, Edmund; Schwartz, John S.

    2010-06-01

    SummaryIn the realm of sustainability science, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the basal condition of a natural system as well as its long-term behavior. Research is needed to better explain the temporal scaling of water chemistry in streams and watersheds and its relationship with the hydrologic factors that influence its behavior. Persistence of dissolved chemicals in streams has been demonstrated to be linked to certain hydrologic processes, such as interaction between hydrologic units and storage in surface or sub-surface systems. In this study, spectral and wavelet analyses provided a novel theoretical basis for insights into long-term chloride behavior in an east Tennessee watershed. Temporal scaling analyses were conducted on weekly time series data of chloride collected from November 1995 to December 2005 at the West Fork of Walker Branch in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The objectives of the study were to: evaluate chloride concentration (a conservative solute) to determine the presence of statistical persistence and the relationship of the persistence to hydrologic variables (discharge and rainfall) using time and frequency domain analyses of high-frequency hydrologic and chloride concentration data. Results demonstrated that chloride showed some level of statistical persistence that was influenced by rainfall and/or discharge. Short-term statistical persistence (less than a year) was related to the persistence of rainfall and discharge, whereas long-term statistical persistence (more than a year) was related to the persistence of discharge.

  10. Combining Superdirective Beamforming and Frequency-Domain Blind Source Separation for Highly Reverberant Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-domain blind source separation (BSS performs poorly in high reverberation because the independence assumption collapses at each frequency bins when the number of bins increases. To improve the separation result, this paper proposes a method which combines two techniques by using beamforming as a preprocessor of blind source separation. With the sound source locations supposed to be known, the mixed signals are dereverberated and enhanced by beamforming; then the beamformed signals are further separated by blind source separation. To implement the proposed method, a superdirective fixed beamformer is designed for beamforming, and an interfrequency dependence-based permutation alignment scheme is presented for frequency-domain blind source separation. With beamforming shortening mixing filters and reducing noise before blind source separation, the combined method works better in reverberation. The performance of the proposed method is investigated by separating up to 4 sources in different environments with reverberation time from 100 ms to 700 ms. Simulation results verify the outperformance of the proposed method over using beamforming or blind source separation alone. Analysis demonstrates that the proposed method is computationally efficient and appropriate for real-time processing.

  11. Comparison of geometrical and diffraction imaging in the space and frequency domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Virendra N; Díaz, José A

    2016-04-20

    The geometrical and diffraction point-spread functions of an optical imaging system have been reviewed and compared in the past [Proc. SPIE3729, 434 (1999)PSISDG0277-786X10.1117/12.346821]. In this paper, we review and compare corresponding optical transfer functions. While the truth lies with the diffraction optical-transfer functions (OTF), it is considered easier and quicker to calculate the geometrical OTF, especially for large aberrations. We describe the theory of the two OTFs and explore the range of spatial frequencies and the magnitude of the primary aberrations over which the geometrical OTF may provide a reasonable approximation of the diffraction OTF. Moreover, balancing of spherical aberration with defocus for optimum diffraction OTF is studied as a function of both the aberration value as well as the spatial frequency. How to gauge the progress of an optical design in the frequency domain based on the geometrical OTF is outlined as the ray spot size is used in the space domain. PMID:27140094

  12. Signals features extraction in liquid-gas flow measurements using gamma densitometry. Part 2: frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek; Jaszczur, Marek; Hanus, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the structure of a flow is really significant for the proper conduct a number of industrial processes. In this case a description of a two-phase flow regimes is possible by use of the time-series analysis e.g. in frequency domain. In this article the classical spectral analysis based on Fourier Transform (FT) and Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) were applied for analysis of signals obtained for water-air flow using gamma ray absorption. The presented method was illustrated by use data collected in experiments carried out on the laboratory hydraulic installation with a horizontal pipe of 4.5 m length and inner diameter of 30 mm equipped with two 241Am radioactive sources and scintillation probes with NaI(Tl) crystals. Stochastic signals obtained from detectors for plug, bubble, and transitional plug - bubble flows were considered in this work. The recorded raw signals were analyzed and several features in the frequency domain were extracted using autospectral density function (ADF), cross-spectral density function (CSDF), and the STFT spectrogram. In result of a detail analysis it was found that the most promising to recognize of the flow structure are: maximum value of the CSDF magnitude, sum of the CSDF magnitudes in the selected frequency range, and the maximum value of the sum of selected amplitudes of STFT spectrogram.

  13. New developments in frequency domain optical tomography. Part I: Forward model and gradient computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This two part study introduces new developments in frequency domain optical tomography to take into account the collimated source direction in the computation of both the forward and the adjoint models. The solution method is based on the least square finite element method associated to the discrete ordinates method where no empirical stabilization is needed. In this first part of the study, the solution method of the forward model is highlighted with an easy handling of complex boundary condition through a penalization method. Gradient computation from an adjoint method is developed rigorously in a continuous manner through a lagrangian formalism for the deduction of the adjoint equation and the gradient of the objective function. The proposed formulation can be easily generalized to stationary and time domain optical tomography by keeping the same expressions.

  14. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State-of-the-art t......Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State......-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...

  15. Aircraft Flutter Modal Parameter Identification Using a Numerically Robust Least-squares Estimator in Frequency Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Wei; Shi Zhongke; Chen Jie

    2008-01-01

    Recently, frequency-based least-squares (LS) estimators have found wide application in identifying aircraft flutter parameters. However, the frequency methods are often known to suffer from numerical difficulties when identifying a continuous-time model, espe-cially, of broader frequency or higher order. In this article, a numerically robust LS estimator based on vector orthogonal polynomial is proposed to solve the numerical problem of multivariable systems and applied to the flutter testing. The key idea of this method is to represent the frequency response function (FRF) matrix by a right matrix fraction description (RMFD) model, and expand the numerator and denominator polynomial matrices on a vector onhogonal basis. As a result, a perfect numerical condition (numerical condition equals 1) can be obtained for linear LS estimator. Finally, this method is verified by flutter test of a wing model in a wind tunnel and real flight flutter test of an aircraft. The results are compared to those with notably LMS PolyMAX, which is not troubled by the numerical problem as it is established in z domain (e.g. derived from a discrete-time model). The verification has evidenced that this method, apart from overcoming the numerical problem, yields the results comparable to those acquired with LMS PolyMAX, or even considerably better at some frequency bands.

  16. Multiobjective Optimization for Electronic Circuit Design in Time and Frequency Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The multiobjective optimization provides an extraordinary opportunity for the finest design of electronic circuits because it allows to mathematically balance contradictory requirements together with possible constraints. In this paper, an original and substantial improvement of an existing method for the multiobjective optimization known as GAM (Goal Attainment Method is suggested. In our proposal, the GAM algorithm itself is combined with a procedure that automatically provides a set of parameters -- weights, coordinates of the reference point -- for which the method generates noninferior solutions uniformly spread over an appropriately selected part of the Pareto front. Moreover, the resulting set of obtained solutions is then presented in a suitable graphic form so that the solution representing the most satisfactory tradeoff can be easily chosen by the designer. Our system generates various types of plots that conveniently characterize results of up to four-dimensional problems. Technically, the procedures of the multiobjective optimization were created as a software add-on to the CIA (Circuit Interactive Analyzer program. This way enabled us to utilize many powerful features of this program, including the sensitivity analyses in time and frequency domains. As a result, the system is also able to perform the multiobjective optimization in the time domain and even highly nonlinear circuits can be significantly improved by our program. As a demonstration of this feature, a multiobjective optimization of a C-class power amplifier in the time domain is thoroughly described in the paper. Further, a four-dimensional optimization of a video amplifier is demonstrated with an original graphic representation of the Pareto front, and also some comparison with the weighting method is done. As an example of improving noise properties, a multiobjective optimization of a low-noise amplifier is performed, and the results in the frequency domain are shown

  17. Computational Complexity Reduction of Synthetic-aperture Focus in Ultrasound Imaging Using Frequency-domain Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimirad, Elahe; Mahloojifar, Ali; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Babak

    2016-05-01

    A new frequency-domain implementation of a synthetic aperture focusing technique is presented in the paper. The concept is based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and sonar that is a developed version of the convolution model in the frequency domain. Compared with conventional line-by-line imaging, synthetic aperture imaging has a better resolution and contrast at the cost of more computational load. To overcome this problem, point-by-point reconstruction methods have been replaced by block-processing algorithms in radar and sonar; however, these techniques are relatively unknown in medical imaging. In this paper, we extended one of these methods called wavenumber to medical ultrasound imaging using a simple model of synthetic aperture focus. The model, derived here for monostatic mode, can be generalized to multistatic as well. The method consists of 4 steps: a 2D fast Fourier transform of the data, frequency shift of the data to baseband, interpolation to convert polar coordinates to rectangular ones, and returning the data to the spatial-domain using a 2D inverse Fourier transform. We have also used chirp pulse excitation followed by matched filtering and spotlighting algorithm to compensate the effect of differences in parameters between radar and medical imaging. Computational complexities of the two methods, wavenumber and delay-and-sum (DAS), have been calculated. Field II simulated point data have been used to evaluate the results in terms of resolution and contrast. Evaluations with simulated data show that for typical phantoms, reconstruction by the wavenumber algorithm is almost 20 times faster than classical DAS while retaining the resolution. PMID:25900969

  18. Frequency-Domain Analysis of Intrinsic Neuronal Properties using High-Resistant Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössert, Christian; Straka, Hans; Glasauer, Stefan; Moore, Lee E

    2009-01-01

    Intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in culture or slices are usually studied by the whole cell clamp method using low-resistant patch pipettes. These electrodes allow detailed analyses with standard electrophysiological methods such as current- or voltage-clamp. However, in these preparations large parts of the network and dendritic structures may be removed, thus preventing an adequate study of synaptic signal processing. Therefore, intact in vivo preparations or isolated in vitro whole brains have been used in which intracellular recordings are usually made with sharp, high-resistant electrodes to optimize the impalement of neurons. The general non-linear resistance properties of these electrodes, however, severely limit accurate quantitative studies of membrane dynamics especially needed for precise modelling. Therefore, we have developed a frequency-domain analysis of membrane properties that uses a Piece-wise Non-linear Electrode Compensation (PNEC) method. The technique was tested in second-order vestibular neurons and abducens motoneurons of isolated frog whole brain preparations using sharp potassium chloride- or potassium acetate-filled electrodes. All recordings were performed without online electrode compensation. The properties of each electrode were determined separately after the neuronal recordings and were used in the frequency-domain analysis of the combined measurement of electrode and cell. This allowed detailed analysis of membrane properties in the frequency-domain with high-resistant electrodes and provided quantitative data that can be further used to model channel kinetics. Thus, sharp electrodes can be used for the characterization of intrinsic properties and synaptic inputs of neurons in intact brains. PMID:20582288

  19. Frequency-domain analysis of intrinsic neuronal properties using high-resistant electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rössert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in culture or slices are usually studied by the whole cell clamp method using low-resistant patch pipettes. These electrodes allow detailed analyses with standard electrophysiological methods such as current- or voltage-clamp. However, in these preparations large parts of the network and dendritic structures may be removed, thus preventing an adequate study of synaptic signal processing. Therefore, intact in vivo preparations or isolated in vitro whole brains have been used in which intracellular recordings are usually made with sharp, high-resistant electrodes to optimize the impalement of neurons. The general non-linear resistance properties of these electrodes, however, severely limit accurate quantitative studies of membrane dynamics especially needed for precise modelling. Therefore, we have developed a frequency-domain analysis of membrane properties that uses a Piece-wise Non-linear Electrode Compensation (PNEC method. The technique was tested in second-order vestibular neurons and abducens motoneurons of isolated frog whole brain preparations using sharp potassium chloride- or potassium acetate-filled electrodes. All recordings were performed without online electrode compensation. The properties of each electrode were determined separately after the neuronal recordings and were used in the frequency-domain analysis of the combined measurement of electrode and cell. This allowed detailed analysis of membrane properties in the frequency-domain with high-resistant electrodes and provided quantitative data that can be further used to model channel kinetics. Thus, sharp electrodes can be used for the characterization of intrinsic properties and synaptic inputs of neurons in intact brains.

  20. Nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain: accurate modeling of ultrafast interaction in anisotropic nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin;

    2013-01-01

    We interpret the purely spectral forward Maxwell equation with up to third-order induced polarizations for pulse propagation and interactions in quadratic nonlinear crystals. The interpreted equation, also named the nonlinear wave equation in the frequency domain, includes quadratic and cubic...... nonlinearities, delayed Raman effects, and anisotropic nonlinearities. The full potential of this wave equation is demonstrated by investigating simulations of solitons generated in the process of ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation. We show that a balance in the soliton delay can be achieved due...... the experimental knowledge of cascading nonlinear soliton pulse compression....

  1. A Novel Ship Wake Detection Method of SAR Images Based on Frequency Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hao; Zhu Minhui

    2003-01-01

    Moving ships produce a set of waves of "V' pattern on the ocean. These waves can often be seen by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The detection of these wakes can provide important information for surveillance of shipping, such as ship traveling direction and speed. A novel approach to the detection of ship wakes in SAR images based on frequency domain is provided in this letter. Compared with traditional Radon-based approaches, computation is reduced by 20%-40% without losing nearly any of detection performance. The testing results using real data and simulation of synthetic SAR images test the algorithm's feasibility and robustness.

  2. Optical frequency domain reflectometry: principles and applications in fiber optic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, Stephen T.; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Garg, Naman; Klute, Sandra M.; Metrey, Daniel R.; Beaty, Noah; Jeans, James W.; Gamber, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) is the basis of an emerging high-definition distributed fiber optic sensing (HD-FOS) technique that provides an unprecedented combination of resolution and sensitivity. OFDR employs swept laser interferometry to produce strain or temperature vs. sensor length with fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) or Rayleigh scatter as the source signal. We look at the influence of HD-FOS on design and test of new, lighter weight, stronger and more fuel efficient vehicles. Examples include defect detection, model verification and structural health monitoring of composites, and temperature distribution monitoring of battery packs and inverters in hybrid and electric powertrains.

  3. Frequency-Domain Chromatic Dispersion Equalization Using Overlap-Add Methods in Coherent Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Forzati, Marco; Martensson, Jonas; Mussolin, Marco; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Yimo; Friberg, Ari T

    2016-01-01

    The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlap-save method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.

  4. Transformation optics: a time- and frequency-domain analysis of electron-energy loss spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Matthias; Pendry, J B

    2016-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) play a pivotal role in many of the cutting edge experiments in plasmonics. EELS and CL experiments are usually supported by numerical simulations, which, whilst accurate, may not provide as much physical insight as analytical calculations do. Fully analytical solutions to EELS and CL systems in plasmonics are rare and difficult to obtain. This paper aims to narrow this gap by introducing a new method based on Transformation optics that allows to calculate the quasi-static frequency and time-domain response of plasmonic particles under electron beam excitation.

  5. Frequency domain optical tomography using a conjugate gradient method without line search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Keol [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Charette, Andre [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail: andre_charette@uqac.ca

    2007-03-15

    A conjugate gradient method without line search (CGMWLS) is presented. This method is used to retrieve the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the tissue-like test medium, with the synthetic data. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method based on the frequency domain formulation of radiative transfer equation. The inversion results demonstrate that the CGMWLS can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by reducing cross-talk between absorption and scattering coefficients.

  6. Functional cerebral activation detected by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronov, Vladislav Y.; Webb, Andrew G.; Choi, Jee H.; Wolf, Martin; Safonova, Larisa P.; Wolf, Ursula; Gratton, Enrico

    2002-07-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the possibility of detecting haemodynamic changes in the brain using frequency- domain near-IR spectroscopy by exploiting the phase of the intensity modulated optical signal. To obtain optical signals with eh highest possible signal-to-noise ratio, we performed simultaneous NIRS-fMRI measurements, with subsequent correlation of the time courses of both measurements. The cognitive paradigm used arithmetic calculations, with optical signals acquired with sensors placed on the forehead. In three subjects we demonstrated correlation between the haemodynamic signals obtained using NIRS and BOLD fMRI.

  7. Time and frequency domains dc conductivity analysis in thin dielectric films at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical conductivity of a thin dielectric film has been analysed at high temperature in both time and frequency domains (TD/FD). Two disturbing ionic space-charge phenomena have been highlighted in two different temperature ranges and a correlation of their electrical signature between TD and FD is carried out. These two phenomena were related to the thermal activation of ions coming from two different trap levels (shallow and deep traps). We validate here also the fact that the FD method is a powerful way to estimate the dc conductivity in dielectric solids at high temperature thanks to a better discrimination of ionic contributions and injection phenomena.

  8. Modeling of Nanophotonic Resonators with the Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shyroki, Dzmitry

    2011-01-01

    Finite-difference frequency-domain method with perfectly matched layers and free-space squeezing is applied to model open photonic resonators of arbitrary morphology in three dimensions. Treating each spatial dimension independently, nonuniform mesh of continuously varying density can be built...... easily to better resolve mode features. We explore the convergence of the eigenmode wavelength $lambda $ and quality factor $Q$ of an open dielectric sphere and of a very-high- $Q$ photonic crystal cavity calculated with different mesh density distributions. On a grid having, for example, 10 nodes per...

  9. Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Koenig, M; Boudenne, J M; Hall, T A; Batani, D; Scianitti, F; Masini, A; Di Santo, D

    1999-09-01

    We show the simultaneous applicability of the frequency domain interferometry and the chirped pulse reflectometry techniques to measure shock parameters. The experiment has been realized with the laser at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) with a 550-ps pulse duration and an intensity on target approximately 5 x 10(13) W/cm(2) to produce a shock in a layered aluminum-fused silica target. A second low energy, partially compressed chirped probe beam was used to irradiate the target rear side and the reflected light has been analyzed with a spectrometer, achieving a temporal resolution of the order of 1 ps. PMID:11970183

  10. Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Koenig, M.; Boudenne, J. M.; Hall, T. A.; Batani, D.; Scianitti, F.; Masini, A.; di Santo, D.

    1999-09-01

    We show the simultaneous applicability of the frequency domain interferometry and the chirped pulse reflectometry techniques to measure shock parameters. The experiment has been realized with the laser at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) with a 550-ps pulse duration and an intensity on target ~5×1013 W/cm2 to produce a shock in a layered aluminum-fused silica target. A second low energy, partially compressed chirped probe beam was used to irradiate the target rear side and the reflected light has been analyzed with a spectrometer, achieving a temporal resolution of the order of 1 ps.

  11. A perspective on single-channel frequency-domain speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on a class of single-channel noise reduction methods that are performed in the frequency domain via the short-time Fourier transform (STFT). The simplicity and relative effectiveness of this class of approaches make them the dominant choice in practical systems. Even though many popular algorithms have been proposed through more than four decades of continuous research, there are a number of critical areas where our understanding and capabilities still remain quite rudimentary, especially with respect to the relationship between noise reduction and speech distortion. All exis

  12. Control of polarization signal distortion by frequency domain phase conjugation in optical fiber systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Optical frequency domain phase conjugation(FDPC) is based on phase conjuga-tion of spectrum of an input signal.It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal.The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed.Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically.It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC.The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.

  13. Control of polarization signal distortion by frequency domain phase conjusation in optical fiber systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Yang; WANG XiangZhao

    2008-01-01

    Optical frequency domain phase conjugation (FDPC) is based on phase conjugation of spectrum of an input signal. It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal. The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed. Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically. It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC. The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.

  14. Comparison between power-law rheological parameters of living cells in frequency and time domains measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu

    2016-08-01

    We investigated how stress relaxation mapping is quantified compared with the force modulation mapping of confluent epithelial cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using a multi-frequency AFM technique, we estimated the power-law rheological behaviors of cells simultaneously in time and frequency domains. When the power-law exponent α was low ( 0.1), α in the time domain was underestimated relative to that in the frequency domain, and the difference increased with α, whereas the cell modulus was overestimated in the time domain. These results indicate that power-law rheological parameters estimated by stress relaxation are sensitive to lag time during initial indentation, which is inevitable in time-domain AFM experiments.

  15. A Frequency Domain Approach to Registration of Aliased Images with Application to Super-resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution algorithms reconstruct a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution images of a scene. Precise alignment of the input images is an essential part of such algorithms. If the low-resolution images are undersampled and have aliasing artifacts, the performance of standard registration algorithms decreases. We propose a frequency domain technique to precisely register a set of aliased images, based on their low-frequency, aliasing-free part. A high-resolution image is then reconstructed using cubic interpolation. Our algorithm is compared to other algorithms in simulations and practical experiments using real aliased images. Both show very good visual results and prove the attractivity of our approach in the case of aliased input images. A possible application is to digital cameras where a set of rapidly acquired images can be used to recover a higher-resolution final image.

  16. Frequency Domain MMSE one-tap Equalizer for FBMC-OQAM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Varghese

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for higher data rate in the modern communication world leads to the development of multicarrier modulation. OFDM, the most popular MCM technique, has some disadvantages like inefficiency due to the insertion of cyclic prefix, spectral leakage among the subchannels due to the poor stopband attenuation of prototype filter etc. Due to these drawbacks of OFDM, a Filter Bank based Multi Carrier system with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation has been proposed. The analysis and synthesis filter banks in FBMC- OQAM system is designed using exponential modulation of a single prototype filter which is designed using frequency sampling method of filter design. In the presence of fading channels, Frequency Domain MMSE one-tap equalizer is designed. Simulation results for Vehicular A and Pedestrian B channels show that the proposed equalizer gives better results for BER performance for the system.

  17. Elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk in frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S. P.; Yong, K. Y.

    2001-04-01

    Changes in phase that occur with changes in amplitude impose severe limitations on the accuracy of frequency domain near-infrared spectrometers. Phase is related to the photon pathlength in tissue and phase errors introduced by the instrument can be interpreted as changes in tissue oxygenation. The instrument described in this article employs a reference radio frequency modulated laser diode to eliminate the effects of amplitude-phase crosstalk and requires no feedback. Light from the reference laser diode does not pass through the medium under investigation but passes directly onto the detector. The reference and medium signals follow a common path through the detector and so the same phase error is imposed on both. Summing the reference and medium phase eliminates the crosstalk and enables the resultant to be attributed only to the photon pathlength within the medium. It is also demonstrated that elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk is a natural consequence of a phased array configuration.

  18. An Adaptive Steganographic Method in Frequency Domain Based on Statistical Metrics of Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Amin Seyyedi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a branch of information hiding. A tradeoff between the hiding payload and quality of digital image steganographic schemes is major challenge of the steganographic methods. An adaptive steganographic method for embedding secret message into gray scale images is proposed. Before embedding the secret message, the cover image is transformed into frequency domain by integer wavelet. The middle frequency band of cover image is partitioned into 4×4 non overlapping blocks. The blocks by deviation and entropy metrics are classified into three categories: smooth, edge, and texture regions. Number of bits which can be embedded in a block is defined by block features. Moreover, RC4 encryption method is used to increase secrecy protection. Experimental results denote the feasibility of the proposed method. Statistical tests were conducted to collect related data to verify the security of method.

  19. Use of Time- and Frequency-Domain Approaches for Damage Detection in Civil Engineering Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply both time- and frequency-domain-based approaches on real-life civil engineering structures and to assess their capability for damage detection. The methodology is based on Principal Component Analysis of the Hankel matrix built from output-only measurements and of Frequency Response Functions. Damage detection is performed using the concept of subspace angles between a current (possibly damaged state and a reference (undamaged state. The first structure is the Champangshiehl Bridge located in Luxembourg. Several damage levels were intentionally created by cutting a growing number of prestressed tendons and vibration data were acquired by the University of Luxembourg for each damaged state. The second example consists in reinforced and prestressed concrete panels. Successive damages were introduced in the panels by loading heavy weights and by cutting steel wires. The illustrations show different consequences in damage identification by the considered techniques.

  20. Single carrier frequency domain equalization and diversity combining for cooperative systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Haitao; Xu Jing; Wang Ping

    2009-01-01

    A low-complexity single carrier frequency-domain equalizer (SC/FDE) and diversity combining method for cooperative systems with demodulate-and-forward relaying over frequency-selective channels is proposed. At the relay nodes, linear SC/FDE is adopted and normalized correlation coefficient is introduced to derive an equivalent source-to-relay-destination (S-R-D) channel that is highlighted in this study. At the destination, a joint SC/FDE and diversity combining receiver is proposed by utilizing the equivalent S-R-D channel. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed SC/FDE scheme over the straightforward SC/FDE which ignores the decisions errors at the intermediate relay nodes.

  1. The frequency domain causality analysis between energy consumption and income in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar Tiwari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Granger-causality in the frequency domain between primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and GDP for the US by employing approach of Lemmens et al. (2008 and covering the period of January, 1973 to December, 2008. We found that causal and reverse causal relations between primary energy consumption and GDP and electricity consumption and GDP vary across frequencies. Our unique contribution in the existing literature lies in decomposing the causality on the basis of time horizons and demonstrating bidirectional the short-run, the medium-run and the long-run causality between GDP and primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and thus providing evidence for the feedback hypothesis. These results have important implications for the US for planning of the short, the medium and the long run energy and economic growth related policies.

  2. Application of Frequency Domain Substructure Synthesis Technique for Plates Loaded with Complex Attachments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RL Campbell; SA Hambric

    2004-02-05

    Frequency domain substructure synthesis is a modeling technique that enables the prediction of a combined response of individual structures using experimentally measured or numerically predicted frequency response functions (FRFs). The traditional synthesis algorithm [1,2] operates on component impedances and thus generally requires several matrix inversions. An improved algorithm, developed by Jetmundsen et al. [3], requires a single matrix inversion with a completely arbitrary interface definition that can easily incorporate connection impedances. The main limitations of the method are the large data requirements and sensitivity to data truncation. The utility of this technique is demonstrated through a comparison of synthesized and measured admittances of an edge-stiffened plate with attached equipment. The plate mobilities are obtained from a numerical analysis because of the ability to accurately model this structure using a finite element representation. The attachments are characterized experimentally because of their complexity. The sections describe the synthesis technique and show numerical and experimental results for the plate and equipment.

  3. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  4. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey. PMID:27036795

  5. Frequency-Domain Assessment of Integration Schemes for Earthquake Engineering Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Arias-Trujillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although numerical integration is a technique commonly employed in many time-dependent problems, usually its accuracy relied on a time interval small enough. However, taking into account that time integration formulae can be considered to be recursive digital filters, in this research a criterion based on transfer functions has been employed to characterize a wide range of integration algorithms from a frequency approach, both in amplitude and in phase. By adopting Nyquist’s criterion to avoid the aliasing phenomena, a total of seven integration schemes have been reviewed in terms of accuracy and distortion effects on the frequency content of the signal. Some of these schemes are very well-known polynomial approximations with different degrees of interpolation, but others have been especially defined for solving earthquake engineering problems or have been extracted from the digital signal processing methodology. Finally, five examples have been developed to validate this frequency approach and to investigate its influence on practical dynamic problems. This research, focused on earthquake and structural engineering, reveals that numerical integration formulae are clearly frequency-dependent, a conclusion that obviously has a relevant interest in all dynamic engineering problems, even when they are formulated and solved in the time-domain.

  6. Detail-preserving construction of neonatal brain atlases in space-frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyao; Shi, Feng; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-06-01

    Brain atlases are commonly utilized in neuroimaging studies. However, most brain atlases are fuzzy and lack structural details, especially in the cortical regions. This is mainly caused by the image averaging process involved in atlas construction, which often smoothes out high-frequency contents that capture fine anatomical details. Brain atlas construction for neonatal images is even more challenging due to insufficient spatial resolution and low tissue contrast. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for detail-preserving construction of population-representative atlases. Our approach combines spatial and frequency information to better preserve image details. This is achieved by performing atlas construction in the space-frequency domain given by wavelet transform. In particular, sparse patch-based atlas construction is performed in all frequency subbands, and the results are combined to give a final atlas. For enhancing anatomical details, tissue probability maps are also used to guide atlas construction. Experimental results show that our approach can produce atlases with greater structural details than existing atlases. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2133-2150, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A comparison of helicopter-borne electromagnetics in frequency- and time-domain at the Cuxhaven valley in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steuner, Annika; Siemon, Bernhard; Auken, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Two different airborne electromagnetic methods were applied in the same area: the frequency-domain helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM)system operated by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Germany, and the time-domain SkyTEM system of theHydroGeophysics Group at the Un...

  8. Shifting of wrapped phase maps in the frequency domain using a rational number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdeisat, Munther A.; Burton, David R.; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel; Abushakra, Ahmad; Qaddoura, Maen

    2016-10-01

    The number of phase wraps in an image can be either reduced, or completely eliminated, by transforming the image into the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, and then shifting the spectrum towards the origin. After this, the spectrum is transformed back to the spatial domain using the inverse Fourier transform and finally the phase is extracted using the arctangent function. However, it is a common concern that the spectrum can be shifted only by an integer number, meaning that the phase wrap reduction is often not optimal. In this paper we propose an algorithm than enables the spectrum to be frequency shifted by a rational number. The principle of the proposed method is confirmed both by using an initial computer simulation and is subsequently validated experimentally on real fringe patterns. The technique may offer in some cases the prospects of removing the necessity for a phase unwrapping process altogether and/or speeding up the phase unwrapping process. This may be beneficial in terms of potential increases in signal recovery robustness and also for use in time-critical applications.

  9. Frequency-Domain Tomography for Single-shot, Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Downer, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Intense laser pulses propagating through plasma create plasma wakefields that often evolve significantly, e.g. by expanding and contracting. However, such dynamics are known in detail only through intensive simulations. Laboratory visualization of evolving plasma wakes in the ``bubble'' regime is important for optimizing and scaling laser-plasma accelerators. Recently snap-shots of quasi-static wakes were recorded using frequency-domain holography (FDH). To visualize the wake's evolution, we have generalized FDH to frequency-domain tomography (FDT), which uses multiple probes propagating at different angles with respect to the pump pulse. Each probe records a phase streak, imprinting a partial record of the evolution of pump-created structures. We then topographically reconstruct the full evolution from all phase streaks. To prove the concept, a prototype experiment visualizing nonlinear index evolution in glass is demonstrated. Four probes propagating at 0, 0.6, 2, 14 degrees to the index ``bubble'' are angularly and temporally multiplexed to a single spectrometer to achieve cost-effective FDT. From these four phase streaks, an FDT algorithm analogous to conventional CT yields a single-shot movie of the pump's self-focusing dynamics.

  10. High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, Robert A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large angular measurement range and allows the use of a probe that is small in comparison with the measurement volume. We review PSD characteristics and quantitative resolution limits, consider the lock-in amplifier measurement system as a communication link, discuss the application of FDM to PSDs, and make comparisons with time-domain techniques. We consider the phase-sensitive detector as a multirate DSP problem, explore parallels with Fourier spectral estimation and filter banks, discuss how to choose the modulation frequencies and sample rates that maximize channel isolation under design constraints, and describe efficient digital implementation. We also discuss hardware design considerations, sensor calibration, probe construction and calibration, and 3-D measurement by triangulation using two sensors. As an example, we characterize the resolution, speed, and accuracy of an instrument that measures the position and orientation of a 10 mm × 5 mm probe in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 30-mm cube with 4-μm peak-to-peak resolution at 1-kHz sampling.

  11. A Unified Frequency Domain Model to Study the Effect of Demyelination on Axonal Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Saurabh; Goodwin, Shikha J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease caused by demyelination of nerve fibers. In order to determine the loss of signal with the percentage of demyelination, we need to develop models that can simulate this effect. Existing time-based models does not provide a method to determine the influences of demyelination based on simulation results. Our goal is to develop a system identification approach to generate a transfer function in the frequency domain. The idea is to create a unified modeling approach for neural action potential propagation along the length of an axon containing number of Nodes of Ranvier (N). A system identification approach has been used to identify a transfer function of the classical Hodgkin-Huxley equations for membrane voltage potential. Using this approach, we model cable properties and signal propagation along the length of the axon with N node myelination. MATLAB/Simulink platform is used to analyze an N node-myelinated neuronal axon. The ability to transfer function in the frequency domain will help reduce effort and will give a much more realistic feel when compared to the classical time-based approach. Once a transfer function is identified, the conduction as a cascade of each linear time invariant system-based transfer function can be modeled. Using this approach, future studies can model the loss of myelin in various parts of nervous system. PMID:27103847

  12. High-resolution wind profiling using combined spatial and frequency domain interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. D.; Huang, X.; Fukao, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Nakamura, T.

    1995-11-01

    A novel approach to wind profiling is presented which is based on the hybrid use of spatial interferometry (SI) and frequency domain interferometry (FDI). Many algorithms exist that can be used to determine the wind field using SI. However, the imaging Doppler interferometry (IDI) technique is somewhat unique in that the wind field within the radar beam is angularly "imaged" using the Doppler sorting effect. The spatial locations of scatterers are determined by assuming a wind field across the beam and Fourier analyzing signals to sort Doppler velocities. Pulsed radar systems are limited in range resolution by the length of the transmitted pulse, and wind estimates are obtained for a discrete set of altitudes determined by sampling the continuous stream of signals. Frequency domain interferometry (FDI) can be used to determine the radial location of scattering layers within the resolution volume. Thus the combined use of FDI and IDI can provide the radial and angular location of particular scattering points. Using the Doppler sorting idea, a new wind profiling technique is presented which uses FDI to increase the altitude resolution of wind estimates obtained from IDI. Experimental data that illustrate the implementation of the algorithm are presented from the Middle and Upper (MU) Atmosphere radar.

  13. High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, Robert A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large angular measurement range and allows the use of a probe that is small in comparison with the measurement volume. We review PSD characteristics and quantitative resolution limits, consider the lock-in amplifier measurement system as a communication link, discuss the application of FDM to PSDs, and make comparisons with time-domain techniques. We consider the phase-sensitive detector as a multirate DSP problem, explore parallels with Fourier spectral estimation and filter banks, discuss how to choose the modulation frequencies and sample rates that maximize channel isolation under design constraints, and describe efficient digital implementation. We also discuss hardware design considerations, sensor calibration, probe construction and calibration, and 3-D measurement by triangulation using two sensors. As an example, we characterize the resolution, speed, and accuracy of an instrument that measures the position and orientation of a 10 mm × 5 mm probe in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 30-mm cube with 4-μm peak-to-peak resolution at 1-kHz sampling. PMID:20428484

  14. Frequency-domain elastic full waveform inversion using encoded simultaneous sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, W.; Son, W.; Pyun, S.; Min, D.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, numerous studies have endeavored to develop robust full waveform inversion and migration algorithms. These processes require enormous computational costs, because of the number of sources in the survey. To avoid this problem, the phase encoding technique for prestack migration was proposed by Romero (2000) and Krebs et al. (2009) proposed the encoded simultaneous-source inversion technique in the time domain. On the other hand, Ben-Hadj-Ali et al. (2011) demonstrated the robustness of the frequency-domain full waveform inversion with simultaneous sources for noisy data changing the source assembling. Although several studies on simultaneous-source inversion tried to estimate P- wave velocity based on the acoustic wave equation, seismic migration and waveform inversion based on the elastic wave equations are required to obtain more reliable subsurface information. In this study, we propose a 2-D frequency-domain elastic full waveform inversion technique using phase encoding methods. In our algorithm, the random phase encoding method is employed to calculate the gradients of the elastic parameters, source signature estimation and the diagonal entries of approximate Hessian matrix. The crosstalk for the estimated source signature and the diagonal entries of approximate Hessian matrix are suppressed with iteration as for the gradients. Our 2-D frequency-domain elastic waveform inversion algorithm is composed using the back-propagation technique and the conjugate-gradient method. Source signature is estimated using the full Newton method. We compare the simultaneous-source inversion with the conventional waveform inversion for synthetic data sets of the Marmousi-2 model. The inverted results obtained by simultaneous sources are comparable to those obtained by individual sources, and source signature is successfully estimated in simultaneous source technique. Comparing the inverted results using the pseudo Hessian matrix with previous inversion results

  15. Improved free-surface expression for frequency-domain elastic optimal mixed-grid modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Chen, Jing-Bo; Dai, Meng-Xue

    2016-07-01

    An accurate and efficient forward modeling is the foundation of full-waveform inversion (FWI). In elastic wave modeling, one of the key problems is how to deal with the free-surface boundary condition appropriately. For the representation of the free-surface boundary condition, conventional displacement-based approaches and staggered-grid approaches are often used in time-domain. In frequency-domain, considering the saving of storage and CPU time, we integrate the idea of physical parameter-modified staggered-grid approach in time-domain with an elastic optimal mixed-grid modeling scheme to design an improved parameter-modified free-surface expression. Accuracy analysis shows that an elastic optimal mixed-grid modeling scheme using the parameter-modified free-surface expression can provide more accurate solutions with only 4 grid points per smallest shear wavelength than conventional displacement-based approaches and is stable for most Poisson ratios. Besides, it also yields smaller condition number of the resulting impedance matrix than conventional displacement-based approaches in laterally varying complex media. These advantages reveal great potential of this free-surface expression in big-data practical application.

  16. Ground penetrating radar data analyzed in frequency and time domain for engineering issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; Giampaolo, Valeria; Votta, Mario; Rizzo, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) allows to analyze reinforced concrete and masonry structures, in order to identify gaps, defects, delaminations, and fracture. In the field of engineering, non-invasive diagnostic is used to test the processes of construction and maintenance of buildings and artifacts of the individual components, to reduce analysis time and costs of intervention (Proto et al., 2010). Ground penetrating radar (GPR) allows to evaluate with a good effectiveness the state of conservation of engineering construction (Mellet 1995)). But there are some uncertainties in GPR data due to the complexity of artificial objects. In this work we try to evaluate the capability of GPR for the characterization of building structures in the laboratory and in-situ. In particular the focus of this research consists in integrate spectral analysis to time domain data to enhance information obtained in a classical GPR processing approach. For this reason we have applied spectral analysis to localize and characterize the presence of extraneous bodies located in a test site rebuilt in laboratory to simulate a part of a typical concrete road. The test site is a segment of a road superimposed on two different layers of sand and gravel of varying thickness inside which were introduced steel rebar, PVC and aluminium pipes. This structure has also been cracked in a predetermined area and hidden internal fractures were investigated. The GPR has allowed to characterize the panel in a non-invasive mode and radargrams were acquired using two-dimensional and three-dimensional models from data obtained with the use of 400, 900, 1500 and 2000 Mhz antennas. We have also studied with 2 GHz antenna a beam of 'to years precast bridge characterized by a high state of decay. The last case study consisted in the characterization of a radiant floor analyzed with an integrated use of GPR and infrared thermography. In the frequency domain analysis has been possible to determine variations in the

  17. Frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime measurements via frequency segmentation and recombination as applied to pyrene with dissolved humic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwani, Hadi M; Lowry, Mark; Xing, Baoshan; Warner, Isiah M; Cook, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the association behavior of pyrene with different dissolved humic materials (DHM) was investigated utilizing the recently developed segmented frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime method. The humic materials involved in this study consisted of three commercially available International Humic Substances Society standards (Suwannee River fulvic acid reference, SRFAR, Leonardite humic acid standard, LHAS, and Florida peat humic acid standard, FPHAS), the peat derived Amherst humic acid (AHA), and a chemically bleached Amherst humic acid (BAHA). It was found that the three commercial humic materials displayed three lifetime components, while both Amherst samples displayed only two lifetime components. In addition, it was found that the chemical bleaching procedure preferentially removed red wavelength emitting fluorophores from AHA. In regards to pyrene association with the DHM, different behavior was found for all commercially available humics, while AHA and BAHA, which displayed strikingly similar behavior in terms of fluorescence lifetimes. It was also found that there was an enhancement of pyrene's measured lifetime (combined with a decrease in pyrene emission) in the presence of FPHAS. The implications of this long lifetime are discussed in terms of (1) quenching mechanism and (2) use of the fluorescence quenching method used to determine the binding of compounds to DHM. PMID:18546063

  18. Template-based CTA X-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Timur; Demirci, Stefanie; Degertekin, Muzaffer; Navab, Nassir; Unal, Gozde

    2013-03-01

    This study performs 3D to 2D rigid registration of segmented pre-operative CTA coronary arteries with a single segmented intra-operative X-ray Angio frame in both frequency and spatial domains for real-time Angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy. Most of the work on rigid registration in literature required a close initial- ization of poses and/or positions because of the abundance of local minima and high complexity that searching algorithms face. This study avoids such setbacks by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. First, template DRRs as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented CTA are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a wide range as in C-arm setup. We have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the real X-ray after equalizing the scales (due to disparities in focal length distances) in 3 domains, namely Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase and Fourier polar. The best pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that these methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by our results. Translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of our objective function without local minima due to distance maps. Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space rather than with actual values in 3D due to lack of ground truth, ill-posedness of the problem which we intend to address in future.

  19. Extended radar observations with the frequency radar domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Crochet, M.

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we present high-resolution observations obtained with the Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan, /34.85°N, /136.10°E) using the frequency radar domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique. This technique has recently been introduced for improving the range resolution capabilities of the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars which are limited by their minimum pulse length. The Fourier-based imaging, the Capon method have been performed with 5 equally spaced frequencies between 46.25 and 46.75MHz and with an initial range resolution of 300m. These results have been compared firstly to results obtained using the frequency domain interferometry (FDI) technique with Δf=0.5MHz and, secondly, to results from a classical Doppler beam swinging (DBS) mode applied with a range resolution of 150m. Thin echoing structures could be tracked owing to the improved radar range resolution and some complex structures possibly related to Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities have been detected. Indeed, these structures appeared within the core of a wind shear and were associated with intense vertical wind fluctuations. Moreover, a well-defined thin echo layer was found in an altitude range located below the height of the wind shear. The radar observations have not been fully interpreted yet because the radar configuration was not adapted for this kind of study and because of the lack of complementary information provided by other techniques when the interesting echoing phenomena occurred. However, the results confirm the high potentialities of the FII technique for the study of atmospheric dynamics at small scales.

  20. Building the analytical response in frequency domain of AC biased bolometers - Application to Planck/HFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Alexandre; Montier, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    uc(Context): Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for ν knowledge of detector response. However bolometers have highly nonlinear characteristics, coming from their electrical and thermal coupling making them very difficult to model. uc(Goal): We present a method to build the analytical transfer function in frequency domain which describe the voltage response of an Alternative Current (AC) biased bolometer to optical excitation, based on the standard bolometer model. This model is built using the setup of the Planck/HFI instrument and offers the major improvement of being based on a physical model rather than the currently in use had-hoc model based on Direct Current (DC) bolometer theory. uc(Method): The analytical transfer function expression will be presented in matrix form. For this purpose, we build linearized versions of the bolometer electro thermal equilibrium. A custom description of signals in frequency is used to solve the problem with linear algebra. The model performances is validated using time domain simulations. uc(Results): The provided expression is suitable for calibration and data processing. It can also be used to provide constraints for fitting optical transfer function using real data from steady state electronic response and optical response. The accurate description of electronic response can also be used to improve the ADC nonlinearity correction for quickly varying optical signals.

  1. Frequency domain design of gain scheduling control for large wind systems in full-load region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A large wind energy system, operating under full-load regime, is considered. • According to its particularities in frequency domain, control law design is provided. • These particularities are influenced by the interactions of wind–tower–blade ensemble. • Control low, within gain scheduling strategy, is achieved imposing stability reserve. • Supplementary a criterion, aimed at reducing mechanical loads, is imposed. - Abstract: The paper presents the issue of power control law synthesis, in the case of a large wind system that operates under full-load regime, based on dynamic properties details in frequency domain. Solving this problem involves two phases: the establishment of a linearized model as faithfully as possible in various operating points of the full-load region, and synthesis of the power controller, considered with classic structure, taking into account frequency particularities of the obtained linearized model. Obtained linear model of the controlled process is of order 16 and encloses subsystems for tower fore-aft oscillations damping, and for drive-train torsion oscillations damping. The designed controller contains a PI component and a lag compensator for dynamic correction at high frequencies. It is known that the main features of wind system dynamics generated by the interaction of wind–tower–blade ensemble cause a gap in the gain characteristic of the model and complex conjugate zeros, which can move between right and left half-planes, depending on the average wind speed value. Consequently, for control law synthesis an interactive frequency solution is adopted. This is “transparent” in relation to particularities induced by wind–tower–blade interaction. This solution allows evaluation of the extent to which control law is affected by the subsystem for tower oscillations damping. Given the strong dependence between the model and the mean wind speed value, a gain scheduling control law is designed. At

  2. Frequency-domain sparse Bayesian learning inversion of AVA data for elastic parameters reflectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongzhen; Yuan, Sanyi; Wang, Shangxu; Deng, Li

    2016-10-01

    The prestack amplitude variation with angle (AVA) inversion method utilising angle information to obtain the elastic parameters estimation of subsurface rock is vital to reservoir characterisation. Under the assumption of blocky layered media, an AVA inversion algorithm combining prestack spectral reflectivity inversion with sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) is presented. Prior information of the model parameters is involved in the inversion through the hierarchical Gaussian distribution where each parameter has a unique variance instead of sharing a common one. The frequency-domain prestack SBL inversion method retrieves sparse P- and S-wave impedance reflectivities by sequentially adding, deleting or re-estimating hyper-parameters without pre-setting the number of non-zero P- and S-wave reflectivity spikes. The selection of frequency components can help get rid of noise outside the selected frequency band. The precondition of the parameters helps to balance the weight of different parameters and incorporate the relationship between those parameters into the inversion process, thus improves the inversion result. Synthetic and real data examples illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  3. Molecular Interaction Studies of Benzyl Alcohols with Methacrylates in Carbon Tetrachloride using Frequency Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric relaxation of benzyl alcohol substitutents (benzyl alcohol, m-methylbenzyl alcohol and m-nitrobenzyl alcohol with methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate in dilute solution of carbon tetrachloride is measured at 9.37 GHz using Frequency domain (X-band technique. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant (ε׳, dielectric loss factor (ε״ at Microwave frequency, static dielectric constant (ε0 and dielectric constant at infinite dilution (ε∞ at optical frequency have been determined. From the measured dielectric data, the relaxation time (t calculated using Higasi method and activation energies (∆Ft and ∆Fη have been determined. All the dielectric parameters that are vary with the substitutent change in benzyl alcohol andchain length of acrylic esters. Suggests that, the proton donating ability is varying with the substitution of benzyl alcohol and proton accepting ability is varying with the chain length of acrylic esters. The relaxation time and molar free energy activation of 1:1 molar ratio is greater than other higher molar ratios (i.e. 3:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:3 confirm that the existence of most likely 1:1 complex formation between the studied systems and also complex formation formed between free hydroxyl group of substituted benzyl alcohols and carbonyl group of acrylic esters (MMA and EMA.

  4. Application of frequency-domain helicopter-borne electromagnetics for groundwater exploration in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, Bernhard; Steuer, Annika; Ullmann, Angelika; Vasterling, Margarete; Voß, Wolfgang

    Airborne geophysical methods have been used successfully in groundwater exploration over the last decades. Particularly airborne electromagnetics is appropriate for large-scale and efficient groundwater surveying. Due to the dependency of the electrical conductivity on both the clay content of the host material and the mineralisation of the water, airborne electromagnetics is suitable for providing information on groundwater resources, water quality, aquifer conditions and protection levels. Frequency-domain helicopter-borne electromagnetic systems are used to investigate near-surface groundwater occurrences in detail even in rough terrain and populated areas. In order to reveal the subsurface conductivity distribution, the quantities measured, the secondary magnetic fields, are generally inverted into resistivity-depth models. Due to the skin-effect the penetration depths of the electromagnetic fields depend on the system characteristics used: high-frequency data describe the shallower parts of the conducting subsurface and the low-frequency data the deeper parts. Typical maximum investigation depths range from some ten metres (highly conductive saltwater saturated sediments) to several hundred metres (resistive hard rocks). In urban areas there are a number of man-made sources affecting the electromagnetic measurements. These effects on the secondary field values are discussed on the basis of synthetic data as well as uncorrected and corrected field data. The case histories of different hydrogeological setups in Indonesia, The Netherlands and Germany demonstrate that airborne electromagnetics can be applied to groundwater exploration purposes even in urban areas.

  5. An advanced frequency-domain code for boiling water reactor (BWR) stability analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-phase flow instability is of interest for the design and operation of many industrial systems such as boiling water reactors (BWRs), chemical reactors, and steam generators. In case of BWRs, the flow instabilities are coupled to the power instabilities via neutronic-thermal hydraulic feedbacks. Since these instabilities produce also local pressure oscillations, the coolant flashing plays a very important role at low pressure. Many frequency-domain codes have been used for two-phase flow stability analysis of thermal hydraulic industrial systems with particular emphasis to BWRs. Some were ignoring the effect of the local pressure, or the effect of 3D power oscillations, and many were not able to deal with the neutronics-thermal hydraulics problems considering the entire core and all its fuel assemblies. The new frequency domain tool uses the best available nuclear, thermal hydraulic, algebraic and control theory methods for simulating BWRs and analyzing their stability in either off-line or on-line fashion. The novel code takes all necessary information from plant files via an interface, solves and integrates, for all reactor fuel assemblies divided into a number of segments, the thermal-hydraulic non-homogenous non-equilibrium coupled linear differential equations, and solves the 3D, two-energy-group diffusion equations for the entire core (with spatial expansion of the neutron fluxes in Legendre polynomials).It is important to note that the neutronics equations written in terms of flux harmonics for a discretized system (nodal-modal equations) generate a set of large sparse matrices. The eigenvalue problem associated to the discretized core statics equations is solved by the implementation of the implicit restarted Arnoldi method (IRAM) with implicit shifted QR mechanism. The results of the steady state are then used for the calculation of the local transfer functions and system transfer matrices. The later are large-dense and complex matrices, (their size

  6. Planar Lithographed Superconducting LC Resonators for Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotermund, K.; Barch, B.; Chapman, S.; Hattori, K.; Lee, A.; Palaio, N.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Tran, C.

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments are increasing the number of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers to increase sensitivity. In order to maintain low thermal loading of the sub-Kelvin stage, the frequency-domain multiplexing (FDM) factor has to increase accordingly. FDM is achieved by placing TES bolometers in series with inductor-capacitor (LC) resonators, which select the readout frequency. The multiplexing factor can be raised with a large total readout bandwidth and small frequency spacing between channels. The inductance is kept constant to maintain a uniform readout bandwidth across detectors, while the maximum acceptable value is determined by bolometer stability. Current technology relies on commercially available ceramic chip capacitors. These have high scatter in their capacitance thereby requiring large frequency spacing. Furthermore, they have high equivalent series resistance (ESR) at higher frequencies and are time consuming and tedious to hand assemble via soldering. A solution lies in lithographed, planar spiral inductors (currently in use by some experiments) combined with interdigitated capacitors on a silicon (Si) substrate. To maintain reasonable device dimensions, we have reduced trace and gap widths of the LCs to 4 \\upmu m. We increased the inductance from 16 to 60 \\upmu H to achieve a higher packing density, a requirement for FDM systems with large multiplexing factors. Additionally, the Si substrate yields low ESR values across the entire frequency range and lithography makes mass production of LC pairs possible. We reduced mutual inductance between inductors by placing them in a checkerboard pattern with the capacitors, thereby increasing physical distances between adjacent inductors. We also reduce magnetic coupling of inductors with external sources by evaporating a superconducting ground plane onto the backside of the substrate. We report on the development of lithographed LCs in the 1-5 MHz range for use

  7. Block Iterative/Adaptive Frequency-Domain Channel Estimation for Cyclic-Prefixed Single-Carrier Broadband Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seob Baek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new block iterative/adaptive frequency-domain channel estimation scheme, in which a channel frequency response (CFR is estimated iteratively by the proposed weighted element-wise block adaptive frequency-domain channel estimation (WEB-CE scheme using the soft information obtained by a soft-input soft-output (SISO decoder. In the WEB-CE, an equalizer coefficient is calculated by minimizing a weighted conditional squared-norm of the a posteriori error vector with respect to its correction term. Simulation results verify the superiority of the WEB-CE in a time-varying typical urban (TU channel.

  8. Frequency domain analysis and design of nonlinear systems based on Volterra series expansion a parametric characteristic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Xingjian

    2015-01-01

    This book is a systematic summary of some new advances in the area of nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain, focusing on the application oriented theory and methods based on the GFRF concept, which is mainly done by the author in the past 8 years. The main results are formulated uniformly with a parametric characteristic approach, which provides a convenient and novel insight into nonlinear influence on system output response in terms of characteristic parameters and thus facilitate nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain.  The book starts with a brief introduction to the background of nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain, followed by recursive algorithms for computation of GFRFs for different parametric models, and nonlinear output frequency properties. Thereafter the parametric characteristic analysis method is introduced, which leads to the new understanding and formulation of the GFRFs, and nonlinear characteristic output spectrum (nCOS) and the nCOS based analysis a...

  9. Reversal of magnetization of a single-domain magnetic particle by the ac field of time-dependent frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Liufei; Garanin, D.A.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report numerical and analytical studies of the reversal of the magnetic moment of a single-domain magnetic particle by a circularly polarized ac field of time-dependent frequency. For the time-linear frequency sweep, the phase diagrams are computed that illustrate the dependence of the reversal on the frequency sweep rate v, the amplitude of the ac field h, the magnetic anisotropy field d, and the damping parameter alpha. It is shown that the most efficient magnetization reversal requires ...

  10. Real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse using optical frequency-domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shoulin; Ma, Lin; Fan, Xinyu; Wang, Bin; He, Zuyuan

    2016-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse by analysing the Doppler shift of reflected light using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). Our method can detect the start of a fibre fuse within 200 ms which is equivalent to a propagation distance of about 10 cm in standard single-mode fibre. We successfully measured instantaneous speed of propagating fibre fuses and observed their subtle fluctuation owing to the laser power instability. The resolution achieved for speed measurement in our demonstration is 1 × 10‑3 m/s. We studied the fibre fuse propagation speed dependence on the launched power in different fibres. Our method is promising for both real time fibre fuse monitoring and future studies on its propagation and termination.

  11. Lifetime estimation of moving subcellular objects in frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudot, Philippe; Kervrann, Charles; Blouin, Cedric M; Waharte, Francois

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescence lifetime is usually defined as the average nanosecond-scale delay between excitation and emission of fluorescence. It has been established that lifetime measurements yield numerous indications on cellular processes such as interprotein and intraprotein mechanisms through fluorescent tagging and Förster resonance energy transfer. In this area, frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy is particularly appropriate to probe a sample noninvasively and quantify these interactions in living cells. The aim is then to measure the fluorescence lifetime in the sample at each location in space from fluorescence variations observed in a temporal sequence of images obtained by phase modulation of the detection signal. This leads to a sensitivity of lifetime determination to other sources of fluorescence variations such as intracellular motion. In this paper, we propose a robust statistical method for lifetime estimation for both background and small moving structures with a focus on intracellular vesicle trafficking. PMID:26479936

  12. Tuning fractional PID controllers for a Steward platform based on frequency domain and artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copot, Cosmin; Zhong, Yu; Ionescu, Clara; Keyser, Robin

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, two methods to tune a fractional-order PI λ D μ controller for a mechatronic system are presented. The first method is based on a genetic algorithm to obtain the parameter values for the fractionalorder PI λ D μ controller by global optimization. The second method used to design the fractional-order PI λ D μ controller relies on an auto-tuning approach by meeting some specifications in the frequency domain. The real-time experiments are conducted using a Steward platform which consists of a table tilted by six servo-motors with a ball on the top of the table. The considered system is a 6 degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) motion platform. The feedback on the position of the ball is obtained from images acquired by a visual sensor mounted above the platform. The fractional-order controllers were implemented and the performances of the steward platform are analyzed.

  13. Amplitude-phase cross-talk cancellation in frequency domain instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stephen P.; Yong, Kai Y.

    2001-06-01

    Changes in phase that occurs with changes in amplitude impose severe limitations on the accuracy of frequency domain near infrared spectrometers. Phase is related to the photon pathlength in tissue and phase errors introduced by the instrument can be interpreted as changes in tissue oxygenation. The instrument described employs a reference RF modulated laser diode to eliminate the effects of amplitude- phase crosstalk and requires no feedback. Light from the reference and medium channels follow a common path through the detector and so the same phase error is imposed on both. Summing the reference and medium phase eliminates the crosstalk and enables the resultant to be attributed only to photon pathlength within the medium. It is also demonstrated that elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk is a natural consequence of a phased array configuration.

  14. Radiation effects on optical frequency domain reflectometry fiber-based sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, S; Marin, E; Cannas, M; Boukenter, A; Ouerdane, Y; Périsse, J; Macé, J-R; Bauer, S; Marcandella, C; Paillet, P; Girard, S

    2015-10-15

    We investigate the radiation effects on germanosilicate optical fiber acting as the sensing element of optical frequency domain reflectometry devices. Thanks to a new setup permitting to control temperature during irradiation, we evaluate the changes induced by 10 keV x rays on their Rayleigh response up to 1 MGy in a temperature range from -40°C up to 75°C. Irradiation at fixed temperature points out that its measure is reliable during both irradiation and the recovery process. Mixed temperature and radiation measurements show that changing irradiation temperature leads to an error in distributed measurements that depends on the calibration procedure. These results demonstrate that Rayleigh-based optical fiber sensors are very promising for integration in harsh environments. PMID:26469566

  15. Frequency domain analysis of lightning protection using four lightning protection rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javor Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the lightning discharge channel is modeled as a vertical monopole antenna excited by a pulse generator at its base. The lightning electromagnetic field of a nearby lightning discharge in the case of lightning protection using four vertical lightning protection rods was determined in the frequency domain. Unknown current distributions were determined by numerical solving of a system of integral equations of two potentials using the Point Matching Method and polynomial approximation of the current distributions. The influence of the real ground, treated as homogeneous loss half-space of known electrical parameters, expressed through a Sommerfeld integral kernel, was modeled using a new Two-image approximation which gives good results in both near and far fields.

  16. Parallel full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain by the Gauss-Newton method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain. We first test the inversion ability of three numerical optimization methods, i.e., the steepest-descent method, the Newton-CG method and the Gauss- Newton method, for a simple model. The results show that the Gauss-Newton method performs well and efficiently. Then numerical computations for a benchmark model named Marmousi model by the Gauss-Newton method are implemented. Parallel algorithm based on message passing interface (MPI) is applied as the inversion is a typical large-scale computational problem. Numerical computations show that the Gauss-Newton method has good ability to reconstruct the complex model.

  17. Obtaining imaginary weak values with a classical apparatus: Applications for the time and frequency domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedem, Yaron [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (NORDITA), Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-13

    Weak measurements with imaginary weak values are reexamined in light of recent experimental results. The shift of the meter, due to the imaginary part of the weak value, is derived via the probability of post-selection, which allows considering the meter as a distribution of a classical variable. The derivation results in a simple relation between the change in the distribution and its variance. By applying this relation to several experimental results, in which the meter involved the time and frequency domains, it is shown to be especially suitable for scenarios of that kind. The practical and conceptual implications of a measurement method, which is based on this relation, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a method to obtain imaginary weak values using classical meter. • A simple relation between the shift of the meter and its variance is derived. • Recent experimental results are analyzed using the new formalism. • The scheme is discussed as a new model for quantum measurement.

  18. Real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse using optical frequency-domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shoulin; Ma, Lin; Fan, Xinyu; Wang, Bin; He, Zuyuan

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse by analysing the Doppler shift of reflected light using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). Our method can detect the start of a fibre fuse within 200 ms which is equivalent to a propagation distance of about 10 cm in standard single-mode fibre. We successfully measured instantaneous speed of propagating fibre fuses and observed their subtle fluctuation owing to the laser power instability. The resolution achieved for speed measurement in our demonstration is 1 × 10(-3) m/s. We studied the fibre fuse propagation speed dependence on the launched power in different fibres. Our method is promising for both real time fibre fuse monitoring and future studies on its propagation and termination. PMID:27146550

  19. Frequency and Time Domain Packet Scheduling Based on Channel Prediction with Imperfect CQI in LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Channel-dependent scheduling of transmission of data packets in a wireless system is based onmeasurement and feedback of the channel quality. To alleviate the performance degradation due tosimultaneous multiple imperfect channel quality information (CQI, a simple and efficient packetscheduling (PS algorithm is developed in downlink LTE system for real time traffic. A frequency domainchannel predictor based on Kalman filter is first developed to restore the true CQI from erroneous channelquality feedback. Then, a time domain grouping technique employing the joint of Proportional Fair (PFand Modified Largest Weighted Delay First (M-LWDF algorithms is used. It was proved this proposalachieves better performance in terms of system throughput and packet loss ratio by simulation results.

  20. Experimental research on anti-vibration interferometry based on time-frequency-domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Hao, Qun; Zhang, Fanghua; Tian, Yuhan

    2013-10-01

    Phase-shifting interferometry is a non-contact precision precise measuring method for optical surface, but it is highly sensitive to external vibrations. A time-and-frequency-domain (TFD) anti-noise phase-shifting interferometry is proposed to eliminate the effect of vibrations and improve the precision of measurement. According to simulations and preliminary experiments, active phase-shifting speed as well as interferogram capture speed should be increased to improve the anti-vibration capability of the TFD method. In this paper, a fast phase-shifting approach based on PZT actuator and interferogram detection with high-speed camera is proposed. Preliminary experimental results are given to demonstrate the approach.

  1. Iterative Receiver in Time-Frequency Domain for Shallow Water Acoustic Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Ge, Jianhua

    2012-03-01

    Inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multi-path propagation, especially in shallow water channel, degrades the performance of underwater acoustic (UWA) communication systems. In this paper, we combine soft minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalization and the serially concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) decoding to develop an iterative receiver in time-frequency domain (TFD) for underwater acoustic point to point communications. Based on sound speed profile (SSP) measured in the lake and finite-element ray (FER) tracing method (Bellhop), the shallow water channel is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed iterative receiver. The results suggest that the proposed iterative receiver can reduce the calculation complexity of the equalizer and obtain better performance using less receiving elements.

  2. Frequency-domain identification of aircraft structural modes from short-duration flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssettes, J.; Mercère, G.; Vacher, P.; De Callafon, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    This article presents identification algorithms dedicated to the modal analysis of civil aircraft structures during in-flight flutter tests. This particular operational framework implies several specifications for the identification procedure. To comply with these requirements, the identification problem is formulated in the frequency domain as an output-error problem. Iterative identification methods based on structured matrix fraction descriptions are used to solve this problem and to identify a continuous-time model. These iterative methods are specifically designed to deal with experiments where short-duration tests with multiple-input excitations are used. These algorithms are first discussed and then evaluated through a simulation example illustrative of the in-flight modal analysis of a civil aircraft. Based on these evaluation results, an efficient iterative algorithm is suggested and applied to real flight-test data measured on board a military aircraft.

  3. Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shixing; Li, Long; Shi, Guangming; Zhu, Cheng; Shi, Yan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an electromagnetic metasurface is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex beams in radio frequency domain. Theoretical formula of compensated phase-shift distribution is deduced and used to design the metasurface to produce multiple vortex radio waves in different directions with different OAM modes. The prototype of a practical configuration of square-patch metasurface is designed, fabricated, and measured to validate the theoretical analysis at 5.8 GHz. The simulated and experimental results verify that multiple OAM vortex waves can be simultaneously generated by using a single electromagnetic metasurface. The proposed method paves an effective way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves in radio and microwave wireless communication applications.

  4. Fourier Self-deconvolution Using Approximation Obtained from Frequency Domain Wavelet Transform as a Linear Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new method of resolving overlapped peak, Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) using approximation CN obtained from frequency domain wavelet transform of F(ω) yielded by Fourier transform of overlapped peak signals f(t) as the linear function, was presented in this paper.Compared with classical FSD, the new method exhibits excellent resolution for different overlapped peak signals such as HPLC signals, and have some characteristics such as an extensive applicability for any overlapped peak shape signals and a simple operation because of no selection procedure of the linear function. Its excellent resolution for those different overlapped peak signals is mainly because F(ω) obtained from Fourier transform of f(t) and CN obtained from wavelet transform of F(ω) have the similar linearity and peak width. The effect of those fake peaks can be eliminated by the algorithm proposed by authors. This method has good potential in the process of different overlapped peak signals.

  5. Oblique frequency domain interferometry measurements using the middle and upper atmosphere radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. D.; Fukao, S.; Larsen, M. F.; Yamamoto, M.; Tsuda, T.; Kato, S.

    1992-09-01

    First results are presented from oblique frequency domain interferometry (FDI) measurements conducted using the middle and upper atmosphere radar in Japan in October 1990. Using the idea of Doppler sorting, an equation is derived which shows a parabolic variation of the oblique FDI cross-spectral phase as a function of Doppler velocity. However, because of the small range of Doppler velocities observed with the measured cross spectra, the phase has an approximate linear variation; that is, the cross spectra sample only a small portion of the parabolic structure and are therefore approximately linear and are shown to follow the model closely. Using the oblique FDI configuration, a comparison is drawn between simultaneous measurements of signal-to-noise ratio, coherence, three-dimensional wind, and profiles of FDI cross spectra. We find that the regions that exhibit a well-defined scattering layer correspond to those regions of high aspect sensitivity. An explanation is suggested based on the anisotropy of the turbulence.

  6. NOVEL COLOR FILTER ARRAY DEMOSAICING IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN WITH SPATIAL REFINEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Niruban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea behind wavelet based demosaicing with spatial refinement is to reconstruct the full resolution color image from the mosaiced image. In this study, a new effective wavelet based demosaicing algorithm for interpolating the missing color components in Bayer’s Color Filter Array (CFA pattern is proposed. This interpolation technique uses the interchannel correlation among the high frequency subbands to determine the missing pixels in each color channel, followed by a refining step in spatial domain which uses non-iterative technique that enforces color difference rule with fewer computations. As a result, the proposed demosaicing method yields better performance than bilinear, edge based and subband based demosaicing methods.

  7. Time-and-frequency domains approach to data processing in multiwavelength optical scatterometry of dielectric gratings

    KAUST Repository

    Granet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on scatterometry problems arising in lithography production of periodic gratings. Namely, the paper introduces a theoretical and numerical-modeling-oriented approach to scatterometry problems and discusses its capabilities. The approach allows for reliable detection of deviations in gratings\\' critical dimensions (CDs) during the manufacturing process. The core of the approach is the one-to-one correspondence between the electromagnetic (EM) characteristics and the geometric/material properties of gratings. The approach is based on highly accurate solutions of initial boundary-value problems describing EM waves\\' interaction on periodic gratings. The advantage of the approach is the ability to perform simultaneously and interactively both in frequency and time domains under conditions of possible resonant scattering of EM waves by infinite or finite gratings. This allows a detection of CDs for a wide range of gratings, and, thus is beneficial for the applied scatterometry. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America

  8. An ultra-broadband frequency-domain terahertz measurement system based on frequency conversion via DAST crystal with an optimized phase-matching condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying the frequency conversion technique to 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate crystal, a monochromatic terahertz (THz) measurement system, including both generation and detection, has been developed over quite a broad frequency band, from 1.85 to 30 THz. In the case of frequency upconversion detection of THz waves, for the first time, we used gratings instead of filters to tackle the tough phase-matching conditions for broadband operations. By synchronizing the rotation of two gratings to extract the frequency upconverted signal, the infrared (IR) pumping beam can be tuned freely over 300 nm with decent diffraction efficiency and sufficient isolation between the weak frequency upconversion signal and the strong IR pumping beam to be realized. Such a large tuning range has overcome the limit of commercial filters with a fixed passband, while such a high optical density value has been beyond the limit of commercial tunable filters. Consequently, the proposed frequency domain system gives the largest THz frequency band. Unlike THz time-domain spectroscopy systems in which a fs laser is applied and broadband THz pulses are applied, our system works based on a ns laser and it can function at a single THz frequency with random frequency access ability from pulse to pulse. (letter)

  9. An OFDM Receiver with Frequency Domain Diversity Combined Impulsive Noise Canceller for Underwater Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saotome, Rie; Hai, Tran Minh; Matsuda, Yasuto; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore marine natural resources using remote robotic sensor or to enable rapid information exchange between ROV (remotely operated vehicles), AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle), divers, and ships, ultrasonic underwater communication systems are used. However, if the communication system is applied to rich living creature marine environment such as shallow sea, it suffers from generated Impulsive Noise so-called Shrimp Noise, which is randomly generated in time domain and seriously degrades communication performance in underwater acoustic network. With the purpose of supporting high performance underwater communication, a robust digital communication method for Impulsive Noise environments is necessary. In this paper, we propose OFDM ultrasonic communication system with diversity receiver. The main feature of the receiver is a newly proposed Frequency Domain Diversity Combined Impulsive Noise Canceller. The OFDM receiver utilizes 20–28 KHz ultrasonic channel and subcarrier spacing of 46.875 Hz (MODE3) and 93.750 Hz (MODE2) OFDM modulations. In addition, the paper shows Impulsive Noise distribution data measured at a fishing port in Okinawa and at a barge in Shizuoka prefectures and then proposed diversity OFDM transceivers architecture and experimental results are described. By the proposed Impulsive Noise Canceller, frame bit error rate has been decreased by 20–30%. PMID:26351656

  10. An OFDM Receiver with Frequency Domain Diversity Combined Impulsive Noise Canceller for Underwater Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Saotome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore marine natural resources using remote robotic sensor or to enable rapid information exchange between ROV (remotely operated vehicles, AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle, divers, and ships, ultrasonic underwater communication systems are used. However, if the communication system is applied to rich living creature marine environment such as shallow sea, it suffers from generated Impulsive Noise so-called Shrimp Noise, which is randomly generated in time domain and seriously degrades communication performance in underwater acoustic network. With the purpose of supporting high performance underwater communication, a robust digital communication method for Impulsive Noise environments is necessary. In this paper, we propose OFDM ultrasonic communication system with diversity receiver. The main feature of the receiver is a newly proposed Frequency Domain Diversity Combined Impulsive Noise Canceller. The OFDM receiver utilizes 20–28 KHz ultrasonic channel and subcarrier spacing of 46.875 Hz (MODE3 and 93.750 Hz (MODE2 OFDM modulations. In addition, the paper shows Impulsive Noise distribution data measured at a fishing port in Okinawa and at a barge in Shizuoka prefectures and then proposed diversity OFDM transceivers architecture and experimental results are described. By the proposed Impulsive Noise Canceller, frame bit error rate has been decreased by 20–30%.

  11. An OFDM Receiver with Frequency Domain Diversity Combined Impulsive Noise Canceller for Underwater Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saotome, Rie; Hai, Tran Minh; Matsuda, Yasuto; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore marine natural resources using remote robotic sensor or to enable rapid information exchange between ROV (remotely operated vehicles), AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle), divers, and ships, ultrasonic underwater communication systems are used. However, if the communication system is applied to rich living creature marine environment such as shallow sea, it suffers from generated Impulsive Noise so-called Shrimp Noise, which is randomly generated in time domain and seriously degrades communication performance in underwater acoustic network. With the purpose of supporting high performance underwater communication, a robust digital communication method for Impulsive Noise environments is necessary. In this paper, we propose OFDM ultrasonic communication system with diversity receiver. The main feature of the receiver is a newly proposed Frequency Domain Diversity Combined Impulsive Noise Canceller. The OFDM receiver utilizes 20-28 KHz ultrasonic channel and subcarrier spacing of 46.875 Hz (MODE3) and 93.750 Hz (MODE2) OFDM modulations. In addition, the paper shows Impulsive Noise distribution data measured at a fishing port in Okinawa and at a barge in Shizuoka prefectures and then proposed diversity OFDM transceivers architecture and experimental results are described. By the proposed Impulsive Noise Canceller, frame bit error rate has been decreased by 20-30%. PMID:26351656

  12. Efficient 2D and 3D multiparameters frequency-domain full waveform inversion (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virieux, J.; Operto, S.; Ribodetti, A.; Ben Hadj Ali, H.; Brossier, R.; Etienne, V.; Gholami, Y.; Hu, G.; Jia, Y.; Pageot, D.; Prieux, V.

    2010-12-01

    With the tremendous increase of the computational power provided by large-scale distributed-memory platforms and the development of dense 3D multi-component wide-aperture/wide-azimuth surveys, full waveform inversion (FWI) introduced in geophysics by Albert Tarantola has become a re-emerging technique to build high-resolution velocity models of the subsurface. Because of the cost of the forward modeling and the high dimensionality of the model space, full waveform inversion is actually a local optimization problem, the aim of which is the minimization of the misfit between the recorded and modeled seismic wavefields. Among all possible minimization criteria, the L1 norm provides the most robust and easy-to-tune criterion. With such criterion, white noise in all seismograms with outliers does not prevent the convergence to the nearly same minimum as for noise-free data. The frequency formulation of the FWI allows coarse sampling of the frequencies data over few frequencies for the reconstruction of the medium when wide-aperture geometries are considered. A preconditioned quasi-Newton L-BFGS modified algorithm provides scaled gradients of the misfit function for each class of parameters. The gradient is computed by the adjoint-state method where the forward field is stored in the core memory of the computer while computing the backpropagation of residuals for cross-correlation at each point of the medium, thanks to the frequency-domain approach. We are using a sequential multiscale hierarchical inversion algorithm with two nested levels of data preconditioning with respect to frequency and first-arrival time. We are able to reconstruct both Vp and Vs velocity structures in various offshore and onshore environments various configurations of crustal investigation where both body waves (and surface) waves are progressively included in the inversion scheme. Solving the forward problem for 2D geometry could be efficiently performed in frequency by using a direct solver

  13. The simulation of far-field wavelets using frequency-domain air-gun array near-field wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jian-Guo; Deng Yong; Tong Xin-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Air-gun arrays are used in marine-seismic exploration. Far-field wavelets in subsurface media represent the stacking of single air-gun ideal wavelets. We derived single air-gun ideal wavelets using near-field wavelets recorded from near-field geophones and then synthesized them into far-field wavelets. This is critical for processing wavelets in marine-seismic exploration. For this purpose, several algorithms are currently used to decompose and synthesize wavelets in the time domain. If the traveltime of single air-gun wavelets is not an integral multiple of the sampling interval, the complex and error-prone resampling of the seismic signals using the time-domain method is necessary. Based on the relation between the frequency-domain phase and the time-domain time delay, we propose a method that first transforms the real near-field wavelet to the frequency domain via Fourier transforms;then, it decomposes it and composes the wavelet spectrum in the frequency domain, and then back transforms it to the time domain. Thus, the resampling problem is avoided and single air-gun wavelets and far-field wavelets can be reliably derived. The effect of ghost reflections is also considered, while decomposing the wavelet and removing the ghost reflections. Modeling and real data processing were used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  14. Source implementation to eliminate low-frequency artifacts in finite difference time domain room acoustic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyok; Lam, Yiu Wai

    2012-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is a numerical technique that is straight forward to implement for the simulation of acoustic propagation. For room acoustics applications, the implementation of efficient source excitation and frequency dependent boundary conditions on arbitrary geometry can be seen as two of the most significant problems. This paper deals with the source implementation problem. Among existing source implementation methods, the hard source implementation is the simplest and computationally most efficient. Unfortunately, it generates a large low-frequency modulation in the measured time response. This paper presents a detailed investigation into these side effects. Surprisingly, some of these side effects are found to exist even if a transparent source implementation is used. By combing a time limited approach with a class of more natural source pulse function, this paper develops a source implementation method in FDTD that is as simple and computationally as efficient as a hard source implementation and yet capable of producing results that are virtually the same as a true transparent source. It is believed that the source implementation method developed in this paper will provide an improvement to the practical usability of the FDTD method for room acoustic simulation. PMID:22280589

  15. Frequency-Domain Equalization in Single-Carrier Transmission: Filter Bank Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Ihalainen, Tero; Rinne, Mika; Renfors, Markku

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates the use of complex-modulated oversampled filter banks (FBs) for frequency-domain equalization (FDE) in single-carrier systems. The key aspect is mildly frequency-selective subband processing instead of a simple complex gain factor per subband. Two alternative low-complexity linear equalizer structures with MSE criterion are considered for subband-wise equalization: a complex FIR filter structure and a cascade of a linear-phase FIR filter and an allpass filter. The simulation results indicate that in a broadband wireless channel the performance of the studied FB-FDE structures, with modest number of subbands, reaches or exceeds the performance of the widely used FFT-FDE system with cyclic prefix. Furthermore, FB-FDE can perform a significant part of the baseband channel selection filtering. It is thus observed that fractionally spaced processing provides significant performance benefit, with a similar complexity to the symbol-rate system, when the baseband filtering is included. In addition, FB-FDE effectively suppresses narrowband interference present in the signal band.

  16. On the effects of rotation on acoustic stellar pulsations: validity domains of perturbative methods and close frequency pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, K D; Thompson, M J

    2011-01-01

    Pulsation frequencies of acoustic modes are calculated for realistic rotating stellar models using both a perturbative and a two-dimensional approach. A comparison between the two yields validity domains which are similar to those previously obtained in Reese, Lignieres and Rieutord (2006) for polytropic models. One can also construct validity domains based on polynomial fits to the frequencies from the two-dimensional approach, and these also turn out to be similar, thus further confirming the agreement between the perturbative and two-dimensional approach at low rotation rates. Furthermore, as was previously shown in Espinosa, Perez Hernandez and Roca Cortes (2004), adjacent frequencies in multiplets come close together, thus forming pairs. This phenomena, exclusive to two-dimensional calculations, is shown to be an unlikely explanation of the close frequency pairs observed in delta Scuti stars. A systematic search for all close frequency pairs in the calculated spectrum is also carried out. The number of c...

  17. Frequency domain description of Kohlrausch response through a pair of Havriliak-Negami-type functions: An analysis of functional proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, J. S.; Prosmiti, R.; Villarreal, P.; Delgado-Barrio, G.; Alemán, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    An approximation to the Fourier transform (FT) of the Kohlrausch function (stretched exponential) with shape parameter 0<β⩽1 is presented by using Havriliak-Negami-like functions. Mathematical expressions to fit their parameters α, γ, and τ, as functions of β (0<β⩽1 and 1<β<2) are given, which allows a quick identification in the frequency domain of the corresponding shape factor β. Reconstruction via fast Fourier transform of frequency approximants to time domain are shown as good substitutes in short times though biased in long ones (increasing discrepancies as β→1). The method is proposed as a template to commute time and frequency domains when analyzing complex data. Such a strategy facilitates intensive algorithmic search of parameters while adjusting the data of one or several Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts relaxations.

  18. Time-variable frequency of events in domains of Tilia cambium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Włoch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the cambium of linden, producing xylem with interlocked grain, domains active, as regards the occurrence of events, and inactive ones can be distinguished. The area of the cambium investigated was an assemblage of small domains among which at certain periods domains Z, and, at another period, domains S were active. The inclination of the grain was changing in the direction corresponding to the type of the active domains. Alternative occurrence of periods of activity of Z and S domains led to the formation of interlocked grain in the xylem, with a much longer wave than the height of a pair domains.

  19. Analysis of heart rate variability in pre-eclamptic pregnancy: a study employing frequency domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Ar Navi Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder characterized by development of hypertension to the extent of 140/90 mmHg or more with proteinuria after 20th weeks of pregnancy in a previously normotensive and non proteinuric woman. Physiologically blood pressure is controlled by Autonomic Nervous System (ANS so study of ANS during pregnancy plays a significant role to extract some vital information which may be helpful to deal with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH or preeclampsia. The autonomic nervous system and changes in ANS during different pathophysiological conditions could be evaluated with heart rate variability analysis test. The modification in the autonomic control occurs during pregnancy and its evaluation through Heart Rate Variability (HRV analysis is very informative technique now a day but studied little thus the main objective of our project is to compare the maternal HRV changes between normal pregnancy and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Methods: 48 subjects (33 of normotensive pregnant women i.e., control group and 15 pre-eclamptic pregnant women i.e, study group of more than 20 weeks pregnancy were recruited from the outpatients, antenatal unit and wards of obstetrics and gynaecology department of JNMC, AMU, Aligarh. Physical examination was done and anthropometric measurement like height and weight were taken. BMI was calculated as per Quetlet's index. Urine test was conducted to every pregnant woman for urine albumin and we designated the pregnant women as pre-eclamptic women on the basis of definition. The subject was advised to take complete bed rest in supine position for 15 minutes in a cool and calm environment. The recording of short term HRV was done according to recommendation of the task force on HRV. The data was transferred from Medicaid machine to window based computer with HRV analysis software. Frequency domain analysis of HRV was taken for further statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference of

  20. Double-grid finite-difference frequency-domain (DG-FDFD) method for scattering from chiral objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alkan, Erdogan; Elsherbeni, Atef

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the application of the overlapping grids approach to solve chiral material problems using the FDFD method. Due to the two grids being used in the technique, we will name this method as Double-Grid Finite Difference Frequency-Domain (DG-FDFD) method. As a result of this new approach the electric and magnetic field components are defined at every node in the computation space. Thus, there is no need to perform averaging during the calculations as in the aforementioned FDFD technique [16]. We formulate general 3D frequency-domain numerical methods based on double-grid

  1. Nanoreinforced polymer composites: 3D FEM modeling with effective interface concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.W.; Zhou, H.W.; Peng, R.D.;

    2011-01-01

    of nanoreinforcement on the mechanical properties of nanocomposites are studied in numerical experiments. The higher degree of particle clustering leads to lower Young’s modules of the nanocomposites. The shape of nanoparticles has a strong effect on the elastic properties of the nanocomposites. The most effective...... reinforcement is cylindrical one, followed by ellipsoids, discs, and last, spheres. Ideally random oriented and correlated microstructures lead to the same average Young moduli, yet, the standard deviation of Young modulus for correlated microstructure is nearly 4 times of that for fully random orientation case....

  2. 3D FEM simulations of the rolling of stator vanes, including tool deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, J.

    2002-01-01

    Tool deformation is an important issue in the shape rolling of stator vanes as it directly influences the thickness of the rolled vane. This means that for the design of an accurate production process the deformation of the tools has to be accounted for. The shape rolling of symmetrical straight van

  3. 3D FEM Simulation of shape rolling using an ALE method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, J.

    2003-01-01

    The shape rolling of stator vanes has been modelled in 3D using the finite element method. Till now only the rolling of straight vanes, which have a constant cross section, is studied. Therefore this rolling process can be considered as a stationary process. Such processes can be described as a flow

  4. 3 D FEM analysis of welding residual stress and deformation of aero-engine blisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 周号; 雷靖; 方洪渊; 张学秋; 曲伸

    2014-01-01

    Aero-engine blisk welded by electron beam welding(EBW)method is a complicated structure.Fixtures were used to control the deformation ofblisk during its manufacturing process.Finite element method was utilized to study the evolution of the welding residual stress and deformation of this structure.In which an attenuation function was applied to the double ellipsoid heat source model based on the characteristic ofEBW,and the effects offixtures on the welding residual stresses and deforamtion were also reserached.The simulation results showed that the temperature contour ofweld cross section vertical to the weld centerline followed a “V”shape.Moreover,large welding residual stress and distortion were found in the interface between blisk and fixtures.The stress concentration was reduced sufficiently in starting and end part ofweldment as the fixtures were removed after welding process,while the removing operation had almost no effects on the welding residual stress in the middle section ofweld bead.

  5. Improvement of 3-D FEM Coupled Model on Strip Crown in Hot Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to simulate and analyze hot strip crown and flatness accurately and efficiently, the 3-D (three-di- mensional) coupled model involved in RPFEM (rigid-plastic finite element method) is improved based on the analyti- cal model of forecasting rolling force distribution. In the analytical model, variational method is employed to solve the lateral flow of metal and influential function method is employed to calculate roll deflection, the lateral distribution of rolling force can be obtained rapidly by iterative strategy. Then the 3-D coupled model uses the result as initial distri- bution of rolling force to calculate roll deflection and makes the initial on-load roll gap profile close to the final value, so as to reduce iterations and increase efficiency. Compared with previous algorithms, the improved model can reduce the iterations by about 50% and shorten the computing time by about 60% on the basis of the calculation accuracy.

  6. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  7. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.

    2010-11-01

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  8. Application of ANSYS 3D FEM in Studies of Surface Deformation Caused by Pipe Jacking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fabin; FANG Kun; LI Hechao

    2007-01-01

    By using site observation data and establishing 3D model using ANSYS software, this paper has discussed the strain change of stratum stress during process of jacking-in and the impact of machine head on ground surface under different frontal resistances. Analysis of the two cases shows that soil pressure reaches its maximum point when the soil is right above machine head, and soil stress will gradually decline when machine head passes over it. It also shows that impact brought by pipe-jacking construction on stress change of the surrounding soil is limited. The thesis suggest that road surface should be consolidated and soil condition be improved before construction to prevent loss and disaster caused by road surface deformation, jacking force can be increased so that jacking efficiency can be enhanced when ground stratum is well filled with soil, but the frontal resistance facing machine head should be equal to surrounding soil pressure in order to avoid rise of ground surface.

  9. 3D FEM Modeling of Ironless Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor/Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Juan; BERNHOFF Hans

    2011-01-01

    There are different simulation methods for coreless Axial-Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) machines, but no general consent on the most efficient technique. The inherent three-dimensional (3D) geometry of axial-flux machines makes the reduction to a 2D analysis more difficult than for radial-flux machines. This paper discusses a 3D finite element method (FEM) to model coreless machines as compared to analytical and 2D FEM solutions and proposes a method to calculate eddy current losses in the win...

  10. 3D FEM Numerical Simulation of Seismic Pile-supported Bridge Structure Reaction in Liquefying Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling XianZhang, Tang Liang and Xu Pengju

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the establishment of liquefied ground pile-soil-bridge seismic interaction analysis of three-dimensional finite element analysis method for the simulation of liquefied ground shaking table test of pile-soil seismic interaction analysis, undertake OpenSees finite element based numerical simulation platform, for the shaking table test based on two-phase saturated porous media, Comparative numerical and experimental results, detailed test pile dynamic response of bridge structure and dynamic properties, especially liquefaction pore pressure, liquefaction of pile foundation and the dynamic response of the free field. Finite element method can reasonably predict the site of pore pressure, dynamic response; despite the conventional beam element simulation of pile, pile dynamic response can still accurately simulated.

  11. Analysis of rolls deflection of Sendzimir mill by 3D FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; LEE Gyoo Taek

    2007-01-01

    The deflection of rolls of Sendzimir mill with double AS-U-Roll was simulated by finite element method(FEM). The influences of rolling pressure, strip width and rolls-assignment on rolls deflection were analyzed. The results show that the work roll deflection increases with the increase of rolling pressure and the reduction of work roll radius, but the rigid displacement of work roll slightly changes; the work roll end might appear negative displacement for the narrow strip width and high rolling pressure that might cause the contact of work rolls. The research results are significant for guiding production and theoretical analysis of the rolls system of Sendzimir mill.

  12. Pumping simulations using 3D FEM analysis on multi-pumping wells

    OpenAIRE

    Shuhei, KOTANI; Takahumi, KITAOKA; Makoto, NAKAMURA; Harushige, KUSUMI; 楠見, 晴重

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we chiefly conducted on-site measurement and analysis to examine how the pumping wells influence groundwater behavior. We established a 3D model for groundwater and make suggestions for the adequate management of the groundwater by a pumping simulation analysis. As a result, it can be seen from our research that the fluctuation of water level caused by group wells has been reproduced accurately by using our model.

  13. 3D FEM-BEM coupled resolution for acoustic waves propagation in potential flow

    OpenAIRE

    BALIN, Nolwenn; SYLVAND, Guillaume; Casenave, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    International audience In order to reduce the environmental impact of aircrafts, it is necessary to accurately simulate the acoustics waves propagation in complex environment. A classical method used to compute the noise propagation on large distances is the Boundary Element Method. However this method restricts the flow to a uniform one. To improve the level of modeling, we present here a coupling between Finite Element (FEM) and Boundary Element Methods (BEM) to solve the acoustic propag...

  14. Voltage-clamp frequency domain analysis of NMDA-activated neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L E; Hill, R H; Grillner, S

    1993-02-01

    1. Voltage and current-clamp steps were added to a sum of sine waves to measure the tetrodotoxin-insensitive membrane properties of neurons in the intact lamprey spinal cord. A systems analysis in the frequency domain was carried out on two types of cells that have very different morphologies in order to investigate the structural dependence of their electrophysiological properties. The method explicitly takes into account the geometrical shapes of (i) nearly spherical dorsal cells with one or two processes and (ii) motoneurons and interneurons that have branched dendritic structures. Impedance functions were analysed to obtain the cable properties of these in situ neurons. These measurements show that branched neurons are not isopotential and, therefore, a conventional voltage-clamp analysis is not valid. 2. The electrophysiological data from branched neurons were curve-fitted with a lumped soma-equivalent cylinder model consisting of eight equal compartments coupled to an isopotential cell body to obtain membrane parameters for both passive and active properties. The analysis provides a quantitative description of both the passive electrical properties imposed by the geometrical structure of neurons and the voltage-dependent ionic conductances determined by ion channel kinetics. The model fitting of dorsal cells was dominated by a one-compartment resistance and capacitance in parallel (RC) corresponding to the spherical, non-branched shape of these cells. Branched neurons required a model that contained both an RC compartment and a cable that reflected the structure of the cells. At rest, the electrotonic length of the cable was about two. Uniformly distributed voltage-dependent ionic conductance sites were adequate to describe the data at different membrane potentials. 3. The frequency domain admittance method in conjunction with a step voltage clamp was used to control and measure the oscillatory behavior induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on lamprey spinal

  15. Spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Han Yong

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) employs near-infrared light to image the concentration of chromophores and cell organelles in tissue and thereby providing access to functional parameters that can differentiate cancerous from normal tissues. This thesis describes research at the bench and in the clinic that explores and identifies the potential of DOT breast cancer imaging. The bench and clinic instrumentation differ but share important features: they utilize a very large, spatially dense, set of source-detector pairs (10 7) for imaging in the parallel-plate geometry. The bench experiments explored three-dimensional (3D) image resolution and fidelity as a function of numerous parameters and also ascertained the effects of a chest wall phantom. The chest wall is always present but is typically ignored in breast DOT. My experiments clarified chest wall influences and developed schemes to mitigate these effects. Mostly, these schemes involved selective data exclusion, but their efficacy also depended on reconstruction approach. Reconstruction algorithms based on analytic (fast) Fourier inversion and linear algebraic techniques were explored. The clinical experiments centered around a DOT instrument that I designed, constructed, and have begun to test (in-vitro and in-vivo). This instrumentation offers many features new to the field. Specifically, the imager employs spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain data; it possesses the world's largest optical source-detector density yet reported, facilitated by highly-parallel CCD-based frequency-domain imaging based on gain-modulation heterodyne detection. The instrument thus measures both phase and amplitude of the diffusive light waves. Other features include both frontal and sagittal breast imaging capabilities, ancillary cameras for measurement of breast boundary profiles, real-time data normalization, and mechanical improvements for patient comfort. The instrument design and construction is my most significant

  16. Diffusion optical spectroscopy of cancerous and normal prostate tissues in time-resolved and frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Pu, Yang; Chen, Jun

    2014-03-01

    It is well-known that light transport can be well described using Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. In biological tissue, the scattering particles cause the interaction of scattered waves from neighboring particles. Since such interaction cannot be ignored, multiple scattering occurs. The theoretical solution of multiple scattering is complicated. A suitable description is that the wavelike behavior of light is ignored and the transport of an individual photon is considered to be absorbed or scattered. This is known as the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) theory. Analytical solutions to the RTE that explicitly describes photon migration can be obtained by introducing some proper approximations. One of the most popular models used in the field of tissue optics is the Diffusion Approximation (DA). In this study, we report on the results of our initial study of optical properties of ex vivo normal and cancerous prostate tissues and how tissue parameters affect the near infrared light transporting in the two types of tissues. The time-resolved transport of light is simulated as an impulse isotropic point source of energy within a homogeneous unbounded medium with different absorption and scattering properties of cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Light source is also modulated sinusoidally to yield a varied fluence rate in frequency domain at a distant observation point within the cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Due to difference of the absorption and scattering coefficients between cancerous and normal tissues, the expansion of light pulse, intensity, phase are found to be different.

  17. Identifying the Motor Neuron Disease in EMG Signal Using Time and Frequency Domain Features with Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Anowarul Fattah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases are the most common neurological disorders found in the age ranges between 35-70 years, which selectively affect the motor neurons. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal motor neuron disease that assails the nerve cells in the brain. This disease progressively degenerates the motor cells in the brain and spinal cord, which are responsible for controlling the muscles that enable human to move around, breathe, speak, and swallow. The electromyography (EMG signals are the biomedical signals that are used to study the muscle function based on the electrical signal originated from the muscles. As the nervous system controls the muscle activity, the EMG signals can be viewed and analyzed in order to detect the indispensable features of the ALS disease in individuals. In this paper, analyzing the time and frequency domain behaviour of the EMG signals obtained from several normal persons and the ALS patients, some characteristic features, such as autocorrelation, zero crossing rate and Fourier transform are proposed to identify the ALS disease. For the pupose of classification, K-nearest neighbothood classifier is employed in a leave-one out cross validation technique. In order to show the classification performance, an EMG database consisted of 7 normal subjects aged 21-37 years and 6 ALS patients aged 35-67 years is considered and it is found that the proposed method is capable of distinctly separating the ALS patients from the normal persons.

  18. A HYBRID TECHNIQUE FOR FREQUENCY DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION OF SERVO SYSTEM WITH FRICTION FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAIK.RAFI KIRAN,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The system identification process in servo system with frictional force seems to be a complex task becauseof its non-linear nature. For such non-linear systems, a good choice is system identification in frequencydomain. However, most of the techniques are manual and are inappropriate for determination of systemparameters. This makes system identification ineffective for servo systems with frictional force. Toovercome this issue, a hybrid technique is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique exploits neuralnetwork and genetic algorithm to determine the system parameters of servo systems with friction. In theproposed technique, the target parameters are determined from the transfer function derived for thesystem. Subsequently, the system parameters are identified by a process formed by blending the neuralnetwork and genetic algorithm techniques. Prior to performing the identification procedure, backpropagation training is given to the neural network using a pre-examined dataset. Then with thecombined operation of neural network and genetic algorithm, the system parameters that are closer tothe target parameters for the servo system with frictional force are determined. The technique isimplemented and compared with the existing frequency domain identification technique. From thecomparative results, it is evident that the proposed technique outperforms the existing technique.

  19. Frequency domain measurements on turbid media with strong absorption using the PN approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Christof; Faris, Gregory W

    2009-06-01

    We have applied the frequency-domain technique to measurement of the optical properties of turbid media with strong absorption in the infinite medium limit. Absorption coefficients up to 2.3 cm(-1) for a modified scattering coefficient of 4.3 cm(-1) are studied, which corresponds to a reduced scattering albedo of 0.65. Low phase noise and good phase stability are required for these low albedo conditions. As the degree of absorption increases, the phase changes are reduced while amplitude changes increase. For this reason, correction of amplitude-phase cross talk is essential to achieve accurate measurements with strong absorption. Careful control of stray reflections is required to properly measure amplitude-phase cross talk. Because the diffusion approximation becomes less accurate, measurements are compared to calculations performed in the PN approximation, which is essentially an exact solution for the infinite medium limit. Agreement between theory and experiment is only obtained when correction for amplitude-phase cross talk is performed. These measurements can provide a good method for testing amplitude-phase cross talk. PMID:19488110

  20. Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Roblyer, Darren M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Joshi, Shailendra

    2014-09-01

    We present an application of spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) to the wide-field imaging of drug delivery to brain tissue. Measurements were compared with values obtained by a previously validated variation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the method of optical pharmacokinetics (OP). We demonstrate a cross-correlation between the two methods for absorption extraction and drug concentration determination in both experimental tissue phantoms and freshly extracted rodent brain tissue. These methods were first used to assess intra-arterial (IA) delivery of cationic liposomes to brain tissue in Sprague Dawley rats under transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Results were found to be in agreement with previously published experimental data and pharmacokinetic models of IA drug delivery. We then applied the same scheme to evaluate IA mitoxantrone delivery to glioma-bearing rats. Good correlation was seen between OP and SFDI determined concentrations taken from normal and tumor averaged sites. This study shows the feasibility of mapping drug/tracer distributions and encourages the use of SFDI for spatial imaging of tissues for drug/tracer-tagged carrier deposition and pharmacokinetic studies.

  1. Frequency and Spatial Domains Adaptive-based Enhancement Technique for Thermal Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Chaudhuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low contrast and noisy image limits the amount of information conveyed to the user. With the proliferation of digital imagery and computer interface between man-and-machine, it is now viable to consider digital enhancement in the image before presenting it to the user, thus increasing the information throughput. With better contrast, target detection and discrimination can be improved. The paper presents a sequence of filtering operations in frequency and spatial domains to improve the quality of the thermal infrared (IR images. Basically, two filters – homomorphic filter followed by adaptive Gaussian filter are applied to improve the quality of the thermal IR images. We have systematically evaluated the algorithm on a variety of images and carefully compared it with the techniques presented in the literature. We performed an evaluation of three filter banks such as homomorphic, Gaussian 5×5 and the proposed method, and we have seen that the proposed method yields optimal PSNR for all the thermal images. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is efficient for enhancement of thermal IR images.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.451-457, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6873

  2. Study of frequency domain full waveform inversion based on Huber norm and L-BFGS algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Kun

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion( FWI)is a high resolution inversion method,which can reveal detailed in-formation of the structure and lithology under comPlex geological background. It is limited by many kinds of noi-ses when the method aPPlied to the real seismic data. Based on Huber function criterion,the objective function combinates the anti-noise of L1 norm and the stability of L2 norm in theory,the authors derive the gradient for-mula of the Huber function by using L-BFGS algorithm for FWI. The new method is Proved by synthetic seismic data with the Gaussian noise and the imPulse noise. Numerical test results show that L-BFGS algorithm is aP-Plied to the frequency domain FWI with the convergence sPeed and high calculation accuracy,and can effec-tively reduce comPuter memory usage;and the Huber function is more robust and stable than L2 norm even with the noises.

  3. Investigation of signal-to-noise ratio in frequency-domain multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yide; Khan, Aamir A; Vigil, Genevieve D; Howard, Scott S

    2016-07-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) combined with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) has enabled three-dimensional quantitative molecular microscopy in vivo. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and thus the imaging rate of MPM-FLIM, which is fundamentally limited by the shot noise and fluorescence saturation, has not been quantitatively studied yet. In this paper, we investigate the SNR performance of the frequency-domain (FD) MPM-FLIM with two figures of merit: the photon economy in the limit of shot noise, and the normalized SNR in the limit of saturation. The theoretical results and Monte Carlo simulations find that two-photon FD-FLIM requires 50% fewer photons to achieve the same SNR as conventional one-photon FLIM. We also analytically show that the MPM-FD-FLIM can exploit the DC and higher harmonic components generated by nonlinear optical mixing of the excitation light to improve SNR, reducing the required number of photons by an additional 50%. Finally, the effect of fluorophore saturation on the experimental SNR performance is discussed. PMID:27409702

  4. Empirical frequency domain model for fixed-pattern noise in infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Figueroa, Miguel; Torres, Sergio N.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a new empirical model for the spatial structure of the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) observed in infrared (IR) focal-plane arrays (FPA) is presented. The model was conceived after analyzing, in the spatial frequency domain, FPN calibration data from different IR cameras and technologies. The analysis showed that the spatial patterns of the FPN are retained in the phase spectrum, while the noise intensity is determined by the magnitude spectrum. Thus, unlike traditional representations, the proposed model abstracts the FPN structure using one matrix for its magnitude spectrum and another matrix for its phase spectrum. Three applications of the model are addressed here. First, an algorithm is provided for generating random samples of the FPN with the same spatial pattern of the actual FPN. Second, the model is used to assess the performance of non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithms in the presence of spatially correlated and uncorrelated FPN. Third, the model is used to improve the NUC capability of a method that requires, as a reference, a proper FPN sample.

  5. System design and image processing algorithms for frequency domain optical coherence tomography in the coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Desmond C.; Xu, Chenyang; Petersen, Christopher; Schmitt, Joseph M.

    2010-02-01

    We report on the design of a frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system, fiber optic imaging catheter, and image processing algorithms for in vivo clinical use in the human coronary arteries. This technology represents the third generation of commercially-available OCT system developed at LightLab Imaging Inc. over the last ten years, enabling three-dimensional (3D) intravascular imaging at unprecedented speeds and resolutions for a commercial system. The FD-OCT engine is designed around an exclusively licensed micro-cavity swept laser that was co-developed with AXSUN Technologies Ltd. The laser's unique combination of high sweep rates, broad tuning ranges, and narrow linewidth enable imaging at 50,000 axial lines/s with an axial resolution of lumen dimensions, stent malapposition, and neointimal thickness. This system has been used in over 2000 procedures since August 2007 at over 40 clinical sites, providing cardiologists with an advanced tool for 3D assessment of the coronary arteries.

  6. Fusion of infrared and visible images based on saliency scale-space in frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfei; Sang, Nong; Dan, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    A fusion algorithm of infrared and visible images based on saliency scale-space in the frequency domain was proposed. Focus of human attention is directed towards the salient targets which interpret the most important information in the image. For the given registered infrared and visible images, firstly, visual features are extracted to obtain the input hypercomplex matrix. Secondly, the Hypercomplex Fourier Transform (HFT) is used to obtain the salient regions of the infrared and visible images respectively, the convolution of the input hypercomplex matrix amplitude spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale which is equivalent to an image saliency detector are done. The saliency maps are obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the amplitude spectrum, filtered at a scale selected by minimizing saliency map entropy. Thirdly, the salient regions are fused with the adoptive weighting fusion rules, and the nonsalient regions are fused with the rule based on region energy (RE) and region sharpness (RS), then the fused image is obtained. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm can hold high spectrum information of the visual image, and effectively get the thermal targets information at different scales of the infrared image.

  7. A frequency domain model for the spatial fixed-pattern noise in infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Osvaldo J.; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Torres, Sergio N.

    2011-10-01

    The multiplicative and additive components of the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) are typically modeled as time-stationary, spatially unstructured random processes. Even though the latter assumption is convenient, it is also inaccurate due to FPN is indeed observed as a spatial pattern, with random intensity values, superimposed over the true images. In this paper, the spatial structure in both the multiplicative and the additive components of the FPN has been modeled in the frequency domain. The key observation in the proposed models is that regular spatial patterns manifest themselves as narrowband components in the magnitude spectrum of an image. Thus, the spatial structure of FPN can be abstracted in a straightforward manner by approximating the spectral response of the FPN. Moreover, the random intensity of the FPN has been also modeled by matching the empirically estimated distributions of the intensity values of both multiplicative and additive components of the FPN. Experimental characterization of FPN has been conducted using black-body radiator sources, and the theoretical as well as practical applicability of the proposed models has been illustrated by both synthesizing FPN from three different IR cameras and by proposing a simple yet effective metric to assess the amount of FPN in FPA-based cameras.

  8. Nonlinear optical frequency conversion of an amplified Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Rainer; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert

    2009-09-14

    We report on the highly efficient non-linear optical frequency conversion of the wavelength swept output from a Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) laser. Different concepts for power scaling of FDML lasers by post-amplification with active fibers are presented. A two-stage post-amplification of an FDML laser with an amplification factor of 300 up to a peak power of 1.5 W is used to supply sufficient power levels for non-linear conversion. Using a single-mode dispersion shifted fiber (DSF), we convert this amplified output that covers the region between 1541 nm and 1545 nm to a wavelength range from 1572 nm to 1663 nm via modulation instability (MI). For this four wave mixing process we observe an efficiency of approximately 40%. The anti-Stokes signal between 1435 nm and 1516 nm was observed with lower conversion efficiency. In addition to shifting the wavelength, the effect of MI also enables a substantial increase in the wavelength sweep rate of the FDML laser by a factor of approximately 50 to 0.55 nm/ns. PMID:19770897

  9. Mode selection and boundary conditions using MAFIA in frequency-domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y.

    1988-09-01

    The field solvers of the 3D code MAFIA in the frequency domain are R3 and E3: the former generates an eigenvalue equation, and the latter solves this equation for eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors (fields). They are usually expensive to use. In order to save memory space and CPU time, one may employ a part of a structure in calculations if there are certain symmetries that are embedded in the geometry. In this case, one must run R3 and E3 several times with different boundary conditions if one wants to get a complete set of modes of the whole structure. However, sometimes only some modes are of interest to the authors (e.g., TM{sub 01}) and they may then specify the appropriate boundary conditions for a part of a structure to obtain these modes. There are two types of boundary conditions that one may choose from in R3: either a zero tangential E-field, denoted by integer 1, or a zero tangential H-field, denoted by integer 2. This note will use a circularly cylindrical cavity as an example to discuss the relation between mode selection and boundary conditions when using a part of the cavity.

  10. Effect of bimodularity on frequency response of cylindrical panels using Galerkin time domain approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kallol Khan; Badri Prasad Patel; Yogendra Nath

    2010-12-01

    The forced vibration analysis of bimodulus material laminated structures is a challenging problem due to non-smooth nonlinear nature of governing equations. The most commonly used direct time integration schemes show numerical instability and do not predict steady state response except for limited number of cases without considering in-plane inertia. This is due to the sudden change of restoring force from positive/negative half cycle to negative/positive half cycle exciting higher modes/harmonics at every instant of a cycle change leading to numerical instability in the time marching scheme. In the present work, Galerkin time domain approach is successfully used for the forced vibration analysis of bimodular cylindrical panels. The effect of bimodularity ratio on the frequency response of cylindrical panels for few typical geometrical and lamination parameters is studied for the first time. It is found that the positive half cycle amplitude is greater than the negative half cycle amplitude for $E_{2t}/E_{2c} < 1$ and is smaller for $E_{2t}/E_{2c} > 1$. Further, the percentage difference of positive and negative half cycle amplitudes decreases with the increase in $E_{2t}/E_{2c}$. The stresses under dynamic loading are different for positive and negative half of a vibration cycle.

  11. Digital frequency domain multiplexing readout electronics for the next generation of millimeter telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Amy N; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt A; Gilbert, Adam J; Montgomery, Joshua; Rowlands, Neil; Smecher, Graeme M; Smith, Ken; Wilson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) is an established technique for the readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in millimeter-wavelength astrophysical instrumentation. In fMux, the signals from multiple detectors are read out on a single pair of wires reducing the total cryogenic thermal loading as well as the cold component complexity and cost of a system. The current digital fMux system, in use by POLARBEAR, EBEX, and the South Pole Telescope, is limited to a multiplexing factor of 16 by the dynamic range of the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device pre-amplifier and the total system bandwidth. Increased multiplexing is key for the next generation of large format TES cameras, such as SPT-3G and POLARBEAR2, which plan to have on the of order 15,000 detectors. Here, we present the next generation fMux readout, focusing on the warm electronics. In this system, the multiplexing factor increases to 64 channels per module (2 wires) while maintaining low noise levels and detector stability. This ...

  12. Probing the disassembly of ultrafast laser heated gold using frequency domain interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Tommy; Ping, Yuan; Lee, Edward

    2005-10-01

    Ultrafast laser heating of a solid offers a unique approach to examine the behavior of non-equilibrium high energy density states. Initially, the electrons are optically excited while the ions in the lattice remain cold. This is followed by electron-electron and electron-phonon relaxation. Recently, experiments were performed in which ultrathin freestanding, gold foils were heated by a femtosecond pump laser to a strongly overdriven regime with energy densities reaching 20 MJ/kg. Interestingly, femtosecond laser reflectivity and transmission measurements on the heated sample revealed a quasi-steady-state behavior before the onset of hydrodynamic expansion. This led to the conjecture of the existence of a metastable, disordered state prior to the disassembly of the solid. To further examine the dynamics of ultrafast laser heated solids, frequency domain interferometry (FDI) was used to provide an independent observation. The highly sensitive change in the phase shift of the FDI probe clearly showed evidence of the quasi-steady-state behavior. The new experiment also yielded a detailed measurement of the time scale of such a quasi-steady-state phase that may help elucidate the process of electron-phonon coupling and disassembly in a strongly overdriven regime.

  13. Quanty for core level spectroscopy - excitons, resonances and band excitations in time and frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort, Maurits W.

    2016-05-01

    Depending on the material and edge under consideration, core level spectra manifest themselves as local excitons with multiplets, edge singularities, resonances, or the local projected density of states. Both extremes, i.e., local excitons and non-interacting delocalized excitations are theoretically well under control. Describing the intermediate regime, where local many body interactions and band-formation are equally important is a challenge. Here we discuss how Quanty, a versatile quantum many body script language, can be used to calculate a variety of different core level spectroscopy types on solids and molecules, both in the frequency as well as the time domain. The flexible nature of Quanty allows one to choose different approximations for different edges and materials. For example, using a newly developed method merging ideas from density renormalization group and quantum chemistry [1-3], Quanty can calculate excitons, resonances and band-excitations in x-ray absorption, photoemission, x-ray emission, fluorescence yield, non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and many more spectroscopy types. Quanty can be obtained from: http://www.quanty.org.

  14. Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT) images enhancement using a linear filter in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Rodrigo S.S.; Tardelli, Tiago C.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jackowski, Marcel P., E-mail: mjack@ime.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Computer Science

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, a new technique for in vivo spectrographic imaging of stable isotopes was presented as Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). In this technique, a fast neutrons beam stimulates stable nuclei in a sample, which emit characteristic gamma radiation. The photon energy is unique and is used to identify the emitting nuclei. The emitted gamma energy spectra can be used for reconstruction of the target tissue image and for determination of the tissue elemental composition. Due to the stochastic nature of photon emission process by irradiated tissue, one of the most suitable algorithms for tomographic reconstruction is the Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm, once on its formulation are considered simultaneously the probabilities of photons emission and detection. However, a disadvantage of this algorithm is the introduction of noise in the reconstructed image as the number of iterations increases. This increase can be caused either by features of the algorithm itself or by the low sampling rate of projections used for tomographic reconstruction. In this work, a linear filter in the frequency domain was used in order to improve the quality of the reconstructed images. (author)

  15. Iris Recognition System with Frequency Domain Features optimized with PCA and SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Pushpalatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Applications such as immigration control, aviation security, bank and other financial transactions, access to defence organization requires a more reliable and authentic identification system. Iris is now considered to be one of the most time invariable biometric features of a person for recognition. Several iris recognition techniques were proposed with considerable focus on improving the false acceptance rate and minimizing false rejection rate. Most of the proposed techniques are tested with Mat lab and not keeping the detection and recognition time in mind. In this work we propose a novel iris recognition system with iris localization to segment and recognize color iris with highest speed and accuracy. Custom software for iris image processing is developed in C#.Net (.Net 3.5. Frequency domain magnitude and phase features are used for image feature representation. Support vector machines with winner takes it all configuration are used for classification. Tests shows 97% accuracy with average time of 31 milliseconds seconds for classifying each test image.

  16. First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioux, Sylvain; Mazhar, Amaan; Lee, Bernard T.; Lin, Samuel J.; Tobias, Adam M.; Cuccia, David J.; Stockdale, Alan; Oketokoun, Rafiou; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Kelly, Edward; Weinmann, Maxwell; Durr, Nicholas J.; Moffitt, Lorissa A.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Frangioni, John V.

    2011-08-01

    Oxygenation measurements are widely used in patient care. However, most clinically available instruments currently consist of contact probes that only provide global monitoring of the patient (e.g., pulse oximetry probes) or local monitoring of small areas (e.g., spectroscopy-based probes). Visualization of oxygenation over large areas of tissue, without a priori knowledge of the location of defects, has the potential to improve patient management in many surgical and critical care applications. In this study, we present a clinically compatible multispectral spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) system optimized for surgical oxygenation imaging. This system was used to image tissue oxygenation over a large area (16×12 cm) and was validated during preclinical studies by comparing results obtained with an FDA-approved clinical oxygenation probe. Skin flap, bowel, and liver vascular occlusion experiments were performed on Yorkshire pigs and demonstrated that over the course of the experiment, relative changes in oxygen saturation measured using SFDI had an accuracy within 10% of those made using the FDA-approved device. Finally, the new SFDI system was translated to the clinic in a first-in-human pilot study that imaged skin flap oxygenation during reconstructive breast surgery. Overall, this study lays the foundation for clinical translation of endogenous contrast imaging using SFDI.

  17. Optical tomography with the discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the radiative transfer equation in frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical tomography is an inverse method of probing semi-transparent media with the help of light sources. The reconstruction of the optical properties usually employs finite volumes or continuous finite elements formulations of light transport as a forward model for the predictions. In a previous study, we have introduced a generalization of the inversion approach with finite elements formulations by using an integral form of the objective function. The novelty is that the surfaces of the detectors are taken into account in the reconstruction and compatibility is obtained for all finite element formulations. This present paper illustrates this new approach by developing a Discontinuous Galerkin formulation as a forward model for an optical tomography application in the frequency domain framework. Numerical tests are performed to gauge the accuracy of the method in recovering optical properties distribution with a gradient-based algorithm where the adjoint method is used to fastly compute the objective function gradient. It is seen that the reconstruction is accurate and can be affected by noise on the measurements as expected. Filtering of the gradient at each iteration of the reconstruction is used to cope with the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem and to improves the quality and accuracy of the reconstruction.

  18. Computer-aided classification of rheumatoid arthritis in finger joints using frequency domain optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Netz, U.; Blaschke, S.; Zwaka, P. A.; Mueller, G. A.; Beuthan, J.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2009-02-01

    Novel methods that can help in the diagnosis and monitoring of joint disease are essential for efficient use of novel arthritis therapies that are currently emerging. Building on previous studies that involved continuous wave imaging systems we present here first clinical data obtained with a new frequency-domain imaging system. Three-dimensional tomographic data sets of absorption and scattering coefficients were generated for 107 fingers. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, MANOVA, Discriminant Analysis DA, and a machine-learning algorithm that is based on self-organizing mapping (SOM) for clustering data in 2-dimensional parameter spaces. Overall we found that the SOM algorithm outperforms the more traditional analysis methods in terms of correctly classifying finger joints. Using SOM, healthy and affected joints can now be separated with a sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 0.91. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that if a combination of multiple image properties is used, statistical significant differences can be found between RA-affected finger joints that show different clinical features (e.g. effusion, synovitis or erosion).

  19. Identifying the Motor Neuron Disease in EMG Signal Using Time and Frequency Domain Features with Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Anowarul Fattah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases are the most common neurological disorders found in the age ranges between 35-70years, which selectively affect the motor neurons. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal motorneuron disease that assails the nerve cells in the brain. This disease progressively degenerates the motorcells in the brain and spinal cord, which are responsible for controlling the muscles that enable human tomove around, breathe, speak, and swallow. The electromyography (EMG signals are the biomedicalsignals that are used to study the muscle function based on the electrical signal originated from themuscles. As the nervous system controls the muscle activity, the EMG signals can be viewed and analyzedin order to detect the indispensable features of the ALS disease in individuals. In this paper, analyzing thetime and frequency domain behaviour of the EMG signals obtained from several normal persons and theALS patients, some characteristic features, such as autocorrelation, zero crossing rate and Fouriertransform are proposed to identify the ALS disease. For the pupose of classification, K-nearestneighbothood classifier is employed in a leave-one out cross validation technique. In order to show theclassification performance, an EMG database consisted of 7 normal subjects aged 21-37 years and 6 ALSpatients aged 35-67 years is considered and it is found that the proposed method is capable of distinctlyseparating the ALS patients from the normal persons.

  20. Dynamic analysis of smart composite beams by using the frequency domain spectral element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Il Wook; Lee, Usik [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    To excite or measure the dynamic responses of a laminated composite structure for the active controls of vibrations or noises, wafertype piezoelectric transducers are often bonded on the surface of the composite structure to form a multi layer smart composite structure. Thus, for such smart composite structures, it is very important to develop and use a very reliable mathematical and/or computational model for predicting accurate dynamic characteristics. In this paper, the axial-bending coupled equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived for two layer smart composite beams by using the Hamilton's principle with Lagrange multipliers. The spectral element model is then formulated in the frequency domain by using the variation approach. Through some numerical examples, the extremely high accuracy of the present spectral element model is verified by comparing with the solutions by the conventional finite element model provided in this paper. The effects of the lay up of composite laminates and surface bonded wafer type piezoelectric (PZT) layer on the dynamics and wave characteristics of smart composite beams are investigated. The effective constraint forces at the interface between the base beam and PZT layer are also investigated via Lagrange multipliers.

  1. A Free Surface Frequency Domain Green Function with Viscous Dissipation and Partial Reflections from Side Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongde Qin; Jing Shen; Xiaobo Chen

    2011-01-01

    The free-surface Green function method is widely used in solving the radiation or diffraction problems caused by a ship or ocean structure oscillating on the waves.In the context of inviscid potential flow,hydrodynamic problems such as multi-body interaction and tank side wall effect cannot be properly dealt with based on the traditional free-surface frequency domain Green function method,in which the water viscosity is omitted and the energy dissipation effect is absent.In this paper,an open-sea Green function with viscous dissipation was presented within the theory of visco-potential flow.Then the tank Green function with a partial reflection from the side walls in wave tanks was formulated as a formal sum of open-sea Green functions representing the infinite images between two parallel side walls of the source in the tank.The new far-field characteristics of the tank Green function is vitally important for improving the validity of side-wall effects evaluation,which can be used in supervising the tank model tests.

  2. Frequency Domain Structural Synthesis Applied to Quasi-Static Crack Growth Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young W. Kwon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static crack growth in a composite beam was modeled using the structural synthesis technique along with a finite element model. The considered crack was an interface crack in the shear mode (i.e. mode II, which occurs frequently in the scarf joint of composite structures. The analysis model was a composite beam with an edge crack at the midplane of the beam subjected to a three-point bending load. In the finite element model, beam finite elements with translational degrees of freedom only were used to model the crack conveniently. Then, frequency domain structural synthesis (substructure coupling was applied to reduce the computational time associated with a repeated finite element calculation with crack growth. The quasi-static interface crack growth in a composite beam was predicted using the developed computational technique, and its result was compared to experimental data. The computational and experimental results agree well. In addition, the substructure-based synthesis technique showed the significantly improved computational efficiency when compared to the conventional full analysis.

  3. Frequency Domain Fluorescent Molecular Tomography and Molecular Probes for Small Animal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Naresh Gandhi

    Fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) is a noninvasive biomedical optical imaging that enables 3-dimensional quantitative determination of fluorochromes distributed in biological tissues. There are three methods for imaging large volume tissues based on different light sources: (a) using a light source of constant intensity, through a continuous or constant wave, (b) using a light source that is intensity modulated with a radio frequency (RF), and (c) using ultrafast pulses in the femtosecond range. In this study, we have developed a frequency domain fluorescent molecular tomographic system based on the heterodyne technique, using a single source and detector pair that can be used for small animal imaging. In our system, the intensity of the laser source is modulated with a RF frequency to produce a diffuse photon density wave in the tissue. The phase of the diffuse photon density wave is measured by comparing the reference signal with the signal from the tissue using a phasemeter. The data acquisition was performed by using a Labview program. The results suggest that we can measure the phase change from the heterogeneous inside tissue. Combined with fiber optics and filter sets, the system can be used to sensitively image the targeted fluorescent molecular probes, allowing the detection of cancer at an early stage. We used the system to detect the tumor-targeting molecular probe Alexa Fluor 680 and Alexa Fluor 750 bombesin peptide conjugates in phantoms as well as mouse tissues. We also developed and evaluated fluorescent Bombesin (BBN) probes to target gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors for optical molecular imaging. GRP receptors are over-expressed in several types of human cancer cells, including breast, prostate, small cell lung, and pancreatic cancers. BBN is a 14 amino acid peptide that is an analogue to human gastrin-releasing peptide that binds specifically to GRPr receptors. BBN conjugates are significant in cancer detection and therapy. The

  4. Perfectly matched layer method in the finite-difference time-domain and frequency-domain calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shyroki, Dzmitry; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    A complex-coordinate method known under the guise of the perfectly matched layer (PML) method for treating unbounded domains in computational electrodynamics is related to similar techniques in fluid dynamics and classical quantum theory. It may also find use in electronic-structure finite......-difference simulations. Straightforward transfer of the PML formulation to other fields does not seem feasible, however, since it is a unique feature of electrodynamics - the natural invariance - that allows analytic trick of complex coordinate scaling to be represented as pure modification of local material parameters...

  5. Switching Operation Simulations in a Large Offshore Wind Farm with Use of Parametric Variation and Frequency Domain Severity Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana, Ivan;

    2012-01-01

    Transient voltages resulting from switching operations depend on an interaction between the breaker, the transformer, cables and a neighbourhood grid and imply a risk for the transformer and other components. In this paper the Frequency Domain Severity Factor (FDSF) is used to assess the severity...

  6. Integration of Frequency Domain Wideband Antenna Nulling and Wavenumber Domain Image Formation for Multi-Channel SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Bucciarelli, M.; D. Pastina; Cristallini, D.; M. Sedehi; Lombardo, P.

    2016-01-01

    A Multichannel Synthetic Aperture Radar (M-SAR) exploiting an antenna nulling based Electronic Counter-Counter Measures (ECCM) technique shall be able to cancel the effects of noise-like interferences over the collected SAR data. Since SAR systems often work with wide bandwidths to provide high resolution images, ECCM technique must account for the presence of wideband interference signal. In this paper we consider a wideband antenna nulling technique based on space-frequency adaptive nulling...

  7. Renormalized scattering series for frequency-domain waveform modelling of strong velocity contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, M.; Wu, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    An improved description of scattering and inverse scattering processes in reflection seismology may be obtained on the basis of a scattering series solution to the Helmoltz equation, which allows one to separately model primary and multiple reflections. However, the popular scattering series of Born is of limited seismic modelling value, since it is only guaranteed to converge if the global contrast is relatively small. For frequency-domain waveform modelling of realistic contrasts, some kind of renormalization may be required. The concept of renormalization is normally associated with quantum field theory, where it is absolutely essential for the treatment of infinities in connection with observable quantities. However, the renormalization program is also highly relevant for classical systems, especially when there are interaction effects that act across different length scales. In the scattering series of De Wolf, a renormalization of the Green's functions is achieved by a split of the scattering potential operator into fore- and backscattering parts; which leads to an effective reorganization and partially re-summation of the different terms in the Born series, so that their order better reflects the physics of reflection seismology. It has been demonstrated that the leading (single return) term in the De Wolf series (DWS) gives much more accurate results than the corresponding Born approximation, especially for models with high contrasts that lead to a large accumulation of phase changes in the forward direction. However, the higher order terms in the DWS that are associated with internal multiples have not been studied numerically before. In this paper, we report from a systematic numerical investigation of the convergence properties of the DWS which is based on two new operator representations of the DWS. The first operator representation is relatively similar to the original scattering potential formulation, but more global and explicit in nature. The second

  8. A finite-difference frequency-domain code for electromagnetic induction tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a new 3D code for application to electromagnetic induction tomography and applications to environmental imaging problems. We have used the finite-difference frequency- domain formulation of Beilenhoff et al. (1992) and the anisotropic PML (perfectly matched layer) approach (Berenger, 1994) to specify boundary conditions following Wu et al. (1997). PML deals with the fact that the computations must be done in a finite domain even though the real problem is effectively of infinite extent. The resulting formulas for the forward solver reduce to a problem of the form Ax = y, where A is a non-Hermitian matrix with real values off the diagonal and complex values along its diagonal. The matrix A may be either symmetric or nonsymmetric depending on details of the boundary conditions chosen (i.e., the particular PML used in the application). The basic equation must be solved for the vector x (which represents field quantities such as electric and magnetic fields) with the vector y determined by the boundary conditions and transmitter location. Of the many forward solvers that could be used for this system, relatively few have been thoroughly tested for the type of matrix encountered in our problem. Our studies of the stability characteristics of the Bi-CG algorithm raised questions about its reliability and uniform accuracy for this application. We have found the stability characteristics of Bi-CGSTAB [an alternative developed by van der Vorst (1992) for such problems] to be entirely adequate for our application, whereas the standard Bi-CG was quite inadequate. We have also done extensive validation of our code using semi-analytical results as well as other codes. The new code is written in Fortran and is designed to be easily parallelized, but we have not yet tested this feature of the code. An adjoint method is being developed for solving the inverse problem for conductivity imaging (for mapping underground plumes), and this approach, when ready, will

  9. Time- and frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability and sympathetic skin response in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetzler, Walter; Karam, Marie; Berger, Monika Fruhmann; Heger, Tanja; Maetzler, Corina; Ruediger, Heinz; Bronzova, Juliana; Lobo, Patricia Pita; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Berg, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is regularly affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). Information on autonomic dysfunction can be derived from e.g. altered heart rate variability (HRV) and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Such parameters can be quantified easily and measured repeatedly which might be helpful for evaluating disease progression and therapeutic outcome. In this 2-center study, HRV and SSR of 45 PD patients and 26 controls were recorded. HRV was measured during supine metronomic breathing and analyzed in time- and frequency-domains. SSR was evoked by repetitive auditory stimulation. Various ANS parameters were compared (1) between patients and healthy controls, (2) to clinical scales (Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Becks Depression Inventory), and (3) to disease duration. Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio differed significantly between PD and controls. Both, HRV and SSR parameters showed low or no association with clinical scores. Time-domain parameters tended to be affected already at early PD stages but did not consistently change with longer disease duration. In contrast, frequency-domain parameters were not altered in early PD phases but tended to be lower (LF, LF/HF ratio), respectively higher (HF) with increasing disease duration. This report confirms previous results of altered ANS parameters in PD. In addition, it suggests that (1) these ANS parameters are not relevantly associated with motor, behavioral, and cognitive changes in PD, (2) time-domain parameters are useful for the assessment of early PD, and (3) frequency-domain parameters are more closely associated with disease duration.

  10. TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY SIGNAL IN PROGNOSIS OF TYPE 2 DIABETIC AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARIKA TALE,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease occurs eventually in majority of patients with diabetes mellitus and to be the outstanding factor in over all diabetes morbidity and mortality rates. Thus the timely detection of diabetic autonomic neuropathy and the use of effective means to improve autonomic nervous system function become of almost significance. In this work Electrocardiogram (ECG data of 20 Diabetes Mellitus (DM and 20 normal control volunteers were recorded and autonomic nervous system activities are quantified by means of frequency and time domainanalysis. Time domain measure ,Standard deviation of successive NN intervals (SDNN,NN intervals differing more than 50 msec.( NN50 count,Percentage value of NN50 count( pNN50 count, HRV triangular index, show a lower variation in the DM patient group compared to normal subjects and p value <0.01. The frequency domain measures indicate significant differences in very low frequency (VLF, low frequency (LF power and high frequency (HF power. Value generated from the ratio of low frequency to high frequency, (LF/HF ispretty high, with not much significance between both groups.

  11. Calculation of transient dynamic stress intensity factors at bimaterial interface cracks using a SBFEM-based frequency-domain approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.J.YANG; A.J.DEEKS

    2008-01-01

    A frequency-domain approach based on the semi-analytical scaled boundary finite element method(SBFEM) was developed to calculate dynamic stress intensity factors(DSIFs) at bimaterial interface cracks subjected to transient loading.Be-cause the stress solutions of the SBFEM in the frequency domain are analytical in the radial direction,and the complex stress singularity at the bimaterial interface crack tip is explicitly represented in the stress solutions,the mixed-mode DSIFs were calculated directly by definition.The complex frequency-response functions of DSIFs were then used by the fast Fourier transform(FFT) and the inverse FFT to calculate time histories of DSIFs.A benchmark example was modelled.Good re-sults were obtained by modelling the example with a small number of degrees of freedom due to the semi-analytical nature of the SBFEM.

  12. Calculation of transient dynamic stress intensity factors at bimaterial interface cracks using a SBFEMbased frequency-domain approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.J.YANG; A.J.DEEKS

    2008-01-01

    A frequency-domain approach based on the semi-analytical scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) was developed to calculate dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) at bimaterial interface cracks subjected to transient loading. Be-cause the stress solutions of the SBFEM in the frequency domain are analytical in the radial direction, and the complex stress singularity at the bimaterial interface crack tip is explicitly represented in the stress solutions, the mixed-mode DSIFs were calculated directly by definition. The complex frequency-response functions of DSIFs were then used by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the inverse FFT to calculate time histories of DSIFs. A benchmark example was modelled. Good re-sults were obtained by modelling the example with a small number of degrees of freedom due to the semi-analytical nature of the SBFEM.

  13. First Frequency-Domain Interferometry Observations of Large-Scale Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschinski, Andreas; Chilson, Phillip B.; Kern, Stefan; Nielinger, Jost; Schmidt, Gerhard; Prenosil, Thomas

    1999-05-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of the vertical velocity at synoptic and subsynoptic scales is key to the patterns of weather and climate on earth. On these scales, the vertical velocity is on the order of one to a few centimeters per second, typically about three orders of magnitude smaller than typical horizontal wind velocities. Because of the smallness of large-scale vertical velocities relative to typical horizontal velocities, a direct observation of the large-scale vertical air velocity is extremely difficult.In a case study on observational material obtained during a 68-h experiment using the SOUSY very high frequency (VHF) radar in the Harz Mountains in Germany, the authors present the first intercomparison between three different sources of physical information that can provide large-scale vertical wind velocities: (i) the Doppler shifts observed with a vertically pointing VHF radar; (ii) the rates of change of the altitudes of refractive-index discontinuities as identified with frequency-domain interferometry (FDI), which is still a relatively unexplored technique in meteorology; and (iii) the output of a regional numerical weather prediction model (NWPM), which has been set up to model the meteorological situation during the observational period.There are several phenomena that have been known to possibly cause significant biases in mean vertical velocities retrieved from the Doppler shifts measured with vertically pointing clear-air VHF radars: (i) stationary or nonstationary gravity waves with vertical-velocity amplitudes up to the order of 1 m s1; (ii) stationary or horizontally advected tilted refractive-index discontinuities that are aspect sensitive in the VHF regime; and (iii) a correlation between the radar-reflectivity fluctuations and the vertical-velocity fluctuations within a vertically propagating gravity wave.On the basis of an intercomparison between the vertical velocities retrieved from (i) `standard Doppler' VHF radar observations, (ii

  14. Fault detection for singular switched linear systems with multiple time-varying delay in finite frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ding; Lu, Anyang; Li, Jinghao; Zhang, Qingling

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the problem of the fault detection (FD) for continuous-time singular switched linear systems with multiple time-varying delay. In this paper, the actuator fault is considered. Besides, the systems faults and unknown disturbances are assumed in known frequency domains. Some finite frequency performance indices are initially introduced to design the switched FD filters which ensure that the filtering augmented systems under switching signal with average dwell time are exponentially admissible and guarantee the fault input sensitivity and disturbance robustness. By developing generalised Kalman-Yakubovic-Popov lemma and using Parseval's theorem and Fourier transform, finite frequency delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of such a filter which can guarantee the finite-frequency H- and H∞ performance are derived and formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Four examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed finite frequency method.

  15. Experimental Study of High-Range-Resolution Medical Acoustic Imaging for Multiple Target Detection by Frequency Domain Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Taki, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Sato, Toru

    2009-07-01

    We employed frequency domain interferometry (FDI) for use as a medical acoustic imager to detect multiple targets with high range resolution. The phase of each frequency component of an echo varies with the frequency, and target intervals can be estimated from the phase variance. This processing technique is generally used in radar imaging. When the interference within a range gate is coherent, the cross correlation between the desired signal and the coherent interference signal is nonzero. The Capon method works under the guiding principle that output power minimization cancels the desired signal with a coherent interference signal. Therefore, we utilize frequency averaging to suppress the correlation of the coherent interference. The results of computational simulations using a pseudoecho signal show that the Capon method with adaptive frequency averaging (AFA) provides a higher range resolution than a conventional method. These techniques were experimentally investigated and we confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of processing by FDI.

  16. Frequency-domain L2-stability conditions for time-varying linear and nonlinear MIMO systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihong HUANG; Y. V. VENKATESH; Cheng XIANG; Tong Heng LEE

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the L2-stability analysis of multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems, governed by integral equations, with a matrix of periodic/aperiodic time-varying gains and a vector of monotone, non-monotone and quasi-monotone nonlin-earities. For nonlinear MIMO systems that are described by differential equations, most of the literature on stability is based on an application of quadratic forms as Lyapunov-function candidates. In contrast, a non-Lyapunov framework is employed here to derive new and more general L2-stability conditions in the frequency domain. These conditions have the following features:i) They are expressed in terms of the positive definiteness of the real part of matrices involving the transfer function of the linear time-invariant block and a matrix multiplier function that incorporates the minimax properties of the time-varying linear/nonlinear block. ii) For certain cases of the periodic time-varying gain, they contain, depending on the multiplier function chosen, no restrictions on the normalized rate of variation of the time-varying gain, but, for other periodic/aperiodic time-varying gains, they do. Overall, even when specialized to periodic-coefficient linear and nonlinear MIMO systems, the stability conditions are distinct from and less restrictive than recent results in the literature. No comparable results exist in the literature for aperiodic time-varying gains. Furthermore, some new stability results concerning the dwell-time problem and time-varying gain switching in linear and nonlinear MIMO systems with periodic/aperiodic matrix gains are also presented. Examples are given to illustrate a few of the stability theorems.

  17. Clinical studies of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in the coronary arteries: the first 200 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christopher; Adler, Desmond; Schmitt, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    We report clinical study results of three-dimensional (3D) in vivo imaging of human coronary arteries using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). At the time of this report, over 2000 patients in over 10 countries have been imaged using FD-OCT systems and disposable fiberoptic catheters developed by LightLab Imaging Inc. The first commercial versions of the systems were introduced in Europe in May 2009. The system operates at 50,000 axial lines/s, performing a 50 mm spiral pullback in 2.5 seconds with a rotational frame rate of 100 Hz. The commercial system employs a proprietary micro-cavity swept laser, allowing imaging of vessel diameters up to 10 mm. Data compiled from early studies indicate that FD-OCT is being used for post-intervention imaging of deployed coronary stents in over 40% of cases. High-resolution 3D imaging of stent geometry immediately following deployment enables detection of stent malapposition, which can increase the risk of thrombosis. Longer term follow-up imaging of stented vessels can detect thrombus formation, which can be treated pharmacologically, and excessive neointimal growth, which may require angioplasty or re-stenting. FD-OCT is also being used for pre-intervention imaging of stenotic lesions in about 60% of cases. Here FD-OCT is used to measure the minimum lumen area and to identify calcified deposits, side branches, or other vascular structures that could interfere with the stenting procedure. Overall, FD-OCT continues to be adopted at an increasing rate and has provided interventional cardiologists with a powerful tool for pre- and postintervention assessment of the coronary arteries.

  18. Stabilization technique for real-time high-resolution vascular ultrasound using frequency domain interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Hirofumi; Taki, Kousuke; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Motoi; Sato, Toru

    2014-01-01

    We have proposed an ultrasound imaging method based on frequency domain interferometry (FDI) with an adaptive beamforming technique to depict real-time high-resolution images of human carotid artery. Our previous study has investigated the performance of the proposed imaging method under an ideal condition with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the present study, we propose a technique that has the potential to improve accuracy in estimating echo intensity using the FDI imaging method. We investigated the performance of the proposed technique in a simulation study that two flat interfaces were located at depths of 15.0 and 15.2 mm and white noise was added. Because the -6 dB bandwidth of the signal used in this simulation study is 2.6 MHz, the conventional B-mode imaging method failed to depict the two interfaces. Both the conventional and proposed FDI imaging methods succeeded to depict the two interfaces when the SNR ranged from 15 to 30 dB. However, the average error of the estimated echo intensity at the interfaces using the conventional FDI imaging method ranged from 7.2 to 10.5 dB. In contrast, that using the FDI imaging method with the proposed technique ranged from 2.0 to 2.2 dB. The present study demonstrates the potential of the FDI imaging method in depicting robust and high-range-resolution ultrasound images of arterial wall, indicating the possibility to improve the diagnosis of atherosclerosis in early stages.

  19. Integration of Frequency Domain Wideband Antenna Nulling and Wavenumber Domain Image Formation for Multi-Channel SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bucciarelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Multichannel Synthetic Aperture Radar (M-SAR exploiting an antenna nulling based Electronic Counter-Counter Measures (ECCM technique shall be able to cancel the effects of noise-like interferences over the collected SAR data. Since SAR systems often work with wide bandwidths to provide high resolution images, ECCM technique must account for the presence of wideband interference signal. In this paper we consider a wideband antenna nulling technique based on space-frequency adaptive nulling and we propose an integration of the WB antenna nulling scheme within the focusing algorithm for M-SAR systems, thus allowing a fusion between ECCM and usual SAR processing steps. The computational cost of the integrated algorithm is compared with the cost of more traditional sequence of the wideband extension of the Side-Lobe Canceller and the focusing operation, to show the computational feasibility of the proposed integrated algorithm. The possibility to perform suboptimally the space-frequency adaptive nulling is also considered.

  20. GUM2DFT—a software tool for uncertainty evaluation of transient signals in the frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourier transform and its counterpart for discrete time signals, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), are common tools in measurement science and application. Although almost every scientific software package offers ready-to-use implementations of the DFT, the propagation of uncertainties in line with the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) is typically neglected. This is of particular importance in dynamic metrology, when input estimation is carried out by deconvolution in the frequency domain. To this end, we present the new open-source software tool GUM2DFT, which utilizes closed formulas for the efficient propagation of uncertainties for the application of the DFT, inverse DFT and input estimation in the frequency domain. It handles different frequency domain representations, accounts for autocorrelation and takes advantage of the symmetry inherent in the DFT result for real-valued time domain signals. All tools are presented in terms of examples which form part of the software package. GUM2DFT will foster GUM-compliant evaluation of uncertainty in a DFT-based analysis and enable metrologists to include uncertainty evaluations in their routine work. (paper)

  1. GUM2DFT—a software tool for uncertainty evaluation of transient signals in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichstädt, S.; Wilkens, V.

    2016-05-01

    The Fourier transform and its counterpart for discrete time signals, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), are common tools in measurement science and application. Although almost every scientific software package offers ready-to-use implementations of the DFT, the propagation of uncertainties in line with the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) is typically neglected. This is of particular importance in dynamic metrology, when input estimation is carried out by deconvolution in the frequency domain. To this end, we present the new open-source software tool GUM2DFT, which utilizes closed formulas for the efficient propagation of uncertainties for the application of the DFT, inverse DFT and input estimation in the frequency domain. It handles different frequency domain representations, accounts for autocorrelation and takes advantage of the symmetry inherent in the DFT result for real-valued time domain signals. All tools are presented in terms of examples which form part of the software package. GUM2DFT will foster GUM-compliant evaluation of uncertainty in a DFT-based analysis and enable metrologists to include uncertainty evaluations in their routine work.

  2. A Fast Frequency-Domain Algorithm for Gravitational Self-Force: I, Circular Orbits in Schwarzschild Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Akcay, Sarp

    2010-01-01

    Fast, reliable orbital evolutions of compact objects around massive black holes will be needed as input for gravitational wave search algorithms in the data stream generated by the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Currently, the state of the art is a time-domain code by [Phys. Rev. D{\\bf 81}, 084021, (2010)] that computes the gravitational self-force on a point-particle in an eccentric orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. Currently, time-domain codes take up to a few days to compute just one point in parameter space. In a series of articles, we advocate the use of a frequency-domain approach to the problem of gravitational self-force (GSF) with the ultimate goal of orbital evolution in mind. Here, we compute the GSF for a particle in a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime. We solve the linearized Einstein equations for the metric perturbation in Lorenz gauge. Our frequency-domain code reproduces the time-domain results for the GSF up to $\\sim 1000$ times faster for small orbital rad...

  3. Frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system%频率域光声成像系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虹; 黄远辉; 苗少峰; 宫睿; 邵晓鹏; 毕祥丽

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging is a new imaging modality, which uses the output amplitude information periodically modulated by a continuous-wave laser as a light source to stimulate biological tissues and to produce photoacoustic signals processed at frequency-domain and used to image the tissues. Firstly, the principles, developments and research status of photoacoustic imaging and frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging were introduced, and then the specific test methods and basic reconstruction algorithms of the frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging filed were described. In order to make up for time domain photoacoustic imaging with high costs, great harmful, poor portability and so on shortcomings, two imaging modalities were proposed and two complete experimental system structure diagrams were exhibited, showing different features and developing directions of photoacoustic imaging with respect to the traditional domain-photoacoustic imaging. At last, the outlook of the frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging was made to provide some references and guidance for our research and development about photoacoustic imaging.%频率域光声成像是指使用连续波激光器输出激光光源,利用该调制后的激光信号辐射组织,在频率域对激励的光声信号进行处理并成像的方式.首先阐述光声成像和频率域光声成像的原理、发展以及研究现状,然后介绍频率域光声成像的具体实验方法和基本重建算法.为了弥补时域光声成像成本高、伤害性大、便携性差等缺点,提出了频率域光声成像的两种成像方式,给出了完整的实验系统结构图,展示其相对于传统时域光声成像不同的研究特点与方向.最后对频率域光声成像进行展望,为光声成像在国内的研究和发展提供一定的借鉴和引导.

  4. Frequency-domain gravitational waves from nonprecessing black-hole binaries. I. New numerical waveforms and anatomy of the signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husa, Sascha; Khan, Sebastian; Hannam, Mark; Pürrer, Michael; Ohme, Frank; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Bohé, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the anatomy of frequency-domain gravitational-wave signals from nonprecessing black-hole coalescences with the goal of constructing accurate phenomenological waveform models. We first present new numerical-relativity simulations for mass ratios up to 18, including spins. From a comparison of different post-Newtonian approximants with numerical-relativity data we select the uncalibrated SEOBNRv2 model as the most appropriate for the purpose of constructing hybrid post-Newtonian/numerical-relativity waveforms, and we discuss how we prepare time-domain and frequency-domain hybrid data sets. We then use our data together with results in the literature to calibrate simple explicit expressions for the final spin and radiated energy. Equipped with our prediction for the final state we then develop a simple and accurate merger-ringdown model based on modified Lorentzians in the gravitational-wave amplitude and phase, and we discuss a simple method to represent the low frequency signal augmenting the TaylorF2 post-Newtonian approximant with terms corresponding to higher orders in the post-Newtonian expansion. We finally discuss different options for modelling the small intermediate frequency regime between inspiral and merger ringdown. A complete phenomenological model based on the present work is presented in a companion paper [S. Khan et al., following paper, Phys. Rev. D 93 044007 (2016)].

  5. Quantitative frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in tissues and tissue-like media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerussi, Albert Edward

    1999-09-01

    In the never-ending quest for improved medical technology at lower cost, modern near-infrared optical spectroscopy offers the possibility of inexpensive technology for quantitative and non-invasive diagnoses. Hemoglobin is the dominant chromophore in the 700-900 nm spectral region and as such it allows for the optical assessment of hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygenation by absorption spectroscopy. However, there are many other important physiologically relevant compounds or physiological states that cannot be effectively sensed via optical methods because of poor optical contrast. In such cases, contrast enhancements are required. Fluorescence spectroscopy is an attractive component of optical tissue spectroscopy. Exogenous fluorophores, as well as some endogenous ones, may furnish the desperately needed sensitivity and specificity that is lacking in near-infrared optical tissue spectroscopy. The main focus of this thesis was to investigate the generation and propagation of fluorescence photons inside tissues and tissue-like media (i.e., scattering dominated media). The standard concepts of fluorescence spectroscopy have been incorporated into a diffusion-based picture that is sometimes referred to as photon migration. The novelty of this work lies in the successful quantitative recovery of fluorescence lifetimes, absolute fluorescence quantum yields, fluorophore concentrations, emission spectra, and both scattering and absorption coefficients at the emission wavelength from a tissue-like medium. All of these parameters are sensitive to the fluorophore local environment and hence are indicators of the tissue's physiological state. One application demonstrating the capabilities of frequency-domain lifetime spectroscopy in tissue-like media is a study of the binding of ethidium bromide to bovine leukocytes in fresh milk. Ethidium bromide is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used to label DNA, and hence visualize chromosomes in cells. The lifetime of

  6. Investigation on broadband propagation characteristic of terahertz electromagnetic wave in anisotropic magnetized plasma in frequency and time domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yuan; Han, Yiping, E-mail: yphan@xidian.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ai, Xia [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Test physics and Numerical Mathematical, Beijing 100076 (China); Liu, Xiuxiang [Science and Technology on Space Physics Laboratory, Beijing 100076 (China)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave in an anisotropic magnetized plasma by JE convolution-finite difference time domain method. The anisotropic characteristic of the plasma, which leads to right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) and right-hand circularly polarized (LCP) waves, has been taken into account. The interaction between electromagnetic waves and magnetized plasma is illustrated by reflection and transmission coefficients for both RCP and LCP THz waves. The effects of both the magnetized plasma thickness and the external magnetized field are analyzed and numerical results demonstrate that the two factors could influence the THz wave greatly. It is worthy to note that besides the reflection and transmission coefficients in the frequency domain, the waveform of the electric field in the time domain varying with thicknesses and external magnetic fields for different polarized direction has been studied.

  7. Frequency-domain criterion for the chaos synchronization of time-delay power systems under linear feedback control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qian Lin; Xiaofeng Wu; Yun Chen

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the global synchronization of non-autonomous, time-delay, chaotic power systems via linear state-error feedback control. The frequency domain criterion and the LMI criterion are proposed and applied to design the coupling matrix. Some algebraic criteria via a single-variable linear coupling are derived and formulated in simple algebraic inequalities. The effectiveness of the new criteria is illustrated with numerical examples.

  8. RADIATION AND REFLECTION IN A RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION WAVEGUIDE: FINITE DIFFERENCE SIMULATION AND THEORETICAL FREQUENCY DOMAIN IMPEDANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, J.; Bilbao, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    If a theoretical expression is known for the radiation impedance then it may be projected to predict the input impedance and input impulse response in an acoustic waveguide. Radiation impedance may be derived from integration of Green's functions and so are based on continuous expressions in the frequency domain. In this study the finite difference technique will be used to simulate the reflections of a band limited impulse as it travels down a horn and partially radiates and reflects from th...

  9. In vivo measurements of cutaneous melanin across spatial scales: Using multiphoton microscopy and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Saager, RB; Balu, M; Crosignani, V; Sharif, A; Durkin, AJ; Kelly, KM; Tromberg, BJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. The combined use of nonlinear optical microscopy and broadband reflectance techniques to assess melanin concentration and distribution thickness in vivo over the full range of Fitzpatrick skin types is presented. Twelve patients were measured using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy (SFDS) on both dorsal forearm and volar arm, which are generally sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed areas, respectively. Both MPM and SFDS measured melanin volu...

  10. Novel frequency-domain criterion for elimination of limit cycles in a class of digital filters with single saturation nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frequency-domain criterion for the elimination of limit cycles in a class of digital filters utilizing single saturation nonlinearity is presented. The criterion is derived by exploiting the structural properties of the system under consideration in a greater detail. A novel feature of the criterion is that it takes the form of a matrix inequality, despite the fact that there is single nonlinearity in the system. An example showing the effectiveness of the criterion is given

  11. All-fiber wavelength swept ring laser based on Fabry-Perot filter for optical frequency domain imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Changsu; Villiger, Martin; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Bouma, Brett E.

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in laser engineering have yielded several novel configurations for high repetition rate, broad sweep range, and long coherence length wavelength swept lasers. Although these lasers have enabled high performance frequency-domain optical coherence tomography, they are typically complicated and costly and many require access to proprietary materials or devices. Here, we demonstrate a simplified ring resonator configuration that is straightforward to construct from readily available m...

  12. Techniques to Determine Maintenace Frequency of Permeable Pavement Systems with Time Domain Reflectometers (TDRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the surface clogs in permeable pavement systems, they lose effectiveness and require maintenance. There is limited direct guidance for determining when maintenance is needed to prevent surface runoff bypass. Research is being conducted using multiple time domain reflectomete...

  13. Numerical Study on Global Motion of Truss Spar in Frequency and Time Domains for the Liwan 3-1 Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lu; LI Binbin; OU Jinping

    2011-01-01

    Using frequency and time domain analysis, the authors analyzed the hydrodynamics and motion behavior of a Truss Spar platform at a water depth of 1500 m in the Liwan 3-1 area of the South China Sea. Firstly, the seakeeping ability is acquired in the frequency domain by calculating the hull's hydrodynamics and comparing with a semi-submersible platform. The random wave analysis for 100-year, 10-year and 1-year return periods in Liwan 3-1 distinctly shows lower heave but larger surge and pitch responses of the Truss Spar than those of a semi-submersible. Secondly, 3-hour motions of the Truss Spar are predicted and compared in the time domain under 100-year return period conditions in Liwan 3-1 and the Gulf of Mexico. Thirdly, the hull/mooring line coupled and uncoupled models are compared. Finally, the responses of the Truss Spar under 10-year and 1-year return period conditions are assessed. The results reveal that the mooring line damping reflected by the coupled model distinctly decreases the low frequency motior The maximum heave response for 100-year return period waves is 1.23m and below 0. 1m for the case of 1-year return period.

  14. Space-frequency analysis with parallel computing in a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer distributed sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaonan; Ye, Taihang; Zheng, Shilie; Zhou, Jinhai; Chi, Hao; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2014-10-01

    For a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (ϕ-OTDR) distributed sensor system, space-frequency analysis can reduce the false alarm by analyzing the frequency distribution compared with the traditional difference value method. We propose a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based parallel computing method to perform multichannel fast Fourier transform (FFT) and realize the real-time space-frequency analysis. The experiment results show that the time taken by the multichannel FFT decreased considerably based on this GPU parallel computing. The method can be completed with a sensing fiber up to 16 km long and an entry-level GPU. Meanwhile, the GPU can reduce the computing load of the central processing unit from 70% down to less than 20%. We carried out an experiment on a two-point space-frequency analysis, and the results clearly and simultaneously show the vibration point locations and frequency components. The sensor system outputs the real-time space-frequency spectra continuously with a spatial resolution of 16.3 m and frequency resolution of 2.25 Hz.

  15. Time-frequency Domain Analogues of Phase Space Sub-Planck Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Praxmeyer, Ludmila; Wasylczyk, Piotr; Radzewicz, Czeslaw; Wodkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We present experimental data of the frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements of light pulses revealing interference features corresponding to sub-Planck structures in phase space. For superpositions of pulses a small, sub-Fourier shift in the carrier frequency leads to a state orthogonal to the initial one, although in the representation of standard time-frequency distributions these states seem to have a nonvanishing overlap.

  16. Time-domain analysis of frequency dependent inertial wave forces on cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Mono-pile structures are attractive for small well-head platforms and foundation of offshore wind turbines at moderate water depth. Their diameter of several meters makes them prone to simultaneous occurrence of frequency-dependent inertial forces and non-linear drag. The present paper presents a...... reduction of the resonant part of the response for natural structural frequencies above the dominating wave frequency....

  17. Calculation of the magnetic gradient tensor from total magnetic anomaly field based on regularized method in frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Zhang, Yingtang; Mi, Songlin; Fan, Hongbo; Li, Zhining

    2016-11-01

    To obtain accurate magnetic gradient tensor data, a fast and robust calculation method based on regularized method in frequency domain was proposed. Using the potential field theory, the transform formula in frequency domain was deduced in order to calculate the magnetic gradient tensor from the pre-existing total magnetic anomaly data. By analyzing the filter characteristics of the Vertical vector transform operator (VVTO) and Gradient tensor transform operator (GTTO), we proved that the conventional transform process was unstable which would zoom in the high-frequency part of the data in which measuring noise locate. Due to the existing unstable problem that led to a low signal-to-noise (SNR) for the calculated result, we introduced regularized method in this paper. By selecting the optimum regularization parameters of different transform phases using the C-norm approach, the high frequency noise was restrained and the SNR was improved effectively. Numerical analysis demonstrates that most value and characteristics of the calculated data by the proposed method compare favorably with reference magnetic gradient tensor data. In addition, calculated magnetic gradient tensor components form real aeromagnetic survey provided better resolution of the magnetic sources and original profile.

  18. Neural network for characterization of single-fiber composite interphase based on frequency-domain characteristics of ultrasonic scattered waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of an ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation method for the properties of a single-fiber interphase is investigated theoretically. The nondestructive characterization method of the interphase suggested in this study is to utilize the frequency-domain characteristics of stresses in the scattered waves. It has been observed that the peaks and valleys in the frequency response of ultrasonic scattered waves are affected in their locations and magnitudes significantly by the interphase properties. To assess the feasibility of solving the inverse problem, a neural network model is constructed based on the theoretically computed database containing the interphase properties and the corresponding frequency response characteristics. It is shown that the neural network constructed in this study is capable of estimating the intenhase properties with good accuracy in most cases. This implies that the method suggested in this study is feasible and is worth attempting in an experimental study in the future.

  19. Proposing New Methods to Enhance the Low-Resolution Simulated GPR Responses in the Frequency and Wavelet Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, a number of numerical methods, including the popular Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD technique, have been proposed to simulate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR responses. Despite having a number of advantages, the finite-difference method also has pitfalls such as being very time consuming in simulating the most common case of media with high dielectric permittivity, causing the forward modelling process to be very long lasting, even with modern high-speed computers. In the present study the well-known hyperbolic pattern response of horizontal cylinders, usually found in GPR B-Scan images, is used as a basic model to examine the possibility of reducing the forward modelling execution time. In general, the simulated GPR traces of common reflected objects are time shifted, as with the Normal Moveout (NMO traces encountered in seismic reflection responses. This suggests the application of Fourier transform to the GPR traces, employing the time-shifting property of the transformation to interpolate the traces between the adjusted traces in the frequency domain (FD. Therefore, in the present study two post-processing algorithms have been adopted to increase the speed of forward modelling while maintaining the required precision. The first approach is based on linear interpolation in the Fourier domain, resulting in increasing lateral trace-to-trace interval of appropriate sampling frequency of the signal, preventing any aliasing. In the second approach, a super-resolution algorithm based on 2D-wavelet transform is developed to increase both vertical and horizontal resolution of the GPR B-Scan images through preserving scale and shape of hidden hyperbola features. Through comparing outputs from both methods with the corresponding actual high-resolution forward response, it is shown that both approaches can perform satisfactorily, although the wavelet-based approach outperforms the frequency-domain approach noticeably, both in amplitude and

  20. Frequency-domain inversion using the amplitude of the derivative wavefield with respect to the angular frequency

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    The instantaneous traveltime based inversion was developed to solve the phase wrapping problem, thus generating long-wavelength structures even for a high single-frequency. However, it required aggressive damping to insure proper convergence. A reason for that is the potential for unstable division in the calculation of the instantaneous traveltime for low damping factors. Thus, we propose an inversion algorithm using the amplitude of the derivative wavefield to avoid the unstable division process. Since the amplitude of the derivative wavefield contains the unwrapped-phase information, its inversion has the potential to provide robust inversion results. On the other hand, the damping term rapidly diminishes the amplitude of the derivative wavefield at far source-receiver offsets. As an alternative, we suggest using the logarithmic amplitude of the derivative wavefield. The gradient of this inversion algorithm is obtained by the back-propagation approach, based on the adjoint-state technique. Numerical examples show that the logarithmic-amplitude approach yields better convergent results than the instantaneous traveltime inversion, whereas the pure-amplitude approach does not show much convergence.

  1. Frequency Domain Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronic Systems Using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    For the efficiency and simplicity of electric systems, the dc power electronic systems are widely used in a variety of applications such as electric vehicles, ships, aircraft and also in homes. In these systems, there could be a number of dynamic interactions and frequency coupling between network...... with different switching frequency or harmonics from ac-dc converters makes that harmonics and frequency coupling are both problems of ac system and challenges of dc system. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling...

  2. Frequency-domain electromagnetic sounding with combination wave in near-field zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏发; 何继善

    1996-01-01

    By analysing the propagation law of electromagnetic wave,the distribution pattern of the field and the theory of frequency electromagnetic sounding,the physical mechanisms that make the frequency electromagnetic sounding in near-field zone difficult are discussed.Based on the theory of near source field,a new method of dual-frequency electromagnetic sounding of combination wave in near-field zone is advanced.Meanwhile,the method of measurement of fields,the definition of apparent resistivity and the numerical algorithm are approached.

  3. Spatial and frequency domain ring source models for the single muscle fiber action potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Kaj-åge; R., Plonsey

    1994-01-01

    In the paper, single-fibre models for the extracellular action potential are developed that will allow the potential to the evaluated at an arbitrary field point in the extracellular space. Fourier-domain models are restricted in that they evaluate potentials at equidistant points along a line...

  4. Identifying interactions in the time and frequency domains in local and global networks - A Granger Causality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Shuixia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse-engineering approaches such as Bayesian network inference, ordinary differential equations (ODEs and information theory are widely applied to deriving causal relationships among different elements such as genes, proteins, metabolites, neurons, brain areas and so on, based upon multi-dimensional spatial and temporal data. There are several well-established reverse-engineering approaches to explore causal relationships in a dynamic network, such as ordinary differential equations (ODE, Bayesian networks, information theory and Granger Causality. Results Here we focused on Granger causality both in the time and frequency domain and in local and global networks, and applied our approach to experimental data (genes and proteins. For a small gene network, Granger causality outperformed all the other three approaches mentioned above. A global protein network of 812 proteins was reconstructed, using a novel approach. The obtained results fitted well with known experimental findings and predicted many experimentally testable results. In addition to interactions in the time domain, interactions in the frequency domain were also recovered. Conclusions The results on the proteomic data and gene data confirm that Granger causality is a simple and accurate approach to recover the network structure. Our approach is general and can be easily applied to other types of temporal data.

  5. Time-domain simulation of constitutive relations for nonlinear acoustics including relaxation for frequency power law attenuation media modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-10-01

    We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.

  6. Frequency domain analysis of a dimensionless cubic nonlinear damping system subject to harmonic input

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, X. J.; Z.Q. Lang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of cubic nonlinear damping on the system output spectrum are theoretically studied through a dimensionless mass-spring-damping system model subject to a harmonic input, based on the Volterra series approximation. It is for the first time shown theoretically that the cubic nonlinear damping has little effect on the system output spectrum at high or low frequencies but drives the system output spectrum to be an alternative series at the natural frequency 1 such that the system ou...

  7. Dental depth profilometry using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and laser luminescence for the diagnosis of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2001-04-01

    Frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometry is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.

  8. Adaptation of frequency-domain readout for Transition Edge Sensor bolometers for the POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Kaori, E-mail: khattori@berkeley.edu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Arnold, Kam; Barron, Darcy [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Dobbs, Matt; Haan, Tijmen de [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Harrington, Nicholas [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Holzapfel, William L. [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Keating, Brian [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Lee, Adrian T. [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Morii, Hideki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Myers, Michael J. [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smecher, Graeme [Three-Speed Logic, Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Suzuki, Aritoki [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tomaru, Takayuki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    The POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiment aims to observe B-mode polarization with high sensitivity to explore gravitational lensing of CMB and inflationary gravitational waves. POLARBEAR-2 is an upgraded experiment based on POLARBEAR-1, which had first light in January 2012. For POLARBEAR-2, we will build a receiver that has 7588 Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers coupled to two-band (95 and 150 GHz) polarization-sensitive antennas. For the large array's readout, we employ digital frequency-domain multiplexing and multiplex 32 bolometers through a single superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). An 8-bolometer frequency-domain multiplexing readout has been deployed with the POLARBEAR-1 experiment. Extending that architecture to 32 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics to 3 MHz. To achieve this increase in bandwidth, we use Digital Active Nulling (DAN) on the digital frequency multiplexing platform. In this paper, we present requirements and improvements on parasitic inductance and resistance of cryogenic wiring and capacitors used for modulating bolometers. These components are problematic above 1 MHz. We also show that our system is able to bias a bolometer in its superconducting transition at 3 MHz.

  9. COUPLING EFFECTS FOR CELL-TRUSS SPAR PLATFORM: COMPARISON OF FREQUENCY- AND TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSES WITH MODEL TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fan; YANG Jian-min; LI Run-pei; CHEN Gang

    2008-01-01

    For the floating structures in deepwater, the coupling effects of the mooring lines and risers on the motion responses of the structures become increasingly significant. Viscous damping, inertial mass, current loading and restoring, etc. from these slender structures should be carefully handled to accurately predict the motion responses and line tensions. For the spar platforms, coupling the mooring system and riser with the vessel motion typically results in a reduction in extreme motion responses. This article presents numerical simulations and model tests on a new cell-truss spar platform in the State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering in Shanghai Jiaotong University. Results from three calculation methods, including frequency-domain analysis, time-domain semi-coupled and fully-coupled analyses, were compared with the experimental data to find the applicability of different approaches. Proposals for the improvement of numerical calculations and experimental technique were tabled as well.

  10. Evaluation of Electromyographic Frequency Domain Changes during a Three-Minute Maximal Effort Cycling Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Wang, David H. Fukuda, Jeffrey R. Stout, Edward H. Robinson, Amelia A. Miramonti, Maren S. Fragala, Jay R. Hoffman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the time course of EMG frequency changes during a three-minute maximal effort cycling test (3MT session and to examine which parameter between mean (MNF and median (MDF frequency is more suitable for evaluation of changes in neuromuscular function throughout a 3MT. Eighteen recreationally-active men volunteered to participate in this study. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC was measured using a dynamometer to determine maximal EMG frequency of the vastus lateralis (VL of the kicking leg during isometric knee extension. A maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2peak on a cycle ergometer was performed to establish the appropriate load profile for the 3MT which was completed after a period of at least 48 hours. MNF, MDF and power output (PO values were measured at 10-second epochs throughout the duration of the 3MT. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the changes in EMG frequency, relative to maximal values from the MVC, and change in PO during the testing procedure. MNF, Root Mean Square (RMS, and PO significantly decreased during the 3MT, while MDF did not change significantly. Statistically, EMG frequency and PO decreased at first and remained constant in response to the 3MT, which may be reflective of differing patterns of muscle fiber type fatigue throughout the testing session. Due to decreased variability, changes in neuromuscular function during this protocol may be better evaluated using MNF than MDF.

  11. Parameterised controller synthesis for SISO-LTI uncertain plants using frequency domain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastvand, Hossein; Khosrowjerdi, Mohammad-Javad

    2016-01-01

    This paper extends the results of a new model-free approach which has been applied to guarantee nominal stability and performance. In this paper, using a particular controller structure, the robust stability (RS) and robust performance (RP) criteria for single input single output linear time invariant (SISO-LTI) plants with multiplicative uncertainty are transformed to affine functions in terms of controller parameters. It is shown that solving the feasibility problem of these new criteria will lead to controllers that guarantee the RS and performance. There is no need for a plant mathematical model. The required data for controller synthesis are just the frequency responses corresponding to limited samples of the uncertain plant. Also, there is no need for exact data at each frequency for the whole set of frequency responses. The approach is also applicable for designing both low- and high-order controllers. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is illustrated by simulation results.

  12. An Improved Channel Estimation Method based on Jointly Preprocessing of Time-frequency Domain in TD-LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianning Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As we know, LTE is the transition between the 3G and 4G and is also the global standard of 3.9G, which has improved and enhanced the air interface technology of 3G. LTE is characterized into two cases: LTE-FDD and LTE-TDD. Since LTE-TDD is researched dominantly in China, all the studies in this paper are discussed under the TD-LTE system. However, in the TDD system, the reciprocity is usually assumed since the uplink and the downlink work at the same frequency, that is to say, the estimated channel in uplink can be used to guide some downlink transmission, such as power allocation and so on. In order to estimate the uplink channel precisely, an appropriate estimation scheme with good performance is needed. In this paper, we have studied various channel estimation algorithms based on the characteristic pilot structure in uplink. And then an improved channel estimation method based on the jointly preprocessing in time-frequency domain is proposed. This method is mainly used in the following cases: the uplink channel is not estimated accurately via the successive pilot due to the interference and noise; the data processing will introduce delay and the user moves quickly, which will cause the estimated channel is not the real downlink channel. We further process the estimated channel both in time domain and in frequency domain. The final channel is used to design the beam forming vector, thus the performance of the system will be improved. Simulation results show that, the proposed method has improved the system performance in terms of bit error rate.

  13. Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain spectroscopy to investigate the optical properties of the newborn piglet brain in vivo and non-invasively. Three anaesthetized, intubated, ventilated and instrumented newborn piglets were placed into a stereotaxic instrument for optimal experimental stability, reproducible probe-to-scalp optical contact and 3D adjustment of the optical probe. By measuring the absolute values of the brain absorption and reduced scattering coefficients at two wavelengths (758 and 830 nm), frequency-domain spectroscopy provided absolute readings (in contrast to the relative readings of CW spectroscopy) of cerebral haemoglobin concentration and saturation during experimentally induced perturbations in cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation. Such perturbations included a modulation of the inspired oxygen concentration, transient brain asphyxia, carotid artery occlusion and terminal brain asphyxia. The baseline cerebral haemoglobin saturation and concentration, measured with frequency-domain spectroscopy, were about 60% and 42 μM respectively. The cerebral saturation values ranged from a minimum of 17% (during transient brain asphyxia) to a maximum of 80% (during recovery from transient brain asphyxia). To analyse the CW optical data, we have (a) derived a mathematical relationship between the cerebral optical properties and the differential pathlength factor and (b) introduced a method based on the spatial dependence of the detected intensity (dc slope method). The analysis of the cerebral optical signals associated with the arterial pulse and with respiration demonstrates that motion artefacts can significantly affect the intensity recorded from a single optode pair. Motion artefacts can be strongly reduced by combining data from multiple optodes to provide relative readings in the dc slope method. We also report significant biphasic changes (initial decrease and successive increase) in the reduced scattering coefficient measured

  14. Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Hueber, Dennis; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Gratton, Enrico; Rosenfeld, Warren; Stubblefield, Phillip G.; Maulik, Dev; Stankovic, Miljan R.

    1999-06-01

    We have used continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain spectroscopy to investigate the optical properties of the newborn piglet brain in vivo and non-invasively. Three anaesthetized, intubated, ventilated and instrumented newborn piglets were placed into a stereotaxic instrument for optimal experimental stability, reproducible probe-to-scalp optical contact and 3D adjustment of the optical probe. By measuring the absolute values of the brain absorption and reduced scattering coefficients at two wavelengths (758 and 830 nm), frequency-domain spectroscopy provided absolute readings (in contrast to the relative readings of CW spectroscopy) of cerebral haemoglobin concentration and saturation during experimentally induced perturbations in cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation. Such perturbations included a modulation of the inspired oxygen concentration, transient brain asphyxia, carotid artery occlusion and terminal brain asphyxia. The baseline cerebral haemoglobin saturation and concentration, measured with frequency-domain spectroscopy, were about 60% and 42 µM respectively. The cerebral saturation values ranged from a minimum of 17% (during transient brain asphyxia) to a maximum of 80% (during recovery from transient brain asphyxia). To analyse the CW optical data, we have (a) derived a mathematical relationship between the cerebral optical properties and the differential pathlength factor and (b) introduced a method based on the spatial dependence of the detected intensity (dc slope method). The analysis of the cerebral optical signals associated with the arterial pulse and with respiration demonstrates that motion artefacts can significantly affect the intensity recorded from a single optode pair. Motion artefacts can be strongly reduced by combining data from multiple optodes to provide relative readings in the dc slope method. We also report significant biphasic changes (initial decrease and successive increase) in the reduced scattering coefficient measured

  15. The numerical simulation on electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristics of coal face in time-frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shi-jian; Cheng Jiu-long; LIU Jia-qi

    2007-01-01

    This paper took the abnormal geological objects with high or low resistivity in the coal face as the background to establish the physical model. 2D forward numerical simulation for electromagnetic wave equation was implemented by the finite-difference scheme. According to the simulative results, the attenuation-absorption coefficient were calculated respectively based on field intensity and frequency shift parameter. Research result indicates, when coal-bed contains high electric resistivity geological abnormal object or low electric resistivity geological abnormal object, absorption attenuation function researched by frequency shift parameter of electromagnetic wave signal is more sensitive than by electromagnetic field intensity parameter.

  16. Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling Under Fractional Load for the UTRAN LTE Downlink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Monghal, Guillaume Damien; Pedersen, Klaus I.;

    2007-01-01

    FL based on transmission using a subset of the time-frequency resources, in an un-coordinated manner throughout the cellular network. On the basis of detailed system-level simulations we find that FDPS under FL can provide a performance trade-off between improvement in coverage and the loss in cell...... throughput. For example, at FL of 25% the coverage is improved by a factor of two, while the average cell throughput is halved, compared to the full load case. Further, it is shown that FDPS performance is sensitive to the rate at which state transition of the time-frequency resources takes place as link...

  17. Simulation of power fluctuation of wind farms based on frequency domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Sun, Yuanzhang; Li, Guojie;

    2011-01-01

    . To overcome these disadvantages, the physical meaning of PSD based on fundamental concepts is presented, so that the specialties of this model compared with conventional ones can be understood. Then the time-frequency transformation algorithm is derived, which is fast to be implemented in digital computers......-frequency transformation related to the power spectrum density (PSD), which is more special and complicated than normal transformations. Meanwhile, the computational complexity also increases significantly, more computation resources are needed. These problems negatively affect the engineering application of the model...

  18. Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shixing; Li, Long; Shi, Guangming; Zhu, Cheng; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Yan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a reflective metasurface is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate an orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex wave in radio frequency domain. Theoretical formula of phase-shift distribution is deduced and used to design the metasurface producing vortex radio waves. The prototype of a practical configuration is designed, fabricated, and measured to validate the theoretical analysis at 5.8 GHz. The simulated and experimental results verify that the vortex waves with different OAM mode numbers can be flexibly generated by using sub-wavelength reflective metasurfaces. The proposed method and metasurface pave a way to generate the OAM vortex waves for radio and microwave wireless communication applications.

  19. Co-registration of ultrasound and frequency-domain photoacoustic radar images and image improvement for tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Choi, Sung soo Sean; Mandelis, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the co-registration of ultrasound (US) and frequency domain photoacoustic radar (FD-PAR) images with significant image improvement from applying image normalization, filtering and amplification techniques. Achieving PA imaging functionality on a commercial Ultrasound instrument could accelerate clinical acceptance and use. Experimental results presented demonstrate live animal testing and show enhancements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast and spatial resolution. The co-registered image produced from the US and phase PA images, provides more information than both images independently.

  20. An efficient realization of frequency dependent boundary conditions in an acoustic finite-difference time-domain model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escolano-Carrasco, José; Jacobsen, Finn; López, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    to this problem exist, most of them have high computational costs, and stability cannot always be ensured. In this work, a solution is proposed based on "mixing modelling strategies"; this involves separating the FDTD mesh and the boundary conditions (a digital filter representation of the impedance......The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method provides a simple and accurate way of solving initial boundary value problems. However, most acoustic problems involve frequency dependent boundary conditions, and it is not easy to include such boundary conditions in an FDTD model. Although solutions...

  1. TURBO AIDED CYCLIC PREFIX RECONSTRUCTION FOR CODED SINGLE-CARRIER SYSTEMS WITH FREQUENCY-DOMAIN EQUALIZATION (SC-FDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a Turbo aided Cyclic Prefix (CP) reconstruction scheme, termed Turbo-CPR, is proposed for Single-Carrier systems with Frequency-Domain Equalization (SC-FDE) that employ insufficient CP in the transmitter. In Turbo-CPR, the decoder output is incorporated in the process of equalization, i.e. Turbo equalizer is employed. It is shown in the simulation results that Turbo-CPR not only recovers the performance loss due to insufficiency of CP, but also provides extra gains over the lower bound of performance for conventional CP reconstruction schemes.

  2. >400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Shishkov, Milen; Tearney, Guillermo J; Bouma, Brett E

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-speed wavelength-swept laser with a tuning range of 104 nm (1228–1332 nm) and a repetition rate of 403 kHz. The design of the laser utilizes a high-finesse polygon-based wavelength-scanning filter and a short-length unidirectional ring resonator. Optical frequency domain imaging of the human skin in vivo is presented using this laser, and the system shows sensitivity of higher than 98 dB with single-side ranging depth of 1.7 mm over 4 dB sensitivity roll-off.

  3. >400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Shishkov, Milen; Tearney, Guillermo J; Bouma, Brett E

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate a high-speed wavelength-swept laser with a tuning range of 104 nm (1228-1332 nm) and a repetition rate of 403 kHz. The design of the laser utilizes a high-finesse polygon-based wavelength-scanning filter and a short-length unidirectional ring resonator. Optical frequency domain imaging of the human skin in vivo is presented using this laser, and the system shows sensitivity of higher than 98 dB with single-side ranging depth of 1.7 mm over 4 dB sensitivity roll-off.

  4. Full molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and carbon tetrachloride for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Ju-Yeon; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-domain two-dimensional Raman signals, which are equivalent to coherent two-dimensional Raman scattering (COTRAS) signals, for liquid water and carbon tetrachloride were calculated using an equilibrium-nonequilibrium hybrid MD simulation algorithm. We elucidate mechanisms governing the 2D signal pro?les involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling and the nonlinearities of the polarizability for the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational modes. The predicted signal pro?les and intensities can be utilized to analyze recently developed single-beam 2D spectra, whose signals are generated from a coherently controlled pulse, allowing the single-beam measurement to be carried out more efficiently.

  5. A Frequency-Domain Adaptive Filter (FDAF) Prediction Error Method (PEM) Framework for Double-Talk-Robust Acoustic Echo Cancellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil-Cacho, Jose M.; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new framework to tackle the double-talk (DT) problem in acoustic echo cancellation (AEC). It is based on a frequency-domain adaptive filter (FDAF) implementation of the so-called prediction error method adaptive filtering using row operations (PEM-AFROW) leading...... to the FDAF-PEM-AFROW algorithm. We show that FDAF-PEM-AFROW is by construction related to the best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) of the echo path. We depart from this framework to show an improvement in performance with respect to other adaptive filters minimizing the BLUE criterion, namely the PEM...

  6. Research on the key parameters influencing the anti-vibration capability of time-frequency-domain interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fanghua; Hao, Qun; Hu, Yao; Zhu, Qiudong

    2012-11-01

    This paper introduces a time-and-frequency-domain (TFD) anti-noise phase-shifting interferometry, and designs an experimental system to test the anti-vibration ability of this method. In the system, a plane mirror is measured under the external vibrations simulated by the standard mirror propelled by PZT. During the measurement, each of the key parameters is assigned different values. By analyzing the testing results, the law of the parameters' influence on system anti-vibration capability can be obtained. According to the law, the optimization parameters can be determined so that the system has the maximum anti- vibration capability.

  7. Building the analytical response in frequency domain of AC biased bolometers Application to Planck/HFI

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvé, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Context: Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for {\

  8. Identification and Level 1 Damage Detection of the Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Cantieni, R.

    2001-01-01

    A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case with a relatively large number of sensors. Changes in frequencies, damping ratios and MAC values were determined. An...

  9. Performance limit of a multi-frequency probe based coherent optical time domain reflectometry caused by nonlinear effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidong Lü; Yuejiang Song; Fan Zhu; Xuping Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear effects that limit the performance of the multi-frequency probe (MFP) based coherent optical time domain reflectometry (C-OTDR) are investigated.Based on theoretical analysis and experimental results,compared with conventional C-OTDR,when the probe pulse has power gradient within the pulse width,self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) are strengthened in the new COTDR scheme.The generation of four-wave mixing (FWM) is dependent on SPM and XPM,and with modulation frequency of phase modulator higher than 40 MHz,the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold can be enhanced by more than 5 dB,which benefits the maximum dynamic range of the MFP C-OTDR.

  10. A New Swap-Based Frequency-Domain Packet Scheduling Algorithm in OFDMA System with Data Queue Size Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at the frequency-domain packet scheduling (FDPS problem in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA system. Under users’ data queue size constraints, a new swap-based FDPS algorithm is proposed to achieve further improvement in system throughput. In this algorithm, the swap of physical resource blocks (PRBs between different users is introduced to give a comprehensive view of the overall scheduling process. Moreover, the proposed algorithm optimizes the choosing method of swap candidates and always tries to select the user who can maximize the throughput improvement. Simulation results demonstrate that this new algorithm can improve the system throughput significantly as well as reduce the resource waste effectively.

  11. Frequency and intensity of palaeofloods at the interface of Atlantic and Mediterranean climate domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B.; Vogel, H.; Crouzet, C.; Etienne, D.; Anselmetti, F. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mediterranean climatic influences was explored by studying a lake sequence (Lake Foréant) of the Western European Alps. High-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analysis revealed 171 event layers, 168 of which result from past flood events over the last millennium. The layer thickness was used as a proxy of intensity of past floods. Because the Foréant palaeoflood record is in agreement with the documented variability of historical floods resulting from local and mesoscale, summer-to-autumn convective events, it is assumed to highlight changes in flood frequency and intensity related to such events typical of both Atlantic (local events) and Mediterranean (mesoscale events) climatic influences. Comparing the Foréant record with other Atlantic-influenced and Mediterranean-influenced regional flood records highlights a common feature in all flood patterns that is a higher flood frequency during the cold period of the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1300-1900). In contrast, high-intensity flood events are apparent during both the cold LIA and the warm Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, AD 950-1250). However, there is a tendency towards higher frequencies of high-intensity flood events during the warm MCA. The MCA extremes could mean that under the global warming scenario, we might see an increase in intensity (not in frequency). However, the flood frequency and intensity in the course of the 20th century warming trend did not change significantly. Uncertainties in future evolution of flood intensity lie in the interpretation of the lack of 20th century extremes (transition or stable?) and the different climate forcing factors between the two periods (greenhouse gases vs. solar and/or volcanic eruptions).

  12. Method for measuring settling phenomena by means of frequency domain instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, M.; D'Arco, M.; Liccardo, A.; Vadursi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of settling phenomena that characterize the step response of digital to analog converters, amplifiers, and several other devices. Settling is described by means of a minimal second order model that is suitable to account for the distortion terms recognized in the signal spectrum. An alternative method for dynamic performance assessment of systems characterized by poor settling performance is then proposed. Thanks to the use of high bandwidth spectrum analyzers, the proposed method overtakes the limits characterizing the measurement approaches based on the use of time-domain instruments in the presence of modern ultra-wideband systems.

  13. The Effect of Acoustic Impedance on Subsurface Absorber Geometry Reconstruction using 1D Frequency-Domain Photoacoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Baddour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of an impedance mismatch between the absorber and its surroundings on the aborber reconstructions from the photoacoustic signal profile, in particular when a non-delta input pulse is used. A transfer function approach is taken, demonstrating in the case of impedance mismatch how the total response can be modeled using the sum of the mismatch-free response and its time-delayed, time-reversed replicas, which may or may not overlap. It is shown how this approach can be exploited to accommodate the effects of non-delta pulses and/or pulse-equivalent waveforms such as linear-frequency-modulated (LFM chirps, and impedance mismatches in any inversion algorithms, even in the presence of large reflection coefficients. As a consequence, for simple-absorber reconstruction algorithms that assume impulses or ‘short enough’ pulses, the compressive portion of the measured response may be used in reconstruction formulas that do not model the impedance mismatch, regardless of the size of the mismatch. For longer-duration input waveforms, it is demonstrated how existing reconstruction methods can be successfully adapted to include the effect of the impedance mismatch. Simulations are used to illustrate these ideas. The gained physical insight into how components of the generated pressure wave carry absorber information is then exploited for signal inversion and absorber reconstruction in the frequency domain when multi-frequency modulation chirps are used for photoacoustic radar pressure measurements. The foundational theoretical developments ultimately address impendance mismatch issues germane to the major photoacoustic frequency-domain imaging modality to-date, which is the photoacoustic radar.

  14. Methods for rapid frequency-domain characterization of leakage currents in silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Verho, Jarmo; Li, Tie; Kallio, Pasi; Vilkko, Matti; Gao, Anran; Wang, Yuelin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors (SiNW FETs) have demonstrated the ability of ultrasensitive detection of a wide range of biological and chemical targets. The detection is based on the variation of the conductance of a nanowire channel, which is caused by the target substance. This is seen in the voltage–current behavior between the drain and source. Some current, known as leakage current, flows between the gate and drain, and affects the current between the drain and source. Studies have shown that leakage current is frequency dependent. Measurements of such frequency characteristics can provide valuable tools in validating the functionality of the used transistor. The measurements can also be an advantage in developing new detection technologies utilizing SiNW FETs. The frequency-domain responses can be measured by using a commercial sine-sweep-based network analyzer. However, because the analyzer takes a long time, it effectively prevents the development of most practical applications. Another problem with the method is that in order to produce sinusoids the signal generator has to cope with a large number of signal levels. This may become challenging in developing low-cost applications. This paper presents fast, cost-effective frequency-domain methods with which to obtain the responses within seconds. The inverse-repeat binary sequence (IRS) is applied and the admittance spectroscopy between the drain and source is computed through Fourier methods. The methods is verified by experimental measurements from an n-type SiNW FET. PMID:25161832

  15. Methods for rapid frequency-domain characterization of leakage currents in silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Roinila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors (SiNW FETs have demonstrated the ability of ultrasensitive detection of a wide range of biological and chemical targets. The detection is based on the variation of the conductance of a nanowire channel, which is caused by the target substance. This is seen in the voltage–current behavior between the drain and source. Some current, known as leakage current, flows between the gate and drain, and affects the current between the drain and source. Studies have shown that leakage current is frequency dependent. Measurements of such frequency characteristics can provide valuable tools in validating the functionality of the used transistor. The measurements can also be an advantage in developing new detection technologies utilizing SiNW FETs. The frequency-domain responses can be measured by using a commercial sine-sweep-based network analyzer. However, because the analyzer takes a long time, it effectively prevents the development of most practical applications. Another problem with the method is that in order to produce sinusoids the signal generator has to cope with a large number of signal levels. This may become challenging in developing low-cost applications. This paper presents fast, cost-effective frequency-domain methods with which to obtain the responses within seconds. The inverse-repeat binary sequence (IRS is applied and the admittance spectroscopy between the drain and source is computed through Fourier methods. The methods is verified by experimental measurements from an n-type SiNW FET.

  16. Zero-crossing approach to high-resolution reconstruction in frequency-domain optical-coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sunder Ram; Seelamantula, Chandra Sekhar; Bouwens, Arno; Leutenegger, Marcel; Lasser, Theo

    2012-10-01

    We address the problem of high-resolution reconstruction in frequency-domain optical-coherence tomography (FDOCT). The traditional method employed uses the inverse discrete Fourier transform, which is limited in resolution due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. We propose a reconstruction technique based on zero-crossing (ZC) interval analysis. The motivation for our approach lies in the observation that, for a multilayered specimen, the backscattered signal may be expressed as a sum of sinusoids, and each sinusoid manifests as a peak in the FDOCT reconstruction. The successive ZC intervals of a sinusoid exhibit high consistency, with the intervals being inversely related to the frequency of the sinusoid. The statistics of the ZC intervals are used for detecting the frequencies present in the input signal. The noise robustness of the proposed technique is improved by using a cosine-modulated filter bank for separating the input into different frequency bands, and the ZC analysis is carried out on each band separately. The design of the filter bank requires the design of a prototype, which we accomplish using a Kaiser window approach. We show that the proposed method gives good results on synthesized and experimental data. The resolution is enhanced, and noise robustness is higher compared with the standard Fourier reconstruction. PMID:23201655

  17. Nonstationary Interference Excision in Time-Frequency Domain Using Adaptive Hierarchical Lapped Orthogonal Transform for Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Sheng

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive hierarchical lapped orthogonal transform (HLOT exciser is proposed for tracking, localizing, and rejecting the nonstationary interference in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The method is based on HLOT. It utilizes a fast dynamic programming algorithm to search for the best basis, which matches the interference structure best, in a library of lapped orthogonal bases. The adaptive HLOT differs from conventional block transform and the more advanced modulated lapped transform (MLT in that the former produces arbitrary time-frequency tiling, which can be adapted to the signal structure, while the latter yields fixed tilings. The time-frequency tiling of the adaptive HLOT can be time varying, so it is also able to track the variations of the signal time-frequency structure. Simulation results show that the proposed exciser brings significant performance improvement in the presence of nonstationary time-localized interference with or without instantaneous frequency (IF information compared with the existing block transform domain excisers. Also, the proposed exciser is effective in suppressing narrowband interference and combined narrowband and time-localized impulsive interference.

  18. 低频脉冲信号的频域恒虚警检测%Constant false alarm rate detection in frequency domain for low-frequency pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁增; 马启明; 杜栓平

    2016-01-01

    To improve the ability of detecting a weak sonar impulse signal form low-frequency background noise, a new detection method with constant false alarm rate (CFAR) in frequency domain is proposed. In this method, the peaks in the frequency domain are taken as the potential pulse signal due to the poor stability and large fluctuation of low-frequency background noise. Then, the detection decision is made through comparing the energy of those peaks and the energy of the background noise. The way of how to get statistic of test, background noise estimation and CFAR threshold is also given. Results of computer simulation and real data processing have confirmed the satisfactory performance of the proposed method in detecting weak sonar pulse signal like CW and CW-LFM, which contain narrow-band components.%为提高低频背景噪声中弱声呐脉冲信号的检测能力,给出了一种频域恒虚警检测方法.该方法针对低频背景噪声平稳性较差、起伏较大的特点,将频域中峰值点或极值点认为是疑似脉冲信号,通过对疑似点能量与历史背景进行比对的方式完成脉冲信号的检测判决,并且给出了相应的检验统计量获取方法、背景噪声估计方法和恒虚警检测门限的计算方法.仿真分析和实际数据处理结果表明,频域恒虚警检测方法对单频脉冲、单频-线性调频组合脉冲等包含窄带成分的弱声呐脉冲信号有非常好的检测性能.

  19. A complete factorization of paraunitary matrices with pairwise mirror-image symmetry in the frequency domain

    OpenAIRE

    Soman, Anand K.; Vaidyanathan, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of designing orthonormal (paraunitary) filter banks has been addressed in the past. Several structures have been reported for implementing such systems. One of the structures reported imposes a pairwise mirror-image symmetry constraint on the frequency responses of the analysis (and synthesis) filters around π/2. This structure requires fewer multipliers, and the design time is correspondingly less than most other structures. The filters designed also have much better attenuation....

  20. Frequency-domain birefringence measurement of biological binding to magnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Benjamin Y.; Chan, Mei-Lin; Ma, Zhiya; Horsley, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Optical detection of the frequency-dependent magnetic relaxation signal is used to monitor the binding of biological molecules to magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid. Biological binding reactions cause changes in the magnetic relaxation signal due to an increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles. To allow the relaxation signal to be detected in dilute ferrofluids, measurements are made using a balanced photodetector, resulting in a 25 μV/√Hz noise floor, within 50% ...

  1. Data-Aided Frequency-Domain 2×2 MIMO Equalizer for 112 Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Coherent Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittalà, Fabio; Hauske, Fabian N.; Ye, Yabin;

    2012-01-01

    Benefits of a low-complexity adaptive 32-tap 2×2 MIMO frequency-domain filter update by data-aided channel estimation over a time-domain filter with DD-LMS are shown. Superior stability and convergence speed is demonstrated with identical impairment tolerance....

  2. The analysis of frequency domain characteristics of emotional images in eye-tracking experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Boqiang; Ma, Huimin; Wang, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Although recently eye-tracking method has been introduced into behavioral experiments based on dot-probe paradigm, some characteristics in eye-tracking data do not draw as much attention as traditional characteristics like reaction time. It is also necessary to associate eye-tracking data to characteristics of images shown in experiments. In this research, new variables, such as fixation length, times of fixation and times of eye movement, in eye-tracking data were extracted from a behavioral experiment based on dot probe paradigm. They were analyzed and compared to traditional reaction time. After the analysis of positive and negative scenery images, parameters such as hue frequency spectrum PAR (Peak to Average Ratio) were extracted and showed difference between negative and positive images. These parameters of emotional images could discriminate scenery images according to their emotions in an SVM classifier well. Besides, it was found that images' hue frequency spectrum PAR is obviously relevant to eye-tracking statistics. When the dot was on the negative side, negative images' hue frequency spectrum PAR and horizontal eye-jumps confirmed to hyperbolic distribution, while that of positive images was linear with horizontal eye-jumps. The result could help to explain the mechanism of human's attention and boost the study in computer vision.

  3. Optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Han, B.; Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate an optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling. An anti-lumped mass strategy is incorporated to minimize the numerical dispersion. The optimal finite-difference coefficients and the mass weighting coefficients are obtained by minimizing the misfit between the normalized phase velocities and the unity. An iterative damped least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is utilized for the optimization. Dispersion analysis shows that the optimal fourth-order scheme presents less grid dispersion and anisotropy than the conventional fourth-order scheme with respect to different Poisson's ratios. Moreover, only 3.7 grid-points per minimum shear wavelength are required to keep the error of the group velocities below 1%. The memory cost is then greatly reduced due to a coarser sampling. A parallel iterative method named CARP-CG is used to solve the large ill-conditioned linear system for the frequency-domain modeling. Validations are conducted with respect to both the analytic viscoacoustic and viscoelastic solutions. Compared with the conventional fourth-order scheme, the optimal scheme generates wavefields having smaller error under the same discretization setups. Profiles of the wavefields are presented to confirm better agreement between the optimal results and the analytic solutions.

  4. Determination of the Calibration Factor of Superconducting Gravimeter 057 at the Lhasa Station: A frequency-Domain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the calibration factor of the superconducting gravimeter 057 (SG057 at the Lhasa station is accurately determined for the first time with a frequency-domain approach and the data recorded by the LaCoste Romberg Earth Tides No. 20 (LCR-ET20 gravimeter which is installed nearby SG057. The advantage of the frequency-domain approach is that it eliminates the influence of different gravimeter drifts on the determination of the calibration factor. The determined calibration factor of SG057 is (-77.7358 ± 0.0409 × 10-8 m s-2 V-1, and the relative accuracy is about 0.5‰. The newly determined calibration factor has been calculated with the Wuhan international tidal gravity reference values (ITGRVs based on the data recorded by LCR-ET20 at the Wuhan station before it was installed at the Lhasa station. A high-precision synthesized gravity tide is achieved at the Lhasa station with accurate tidal parameters and theoretical tidal parameters for the long tidal waves from the Dehant-Defraigne-Wahr (DDW earth tide model. The synthesized gravity tide can be used for tidal gravity corrections of future gravity measurements in the Tibetan area. The linear gravimeter drift of SG057 is estimated by gravity records without the effects of land uplift, atmosphere and polar motion yielding a rate of 6.8 × 10-8 m s-2 yr-1.

  5. Dental depth profilometric diagnosis of pit & fissure caries using frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and modulated laser luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, R. J.; Mandelis, A.; Sanchez, V.; Abrams, S. H.

    2005-06-01

    Non-intrusive, non-contacting frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR or PTR) and frequency-domain luminescence (FD-LUM or LUM) have been used with 659- nm and 830-nm laser sources to detect artificial and natural sub-surface defects in human teeth. Fifty-two human teeth were examined with simultaneous measurements of PTR and LUM and compared to conventional diagnostic methods including continuous (dc) luminescence (DIAGNOdent), visual inspection and radiographs by calculating sensitivities and specificities. With the combined criteria of four PTR and LUM signals (two amplitudes and two phases), it was found that the sensitivity of this method was much higher than any of the other methods used in this study, whereas the specificity was comparable to that of dc luminescence diagnostics. Therefore, PTR and LUM, used together as a combined technique, have the potential to be a reliable tool to diagnose early pit and fissure caries and could provide detailed information about deep lesions with its depth profilometric character. Also, from experiments with natural or artificial defects, some depth profilometric characteristics were confirmed.

  6. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  7. An oversampling technique for the multiscale finite volume method to simulate electromagnetic responses in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Luz Angelica Caudillo; Schwarzbach, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the computational cost of the simulation of electromagnetic responses in geophysical settings that involve highly heterogeneous media, we develop a multiscale finite volume method with oversampling for the quasi-static Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain. We assume a coarse mesh nested within a fine mesh that accurately discretizes the problem. For each coarse cell, we independently solve a local version of the original Maxwell's system subject to linear boundary conditions on an extended domain, which includes the coarse cell and a neighborhood of fine cells around it. The local Maxwell's system is solved using the fine mesh contained in the extended domain and the mimetic finite volume method. Next, these local solutions (basis functions) together with a weak-continuity condition are used to construct a coarse-mesh version of the global problem. The basis functions can be used to obtain the fine-mesh details from the solution of the coarse-mesh problem. Our approach leads to a sig...

  8. Eccentric first post-Newtonian waveforms for compact binaries in frequency domain with Hansen coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Mikóczi, Balázs; Vasúth, Mátyás

    2015-01-01

    The inspiral and merger of supermassive black hole binary systems with high orbital eccentricity are among the promising sources of the advanced gravitational wave observatories. In this paper we derive analytic ready-to-use first post-Newtonian eccentric waveform in Fourier domain with the use of Hansen coefficients. Introducing generic perturbations of celestial mechanics we have generalized the Hansen expansion to the first post-Newtonian order which are then used to express the waveforms. Taking into account the high eccentricity of the orbit leads to the appearance of secular terms in the waveform which are eliminated with the introduction of a phase shift. The waveforms have a systematic structure and as our main result these are expressed in a tabular form.

  9. Performance of Spatial Division Multiplexing MIMO with Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Na; Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2008-01-01

    performance bounds of SDM-FDPS. To facilitate the analysis, a unified SINR concept is utilized to make a fair comparison of MIMO schemes with different number of spatial streams. The effect of packet scheduling is included in the post-scheduling SINR distribution using an analytical model. Based on that, the......, the more practical simulation results are compared against the theoretical performance bounds. A performance loss is seen in the simulations due to realistic coding/modulation, impact of frequency selectivity, signalling constraints, imperfect channel quality indicator (CQI), etc...

  10. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P; Zhang, L.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification of a modal model with a total of 408 degrees of freedom. Six modes were identified in the frequency range from 0 to 16.7 Hz. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Frequ...

  11. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Zhang, Lingmi

    2007-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification...... is to show the application of the FDD method as an efficient way to perform health monitoring of civil engineering structures. The modal properties, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes for the different damage cases were compared with those for the undamaged bridge....

  12. Dental depth profilometric diagnosis of pit and fissure caries using frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and modulated laser luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Raymond J.; Mandelis, Andreas; Sanchez, Victor; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2004-07-01

    Non-intrusive, non-contacting frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR or PTR) and frequency-domain luminescence (FD-LUM or LUM) have been used with 659-nm and 830-nm laser sources to detect artificial and natural sub-surface defects in human teeth. Fifty-two human teeth were examined with simultaneous measurements of PTR and LUM with the 659-nm laser and compared to conventional diagnostic methods including continuous (dc) luminescence (DIAGNOdent), visual inspection and radiographs. To compare each method, sensitivities and specificities were calculated by using histological observations as the gold standard. With the combined criteria of four PTR and LUM signals (two amplitudes and two phases), it was found that the sensitivity of this method was much higher than any of the other methods used in this study, whereas the specificity was comparable to that of dc luminescence diagnostics. Therefore, PTR and LUM, as a combined technique, has the potential to be a reliable tool to diagnose early pit and fissure caries and could provide detailed information about deep lesions with its depth profilometric character. Also, from the experiments with the teeth having natural or aritficial defect, some depth profilometric characteristics were confirmed. The major findings are (i) PTR is sensitive to very deep (>5 mm) defects at low modulation frequencies (5 Hz). Both PTR and LUM amplitudes exhibit a peak at tooth thicknesses ca. 1.4 - 2.7 mm. Furthermore the LUM amplitude exhibits a small trough at ca. 2.5~3.5 mm; (ii) PTR is sensitive to various defects such as a deep carious lesion, a demineralized area, and a crack while LUM exhibits low sensitivity and spatial resolution.

  13. Frequency domain and wavelet analysis of the laser-induced plasma shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Miloš, E-mail: milosb@ff.bg.ac.rs; Nikolić, Zoran

    2015-08-01

    In addition to optical emission, another trace of interest that laser-induced plasma provides is a form of acoustic feedback. The acoustic emission (AE) signals were obtained using both microphone and piezo transducers. This kind of optoacoustic signals have some distinct features resembling the short, burst-like sounds, that may differ significantly depending mainly on the sample exposed and irradiance applied. Experiments were performed on atmospheric pressure by irradiating various metallic samples. The recorded waveforms were examined and numerically processed. Single-shot acoustical spectra have shown significant potential of providing valuable supplementary information regarding plasma propagation dynamics. Moreover, the general approach suggests the possibility of making the whole measurement system cost-effective and portable. - Highlights: • We report acoustical waveform, and acoustical spectroscopy measurements and analysis in a laser-induced plasma of a different metals in air. • Both piezo and microphone transducer were used. • The acoustical spectra of the emission were obtained when the sample (and plasma) were enclosed in experimental chamber. • The acquired acoustical spectra are time-integrated and the frequency peaks were sharp and relatively isolated. • Finally, both time and frequency resolved wavelet spectrogram present a novel method of observing laser-induced plasma behavior.

  14. ANN BASED FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF ROLLING ELEMENT BEARING USING TIME-FREQUENCY DOMAIN FEATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H. PANDYA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for an automation of fault diagnosis of ball bearings having localized defects (spalls on the various bearing components. The system uses the wavelet packet decomposition using ‘rbio5.5’ real mother wavelet function for feature extraction from the vibration signal, recorded for various bearing fault conditions. The decomposition level is determined by the sampling frequency and characteristic defect frequency. Maximum energy to minimum Shannon entropy ratio criteria is used for selection of best node of wavelet packet tree. The two features kurtosis and energy are extracted from the wavelet packet coefficient for selected node of WPT. The total 10 data sets at five different speeds corresponding to each bearing condition are recorded for fault classification. Thus, extracted features are used to train and test neural network with multi layer perceptron to classify the rolling element bearing condition as HB, ORD, IRD, BD and CD. The proposedartificial neural network with multi layer perceptron classifier has overall fault classification rate of 97 %.

  15. Frequency-domain nonlinear optics in two-dimensionally patterned quasi-phase-matching media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C R; Mayer, B W; Gallmann, L; Keller, U

    2016-07-11

    Advances in the amplification and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses have led to revolutions in several areas. Examples include chirped pulse amplification for generating high peak-power lasers, power-scalable amplification techniques, pulse shaping via modulation of spatially-dispersed laser pulses, and efficient frequency-mixing in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear crystals to access new spectral regions. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate a new platform for nonlinear optics which has the potential to combine these separate functionalities (pulse amplification, frequency transfer, and pulse shaping) into a single monolithic device that is bandwidth- and power-scalable. The approach is based on two-dimensional (2D) patterning of quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings combined with optical parametric interactions involving spatially dispersed laser pulses. Our proof of principle experiment demonstrates this technique via mid-infrared optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of few-cycle pulses. Additionally, we present a detailed theoretical and numerical analysis of such 2D-QPM devices and how they can be designed. PMID:27410862

  16. Thermal characterization of light-emitting diodes in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitta, Pranciskus; Zukauskas, Arturas [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio ave. 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2009-06-15

    We report on a method for measurement of thermal relaxation time constants within light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using harmonic modulation of the driving current. The method is based on the phase shift of the forward voltage waveform in respect to that of the modulated current. The phase shift is due to the sensitivity of the forward voltage to junction temperature, which responds to the modulation of the heat generation depending on the thermal relaxation rate. The frequency dependence of the phase shift was shown to exhibit characteristic dips at angular frequencies equal to inverse thermal time constants. Such an approach for thermal characterization was demonstrated for common GaP, AlGaAs, AlInGaP, and InGaN LEDs. In particular, low-power p-n and double-heterostructure LEDs as well as high-power truncated-inverted-pyramid and flip-chip LEDs were investigated. The measured thermal time constants ({proportional_to}0.1-100 ms) were tentatively assigned to heat flows within the multilayer structure of the LEDs and collated with the numerical estimates based on thermal resistance and heat capacitance of the LED components. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Frequency-domain analysis of computer-controlled optical surfacing processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lin; DAI YiFan; XIE XuHui; LI ShengYi

    2009-01-01

    Mid-high spatial frequency errors are often induced on optical surfaces polished by computer-controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) processes. In order to efficiently remove these errors, which would degrade the performances of optical systems, the ability of a CCOS process to correct the errors have been investigated based on the convolution integral model in view of the availability of material removal. To quantify the ability, some conceptions, such as figure correcting ability and material removal availability (MRA), have been proposed. The research result reveals that the MRA of the CCOS process to correct a single spatial frequency error is determined by its tool removal function (TRF), and it equals the normalized amplitude spectrum of the Fourier transform of its TRF. Finally, three sine surfaces were etched using ion beam figuring (IBF), which is a typical CCOS process. The experimental results have verified the theoretical analysis. The employed method and the conclusions of this work provide a useful mathematical basis to analyze and optimize CCOS processes.

  18. Correcting for systematic biases in GCM simulations in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Mehrotra, Rajeshwar; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-07-01

    Bias correction is considered as a critical post-processing step to remove systematic errors and improve the quality of General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations before their use in climate change impact assessment applications. A majority of the bias correction approaches correct for biases either at a single time scale or at multiple pre-specified time scales. An inappropriate or insufficient selection of time scales may lead to improper or sub-optimal bias corrected outputs, especially when persistence attributes across a range of scales are of interest. In this paper, we present a new bias correction approach that works in the frequency space and is independent of specific time scales. The approach is named as frequency-based bias correction (FBC). The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the monthly rainfall simulations of MIROC5 GCM over Australia and comparing the results with two other approaches, namely, empirical quantile mapping and recursive nesting bias correction, in cross validation. The comparison is based on the reproduction of various observed distribution and persistence attributes. Cross-validation results indicate that the proposed approach shows similar performance in terms of reproducing the first- and second-order moments of observed precipitation time series, however, outperforms with regard to persistence attributes. The approach shows high potential for use in downscaling and other climate change impact assessment studies, especially for the planning and design of hydrologic systems that are sensitive to the characterisation of persistence in the hydrologic time series.

  19. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ∼10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films.

  20. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ∼10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films. PMID:27475589

  1. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ˜10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films.

  2. Super-resolution reconstruction in frequency, image, and wavelet domains to reduce through-plane partial voluming in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, Ali, E-mail: ali.gholipour@childrens.harvard.edu; Afacan, Onur; Scherrer, Benoit; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Warfield, Simon K. [Department of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Aganj, Iman [Radiology Department, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02129 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Sahin, Mustafa [Department of Neurology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate the use of super-resolution reconstruction (SRR), in frequency, image, and wavelet domains, to reduce through-plane partial voluming effects in magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: The reconstruction of an isotropic high-resolution image from multiple thick-slice scans has been investigated through techniques in frequency, image, and wavelet domains. Experiments were carried out with thick-slice T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence on the Academic College of Radiology MRI phantom, where the reconstructed images were compared to a reference high-resolution scan using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity image metric (SSIM), mutual information (MI), and the mean absolute error (MAE) of image intensity profiles. The application of super-resolution reconstruction was then examined in retrospective processing of clinical neuroimages of ten pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) to reduce through-plane partial voluming for improved 3D delineation and visualization of thin radial bands of white matter abnormalities. Results: Quantitative evaluation results show improvements in all evaluation metrics through super-resolution reconstruction in the frequency, image, and wavelet domains, with the highest values obtained from SRR in the image domain. The metric values for image-domain SRR versus the original axial, coronal, and sagittal images were PSNR = 32.26 vs 32.22, 32.16, 30.65; SSIM = 0.931 vs 0.922, 0.924, 0.918; MI = 0.871 vs 0.842, 0.844, 0.831; and MAE = 5.38 vs 7.34, 7.06, 6.19. All similarity metrics showed high correlations with expert ranking of image resolution with MI showing the highest correlation at 0.943. Qualitative assessment of the neuroimages of ten TSC patients through in-plane and out-of-plane visualization of structures showed the extent of partial voluming effect in a real clinical scenario and its reduction using SRR. Blinded expert evaluation of image resolution in

  3. Identification of the photoluminescence response in the frequency domain modulated infrared radiometry signal of ZnTe:Cr bulk crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, M.; Strzałkowski, K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we investigated the photoluminescence response in the frequency domain modulated infrared radiometry signal observed of ZnTe:Cr bulk crystal. In mid-infrared range, three characteristic phenomena are observed in ZnTe:Cr crystal: absorption and emission of IR photons (2-3 μm) and the free carrier absorption. This implies that the modulated infrared radiometry signal yields information about the effective infrared absorption coefficient (photothermal response) as well about the recombination lifetime of carriers related with the infrared photoluminescence emission. In this paper, the frequency equivalence of the two-term independent exponential photoluminescence decay model in order to explain the measured frequency characteristics is proposed. The measured recombination lifetimes (2.3 μs for two exponential decay model and 1.5 μs for one exponential decay model) are in good agreement with the values given by other authors (about 2.5-3.0 μs). Moreover, we found that the photothermal response is uncorrelated with the photoluminescence one, in contrast, to the photocarrier response.

  4. A sensitivity function-based conjugate gradient method for optical tomography with the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Keol [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Que., G7H 2B1 (Canada); Charette, Andre [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Que., G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail: andre_charette@uqac.ca

    2007-03-15

    The Sensitivity Function-based Conjugate Gradient Method (SFCGM) is described. This method is used to solve the inverse problems of function estimation, such as the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients, as applied to optical tomography for biomedical imaging. A highly scattering, absorbing, non-reflecting, non-emitting medium is considered here and simultaneous reconstructions of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the test medium are achieved with the proposed optimization technique, by using the exit intensity measured at boundary surfaces. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method on the framework of the frequency-domain full equation of radiative transfer. The modulation frequency is set to 600 MHz and the frequency data, obtained with the source modulation, is used as the input data. The inversion results demonstrate that the SFCGM can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by significantly reducing a cross-talk between inter-parameters. It is also observed that the closer-to-detector objects are better retrieved.

  5. Comparison of spatial frequency domain features for the detection of side attack explosive ballistics in synthetic aperture acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Josh; Anderson, Derek T.; Luke, Robert H.; Ball, John E.; Keller, James M.; Havens, Timothy C.

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards in current and former conflict zones are a threat to both military and civilian personnel. As a result, much effort has been dedicated to identifying automated algorithms and systems to detect these threats. However, robust detection is complicated due to factors like the varied composition and anatomy of such hazards. In order to solve this challenge, a number of platforms (vehicle-based, handheld, etc.) and sensors (infrared, ground penetrating radar, acoustics, etc.) are being explored. In this article, we investigate the detection of side attack explosive ballistics via a vehicle-mounted acoustic sensor. In particular, we explore three acoustic features, one in the time domain and two on synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) beamformed imagery. The idea is to exploit the varying acoustic frequency profile of a target due to its unique geometry and material composition with respect to different viewing angles. The first two features build their angle specific frequency information using a highly constrained subset of the signal data and the last feature builds its frequency profile using all available signal data for a given region of interest (centered on the candidate target location). Performance is assessed in the context of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves on cross-validation experiments for data collected at a U.S. Army test site on different days with multiple target types and clutter. Our preliminary results are encouraging and indicate that the top performing feature is the unrolled two dimensional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of SAA beamformed imagery.

  6. Frequency domain reduced order model of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms with generic mass ratios and spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pürrer, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I provide a frequency domain reduced order model (ROM) for the aligned-spin effective-one-body model "SEOBNRv2" for data analysis with second- and third-generation ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors. SEOBNRv2 models the dominant mode of the GWs emitted by the coalescence of black hole binaries. The large physical parameter space (dimensionless spins -1 ≤χi≤0.99 and symmetric mass ratios 0.01 ≤η ≤0.25 ) requires sophisticated reduced order modeling techniques, including patching in the parameter space and in frequency. I find that the time window over which the inspiral-plunge and the merger-ringdown waveform in SEOBNRv2 are connected has a discontinuous dependence on the parameters when the spin parameter χ =0.8 or the symmetric mass ratio η ˜0.083 . This discontinuity increases resolution requirements for the ROM. The ROM can be used for compact binary systems with total masses of 2 M⊙ or higher for the Advanced LIGO design sensitivity and a 10 Hz lower cutoff frequency. The ROM has a worst mismatch against SEOBNRv2 of ˜1 %, but in general mismatches are better than ˜0.1 %. The ROM is crucial for key data analysis applications for compact binaries, such as GW searches and parameter estimation carried out within the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.

  7. Low-Frequency Loudspeaker-Room Simulation Using Finite Differences in the Time Domain-Part 1: Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    Small- and medium-size rectangular rooms have a strong influence on the low-frequency performance of loudspeakers. A simulation program based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is introduced to analyze the sound field produced by loudspeakers in rectangular rooms at low frequencies...

  8. Spatial damping identification in the frequency domain-A theoretical and experimental comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumat, Matija; Slavič, Janko; Boltežar, Miha

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with spatial damping identification methods. In contrast to the commonly used damping methods (modal, proportional) the spatial damping information improves structural models with a known location of the damping sources. The Lee-Kim, Chen-Ju-Tsuei, Fritzen IV and local equation of motion methods were theoretically and experimentally compared. Experimentally, the spatial damping identification was tested against: modal and spatial incompleteness, differences in viscous and hysteretic damping models, the performance of identification methods and the effect of damping treatments. It was found that for a structure with a known equation of motion (beam, plate) the local equation of motion method is more efficient and gives a more precise location of the damping. Full frequency response function (FRF) matrix methods can also identify the spatial damping, but are more demanding because the numerical and measurement effort increases with n2, where n is the number of measurement points and, consequently, the size of the FRF matrix.

  9. Frequency-domain birefringence measurement of biological binding to magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Benjamin Y; Chan, Mei-Lin; Ma, Zhiya; Horsley, David A

    2008-01-01

    Optical detection of the frequency-dependent magnetic relaxation signal is used to monitor the binding of biological molecules to magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid. Biological binding reactions cause changes in the magnetic relaxation signal due to an increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles. To allow the relaxation signal to be detected in dilute ferrofluids, measurements are made using a balanced photodetector, resulting in a 25 μV/√Hz noise floor, within 50% of the theoretical limit imposed by photon shot noise. Measurements of a ferrofluid composed of magnetite nanoparticles coated with anti-IgG antibodies show that the average hydrodynamic diameter increases from 115.2 to 125.4 nm after reaction with IgG. PMID:20463913

  10. Frequency-domain birefringence measurement of biological binding to magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Benjamin Y.; Chan, M.-L.; Ma Zhiya [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Bainer Hall, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Horsley, David A. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Bainer Hall, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: dahorsley@ucdavis.edu

    2008-09-15

    Optical detection of the frequency-dependent magnetic relaxation signal is used to monitor the binding of biological molecules to magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid. Biological binding reactions cause changes in the magnetic relaxation signal due to an increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles. To allow the relaxation signal to be detected in dilute ferrofluids, measurements are made using a balanced photodetector, resulting in a 25 {mu}V/{radical}Hz noise floor, within 50% of the theoretical limit imposed by photon shot noise. Measurements of a ferrofluid composed of magnetite nanoparticles coated with anti-IgG antibodies show that the average hydrodynamic diameter increases from 115.2 to 125.4 nm after reaction with IgG.

  11. Frequency domain analysis of power system transients using Welch and Yule-Walker AR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Ahmet [Department of Computer Engineering, Yasar University, 35500 Izmir (Turkey); Yilmaz, Ahmet S. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam University, 46050-9 Kahramanmaras (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    In this study, power quality (PQ) signals are analyzed by using Welch (non-parametric) and autoregressive (parametric) spectral estimation methods. The parameters of the autoregressive (AR) model were estimated by using the Yule-Walker method. PQ spectra were then used to compare the applied spectral estimation methods in terms of their frequency resolution and the effects in determination of spectral components. The variations in the shape of the obtained power spectra were examined in order to detect power system transients. Performance of the proposed methods was evaluated by means of power spectral densities (PSDs). Graphical results comparing the performance of the AR method with that of the Welch technique are given. The results demonstrate superior performance of the AR method over the Welch method. (author)

  12. Weighting technique using backpropagated wavefields incited by deconvolved residuals for frequency-domain elastic full waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Min, Dong-Joo

    2013-07-01

    To enhance the feasibility of seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) for various types of geological structures, the model parameters should be updated along directions such that both long- and short-wavelength structures can be properly resolved. These long- and short-wavelength structures are primarily influenced by the low- and high-frequency components of the gradients, respectively. In some cases, however, the gradients are not flexible to reconstruct both the long- and the short-wavelength structures. This problem can be related to the scaling method using the Hessian matrix and the effect of the source spectrum. In this study, we analyse the problems of conventional scaling methods in frequency-domain FWI and propose a weighting method to compensate for these problems. The weighting method is applied to the conventional elastic FWI, where the gradient is scaled by the diagonal of the pseudo-Hessian matrix inside the frequency loop so that the effect of the source spectrum can be removed through cancellation. The weighting factors are designed using the backpropagated wavefields incited by the deconvolved residuals, which play a role in making the descent directions appropriately reflect the spectral differences between the observed data and the initial (or the inverted) modelling responses. We analyse the characteristics of the Jacobians and residuals and compare the descent directions of the two conventional waveform inversion methods with descent directions of the weighting method for thick rectangular-shaped and thin-layers models. The results indicate that the descent directions computed using the conventional inversion methods do not reflect the characteristics of deconvolved residuals and that particular frequency components are always emphasized regardless of geological models, while the spatial resolution of the descent direction calculated using the weighting method is flexibly determined depending on the differences between the true and the assumed

  13. EEG biometric identification: a thorough exploration of the time-frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelPozo-Banos, Marcos; Travieso, Carlos M.; Weidemann, Christoph T.; Alonso, Jesús B.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Although interest in using electroencephalogram (EEG) activity for subject identification has grown in recent years, the state of the art still lacks a comprehensive exploration of the discriminant information within it. This work aims to fill this gap, and in particular, it focuses on the time-frequency representation of the EEG. Approach. We executed qualitative and quantitative analyses of six publicly available data sets following a sequential experimentation approach. This approach was divided in three blocks analysing the configuration of the power spectrum density, the representation of the data and the properties of the discriminant information. A total of ten experiments were applied. Main results. Results show that EEG information below 40 Hz is unique enough to discriminate across subjects (a maximum of 100 subjects were evaluated here), regardless of the recorded cognitive task or the sensor location. Moreover, the discriminative power of rhythms follows a W-like shape between 1 and 40 Hz, with the central peak located at the posterior rhythm (around 10 Hz). This information is maximized with segments of around 2 s, and it proved to be moderately constant across montages and time. Significance. Therefore, we characterize how EEG activity differs across individuals and detail the optimal conditions to detect subject-specific information. This work helps to clarify the results of previous studies and to solve some unanswered questions. Ultimately, it will serve as guide for the design of future biometric systems.

  14. Quantitative detection of hemoglobin saturation on piglet brain by near-infrared frequency-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Congwu; Andersen, Carol; Chance, Britton

    1998-01-01

    An approach of using phase modulation spectroscopy (PMS) system has been proposed which has single frequency, dual- wavelength with phase-only output for oximetry to minimize the influences of room light in the clinical environment. The availability of this method has been verified by laboratory experiments both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, a 200 Mhz PMS system has been used for measuring on piglet brain in vivo, to detect blood volume and saturation change during normoxia to hypoxia periods, and to monitor the brain depolarization in the hypoxic stress. Our experimental results show that the brain saturation estimated by PMS is approximately 84% and lies between arterial and venous blood values of 97% and 80% in normoxia, and tends to move close to the venous side in hypoxia. In addition, the excessive hypoxic stress triggers the brain to be bio-energetic deficits and finally introduced the neural depolarization, which can be effectively detected by recording the increment of tissue scattering.

  15. T Wave Alternans in high arrhythmic risk patients: Analysis in time and frequency domains: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Anthony C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T wave alternans (TA is a repolarisation phenomenon manifesting as a microvolt beat to beat change in the amplitude of the T wave and ST segment. TA has been shown to be a predictor of arrhythmic risk in unselected myocardial infarction populations. TA has not been used to differentiate risk within the ischaemic cardiomyopathy population. Methods The subjects investigated comprised, Group 1: 7 stable patients with remote (>20 months extensive myocardial scarring and no arrhythmic events (NYHA 3 and 4. Group2: 9 post infarction patients with malignant arrhythmia and implantable defibrillator. During breath holding, 20 continuous QRST complexes from each patients X, Y and Z leads were digitally recorded. Time domain, resultant absolute difference vectors (ATA, were calculated for alternate resultant T wave sequences. Group differences between the magnitude and temporal distribution of mean ATAs and their spectral and cross-spectral analysis were compared. Results Group 1 v Group 2 mean ATAs were 10.7 (7.17 v 11.7 (8.48 respectively, not significant. Each group had a homogenous temporal distribution of ATAs. Both group's largest mean ATA frequency components were between 0 to 25 Hz, the largest ATA component being at the DC frequency. Cross spectral analysis showed no significant differences in group ATA frequency content. Conclusion The frequency content and microvolt magnitude of T wave alternans was not significantly different in these two groups. The specificity of T wave alternans for differentiating arrhythmic risk in post infarction scarring and heart failure needs investigation.

  16. The Relationship Between Consumer Confidence Index and Online Credit Card Using in Turkey: New Evidence From Frequency Domain Causality Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMRE YILDIRIM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Monthly data for the period between January 2008 and December 2012 were examined in this study which investigated the relationship between consumer confidence index (CCI and online credit card using (CCU. The variables were found to have an integrated structure after testing of the collected data with Hatemi-J cointegration test (2008 which enables two-structural break. It has been observed that the results are inconsistent when the relationship between these two variables examined with Toda Yamamoto (1995 and Hacker Hatemi-J (2006 causality tests. Therefore, frequency domain causality test has been used and the conclusion reached that a one-way and temporary relationship from consumer confidence index to online credit card using. It’s seen that the existence of this relationship supports the studies in the literature.

  17. Analytical investigation of a novel interrogation approach of fiber Bragg grating sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Kivilcim; Pala, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a novel approach in interrogating Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) of cascaded identical FBGs using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). The fundamentals of both polarisation properties of uniform FBGs and polarisation-sensitive OFDR are explained and the benefits of this novel approach in measuring transversal load are discussed. The numerical programs computing the spectral evolution of PDL of the FBGs in the array as a function of grating parameters (grating length and birefringence) are presented. Our simulation results show an excellent agreement with the previously reported simulation (and experimental) results in the literature obtained on a single FBG by using classical state-of-the-art measurement techniques. As an envisaged application, the proposed system shows the feasibility of measuring the residual stresses during manufacturing process of composite materials which is not straightforward by amplitude spectrum measurements and/or considering only the axial strains.

  18. Ocean acidification in the coastal zone from an organism's perspective: multiple system parameters, frequency domains, and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbusser, George G; Salisbury, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    Multiple natural and anthropogenic processes alter the carbonate chemistry of the coastal zone in ways that either exacerbate or mitigate ocean acidification effects. Freshwater inputs and multiple acid-base reactions change carbonate chemistry conditions, sometimes synergistically. The shallow nature of these systems results in strong benthic-pelagic coupling, and marine invertebrates at different life history stages rely on both benthic and pelagic habitats. Carbonate chemistry in coastal systems can be highly variable, responding to processes with temporal modes ranging from seconds to centuries. Identifying scales of variability relevant to levels of biological organization requires a fuller characterization of both the frequency and magnitude domains of processes contributing to or reducing acidification in pelagic and benthic habitats. We review the processes that contribute to coastal acidification with attention to timescales of variability and habitats relevant to marine bivalves.

  19. Signal processing method based on group delay calculation for distributed Bragg wavelength shift in optical frequency domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka; Murayama, Hideaki; Kasai, Tokio

    2014-03-24

    A signal processing method based on group delay calculations is introduced for distributed measurements of long-length fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). Bragg wavelength shifts in interfered signals of OFDR are regarded as group delay. By calculating group delay, the distribution of Bragg wavelength shifts is obtained with high computational efficiency. We introduce weighted averaging process for noise reduction. This method required only 3.5% of signal processing time which was necessary for conventional equivalent signal processing based on short-time Fourier transform. The method also showed high sensitivity to experimental signals where non-uniform strain distributions existed in a long-length FBG.

  20. A novel method for sensing metastatic cells in the CSF of pediatric population with medulloblastoma by frequency domain FLIM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Gilad; Fixler, Dror; Gershanov, Sivan; Goldenberg-Cohen, Nitza

    2016-03-01

    Brain tumors are the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children, after leukemia. Patients with cancer in the central nervous system have a very low recovery rate. Today known imaging and cytology techniques are not always sensitive enough for an early detection of both tumor and its metastatic spread, moreover the detection is generally limited, reviewer dependent and takes a relatively long time. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. The aim of our talk is to present the frequency domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system as a possible method for an early detection of MB and its metastatic spread in the cerebrospinal fluids within the pediatric population.

  1. Frequency-domain gravitational waves from nonprecessing black-hole binaries. II. A phenomenological model for the advanced detector era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sebastian; Husa, Sascha; Hannam, Mark; Ohme, Frank; Pürrer, Michael; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Bohé, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    We present a new frequency-domain phenomenological model of the gravitational-wave signal from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of nonprecessing (aligned-spin) black-hole binaries. The model is calibrated to 19 hybrid effective-one-body-numerical-relativity waveforms up to mass ratios of 1 ∶18 and black-hole spins of |a /m |˜0.85 (0.98 for equal-mass systems). The inspiral part of the model consists of an extension of frequency-domain post-Newtonian expressions, using higher-order terms fit to the hybrids. The merger ringdown is based on a phenomenological ansatz that has been significantly improved over previous models. The model exhibits mismatches of typically less than 1% against all 19 calibration hybrids and an additional 29 verification hybrids, which provide strong evidence that, over the calibration region, the model is sufficiently accurate for all relevant gravitational-wave astronomy applications with the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. Beyond the calibration region the model produces physically reasonable results, although we recommend caution in assuming that any merger-ringdown waveform model is accurate outside its calibration region. As an example, we note that an alternative nonprecessing model, SEOBNRv2 (calibrated up to spins of only 0.5 for unequal-mass systems), exhibits mismatch errors of up to 10% for high spins outside its calibration region. We conclude that waveform models would benefit most from a larger number of numerical-relativity simulations of high-aligned-spin unequal-mass binaries.

  2. Anomalous enhancement and suppression of ionization induced by an effective few-cycle pulse in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Lin, Yingda; Hill, Wendell T., III

    2015-05-01

    In a recent set of coherent control experiments, an anomalous sinusoidal variation of the ionization yield was observed in Xe when ionized by a pairs of phase-locked, many-cycle 800 nm pulses. Compared with the signal of a single transform limited pulse, both enhancement and suppression was possible, which depended on the temporal separation and relative phase of the pulses. In the time domain, the control can be viewed as a temporal Young's double slit experiment - two coherent electron wavepackets interfering. In the frequency domain, the photoelectron spectrum is given by the modulus squared of the Fourier transform of the field, which is a few-cycle squared sinusodial function. In analogy to a few-cycle pulse where the carrier phase dictates the ejection direction of rescattered electrons, enhancement (suppression) occurs when the effective carrier waveform is cos[w-w0]2 (sin[w-w0]2). The contrast decreased with increasing pulse separation and decreasing multiphoton order. Detailed results and a model simulation will be presented.

  3. Development of frequency domain multiplexing for the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on the Athena

    CERN Document Server

    Akamatsu, Hiroki; van der Kuur, Jan; de Vries, Cor P; Ravensberg, Kevin; Adams, Joseph S; Bandler, Simon R; Bruijn, Marcel P; Chervenak, James A; Kilbourne, Caroline A; Kiviranta, Mikko; Linden, A J van den; Jackson, Brian D; Smith, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    We are developing the frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) instrument on board of the future European X-Ray observatory Athena. The X-IFU instrument consists of an array of $\\sim$3840 TESs with a high quantum efficiency ($>$90 \\%) and spectral resolution $\\Delta E$=2.5 eV $@$ 7 keV ($E/\\Delta E\\sim$2800). FDM is currently the baseline readout system for the X-IFU instrument. Using high quality factor LC filters and room temperature electronics developed at SRON and low-noise two stage SQUID amplifiers provided by VTT, we have recently demonstrated good performance with the FDM readout of Mo/Au TES calorimeters with Au/Bi absorbers. An integrated noise equivalent power resolution of about 2.0 eV at 1.7 MHz has been demonstrated with a pixel from a new TES array from NASA/Goddard (GSFC-A2). We have achieved X-ray energy resolutions $\\sim$2.5 eV at AC bias frequency at 1.7 MHz in the single pixel read-out. We have...

  4. Quantification of MRS data in the frequency domain using a wavelet filter, an approximated Voigt lineshape model and prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, P; Marshall, I; Asplund, M; Winkler, P; Higinbotham, J

    2006-08-01

    Quantification of MRS spectra is a challenging problem when a large baseline is present along with a low signal to noise ratio. This work investigates a robust fitting technique that yields accurate peak areas under these conditions. Using simulated long echo time (1)H MRS spectra with low signal to noise ratio and a large baseline component, both the accuracy and reliability of the fit in the frequency domain were greatly improved by reducing the number of fitted parameters and making full use of all the known information concerning the Voigt lineshape. Using an appropriate first order approximation to a popular approximation of the Voigt lineshape, a significant improvement in the estimate of the area of a known spectral peak was obtained with a corresponding reduction in the residual. Furthermore, this improved parameter choice resulted in a large reduction in the number of iterations of the least-squares fitting routine. On the other hand, making use of the known centre frequency differences of the component resonances gave negligible improvement. A wavelet filter was used to remove the baseline component. In addition to performing a Monte Carlo study, these fitting techniques were also applied to a set of 10 spectra acquired from healthy human volunteers. Again, the same reduced parameter model gave the lowest value for chi(2) in each case. PMID:16927392

  5. Co-registered Frequency-Domain Photoacoustic Radar and Ultrasound System for Subsurface Imaging in Turbid Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Frequency-domain photoacoustic radar (FD-PAR) imaging of absorbers in turbid media and their comparison and/or validation as well as co-registration with their corresponding ultrasound (US) images are demonstrated in this paper. Also presented are the FD-PAR tomography and the effects of reducing the number of scan lines (or angles) on image quality, resolution, and contrast. The FD-PAR modality uses intensity-modulated (coded) continuous wave laser sources driven by frequency-swept (chirp) waveforms. The spatial cross-correlation function between the PA response and the reference signal used for laser source modulation produces the reconstructed image. Live animal testing is demonstrated, and images of comparable signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and spatial resolution were obtained. Various image improvement techniques to further reduce absorber spread and artifacts in the images such as normalization, filtering, and amplification were also investigated. The co-registered image produced from the combined US and PA images provides more information than both images independently. The significance of this work lies in the fact that achieving PA imaging functionality on a commercial ultrasound instrument could accelerate its clinical acceptance and use. This work is aimed at functional PA imaging of small animals in vivo.

  6. An experimental contribution to the interpretation of mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar echoes in frequency domain interferometric mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, H.; Kubo, K.; Fukao, S.

    2001-09-01

    Studies of atmospheric structures and dynamics at small scales require high resolution observations in space and time. Stratosphere-troposphere radars offer high potentialities for such studies, in particular, with the dual-frequency domain interferometry (FDI) technique used for tracking thin atmospheric layers. In the present paper, attention is drawn to the performances of this technique, discussed in light of comparisons between data sets collected in different radar configurations with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan, 34.85°N, 136.10°E). Measurements in FDI mode with two range resolutions (300 and 600 m) and two frequency differences (0.50 and 0.25 MHz) have been conducted, interleaved with measurements in Doppler-beam-swinging mode performed at a range resolution of 150 m. From the data comparisons it is found that the thickness of the echoing layers in FDI mode strongly depends on the initial range resolution used. Thus, even if the FDI mode is believed to give a better description of the stable layers, the FDI-deduced thickness with an initial range resolution of 300 m may not be consistent with the true thickness of the atmospheric layers. It could then be misleading to use FDI observations in order to estimate the thickness of atmospheric layers. However, it is also shown that under some circumstances, FDI can provide reliable information on the characteristics of the atmospheric structures which cannot be available with "non-FDI" techniques.

  7. On the interpretation of the layered structures detected by mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radars in dual frequency domain interferometry mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, H.; Crochet, M.; Hanuise, C.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.

    1999-09-01

    The frequency domain interferometry (FDI) technique has been developed for probing thin layered structures of the atmosphere. The position and thickness of a single layer embedded within the scattering volume can be deduced from the complex normalized cross correlation (coherence) of received signals at two closely spaced frequencies. Applied in the vertical pointing direction, this technique identified layered structures ("FDI layers") of 50-200 m in thickness in the lower atmosphere. These structures are 1 order of magnitude thicker than observed temperature sheets (about 10-m thick) which are very likely responsible for the main part of the VHF radar echoes in vertical direction. In this paper, although the ambiguity of the dual FDI technique is well known, we emphasize that the FDI layers do not necessarily correspond to a single atmospheric layer; they can also be interpreted as a more complex structure of very thin atmospheric layers. A simple model, introduced as an example, shows that the FDI layer thickness can also approximately be interpreted as the vertical separation of two very thin atmospheric layers. This result can explain by itself the differences between the estimated thicknesses by balloon and FDI radar techniques. Finally, we stress that comparisons with high-resolution in situ measurements are urgently needed for interpreting the FDI layers.

  8. Single Carrier Cyclic Prefix-Assisted CDMA System with Frequency Domain Equalization for High Data Rate Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukumar A. S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-access interference and interfinger interference limit the capacity of conventional single-carrier DS-CDMA systems. Even though multicarrier CDMA posses the advantages of conventional CDMA and OFDM, it suffers from two major implementation difficulties such as peak-to-average power ratio and high sensitivity to frequency offset and RF phase noise. A novel approach based on single-carrier cyclic prefix-assisted CDMA has been proposed to overcome the disadvantages of single-carrier CDMA and multicarrier modulation. The usefulness of the proposed approach for high-speed packet access with simplified channel estimation procedures are investigated in this paper. The paper also proposes a data-dependent pilot structure for the downlink transmission of the proposed system for enhancing pilot-assisted channel estimation in frequency domain. The performance of the proposed pilot structure is compared against the data-independent common pilot structure. The proposed system is extensively simulated for different channel parameters with different channel estimation and equalization methods and the results are compared against conventional multicarrier CDMA systems with identical system specifications.

  9. Photoluminescence Decay Dynamics in Blue and Green InGaN LED Structures Revealed by the Frequency-Domain Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reklaitis, I.; Kudžma, R.; Miasojedovas, S.; Vitta, P.; Žukauskas, A.; Tomašiūnas, R.; Pietzonka, I.; Strassburg, M.

    2016-07-01

    An extended study of charge-carrier localization and delocalization in blue and green InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) test structures has been performed. Using the frequency-domain lifetime measurement (FDLM) technique based on direct harmonic modulation of photoluminescence excitation in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 100 MHz, carrier lifetimes were estimated at scales spanning from milliseconds to nanoseconds. The time resolution was determined using fast Fourier transform analysis. A system comprising a radiative and several nonradiative recombination channels was used to describe the complex photoluminescence decay. Due to the broad timescale, even stretched exponential decays from 2 ns to 4 ns up to 1.5 μs (stretching parameter 0.5 to 0.6) were revealed. A higher degree of carrier delocalization was observed for the blue compared with the green light-emitting structure, providing qualitative insight into disorder, which is tentatively assigned to spatial fluctuations of the indium concentration in the quantum wells. A nanosecond nonradiative recombination channel for the green light-emitting structure was found to be unsaturated throughout the entire photoexcitation power density range and was interpreted as being related to the higher defect density and lower internal quantum efficiency of the sample. To expand the study of lifetimes to much higher photoexcitation power density, time-resolved photoluminescence kinetics were measured.

  10. Recording of ECG signals on a portable MiniDisc recorder for time and frequency domain heart rate variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, S E; Eager, R A; Waran, N K; Jeffery, L; Schroter, R C; Marlin, D J

    2005-01-17

    Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive technique useful for investigating autonomic function in both humans and animals. It has been used for research into both behaviour and physiology. Commercial systems for human HRV analysis are expensive and may not have sufficient flexibility for appropriate analysis in animals. Some heart rate monitors have the facility to provide inter-beat interval (IBI), but verification following collection is not possible as only IBIs are recorded, and not the raw electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Computer-based data acquisition and analysis systems such as Po-Ne-Mah and Biopac offer greater flexibility and control but have limited portability. Many laboratories and veterinary surgeons have access to ECG machines but do not have equipment to record ECG signals for further analysis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether suitable HRV data could be obtained from ECG signals recorded onto a MiniDisc (MD) and subsequently digitised and analysed using a commercial data acquisition and analysis package. ECG signals were obtained from six Thoroughbred horses by telemetry. A split BNC connecter was used to allow simultaneous digitisation of analogue output from the ECG receiver unit by a computerised data acquisition system (Po-Ne-Mah) and MiniDisc player (MZ-N710, Sony). Following recording, data were played back from the MiniDisc into the same input channel of the data acquisition system as previously used to record the direct ECG. All data were digitised at a sampling rate of 500 Hz. IBI data were analysed in both time and frequency domains and comparisons between direct recorded and MiniDisc data were made using Bland-Altman analysis. Despite some changes in ECG morphology due to loss of low frequency content (primarily below 5 Hz) following MiniDisc recording, there was minimal difference in IBI or time or frequency domain analysis between the two recording methods. The MiniDisc offers a cost

  11. Life in the Frequency Domain: the Biological Impacts of Changes in Climate Variability at Multiple Time Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael E; Woods, H Arthur; Wang, George; Fey, Samuel B; Vasseur, David A; Telemeco, Rory S; Marshall, Katie; Pincebourde, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Over the last few decades, biologists have made substantial progress in understanding relationships between changing climates and organism performance. Much of this work has focused on temperature because it is the best kept of climatic records, in many locations it is predicted to keep rising into the future, and it has profound effects on the physiology, performance, and ecology of organisms, especially ectothermic organisms which make up the vast majority of life on Earth. Nevertheless, much of the existing literature on temperature-organism interactions relies on mean temperatures. In reality, most organisms do not directly experience mean temperatures; rather, they experience variation in temperature over many time scales, from seconds to years. We propose to shift the focus more directly on patterns of temperature variation, rather than on means per se, and present a framework both for analyzing temporal patterns of temperature variation and for incorporating those patterns into predictions about organismal biology. In particular, we advocate using the Fourier transform to decompose temperature time series into their component sinusoids, thus allowing transformations between the time and frequency domains. This approach provides (1) standardized ways of visualizing the contributions that different frequencies make to total temporal variation; (2) the ability to assess how patterns of temperature variation have changed over the past half century and may change into the future; and (3) clear approaches to manipulating temporal time series to ask "what if" questions about the potential effects of future climates. We first summarize global patterns of change in temperature variation over the past 40 years; we find meaningful changes in variation at the half day to yearly times scales. We then demonstrate the utility of the Fourier framework by exploring how power added to different frequencies alters the overall incidence of long-term waves of high and low

  12. First observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows in an upper level jet stream using VHF frequency domain interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilson, Phillip B.; Muschinski, Andreas; Schmidt, Gerhard

    1997-05-01

    In this paper we report the first high-resolution observations of upper tropospheric Kelvin-Helmholtz billows using VHF frequency domain interferometry (FDI). The measurements were made using the sounding system VHF radar located in the German Harz Mountains operating at the frequencies of 53.25 and 53.75 MHz. Through an application of the FDI technique it has been possible to track the altitude of thin scattering layers with an accuracy of a few tens of meters and a temporal resolution of 13 s. Taking advantage of the FDI technique, we found several examples of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) in regions coinciding with large values of wind shear. One particularly good example is presented in detail. The KHI occurred just below the axis of the jet at an altitude of 9.1 km. It produced oscillations in the vertical velocity field in the altitude range of 8-10 km. The oscillations had a local period of 90 s and persisted over a time interval of 10 min. On the basis of the magnitude of the horizontal wind at the time and height of the KHI, the billow train had a horizontal extent of about 27 km, while the horizontal length of the individual billow amounted to about 4.0 km. The 90-s oscillations were also observed in the radar signal power, the FDI-derived layer height, and the coherence between the received radar signals for the two frequencies. Using the FDI data, we were able to identify the individual billows located within the train and observe their maximum crest-to-trough amplitudes to be between 220 and 230 m. This was less than the conventional radar resolution of 300 m used during the experiment.

  13. Thermal conductivity measurements of non-metals via combined time- and frequency-domain thermoreflectance without a metal film transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Cheaito, R.; Braun, J. L.; Giri, A.; Hopkins, P. E.

    2016-09-01

    The thermoreflectance-based techniques time- and frequency-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR and FDTR, respectively) have emerged as robust platforms to measure the thermophysical properties of a wide array of systems on varying length scales. Routine in the implementation of these techniques is the application of a thin metal film on the surface of the sample of interest to serve as an opto-thermal transducer ensuring the measured modulated reflectivity is dominated by the change in thermoreflectance of the sample. Here, we outline a method to directly measure the thermal conductivities of bulk materials without using a metal transducer layer using a standard TDTR/FDTR experiment. A major key in this approach is the use of a thermal model with z-dependent heat source when the optical penetration depth is comparable to the beam sizes and measuring the FDTR response at a long delay time to minimize non-thermoreflectivity contributions to the modulated reflectance signals (such as free carrier excitations). Using this approach, we demonstrate the ability to measure the thermal conductivity on three semiconductors, intrinsic Si (100), GaAs (100), and InSb (100), the results of which are validated with FDTR measurements on the same wafers with aluminum transducers. We outline the major sources of uncertainty in this approach, including frequency dependent heating and precise knowledge of the pump and probe spot sizes. As a result, we discuss appropriate pump-frequency ranges in which to implement this TDTR/FDTR approach and present a procedure to measure the effective spot sizes by fitting the FDTR data of an 80 nm Al/SiO2 sample at a time delay in which the spot size sensitivity dominates an FDTR measurement over the substrate thermal properties. Our method provides a more convenient way to directly measure the thermal conductivities of semiconductors.

  14. Dynamics of difference frequency radiation generation in the field of few-cycle laser pulse propagating in GaAs crystal with a domain structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the process of generation of difference frequency in GaAs crystal with a periodic domain structure during propagation of a few-cycle laser pulse in the crystal in the regime when chromatic dispersion is expressed weakly. Method of lines is used to obtain numerical solution to the system of coupled nonlinear differential equations in partial derivatives describing the evolution of the electric field of a few-cycle laser pulse in GaAs crystal both with periodic and aperiodic domain structure. It is shown that application of GaAs crystal with a domain structure allows to control the instantaneous frequency of the broadband pulse radiation at difference frequency

  15. A decade-spanning high-resolution asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain and frequency comb spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jacob T; Holland, Daniel B; Finneran, Ian A; Carroll, P Brandon; Kelley, Matthew J; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-10-01

    We present the design and capabilities of a high-resolution, decade-spanning ASynchronous OPtical Sampling (ASOPS)-based TeraHertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) instrument. Our system employs dual mode-locked femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillators with repetition rates offset locked at 100 Hz via a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) operating at the 60th harmonic of the ∼80 MHz oscillator repetition rates. The respective time delays of the individual laser pulses are scanned across a 12.5 ns window in a laboratory scan time of 10 ms, supporting a time delay resolution as fine as 15.6 fs. The repetition rate of the pump oscillator is synchronized to a Rb frequency standard via a PLL operating at the 12th harmonic of the oscillator repetition rate, achieving milliHertz (mHz) stability. We characterize the timing jitter of the system using an air-spaced etalon, an optical cross correlator, and the phase noise spectrum of the PLL. Spectroscopic applications of ASOPS-THz-TDS are demonstrated by measuring water vapor absorption lines from 0.55 to 3.35 THz and acetonitrile absorption lines from 0.13 to 1.39 THz in a short pathlength gas cell. With 70 min of data acquisition, a 50 dB signal-to-noise ratio is achieved. The achieved root-mean-square deviation is 14.6 MHz, with a mean deviation of 11.6 MHz, for the measured water line center frequencies as compared to the JPL molecular spectroscopy database. Further, with the same instrument and data acquisition hardware, we use the ability to control the repetition rate of the pump oscillator to enable THz frequency comb spectroscopy (THz-FCS). Here, a frequency comb with a tooth width of 5 MHz is generated and used to fully resolve the pure rotational spectrum of acetonitrile with Doppler-limited precision. The oscillator repetition rate stability achieved by our PLL lock circuits enables sub-MHz tooth width generation, if desired. This instrument provides unprecedented decade-spanning, tunable resolution, from 80 MHz down to sub

  16. A decade-spanning high-resolution asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain and frequency comb spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jacob T.; Holland, Daniel B.; Finneran, Ian A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Kelley, Matthew J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    We present the design and capabilities of a high-resolution, decade-spanning ASynchronous OPtical Sampling (ASOPS)-based TeraHertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) instrument. Our system employs dual mode-locked femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillators with repetition rates offset locked at 100 Hz via a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) operating at the 60th harmonic of the ˜80 MHz oscillator repetition rates. The respective time delays of the individual laser pulses are scanned across a 12.5 ns window in a laboratory scan time of 10 ms, supporting a time delay resolution as fine as 15.6 fs. The repetition rate of the pump oscillator is synchronized to a Rb frequency standard via a PLL operating at the 12th harmonic of the oscillator repetition rate, achieving milliHertz (mHz) stability. We characterize the timing jitter of the system using an air-spaced etalon, an optical cross correlator, and the phase noise spectrum of the PLL. Spectroscopic applications of ASOPS-THz-TDS are demonstrated by measuring water vapor absorption lines from 0.55 to 3.35 THz and acetonitrile absorption lines from 0.13 to 1.39 THz in a short pathlength gas cell. With 70 min of data acquisition, a 50 dB signal-to-noise ratio is achieved. The achieved root-mean-square deviation is 14.6 MHz, with a mean deviation of 11.6 MHz, for the measured water line center frequencies as compared to the JPL molecular spectroscopy database. Further, with the same instrument and data acquisition hardware, we use the ability to control the repetition rate of the pump oscillator to enable THz frequency comb spectroscopy (THz-FCS). Here, a frequency comb with a tooth width of 5 MHz is generated and used to fully resolve the pure rotational spectrum of acetonitrile with Doppler-limited precision. The oscillator repetition rate stability achieved by our PLL lock circuits enables sub-MHz tooth width generation, if desired. This instrument provides unprecedented decade-spanning, tunable resolution, from 80 MHz down to sub

  17. The impact of measurement frequency on the domains of glycemic control in the critically ill--a Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsley, James S; Bruns, David E; Boyd, James C

    2015-03-01

    The role of blood glucose (BG) measurement frequency on the domains of glycemic control is not well defined. This Monte Carlo mathematical simulation of glycemic control in a cohort of critically ill patients modeled sets of 100 patients with simulated BG-measuring devices having 5 levels of measurement imprecision, using 2 published insulin infusion protocols, for 200 hours, with 3 different BG-measurement intervals-15 minutes (Q15'), 1 hour (Q1h), and 2 hours (Q2h)-resulting in 1,100,000 BG measurements for 3000 simulated patients. The model varied insulin sensitivity, initial BG value and rate of gluconeogenesis. The primary outcomes included rates of hyperglycemia (BG > 180 mg/dL), hypoglycemia (BG glucose variability (within-patient coefficient of variation [CV] > 20%), and time in range (BG ranges 80-150 mg/dL and 80-180 mg/dL). Percentages of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia at both thresholds, and patients with elevated glucose variability as well as time outside glycemic targets were substantially higher in simulations with measurement interval Q2h compared to those with measurement interval Q1h and moderately higher in simulations with Q1h than in those with Q15'. Higher measurement frequency mitigated the deleterious effect of high measurement imprecision, defined as CV ≥ 15%. This Monte Carlo simulation suggests that glycemic control in critically ill patients is more optimal with a BG measurement interval no longer than 1h, with further benefit obtained with use of measurement interval of 15'. These findings have important implications for the development of glycemic control standards. PMID:25568143

  18. Iterative Frequency-Domain Channel Estimation and Equalization for Ultra-Wideband Systems with Short Cyclic Prefix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Bahçeci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB systems where the channel lengths are on the order of a few hundred taps, conventional use of frequency-domain (FD processing for channel estimation and equalization may not be feasible because the need to add a cyclic prefix (CP to each block causes a significant reduction in the spectral efficiency. On the other hand, using no or short CP causes the interblock interference (IBI and thus degradation in the receiver performance. Therefore, in order to utilize FD receiver processing UWB systems without a significant loss in the spectral efficiency and the performance, IBI cancellation mechanisms are needed in both the channel estimation and equalization operations. For this reason, in this paper, we consider the joint FD channel estimation and equalization for IR-UWB systems with short cyclic prefix (CP and propose a novel iterative receiver employing soft IBI estimation and cancellation within both its FD channel estimator and FD equalizer components. We show by simulation results that the proposed FD receiver attains performances close to that of the full CP case in both line-of-sight (LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS UWB channels after only a few iterations.

  19. Field Measurements and Numerical Simulations of Temperature and Moisture in Highway Engineering Using a Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sheng Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic pioneering study on the use of agricultural-purpose frequency domain reflectometry (FDR sensors to monitor temperature and moisture of a subgrade in highway extension and reconstruction engineering. The principle of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors and the process for embedding this kind of sensors for subgrade engineering purposes are introduced. Based on field measured weather data, a numerical analysis model for temperature and moisture content in the subgrade’s soil is built. Comparisons of the temperature and moisture data obtained from numerical simulation and FDR-based measurements are conducted. The results show that: (1 the embedding method and process, data acquisition, and remote transmission presented are reasonable; (2 the temperature and moisture changes are coordinated with the atmospheric environment and they are also in close agreement with numerical calculations; (3 the change laws of both are consistent at positions where the subgrade is compacted uniformly. These results suggest that the data measured by the agricultural-purpose FDR sensors are reliable. The findings of this paper enable a new and effective real-time monitoring method for a subgrade’s temperature and moisture changes, and thus broaden the application of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors.

  20. Field Measurements and Numerical Simulations of Temperature and Moisture in Highway Engineering Using a Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Jian-Long; Chen, Zeng-Shun; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic pioneering study on the use of agricultural-purpose frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensors to monitor temperature and moisture of a subgrade in highway extension and reconstruction engineering. The principle of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors and the process for embedding this kind of sensors for subgrade engineering purposes are introduced. Based on field measured weather data, a numerical analysis model for temperature and moisture content in the subgrade's soil is built. Comparisons of the temperature and moisture data obtained from numerical simulation and FDR-based measurements are conducted. The results show that: (1) the embedding method and process, data acquisition, and remote transmission presented are reasonable; (2) the temperature and moisture changes are coordinated with the atmospheric environment and they are also in close agreement with numerical calculations; (3) the change laws of both are consistent at positions where the subgrade is compacted uniformly. These results suggest that the data measured by the agricultural-purpose FDR sensors are reliable. The findings of this paper enable a new and effective real-time monitoring method for a subgrade's temperature and moisture changes, and thus broaden the application of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors. PMID:27294935

  1. A trans-dimensional Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for model assessment using frequency-domain electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A meaningful interpretation of geophysical measurements requires an assessment of the space of models that are consistent with the data, rather than just a single, 'best' model which does not convey information about parameter uncertainty. For this purpose, a trans-dimensional Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is developed for assessing frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) data acquired from airborne or ground-based systems. By sampling the distribution of models that are consistent with measured data and any prior knowledge, valuable inferences can be made about parameter values such as the likely depth to an interface, the distribution of possible resistivity values as a function of depth and non-unique relationships between parameters. The trans-dimensional aspect of the algorithm allows the number of layers to be a free parameter that is controlled by the data, where models with fewer layers are inherently favoured, which provides a natural measure of parsimony and a significant degree of flexibility in parametrization. The MCMC algorithm is used with synthetic examples to illustrate how the distribution of acceptable models is affected by the choice of prior information, the system geometry and configuration and the uncertainty in the measured system elevation. An airborne FDEM data set that was acquired for the purpose of hydrogeological characterization is also studied. The results compare favourably with traditional least-squares analysis, borehole resistivity and lithology logs from the site, and also provide new information about parameter uncertainty necessary for model assessment. ?? 2011. Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  2. In vivo measurements of cutaneous melanin across spatial scales: using multiphoton microscopy and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saager, Rolf B.; Balu, Mihaela; Crosignani, Viera; Sharif, Ata; Durkin, Anthony J.; Kelly, Kristen M.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-06-01

    The combined use of nonlinear optical microscopy and broadband reflectance techniques to assess melanin concentration and distribution thickness in vivo over the full range of Fitzpatrick skin types is presented. Twelve patients were measured using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy (SFDS) on both dorsal forearm and volar arm, which are generally sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed areas, respectively. Both MPM and SFDS measured melanin volume fractions between ˜5% (skin type I non-sun-exposed) and 20% (skin type VI sun exposed). MPM measured epidermal (anatomical) thickness values ˜30-65 μm, while SFDS measured melanin distribution thickness based on diffuse optical path length. There was a strong correlation between melanin concentration and melanin distribution (epidermal) thickness measurements obtained using the two techniques. While SFDS does not have the ability to match the spatial resolution of MPM, this study demonstrates that melanin content as quantified using SFDS is linearly correlated with epidermal melanin as measured using MPM (R2=0.8895). SFDS melanin distribution thickness is correlated to MPM values (R2=0.8131). These techniques can be used individually and/or in combination to advance our understanding and guide therapies for pigmentation-related conditions as well as light-based treatments across a full range of skin types.

  3. Real-time high-resolution vascular ultrasound using frequency domain interferometry with the ROI-division process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Taki, Kousuke; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Motoi; Sato, Toru

    2013-01-01

    We have proposed a high-range-resolution ultrasound imaging method for human carotid artery using an adaptive beamforming technique based on frequency domain interferometry (FDI). The method assumes that the received signal consists of multiple echoes of targets and noise, where the waveform of each echo is similar to that of the reference signal. In this study, we examine the dependence of the echo waveform on the target depth, and investigate the proper measurement-range for the FDI imaging method using a reference signal. Furthermore, we propose a ROI-division process, where each sub-ROI has a proper measurement-range for the application of the FDI imaging method. Simulation and experimental results show the efficiency of the ROI-division process in improving the image quality of human carotid artery acquired using the FDI imaging method. We believe that the modified FDI imaging method with the ROI-division process has the potential to facilitate significant progress in the detection of vessel stenosis and in the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk.

  4. Field Measurements and Numerical Simulations of Temperature and Moisture in Highway Engineering Using a Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Jian-Long; Chen, Zeng-Shun; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic pioneering study on the use of agricultural-purpose frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensors to monitor temperature and moisture of a subgrade in highway extension and reconstruction engineering. The principle of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors and the process for embedding this kind of sensors for subgrade engineering purposes are introduced. Based on field measured weather data, a numerical analysis model for temperature and moisture content in the subgrade’s soil is built. Comparisons of the temperature and moisture data obtained from numerical simulation and FDR-based measurements are conducted. The results show that: (1) the embedding method and process, data acquisition, and remote transmission presented are reasonable; (2) the temperature and moisture changes are coordinated with the atmospheric environment and they are also in close agreement with numerical calculations; (3) the change laws of both are consistent at positions where the subgrade is compacted uniformly. These results suggest that the data measured by the agricultural-purpose FDR sensors are reliable. The findings of this paper enable a new and effective real-time monitoring method for a subgrade’s temperature and moisture changes, and thus broaden the application of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors. PMID:27294935

  5. Combining of Spatial and Frequency Domain Transformation With The Effect of Using and Non-Using Adaptive Quantization for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Anwer Abdulla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Usage of image has been increasing and used in many applications. Image compression plays vital role in saving storage space and saving time while sending images over network. One important point of delivering digital image is time. In this paper we concentrated on the speed of packet sending with reasonable quality. The aim of this paper is to reduce image size with reasonable quality. By getting advantage from image transformation in both scope spatial domain and frequency domain. Splitting the image into 4 blocks in the case of spatial domain and applying Standard Haar wavelet transformation in the case of frequency domain was the main factor for approaching the aim of this paper which was reduce image size and increase speed of delivering digital image. After huge tests in the case of frequency domain in all subbands(LL,HL,LH,HH we made a decision for which subband contains high information and which subband contains poor information. Depending of these factors we could send less than one- eighth of the size of the original image to the destination and getting the reconstructed image with the acceptable quality as a result of this paper.

  6. The Simultaneous Interpolation of Target Radar Cross Section in Both the Spatial and Frequency Domains by Means of Legendre Wavelets Model-Based Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the target radar cross section (RCS is significant for target identification and for radar designing and optimization. In this paper, a numerical algorithm for calculating target RCS is presented which is based on Legendre wavelet model-based parameter estimation (LW-MBPE. The Padé rational function fitting model applied for MBPE in the frequency domain is enhanced to include spatial dependence on the numerator and denominator coefficients. This allows the function to interpolate target RCS in both the frequency and spatial domains simultaneously. The combination of Legendre wavelets guarantees the convergence of the algorithm. The method is convergent by increasing the sampling frequency and spatial points. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the new technique.

  7. Performance Analysis of Frequency Domain Video Watermark Implemented in Spatial Domain Based on DCT%基于 DCT 变换的频域视频水印在空域中实现的性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张能欢; 于水源

    2014-01-01

    数字水印技术是数字媒体版权保护和管理的主要方法。在广播电视领域,视频水印需处理的数据量大,对嵌入算法的时间复杂度限制较大,同时对视频质量要求也较高。数字水印技术主要分为空域和变换域两种。空域算法时间复杂度低,但鲁棒性不好;而变换域算法鲁棒性较好,但时间复杂度高。因此,在广播电视视频水印中,需要鲁棒性好且时间复杂度低的水印嵌入算法。这样,用空域的方法实现数字视频的变换域水印,就成为一个首选的方法。但是,目前我们尚不知道该方法的性能。本文基于DCT变换的频域水印算法,首先介绍了频域水印的空域实现的原理,然后,基于两个典型的频域水印算法,通过800幅图片的实验,测试了该算法的空域实现的时间复杂度和PSNR。实验结果表明,频域视频水印的空域实现,具有很好的性能。%Digital watermarking technology is the main method of digital media copyright protec-tion and management .In the field of broadcasting and television ,the data of video watermarking need to process is great ,the great data limits the time complexity of the watermarking algorithm ,and watermark-ing algorithm needs a higher requirement of video quality .Digital watermarking technology is mainly di-vided into spatial domain and frequency domain .Spatial domain watermark ’ s time complexity is low ,but the robustness is poor;frequency domain watermark ’ s robustness is better , but the time complexity is higher.Thus,it needs a good robustness and low time complexity watermarking in the field of broadcast and television .So,implementing frequency domain watermark in spatial domin becomes a preferred meth-od.However,at present,we do not know the performance of the method .In this article,first,we introduced the principle of implementing the frequency watermark based on DCT in spatial domain ,and then,based on

  8. Estimating damping effectiveness of BPA`s thyristor controlled series capacitor by applying time and frequency domain methods to measured response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Donnelly, M.K.; Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Recently, a 500-kV thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) was installed in the Bonneville Power Administration system in the northwestern US. Extensive field testing has included modulation experiments to determine the effect of the TCSC on low-frequency oscillations. This paper discusses modulation procedures, analysis methods, and results for estimating the damping effectiveness of the TCSC. Modulation methods include driving the TCSC with step and random noise, and analysis techniques include time (Prony analysis) and frequency-domain identification. Results indicate that: (1) the TCSC can have significant impact on system dynamics; and (2) under a very small feedback gain, the TCSC provides measurable added damping.

  9. Estimating damping effectiveness of BPA`s thyristor controlled series capacitor by applying time and frequency domain methods to measured response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Donnelly, M.K.; Hauer, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, a 500-kV thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) was installed in the Bonneville Power Administration system in the northwestern United States. Extensive field testing has included modulation experiments to determine the effect of the TCSC on low- frequency procedures, analysis methods, and results for estimating the damping effectiveness of the TCSC. Modulation methods include driving the TCSC with step and random noise, and analysis techniques include time (Prony analysis) and frequency-domain identification. Results indicate that: (1) the TCSC can have significant impact on system dynamics; and (2) under a very small feedback gain, the TCSC provides measurable added damping.

  10. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F., E-mail: fatiha.kateb@parisdescartes.fr, E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Balzan, R., E-mail: fatiha.kateb@parisdescartes.fr, E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Vasos, P. R. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Toxicologiques et Pharmacologiques UMR-8601, Université Paris Descartes - CNRS, PRES Paris Sorbonne Cité, 75006 Paris (France)

    2014-08-07

    Long-lived coherences (LLC’s) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening.

  11. The Adaptive Multi-Resolution Frequency-Domain ParFlow (MR-FDPF) Method for Indoor Radio Wave Propagation Simulation. Part I : Theory and Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Gorce, Jean-Marie; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; De La Roche, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical background and new developments of the multi-resolution frequency domain ParFlow (MR-FDPF) approach for the calculus or radio propagation in Indoor environments for centimetric waves. This method has been developed to face the need of a best understanding of Indoor propagation and to help the WiFi network planning task. Indeed, the development of a wireless design tool is based firstly on a radio propagation engine to predict accurately the radio coverage ...

  12. The Simultaneous Interpolation of Target Radar Cross Section in Both the Spatial and Frequency Domains by Means of Legendre Wavelets Model-Based Parameter Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqiang Yang; Yunpeng Ma; Lifeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the target radar cross section (RCS) is significant for target identification and for radar designing and optimization. In this paper, a numerical algorithm for calculating target RCS is presented which is based on Legendre wavelet model-based parameter estimation (LW-MBPE). The Padé rational function fitting model applied for MBPE in the frequency domain is enhanced to include spatial dependence on the numerator and denominator coefficients. This allows the function to i...

  13. Frequency-domain gravitational waves from non-precessing black-hole binaries. I. New numerical waveforms and anatomy of the signal

    CERN Document Server

    Husa, Sascha; Hannam, Mark; Pürrer, Michael; Ohme, Frank; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Bohé, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the anatomy of frequency-domain gravitational-wave signals from non-precessing black-hole coalescences with the goal of constructing accurate phenomenological waveform models. We first present new numerical-relativity simulations for mass ratios up to 18 including spins. From a comparison of different post-Newtonian approximants with numerical-relativity data we select the uncalibrated SEOBNRv2 model as the most appropriate for the purpose of constructing hybrid post-Newtonian/numerical-relativity waveforms, and we discuss how we prepare time-domain and frequency-domain hybrid data sets. We then use our data together with results in the literature to calibrate simple explicit expressions for the final spin and radiated energy. Equipped with our prediction for the final state we then develop a simple and accurate merger-ringdown-model based on modified Lorentzians in the gravitational wave amplitude and phase, and we discuss a simple method to represent the low frequency signal augment...

  14. Frequency Domain Synthesis Algorithm of Love Type Channel Wave Transmission Record%Love型槽波透射记录的频域合成算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保利; 张唤兰; 张庆庆

    2016-01-01

    Using ray tracing to carry out travel time computation on grid based 2D model, then carried out Love type channel wave trans⁃mission record synthesis. Considering frequency dispersion, adsorption attenuation impacts on wave field amplitude, phase, carried out frequency domain synthesis for thin coal belt model transmission channel wave theoretic record, and analyzed wave field characteris⁃tics. The result has shown that frequency domain synthesis channel wave transmission record is consistent with theoretical analysis on attributes of time, frequency dispersion characteristics and energy, and similar to 3D elastic wave equation simulated fundamental Love type channel wave field characteristics, but frequency domain synthesis algorithm computed velocity is quicker 1~2 orders of magni⁃tude.%利用射线追踪对网格化的二维模型进行走时计算,在频率域对Love型透射槽波记录进行了合成。在考虑了频散、吸收衰减等对波场振幅、相位影响的基础上,对含薄煤带模型的透射槽波理论记录进行了频域合成,并进行了波场特征分析。结果表明:频域合成的槽波透射记录在时间、频散特征、能量等属性上与理论分析一致,且与三维弹性波波动方程模拟的基阶Love型槽波波场特征相似,但频域合成算法的计算速度快1~2个数量级。

  15. Apparatus and method for qualitative and quantitative measurements of optical properties of turbid media using frequency-domain photon migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tsay, Tsong T.; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lara O.; Haskell, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Optical measurements of turbid media, that is media characterized by multiple light scattering, is provided through an apparatus and method for exposing a sample to a modulated laser beam. The light beam is modulated at a fundamental frequency and at a plurality of integer harmonics thereof. Modulated light is returned from the sample and preferentially detected at cross frequencies at frequencies slightly higher than the fundamental frequency and at integer harmonics of the same. The received radiance at the beat or cross frequencies is compared against a reference signal to provide a measure of the phase lag of the radiance and modulation ratio relative to a reference beam. The phase and modulation amplitude are then provided as a frequency spectrum by an array processor to which a computer applies a complete curve fit in the case of highly scattering samples or a linear curve fit below a predetermined frequency in the case of highly absorptive samples. The curve fit in any case is determined by the absorption and scattering coefficients together with a concentration of the active substance in the sample. Therefore, the curve fitting to the frequency spectrum can be used both for qualitative and quantitative analysis of substances in the sample even though the sample is highly turbid.

  16. Measurement frequency and sampling spatial domains required to characterize turbidity and salinity events in the Guadalquivir estuary (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Contreras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries are complex systems in which long water quality data series are not always available at the proper scale. Data proceeding from several water quality networks, with different measuring frequencies (monthly, weekly and 15 min and different numbers of sampling points, were compared throughout the main channel of the Guadalquivir estuary. Higher frequency of turbidity sampling in the upper estuary is required. In the lower estuary, sampling points help to find out the ETM, and higher frequency sampling of EC is required because of the effect of the tidal and river components. This could be a feedback for the implementation of monitoring networks in estuaries.

  17. Template-based CTA to x-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain with automatic x-ray segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Timur; Unal, Gozde [Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir [Computer Aided Medical Procedures (CAMP), Technical University of Munich, Garching, 85748 (Germany); Degertekin, Muzaffer [Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul 34752 (Turkey)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: A key challenge for image guided coronary interventions is accurate and absolutely robust image registration bringing together preinterventional information extracted from a three-dimensional (3D) patient scan and live interventional image information. In this paper, the authors present a novel scheme for 3D to two-dimensional (2D) rigid registration of coronary arteries extracted from preoperative image scan (3D) and a single segmented intraoperative x-ray angio frame in frequency and spatial domains for real-time angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy.Methods: Most existing rigid registration approaches require a close initialization due to the abundance of local minima and high complexity of search algorithms. The authors' method eliminates this requirement by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. For 3D rotation recovery, template Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented computed tomography angiography are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a specific range as in C-arm setup. The authors have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the segmented x-ray after equalizing the scales in three domains, namely, Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase, and Fourier polar. The best rotation pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that frequency domain methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by the authors' results. 3D translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of the authors' objective function without local minima due to distance maps. A novel automatic x-ray vessel segmentation was also performed in this study.Results: Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space for

  18. Template-based CTA to x-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain with automatic x-ray segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A key challenge for image guided coronary interventions is accurate and absolutely robust image registration bringing together preinterventional information extracted from a three-dimensional (3D) patient scan and live interventional image information. In this paper, the authors present a novel scheme for 3D to two-dimensional (2D) rigid registration of coronary arteries extracted from preoperative image scan (3D) and a single segmented intraoperative x-ray angio frame in frequency and spatial domains for real-time angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy.Methods: Most existing rigid registration approaches require a close initialization due to the abundance of local minima and high complexity of search algorithms. The authors' method eliminates this requirement by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. For 3D rotation recovery, template Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented computed tomography angiography are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a specific range as in C-arm setup. The authors have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the segmented x-ray after equalizing the scales in three domains, namely, Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase, and Fourier polar. The best rotation pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that frequency domain methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by the authors' results. 3D translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of the authors' objective function without local minima due to distance maps. A novel automatic x-ray vessel segmentation was also performed in this study.Results: Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space for patient data; and

  19. Relaxation dynamics of the conductive processes for PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ferroelectric ceramics in the frequency and time domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R L [Grupo de Ceramicas Ferroeletricas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, CEP 13565-670 (Brazil); Leyet, Y [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, CP 90500 (Cuba); Guerrero, F [Grupo de Ceramicas Ferroeletricas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, CEP 13565-670 (Brazil); Guerra, J de Los S [Grupo de Ceramicas Ferroeletricas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, CEP 13565-670 (Brazil); Venet, M [Grupo de Ceramicas Ferroeletricas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, CEP 13565-670 (Brazil); Eiras, J A [Grupo de Ceramicas Ferroeletricas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, CEP 13565-670 (Brazil)

    2007-04-04

    The relaxation dynamics of the conductive process present in PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} piezoelectric ceramics was investigated. A relaxation function in the time domain, {phi}(t), was found from the frequency dependence of the dielectric modulus (imaginary component, M'') by using a relaxation function in the frequency domain, F*({omega}). The best relaxation function, F*({omega}), was found to be a Cole-Cole distribution function, in which relaxation characteristic parameters, such as {alpha} and {tau}{sub CC}, are involved. On the other hand, the relaxation function, {phi}(t), obtained by the time domain method, was found to be a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function type. The thermal evolution of the characteristics parameters of the KWW function ({beta} and {tau}*) was analysed. The values of the activation energy (E{sub a}), obtained in the whole investigated temperature interval, suggest the existence of a relaxation mechanism (a conductive process), which may be interpreted by an ion hopping between neighbouring sites within the crystalline lattice. The results are corroborated with the formalism of the AC conductivity.

  20. A time domain based method for the accurate measurement of Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation